Science.gov

Sample records for mountaineer commercial scale

  1. 77 FR 3459 - Cancellation of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Cancellation of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and... ] (NEPA) for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project in Mason County, WV... Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project (DOE/EIS-0445D) for public review and comment on March...

  2. Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project Topical Report: Preliminary Public Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Guy Cerimele

    2011-09-30

    This Preliminary Public Design Report consolidates for public use nonproprietary design information on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. The report is based on the preliminary design information developed during the Phase I - Project Definition Phase, spanning the time period of February 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011. The report includes descriptions and/or discussions for: (1) DOE's Clean Coal Power Initiative, overall project & Phase I objectives, and the historical evolution of DOE and American Electric Power (AEP) sponsored projects leading to the current project; (2) Alstom's Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) carbon capture retrofit technology and the carbon storage and monitoring system; (3) AEP's retrofit approach in terms of plant operational and integration philosophy; (4) The process island equipment and balance of plant systems for the CAP technology; (5) The carbon storage system, addressing injection wells, monitoring wells, system monitoring and controls logic philosophy; (6) Overall project estimate that includes the overnight cost estimate, cost escalation for future year expenditures, and major project risks that factored into the development of the risk based contingency; and (7) AEP's decision to suspend further work on the project at the end of Phase I, notwithstanding its assessment that the Alstom CAP technology is ready for commercial demonstration at the intended scale.

  3. 75 FR 32171 - American Electric Power Service Corporation's Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... conveyors from a nearby coal mine west of the site. The Mountaineer Plant began commercial operation in 1980... Haven, West Virginia. A coal mine is located to the west of U.S. Route 62. Proposed Chilled Ammonia... underground resources such as ground water supplies, mineral resources, and fossil fuel resources; Fate...

  4. Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

    2011-12-31

    The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.

  5. 76 FR 13396 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announces the availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project (DOE/EIS-0445D) for public review and comment, as well as the date, location and time for a public hearing. The draft environmental impact statement (EIS) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of a project......

  6. State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunis, B. C.

    1982-08-01

    The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. The period covered is July through December 1981. Background information is provided, program objectives and the technical approach used are discussed, and the benefits of the program are described. Prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are covered and findings and recommendations are summarized.

  7. Yucca Mountain drift scale test progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Apps, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Peterson,J.E.; Sonnenthal, E.; Spycher, N.; Tsang, Y.W.; Williams, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Drift Scale Test (DST) is part of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Thermal Test being conducted underground at the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of the ESF Thermal Test is to acquire a more in-depth understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes likely to be encountered in the rock mass surrounding the potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain. These processes are monitored by a multitude of sensors to measure the temperature, humidity, gas pressure, and mechanical displacement, of the rock formation in response to the heat generated by the heaters. In addition to collecting passive monitoring data, active hydrological and geophysical testing is also being carried out periodically in the DST. These active tests are intended to monitor changes in the moisture redistribution in the rock mass, to collect water and gas samples for chemical and isotopic analysis, and to detect microfiacturing due to heating. On December 3, 1998, the heaters in the DST were activated. The planned heating phase of the DST is 4 years, and the cooling phase following the power shutoff will be of similar duration. The present report summarizes interpretation and analysis of thermal, hydrological, chemical, and geophysical data for the first 6 months; it is the first of many progress reports to be prepared during the DST.

  8. MOUNTAIN-SCALE COUPLED PROCESSES (TH/THC/THM)MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Y.S. Wu

    2005-08-24

    This report documents the development and validation of the mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic (TH), thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC), and thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) models. These models provide technical support for screening of features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842], Section 2.1.1.1). The purpose and validation criteria for these models are specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Drift-Scale Abstraction) Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842]). Model results are used to support exclusion of certain FEPs from the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model on the basis of low consequence, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.342 [DIRS 173273]. Outputs from this report are not direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. All the FEPs related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ and SZ flow are discussed in Sections 6 and 7 of this report. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The mountain-scale TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH model captures mountain-scale three-dimensional flow effects, including lateral diversion and mountain-scale flow patterns. The mountain-scale THC model evaluates TH effects on water and gas chemistry, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and the resulting impact to UZ hydrologic properties, flow and transport. The mountain-scale THM model addresses changes in permeability due to mechanical and thermal disturbances in stratigraphic units above and below the repository host rock. The THM model focuses on evaluating the changes in UZ flow fields arising out of thermal stress and rock deformation during and after the thermal period (the period during which temperatures in the mountain are significantly higher than ambient temperatures).

  9. The Yucca Mountain Project drift scale test

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.E.; Blair, S.C.; Boyle, W.J.

    1998-06-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is currently evaluating the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) response of the potential repository host rock through an in situ thermal testing program. A drift scale test (DST) was constructed during 1997 and heaters were turned on in December 1997. The DST includes nine canister-sized containers with thirty operating heaters each located within the heated drift (HD) and fifty wing heaters located in boreholes in both ribs with a total power output of nominally 210kW. A total of 147 boreholes (combined length of 3.3 km) houses most of the over 3700 TMHC sensors connected with 201 km of cabling to a central data acquisition system. The DST is located in the Exploratory Studies Facility in a 5-m diameter drift approximately 50 m in length. Heating will last up to four years and cooling will last another four years. The rock mass surrounding the DST will experience a harsh thermal environment with rock surface temperatures expected to reach a maximum of about 200 C. This paper describes the process of designing the DST. The first 38 m of the 50-m long Heated Drift (HD) is dedicated to collection of data that will lead to a better understanding of the complex coupled TMHC processes in the host rock of the proposed repository. The final 12 m is dedicated to evaluating the interactions between the heated rock mass and cast-in-place (CIP) concrete ground support systems at elevated temperatures. In addition to a description of the DST design, data from site characterization, and a general description of the analyses and analysis approach used to design the test and make pretest predictions are presented. Test-scoping and pretest numerical predictions of one way thermal-hydrologic, thermal-mechanical, and thermal-chemical behaviors have been completed (TRW, 1997a). These analyses suggest that a dry-out zone will be created around the DST and a 10,000 m{sup 3} volume of rock will experience temperatures above 100 C. The HD will experience large stress increases, particularly in the crown of the drift. Thermoelastic displacements of up to about 16 mm are predicted for some thermomechanical gages. Additional analyses using more complex models will be performed during the conduct of the DST and the results compared with measured data.

  10. Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes (TH/THC/THM)

    SciTech Connect

    P. Dixon

    2004-02-09

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the development of the Mountain-Scale Thermal-Hydrological (TH), Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical (THC), and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) Models and evaluate the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This Model Report was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.12.7), and was developed in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. In this Model Report, any reference to ''repository'' means the nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, and any reference to ''drifts'' means the emplacement drifts at the repository horizon. This Model Report provides the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses for analyzing mountain-scale hydrological/chemical/mechanical changes and predict flow behavior in response to heat release by radioactive decay from the nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH Model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH Model captures mountain-scale three dimensional (3-D) flow effects, including lateral diversion at the PTn/TSw interface and mountain-scale flow patterns. The Mountain-Scale THC Model evaluates TH effects on water and gas chemistry, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and the resulting impact to UZ hydrological properties, flow and transport. The THM Model addresses changes in permeability due to mechanical and thermal disturbances in stratigraphic units above and below the repository host rock. The Mountain-Scale THM Model focuses on evaluating the changes in 3-D UZ flow fields arising out of thermal stress and rock deformation during and after the thermal periods.

  11. Room at the Mountain: Estimated Maximum Amounts of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Capable of Disposal in a Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, John H.; Kemeny, John; King, Fraser; Ross, Alan M.; Ross, Benjamen

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an initial analysis of the maximum amount of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) that could be emplaced into a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis identifies and uses programmatic, material, and geological constraints and factors that affect this estimation of maximum amount of CSNF for disposal. The conclusion of this initial analysis is that the current legislative limit on Yucca Mountain disposal capacity, 63,000 MTHM of CSNF, is a small fraction of the available physical capacity of the Yucca Mountain system assuming the current high-temperature operating mode (HTOM) design. EPRI is confident that at least four times the legislative limit for CSNF ({approx}260,000 MTHM) can be emplaced in the Yucca Mountain system. It is possible that with additional site characterization, upwards of nine times the legislative limit ({approx}570,000 MTHM) could be emplaced. (authors)

  12. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Mountain National Park. All commercial air tour operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain...

  13. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Mountain National Park. All commercial air tour operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain...

  14. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Mountain National Park. All commercial air tour operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain...

  15. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Mountain National Park. All commercial air tour operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain...

  16. Aostra eyes commercial scale oilsands project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-31

    This paper reports that Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (Aostra) has begun studying a commercial project for bitumen production using steam assisted gravity drainage techniques developed at its underground test facility (UTF) in northern Alberta. Aostra's project focuses on the Athabasca oilsands deposit. It uses paired horizontal wells with steam injected in one well and bitumen produced from the other. A proof of concept pilot phase at the UTF was completed last year that showed the technique is competitive with conventional bitumen recovery at a scale of 20,000-40,000 b/d. Aostra is producing 2,000 b/d in a demonstration phase.

  17. Thermal analysis of Yucca Mountain commercial high-level waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Altenhofen, M.K.; Eslinger, P.W.

    1992-10-01

    The thermal performance of commercial high-level waste packages was evaluated on a preliminary basis for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. The purpose of this study is to provide an estimate for waste package component temperatures as a function of isolation time in tuff. Several recommendations are made concerning the additional information and modeling needed to evaluate the thermal performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system.

  18. Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Community-Scale Solar Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Jim; Knight, Tawnie

    2014-01-30

    Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.

  19. Commercial-scale utilization of greenhouse residues.

    PubMed

    Marouek, Josef; Kondo, Yoshikazu; Ueno, Masami; Kawamitsu, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    Development of techniques utilizing waste without any additional energy or rare catalysts is a starting point for becoming sustainable. In the present work, the complex utilization of greenhouse residues was studied on a commercial scale. Only the energy produced by the process (8%) was used to run the technology, thanks to multilevel heat recuperation and high methane yields (over 340 m(3) volatile solid t(-1) ). Manifestations of labile carbon in relation to available nitrogen, methane yields, and the formation of inhibitors were investigated in detail. The results sweep away many false beliefs about the ratios of carbon to nitrogen and highlight the role of the availability of carbon in phytomass utilization. PMID:23587024

  20. State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states. Semiannual progress report, July-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B. C.; Toth, W. J.

    1981-10-01

    The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. Background information is provided; program objectives and the technical approach that is used are discussed; and the benefits of the program are described. The summary of findings is presented. Prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are covered and findings and recommendations are summarized. The commercialization activities carried out by the respective state teams are described for the following: Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

  1. Reach-Scale Channel Geometry of a Mountain River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, E.; Kuzma, J.; Brown, N.

    2002-12-01

    N. St. Vrain Creek drains 250 km2 of the Colorado Front Range. The basin is underlain by granitic rocks, and the upper half was glaciated. We used 25 study reaches to examine controls on reach-scale channel geometry. Variables measured included channel geometry (width, depth, gradient, bedforms), grain size, and mean velocity. Drainage area at each study reach ranged from 2.2-245 km2, and gradient from 0.013-0.147 m/m. The increase in discharge with drainage area is strongly linear. Channel types included cascade, step-pool, plane-bed and pool-riffle. We examined correlations among (1) the reach-scale response variables bankfull width (w), hydraulic radius (R), mean velocity (v), Darcy-Weisbach ff, bedform wavelength (bw) and amplitude (a), grain size, relative roughness (R/D84) and shear stress (ss), and (2) potential control variables that change progressively downstream (drainage area, discharge) or that are reach-specific (bed gradient). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that response variables correlate most strongly with local gradient because of the segmented nature of mountain channels. Results from linear regression analyses indicate that most response variables(R/D84, D50, D84, ff, ss) correlate best with gradient, although w, w/d ratio, and bw correlate best with discharge. Multiple regression analyses using Mallow's Cp selection criterion produced similar results in that most response variables correlate strongly with gradient, although the specific variables differ from those selected with linear regressions: w, a, v, ff and ss correlate with gradient, whereas R, bw and v correlate with discharge. These results suggest that the hypothesis is partially supported: channel bed gradient is likely to be a good predictor for many reach-scale response variables along mountain rivers, but discharge is also a good predictor for some response variables. Thus, although subject to strong constraints imposed by changes in gradient and grain size supplied by processes such as glaciation and rockfall, adjustments in the channel geometry and hydraulics of mountain rivers at the reach-scale produce discernible patterns analogous to those in fully alluvial rivers. Mountain rivers may differ in that imposed reach-scale gradient is an especially important control on reach-scale channel characteristics.

  2. Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

  3. A Mountain-Scale Monitoring Network for Yucca Mountain PerformanceConfirmation

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, Barry; Tsang, Yvonne

    2006-01-20

    Confirmation of the performance of Yucca Mountain is required by 10 CFR Part 63.131 to indicate, where practicable, that the natural system acts as a barrier, as intended. Hence, performance confirmation monitoring and testing would provide data for continued assessment during the pre-closure period. In general, to carry out testing at a relevant scale is always important, and in the case of performance confirmation, it is particularly important to be able to test at the scale of the repository. We view the large perturbation caused by construction of the repository at Yucca Mountain as a unique opportunity to study the large-scale behavior of the natural barrier system. Repository construction would necessarily introduce traced fluids and result in the creation of leachates. A program to monitor traced fluids and construction leachates permits evaluation of transport through the unsaturated zone and potentially downgradient through the saturated zone. A robust sampling and monitoring network for continuous measurement of important parameters, and for periodic collection of agrochemical samples, is proposed to observe thermo-hydrogeochemical changes near the repository horizon and down to the water table. The sampling and monitoring network can be used to provide data to (1) assess subsurface conditions encountered and changes in those conditions during construction and waste emplacement operations; and (2) for modeling to determine that the natural system is functioning as intended.

  4. State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states. Semiannual progress report, July-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B.C.

    1982-08-01

    The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. The period covered is July through December 1981. Background information is provided, program objectives and the technical approach used are discussed, and the benefits of the program are described. Prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are covered and findings and recommendations are summarized.

  5. State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states. Semiannual progress report, January-July 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B.C.; Toth, W.J.

    1982-05-01

    The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. For each state (Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North and South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming), prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are also covered, and findings and recommendations are given for each state. Some background information about the program is provided. (LEW)

  6. Disturbance, Complexity, and Scale in Western Mountain Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, D.; Littell, J. S.; Oneil, E. E.; Hicke, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The principal effects of global warming in western mountain forests will likely be experienced through increased intensity and extent of disturbances, mainly wildfire and insect outbreaks. Disturbance resets successional pathways and increasing disturbance can produce rapid ecosystem change. Much progress has been made in estimating broad-scale changes in fire regimes in a warming climate, but predictions are more difficult at the 'landscape' scale, at which top-down (climate) and bottom-up (topography and vegetation) controls interact. Landscape spatial pattern also interacts with contagious disturbance (fire spread and insect outbreaks), creating nonlinear, often positive, feedbacks across space and through time. We present new work from an assessment of expected effects of climate change on forests in Washington State, drawing on an ongoing thought experiment, regarding 'stress complexes', or interacting processes that force ecosystem change, to help identify specific vulnerabilities of mountain ecosystems across the state. Warming temperatures and prolonged droughts will produce more severe fires, more drought stress in dense forest stands created by fire exclusion, greater vulnerability of pine species to mortality from beetles, but reduced area of optimal habitat for beetle populations, which will be best adapted to high elevations. This complex of stresses will likely produce significant challenges for adaptation, with vulnerabilities to rapid irreversible changes being the greatest concern.

  7. THE DRIFT SCALE HEATER TEST AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Mark T.; Boyle, William J.; Datta, Robin N.; Elkins, Ned Z.; Yasek, Robert N.; Wagner, Ralph A.; Weaver, Douglas J.

    1998-01-30

    The Drift Scale Heater Test (DST) is an integral part of the program of testing and studies being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a site of a deep geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The DST is a large-scale, in situ thermal test to be conducted over nearly a decade in the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain (Figure 1). The overall objective of the DST is to acquire a more indepth understanding of the physical processes that will occur in the rock surrounding the emplaced waste. There are four principal processes of concern: thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical. These processes will be intensified because of the decay heat from the emplaced waste and their interaction or coupling. An understanding of these coupled processes is essential for the assessment of the long-term (over thousands of years) performance of the repository.

  8. Mountain-Scale Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Processes Around the Potential Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    E. Sonnenthal; C. Haukwa; N. Spycher

    2001-06-04

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) effects on flow and geochemistry in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain at a mountain scale. The major THC processes important in the UZ are (1) mineral precipitation/dissolution affecting flow and transport to and from the potential repository, and (2) changes in the compositions of gas and liquid that may seep into drifts.

  9. Dynamics of small-scale precipitation enhancement in mountainous terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, R.; Scipion, D.; Berne, A.; Dawes, N.; Lehning, M.

    2012-04-01

    In mountainous terrain precipitation patterns are strongly influenced by the topography. At larger scales the complex topography induces orographic cloud formation, while at smaller scales the local flow field leads to the preferred deposition of precipitation in leeward slopes. In this study, we focus on the small-scale precipitation enhancement close to the ridge controlled by the topographically induced local flow field. A mobile polarimetric X-band radar was deployed in the area of Davos (Switzerland) to determine the spatial variability of snow fall at a high spatial resolution of 75 m. In order to relate measured precipitation fields to flow dynamics, we modelled flow fields with the atmospheric prediction model Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS). Additionally, comparison of precipitation fields at a height of hundreds of meters above the surface with snow accumulation at the surface was facilitated by modelling/measuring snow accumulation fields with Alpine3D and Airborne Laser Scans respectively. Based on this dataset we investigated the small-scale precipitation dynamics for one heavy snow fall event in March 2011. The results showed a clear precipitation enhancement close to the ridge at the transition between the updraft and downdraft zone. The precipitation concentration increased in the presence of flow acceleration at windward slopes and decreased in the presence of flow deceleration at the leeward slopes. Measurements show that the temporal variation of the location of maximum concentration is strongly dependent on the magnitude of the horizontal wind velocity. For situations with strong horizontal winds, the concentration maximum is shifted from the ridge crest towards the leeward slopes. Results further suggest that the small-scale precipitation enhancement at the ridge crest can be temporally and locally increased by the seeder-feeder mechanism. Although precipitation concentration at the height seen by the radar is different to the snow accumulation measured at the ground, these results strongly support the concept of preferential deposition of precipitation.

  10. State geothermal commercialization programs in ten Rocky Mountain states. Semi-annual progress report, July-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, J.L.

    1980-08-01

    The activities and findings of the ten state teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Regional Hydrothermal Commercialization Program for the period are described. A summary of the state projects, compilation of project accomplishments, summary of findings, and a description of the major conclusions and recommendations are presented. Also included are chapters on the commercialization activities carried out by individual teams in each state: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New-Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. (MHR)

  11. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  12. Case study of a commercial sheep flock under extensive mountain grazing: Pasture derived lipid compounds in milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Valdivielso, I; Bustamante, M A; Aldezabal, A; Amores, G; Virto, M; Ruiz de Gordoa, J C; de Renobales, M; Barron, L J R

    2016-04-15

    Terpenoid, fat-soluble antioxidant and fatty acid (FA) composition of pasture as well as those of milk and cheese from a commercial sheep flock managed under extensive mountain grazing in the east region of the Cantabrian mountain (Northern Spain) was investigated. The grazing period lasted for 2 months and ewes were at late lactation stage. Plants, feces, bulk milk and cheese samples were collected on two sampling dates. The abundance of the dominating botanical families in the mountain pasture prevailed in the sheep diet of the commercial flock. Major terpenoids and tocols in the pasture appeared as major ones in milk and cheese, whereas C18 unsaturated FAs in milk and cheese were derived from the intake of C18 polyunsaturated FAs which were prevalent in the pasture. No carotene was detected in the dairy samples but retinol (free or esterified), derived from the intake of β-carotene present in pasture plants, was found in milk and cheese. PMID:26616996

  13. Approaches to recreational landscape scaling of mountain resorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaia, Nina; Slepih, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    In the mountain resorts (MR) the climate and the landscape are natural medical resources which are very sensitive to anthropogenic influences [EGU2011-6740-3; EGU2012-6103]. Positive experience of the climatic and landscape treatment at the MR of the North Caucasus allowed us to establish fundamental interrelation between the quality of recreational landscapes (RL), climatic conditions and the efficiency of medical rehabilitation of people at the MR on the basis of rational use of natural medical resources. There have been registered the following bioclimatic distinctions and physiological responses with the recipients suffering from high disadaptation according to the results of the complex route medical and geophysical studies on the urban and park landscapes. We have defined hot discomfort at the open space of urban territory when the weather is extremely hot and anticyclone - the thermal balance (TB) is higher than +840 W/sq.m, extreme risk of solar erythema burn - UVI - higher than 11, the low content of natural anions - lower than 260 ion/cm3, high coefficient of ions unipolarity (CIU) - 2.16 and a high temperature of the underlying surface (asphalt) 46.40C. At the same time in the resort park of vegetable association Bétula péndula (50 years) TB was significantly lower - +480 W/sq.m, there was no risk of erythema burn (UVI 4), an optimum level of natural anions was 840 ion/cm3 and the value of CIU was 0.98, grass and soil temperature was + 290C and there was a favourable background of evaporating metabolites. At such favourable bioclimatic change the patients have been registered to have the voltage reduction of the vegetative index (from 640 to 380; N-150), the increase in efficiency of neurohumoral regulation (from 0.12 to 0.34; N 0,50), the decrease in spectrum excitability of brain activity in the range of waves: delta 0 … 0.4Hz by 16%, the increase in work activity of the brain in the range of waves: thetra 4 … 8 Hz, alpha 8 … 13 Hz. beta 13 … 19 Hz, gamma 19 … 25Hz by 9-17%; the increase in adaptation layer of the organism by 21% and a versatility indicator of health - by 19%; the decrease in systolic (from 145 to 131 mm of mercury) and diastolic (from 96 to 82 mm of mercury) arterial pressure, the increase in indicators of carpal dynamometry (on the right hand from 27 to 36 kg, on the left hand from 25 to 34 kg), the increase in speed of thermogenesis (from 0.0633 to 0.0944 K/s) and quality of neurovascular reactivity (from 48% to 81%). In the whole the patient`s cenesthesia has improved. We have also studied the responses of adaptive reactions with the recipients at other options of RL. But researches are still being carried out in this direction. Their results will be used as a base of RL scaling of North Caucasus mountain territories. This problem is interdisciplinary, multidimensional and deals with both medical and geophysical issues. The studies were performed by support of the Program "Basic Sciences for Medicine" and RFBR project No.10-05-01014_a.

  14. A mountain-scale model for characterizing unsaturated flow and transport in fractured tuffs of Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Guoping; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2003-07-18

    This paper presents a large-scale modeling study characterizing fluid flow and tracer transport in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed underground repository site for storing high-level radioactive waste. The modeling study is conducted using a three-dimensional numerical model, which incorporates a wide variety of field data and takes into account the coupled processes of flow and transport in Yucca Mountain's highly heterogeneous, unsaturated, fractured porous rock. The modeling approach is based on a dual-continuum formulation. Using different conceptual models of unsaturated flow, various scenarios of current and future climate conditions and their effects on the unsaturated zone are evaluated to aid in the assessment of the repository's system performance. These models are calibrated against field-measured data. Model-predicted flow and transport processes under current and future climates are discussed.

  15. Modeling studies of mountain-scale radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George J.; Seol, Yongkoo; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2003-04-29

    We investigate radionuclide transport from a high-level nuclear waste repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. Several radioactive solutes (that cover the range of sorption behavior) and colloids of various sizes are studied. The results of the study indicate the importance of the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The effects of the climatic conditions, diffusion, and sorption (for solutes) or infiltration (for colloids) onto the matrix are discussed. The influence of the colloid size on transport is also investigated.

  16. Commercial scale irradiation for insect disinfestation preserves peach quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Heather; McCulloch, Mary; Caporaso, Fred; Winborne, Ian; Oubichon, Michon; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

    2012-06-01

    Irradiation is approved as a generic quarantine treatment by the US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Due to the effectiveness of irradiation in controlling insects on commodities, there is a growing need to understand the effects of low dose irradiation on fruit quality. The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity of peaches (Prunus persica) to irradiation, and secondly, to determine the effect of commercial scale treatment on shelf-life, overall quality and consumer liking. Six varieties of peaches were irradiated in small batches at 0.29, 0.49, 0.69 and 0.90 kGy to observe the sensitivity of peaches at different dose levels. Changes in quality were evaluated by 8 trained panelists using descriptive analysis. Sensory characteristics (color, smoothness, aroma, touch firmness, mouth firmness, graininess, overall flavor and off-flavor) were evaluated at 2-4 day intervals and untreated samples served as control. To simulate commercial treatment, peaches were irradiated in pallet quantities at a target dose level of 0.4 kGy. The average absorbed dose was 0.66 kGy with an average dose uniformity ratio of 1.57. Commercially treated peaches were evaluated by 40-80 untrained consumers for acceptability routinely throughout the shelf life. Titratable acidity, Brix, texture and weight loss were also monitored for both commercial and small scale irradiated peaches. There was no dose effect on TA, Brix and weight loss due to irradiation. Peaches irradiated at 0.69 and 0.90 kGy were darker in flesh color, more juicy and less firm as determined by the trained panel and analytical pressure tests. Commercial scale irradiation did not adversely affect shelf life but was seen to enhance ripening. This, however, was perceived as a positive change by consumers. Overall, consumers rated the acceptability of irradiated peaches higher than untreated peaches. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed models to find determinates of irradiation on peaches.

  17. A saturated zone site-scale flow model for Yucca mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Eddebbarh, Al Aziz

    2008-01-01

    A saturated zone site-scale flow model (YMSZFM) was developed for licensing requirements for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository to incorporate recent data and analyses including recent stratigraphic and water-level data from Nye County wells, single-and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and recent hydrochemistry data. Analyses include use of data from the 2004 transient Death Valley Regional (ground-water) Flow System (DVRFS) model, the 2003 unsaturated zone flow model, and the latest hydrogeologic framework model (HFM). This model includes: (1) the latest understanding of SZ flow, (2) enhanced model validation and uncertainty analyses, (3) improved locations and definitions of fault zones, (4) refined grid resolution (500-to 250-m grid spacing), and (5) use of new data. The flow model was completed using the three-dimensional, Finite-Element Heat and Mass Transfer computer code (FEHM). The SZ site-scale flow model was calibrated with the commercial parameter estimation code, PEST to achieve a minimum difference between observed water levels and predicted water levels, and also between volumetric/mass flow rates along specific boundary segments as supplied by the DVRFS. A total of 161 water level and head measurements with varied weights were used for calibration. A comparison between measured water-level data and the potentiometric surface yielded an RMSE of 20.7 m (weighted RMSE of 8.8 m). The calibrated model was used to generate flow paths and specific discharge predictions. Model confidence was built by comparing: (l) calculated to observed hydraulic heads, and (2) calibrated to measured permeabilities (and therefore specific discharge). In addition, flowpaths emanating from below the repository footprint are consistent with those inferred both from gradients of measured head and from independent water-chemistry data. Uncertainties in the SZ site-scale flow model were quantified because all uncertainty contributes to inaccuracy in system representation and response. Null space and solution space uncertainties were determined.

  18. a New Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model for Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddebbarh, A.; James, S. C.; Doherty, J.; Zyvoloski, G.; Arnold, B. W.

    2007-12-01

    A saturated zone site scale flow model was developed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to incorporate new data and analyses including new stratigraphic and water level data from Nye County wells, single and multiple well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. New analyses include use of data from the 2004 transient Death Valley Regional (ground water) Flow System (DVRFS) model, the 2003 unsaturated zone flow model, and the latest hydrogeologic framework model (HFM). This model includes: (1) the latest understanding of SZ flow, (2) enhanced model validation and uncertainty analyses, (3) improved locations and definitions of fault zones, (4) refined grid resolution (500 to 250 m grid spacing), and (5) use of new data. The flow model was completed using the three dimensional, finite element heat and mass transfer computer code, FEHM V2.24. The SZ site scale flow model was calibrated with the commercial parameter estimation code, PEST to achieve a minimum difference between observed water levels and predicted water levels, and also between volumetric/mass flow rates along specific boundary segments as supplied by the DVRFS. 161 water level and head measurements with varied weights were used for calibration. A comparison between measured water level data and the potentiometric surface yielded an RMSE of 20.7 m (weighted RMSE of 8.8 m). The calibrated model was used to evaluate the impact of alternative models on flow paths and specific discharge predictions. Model confidence was built by comparing: (1) calculated to observed hydraulic heads, and (2) calibrated to measured permeabilities (and therefore specific discharge). In addition, flowpaths emanating from below the repository footprint are consistent with those inferred both from gradients of measured head and from independent water chemistry data. Uncertainties in the SZ site scale flow model were quantified because all uncertainty contributes to inaccuracy in system representation and response. Null space and solution space uncertainties were determined.

  19. A Summary of Operating Conditions Experienced by Three Military Helicopters and a Mountain-Based Commercial Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connor, Andrew B.

    1960-01-01

    The results of a survey of the flight conditions experienced by three military helicopters engaged in simulated and actual military missions, and a commercial helicopter operated in the mountainous terrain surrounding Denver, CO, are presented. The data, obtained with NASA helicopter VGHN recorders, represent 813 flights or 359 flying hours, and are compared where applicable to previous survey results. The current survey results show that none of the helicopters exceeded the maximum design airspeed. One military helicopter, used for instrument flight training, never exceeded 70 percent of its maximum design airspeed. The rates of climb and descent utilized by the IFR training helicopter and of the mountain-based helicopter were generally narrowly distributed within all the airspeed ranges. The number of landings per hour for all four of the helicopters ranged from 1.6 to 3.3. The turbine-engine helicopter experienced more frequent normal-acceleration increments above a threshold of +/-0.4g (where g is acceleration due to gravity) than the mountain-based helicopter, but the mountain-based helicopter experienced acceleration increments of greater magnitude. Limited rotor rotational speed time histories showed that all the helicopters were operated at normal rotor speeds during all flight conditions.

  20. USING BROAD-SCALE METRICS TO DEVELOP INDICATORS OF WATERSHED VULNERABILITY IN THE OZARK MOUNTAINS (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple broad-scale landscape metrics were tested as potential indicators of total phosphorus (TP) concentration, total ammonia (TA) concentration, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria count, among 244 sub-watersheds in the Ozark Mountains (USA). Indicator models were develop...

  1. SCALE-4 Analysis of LaSalle Unit 1 BWR Commercial Reactor Critical Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I.C.

    2000-03-01

    Five commercial reactor criticals (CRCs) for the LaSalle Unit 1 boiling-water reactor have been analyzed using KENO V.a, the Monte Carlo criticality code of the SCALE 4 code system. The irradiated fuel assembly isotopics for the criticality analyses were provided by the Waste Package Design team at the Yucca Mountain Project in the US, who performed the depletion calculations using the SAS2H sequence of SCALE 4. The reactor critical measurements involved two beginning-of-cycle and three middle-of-cycle configurations. The CRCs involved relatively low-cycle burnups, and therefore contained a relatively high gadolinium poison content in the reactor assemblies. This report summarizes the data and methods used in analyzing the critical configurations and assesses the sensitivity of the results to some of the modeling approximations used to represent the gadolinium poison distribution within the assemblies. The KENO V.a calculations, performed using the SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 ENDF/B-V cross-section library, yield predicted k{sub eff} values within about 1% {Delta}k/k relative to reactor measurements for the five CRCs using general 8-pin and 9-pin heterogeneous gadolinium poison pin assembly models.

  2. SCALE-4 Analysis of LaSalle Unit 1 BWR Commercial Reactor Critical Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I.C.

    2000-03-16

    Five commercial reactor criticals (CRCs) for the LaSalle Unit 1 boiling-water reactor have been analyzed using KENO V.a, the Monte Carlo criticality code of the SCALE 4 code system. The irradiated fuel assembly isotopics for the criticality analyses were provided by the Waste Package Design team at the Yucca Mountain Project in the United States, who performed the depletion calculations using the SAS2H sequence of SCALE 4. The reactor critical measurements involved two beginning-of-cycle and three middle-of-cycle configurations. The CRCs involved relatively low-cycle burnups, and therefore contained a relatively high gadolinium poison content in the reactor assemblies. This report summarizes the data and methods used in analyzing the critical configurations and assesses the sensitivity of the results to some of the modeling approximations used to represent the gadolinium poison distribution within the assemblies. The KENO V.a calculations, performed using the SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 ENDF/B-V cross-section library, yield predicted k{sub eff} values within about 1% {Delta}k/k relative to reactor measurements for the five CRCs using general 8-pin and 9-pin heterogeneous gadolinium poison pin assembly models.

  3. Scaling issues and spatio-temporal variability in ecohydrological modeling on mountain topography: Methods for improving the VELMA model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions between vegetation and hydrology in mountainous terrain are difficult to represent in mathematical models. There are at least three primary reasons for this difficulty. First, expanding plot-scale measurements to the watershed scale requires finding the balance...

  4. The key to commercial-scale geological CO2 sequestration: Displaced fluid management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Surdam, R.C.; Jiao, Z.; Stauffer, P.; Miller, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Wyoming State Geological Survey has completed a thorough inventory and prioritization of all Wyoming stratigraphic units and geologic sites capable of sequestering commercial quantities of CO2 (5-15 Mt CO 2/year). This multi-year study identified the Paleozoic Tensleep/Weber Sandstone and Madison Limestone (and stratigraphic equivalent units) as the leading clastic and carbonate reservoir candidates for commercial-scale geological CO2 sequestration in Wyoming. This conclusion was based on unit thickness, overlying low permeability lithofacies, reservoir storage and continuity properties, regional distribution patterns, formation fluid chemistry characteristics, and preliminary fluid-flow modeling. This study also identified the Rock Springs Uplift in southwestern Wyoming as the most promising geological CO2 sequestration site in Wyoming and probably in any Rocky Mountain basin. The results of the WSGS CO2 geological sequestration inventory led the agency and colleagues at the UW School of Energy Resources Carbon Management Institute (CMI) to collect available geologic, petrophysical, geochemical, and geophysical data on the Rock Springs Uplift, and to build a regional 3-D geologic framework model of the Uplift. From the results of these tasks and using the FutureGen protocol, the WSGS showed that on the Rock Springs Uplift, the Weber Sandstone has sufficient pore space to sequester 18 billion tons (Gt) of CO2, and the Madison Limestone has sufficient pore space to sequester 8 Gt of CO2. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Multi-scale traffic safety and operational performance study of large trucks on mountainous interstate highway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Suren; Chen, Feng; Wu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    In addition to multi-vehicle accidents, large trucks are also prone to single-vehicle accidents on the mountainous interstate highways due to the complex terrain and fast-changing weather. By integrating both historical data analysis and simulations, a multi-scale approach is developed to evaluate the traffic safety and operational performance of large trucks on mountainous interstate highways in both scales of individual vehicle as well as traffic on the whole highway. A typical mountainous highway in Colorado is studied for demonstration purposes. Firstly, the ten-year historical accident records are analyzed to identify the accident-vulnerable-locations (AVLs) and site-specific critical adverse driving conditions. Secondly, simulation-based single-vehicle assessment is performed for different driving conditions at those AVLs along the whole corridor. Finally, the cellular-automaton (CA)-based simulation is carried out to evaluate the multi-vehicle traffic safety as well as the operational performance of the traffic by considering the actual speed limits, including the differential speed limits (DSL) at some locations. It is found that the multi-scale approach can provide insightful and comprehensive observations of the highway performance, which is especially important for mountainous highways. PMID:21094341

  6. Full-Scale Schlieren Visualization of Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. D.; Settles, G. S.

    1996-11-01

    The efficient removal of cooking effluents from commercial kitchens has been identified as the most pressing energy-related issue in the food service industry. A full-scale schlieren optical system with a 2.1x2.7m field-of-view, described at previous APS/DFD meetings, images the convective airflow associated with a typical gas-fired cooking griddle and ventilation hood. Previous attempts to visualize plumes from cooking equipment by smoke and neutrally-buoyant bubbles were not sufficiently keyed to thermal convection. Here, the point where the ventilation hood fails to capture the effluent plume is clearly visible, thus determining the boundary condition for a balanced ventilation system. Further, the strong influence of turbulent entrainment is seen in the behavior of the combustion products vented by the griddle and the interference caused by a makeup-air outlet located too close to the lip of the ventilation hood. Such applications of traditional fluid dynamics techniques and principles are believed to be important to the maturing of ventilation technology. (Research supported by EPRI and IFMA, Inc.)

  7. Multi-scale Transport Processes Observed in the Boundary Layer over a Mountainous Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Bianca; Kalthoff, Norbert

    2014-12-01

    Over complex terrain, convection and thermally-driven circulations simultaneously occur under fair weather conditions during the day. To investigate these processes on the basis of observations, simultaneous measurements on different scales are necessary. Comprehensive measurements with the mobile observation platform KITcube were performed on the mountainous island of Corsica during the HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment (HyMeX) field campaign in late summer and autumn 2012. Using a case study, the benefit of integrated measurement systems and coordinated scan strategies was demonstrated, and experimental evidence of, and new insights into, convective and advective transport processes in a valley were obtained. Convection, thermally-driven circulations and topographic and advective venting led to the diurnal cycle of temperature, humidity and wind over complex terrain in the mountain atmospheric boundary layer (mountain ABL), which was deeper than an ABL over homogeneous terrain under equal surface forcing. Due to the combined transport processes on different scales, the mountain ABL in a valley also extended beyond the convection layer, which was characterized by surface-based, buoyancy-driven turbulent mixing. Strong subsidence, with a vertical velocity of about 1 m s, was present within the mountain ABL for several hours around noon and suppressed the convection-layer growth. Above the layer with subsidence, elevated vertical motions, consisting of alternating updrafts and downdrafts, occurred. Once the convection layer grew to the bottom of the layer with elevated vertical motions, surface-based convective cells occasionally coupled to the elevated updrafts, as a result of which the convection layer rapidly deepened.

  8. Multi-scale curvature for automated identification of glaciated mountain landscapes.

    PubMed

    Prasicek, Günther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Montgomery, David R; Schrott, Lothar

    2014-03-15

    Erosion by glacial and fluvial processes shapes mountain landscapes in a long-recognized and characteristic way. Upland valleys incised by fluvial processes typically have a V-shaped cross-section with uniform and moderately steep slopes, whereas glacial valleys tend to have a U-shaped profile with a changing slope gradient. We present a novel regional approach to automatically differentiate between fluvial and glacial mountain landscapes based on the relation of multi-scale curvature and drainage area. Sample catchments are delineated and multiple moving window sizes are used to calculate per-cell curvature over a variety of scales ranging from the vicinity of the flow path at the valley bottom to catchment sections fully including valley sides. Single-scale curvature can take similar values for glaciated and non-glaciated catchments but a comparison of multi-scale curvature leads to different results according to the typical cross-sectional shapes. To adapt these differences for automated classification of mountain landscapes into areas with V- and U-shaped valleys, curvature values are correlated with drainage area and a new and simple morphometric parameter, the Difference of Minimum Curvature (DMC), is developed. At three study sites in the western United States the DMC thresholds determined from catchment analysis are used to automatically identify 5 × 5 km quadrats of glaciated and non-glaciated landscapes and the distinctions are validated by field-based geological and geomorphological maps. Our results demonstrate that DMC is a good predictor of glacial imprint, allowing automated delineation of glacially and fluvially incised mountain landscapes. PMID:24748703

  9. Small scale analogs of the Cayley Formation and Descarts Mountains in impact associated deposits, part C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The exploration of the Cayley Formation and material of the Descartes Mountains and an understanding of the origin and evolution of these units were primary objectives of the Apollo 16 lunar mission. This section examines several areas associated with impact crater deposits that show small-scale features similar in morphology to the regional characteristics of the Cayley and Descartes units shown in the Apollo 16 photography.

  10. Multi-scale curvature for automated identification of glaciated mountain landscapes☆

    PubMed Central

    Prasicek, Günther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Montgomery, David R.; Schrott, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    Erosion by glacial and fluvial processes shapes mountain landscapes in a long-recognized and characteristic way. Upland valleys incised by fluvial processes typically have a V-shaped cross-section with uniform and moderately steep slopes, whereas glacial valleys tend to have a U-shaped profile with a changing slope gradient. We present a novel regional approach to automatically differentiate between fluvial and glacial mountain landscapes based on the relation of multi-scale curvature and drainage area. Sample catchments are delineated and multiple moving window sizes are used to calculate per-cell curvature over a variety of scales ranging from the vicinity of the flow path at the valley bottom to catchment sections fully including valley sides. Single-scale curvature can take similar values for glaciated and non-glaciated catchments but a comparison of multi-scale curvature leads to different results according to the typical cross-sectional shapes. To adapt these differences for automated classification of mountain landscapes into areas with V- and U-shaped valleys, curvature values are correlated with drainage area and a new and simple morphometric parameter, the Difference of Minimum Curvature (DMC), is developed. At three study sites in the western United States the DMC thresholds determined from catchment analysis are used to automatically identify 5 × 5 km quadrats of glaciated and non-glaciated landscapes and the distinctions are validated by field-based geological and geomorphological maps. Our results demonstrate that DMC is a good predictor of glacial imprint, allowing automated delineation of glacially and fluvially incised mountain landscapes. PMID:24748703

  11. Scaling of material properties for Yucca Mountain: literature review and numerical experiments on saturated hydraulic conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, S.A.; Rautman, C.A.

    1996-08-01

    A review of pertinent literature reveals techniques which may be practical for upscaling saturated hydraulic conductivity at Yucca Mountain: geometric mean, spatial averaging, inverse numerical modeling, renormalization, and a perturbation technique. Isotropic realizations of log hydraulic conductivity exhibiting various spatial correlation lengths are scaled from the point values to five discrete scales through these techniques. For the variances in log{sub 10} saturated hydraulic conductivity examined here, geometric mean, numerical inverse and renormalization adequately reproduce point scale fluxes across the modeled domains. Fastest particle velocities and dispersion measured on the point scale are not reproduced by the upscaled fields. Additional numerical experiments examine the utility of power law averaging on a geostatistical realization of a cross-section similar to the cross-sections that will be used in the 1995 groundwater travel time calculations. A literature review on scaling techniques for thermal and mechanical properties is included. 153 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Multi-scale field investigation of water flow pathways and residence times in mountainous catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, S. W.; Troch, P. A.; Desilets, S. E.

    2006-12-01

    The "sky islands" of Arizona and New Mexico in the southwestern United States form a unique complex of about 27 mountain ranges whose ecosystems support many perennial and ephemeral streams in an arid climate. Among these sky islands are the Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson, AZ, with a peak elevation of 9157 ft at Mt. Lemmon. Sabino Canyon Creek is the main stream which runs on the south face of the mountain range. It usually flows from July through April with an average daily flow of approximately 0.28 m3/s (10 cfs). However, flash floods are common both during summer as a result of intense monsoon rains and during spring because of rapid snowmelt. During these events, flow increases rapidally, reaching peak flows up to 480 m3/s (16,000 cfs, July 2006). Characterizing water flow pathways and residence times in these complex catchments is important for improving flash flood warning systems, estimating mountain front recharge, managing forest and wild fires, and understanding ecosystem functions. In the summer of 2006, we set up an extensive hydrometrical and hydro-chemical monitoring network in Sabino Canyon Creek, comprising 40 tipping bucket rain gauges (two of which were equipped to automatically collect rainwater samples), 5 automatic surface water level stations (three of which were equipped with auto samplers), and 8 manual soil lysimeters. In addition, several rain and stream water grab samples were collected manually during intensive rain events. Water samples are analyzed for major ions and liquid water isotopic concentration (2H and 18O) in rain, soil, ground and surface water. The data allows for a detailed reconstruction of water flow pathways and residence times at 3 different catchment scales (2 km2, 8 km2, and 91 km2) during the recorded flow events, including the highest monsoon rainfall-runoff event ever recorded in these mountains.

  13. The periglacial engine of mountain erosion - Part 2: Modelling large-scale landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egholm, D. L.; Andersen, J. L.; Knudsen, M. F.; Jansen, J. D.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2015-04-01

    An increasing number of studies point to a strong periglacial control on bedrock erosion in mountain landscapes. Periglacial processes have also been suggested to control the formation of block-fields on high-elevation, low-relief surfaces (summit flats) found in many alpine landscapes. However, to which degree periglacial processes took part in accelerating global erosion rates in response to Late Cenozoic cooling still remains as an unanswered question. In this study, we present a landscape evolution model that incorporates two periglacial processes; frost cracking and frost creep, which both depend on the mean annual temperature (MAT) and sediment thickness. The model experiments allow us to time-integrate the contribution of periglacial processes to mountain topography over million-year time scales. It is a robust result of our experiments that periglacial frost activity leads to the formation of smooth summit flats at elevations dominated by cold climatic conditions through time periods of millions of years. Furthermore, a simplistic scaling of temperatures to ?18O values through the late-Cenozoic indicates that many of the highest summit flats in mid- to high-latitude mountain ranges can have formed prior to the Quaternary. The model experiments also suggest that cooling in the Quaternary accelerated periglacial erosion by expanding the areas affected by periglacial erosion significantly. A computational experiment combining glacial and periglacial erosion furthermore suggests that landscape modifications associated with glacial activity may increase the long-term average efficiency of the frost-related processes.

  14. Toward Characterizing the 4D Structure of Precipitation at the Headwater Catchment Scale in Mountainous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, A. P.; Prat, O. P.; Sun, X.; Shrestha, P.; Miller, D.

    2009-04-01

    The classic conceptual model of orographic rainfall depicts strong stationary horizontal gradients in rainfall accumulations and landcover contrasts across topographic divides (i.e. the rainshadow) at the broad scale of mountain ranges, or isolated orographic features. Whereas this model is sufficient to fingerprint the land-modulation of precipitation at the macroscale in climate studies, and can be useful to force geological models of land evolution for example, it fails to describe the active 4D space-time gradients that are critical at the fundamental scale of mountain hydrometeorology and hydrology, that is the headwater catchment. That is, the scale at which flash-floods are generated and landslides are triggered. Our work surveying the spatial and temporal habits of clouds and rainfall for some of the world's major mountain ranges from remotely-sensed data shows a close alignment of spatial scaling behavior with landform down to the mountain fold scale, that is the ridge-valley. Likewise, we find that diurnal and seasonal cycles are organized and constrained by topography from the macro- to the meso- to the alpha-scale of individual basins varying with synoptic weather conditions. At the catchment scale, the diurnal cycle exhibits an oscillatory behavior with storm features moving up and down from the ridge crests to the valley floor and back and forth from head to mouth along the valley with strong variations in rainfall intensity and duration. Direct observations to provide quantitative estimates of precipitation at this scale are beyond the capability of satellite-based observations present and anticipated in the next 10-20 years. This limitation can be addressed by assimilating the space-time modes of variability of rainfall into satellite-observations at coarser scale using multiscale blending algorithms. The challenge is to characterize the modes of space-time variability of precipitation in a systematic, and quantitative fashion that can be generalized. It requires understanding the physical controls that govern the diurnal cycle and how these physical controls translate into spatial and temporal variability of dynamics and microphysics of precipitation in headwater catchments, and especially in the context of extreme events for natural hazards assessments. Toward this goal, we have initiated a sequence of number of intense observing period (IOP) campaigns in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park using radiosondes, tethersondes, microrain radars, and a high resolution raingauge network that for the first time monitors rainfall systematically along ridges in the Appalachians. Along with field observations, a high-resolution coupled model has been implemented to diagnose the evolution of the 4D structure of regional circulations and associated precipitation for IOP conditions and for reconstructing historical extremes associated with the interaction of tropical cyclones with the mountains. A synthesis of data analysis and model simulations will be presented.

  15. Sediment budgets of mountain catchments: Scale dependence and the influence of land-use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frster, Helga; Dotterweich, Markus; Wunderlich, Jrgen

    2010-05-01

    Long-term sediment budgets of forested mountain catchments are scarcely investigated today. This is because they are traditionally expected to show few erosion features and low sediment delivery. This opinion originates from process-based hydrological studies proving the runoff preventing properties of trees and forest soils. In addition mountain areas have been colonized later and only sporadically compared to the fruitful loess-covered lowlands. On the other hand steep hillslopes, narrow valleys and the availability of regolith cause a high erosion potential. And there is evidence that historical floods and yearly occurring storms initiate intensive but local and sporadic erosion events. Sediment budgets from zero-order catchments of the Palatinate Forest in the south-western sandstone escarpment in Rhineland-Palatinate show spatially varying intensities of land use impact and relief conditions. The budgets are based on field data and a soilscape model of an upper periglacial cover bed with a homogenous thickness. OSL- and 14C-dates of colluvial deposits allow relating erosion events to land-use changes derived from historical maps and written archives. The presented case studies from the Palatinate Forest are of special interest as the high proximity to the loess-covered and intensively cultivated Rhine Graben effected settlement and land-use intensity in the mountain catchments. Clear cuts for settlements were joined by deforestation for agriculture and stretched mainly along the Haardtrand and high order valleys. Off these areas the strength of interference in the forest ecosystem depended on transport possibilities and distance to the Rhine Graben. In the vicinity strong devastation and clear cutting occurred. With increasing distance the felling intensity decreased and some parts seem to be nearly undisturbed until the 18th century. The needs for wood were controlled by the economical development as well as political decisions on local to European scale. The results from Palatinate Forest show that some of the cultural phases, which have been determined as main Holocene erosion phases in the Rhine Graben, did not extend to the mountain areas. The colluvial documentation of settlement history in small catchments directly connected to the Rhine Graben starts in the Neolithic Period but is not continual, while in those within the mountains colluvial layers older than modern times are missing. An inquiry of historical and modern storm events supports the requirements of local differentiation of sediment dynamics. On the meso-scale the sediment budget of the Speyerbach shows, that the output of the catchment is higher than the sedimentation within the catchment area. A diverse pattern occurs on the local scale: while the loess-covered subcatchments show a dominance of sedimentation, the steeper ones with narrow valleys shows an exceeding delivery to the output. As the latter ones are dominant in the Speyerbach catchment, the meso-scale catchment budget seems to be determined by the majority. Micro-scale diversity of land-use history therefore determines the sediment delivery rate of small mountain catchments and underlines the need for systematic archaeological research activities in mountain areas in Germany.

  16. Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain basin and range. Final technical report, January 1980-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  17. The periglacial engine of mountain erosion - Part 2: Modelling large-scale landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egholm, D. L.; Andersen, J. L.; Knudsen, M. F.; Jansen, J. D.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2015-10-01

    There is growing recognition of strong periglacial control on bedrock erosion in mountain landscapes, including the shaping of low-relief surfaces at high elevations (summit flats). But, as yet, the hypothesis that frost action was crucial to the assumed Late Cenozoic rise in erosion rates remains compelling and untested. Here we present a landscape evolution model incorporating two key periglacial processes - regolith production via frost cracking and sediment transport via frost creep - which together are harnessed to variations in temperature and the evolving thickness of sediment cover. Our computational experiments time-integrate the contribution of frost action to shaping mountain topography over million-year timescales, with the primary and highly reproducible outcome being the development of flattish or gently convex summit flats. A simple scaling of temperature to marine ?18O records spanning the past 14 Myr indicates that the highest summit flats in mid- to high-latitude mountains may have formed via frost action prior to the Quaternary. We suggest that deep cooling in the Quaternary accelerated mechanical weathering globally by significantly expanding the area subject to frost. Further, the inclusion of subglacial erosion alongside periglacial processes in our computational experiments points to alpine glaciers increasing the long-term efficiency of frost-driven erosion by steepening hillslopes.

  18. Commercial scale validation of a process scale-up model for lubricant blending of pharmaceutical powders.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Joseph; Schlack, Holger

    2014-11-20

    An experimental study was conducted to verify that lubrication mixing in commercial-scale bin blenders can be described by a previously-reported lubrication blending process scale-up model. Specifically, the mixing of two placebo formulations (2:1 MCC:lactose, and 2:1 MCC:DCP) with 1% magnesium stearate in 100, 400, and 2000 L bin blenders at 30% and 70% blend fill levels for several extents of lubricant mixing was examined. The lubricated powder blends were assessed for bulk/tapped density and powder flow, as measured by Hausner's ratio. The blends were then compressed into tablets and evaluated for tensile strength, friability, and disintegration. It was observed that the lubrication rate constant, ?, for tablet tensile strength and for bulk specific volume were similar. Furthermore, powder flow, as measured by Hausner's ratio, improved with increased extent of lubrication. Tablet disintegration and tablet friability were both minimally affected as a result of extended lubrication for the placebos blends evaluated in this study. The results of this study confirm that the lubrication mixing model can be applied to scale-up the lubrication blending process from batches made in 30 mL bottle blenders to batches made in 2000 L bin blenders, which is a range of nearly five orders of magnitude. PMID:25152166

  19. First-order control of syntectonic sedimentation on crustal-scale structure of mountain belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erd?s, Zoltn.; Huismans, Ritske S.; Beek, Peter

    2015-07-01

    The first-order characteristics of collisional mountain belts and the potential feedback with surface processes are predicted by critical taper theory. While the feedback between erosion and mountain belt structure has been fairly extensively studied, less attention has been given to the potential role of synorogenic deposition. For thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belts, recent studies indicate a strong control of syntectonic deposition on structure, as sedimentation tends to stabilize the thin-skinned wedge. However, the factors controlling basement deformation below fold-and-thrust belts, as evident, for example, in the Zagros Mountains or in the Swiss Alps, remain largely unknown. Previous work has suggested that such variations in orogenic structure may be explained by the thermotectonic "age" of the deforming lithosphere and hence its rheology. Here we demonstrate that sediment loading of the foreland basin area provides an additional control and may explain the variable basement involvement in orogenic belts. When examining the role of sedimentation, we identify two end-members: (1) sediment-starved orogenic systems with thick-skinned basement deformation in an axial orogenic core and thin-skinned deformation in the bordering forelands and (2) sediment-loaded orogens with thick packages of synorogenic deposits, derived from the axial basement zone, deposited on the surrounding foreland fold-and-thrust belts, and characterized by basement deformation below the foreland. Using high-resolution thermomechanical models, we demonstrate a strong feedback between deposition and crustal-scale thick-skinned deformation. Our results show that the loading effects of syntectonic sediments lead to long crustal-scale thrust sheets beneath the orogenic foreland and explain the contrasting characteristics of sediment-starved and sediment-loaded orogens, showing for the first time how both thin- and thick-skinned crustal deformations are linked to sediment deposition in these orogenic systems. We show that the observed model behavior is consistent with observations from a number of natural orogenic systems.

  20. Small-scale cyclic deposition in the Frasnian (Upper Devonian) of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierek, Aleksandra

    2014-12-01

    In sections exposing Frasnian limestones at five outcrops in the Holy Cross Mountains, five lithofacies (L1 to L5) that represent upper slope to basinal environments are identified. These lithofacies are characterised by dark-coloured micritic limestones-marly shale couplets with many light-coloured intercalations of fine- to coarse-grained limestones (= event beds). This lithofacies pattern characterises mostly low-energy domains punctuated by storm episodes. In addition, these upper-slope to basinal lithofacies are arranged into small-scale, coarsening-upward beds and cycles. The cycles are locally composed of fining/thinning-upward beds. The small-scale cycles have a calculated duration of 19 to 42 kyr. The differential thickness of beds and cycles within and between sections was probably caused by differential subsidence and local tectonics. Possible evidence of tectonic activity is also related to a difference in number of cycles recorded in the time-equivalent sections. The recognised cyclicity shows sea-level fluctuations and a few deepening episodes. Some of them are correlated with the Timan global eustatic events. However, local tectonics and episodic subsidence may have played a significant role in recording brief deepening pulses. Thus, low-amplitude sea-level changes were major factors in platform generation and evolution in the Frasnian of the Holy Cross Mountains modified by local, block-related subsidence.

  1. Scaling relationships between bed load volumes, transport distances, and stream power in steep mountain channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Johannes M.; Turowski, Jens M.; Rickenmann, Dieter; Hegglin, Ramon; Arrigo, Sabrina; Mao, Luca; Kirchner, James W.

    2014-03-01

    Bed load transport during storm events is both an agent of geomorphic change and a significant natural hazard in mountain regions. Thus, predicting bed load transport is a central challenge in fluvial geomorphology and natural hazard risk assessment. Bed load transport during storm events depends on the width and depth of bed scour, as well as the transport distances of individual sediment grains. We traced individual gravels in two steep mountain streams, the Erlenbach (Switzerland) and Rio Cordon (Italy), using magnetic and radio frequency identification tags, and measured their bed load transport rates using calibrated geophone bed load sensors in the Erlenbach and a bed load trap in the Rio Cordon. Tracer transport distances and bed load volumes exhibited approximate power law scaling with both the peak stream power and the cumulative stream energy of individual hydrologic events. Bed load volumes scaled much more steeply with peak stream power and cumulative stream energy than tracer transport distances did, and bed load volumes scaled as roughly the third power of transport distances. These observations imply that large bed load transport events become large primarily by scouring the bed deeper and wider, and only secondarily by transporting the mobilized sediment farther. Using the sediment continuity equation, we can estimate the mean effective thickness of the actively transported layer, averaged over the entire channel width and the duration of individual flow events. This active layer thickness also followed approximate power law scaling with peak stream power and cumulative stream energy and ranged up to 0.57 m in the Erlenbach, broadly consistent with independent measurements.

  2. Measurement of Landscape-scale Fluxes in the Complex Terrain of a Rocky Mountain Subalpine Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monson, R. K.; Turnipseed, A.; Sun, J.; Anderson, D.; Yi, C.; Burns, S.; Lamb, B.; Schimel, D.

    2007-12-01

    For the past eight years, we have made observations using various approaches, including eddy covariance, mass-balance budgeting of advective fluxes, dispersion of SF6 tracer, and energy-budget closure to evaluate landscape-scale fluxes of CO2, H2O and energy in a complex mountain landscape in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. We discovered that daytime energy budget closure using eddy covariance fluxes balanced by available net radiation was better than 84% on a half-hourly basis in both winter and summer, and approached complete closure at surface friction velocities (u*) greater than 1 m s-1. Co-spectral analysis indicated that contributions from advective fluxes and low-frequency flux contributions were likely responsible for the lack of daytime energy budget closure at lower u*. Using multiple towers dispersed across a restricted (0.25 km2) footprint of the landscape we discovered that the highest nighttime CO2 concentrations occur at the lowest point (stream channel), due to the forces of gravitational drainage flows, that the downslope drainage of high-CO2 air is broken up gradually in the late morning when within canopy turbulence increases, and that there is likely photosynthetic assimilation of 'pooled' CO2 the next morning when upslope flows develop due to mountainside warming. Studies of nighttime dispersion of released SF6 tracer showed that the nighttime drainage flows are restricted to a relatively shallow layer of air beneath the canopy, with little vertical mixing. We used the multiple towers to estimate the contributions to the local CO2 budget by horizontal and vertical advective fluxes (driven by the nighttime drainage flows) and found that compared to traditional methods of correcting eddy covariance derived CO2 budgets on flat terrain, the complex terrain in at the Niwot Ridge site can induce an average 10% error in monthly cumulative net ecosystem exchange (NEE), which is amplified to a 65% error in cumulative NEE across six years. Thus, the errors to the local CO2 budget, when advective fluxes are ignored can be large. We developed the concept of a mountain 'carbonshed' to describe the effects of complex terrain on local CO2 budgets; the carbonshed is potentially a valuable concept that represents an organizing feature for studying landscape-scale fluxes in mountain-valley systems.

  3. A mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model for simulating fluid flow and heat transfer in unsaturated fractured rock.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, G S

    2006-06-30

    A multidimensional, mountain-scale, thermal-hydrologic (TH) numerical model is presented for investigating unsaturated flow behavior in response to decay heat from the proposed radioactive waste repository in the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone (UZ), The model, consisting of both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) representations of the UZ repository system, is based on the current repository design, drift layout, thermal loading scenario, and estimated current and future climate conditions. This mountain-scale TH model evaluates the coupled TH processes related to mountain-scale UZ flow. It also simulates the impact of radioactive waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including heat-driven processes occurring near and far away from the emplacement tunnels or drifts. The model simulates predict thermally perturbed liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature elevations, as well as the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes and drainage between drifts. These simulations provide insights into mountain-scale thermally perturbed flow fields under thermal loading conditions. PMID:16624442

  4. A Mountain-Scale Thermal Hydrologic Model for Simulating FluidFlow and Heat Transfer in Unsaturated Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson,Gudmundur S.

    2005-05-25

    A multidimensional, mountain-scale, thermal-hydrologic (TH) numerical model is presented for investigating unsaturated flow behavior in response to decay heat from the radioactive waste repository in the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone (UZ), Nevada. The model, consisting of both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) representations of the UZ repository system, is based on the current repository design, drift layout, thermal loading scenario, and estimated current and future climate conditions. This mountain-scale TH model evaluates the coupled TH processes related to mountain-scale UZ flow. It also simulates the impact of radioactive waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including heat-driven processes occurring near and far away from the emplacement tunnels or drifts. The model simulations predict thermally perturbed liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature elevations, as well as the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes and drainage between drifts. These simulations provide mountain-scale thermally perturbed flow fields for assessing the repository performance under thermal loading conditions.

  5. Response of a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys to commercial logging in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Songtao; Ji, Weihong; Li, Baoguo; Li, Ming

    2008-08-01

    Habitat destruction is one of the greatest threats to primates worldwide. To understand the impact of forest logging on the habitat use of primates in temperate mixed forest, we compared the range, habitat used, population size, and diet of a troop (ERT) of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains before (1989), during (1997), and after (2002-2003) commercial logging. Logging significantly changed the composition of the forest and the food supply for the troop. Some areas were heavily logged and formed patches in the forest that lacked canopy cover. The troop moved 7 km away from their original range when logging took place and returned to their original range after logging stopped, but they avoided heavily logged areas that lacked canopy cover. Their movement indicated some degree of site fidelity in this species. Diet and home range changed after logging, but the population size remained stable, which suggests that this species has some ability to adapt to habitat changes. Our results may reflect a natural flexibility in primates to adapt to the changing food resources in temperate areas with marked seasonal variations in food availability and distribution. This flexibility may have contributed to their higher degree of resilience to habitat alterations caused by human activities compared with tropical forest primates that have a more specialized diet. Our findings provide important baseline information that will help decision makers in their efforts to conserve primates, especially in temperate regions, and to sustainably manage primate habitat. PMID:18616738

  6. A commercial-scale in-pond raceway system for ictalurid catfish production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commercial-scale, in-pond raceway system was constructed in 2007 on a commercial catfish fish farm in west Alabama. The in-pond raceway system was installed in a 2.43-ha earthen pond with an average depth of 1.67 m. A slow-rotating paddlewheel (1.17 revolutions per minute) installed in each rac...

  7. Deformation patterns and landscape evolution across scales: the (south-) central Alborz mountains, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Angela; Ballato, Paolo; Strecker, Manfred R.; Friedrich, Anke M.; Zielke, Olaf; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Tabatabaei, Saeid H.; Shahpasandzadeh, Majid

    2010-05-01

    The highly disparate and diachronous character of tectonic deformation, sparse seismicity, and lack of empirical data pose a major challenge for a correct evaluation and the understanding of tectonic activity in the interior of continents. To overcome this dilemma, instrumental and historic records need to be integrated with millennial and long-term geological time scales. In addition, these environments require a joint evaluation of local studies and orogen-scale processes in order to compare and understand tectonic processes on different length and time scales. Located in the realm of the Eurasia-Arabia collision zone, the Alborz mountains of northern Iran are a zone of ongoing, yet spatially very disparate tectonic activity. Deformation in the orogen and adjacent regions is partitioned into left-lateral strike-slip faulting and thrusting. Earthquakes are randomly distributed in time and space and have moderate to high magnitudes. However, teleseismically recorded events show a higher record in the northern sector of the orogen. In agreement with this pattern, geomorphic proxies suggest higher rock-uplift rates, thus more pronounced tectonic activity in the north. Normalized channel steepness of major streams draining the Alborz mountains, is higher on north- than on south-draining channels. In contrast, total fault offsets are higher in the internal and southern sectors, and apatite fission-track thermochronology (Rezaeian, 2008), as well as the lithologic record of exhumation clearly reveal limited total exhumation in the northern sector. This suggests that the observed gradient in present-day rock-uplift rates is a relatively young tectonic signal and might reflect changes in orogenic boundary conditions. These observations may be reconciled by our structural and geomorphic studies in the south-central Alborz mountains, which reveal a complex tectonic history, involving changes in the regional shortening directions that may be related to changes in the tectonic stress regime. Fault kinematic analysis of major and minor faults in this area reveals early NW-oriented shortening associated with dextrally oblique thrusting, superseded by NE-oriented shortening, similar to the present-day. During this neotectonic regime, the reactivation of previously generated faults has resulted in a nascent transpressional duplex adjacent to the city of Tehran. In addition, the variable fault motions through time have left important, long-lasting imprints in the landscape, with inherited, tectonically overprinted and newly generated topographic features. Numerical fault-slip modelling using changing directions of largest horizontal stress (SHmax) shows that some faults are favorably oriented to accommodate the entire range of NW- to NE oriented directions of SHmax. The spatial coincidence of such faults with deeply exhumed areas indicates that fault-reactivation and subsequent interaction is a major cause of the observed deformation pattern in the south-central Alborz mountains. If, however, the change in the direction of SHmax temporally coincides with the shift in the focus of deformation towards northern sectors, cannot be resolved yet. Despite higher rock-uplift rates in the northern Alborz mountains, deformation is still ongoing in the southern range, attested by shortened Quaternary deposits and the historical record of destructive earthquakes on faults at the southern flank.

  8. Comparison of a visual analogue scale and Lake Louise symptom scores for acute mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Bengt; Aliverti, Andrea; Pellegrino, Riccardo; Dellaca, Raffaele; Quaranta, Marco; Pompilio, Pasquale; Miserocchi, Giuseppe; Cogo, Annalisa

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the presence and severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS) is based on subjective reporting of the sensation of symptoms. The Lake Louise symptom scoring system (LLS) uses categorical variables to rate the intensity of AMS-related symptoms (headache, gastrointestinal distress, dizziness, fatigue, sleep quality) on 4-point ordinal scales; the sum of the answers is the LLS self-score (range 0-15). Recent publications indicate a potential for a visual analogue scale (VAS) to quantify AMS. We tested the hypothesis that overall and single-item VAS and LLS scores scale linearly. We asked 14 unacclimatized male subjects [age 41 (14), mean (SD) yr; height 176 (3) cm; weight 75 (9) kg] who spent 2 days at 3647 m and 4 days at 4560 m to fill out LLS questionnaires, with a VAS for each item (i) and a VAS for the overall (o) sensation of AMS, twice a day (n = 172). Even though correlated (r = 0.84), the relationship between LLS(o) and VAS(o) was distorted, showing a threshold effect for LLS(o) scores below 5, with most VAS(o) scores on one side of the identity line. Similar threshold effects were seen for the LLS(i) and VAS(i) scores. These findings indicate nonlinear scaling characteristics that render difficult a direct comparison of studies done with either VAS or LLS alone. PMID:20367491

  9. Effect of small-scale fractures on flow and transport processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Liu, H.H.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2002-12-05

    Although many conceptual models for fracture-matrix interaction have been evaluated for Yucca Mountain site-characterization studies, the most widely used model is currently based on the dual-permeability concept. It was chosen for use in site-characterization partially because it has proved to be capable of matching many types of field observed data. Another consideration is that net infiltration rates at the site are estimated to be very low (on the order of millimeters/year), or close to saturated matrix hydraulic conductivity. Recent field studies and tests, in particular, fracture mapping data, collected along the walls of the underground tunnels reveal that there exists a significantly large variety in fracture sizes from centimeters to tens of meters. There is a considerable amount of small-scale fractures that have not been considered in the previous modeling studies. Although the majority of these small fractures may not contribute much to global flow and transport through the fracture-matrix system, they may provide large amounts of storage pore space and allow for additional connection areas for well-connected, large-scale fractures and surrounding matrix blocks, which ultimately affect fracture-matrix interactions. However, the currently used dual-permeability model is unable to include the potentially important effect of small fractures. To overcome the limitations of the dual-permeability approach, we have developed a triple-continuum conceptual model to investigate the impact of small-scale fractures on flow and transport processes in fractured rocks. This new conceptual model subdivides fractures into two types: large-scale and small-scale. Large-scale fractures are those responsible for global connections; small-scale fractures are those that provide large-fracture storage space and enhance the local connections to the matrix system without contributing to global flow or transport. Because the triple-continuum model is composed of the rock matrix and two types of fractures, it can be regarded as an extension of the traditional dual-permeability model. Using a generalized triple-continuum approach, the model formulation uses three parallel sets of conservation equations to describe flow and transport processes at each location of the system, for the two-fracture and one-matrix systems, respectively. The proposed triple-continuum model has been implemented using both analytical and numerical approaches and applied to field problems at Yucca Mountain. First we apply the new conceptual model to estimate model-related fracture-matrix parameters using field observation data and inverse modeling approach. Then we incorporate the estimated parameters to perform 3-D site-scale flow and transport simulations with the current hydrogeological model of Yucca Mountain. The 3-D modeling results with the triple-continuum model indicate that small fractures have significant impact on radionuclide transport in the UZ system, while their effects on flow and heat transfer are insignificant.

  10. Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final report, August 1, 1978-February 28, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Marlin, J.M.; Cunniff, R.; McDevitt, P.; Nowotny, K.; O'Dea, P.

    1981-01-01

    The work accomplished from August 1978 to February 1980 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program are described. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams and special analyses in support of several federal agencies.

  11. Modeling ground water flow in alluvial mountainous catchments on a watershed scale.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jens; Barthel, Roland; Braun, Jrgen

    2008-01-01

    In large mountainous catchments, shallow unconfined alluvial aquifers play an important role in conveying subsurface runoff to the foreland. Their relatively small extent poses a serious problem for ground water flow models on the river basin scale. River basin scale models describing the entire water cycle are necessary in integrated water resources management and to study the impact of global climate change on ground water resources. Integrated regional-scale models must use a coarse, fixed discretization to keep computational demands low and to facilitate model coupling. This can lead to discrepancies between model discretization and the geometrical properties of natural systems. Here, an approach to overcome this discrepancy is discussed using the example of the German-Austrian Upper Danube catchment, where a coarse ground water flow model was developed using MODFLOW. The method developed uses a modified concept from a hydrological catchment drainage analysis in order to adapt the aquifer geometry such that it respects the numerical requirements of the chosen discretization, that is, the width and the thickness of cells as well as gradients and connectivity of the catchment. In order to show the efficiency of the developed method, it was tested and compared to a finely discretized ground water model of the Ammer subcatchment. The results of the analysis prove the applicability of the new approach and contribute to the idea of using physically based ground water models in large catchments. PMID:18459959

  12. Regional Operations Research Program for Commercialization of Geothermal Energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final Technical Report, January 1980--March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The scope of work is as described in New Mexico State University Proposal 80-20-207. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  13. Forest Ecosystem Processes at the Watershed Scale: Ecosystem services, feedback and evolution in developing mountainous catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, Larry

    2010-05-01

    Mountain watersheds provide significant ecosystem services both locally and for surrounding regions, including the provision of freshwater, hydropower, carbon sequestration, habitat, forest products and recreational/aesthetic opportunities. The hydrologic connectivity along hillslopes in sloping terrain provides an upslope subsidy of water and nutrients to downslope ecosystem patches, producing characteristic ecosystem patterns of vegetation density and type, and soil biogeochemical cycling. Recent work suggests that optimal patterns of forest cover evolve along these flowpaths which maximize net primary productivity and carbon sequestration at the hillslope to catchment scale. These watersheds are under significant pressure from potential climate change, changes in forest management, increasing population and development, and increasing demand for water export. As water balance and flowpaths are altered by shifting weather patterns and new development, the spatial distribution and coupling of water, carbon and nutrient cycling will spur the evolution of different ecosystem patterns. These issues have both theoretical and practical implications for the coupling of water, carbon and nutrient cycling at the landscape level, and the potential to manage watersheds for bundled ecosystem services. If the spatial structure of the ecosystem spontaneously adjusts to maximize landscape level use of limiting resources, there may be trade-offs in the level of services provided. The well known carbon-for-water tradeoff reflects the growth of forests to maximize carbon uptake, but also transpiration which limits freshwater availability in many biomes. We provide examples of the response of bundled ecosystem services to climate and land use change in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of the United States. These mountains have very high net primary productivity, biodiversity and water yields, and provide significant freshwater resources to surrounding regions. There has been a significant increase in population in the Southern Appalachians, with new building of second homes in steep headwaters, requiring significant expansion in high altitude roads, in contrast with traditional valley bottom development. With additional increases in hydrologic extremes (heavy precipitation and drought), and progressive changes in forest composition there has been increases in hazard from flash flooding, landslide activity and degraded water quality. The evaluation of integrated watershed impacts of the expected changes in climate and land management requires an interdisciplinary approach including direct feedbacks between ecological, hydrological, geomorphic and atmospheric processes within the framework of an adapting social system. Advances in this type of interdisciplinary research require a network of ecohydrologic observatories generating long term, multi-dimensional data, and a science community working across the interface of multiple fields. Adding individual and institutional behavior as an input or interactive component of watershed ecosystems remains a challenge that spans ecological, hydrological and social science.

  14. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, B. C.; Hicke, J. A.; Hudak, A. T.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40-50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75-89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3-6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale.

  15. Large-scale climatic patterns and area affected by mountain pine beetle in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias Fauria, Marc; Johnson, E. A.

    2009-03-01

    We present evidence of high spatial synchrony in an area affected by mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) across large distances in British Columbia, Canada, in a study of a spatially explicit database of an area affected by MPB-caused tree mortality for the period 1959-2002. We further show that large-scale climatic patterns (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and, to a lesser degree, Arctic Oscillation (AO)) are strongly related to the observed MPB synchrony, and that they probably operate through controlling the frequency of extreme cold winter temperatures that affect MPB larvae survival. A smaller portion of the data's variability is linked to the onset of the two largest outbreaks in the studied period and might be attributed to dispersal from outbreak-prone areas or else to differences in microhabitat (e.g., host availability) in these regions. The onset of a warm PDO phase in 1976 favored MPB outbreaks by reducing the occurrence of extremely low winter temperatures province-wide. Likewise, the exceptionally high and persistent AO values of the late 1980s and 1990s enhanced MPB activity in the southern and northern parts of the region. Summer warmth cannot be discarded as an important agent at smaller scales.

  16. Large-Scale Effects of Timber Harvesting on Stream Systems in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Lance R.; Taylor, Christopher M.; Warren, Melvin L., Jr.; Clingenpeel, J. Alan

    2002-01-01

    Using Basin Area Stream Survey (BASS) data from the United States Forest Service, we evaluated how timber harvesting influenced patterns of variation in physical stream features and regional fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages. Data were collected for three years (1990-1992) from six hydrologically variable streams in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA that were paired by management regime within three drainage basins. Specifically, we used multivariate techniques to partition variability in assemblage structure (taxonomic and trophic) that could be explained by timber harvesting, drainage basin differences, year-to-year variability, and their shared variance components. Most of the variation in fish assemblages was explained by drainage basin differences, and both basin and year-of-sampling influenced macroinvertebrate assemblages. All three factors modeled, including interactions between drainage basins and timber harvesting, influenced variability in physical stream features. Interactions between timber harvesting and drainage basins indicated that differences in physical stream features were important in determining the effects of logging within a basin. The lack of a logging effect on the biota contradicts predictions for these small, hydrologically variable streams. We believe this pattern is related to the large scale of this study and the high levels of natural variability in the streams. Alternatively, there may be time-specific effects we were unable to detect with our sampling design and analyses.

  17. Large-scale effects of timber harvesting on stream systems in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lance R; Taylor, Christopher M; Warren, Melvin L; Clingenpeel, J Alan

    2002-01-01

    Using Basin Area Stream Survey (BASS) data from the United States Forest Service, we evaluated how timber harvesting influenced patterns of variation in physical stream features and regional fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages. Data were collected for three years (1990-1992) from six hydrologically variable streams in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA that were paired by management regime within three drainage basins. Specifically, we used multivariate techniques to partition variability in assemblage structure (taxonomic and trophic) that could be explained by timber harvesting, drainage basin differences, year-to-year variability, and their shared variance components. Most of the variation in fish assemblages was explained by drainage basin differences, and both basin and year-of-sampling influenced macroinvertebrate assemblages. All three factors modeled, including interactions between drainage basins and timber harvesting, influenced variability in physical stream features. Interactions between timber harvesting and drainage basins indicated that differences in physical stream features were important in determining the effects of logging within a basin. The lack of a logging effect on the biota contradicts predictions for these small, hydrologically variable streams. We believe this pattern is related to the large scale of this study and the high levels of natural variability in the streams. Alternatively, there may be time-specific effects we were unable to detect with our sampling design and analyses. PMID:11740625

  18. An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model For Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    S. Kelkar; H. Viswanathan; A. Eddebbarrh; M. Ding; P. Reimus; B. Robinson; B. Arnold; A. Meijer

    2006-09-06

    The Yucca Mountain site scale saturated zone transport model has been revised to incorporate the updated flow model based on a hydrogeologic framework model using the latest lithology data, increased grid resolution that better resolves the geology within the model domain, updated Kd distributions for radionuclides of interest, and updated retardation factor distributions for colloid filtration. The resulting numerical transport model is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. The transport model results are validated by comparing the model transport pathways with those derived from geochemical data, and by comparing the transit times from the repository footprint to the compliance boundary at the accessible environment with those derived from {sup 14}C-based age estimates. The transport model includes the processes of advection, dispersion, fracture flow, matrix diffusion, sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport. The transport of sorbing radionuclides in the aqueous phase is modeled as a linear, equilibrium process using the Kd model. The colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides is modeled using two approaches: the colloids with irreversibly embedded radionuclides undergo reversible filtration only, while the migration of radionuclides that reversibly sorb to colloids is modeled with modified values for sorption coefficient and matrix diffusion coefficients. Model breakthrough curves for various radionuclides at the compliance boundary are presented along with their sensitivity to various parameters.

  19. Implication of mountain shading and topographic scaling on energy for snowmelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, C.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Spiteri, R.

    2011-12-01

    In many parts of the world, snowmelt energetics are dominated by incoming solar radiation. This is the case in the Canadian Rockies, where sunny winters result in high insolation. Solar irradiance on the snow surface is affected by the atmosphere, the slope and aspect of the immediate topography, and shading from surrounding terrain. Errors in estimating solar irradiation are cumulative over a season and can lead to large errors in snowmelt predictions. Adaptive triangular meshes, a type of unstructured triangular mesh that can adapt to fine-scale processes during model runtime, are more efficient in their use of DEM data than fixed grids when producing solar irradiance maps. An experimental design to calculate the effect of changes in DEM resolution on adaptive mesh irradiation calculations and implication for snowmelt is presented. As part of this experiment, the accuracy of these techniques is compared to measurements of mountain shadows and solar irradiance collected in Marmot Creek Research Basin, Alberta. Time-lapse digital cameras and networks of radiometers provide datasets for diagnosis of model accuracy. Further improvements in computational efficiency are achieved by taking advantage of parallel processing using graphical processing units (GPUs) is also discussed.

  20. Workshop on the Federal Role in the Commercialization of Large Scale Windmill Technology (summary and papers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, J. I.; Miller, G.

    Large-scale wind system and windmill technology and prospects for commercial applications are discussed. Barriers that may affect the commerical viability of large-scale windmill systems are identified, including the relatively poor financial condition of much of the utility industry which effectively prevents many utilities from investing substantially in any new projects. The potential market addressed by the Federal program in large-scale windmill systems is examined. Some of the factors that may limit the degree of market penetration for wind energy systems are: costs of competing fossil and nuclear fuels and technologies; rate of acceptance of new technologies; and competition from other solar technologies, including biomass, solar thermal, and photovoltaic systems. Workshop participants agreed that existing Federal legislation provides significant incentives for the commercialization of large-scale wind machines.

  1. Sediment fining processes in a mountain stream at multiple time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bouteiller, Caroline; Mathys, Nicolle; Klotz, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    Downstream fining of sediment is observed in most gravel bed rivers, and is attributed to two mechanisms. The first one is an apparent fining that results from a collective effect called selective sorting: smaller grains travel further downstream while larger grains deposit preferentially upstream. The second one is generally referred to as abrasion and encompasses all the fining processes that affect each grain during its travel along the stream. The latter type of processes is dominant in the mountainous streams of the Draix observatory and is the focus of this study. Draix catchments are characterized by hard climatic conditions with winter frost and storm-induced floods, and a very erodible lithology (marl). During the floods, at the time scale of a few minutes, sediment size is reduced by surface abrasion and fragmentation due to the collisions between grains. In between the floods, at the time scale of a few weeks to months, sediments that remain exposed on bars at low flow are affected by weathering due to frost/thaw and wetting/drying alternations, which also reduces their size. Using field measurements, we measured the global sediment fining rate that results from both short-term (flood) and long-term (low flow) processes. The very high value obtained (51%/km) reflects the combination of the soft lithology with hard climatic conditions. We then combined various field and laboratory experiments to quantify the efficiency of each fining process (surface abrasion and fragmentation during a flood, frost/thaw weathering and wetting/drying weathering). Results indicate that short-term and long-term processes are equally efficient and that both are needed to explain the in-situ global fining rates. We finally propose a simplified model to describe the observed fining patterns, which we use to predict the system response to changes in the hydrological or climatic regime.

  2. Quantifying catchment scale soil variability in Marshall Gulch, Santa Catalina Mountains Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holleran, M.; Rasmussen, C.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying regolith variation, both chemical and physical yields insights to the evolution of the subsurface. In this study we aim to quantify soil variability within a forested catchment, Marshall Gulch, AZ. Marshall Gulch (MG) lies within the Coronado National Forest, part of the Jemez River Basin-Santa Catalina Mountains Critical Zone Observatory (CZO). MG is 5-hectare, mixed-conifer forested catchment situated on granitic parent material, with a mean elevation of 2400m, mean annual temperature of 8°C and mean annual precipitation of 75 cm. To ensure samples sites capture landscape variability, principal component analysis (PCA) were run on NAIP imagery and additional ancillary data from the study area. The PCA determined input layers of soil depth, slope, soil wetness index, NDVI and NAIP bands 3/2 as the variables needed to capture the landscape variability of MG. A conditioned Latin Hyper Cube (cLHC) model was then utilized to randomly determine 20 sample locations within the catchment to equally represent the six input layers, as determined from the PCA. Regolith profiles were described and sampled at all 20 locations. At each sample site a soil pit was dug to refusal (paralithic contact) and sampled according to genetic horizon. Each sample was then analyzed using methods of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), particle size, color, pH, EC, C/N isotopes, and loss on ignition (LOI) to characterize chemical and physical soil properties. By quantifying chemical denudation and mineralogical variability of the collected soils, we establish a proxy for regolith weathering both on the profile scale (1m2) as well as the catchment scale (50k m2). GIS spatial techniques enable us to produce maps depicting the variability of soil properties. We confidently extrapolate our findings (pH, depth to paralithic contact, color, mineralogy etc.) throughout the entirety of the MG field site, generating a high-resolution understanding of the processes shaping the MG critical zone.

  3. Hydrological processes generating flash floods at hillslope scale in a small mountainous Mediterranean catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, Christophe; Brunet, Pascal; Le Bourgeois, Olivier; Nguyen, Son; Borrell, Valrie; Ayral, Pierre-Alain; Didon-Lescot, Jean-Franois; Domergue, Jean-Marc; Grard, Nadine

    2015-04-01

    This work deals with the understanding at the hillslope scale of the hydrological process that generate flash floods. The Valescure small catchment (4km2) is a mountainous Mediterranean catchment, with steep slopes (30) and granitic geology. An intensive survey of the catchment was displayed along a 4-years period (2011-2014) at the local and hillslope scale, in order to grab properties of the soil such as depths, clay content, water content, hydraulic conductivity and water retention, latelal flux velocity, bedrock permeability. A simplified physically-based model was used to simulate vertical fluxes at both atmosphere/soil and sub-surface/bedrock interfaces, as well as the lateral fluxes of both surface and sub-surface. The model combines an adapted Green&Ampt model with finite depth of the soil with a kinematic wave model for the surface routing, and a Darcy model for the sub-surface routing. Most of the parameters of the model derive from the survey of the catchment: spatial distribution of the soil depth, vertical hydraulic conductivity at saturation, spatial and temporal variability of the soil moisture at various depths. Some others are calibrated from observed rainfall and runoff data along a 10-years monitoring period (2005-2014): bedrock permeability, lateral hydraulic conductivity, initial water content in the soil. The model simulates quite well the observed floods over 30 events, based on the following assumptions : 1/ in spite of very high rainfall rates, most of the rainfall infiltrates in highly permeable soils (Ks ~ 200-300 mm.h-1), 2/ runoff only occurs when the soil is totally saturated, 3/ saturation of soil is highly amplified due to fast lateral flow, around 1m.h-1, that converge along a dense gully network, 4/ most of the flash flood runoff is due to exfiltration of the water in those gullies, 5/ the calibrated parameters of the model are in very close agreement with their experimental estimation. In addition, the model was proved to be robust to the spatial resolution of the grid mesh: 25, 50, 100 m. The model was also successful to simulate flash floods at larger scales, over the Gardon at Anduze (500 km2), keeping the same parameters. The model highlights a comprehensive behavior of this kind of catchment under intense rainfalls, and shows the key role of the subsurface fluxes in the exfiltration processes that dominate the generation of the runoff. Additional geochemical experimentations based on water stable isotopes and trace elements are now carried out in order to confirm the generating processes of flash floods at the hillslope scale.

  4. On-site evaluation of commercial-scale hybrid catfish production using cryopreserved blue catfish sperm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation is an effective tool for conservation of genetic resources and is becoming increasingly used worldwide with aquatic species. Broadening the application of this technology to a commercial scale through high-throughput approaches has become essential for use with aquatic species. This...

  5. SWITCHGRASS FOR BIOMASS: COMMERCIAL-SCALE PRODUCTION COSTS IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass is a potential commercial biomass feedstock but field scale economic data have been limited. Here we report initial results on switchgrass cost of production for five years by ten farmer-cooperators on 15-24 acre fields in the Northern Great Plains. Four fields in Nebraska were grown d...

  6. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Parks Air Tour Management 136.35 Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the...

  7. A MOUNTAIN-SCALE 3-D NUMERICAL MODEL FOR CHARACTERIZING UNSATURATED FLOW AND TRANSPORT IN FRACTURED VOLCANIC ROCK AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Yu-Shu Wu

    2006-02-28

    A three-dimensional site-scale numerical model has been developed to simulate water and gas flow, heat transfer, and radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the American underground repository site for high level radioactive waste. The modeling approach is based on a mathematical formulation of coupled multiphase fluid and heat flow and tracer transport through porous and fractured rock. This model is intended for use in predicting current and future conditions in the unsaturated zone, so as to aid in assessing the system performance of the repository. In particular, an integrated modeling methodology is discussed for integrating a wide variety of moisture, pneumatic, thermal, and isotopic geochemical data into comprehensive modeling analyses. The reliability and accuracy of the model predictions were the subject of a comprehensive model calibration study, in which the model was calibrated against measured data, including liquid saturation, water potential, and temperature. This study indicates that the model is able to reproduce the overall system behavior at Yucca Mountain with respect to moisture profiles, pneumatic pressure and chloride concentration variations in different geological units, and ambient geothermal conditions.

  8. Reach-Scale Channel Adjustments to Channel Network Geometry in Mountain Bedrock Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plitzuweit, S. J.; Springer, G. S.

    2008-12-01

    Channel network geometry (CNG) is a critical determinant of hydrological response and may significantly affect incision processes within the Appalachian Plateau near Richwood, West Virginia. The Williams, Cherry, and Cranberry Rivers share drainage divides and their lower reaches flow atop resistant, quartz-rich sandstones. The lower two-thirds of the Cranberry and Williams Rivers display linear profiles atop the sandstones; whereas the Cherry is concave upwards atop the sandstones. Because lithologies and geological structures are similar among the watersheds, we tested whether differences in CNGs explain the profile shapes and reach-scale channel properties. Specifically, we quantified CNG by calculating reach- specific area-distance functions using DEMs. The area-distance functions were then converted into synthetic hydrographs to model hydrological responses. The Cherry River exhibits a classic dendritic drainage pattern, producing peaked hydrographs and low interval transit times. The Cranberry River displays a trellis-like drainage pattern, which produces attenuated hydrographs and high interval transit times. The upstream reaches of the Williams River have a dendritic drainage pattern, but the lower two-thirds of the watershed transitions into an elongated basin with trellis-like CNG. Reach gradients are steeper in the lower reaches of the Williams and Cranberry Rivers where hydrographs are attenuated. In contrast, peaked hydrographs within the Cherry River are associated with lower reach gradients despite resistant sandstone channel beds. Trellis-like CNG may restrict the ability of downstream reaches within the Williams and Cranberry Rivers to achieve the critical discharge needed to cause incision during floods (all other things being equal). If so, increased reach gradients may be hydraulic adjustments that compensate for comparatively low discharges. We are now applying the synthetic hydrographs to HEC-RAS flow models generated from field channel surveys in order to analyze whether stream power and shear stress are adjusted to reflect CNG at the reach- scale. These models are compared to those with discharges calculated using drainage area and precipitation totals alone. We conclude that gradients in bedrock mountain streams may reflect basin-scale hydrology (CNG) and not simply local geological or geomorphic factors. This challenges the conclusions of others who ascribe local channel adjustments to: i) lithology and structure alone, or ii) local colluvium grain sizes.

  9. Time-scale dependent sediment flux in the Tajik Pamir Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Eric; Gloaguen, Richard; Andermann, Christoff; Fuchs, Margret C.

    2014-05-01

    The Pamir Mountains (Pamirs) offer the unique possibility to observe landscape shaping processes in a complex climatic environment. While the Westerlies provide most of the moisture as snow in winter, the Indian summer monsoon can also contribute quite significantly to the water budget in summer. Water from snow and ice melt induced by temperature and rainfall mobilizes sediments from hillslopes, debris fans, and moraine remnants. These sediments are transported, re-deposited, and eventually carried out of the orogene. Different approaches are available to assess and quantify the erosion processes at different time-scales. Recent studies applying cosmogenic nuclide (CN) dating suggest erosion rates of approximately 0.65mm/yr for the last 1000 years. In this contribution we want to present modern erosion rates derived from historical archive suspended sediment yield (SSY) data and very recent in situ sampling data, including high-resolution turbidimeter measurements. 10-day averaged SSY data recorded in the past show less erosion by a factor of 2 to 10 compared to CN-derived erosion rates for different catchments. The 10-day SSY data are based on measurements that have been conducted in the morning and evening, thus not accounting for the entire diurnal variation. We installed a turbidimeter with a measuring interval of 10 minutes to better resolve these diurnal variations. We calibrate turbidity with in situ measurements carried out on a daily basis for 9 months to see whether the differences between CN and SSY measurements are really owed to diurnal variations or if rare high magnitude events. e.g. mudflows, landslides, or avalanches disclose this discrepancy. We present single high magnitude SSY events, uncover periodic diurnal sediment variations that systematically lag diurnal temperature variations and relate the sediment amount of such high magnitude events to the smoothed annual cycle. We use the obtained results to discuss whether past changes in climate could explain the observed difference between millennial scale CN vs decadal scale SSY measurements or if single high magnitude events must play the dominant role.

  10. Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers.

    PubMed

    Egholm, David L; Knudsen, Mads F; Sandiford, Mike

    2013-06-27

    An important challenge in geomorphology is the reconciliation of the high fluvial incision rates observed in tectonically active mountain ranges with the long-term preservation of significant mountain-range relief in ancient, tectonically inactive orogenic belts. River bedrock erosion and sediment transport are widely recognized to be the principal controls on the lifespan of mountain ranges. But the factors controlling the rate of erosion and the reasons why they seem to vary significantly as a function of tectonic activity remain controversial. Here we use computational simulations to show that the key to understanding variations in the rate of erosion between tectonically active and inactive mountain ranges may relate to a bidirectional coupling between bedrock river incision and landslides. Whereas fluvial incision steepens surrounding hillslopes and increases landslide frequency, landsliding affects fluvial erosion rates in two fundamentally distinct ways. On the one hand, large landslides overwhelm the river transport capacity and cause upstream build up of sediment that protects the river bed from further erosion. On the other hand, in delivering abrasive agents to the streams, landslides help accelerate fluvial erosion. Our models illustrate how this coupling has fundamentally different implications for rates of fluvial incision in active and inactive mountain ranges. The coupling therefore provides a plausible physical explanation for the preservation of significant mountain-range relief in old orogenic belts, up to several hundred million years after tectonic activity has effectively ceased. PMID:23803847

  11. Investigating decadal-scale geomorphic dynamics in an alpine mountain setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletti, Natan; Lambiel, Christophe; Lane, Stuart N.

    2015-10-01

    We know little about the effect of recent climate variability upon landscapes at the timescale of decades because of (1) the complex, nonlinear, and path-dependent nature of the response of a landscape to climate forcing and (2) the difficulty of quantifying spatially distributed impacts at the timescale of decades to centuries, despite this being the timescale over which significant hypotheses have been raised over human impacts upon climate change and hence geomorphic systems. A unique resource to investigate the linkages between climatic variability and geomorphic response is provided by the extensive coverage of aerial imagery commonly available since the 1950s. Here we use archival digital photogrammetry to produce high-precision digital elevation models over large spatial scales, and so to reconstruct the quantitative history of surface downwasting and sediment flux in a high mountain alpine system, over the timescales of decades. Propagation of error methods is used to identify locations of significant landscape response and to compute volumes of significant surface change. Orthorectified aerial images are used in an image correlation framework to detect horizontal and vertical displacements of components of the landscape. Results are coupled to extant climate data and modeled snow cover to show how the landscape responds to climate forcing and to geomorphological maps to understand how this response varies between landscape elements. The results show distinct landscape response to both warming and cooling periods and a tendency for the acceleration of surface displacement under warming conditions. Precipitation and snow cover are critical in controlling glacier dynamics and rock glacier displacement velocities. However, while some landforms might lead to locally high sediment flux, landscape heritage can disconnect zones of high change rates from the valley bottom. Hence, the landscape response to climate forcing is not necessarily reflected in valley system processes or sediment deposits.

  12. Large-scale road detection in forested mountainous areas using airborne topographic lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz, António; Mallet, Clément; Chehata, Nesrine

    2016-02-01

    In forested mountainous areas, the road location and characterization are invaluable inputs for various purposes such as forest management, wood harvesting industry, wildfire protection and fighting. Airborne topographic lidar has become an established technique to characterize the Earth surface. Lidar provides 3D point clouds allowing for fine reconstruction of ground topography while preserving high frequencies of the relief: fine Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) is the key product. This paper addresses the problem of road detection and characterization in forested environments over large scales (>1000 km2). For that purpose, an efficient pipeline is proposed, which assumes that main forest roads can be modeled as planar elongated features in the road direction with relief variation in orthogonal direction. DTMs are the only input and no complex 3D point cloud processing methods are involved. First, a restricted but carefully designed set of morphological features is defined as input for a supervised Random Forest classification of potential road patches. Then, a graph is built over these candidate regions: vertices are selected using stochastic geometry tools and edges are created in order to fill gaps in the DTM created by vegetation occlusion. The graph is pruned using morphological criteria derived from the input road model. Finally, once the road is located in 2D, its width and slope are retrieved using an object-based image analysis. We demonstrate that our road model is valid for most forest roads and that roads are correctly retrieved (>80%) with few erroneously detected pathways (10-15%) using fully automatic methods. The full pipeline takes less than 2 min per km2 and higher planimetric accuracy than 2D existing topographic databases are achieved. Compared to these databases, additional roads can be detected with the ability of lidar sensors to penetrate the understory. In case of very dense vegetation and insufficient relief in the DTM, gaps may exist in the results resulting in local incompleteness (∼15%).

  13. Scaling Issues and Spatio-Temporal Variability in Ecohydrological Modeling on Mountain Topography: Methods and Future of the VELMA Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, K.; Bond, B. J.; McKane, R.; Abdelnour, A. G.; Stieglitz, M.

    2010-12-01

    The interactions between vegetation and hydrology in mountainous terrain are difficult to represent in mathematical models. There are at least three primary reasons for this difficulty. First, expanding plot-scale measurements to the watershed scale requires finding the balance between computational intensity and physical significance. Second, parameters that affect soil, plant and hydrologic processes are distributed heterogeneously across mountain landscapes, and these patterns and processes may be spatially connected. Third, temporal variation in water availability (particularly in seasonal rainfall climates) may involve a topographical memory that may be expressed as lags between biological and hydrological processes. A unique opportunity for examining the implications of scaling and spatio-temporal variability on ecohydrological models exists at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA) in Blue River, Oregon. HJA is a National Science Foundation Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site, and has been monitoring climate, stream, and vegetation characteristics of small watersheds for more than 50 years. A recent LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) reconnaissance has produced watershed scale estimations of vegetation and soil surface parameters at a very high spatial resolution, allowing spatially-explicit expansion of long-term data. An ecohydrological model, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessments (VELMA) developed by the Stieglitz lab at Georgia Tech in collaboration with EPA has also been calibrated specifically for watershed topographies in HJA. VELMA is a coupled ecohydrological model that simulates the cycling and transport of water and nutrients in three dimensions by specific parameterization of hydrological and biogeochemical functions. It contains submodels for plant, soil, and water processes including surface and sub-surface flow on a daily time step. We are using the VELMA model to explore three sequential and fundamental questions in ecohydrological modeling in mountainous terrain. 1) How does the topographical structure of mountains (elevation, slope, and aspect) impact hydrological parameters such as temperature, rainfall, soil depth, canopy structure, and airflow? 2) To what degree are the model results from high-resolution, spatially-explicit parameterization different from results based on broadly distributed means, and when different, on what scale(s) are the discrepancies most pronounced? 3) Is there an optimal scale for the process-based ecohydrological modeling, and if so, what are the computational limits at this scale? This poster will present our overall experimental plan and initial findings. Experimentation on and establishment of a standard procedure for spatial and temporal partitioning in ecohydrological models is a fundamental step from which advancement towards more comprehensive, dynamic models can be developed.

  14. From gullies to mountain belts: A review of sediment budgets at various scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinderer, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in the concept as well as in the application of sediment budgets in sedimentary research. Sediments are a product of mass dispersal at the Earth surface and take part in global cycles. Sediment budgets aim at quantifying this mass transfer based on the principle of mass conservation and are the key to determine ancient fluxes of solid matter at the earth surface. This involves fundamental questions about the interplay of uplift, climate and denudation in mountain belts and transfer of sediments from the continents to the oceans as well as applied issues such as soil and gully erosion, reservoir siltation, and coastal protection. First, after introducing basic concepts, relevant scales and methodologies, the different components of Quaternary routing systems from erosion in headwaters, river systems, glacial and paraglacial systems, lakes, deltas, estuaries, coasts, shelves, epicontinental seas, and deep-sea fans are discussed in terms of their sediment budget. Most suitable are sedimentologically closed or semi-closed depositional environments e.g. alluvial fans, lakes, deltas and deep-sea fans. In a second step, the dynamics of passive, active, and collisional tectonic settings and sediment budgets in related sedimentary basins are explored and new concepts of sediment portioning at large geodynamic scales are introduced. Ancient routing systems are more or less incomplete and may be intensively fragmented or destroyed in active tectonic settings. In terms of sedimentary basin types, rifts, intracontinental and epicontinental settings are preferred objects of sediment budgets, because of their persistence and relatively simple overall sedimentary architecture. However, closing basins, such as foreland, forearc, retroarc, piggy-back and wedge-top basins may provide excellent snapshots of orogenic sediment fluxes. In a third step, the large long-lived routing systems of the Amazon, the Ganges-Brahmaputra, and the Rhine are reviewed. For each system estimates of either sediment volumes (mass) or sediment fluxes of continental and marine subsystems have been compiled in order to receive a complete routing in terms of mass conservation for specific time periods since the Late Glacial Maximum as well as the Cenozoic. Following lessons can be taken from these case studies: (i) depositional centers and fluxes show strong shifts in space and time and call for caution when simply looking at subsystems, (ii) the response times of these large systems are within the Milankovich time interval, thus lower than predicted from diffusion models, (iii) cyclic routing of sediments in continental basins is much more dominated by climate (human) control than by eustacy, and (iv) at long time scales, ultimate sinks win over intermittent storage. It is concluded from this review that the quantitative understanding of global sediment cycling over historic and geologic time and its response to allogenic forcing is still in its infancy and further research is needed towards a holistic view of sediment routing systems at various temporal and spatial scales and their coupling with global biogeochemical cycles. This includes (i) to better determine response times of large routing systems by linking Quaternary with Cenozoic sediment budgets and continental with marine sub-systems, (ii) to combine advanced provenance techniques with sediment budgets in order to reconstruct ancient systems, (iii) to study sediment partitioning at the basin scale, (iv) to reconcile continental, supply-dominated sequence stratigraphy with the eustatic-dominated marine concept, and (iv) to account for non-actualism of ancient systems with respect to their erosion and transport mode, in particular, during glaciations and pronounced arid intervals. Glacial and eolian sediment routing may cross over hydrologic boundaries of drainage basins, thus challenging the principle of mass conservation.

  15. Decadal scale climate forcing of mass movement and sediment flux in Alpine mountain setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletti, Natan; Lane, Stuart; Lambiel, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Whilst the inevitability of future climate warming is now recognized, and we also know much more about the nature of climatic variability and its causes, our understanding of the effects of such variability upon landscapes at the time scale of decades is much less well known. This is for two reasons: (1) the complex, non-linear and path-dependent nature of the response of a landscape to climate forcing, and (2) the difficulty of investigating this forcing at the timescale of decades to centuries, despite this being the timescale over which significant hypotheses are raised over human impacts upon climate change and hence geomorphic systems. A unique resource to investigate the linkages between climatic variability and geomorphic response is provided by the extensive coverage of aerial imagery commonly available since the 1940s. The information contained in such imagery can be employed to produce high precision digital elevation models (DEMs) over large spatial scales using archival digital photogrammetry. Here, we reconstruct the quantitative history of mass movement and sediment flux in a high mountain Alpine system, over the timescales of decades, through the quantitative comparison of successive DEMs. Propagation of error methods are used to identify locations of significant geomorphic response and to compute volumes of significant erosion and deposition. These are coupled to extant climate data to show how the landscape responds to climate forcing and to geomorphological maps to understand how this response varies between both landscape elements and their spatial organization. The results show distinct landscape response to both warming and cooling periods but these are found to be asymmetrical because the speed of landscape response to warming is greater than the speed of response to cooling. There is a strong variability between landscape elements in their sensitivity. Whilst some elements of the system are exceptionally sensitive to warming and lead to locally high sediment flux, there is a landscape heritage in the system that can, but not always, lead to disconnection of sensitive zones from the valley bottom. This explains the counter-intuitive observation that whilst the asymmetry of landscape response to warming and cooling implies at net increase in sediment flux towards the valley bottom this is not manifest in the valley bottom itself (e.g. in an increase in alluvial fan dynamics) because this flux is commonly disconnected.

  16. Multi-scale field investigation of water flow pathways and residence times in mountainous catchments during monsoon rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troch, P. A.; Lyon, S. W.; Desilets, S.

    2007-05-01

    The "sky islands" of Arizona and New Mexico in the southwestern United States form a unique complex of about 27 mountain ranges whose ecosystems support many perennial and ephemeral streams in an arid climate. Among these sky islands are the Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson, AZ, with a peak elevation of 9157 ft at Mt. Lemmon. Sabino Canyon Creek is the main stream which runs on the south face of the mountain range. It usually flows from July through April with an average daily flow of approximately 0.28 m3/s (10 cfs). However, flash floods are common both during summer as a result of intense monsoon rains and during spring because of rapid snowmelt. During these events, flow increases drastically, reaching peak flows up to 480 m3/s (15,984 cfs, July 2006). Characterizing water flow pathways and residence times in these complex catchments is important for improving flash flood warning systems, estimating mountain front recharge, managing forest and wild fires, and understanding ecosystem functions. In the summer of 2006, we set up an extensive hydrometrical and hydro- chemical monitoring network in Sabino Canyon Creek, comprising 40 tipping bucket rain gauges (two of which were equipped to automatically collect rainwater samples), 5 automatic surface water level stations (three of which were equipped with auto samplers), and 8 manual soil lysimeters. In addition, several rain and stream water grab samples were collected manually during intensive rain events. Water samples are analyzed for major ions and liquid water isotopic concentration (2H and 18O) in rain, soil, ground and surface water. The data allows for a detailed reconstruction of water flow pathways and residence times at 3 different catchment scales (2 km2, 8 km2, and 91 km2) during the recorded flow events, including the highest monsoon rainfall-runoff event ever recorded in these mountains.

  17. Sulphonated polyether ether ketone diaphragms used in commercial scale alkaline water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Jesus; Sese, Javier; Michaus, Igor; Santa Maria, Maria; Guelbenzu, Eugenio; Irusta, Silvia; Carrilero, Isabel; Arruebo, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    Sulphonated poly-ether-ether-ketone porous diaphragms were prepared by immersion precipitation using chemically induced phase separation to obtain a tight diaphragm skin layer and underneath finger-like bulk morphology. Different variables including sulphonation degree, diaphragm thickness, precipitation temperature and the presence of an inorganic filler were analyzed in order to evaluate the performance of the resulting diaphragms in water alkaline electrolysis using a bipolar electrolyzer and a commercial scale (50 kW) electrolyzer stack. Their performance was compared with a commercially available diaphragm in terms of cell voltage and oxygen purity (HTO) under normal operation conditions (10 bar, 80 C) and under transient operation with up to 80 shutdown cycles (a total of 20 days in operation). Long term stability and operation reliability were assured for the SPEEK diaphragms showing lower cell voltage and HTO than the ones obtained with the commercial Zirfon HTP 500 diaphragm.

  18. Modeling solute transport through saturated zone ground water at 10 km scale: example from the Yucca Mountain license application.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, Sharad; Ding, Mei; Chu, Shaoping; Robinson, Bruce A; Arnold, Bill; Meijer, Arend; Eddebbarh, Al-Aziz

    2010-09-20

    This paper presents a study of solute transport through ground water in the saturated zone and the resulting breakthrough curves (BTCs), using a field-scale numerical model that incorporates the processes of advection, dispersion, matrix diffusion in fractured volcanic formations, sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport. Such BTCs at compliance boundaries are often used as performance measures for a site. The example considered here is that of the saturated zone study prepared for the Yucca Mountain license application. The saturated zone at this site occurs partly in volcanic, fractured rock formations and partly in alluvial formations. This paper presents a description of the site and the ground water flow model, the development of the conceptual model of transport, model uncertainties, model validation, and the influence of uncertainty in input parameters on the downstream BTCs at the Yucca Mountain site. PMID:20633953

  19. Modeling solute transport through saturated zone ground water at 10 km scale: Example from the Yucca Mountain license application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, Sharad; Ding, Mei; Chu, Shaoping; Robinson, Bruce A.; Arnold, Bill; Meijer, Arend; Eddebbarh, Al-Aziz

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a study of solute transport through ground water in the saturated zone and the resulting breakthrough curves (BTCs), using a field-scale numerical model that incorporates the processes of advection, dispersion, matrix diffusion in fractured volcanic formations, sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport. Such BTCs at compliance boundaries are often used as performance measures for a site. The example considered here is that of the saturated zone study prepared for the Yucca Mountain license application. The saturated zone at this site occurs partly in volcanic, fractured rock formations and partly in alluvial formations. This paper presents a description of the site and the ground water flow model, the development of the conceptual model of transport, model uncertainties, model validation, and the influence of uncertainty in input parameters on the downstream BTCs at the Yucca Mountain site.

  20. Scaling considerations for a multi-megawatt class supercritical CO2 brayton cycle and commercialization.

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Conboy, Thomas M.; Pasch, James Jay; Wright, Steven Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Fuller, Robert Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Small-scale supercritical CO2 demonstration loops are successful at identifying the important technical issues that one must face in order to scale up to larger power levels. The Sandia National Laboratories supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle test loops are identifying technical needs to scale the technology to commercial power levels such as 10 MWe. The small size of the Sandia 1 MWth loop has demonstration of the split flow loop efficiency and effectiveness of the Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHXs) leading to the design of a fully recuperated, split flow, supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle demonstration system. However, there were many problems that were encountered, such as high rotational speeds in the units. Additionally, the turbomachinery in the test loops need to identify issues concerning the bearings, seals, thermal boundaries, and motor controller problems in order to be proved a reliable power source in the 300 kWe range. Although these issues were anticipated in smaller demonstration units, commercially scaled hardware would eliminate these problems caused by high rotational speeds at small scale. The economic viability and development of the future scalable 10 MWe solely depends on the interest of DOE and private industry. The Intellectual Property collected by Sandia proves that the ~10 MWe supercritical CO2 power conversion loop to be very beneficial when coupled to a 20 MWth heat source (either solar, geothermal, fossil, or nuclear). This paper will identify a commercialization plan, as well as, a roadmap from the simple 1 MWth supercritical CO2 development loop to a power producing 10 MWe supercritical CO2 Brayton loop.

  1. Does scale matter? The costs of HIV-prevention interventions for commercial sex workers in India.

    PubMed Central

    Guinness, Lorna; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Rajaraman, Bhuvaneswari; Sankaranarayanan, Girija; Vannela, Gangadhar; Raghupathi, P.; George, Alex

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore how the scale of a project affects both the total costs and average costs of HIV prevention in India. METHODS: Economic cost data and measures of scale (coverage and service volume indicators for number of cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) referred, number of STIs treated, condoms distributed and contacts made with target groups) were collected from 17 interventions run by nongovernmental organizations aimed at commercial sex workers in southern India. Nonparametric methods and regression analyses were used to look at the relationship between total costs, unit costs and scale. FINDINGS: Coverage varied from 250 to 2008 sex workers. Annual costs ranged from US$ 11 274 to US$ 52 793. The median cost per sex worker reached was US$ 19.21 (range = US$ 10.00-51.00). The scale variables explain more than 50% of the variation in unit costs for all of the unit cost measures except cost per contact. Total costs and unit costs have non-linear relationships to scale. CONCLUSION: Average costs vary with the scale of the project. Estimates of resource requirements based on a constant average cost could underestimate or overestimate total costs. The results highlight the importance of improving scale-specific cost information for planning. PMID:16283051

  2. Scale-Free Networks and Commercial Air Carrier Transportation in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila R.

    2004-01-01

    Network science, or the art of describing system structure, may be useful for the analysis and control of large, complex systems. For example, networks exhibiting scale-free structure have been found to be particularly well suited to deal with environmental uncertainty and large demand growth. The National Airspace System may be, at least in part, a scalable network. In fact, the hub-and-spoke structure of the commercial segment of the NAS is an often-cited example of an existing scale-free network After reviewing the nature and attributes of scale-free networks, this assertion is put to the test: is commercial air carrier transportation in the United States well explained by this model? If so, are the positive attributes of these networks, e.g. those of efficiency, flexibility and robustness, fully realized, or could we effect substantial improvement? This paper first outlines attributes of various network types, then looks more closely at the common carrier air transportation network from perspectives of the traveler, the airlines, and Air Traffic Control (ATC). Network models are applied within each paradigm, including discussion of implied strengths and weaknesses of each model. Finally, known limitations of scalable networks are discussed. With an eye towards NAS operations, utilizing the strengths and avoiding the weaknesses of scale-free networks are addressed.

  3. Multi-scale near-field thermohydrologic analysis of alternative designs for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, T.A.; Gansemer, J.; Nitao, J.J.; Delorenzo, T.H.

    1999-07-01

    A multi-scale, thermohydrologic (TH) modeling methodology has been developed that integrates the results from 1-, 2-, and 3-D drift-scale models and a 3-D mountain-scale model to calculate the near-field TH variables affecting the performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS) of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This information was used by Total System Performance Assessment--Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) and is being used by the ongoing TSPA, supporting the License Application Design Selection, to assess waste-package (WP) corrosion, waste-form dissolution, and radionuclide transport in the EBS. Line-load WP spacing, which places WPs nearly end to end in widely spaced drifts, results in more locally intensive and uniform heating along drifts, causing hotter, drier, and more uniform conditions on WPs than point-load spacing, which is used in the VA design. Backfilling drifts with a granular material with coarse, well-sorted, nonporous grains (e.g., a coarse quartz sand) results in a large, persistent reduction in RH on WPs; point-load spacing allows only the medium-to-high-heat-output WPs to benefit from RH reduction, but line-load spacing enables all WPs to benefit.

  4. Design of a three-dimensional site-scale model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, C.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Chornack, M.P.; Flint, A.L.; Lewis, B.D.; Spengler, R.W.; Flint, L.E.; Rautman, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed. This site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the east and west. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on location of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Different maps, such as contour maps and isopachs maps, are presented for the different infiltration zones, and for the base of the Tiva Canyon, the Paintbrush, and the Topopah Spring hydrogeological units.

  5. Design of a three-dimensional site scale model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, C.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Chornack, M.P.; Flint, A.L.; Lewis, B.D.; Spengler, R.W.; Flint, L.E.; Rautman, C.A.

    1992-10-01

    This paper discusses a three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain which is being developed. The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the east and west. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on locations of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Different maps, such as contour maps and isopachs maps, are presented for the different infiltration zones, and for the base of the Tiva Canyon, the Paintbrush, and the Topopah Spring hydrogeological units.

  6. Estimation of host rock thermal conductivities using thetemperature data from the drift-scale test at Yucca Mountain,Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumitra; Tsang, Y.W.

    2003-11-25

    A large volume of temperature data has been collected from a very large, underground heater test, the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The DST was designed to obtain thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical (THMC) data in the unsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain. Sophisticated numerical models have been developed to analyze the collected THMC data. In these analyses, thermal conductivities measured from core samples have been used as input parameters to the model. However, it was not known whether these core measurements represented the true field-scale thermal conductivity of the host rock. Realizing these difficulties, elaborate, computationally intensive geostatistical simulations have also been performed to obtain field-scale thermal conductivity of the host rock from the core measurements. In this paper, we use the temperature data from the DST as the input (instead of the measured core-scale thermal conductivity values) to develop an estimate of the field-scale thermal conductivity values. Assuming a conductive thermal regime, we develop an analytical solution for the temperature rise in the host rock of the DST; and using a nonlinear fitting routine, we obtain a best-fit estimate of field-scale thermal conductivity for the DST host rock. The temperature data collected from the DST shows clear evidence of two distinct thermal regimes: a zone below boiling (wet) and a zone above boiling (dry). We obtain estimates of thermal conductivity for both the wet and dry zones. We also analyze the sensitivity of these estimates to the input heating power of the DST.

  7. Woody Species Diversity in Forest Plantations in a Mountainous Region of Beijing, China: Effects of Sampling Scale and Species Selection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Shuang; Ma, Keming; Fu, Bojie; Anand, Madhur

    2014-01-01

    The role of forest plantations in biodiversity conservation has gained more attention in recent years. However, most work on evaluating the diversity of forest plantations focuses only on one spatial scale; thus, we examined the effects of sampling scale on diversity in forest plantations. We designed a hierarchical sampling strategy to collect data on woody species diversity in planted pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr.), planted larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.), and natural secondary deciduous broadleaf forests in a mountainous region of Beijing, China. Additive diversity partition analysis showed that, compared to natural forests, the planted pine forests had a different woody species diversity partitioning pattern at multi-scales (except the Simpson diversity in the regeneration layer), while the larch plantations did not show multi-scale diversity partitioning patterns that were obviously different from those in the natural secondary broadleaf forest. Compare to the natural secondary broadleaf forests, the effects of planted pine forests on woody species diversity are dependent on the sampling scale and layers selected for analysis. Diversity in the planted larch forest, however, was not significantly different from that in the natural forest for all diversity components at all sampling levels. Our work demonstrated that the species selected for afforestation and the sampling scales selected for data analysis alter the conclusions on the levels of diversity supported by plantations. We suggest that a wide range of scales should be considered in the evaluation of the role of forest plantations on biodiversity conservation. PMID:25545860

  8. Fine-scale genetic structure analyses suggest further male than female dispersal in mountain gorillas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular studies in social mammals rarely compare the inferences gained from genetic analyses with field information, especially in the context of dispersal. In this study, we used genetic data to elucidate sex-specific dispersal dynamics in the Virunga Massif mountain gorilla population (Gorilla beringei beringei), a primate species characterized by routine male and female dispersal from stable mixed-sex social groups. Specifically, we conducted spatial genetic structure analyses for each sex and linked our genetically-based observations with some key demographic and behavioural data from this population. Results To investigate the spatial genetic structure of mountain gorillas, we analysed the genotypes of 193 mature individuals at 11 microsatellite loci by means of isolation-by-distance and spatial autocorrelation analyses. Although not all males and females disperse, female gorillas displayed an isolation-by-distance pattern among groups and a signal of dispersal at short distances from their natal group based on spatial autocorrelation analyses. In contrast, male genotypes were not correlated with spatial distance, thus suggesting a larger mean dispersal distance for males as compared to females. Both within sex and mixed-sex pairs were on average genetically more related within groups than among groups. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for an intersexual difference in dispersal distance in the mountain gorilla. Overall, it stresses the importance of investigating spatial genetic structure patterns on a sex-specific basis to better understand the dispersal dynamics of the species under investigation. It is currently poorly understood why some male and female gorillas disperse while others remain in the natal group. Our results on average relatedness within and across groups confirm that groups often contain close relatives. While inbreeding avoidance may play a role in driving female dispersal, we note that more detailed dyadic genetic analyses are needed to shed light on the role of inbreeding avoidance as an ultimate cause of female dispersal in mountain gorillas. PMID:25001262

  9. State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain States. Semi-annual progress report, January-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, J.; Coe, B.A.; Gertsch, W.D.; Meyer, R.T.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: a summary of the state projects, a summary of findings, public outreach, and a description of the major conclusions and recommendations. The commercialization activities carried out by the state teams are described for Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. (MHR)

  10. Multi-scale observations of the variability of magmatic CO2 emissions, Mammoth Mountain, CA, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Hilley, George E.

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary indicators of volcanic unrest at Mammoth Mountain is diffuse emission of magmatic CO2, which can effectively track this unrest if its variability in space and time and relationship to near-surface meteorological and hydrologic phenomena versus those occurring at depth beneath the mountain are understood. In JuneOctober 2013, we conducted accumulation chamber soil CO2 flux surveys and made half-hourly CO2 flux measurements with automated eddy covariance and accumulation chamber (auto-chamber) instrumentation at the largest area of diffuse CO2 degassing on Mammoth Mountain (Horseshoe Lake tree kill; HLTK). Estimated CO2 emission rates for HLTK based on 20 June, 30 July, and 2425 October soil CO2 flux surveys were 165, 172, and 231 t d? 1, respectively. The average (JuneOctober) CO2 emission rate estimated for this area was 123 t d? 1 based on an inversion of 4527 eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements and corresponding modeled source weight functions. Average daily eddy covariance and auto-chamber CO2 fluxes consistently declined over the four-month observation time. Wavelet analysis of auto-chamber CO2 flux and environmental parameter time series was used to evaluate the periodicity of, and local correlation between these variables in timefrequency space. Overall, CO2 emissions at HLTK were highly dynamic, displaying short-term (hourly to weekly) temporal variability related to meteorological and hydrologic changes, as well as long-term (monthly to multi-year) variations related to migration of CO2-rich magmatic fluids beneath the volcano. Accumulation chamber soil CO2 flux surveys were also conducted in the four additional areas of diffuse CO2 degassing on Mammoth Mountain in JulyAugust 2013. Summing CO2 emission rates for all five areas yielded a total for the mountain of 311 t d? 1, which may suggest that emissions returned to 19982009 levels, following an increase from 2009 to 2011.

  11. Multi-scale observations of the variability of magmatic CO2 emissions, Mammoth Mountain, CA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, J. L.; Hilley, G. E.

    2014-09-01

    One of the primary indicators of volcanic unrest at Mammoth Mountain is diffuse emission of magmatic CO2, which can effectively track this unrest if its variability in space and time and relationship to near-surface meteorological and hydrologic phenomena versus those occurring at depth beneath the mountain are understood. In June-October 2013, we conducted accumulation chamber soil CO2 flux surveys and made half-hourly CO2 flux measurements with automated eddy covariance and accumulation chamber (auto-chamber) instrumentation at the largest area of diffuse CO2 degassing on Mammoth Mountain (Horseshoe Lake tree kill; HLTK). Estimated CO2 emission rates for HLTK based on 20 June, 30 July, and 24-25 October soil CO2 flux surveys were 165, 172, and 231 t d- 1, respectively. The average (June-October) CO2 emission rate estimated for this area was 123 t d- 1 based on an inversion of 4527 eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements and corresponding modeled source weight functions. Average daily eddy covariance and auto-chamber CO2 fluxes consistently declined over the four-month observation time. Wavelet analysis of auto-chamber CO2 flux and environmental parameter time series was used to evaluate the periodicity of, and local correlation between these variables in time-frequency space. Overall, CO2 emissions at HLTK were highly dynamic, displaying short-term (hourly to weekly) temporal variability related to meteorological and hydrologic changes, as well as long-term (monthly to multi-year) variations related to migration of CO2-rich magmatic fluids beneath the volcano. Accumulation chamber soil CO2 flux surveys were also conducted in the four additional areas of diffuse CO2 degassing on Mammoth Mountain in July-August 2013. Summing CO2 emission rates for all five areas yielded a total for the mountain of 311 t d- 1, which may suggest that emissions returned to 1998-2009 levels, following an increase from 2009 to 2011.

  12. Digital structural interpretation of mountain-scale photogrammetric 3D models (Kamnik Alps, Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolžan, Erazem; Vrabec, Marko

    2015-04-01

    From the earliest days of geological science, mountainous terrains with their extreme topographic relief and sparse to non-existent vegetation were utilized to a great advantage for gaining 3D insight into geological structure. But whereas Alpine vistas may offer perfect panoramic views of geology, the steep mountain slopes and vertical cliffs make it very time-consuming and difficult (if not impossible) to acquire quantitative mapping data such as precisely georeferenced traces of geological boundaries and attitudes of structural planes. We faced this problem in mapping the central Kamnik Alps of northern Slovenia, which are built up from Mid to Late Triassic succession of carbonate rocks. Polyphase brittle tectonic evolution, monotonous lithology and the presence of temporally and spatially irregular facies boundary between bedded platform carbonates and massive reef limestones considerably complicate the structural interpretation of otherwise perfectly exposed, but hardly accessible massif. We used Agisoft Photoscan Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric software to process a series of overlapping high-resolution (~0.25 m ground resolution) vertical aerial photographs originally acquired by the Geodetic Authority of the Republic of Slovenia for surveying purposes, to derive very detailed 3D triangular mesh models of terrain and associated photographic textures. Phototextures are crucial for geological interpretation of the models as they provide additional levels of detail and lithological information which is not resolvable from geometrical mesh models alone. We then exported the models to Paradigm Gocad software to refine and optimize the meshing. Structural interpretation of the models, including mapping of traces and surfaces of faults and stratigraphic boundaries and determining dips of structural planes, was performed in MVE Move suite which offers a range of useful tools for digital mapping and interpretation. Photogrammetric model was complemented by georeferenced geological field data acquired along mountain trail transects, mainly using the MVE Field Move software application. In our experience, vertical aerophotos were sufficient to generate precise surface models in all but the steepest mountain cliffs. Therefore, using existing vertical photoimagery (where available) is a very cost-effective alternative to organizing shooting campaigns with rented aircraft. For handling reasonably large models (cca 3 x 3 km, up to 10 million triangles), a low-end computer workstation with mid-range professional 3D graphic card is sufficient. The biggest bottleneck is the photogrammetric processing step which is time-consuming (10s of hrs) and has large RAM requirements, although those can be offset by dividing models into smaller parts. The major problem with geological modeling software like Gocad or Move is that it at present does not handle well projecting of phototextures. Whereas Photoscan-generated orthophotos can be vertically projected onto mesh models, this results in unacceptable distortions and gaps in subvertical or overhanging parts of the mountain cliff models. A real 3D UV texture mapping method, such as implemented in Photoscan, would be required to realistically model such areas. This limitations notwithstanding, digital geological mapping of photogrammetric models of mountains is a very promising, cost- and time-effective method for rapid structural interpretation and mapping of barren mountainous terrains, particularly when it is complemented by field measurements and observations.

  13. Quantifying mountain block recharge by means of catchment-scale storage-discharge relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajami, Hoori; Troch, Peter A.; Maddock, Thomas, III; Meixner, Thomas; Eastoe, Chris

    2011-04-01

    Despite the importance of mountainous catchments for providing freshwater resources, especially in semi-arid regions, little is known about key hydrological processes such as mountain block recharge (MBR). Here we implement a data-based method informed by isotopic data to quantify MBR rates using recession flow analysis. We applied our hybrid method in a semi-arid sky island catchment in southern Arizona, United States. Sabino Creek is a 91 km2 catchment with its sources near the summit of the Santa Catalina Mountains northeast of Tucson. Southern Arizona's climate has two distinct wet seasons separated by prolonged dry periods. Winter frontal storms (November-March) provide about 50% of annual precipitation, and summers are dominated by monsoon convective storms from July to September. Isotope analyses of springs and surface water in the Sabino Creek catchment indicate that streamflow during dry periods is derived from groundwater storage in fractured bedrock. Storage-discharge relationships are derived from recession flow analysis to estimate changes in storage during wet periods. To provide reliable estimates, several corrections and improvements to classic base flow recession analysis are considered. These corrections and improvements include adaptive time stepping, data binning, and the choice of storage-discharge functions. Our analysis shows that (1) incorporating adaptive time steps to correct for streamflow measurement errors improves the coefficient of determination, (2) the quantile method is best for streamflow data binning, (3) the choice of the regression model is critical when the stage-discharge function is used to predict changes in bedrock storage beyond the maximum observed flow in the catchment, and (4) the use of daily or night-time hourly streamflow does not affect the form of the storage-discharge relationship but will impact MBR estimates because of differences in the observed range of streamflow in each series.

  14. Bench- and pilot-scale thermal desorption treatability studies on pesticide-contaminated soils from Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Swanstrom, C.P.; Besmer, M.

    1995-03-09

    Thermal desorption is being considered as a potential remediation technology for pesticide-contaminated soils at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in Denver, Colorado. From 1988 through 1992, numerous laboratory- and bench-scale indirect-heated thermal desorption (IHTD) treatability studies have been performed on various soil medium groups from the arsenal. RMA has contracted Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a pilot-scale direct-fired thermal desorption (DFTD) treatability study on pesticide-contaminated RMA soil. The purpose of this treatability study is to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the DFTD technology on contaminated RMA soils and to provide data upon which future conceptual design assumptions and cost estimates for a full-scale system can be made. The equipment used in the DFTD treatability study is of large enough scale to provide good full-scale design parameters and operating conditions. The study will also provide valuable-emissions and materials-handling data. Specifically this program will determine if DFTD can achieve reductions in soil contamination below the RMA preliminary remediation goals (PRGs), define system operating conditions for achieving the PRGs, and determine the fate of arsenic and other hazardous metals at these operating conditions. This paper intends to compare existing data from a bench-scale IHTD treatability study using equipment operated in the batch mode to new data from a pilot-scale DFTD operated in a parallel-flow continuous mode. Delays due to materials-handling problems and permit issues have delayed the start of the pilot-scale DFTD testing. The first pilot-scale test is scheduled for the flat week in January 1995. The available data will be presented March 9, 1995, at the Seventh Annual Gulf Coast Environmental Conference in Houston, Texas.

  15. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs. PMID:26512798

  16. Analysis of Coupled Multiphase Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Mechanical Deformation at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rutqvist; C.F. Tsang; Y. Tsang

    2005-05-17

    A numerical simulation of coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transfer, and mechanical deformation was carried out to study coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test (DST) and for validation of a coupled THM numerical simulator. The ability of the numerical simulator to model relevant coupled THM processes at the DST was evaluated by comparison of numerical results to in situ measurements of temperature, water saturation, displacement, and fracture permeability. Of particular relevance for coupled THM processes are thermally induced rock-mass stress and deformations, with associated changes in fracture aperture and fractured rock permeability. Thermally induced rock-mass deformation and accompanying changes in fracture permeability were reasonably well predicted using a continuum elastic model, although some individual measurements of displacement and permeability indicate inelastic mechanical responses. It is concluded that fracture closure/opening caused by a change in thermally induced normal stress across fractures is an important mechanism for changes in intrinsic fracture permeability at the DST, whereas fracture shear dilation appears to be less significant. Observed and predicted maximum permeability changes at the DST are within one order of magnitude. These data are important for bounding model predictions of potential changes in rock-mass permeability at a future repository in Yucca Mountain.

  17. Coupled Analysis of Change in Fracture Permeability during the Cooling Phase of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Tsang, Y.W.; Min, K.B.; Elsworth, D.

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents results from a coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical analysis of thermally-induced permeability changes during heating and cooling of fractured volcanic rock at the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The analysis extends the previous analysis of the four-year heating phase to include newly available data from the subsequent four year cooling phase. The new analysis of the cooling phase shows that the measured changes in fracture permeability follows that of a thermo-hydro-elastic model on average, but at several locations the measured permeability indicates (inelastic) irreversible behavior. At the end of the cooling phase, the air-permeability had decreased at some locations (to as low as 0.2 of initial), whereas it had increased at other locations (to as high as 1.8 of initial). Our analysis shows that such irreversible changes in fracture permeability are consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). These data are important for bounding model predictions of potential thermally-induced changes in rock-mass permeability at a future repository at Yucca Mountain.

  18. Cross-Scale Analysis of the Region Effect on Vascular Plant Species Diversity in Southern and Northern European Mountain Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Guisan, Antoine; Vittoz, Pascal; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Dullinger, Stefan; Pauli, Harald; Willner, Wolfgang; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Virtanen, Risto; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region) to quantify four diversity components: (i) total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity), (ii) number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity), (iii) pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity) and (iv) number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity). We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale) diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale) diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity components. For instance, plot connectivity and/or selection for high dispersal ability may increase plot α-diversity and compensate for low total γ-diversity. PMID:21203521

  19. Watershed scale rainfall interception on two forested watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scatena, F. N.

    1990-02-01

    Interception losses were monitored for one year and related to vegetation characteristics in two forested watersheds in the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico. Total watershed interception was then modeled by weighting values of throughfall measured in representative areas of different vegetation types of the total watershed area of that vegetation group. Annual canopy throughfall equaled 59% of annual rainfall whereas stemflow represented 2.3%. Canopy throughfall was greatest in gaps and along stream channels with 91% of the total falling over 75% of the watershed area. However, 50% of the total stemflow came from less than 12% of the total stems. Reported values of throughfall in the Tabonuco type forest of the Luquillo Mountains are typically 20 to 30% less than values reported for many montane and lowland tropical forests. These differences result from a high frequency, low intensity rainfall regime rather than the physiognomic character of the forest.

  20. Commercial-scale biotherapeutics manufacturing facility for plant-made pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Barry R; Berquist, Brian R; Bennett, Lindsay D; Kommineni, Vally J M; Munigunti, Ranjith K; White, Earl L; Wilkerson, Don C; Wong, Kah-Yat I; Ly, Lan H; Marcel, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    Rapid, large-scale manufacture of medical countermeasures can be uniquely met by the plant-made-pharmaceutical platform technology. As a participant in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Blue Angel project, the Caliber Biotherapeutics facility was designed, constructed, commissioned and released a therapeutic target (H1N1 influenza subunit vaccine) in <18 months from groundbreaking. As of 2015, this facility was one of the world's largest plant-based manufacturing facilities, with the capacity to process over 3500 kg of plant biomass per week in an automated multilevel growing environment using proprietary LED lighting. The facility can commission additional plant grow rooms that are already built to double this capacity. In addition to the commercial-scale manufacturing facility, a pilot production facility was designed based on the large-scale manufacturing specifications as a way to integrate product development and technology transfer. The primary research, development and manufacturing system employs vacuum-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana plants grown in a fully contained, hydroponic system for transient expression of recombinant proteins. This expression platform has been linked to a downstream process system, analytical characterization, and assessment of biological activity. This integrated approach has demonstrated rapid, high-quality production of therapeutic monoclonal antibody targets, including a panel of rituximab biosimilar/biobetter molecules and antiviral antibodies against influenza and dengue fever. PMID:26387511

  1. Large Scale Monte Carlo Simulation of Neutrino Interactions Using the Open Science Grid and Commercial Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, A.; Boyd, J.; Davies, G.; Flumerfelt, E.; Herner, K.; Mayer, N.; Mhashilhar, P.; Tamsett, M.; Timm, S.

    2015-12-01

    Modern long baseline neutrino experiments like the NOvA experiment at Fermilab, require large scale, compute intensive simulations of their neutrino beam fluxes and backgrounds induced by cosmic rays. The amount of simulation required to keep the systematic uncertainties in the simulation from dominating the final physics results is often 10x to 100x that of the actual detector exposure. For the first physics results from NOvA this has meant the simulation of more than 2 billion cosmic ray events in the far detector and more than 200 million NuMI beam spill simulations. Performing these high statistics levels of simulation have been made possible for NOvA through the use of the Open Science Grid and through large scale runs on commercial clouds like Amazon EC2. We details the challenges in performing large scale simulation in these environments and how the computing infrastructure for the NOvA experiment has been adapted to seamlessly support the running of different simulation and data processing tasks on these resources.

  2. Geometric scaling of step-pools in mountain streams: Observations and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartrand, Shawn M.; Jellinek, Mark; Whiting, Peter J.; Stamm, John

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the geometric structuring of alluvial step-pools is an enduring problem in mountain stream geomorphology. Many previous studies propose that the key control parameter governing the step-pool form is mean bed slope. As explored through several examples, however, we find that slope control formulations are inconsistently demonstrated for broad data sets. On this basis we reexamine the bed form architecture of step-pools with a new descriptive parameter termed the aspect ratio ( ?): active stream width divided by step drop height. We test ? with data collected from three different mountain settings for step-pools observed over mean bed slopes ranging from 2% to 22%. We find that step wavelength and height are well described by ? when these dimensions are normalized by the step drop height; furthermore, we observe that ? varies inversely with mean bed slope. Context for our findings is provided by recent field and laboratory work which highlights that the cross-stream component to the overall flow structure in step-pools and scour pools is significant. This is important because it expands upon, and relates our work to formative models which are based on jet scour, and the associated three-dimensional flow structure of step-pools. Our work has practical implications for the design of step-pool channels because existing approaches are based in large part on structuring artificial systems according to a narrowly defined geometry. We observe, however, that under certain conditions this approach may yield constructed step-pools that are unstable. As an alternative approach, we propose that the geometric relationships developed here can be applied to identify artificial step-pool geometries that will be more fully reflective of natural analogs, and thus possibly more stable.

  3. Field Experience with and Potential for Multi-time Scale Grid Transactions from Responsive Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Ghatikar, Girish

    2014-08-01

    The need for and concepts behind demand response are evolving. As the electric system changes with more intermittent renewable electric supply systems, there is a need to allow buildings to provide more flexible demand. This paper presents results from field studies and pilots, as well as engineering estimates of the potential capabilities of fast load responsiveness in commercial buildings. We present a sector wide analysis of flexible loads in commercial buildings, which was conducted to improve resource planning and determine which loads to evaluate in future demonstrations. These systems provide important capabilities for future transactional systems. The field analysis is based on results from California, plus projects in the northwest and east coast. End-uses considered include heating, ventilation, air conditioning and lighting. The timescales of control include day-ahead, as well as day-of, 10-minute ahead and even faster response. This technology can provide DR signals on different times scales to interact with responsive building loads. We describe the latency of the control systems in the building and the round trip communications with the wholesale grid operators.

  4. A system concept evaluation of commercial scale methane production from Coastal California kelp

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppmann, R.; Jain, K.; Kugler, W.; Wrobel, J.

    1983-01-01

    The systems engineering of a biomass to methane concept is described for a commercialization evaluation of deriving substitute natural gas from ocean kelp. The annual kelp yield from a small oceanic farm, and the gas evolution from small scale biodigesters are used to project the production of a 3MMscfd installation. The objective of the evaluation is to define a practical system implementation and to predict a production cost range for the substitute natural gas generated. The giant California brown kelp, Macrocystis, is the feedstock. For commercial production of methane the near shore kelp forests require expansion and management in contrast to the current harvesting of natural kelp. The planting, harvesting and material handling approaches are described which yield a feedstock production of 10/sup 6/ tons per year. This feedstock is input to a proposed gas conversion process facility and a biogas separator to yield 125 Mscf / hr of 98% pure methane at pipeline pressure. System elements are described and a pro forma cost budget is provided in constant 1982. The resultant cost of kelp derived methane is greater than the current conventional source unit price. However, the potential byproduct revenues could reduce the methane cost to a competitive status, particularly if energy costs are anticipated to continue to escalate in real terms. The future potential of gains in yield and planting strategy are displayed to illustrate the benefit of specific development areas.

  5. Regional-scale analysis of high-mountain multi-hazard and risk in the Pamir (Tajikistan) with GRASS GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, F. E.; Mergili, M.

    2013-04-01

    We present a model framework for the regional-scale analysis of high-mountain multi-hazard and -risk, implemented with the Open Source software package GRASS GIS. This framework is applied to a 98 300 km2 study area centred in the Pamir (Tajikistan). It includes (i) rock slides, (ii) ice avalanches, (iii) periglacial debris flows, and (iv) lake outburst floods. First, a hazard indication score is assigned to each relevant object (steep rock face, glacier or periglacial slope, lake). This score depends on the susceptibility and on the expected event magnitude. Second, the possible travel distances, impact areas and, consequently, impact hazard indication scores for all types of processes are computed using empirical relationships. These scores are finally superimposed with an exposure score derived from the type of land use, resulting in a raster map of risk indication scores finally discretized at the community level. The analysis results are presented and discussed at different spatial scales. The major outcome of the study, a set of comprehensive regional-scale hazard and risk indication maps, shall represent an objective basis for the prioritization of target communities for further research and risk mitigation measures.

  6. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Ak Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOITM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this reporting period, DOE accepted the recommendation to continue with dimethyl ether (DME) design verification testing (DVT). DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stzibility is being developed. Planning for a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) was recommended. DOE issued a letter dated 31 July 1997 accepting the recommendation to continue design verification testing. In order to allow for scale-up of the manufacturing technique for the dehydration catalyst from the pilot plant to the commercial scale, the time required to produce the catalyst to the AFDU has slipped. The new estimated delivery date is 01 June 1998.

  7. Total System Performance Assessment - Analyses for Disposal of Commercial and DOE Waste Inventories at Yucca Mountain - Input to Final Environmental Impact Statement and Site Suitability Evaluation, Rev. 00

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2001-09-17

    This Letter Report presents the results of calculations to assess long-term performance of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and Greater Than Class C (GTCC) radioactive waste and DOE Special Performance Assessment Required (SPAR) radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in Nye County Nevada with respect to the 10,000-year performance period specified in 40 CFR Part 197.30 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32134) with regard to radiation-protection standards. The EPA Final Rule 40 CFR Part 197 has three separate standards, individual-protection, human-intrusion, and groundwater-protection standards, all with a compliance timeframe of 10,000 years. These calculations evaluate the dose to receptors for each of these standards. Further, this Letter Report includes the results of simulations to the 1,000,000-year performance period described in 40 CFR Part 197.35 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32135) which calls for the calculation of the peak dose to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) that would occur after 10,000 years and within the period of geological stability. In accordance with TSPA-SR the ''period of geologic stability'' is from zero to 1,000,000 years after repository closure. The calculations also present the 5th and 95th percentiles, and the mean and median of the set of probabilistic simulations used to evaluate various disposal scenarios.

  8. Total System Performance Assessment - Analyses for Disposal of Commercial and DOE Waste Inventories at Yucca Mountain - Input to Final Environmental Impact Statement and Site Suitability Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel SAIC Company

    2001-12-01

    This Letter Report presents the results of calculations to assess long-term performance of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and Greater Than Class C (GTCC) radioactive waste and DOE Special Performance Assessment Required (SPAR) radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in Nye County Nevada with respect to the 10,000-year performance period specified in 40 CFR Part 197.30 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32134) with regard to radiation-protection standards. The EPA Final Rule 40 CFR Part 197 has three separate standards, individual-protection, human-intrusion, and groundwater-protection standards, all with a compliance timeframe of 10,000 years. These calculations evaluate the dose to receptors for each of these standards. Further, this Letter Report includes the results of simulations to the 1,000,000-year performance period described in 40 CFR Part 197.35 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32135) which calls for the calculation of the peak dose to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) that would occur after 10,000 years and within the period of geological stability. In accordance with TSPA-SR the ''period of geologic stability'' is from zero to 1,000,000 years after repository closure. The calculations also present the 5th and 95th percentiles, and the mean and median of the set of probabilistic simulations used to evaluate various disposal scenarios.

  9. Design and Fabrication of the First Commercial-Scale Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-21

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHT) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert synthesis gas (syngas), primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, to methanol. Because of its superior heat management the process can utilize directly the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks. The LPMEOHM Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P., a partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Eastman Chemical Company, to produce methanol from coal-derived syngas. Construction of the LPMEOH~ Process Demonstration Plant at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport was completed in January 1997. Following commissioning and shakedown activities, the fwst production of methanol from the facility occurred on April 2, 1997. Nameplate capacity of 260 short tons per day (TPD) was achieved on April 6, 1997, and production rates have exceeded 300 TPD of methanol at times. This report describes the design, fabrication, and installation of the Kingsport LPMEOEFM reactor, which is the first commercial-scale LPMEOEPM reaetor ever built. The vessel is 7.5 feet in diameter and 70 feet tall with design conditions of 1000 psig at 600 `F. These dimensions represent a significant scale-up from prior experience at the DOE-owned Alternative Fuels Development Unit in LaPorte, Texas, where 18-inch and 22-inch diameter reactors have been tested successfidly over thousands of hours. The biggest obstacles discovered during the scale- up, however, were encountered during fabrication of the vessel. The lessons learned during this process must be considered in tailoring the design for future sites, where the reactor dimensions may grow by yet another factor of two.

  10. Landscape-Scale Factors Affecting Feral Horse Habitat Use During Summer Within The Rocky Mountain Foothills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Tisa L.; Bork, Edward W.; Neilsen, Scott E.; Alexander, Mike J.

    2013-02-01

    Public lands occupied by feral horses in North America are frequently managed for multiple uses with land use conflict occurring among feral horses, livestock, wildlife, and native grassland conservation. The factors affecting habitat use by horses is critical to understand where conflict may be greatest. We related horse presence and abundance to landscape attributes in a GIS to examine habitat preferences using 98 field plots sampled within a portion of the Rocky Mountain Forest Reserve of SW Alberta, Canada. Horse abundance was greatest in grassland and cut block habitats, and lowest in conifer and mixedwood forest. Resource selection probability functions and count models of faecal abundance indicated that horses preferred areas closer to water, with reduced topographic ruggedness, situated farther from forests, and located farther away from primary roads and trails frequented by recreationalists, but closer to small linear features (i.e. cut lines) that may be used as beneficial travel corridors. Horse presence and abundance were closely related to cattle presence during summer, suggesting that both herbivores utilise the same habitats. Estimates of forage biomass removal (44 %) by mid-July were near maximum acceptable levels. In contrast to horse-cattle associations, horses were negatively associated with wild ungulate abundance, although the mechanism behind this remains unclear and warrants further investigation. Our results indicate that feral horses in SW Alberta exhibit complex habitat selection patterns during spring and summer, including overlap in use with livestock. This finding highlights the need to assess and manage herbivore populations consistent with rangeland carrying capacity and the maintenance of range health.

  11. U.S. Photovoltaic Prices and Cost Breakdowns. Q1 2015 Benchmarks for Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Donald; Davidson, Carolyn; Fu, Ran; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has continued to decline across all major market sectors. This report provides a Q1 2015 update regarding the prices of residential, commercial, and utility scale PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variations in business models, labor rates, and system architecture choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.09/W for residential scale rooftop systems, $2.15/W for commercial scale rooftop systems, $1.77/W for utility scale systems with fixed mounting structures, and $1.91/W for utility scale systems using single-axis trackers. All systems are modeled assuming standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon PV modules, and further assume installation within the United States.

  12. Decadal- to millennial-scale interactions among climate, fire, and ecosystem processes in subalpine forests of the US Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuera, P. E.; Whitlock, C. L.; Briles, C.; Dunnette, P.

    2011-12-01

    The biophysical controls of wildfires are well understood at annual to interannual time scales. When sufficient fuels are available, seasonal drought and fire weather are tightly linked to large fire occurrence and regionally-synchronous burning. As climate changes over centuries to millennia, vegetation also shifts and influences fire regimes by changing landscape flammability. Links among climate, vegetation, and fire regimes at time scales of decades to centuries, however, are less well understood, as are the ecological impacts of disturbances at these intermediate time scales. We used high-resolution lake-sediment records from Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) to reconstruct fire history at varying time scales over the past 6000 years. Drivers of past fire regimes were inferred through comparisons of charcoal-inferred area burned and/or fire occurrence to independent climate proxies (of precipitation, drought, and relative moisture) and pollen-based vegetation reconstructions. In YNP, area burned over the past 750 years was significantly higher during periods with extreme annual drought. These patterns support annual- to decadal-scale climate-fire relationships observed over shorter time periods. In subalpine forests of RMNP, biomass burning over the past 6000 years varied proportionally to decadal- and centennial-scale changes in effective moisture, with increased moisture directly related to greater biomass burning. This pattern holds through subtle shifts in forest composition, making it an unlikely cause of changes in past burning. In contrast, moister conditions allowed greater biomass production within subalpine forests, which in turn facilitated more frequent and/or severe burning. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from selected sites further indicate that infrequent, high-severity fires in the past have distinct impacts on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, from annual to centennial time scales. Paleoecological records thus provide support for previous climate-fire relationships revealed over shorter time periods, but they further reveal that these relationships can be reversed at multi-decadal to centennial time scales. Understanding these differences and varying impacts is critical for anticipating ecosystem response to increasing rates of environmental change.

  13. Radionuclide transport simulation and uncertainty analyses with the saturated-zone site-scale model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Arnold, B W; Kuzio, S P; Robinson, B A

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of radionuclide transport in the saturated zone (SZ) to the accessible environment is an important component of performance assessment for the proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Simulations of radionuclide migration in the SZ have been performed using the calibrated three-dimensional (3-D) SZ site-scale flow and transport model. An innovative particle-tracking method was used to simulate transport that includes the processes of advection, dispersion, matrix diffusion, and sorption. The uncertainties in groundwater flow and radionuclide transport were quantitatively evaluated to develop uncertainty distributions for key model parameters, and multiple realizations of the SZ system were simulated using the SZ site-scale model. The results of multiple realizations of radionuclide transport indicate significant aggregate uncertainty in transport times through the SZ. The simulated radionuclide mass breakthrough curves in the SZ have been coupled with other components of the repository system in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses and constitute the means by which uncertainty in the SZ is incorporated into regulatory analyses. Regression analysis has been used to determine the sensitivity of radionuclide transport simulation results to the uncertainty of individual model input parameters. Results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that median radionuclide transport times were dominantly controlled by uncertainty in the specific discharge in the SZ, with sorption and retardation in the alluvium playing important roles for some radionuclides. PMID:12714302

  14. Observatory Design in the Mountain West: Scaling Measurements and Modeling in the San Joaquin Valley and Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, M.; Bales, R.; Boyer, E.; Cayan, D.; Dozier, J.; Fogg, G.; Harmon, T.; Kirchner, J.; Miller, N.; Molotch, N.; Redmond, K.

    2006-12-01

    This project represents a key step toward developing an environmental observatory in the semiarid mountain- valley landscape of the far western United States. Two specific aims of this project are: (i) to formulate basin- scale measurement and modeling strategies to meet priority research issues, through analysis of existing operational and research data, and (ii) to assess different instrument cluster designs to provide the ground- based measurements needed for hydrologic process research. Achieving these aims will both help to establish a "virtual" observatory, and provide direction for building new infrastructure in an actual observatory. The observatory design concept involves establishing intensive measurements at ground-based instrument clusters, integrated with broad coverage offered by satellite remote sensing, plus operational networks. The main science challenge is that of scaling between the instrument clusters. Basing an observatory design on instrument clusters at representative points across the landscape recognizes that it is logistically infeasible to measure everything, everywhere, all the time. Instrument clusters co-locate key measurements, in order to illuminate linkages among processes within each cluster's relatively small footprint. Design challenges include configuring instrument clusters to maximize the scientific payoff for a given investment of resources; and determining how well the data from these clusters represent the landscape that surrounds them, beyond the footprint of the measurements themselves.

  15. DNA barcoding at riverscape scales: assessing biodiversity among fishes of the genus Cottus (Teleostei) in northern Rocky Mountain streams.

    PubMed

    Young, Michael K; McKelvey, Kevin S; Pilgrim, Kristine L; Schwartz, Michael K

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in broad-scale biodiversity assessments that can serve as benchmarks for identifying ecological change. Genetic tools have been used for such assessments for decades, but spatial sampling considerations have largely been ignored. Here, we demonstrate how intensive sampling efforts across a large geographical scale can influence identification of taxonomic units. We used sequences of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b, analysed with maximum parsimony networks, maximum-likelihood trees and genetic distance thresholds, as indicators of biodiversity and species identity among the taxonomically challenging fishes of the genus Cottus in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Analyses of concatenated sequences from fish collected in all major watersheds of this area revealed eight groups with species-level differences that were also geographically circumscribed. Only two of these groups, however, were assigned to recognized species, and these two assignments resulted in intraspecific genetic variation (>2.0%) regarded as atypical for individual species. An incomplete inventory of individuals from throughout the geographical ranges of many species represented in public databases, as well as sample misidentification and a poorly developed taxonomy, may have hampered species assignment and discovery. We suspect that genetic assessments based on spatially robust sampling designs will reveal previously unrecognized biodiversity in many other taxa. PMID:23496857

  16. Classification of local- and landscape-scale ecological types in the Southern Appalachian mountains

    SciTech Connect

    McNab, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    Five local ecological types based on vegetative communities and two landscape types based on groups of communities, were identified by integrating landform, soil, and vegetation components using multivariate techniques. Evaluation and several topographic and soil variables were highly correlated with types of both scales. Landscape ecological types based only on landform and soil variables without vegetation did not correspond with types developed using vegetation.

  17. CFD modeling of commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of an advanced coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle system requires an accurate numerical prediction of gasifier performance. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to model the turbulent multiphase reacting flow inside commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers. Due to the complexity of the physical and chemical processes involved, the accuracy of sub-models requires further improvement. Built upon a previously developed CFD model for entrained-flow gasification, the advanced physical and chemical sub-models presented in this paper include a moisture vaporization model with consideration of high mass transfer rate and a coal devolatilization model with more species to represent coal volatiles and the heating rate effect on volatile yield. The global gas phase reaction kinetics is also carefully selected. To predict a reasonable peak temperature of the coal/O{sub 2} flame inside an entrained-flow gasifier, the reserve reaction of H{sub 2} oxidation is included in the gas phase reaction model. The enhanced CFD model is applied to simulate two typical commercial-scale oxygen-blown entrained-flow configurations including a single-stage down-fired gasifier and a two-stage up-fired gasifier. The CFD results are reasonable in terms of predicted carbon conversion, syngas exit temperature, and syngas exit composition. The predicted profiles of velocity, temperature, and species mole fractions inside the entrained-flow gasifier models show trends similar to those observed in a diffusion-type flame. The predicted distributions of mole fractions of major species inside both gasifiers can be explained by the heterogeneous combustion and gasification reactions and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. It was also found that the syngas compositions at the CFD model exits are not in chemical equilibrium, indicating the kinetics for both heterogeneous and gas phase homogeneous reactions are important. Overall, the results achieved here indicate that the gasifier models reported in this paper are reliable and accurate enough to be incorporated into process/CFD co-simulations of IGCC power plants for system-wide design and optimization.

  18. Modeling Watershed-Scale Surface Water - Groundwater Interactions in Mountain Meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essaid, H.; Hill, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    Flow processes in mountain meadows are being investigated using a coupled surface water - groundwater flow model of a Sierra Nevada watershed. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model GSFLOW (Markstrom et al., 2008), an integration of the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW), is being utilized for this effort. This model facilitates representation of complex surface-water flow processes important for understanding meadow hydrology, such as snow-melt and soil-water dynamics, as well as groundwater flow processes. The Sagehen Creek watershed, located on the east slope of the northern Sierra Nevada near Truckee, California, USA, has been selected as the basis for the model configuration. Considerable watershed information is available from studies conducted at the Sagehen Creek Field Station and Experimental Forest, and an existing GSFLOW model for the area (Markstrom et al., 2008). The domain of the previously constructed Sagehen GSFLOW model was extended 4 km downstream increasing the modeled watershed area from 27 km2 to 37 km2. This moved the simulated watershed outlet well below the meadows of interest, allowing for assessment of upstream and downstream effects of meadow restoration on streamflow. Model discretization was decreased from 90 m to 30 m to allow for increased spatial resolution in the meadows. Layer discretization was increased from 2 to 5 layers to facilitate representation of meadow stratigraphy. The increased vertical discretization resulted in considerable drying and rewetting of model cells requiring the use of the recently developed Newton formulation for MODFLOW-2005 (Niswonger et al., 2011). The model is being used to analyze the potential effects of geomorphic channel restoration on meadow groundwater discharge to streams under varying hydrologic conditions. Of specific interest is the role of low-permeability meadow strata in regulating discharge to streams, and the effects of erosional breaching and restoration of these layers. Markstrom et al., 2008, U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-D1, 240 p. Niswonger et al., 2011, U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A37, 44 p.

  19. Towards commercial scale postcombustion capture of CO2 with monoethanolamine solvent: key considerations for solvent management and environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Alicia J; Verheyen, T Vincent; Adeloju, Samuel B; Meuleman, Erik; Feron, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Chemical absorption with aqueous amine solvents is the most advanced technology for postcombustion capture (PCC) of CO(2) from coal-fired power stations and a number of pilot scale programs are evaluating novel solvents, optimizing energy efficiency, and validating engineering models. This review demonstrates that the development of commercial scale PCC also requires effective solvent management guidelines to ensure minimization of potential technical and environmental risks. Furthermore, the review reveals that while solvent degradation has been identified as a key source of solvent consumption in laboratory scale studies, it has not been validated at pilot scale. Yet this is crucial as solvent degradation products, such as organic acids, can increase corrosivity and reduce the CO(2) absorption capacity of the solvent. It also highlights the need for the development of corrosion and solvent reclamation technologies, as well as strategies to minimize emissions of solvent and degradation products, such as ammonia, aldehydes, nitrosamines and nitramines, to the atmosphere from commercial scale PCC. Inevitably, responsible management of aqueous and solid waste will require more serious consideration. This will ultimately require effective waste management practices validated at pilot scale to minimize the likelihood of adverse human and environmental impacts from commercial scale PCC. PMID:22324566

  20. Scaling and pattern of extreme geomorphic events in a mountain basin, Idaho, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, C. H.; Rieman, B. E.; McKean, J. A.; Dunham, J. B.; King, J. G.

    2003-12-01

    While extreme events are rare in individual streams or stream reaches, the occurrence of an extreme event somewhere within an ensemble of streams can be commonplace. The relationship between event frequency and magnitude for large units of analysis depends on the size of area considered and the spatial continuity of events. Some of the more extreme geomorphic events affect only a limited spatial area. Limitations to area relate to spatial extents of event triggers such as fires, thunderstorms, or rain-on-snow. Understanding the size of extreme events is important in approaching the frequency-magnitude relationships for larger analysis frames and clarifying the role of extreme events at different spatial scales. Sequential mapping of channel reorganizing events from aerial photography records dating back 40 years in the Boise River basin reveal important characteristics of severe disturbances in a spatial context. The most relevant to this discussion is that there is little coherence in extreme events beyond 10 km. Patterns of occurrence for fishes occupying these streams may reflect historic patterns of extinction and colonization following catastrophic disturbance. These patterns and recent data on apparent gene flow among streams suggest that scaling of ecological processes is concordant with the patterns of channel disturbance we have identified here. There is evidence that this scale relates more to the scale of driving storm events than to pre-existing land disturbances such as fire, logging, or grazing. One puzzle is that some areas seem more prone to multiple events than others, which may relate to underlying variation in lithology and exposure to weather. Lithology also constrains the temporal signature of extreme events. The spatial extent of events may serve as a valuable metric of event magnitude to gauge their ecological influence.

  1. Modelling spatial scales of water erosion in the West Usambara Mountains of Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigiak, Olga; van Loon, Emiel; Sterk, Geert

    2006-06-01

    This study assessed the ability of several models to locate areas affected by severe erosion and identified the factors controlling the distribution of erosion in a catchment characterized by a dynamic Hortonian hydrologic regime. The spatial patterns of severely eroded areas predicted by five erosion models were compared with the pattern of erosion observed during an extensive field survey conducted in the Kwalei catchment, north-eastern Tanzania. The actual erosion pattern was also compared with the spatial distribution of some erosion factors: overland flow (whose distribution was simulated with a hydrologic model that took overland flow reinfiltration into account), slope, crust, canopy cover and ground cover. The patterns of severely eroded areas varied markedly among the models. The best predictions were those of (i) a classification tree based on farmers' indicators of erosion (Pearson's Phi correlation coefficient ? = 0.72, n = 334, ? < 0.01); (ii) a semi-empirical model that accounted for overland flow reinfiltration ( ? = 0.43); and (iii) a logit regression model based on slope and ground cover ( ? = 0.34). The erosion factor that most correlated with eroded areas was crust cover ( ? = 0.52). Lacunarity analysis of the spatial patterns showed that the erosion models could not characterize the spatial scale of eroded areas correctly. Instead, the spatial scale of erosion distribution in the catchment did coincide with the overland flow distribution at short reinfiltration length (0.5-5 m), even though severely eroded areas were not spatially correlated to areas of high overland flow depth ( ? = 0.12, ? > 0.05). In the dynamic Hortonian regime of the Kwalei catchment, the travel distance of overland flow determined the spatial scale of severely eroded areas. Spatially distributed erosion model predictions could improve if the configuration of sources and sinks of overland flow in the landscape is taken into account.

  2. A new surface-process model for landscape evolution at a mountain belt scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Sean D.; Braun, Jean; Herman, Frederic

    2010-05-01

    We present a new surface process model designed for modeling surface erosion and mass transport at an orogenic scale. Modeling surface processes at a large-scale is difficult because surface geomorphic processes are frequently described at the scale of a few meters, and such resolution cannot be represented in orogen-scale models operating over hundreds of square kilometers. We circumvent this problem by implementing a hybrid numerical -- analytical model. Like many previous models, the model is based on a numerical fluvial network represented by a series of nodes linked by model rivers in a descending network, with fluvial incision and sediment transport defined by laws operating on this network. However we only represent the largest rivers in the landscape by nodes in this model. Low-order rivers and water divides between large rivers are determined from analytical solutions assuming steady-state conditions with respect to the local river channel. The analytical solution includes the same fluvial incision law as the large rivers and a channel head with a specified size and mean slope. This permits a precise representation of the position of water divides between river basins. This is a key characteristic in landscape evolution as divide migration provides a positive feedback between river incision and a consequent increase in drainage area. The analytical solution also provides an explicit criterion for river capture, which occurs once a water divide migrates to its neighboring channel. This algorithm avoids the artificial network organization that often results from meshing and remeshing algorithms in numerical models. We demonstrate the use of this model with several simple examples including uniform uplift of a block, simultaneous uplift and shortening of a block, and a model involving strike slip faulting. We find a strong dependence on initial condition, but also a surprisingly strong dependence on channel head height parameters. Low channel heads, as expected, lead to more fluvial capture, but with low initial relief initial and a small channel-head height, runaway capture is common, with a few rivers capturing much of the available drainage area. With larger channel-head relief, lateral capture of rivers is less common, resulting in evenly spaced river basins. Basin spacing ratios matching those observed in nature are obtained for specific channel head parameters. These models thus demonstrate the mixed control on basin characteristics by antecedent river networks and channel-head parameters, which control the mobility of drainage basin water divides.

  3. Preliminary development of the LBL/USGS three-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, C.; Chen, G.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Chornack, M.; Flint, A.; Flint, L.; Kwicklis, E.; Spengler, R.

    1995-06-01

    A 3-D model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed at LBL in cooperation with USGS. This site-scale model covers an area of about 34 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the north, east, and west. The relatively coarse-grid model includes about 300 horizontal grid-blocks and 17 layers. Contour maps and isopach maps are presented defining different types of infiltration zones, and the spatial distribution of Tiva Canyon, Paintbrush, and Topopah Spring hydrogeological units. Matrix flow is approximated using the van Genuchten model, and the equivalent continuum approximation is used to account for fracture flow in the welded units. One-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations are conducted using the TOUGH2 computer program. Steady-state simulations are performed with various uniform and nonuniform infiltration rates; results are interpreted in terms of effect of fault characteristics on moisture flow distribution, and on the location and formation of preferential pathways.

  4. A Conceptual and Numerical Model for Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Processes in the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Spycher, Nicolas F.; Conrad, Mark; Apps, John

    2003-07-01

    A numerical model was developed to predict the coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes accompanying the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The DST has been closely monitored through the collection of gas, water, and mineral samples as well as thermal, hydrological, and mechanical measurements. A two-dimensional dual permeability model was developed to evaluate multiphase, multicomponent, reaction-transport processes in the fractured tuff. Comparisons between results using the TOUGHREACT code and measured water (e.g., pH, SiO2(aq), Na+, K+) and gas (CO2) compositions show that the model captures the chemical evolution in the DST. Non-reactive aqueous species (e.g., Cl) show strong dilution in fracture waters, indicating little fracture-matrix interaction. Silica concentrations are higher than in the initial pore water and show a trend of increasing reaction with fracture-lining silicates at higher temperatures. The narrow precipitation zone of predominantly amorphous silica observed above the heaters was also captured.

  5. Droughts and broad-scale climate variability reflected by temperature-sensitive tree growth in the Qinling Mountains, central China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Qi; Bao, Guang

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between temperature and drought was investigated using the temperature-sensitive growth of Larix chinensis Beissn in the Qinling Mountains, central China. Extremely high tree-ring width index values (TRWI) agreed well with dry conditions defined by the dryness-wetness index (DWI) obtained from data in Chinese historical documents and climate-related papers between 1814 and 1956 (before the short of instrumental measurements); the reverse applied to extremely low TRWI values. The main severe drought epochs occurred from the late 1850s to the 1870s, the 1920s to 1930s and in the 2000s, whereas wet spells occurred from 1817-1827 and 1881-1886. The droughts in the 2000s exhibited a similar pattern as the ones from the 1920s to 1930s, with obviously an increasing temperature. The variation of tree growth agreed well with other reconstructed temperature series from nearby and remote regions, suggesting that Larix chinensis could respond to broad-scale climate variability. The longest cold interval, 1817-1827, could be associated with the influence of the Tambora eruption in 1815. PMID:22527758

  6. Droughts and broad-scale climate variability reflected by temperature-sensitive tree growth in the Qinling Mountains, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Na; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Qi; Bao, Guang

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between temperature and drought was investigated using the temperature-sensitive growth of Larix chinensis Beissn in the Qinling Mountains, central China. Extremely high tree-ring width index values (TRWI) agreed well with dry conditions defined by the dryness-wetness index (DWI) obtained from data in Chinese historical documents and climate-related papers between 1814 and 1956 (before the short of instrumental measurements); the reverse applied to extremely low TRWI values. The main severe drought epochs occurred from the late 1850s to the 1870s, the 1920s to 1930s and in the 2000s, whereas wet spells occurred from 1817-1827 and 1881-1886. The droughts in the 2000s exhibited a similar pattern as the ones from the 1920s to 1930s, with obviously an increasing temperature. The variation of tree growth agreed well with other reconstructed temperature series from nearby and remote regions, suggesting that Larix chinensis could respond to broad-scale climate variability. The longest cold interval, 1817-1827, could be associated with the influence of the Tambora eruption in 1815.

  7. On the relationship between ecosystem-scale hyperspectral reflectance and CO2 exchange in European mountain grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzarolo, M.; Vescovo, L.; Hammerle, A.; Gianelle, D.; Papale, D.; Tomelleri, E.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we explore the skill of hyperspectral reflectance measurements and vegetation indices (VIs) derived from these in estimating carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes of grasslands. Hyperspectral reflectance data, CO2 fluxes and biophysical parameters were measured at three grassland sites located in European mountain regions using standardized protocols. The relationships between CO2 fluxes, ecophysiological variables, traditional VIs and VIs derived using all two-band combinations of wavelengths available from the whole hyperspectral data space were analysed. We found that VIs derived from hyperspectral data generally explained a large fraction of the variability in the investigated dependent variables but differed in their ability to estimate midday and daily average CO2 fluxes and various derived ecophysiological parameters. Relationships between VIs and CO2 fluxes and ecophysiological parameters were site-specific, likely due to differences in soils, vegetation parameters and environmental conditions. Chlorophyll and water-content-related VIs explained the largest fraction of variability in most of the dependent variables. Band selection based on a combination of a genetic algorithm with random forests (GA-rF) confirmed that it is difficult to select a universal band region suitable across the investigated ecosystems. Our findings have major implications for upscaling terrestrial CO2 fluxes to larger regions and for remote- and proximal-sensing sampling and analysis strategies and call for more cross-site synthesis studies linking ground-based spectral reflectance with ecosystem-scale CO2 fluxes.

  8. Iceberg calving as a primary source of regional?scale glacier?generated seismicity in the St. Elias Mountains, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neel, Shad; Larsen, Christopher F.; Rupert, Natalia; Hansen, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Since the installation of the Alaska Regional Seismic Network in the 1970s, data analysts have noted nontectonic seismic events thought to be related to glacier dynamics. While loose associations with the glaciers of the St. Elias Mountains have been made, no detailed study of the source locations has been undertaken. We performed a two-step investigation surrounding these events, beginning with manual locations that guided an automated detection and event sifting routine. Results from the manual investigation highlight characteristics of the seismic waveforms including single-peaked (narrowband) spectra, emergent onsets, lack of distinct phase arrivals, and a predominant cluster of locations near the calving termini of several neighboring tidewater glaciers. Through these locations, comparison with previous work, analyses of waveform characteristics, frequency-magnitude statistics and temporal patterns in seismicity, we suggest calving as a source for the seismicity. Statistical properties and time series analysis of the event catalog suggest a scale-invariant process that has no single or simple forcing. These results support the idea that calving is often a response to short-lived or localized stress perturbations. Our results demonstrate the utility of passive seismic instrumentation to monitor relative changes in the rate and magnitude of iceberg calving at tidewater glaciers that may be volatile or susceptible to ensuing rapid retreat, especially when existing seismic infrastructure can be used.

  9. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase methanol (LPMEOH) Process A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-10-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program seeks to offer the energy marketplace more efficient and environmentally benign coal utilization technology options by demonstrating them in industrial settings. This document is a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of one of the projects selected in Round III of the CCT Program, the commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process, initially described in a Report to Congress by DOE in 1992. Methanol is an important, large-volume chemical with many uses. The desire to demonstrate a new process for the production of methanol from coal, prompted Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to submit a proposal to DOE. In October 1992, DOE awarded a cooperative agreement to Air Products to conduct this project. In March 1995, this cooperative agreement was transferred to Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership), a partnership between Air Products and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman). DOE provided 43 percent of the total project funding of $213.7 million. Operation of the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit, which is sited at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee, commenced in April 1997. Although operation of the CCT project was completed in December 2002, Eastman continues to operate the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit for the production of methanol. The independent evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from Volume 2 of the project's Final Report (Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Co., L.P. 2003), as well as other references cited.

  10. On the relationship between ecosystem-scale hyperspectral reflectance and CO2 exchange in European mountain grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzarolo, M.; Vescovo, L.; Hammerle, A.; Gianelle, D.; Papale, D.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we explore the use of hyperspectral reflectance measurements and vegetation indices (VIs) derived therefrom in estimating carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes (net ecosystem exchange - NEE; gross primary production - GPP), and some key ecophysiological variables related to NEE and GPP (light use efficiency - ?; initial quantum yield - ?; and GPP at saturating light - GPPmax) for grasslands. Hyperspectral reflectance data (400-1000 nm), CO2 fluxes and biophysical parameters were measured at three grassland sites located in European mountain regions. The relationships between CO2 fluxes, ecophysiological variables and VIs derived using all two-band combinations of wavelengths available from the whole hyperspectral data space were analysed. We found that hyperspectral VIs generally explained a large fraction of the variability in the investigated dependent variables and that they generally exhibited more skill in estimating midday and daily average GPP and NEE, as well as GPPmax, than ? and ?. Relationships between VIs and CO2 fluxes and ecophysiological parameters were site-specific, likely due to differences in soils, vegetation parameters and environmental conditions. Chlorophyll and water content related VIs (e.g. CI, NPCI, WI), reflecting seasonal changes in biophysical parameters controlling the photosynthesis process, explained the largest fraction of variability in most of the dependent variables. A limitation of the hyperspectral sensors is that their cost is still high and the use laborious. At the eddy covariance with a limited budget and without technical support, we suggest to use at least dual or four channels low cost sensors in the the following spectral regions: 400-420 nm; 500-530 nm; 750-770 nm; 780-800 nm and 880-900 nm. In addition, our findings have major implications for up-scaling terrestrial CO2 fluxes to larger regions and for remote and proximal sensing sampling and analysis strategies and call for more cross-site synthesis studies linking ground-based spectral reflectance with ecosystem-scale CO2 fluxes.

  11. Schneefernerhaus as a mountain research station for clouds and turbulence - Part 2: Cloud microphysics and fine-scale turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, H.; Shaw, R. A.; Ditas, J.; Schmeissner, T.; Malinowski, S. P.; Bodenschatz, E.; Xu, H.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain research stations are advantageous not only for long-term sampling of cloud properties, but also for measurements that prohibitively difficult to perform on airborne platforms due to the true air speed or adverse factors such as weight and complexity of the equipment necessary. Some cloud-turbulence measurements, especially Lagrangian in nature, fall into this category. We report results from simultaneous, high-resolution and collocated measurements of cloud microphysical and turbulence properties during several warm cloud events at the Umweltforschungsstation Schneefernerhaus (UFS) on Zugspitze in the German Alps. The data gathered was found to be representative of observations made with similar instrumentation in free clouds. The turbulence observed, shared all features known for high Reynolds number flows: it exhibited approximately Gaussian fluctuations for all three velocity components, a clearly defined inertial subrange following Kolmogorov scaling (power spectrum, and second and third order Eulerian structure functions), and highly intermittent velocity gradients, as well as approximately lognormal kinetic energy dissipation rates. The clouds were observed to have liquid water contents of order 1 g m-3, and size distributions typical of continental clouds, sometimes exhibiting long positive tails indicative of large drop production through turbulent mixing or coalescence growth. Dimensionless parameters relevant to cloud-turbulence interactions, the Stokes number and settling parameter, are in the range typically observed in atmospheric clouds. Observed fluctuations in droplet number concentration and diameter suggest a preference for inhomogeneous mixing. Finally, enhanced variance in liquid water content fluctuations is observed at high frequencies, and the scale break occurs at a value consistent with the independently estimated phase relaxation time from microphysical measurements.

  12. Improving rainfall representation for large-scale hydrological modelling of tropical mountain basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkafli, Zed; Buytaert, Wouter; Onof, Christian; Lavado, Waldo; Guyot, Jean-Loup

    2013-04-01

    Errors in the forcing data are sometimes overlooked in hydrological studies even when they could be the most important source of uncertainty. The latter particularly holds true in tropical countries with short historical records of rainfall monitoring and remote areas with sparse rain gauge network. In such instances, alternative data such as the remotely sensed precipitation from the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite have been used. These provide a good spatial representation of rainfall processes but have been established in the literature to contain volumetric biases that may impair the results of hydrological modelling or worse, are compensated during model calibration. In this study, we analysed precipitation time series from the TMPA (TRMM Multiple Precipitation Algorithm, version 6) against measurements from over 300 gauges in the Andes and Amazon regions of Peru and Ecuador. We found moderately good monthly correlation between the pixel and gauge pairs but a severe underestimation of rainfall amounts and wet days. The discrepancy between the time series pairs is particularly visible over the east side of the Andes and may be attributed to localized and orographic-driven high intensity rainfall, which the satellite product may have limited skills at capturing due to technical and scale issues. This consequently results in a low bias in the simulated streamflow volumes further downstream. In comparison, with the recently released TMPA, version 7, the biases reduce. This work further explores several approaches to merge the two sources of rainfall measurements, each of a different spatial and temporal support, with the objective of improving the representation of rainfall in hydrological simulations. The methods used are (1) mean bias correction (2) data assimilation using Kalman filter Bayesian updating. The results are evaluated by means of (1) a comparison of runoff ratios (the ratio of the total runoff and the total precipitation over an extended period) in multiple basins, and (2) a comparison of the outcome of hydrological modelling using the distributed JULES (Joint-UK Land Environment Simulator) land surface model. First results indicate an improvement in the water balance that directly translates into an increased hydrological performance. The more interesting aspect of the study, however, will be the insights into the nature of satellite precipitation errors in this extreme environment and the optimal means of improving the data to generate increased confidence in hydrological predictions.

  13. Multidimensionality and scale in a landscape ethnoecological partitioning of a mountainous landscape (Gyimes, Eastern Carpathians, Romania)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional habitat knowledge is an understudied part of traditional knowledge. Though the number of studies increased world-wide in the last decade, this knowledge is still rarely studied in Europe. We document the habitat vocabulary used by Csng people, and determine features they used to name and describe these categories. Study area and methods Csng people live in Gyimes (Carpathians, Romania). The area is dominated by coniferous forests, hay meadows and pastures. Animal husbandry is the main source of living. Data on the knowledge of habitat preference of 135 salient wild plant species were collected (2908 records, 44 interviewees). Data collected indoors were counterchecked during outdoor interviews and participatory field work. Results Csngs used a rich and sophisticated vocabulary to name and describe habitat categories. They distinguished altogether at least 142148 habitat types, and named them by 242 habitat terms. We argue that the method applied and the questions asked (what kind of place does species X like?) helped the often implicit knowledge of habitats to be verbalized more efficiently than usual in an interview. Habitat names were highly lexicalized and most of them were widely shared. The main features were biotic or abiotic, like land-use, dominant plant species, vegetation structure, successional stage, disturbance, soil characteristics, hydrological, and geomorphological features. Csngs often used indicator species (28, mainly herbaceous taxa) in describing habitats of species. To prevent reduction in the quantity and/or quality of hay, unnecessary disturbance of grasslands was avoided by the Csngs. This could explain the high number of habitats (35) distinguished dominantly by the type and severity of disturbance. Based on the spatial scale and topological inclusiveness of habitat categories we distinguished macro-, meso-, and microhabitats. Conclusions Csng habitat categories were not organized into a single hierarchy, and the partitioning was multidimensional. Multidimensional description of habitats, made the nuanced characterization of plant species habitats possible by providing innumerable possibilities to combine the most salient habitat features. We conclude that multidimensionality of landscape partitioning and the number of dimensions applied in a landscape seem to depend on the number of key habitat gradients in the given landscape. PMID:23388111

  14. Maximum Stream Power? Projecting Catastrophic Dam Breaks at the Mountain-Belt Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanghart, W.; Bloethe, J. H.; Andermann, C.; Korup, O.

    2012-12-01

    Lake formation as a result of river damming by landslides is frequently observed in areas with steep terrain and high tectonic activity. The sudden collapse of such natural dams often generates high-magnitude floods and debris flows that pose a significant threat to human well-being and infrastructure. Furthermore, the rates of bedrock river incision may be tightly coupled with the episodic damming and emptying of these lakes as they intermittently trap sediments and abate river incision. Empirical observations show that the severity of outburst events is directly related to the impounded water volume and downstream channel morphology both of which are controlled by topography. We thus argue that prime insights into the spatial patterns of hazards generated by landslide dammed lakes should thus be inferred from digital elevation models (DEMs) that are available at sufficient detail at even the remotest localities. Here we present first results of a Himalaya-wide assessment of backwater volumes generated by a range of natural dam scenarios derived from an empirical database. The GIS based analysis utilizes SRTM3 data that was preprocessed by advanced hydrological conditioning techniques to obtain an accurate representation of drainage patterns and valley morphology. Natural dams are simulated at each river location where the adjacent topography is susceptible to landslide initiation. Backwater volumes are corrected for dam geometry modeled as a function of dam height and river gradient. The possible range of backwater volumes spans various orders of magnitude from 10-4-102 km3 with high variability within and between different dam scenarios. The frequency-magnitude distributions of simulated backwater volumes are fitted using the generalized extreme value distribution with a strong positive modal shift observed for greater dam heights. Large backwater volumes are particularly observed along the Tibetan Plateau margin and orogen-parallel river courses. We modified a dimensionless blockage index to incorporate runoff magnitudes and seasonality to develop an outburst flood immediacy index. We argue that the index is valuable for hazard mitigation and monitoring and provides a basis to further investigate the effects of outburst floods on long-term landscape evolution. Future efforts will be directed towards an assessment of downstream flood peak translation and will thus provide means to finally quantify the risks associated with the failure of naturally dammed lakes at an orogen-wide scale. We anticipate that our results will deliver quantitative estimates of volumes of involved sediment movements and thus provide important input to investigation the effects of landslide damming on bedrock river incision, and ultimately, long-term landscape evolution.

  15. Scale effects on the controls on mountain grassland leaf stomatal and ecosystem surface conductance to water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslwanter, Alois; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2010-05-01

    Stomata are the major pathway by which plants exert control on the exchange of trace gases and water vapour with the aerial environment and thus provide a key link between the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and the state and composition of the atmosphere. Understanding the nature of this control, i.e. how stomatal conductance differs between plant species and ecosystems and how it varies in response to external and internal forcings, is key to predicting feedbacks plants may be providing to changing climatic conditions. Despite a long history of research on stomatal functioning, a fully mechanistic understanding of how stomata function in response to biotic and abiotic controls is still elusive which has led to the development of a large number of (semi-)empirical models of varying complexity. Two of the most widely used models go back to Jarvis (1976) and Ball, Woodrow and Berry (1987), termed J-model and BWB-model, respectively, in the following. The J-model simulates stomatal conductance as some maximal value attenuated by a series of multiplicative functions which are bound between zero and unity, while the BWB-model predicts stomatal conductance as a linear function of photosynthesis, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration in the leaf boundary layer. Both models were developed for the prediction of leaf-scale stomatal conductance to water vapour, but have been applied for simulating ecosystem-scale surface conductance as well. The objective of the present paper is to compare leaf- and ecosystem-scale conductances to water vapour and to assess the respective controls using the two above-mentioned models as analysis frameworks. To this end leaf-level stomatal conductance has been measured by means of leaf-gas exchange methods and ecosystem-scale surface conductance by inverting eddy covariance evapotranspiration estimates at a mountain grassland site in Austria. Our major findings are that the proportionality parameter in the BWB-model is scale-consistent, i.e. does not differ significantly between the leaf- and ecosystem scale, while the residual conductance (at zero light) scales with the amount of above-ground transpiring plant area. Among the environmental forcings, air humidity (either relative humidity or vapour pressure deficit) and carbon dioxide concentration in the boundary layer explained most of the variability of stomatal conductance at the leaf level, while the photosynthetic photon flux density was by far the dominant control at the ecosystem-level. References: Ball J.T., Woodrow I.E., Berry J.A., 1987. A model predicting stomatal conductance and its contribution to the control of photosynthesis under different environmental conditions. In: J. Biggens (Editor), Progress in Photosynthesis Research, Vol. IV. Proceedings of the VII International Congress on Photosynthesis. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp. 221-224. Jarvis P.G., 1976. The interpretation of the variations in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance found in canopies in the field. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London 273(B), 593-610.

  16. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOTH) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-21

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOI-P Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman coal-to-chemicals complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, initial planning and procurement work continued on the seven project sites which have been accepted for participation in the off-site, product-use test program. Approximately 12,000 gallons of fuel-grade methanol (98+ wt% methanol, 4 wt% water) produced during operation on carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas at the LPMEOW Demonstration Unit was loaded into trailers and shipped off-site for Mure product-use testing. At one of the projects, three buses have been tested on chemical-grade methanol and on fhel-grade methanol from the LPMEOW Demonstration Project. During the reporting period, planning for a proof-of-concept test run of the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME~ Process at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, TX continued. The commercial catalyst manufacturer (Calsicat) has prepared the first batch of dehydration catalyst in large-scale equipment. Air Products will test a sample of this material in the laboratory autoclave. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laborato~ autoclave), was monitored for the initial extended operation at the lower initial reactor operating temperature of 235oC. At this condition, the decrease in catalyst activity with time from the period 20 December 1997 through 27 January 1998 occurred at a rate of 1.0% per day, which represented a significant improvement over the 3.4Yi per day decline measured during the initial six weeks of operation in April and May of 1997. The deactivation rate also improved from the longer-term rate of 1.6% per day calculated throughout the summer and autumn of 1997.

  17. Simulation of commercial scale CO2 injection into a fracture reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Li, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic Carbon Sequestration is a proposed means to reduce atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2). At Teapot Dome, Wyoming, CO2 will be injected into the Tensleep Formation, a depleted oil reservoir characterized with significant heterogeneity including facies, faults, and fractures. We've collected geological and engineering characterization data of the entire Teapot Dome field, including core data, well logs, seismic data, and production records. All data were screened for accuracy, before subsets of the data are used to build a geologic reservoir model. A formation structural model is created first by interpreting faults and stratigraphy from 3D seismic data. Formation MicroImager logs are analyzed for fracture characteristics to generate in-situ fracture intensity at wells, which is subsequently interpolated throughout the model with kriging. Based on the intensity and a set of geometric fracture parameters (constrained by outcrop and core measurements), a 3D stochastic Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) is created. One realization of the DFN is upscaled to a dual-porosity simulation model using a variant of the Oda's method. This method upscales the fracture network to an effective grid-block fracture permeability. To account for fluid transfer from matrix to fracture, a sigma factor is computed using average fracture spacings within the grid block. Matrix porosity is populated in the model by kriging interpolation of well-log-derived values. With the dual-porosity model, CO2 is injected near the crest of the dome (the proposed location) at a rate of 2.6 Mt/year for 50 years, with an injection bottomhole pressure set at 160% hydrostatic pressure. Boundary of the model is open except along one bounding fault assumed sealed. Results of the simulation suggest that provided that fluid pressure buildup is not an issue (simulated pressure buildup near the fault is minor), the Tensleep Formation at Teapot Dome can sustain commercial-scale injection over time. However, at the end of 50 years, 26% of the injected gas is trapped and dissolved, thus leakage risk from mobile gas flow is significant. This result is subject to uncertainty though, due to multiple sources of model and parameter uncertainties. A set of computationally efficient sensitivity analysis is currently underway to fully assess these uncertainties and their impact on CO2 flow and storage predictions.

  18. COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF THE LIQUID PHASE METHANOL (LPMEOH) PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    E.C. Heydorn; B.W. Diamond; R.D. Lilly

    2003-06-01

    This project, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate the production of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas), has completed the 69-month operating phase of the program. The purpose of this Final Report for the ''Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process'' is to provide the public with details on the performance and economics of the technology. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project was a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the DOE and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The DOE's cost share was $92,708,370 with the remaining funds coming from the Partnership. The LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit is located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The technology was the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} Process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern coal gasifiers. Originally tested at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU), a small, DOE-owned process development facility in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project accomplished the objectives set out in the Cooperative Agreement with DOE for this Clean Coal Technology project. Overall plant availability (defined as the percentage of time that the LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit was able to operate, with the exclusion of scheduled outages) was 97.5%, and the longest operating run without interruption of any kind was 94 days. Over 103.9 million gallons of methanol was produced; Eastman accepted all of the available methanol for use in the production of methyl acetate, and ultimately cellulose acetate and acetic acid.

  19. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Capacity and Associated Aspects of the Most Promising Geologic Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region: Local-Scale Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Scott, Phyllis; Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Esser, Richard; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-07-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of individual local-­‐scale CCS site characterization studies conducted in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. These site-­‐ specific characterization analyses were performed as part of the “Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region” (RMCCS) project. The primary objective of these local-­‐scale analyses is to provide a basis for regional-­‐scale characterization efforts within each state. Specifically, limits on time and funding will typically inhibit CCS projects from conducting high-­‐ resolution characterization of a state-­‐sized region, but smaller (< 10,000 km{sup 2}) site analyses are usually possible, and such can provide insight regarding limiting factors for the regional-­‐scale geology. For the RMCCS project, the outcomes of these local-­‐scale studies provide a starting point for future local-­‐scale site characterization efforts in the Rocky Mountain region.

  20. Uncertainties in coupled thermal-hydrological processes associated with the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Tsang, Y W

    2003-01-01

    Understanding thermally driven coupled hydrological, mechanical, and chemical processes in unsaturated fractured tuff is essential for evaluating the performance of the potential radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Drift Scale Test (DST), intended for acquiring such an understanding of these processes, has generated a huge volume of temperature and moisture redistribution data. Sophisticated thermal-hydrological (TH) conceptual models have yielded a good fit between simulation results and those measured data. However, some uncertainties in understanding the TH processes associated with the DST still exist. This paper evaluates these uncertainties and provides quantitative estimates of the range of these uncertainties. Of particular interest for the DST are the uncertainties resulting from the unmonitored loss of vapor through an open bulkhead of the test. There was concern that the outcome from the test might have been significantly altered by these losses. Using alternative conceptual models, we illustrate that predicted mean temperatures from the DST are within 1 degrees C of the measured mean temperatures through the first 2 years of heating. The simulated spatial and temporal evolution of drying and condensation fronts is found to be qualitatively consistent with measured saturation data. Energy and mass balance computation shows that no more than 13% of the input energy is lost because of vapor leaving the test domain through the bulkhead. The change in average saturation in fractures is also relatively small. For a hypothetical situation in which no vapor is allowed to exit through the bulkhead, the simulated average fracture saturation is not qualitatively different enough to be discerned by measured moisture redistribution data. This leads us to conclude that the DST, despite the uncertainties associated with open field testing, has provided an excellent understanding of the TH processes. PMID:12714312

  1. Correcting basin-scale snowfall in a mountainous basin using a distributed snowmelt model and remote-sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Adequate estimation of the spatial distribution of snowfall is critical in hydrologic modelling. However, this is a well-known problem in estimating basin-scale snowfall, especially in mountainous basins with data scarcity. This study focuses on correction and estimation of this spatial distribution, which considers topographic effects within the basin. A method is proposed that optimises an altitude-based snowfall correction factor (Cfsnow). This is done through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed, multilayer energy and water balance-based snowmelt model (WEB-DHM-S) with observed discharge and remotely sensed snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Shuffled Complex Evolution-University of Arizona (SCE-UA) automatic search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal value of Cfsnow for minimum cumulative error in discharge and snow cover simulations. Discharge error is quantified by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and relative volume deviation, and snow cover error was estimated by pixel-by-pixel analysis. The study region is the heavily snow-fed Yagisawa Basin of the Upper Tone River in northeast Japan. First, the system was applied to one snow season (2002-2003), obtaining an optimised Cfsnow of 0.0007 m-1. For validation purposes, the optimised Cfsnow was implemented to correct snowfall in 2004, 2002 and 2001. Overall, the system was effective, implying improvements in correlation of simulated versus observed discharge and snow cover. The 4 yr mean of basin-average snowfall for the corrected spatial snowfall distribution was 1160 mm (780 mm before correction). Execution of sensitivity runs against other model input and parameters indicated that Cfsnow could be affected by uncertainty in shortwave radiation and setting of the threshold air temperature parameter. Our approach is suitable to correct snowfall and estimate its distribution in poorly gauged basins, where elevation dependence of snowfall amount is strong.

  2. Correcting basin-scale snowfall in a mountainous basin using a distributed snowmelt model and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Adequate estimation of the spatial distribution of snowfall is critical in hydrologic modeling. However, this is a well-known problem in estimating basin-scale snowfall, especially in mountainous basins with data scarcity. This study focuses on correction and estimation of this spatial distribution, which considers topographic effects within the basin. A method is proposed that optimizes an altitude-based snowfall correction factor (Cfsnow). This is done through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed, multilayer energy and water balance-based snowmelt model (WEB-DHM-S) with observed discharge and remotely sensed snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Shuffled Complex Evolution - University of Arizona automatic search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal value of Cfsnow for minimum cumulative error in discharge and snow cover simulations. Discharge error is quantified by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and relative volume deviation, and snow cover error was estimated by pixel-by-pixel analysis. The study region is the heavily snow-fed Yagisawa Basin of the Upper Tone River in northeast Japan. First, the system was applied to one snow season (2002-2003), obtaining an optimized Cfsnow of 0.0007 m-1. For validation purposes, the optimized Cfsnow was implemented to correct snowfall in 2004, 2002 and 2001. Overall, the system was effective, implying improvements in correlation of simulated vs. observed discharge and snow cover. The 4 yr mean of basin-average snowfall for the corrected spatial snowfall distribution was 1160 mm (780 mm before correction). Execution of sensitivity runs against other model input and parameters indicated that Cfsnow could be affected by uncertainty in shortwave radiation and setting of the threshold air temperature parameter. Our approach is suitable to correct snowfall and estimate its distribution in poorly-gauged basins, where elevation dependence of snowfall amount is strong.

  3. Thermoregulation and microhabitat use in mountain butterflies of the genus Erebia: importance of fine-scale habitat heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Kleckova, Irena; Konvicka, Martin; Klecka, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Mountain butterflies have evolved efficient thermoregulation strategies enabling their survival in marginal conditions with short flight season and unstable weather. Understanding the importance of their behavioural thermoregulation by habitat use can provide novel information for predicting the fate of alpine Lepidoptera and other insects under ongoing climate change. We studied the link between microhabitat use and thermoregulation in adults of seven species of a butterfly genus Erebia co-occurring in the Austrian Alps. We captured individuals in the field and measured their body temperature in relation to microhabitat and air temperature. We asked whether closely related species regulate their body temperature differently, and if so, what is the effect of behaviour, species traits and individual traits on body to air and body to microhabitat temperature differences. Co-occurring species differed in mean body temperature. These differences were driven by active microhabitat selection by individuals and also by species-specific habitat preferences. Species inhabiting grasslands and rocks utilised warmer microclimates to maintain higher body temperature than woodland species. Under low air temperatures, species of rocky habitats heated up more effectively than species of grasslands and woodlands which allowed them to stay active in colder weather. Species morphology and individual traits play rather minor roles in the thermoregulatory differences; although large species and young individuals maintained higher body temperature. We conclude that diverse microhabitat conditions at small spatial scales probably contribute to sympatric occurrence of closely related species with different thermal demands and that preserving heterogeneous conditions in alpine landscapes might mitigate detrimental consequences of predicted climate change. PMID:24679972

  4. Major and Trace-Element Data from Stream-Sediment and Rock Samples Collected in the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-Scale Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Gregory K.; Mueller, Seth H.; Wang, Bronwen; Brown, Zoe Ann; Beischer, Greg A.

    2007-01-01

    In the summers of 2004, 2005, and 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the drainage basins throughout most of the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, in southwestern Alaska. The purpose of the study was to locate areas of potential interest for ore minerals, provide data that may be used to determine regional-scale element baselines, and provide data for the concurrent U.S. Geological Survey geologic mapping and mineral resource assessment effort. This report provides the stream-sediment sample data for the study.

  5. Evaluation of microbial stability, bioactive compounds, physicochemical properties, and consumer acceptance of pomegranate juice processed in a commercial scale pulsed electric field system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper investigated the feasibility for pasteurizing raw pomegranate juice in a commercial scale pulsed electric field (PEF) system. The juice was processed in a commercial scale PEF processing system at 35 and 38 kV/cm for 281 µs at 55 degree C with a flow rate of 100 L/h. Effect of PEF process...

  6. PROMET - Large scale distributed hydrological modelling to study the impact of climate change on the water flows of mountain watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauser, Wolfram; Bach, Heike

    2009-10-01

    SummaryClimate change will change availability, quality and allocation of regional water resources. Appropriate modelling tools should therefore be available to realistically describe reactions of watersheds to climate change and to identify efficient and effective adaptation strategies on the regional scale. The paper presents the hydrologic model PROMET (Processes of Radiation, Mass and Energy Transfer), which was developed within the GLOWA-Danube project as part of the decision support system DANUBIA. PROMET covers the coupled water and energy fluxes of large-scale ( A ˜ 100,000 km 2) watersheds. It is fully spatially distributed, raster-based with raster-elements of 1 km 2 area, runs on an hourly time step, strictly conserves mass and energy and is not calibrated using measured discharges. Details on the model concept and the individual model components are given. An application case of PROMET is given for the mountainous Upper-Danube watershed in Central Europe ( A = 77,000 km 2). The water resources are intensively utilized for hydropower, agriculture, industry and tourism. The water flows are significantly influenced by man-made structures like reservoirs and water diversions. A 33-years model run covering the period from 1971 to 2003 using the existing meteorological station network as input is used to validate the performance of PROMET against measured stream flow data. Three aspects of the model performance were validated with good to very good results: the annual variation of the water balance of the whole watershed and selected sub-watersheds, the daily runoff for the whole period at selected gauges and the annual flood peaks and low flows (minimum 7-days average). PROMET is used to investigate the impact of climate change on the water cycle of the Upper Danube. A stochastic climate generator is fed with two scenarios of climate development until 2060. One assumes no future temperature change, the other uses the temperature trends of the IPCC-A1B climate change scenario. PROMET is run with both climate data sets. No change in low-flow is detected when no temperature change is assumed. The IPCC-A1B climate scenario results in marked decreases of low-flow at the outlet of the watershed.

  7. Radiation Tests of Highly scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories--Update 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.

    2011-01-01

    High-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories with NAND architecture are now available from several manufacturers. This report examines SEE effects and TID response in single-level cell (SLC) 32Gb and multi-level cell (MLC) 64Gb NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology.

  8. Radiation Tests of Highly Scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories - Update 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.

    2010-01-01

    High-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories with NAND architecture are now available from several manufacturers. This report examines SEE effects and TID response in single-level cell (SLC) and multi-level cell (MLC) NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology.

  9. Evaluating Treatment Efficacy in Commercial Food Facilities: Insights Gained from Small-Scale Simulated Warehouse Experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although critical to a successful IPM program, it is challenging to evaluate treatment efficacy in commercial food facilities because of the inability to obtain absolute estimates of insect population levels. These populations are spatially fragmented and occupy cryptic habitats, such as equipment,...

  10. Evaluating treatment efficacy in commercial food facilities: Insights gained from small-scale simulated warehouse experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although critical to a successful IPM program, it is challenging to evaluate treatment efficacy in commercial food facilities because of the inability to obtain absolute estimates of insect population levels. These populations are spatial fragmented and occupy cryptic habitats such as equipment, pa...

  11. Using 10Be to quantify rates of landscape change in 'dead' orogens - millennial scale rates of bedrock and basin-scale erosion in the southern and central Appalachian Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierman, P. R.; Reusser, L.; Portenga, E.

    2011-12-01

    The Appalachian Mountain chain stretches north-south along the eastern margin of North America, in places rising a thousand meters and more above the adjacent piedmont. Here, Davis built his paradigm of landscape evolution, seeing landscape rejuvenation and dissected peneplains, a transient landscape. Hack saw the Appalachians as a dynamic system where topography was adjusted to rock strength, a steady-state landscape. Neither had quantitative data by which to test their theories. Today, we approach landscapes of the Appalachian Mountains quite differently. Over the past decade, we and others have measured in situ-produced 10Be in more than 300 samples of quartz isolated from Appalachian drainage basin sediments and in more than 100 samples from exposed Appalachian bedrock outcrops, most of which are on ridgelines. Samples have been collected from the Susquehanna, Potomac, and Shenandoah drainage basins as well as from the area around the Great Smoky Mountain National Park and the Blue Ridge escarpment, and from rivers draining from the Appalachians across the southeastern United States Piedmont. Most areas of the Appalachian Mountains are eroding only slowly; the average for all drainage basin samples analyzed to date is ~18 m/My (n=328). The highest basin-scale erosion rates, 25-70 m/My are found in the Appalachian Plateau and in the Great Smoky Mountains. Lower rates, on the order on 10-20 m/My, characterize the Shenandoah, Potomac, and Blue Ridge escarpment areas. There is a significant, positive relationship between basin-scale erosion rates and average basin slope. Steeper basins are in general eroding more rapidly than less steep basins. On the whole, the erosion rates of bedrock outcrops are either lower than or similar to those measured at a basin scale. The average erosion rate for samples of outcropping bedrock collected from the Appalachians is ~15 m/My (n=101). In the Potomac River Basin and the Great Smoky Mountains, bedrock and basin-scale erosion rates are similar implying long-term steady erosion consistent with dynamic steady state as advocated by Hack. However, in the Susquehanna drainage, basin scale erosion rates are significantly higher than those measured from outcrops suggesting that over time, relief is increasing. The Susquehanna River basin appears to be responding to a transient perturbation, ala Davis.

  12. Occurrence of Eimeria species parasites on small-scale commercial chicken farms in Africa and indication of economic profitability.

    PubMed

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P; Rushton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa. PMID:24391923

  13. Jumpstarting commercial-scale CO2 capture and storage with ethylene production and enhanced oil recovery in the US Gulf

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Middleton, Richard S.; Levine, Jonathan S.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Carey, J. William; Stauffer, Philip H.

    2015-04-27

    CO2 capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technology has yet to be widely deployed at a commercial scale despite multiple high-profile demonstration projects. We suggest that developing a large-scale, visible, and financially viable CCUS network could potentially overcome many barriers to deployment and jumpstart commercial-scale CCUS. To date, substantial effort has focused on technology development to reduce the costs of CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. Here, we propose that near-term investment could focus on implementing CO2 capture on facilities that produce high-value chemicals/products. These facilities can absorb the expected impact of the marginal increase in the cost of production onmore » the price of their product, due to the addition of CO2 capture, more than coal-fired power plants. A financially viable demonstration of a large-scale CCUS network requires offsetting the costs of CO2 capture by using the CO2 as an input to the production of market-viable products. As a result, we demonstrate this alternative development path with the example of an integrated CCUS system where CO2 is captured from ethylene producers and used for enhanced oil recovery in the U.S. Gulf Coast region.« less

  14. Occurrence of Eimeria Species Parasites on Small-Scale Commercial Chicken Farms in Africa and Indication of Economic Profitability

    PubMed Central

    Fornace, Kimberly M.; Clark, Emily L.; Macdonald, Sarah E.; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A.; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P.; Rushton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa. PMID:24391923

  15. Erosion measurements at various scales in a semi arid mountainous catchment - case of the Rheraya watershed, High Atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheggour, A.; Simonneaux, V.; Roose, E.

    2009-04-01

    Erosion is a critical phenomenon in North Africa, under the combined effects of aggressive rainfall and soil fragility, increased by the grazing pressure on rangelands. However measurements of actual erosion rates are rare, especially in mountainous areas. Siltation of dams is estimated at more than 60 million m3 annually in Morocco, which corresponds to a decrease of 0.5% of the storage capacity. The Rheraya watershed (225 km2) is located in a semi-arid climat, in the High Atlas of Morocco. In order to assess erosion processes at various scales, three types of measurements were achieved on this area, namely rainfall simulation tests one square meter, erosion plots on 150 m2, and catchment's discharge and associated sediments measurements. Rainfall simulation experiments were achieved on 27 sites, measuring runoff and sediment charge. The turbidity was correctly measured thanks to the development of a new runoff collector which doesn't disturb the soil. In the scope of spatial extrapolation, we searched for indicators obtained from ground description variables and/or by laboratory tests on soil samples, which were well correlated with infiltration and turbidity of the simulations. For the various soils present in the study area, the results show a large variability of infiltration (from 1 to 70 mm h-1) and turbidity (from 3 to 325 g.l-1). Analysis showed that infiltration is correlated mainly with texture and soil surface opening, and that turbidity is related to the surface of bare soil exposed to runoff. Six erosion plots of about 150 m2, located on various soil and land cover conditions, were measured during four years. The observations showed very rare runoff events in the main part of the watershed, producing a low sediment load (between 0.015 and 2.5 t.ha1.year1). Conversely, runoff was much more frequent on silty badlands, producing about 95% of the watershed sediment (350 t.ha-1.year-1) despite their area was only 1% of the watershed. There was a significant linear relation between simulation turbidity and erosion plot turbidity. However, there was a great difference between infiltration estimates from the two types of measurements. Plot infiltrations estimates were only between 3 and 5 mm/h, but they were significantly correlated to the one from test, through an exponential relation. Finally, an estimate of the overall erosion at catchment's scale was achieved from plots values extrapolated using a soil map, and gave about 3 to 4 t.ha-1.year-1. A good correlation was found between this watershed scale estimate and the catchment's exportation, indirectly validating the significance of both measurements. Moreover, both estimates were about the same, showing a sediment delivery ratio around one. Keywords: erosion, rainfall simulation, erosion plot, sediment exportation

  16. Generating local scale land use/cover change scenarios: case studies of high-risk mountain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas; Boerboom, Luc

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between land use/cover changes and consequences to human well-being is well acknowledged and has led to higher interest of both researchers and decision makers in driving forces and consequences of such changes. For example, removal of natural vegetation cover or urban expansion resulting in new elements at risk can increase hydro-meteorological risk. This is why it is necessary to study how the land use/cover could evolve in the future. Emphasis should especially be given to areas experiencing, or expecting, high rates of socio-economic change. A suitable approach to address these changes is scenario development; it offers exploring possible futures and the corresponding environmental consequences, and aids decision-making, as it enables to analyse possible options. Scenarios provide a creative methodology to depict possible futures, resulting from existing decisions, based on different assumptions of future socio-economic development. They have been used in various disciplines and on various scales, such as flood risk and soil erosion. Several studies have simulated future scenarios of land use/cover changes at a very high success rate, however usually these approaches are tailor made for specific case study areas and fit to available data. This study presents a multi-step scenario generation framework, which can be transferable to other local scale case study areas, taking into account the case study specific consequences of land use/cover changes. Through the use of experts' and decision-makers' knowledge, we aimed to develop a framework with the following characteristics: (1) it enables development of scenarios that are plausible, (2) it can overcome data inaccessibility, (3) it can address intangible and external driving forces of land use/cover change, and (4) it ensures transferability to other local scale case study areas with different land use/cover change processes and consequences. To achieve this, a set of different methods is applied including: qualitative methods such as interviews, group discussions and fuzzy cognitive mapping to identify land use/cover change processes, their driving forces and possible consequences, and final scenario generation; and geospatial methods such as GIS, geostatistics and environmental modeling in an environment for geoprocessing objects (Dinamica EGO) for spatial allocation of these scenarios. The methods were applied in the Italian Alps and the Romanian Carpathians. Both are mountainous areas, however they differ in terms of past and most likely future socio-economic development, and therefore consequent land use/cover changes. Whereas we focused on urban expansion due to tourism development in the Alps, we focused on possible deforestation trajectories in the Carpathians. In both areas, the recognized most significant driving forces were either not covered by accessible data, or were characterized as intangible. With the proposed framework we were able to generate futures scenarios despite these shortcomings, and enabling the transferability of the method.

  17. High-throughput cryopreservation of spermatozoa of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus): establishment of an approach for commercial-scale processing

    PubMed Central

    Hu, E; Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid catfish created by crossing of female channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and male blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are being used increasingly in foodfish aquaculture because of their fast growth and efficient food conversion. However, the availability of blue catfish males is limited, and their peak spawning is at a different time than that of the channel catfish. As such, cryopreservation of sperm of blue catfish could improve production of hybrid catfish, and has been studied in the laboratory and tested for feasibility in a commercial dairy bull cryopreservation facility. However, an approach for commercially relevant production of cryopreserved blue catfish sperm is still needed. The goal of this study was to develop practical approaches for commercial-scale sperm cryopreservation of blue catfish by use of an automated high-throughput system (MAPI, CryoBioSystem Co.). The objectives were to: 1) refine cooling rate and cryoprotectant concentration, and evaluate their interactions; 2) evaluate the effect of sperm concentration on cryopreservation; 3) refine cryoprotectant concentration based on the highest effective sperm concentration; 4) compare the effect of thawing samples at 20 C or 40 C; 5) evaluate the fertility of thawed sperm at a research scale by fertilizing with channel catfish eggs; 6) test the post-thaw motility and fertility of sperm from individual males in a commercial setting, and 7) test for correlation of cryopreservation results with biological indices used for male evaluation. The optimal cooling rate was 5 C/min (Micro Digitcool, IMV) for high-throughput cryopreservation using CBS high-biosecurity 0.5-ml straws with 10% methanol, and a concentration of 1 109 sperm/ml. There was no difference in post-thaw motility when samples were thawed at 20 C for 40 s or 40 C for 20 s. After fertilization, the percentage of neurulation (Stage V embryos) was 80 21%, and percentage of embryonic mobility (Stage VI embryo) was 51 22%. There was a significant difference among the neurulation values produced by thawed blue catfish sperm, fresh blue catfish sperm (P = 0.010) and channel catfish sperm (P = 0.023), but not for Stage VI embryos (P ? 0.585). Cryopreserved sperm from ten males did not show significant variation in post-thaw motility or fertility at the neurulation stage. This study demonstrates that the protocol established for high-throughput cryopreservation of blue catfish sperm can provide commercially relevant quantities and quality of sperm with stable fertility for hybrid catfish production and provides a model for establishment of commercial-scale approaches for other aquatic species. PMID:21176772

  18. High-throughput cryopreservation of spermatozoa of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus): Establishment of an approach for commercial-scale processing.

    PubMed

    Hu, E; Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2011-02-01

    Hybrid catfish created by crossing of female channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and male blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are being used increasingly in foodfish aquaculture because of their fast growth and efficient food conversion. However, the availability of blue catfish males is limited, and their peak spawning is at a different time than that of the channel catfish. As such, cryopreservation of sperm of blue catfish could improve production of hybrid catfish, and has been studied in the laboratory and tested for feasibility in a commercial dairy bull cryopreservation facility. However, an approach for commercially relevant production of cryopreserved blue catfish sperm is still needed. The goal of this study was to develop practical approaches for commercial-scale sperm cryopreservation of blue catfish by use of an automated high-throughput system (MAPI, CryoBioSystem Co.). The objectives were to: (1) refine cooling rate and cryoprotectant concentration, and evaluate their interactions; (2) evaluate the effect of sperm concentration on cryopreservation; (3) refine cryoprotectant concentration based on the highest effective sperm concentration; (4) compare the effect of thawing samples at 20 or 40C; (5) evaluate the fertility of thawed sperm at a research scale by fertilizing with channel catfish eggs; (6) test the post-thaw motility and fertility of sperm from individual males in a commercial setting, and (7) test for correlation of cryopreservation results with biological indices used for male evaluation. The optimal cooling rate was 5C/min (Micro Digitcool, IMV) for high-throughput cryopreservation using CBS high-biosecurity 0.5-ml straws with 10% methanol, and a concentration of 110(9)sperm/ml. There was no difference in post-thaw motility when samples were thawed at 20C for 40s or 40C for 20s. After fertilization, the percentage of neurulation (Stage V embryos) was 8021%, and percentage of embryonic mobility (Stage VI embryo) was 5122%. There was a significant difference among the neurulation values produced by thawed blue catfish sperm, fresh blue catfish sperm (P=0.010) and channel catfish sperm (P=0.023), but not for Stage VI embryos (P?0.585). Cryopreserved sperm from ten males did not show significant variation in post-thaw motility or fertility at the neurulation stage. This study demonstrates that the protocol established for high-throughput cryopreservation of blue catfish sperm can provide commercially relevant quantities and quality of sperm with stable fertility for hybrid catfish production and provides a model for establishment of commercial-scale approaches for other aquatic species. PMID:21176772

  19. Multi-Scale Influences of Climate, Spatial Pattern, and Positive Feedback on 20th Century Tree Establishment at Upper Treeline in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    The influences of 20th century climate, spatial pattern of tree establishment, and positive feedback were assessed to gain a more holistic understanding of how broad scale abiotic and local scale biotic components interact to govern upper treeline ecotonal dynamics along a latitudinal gradient (ca. 35N-45N) in the Rocky Mountains. Study sites (n = 22) were in the Bighorn, Medicine Bow, Front Range, and Sangre de Cristo mountain ranges. Dendroecological techniques were used for a broad scale analysis of climate at treeline. Five-year age-structure classes were compared with identical five-year bins of 20th century climate data using Spearmans rank correlation and regime shift analysis. Local scale biotic interactions capable of ameliorating broad scale climate inputs through positive feedback were examined by using Ripleys K to determine the spatial patterns of tree establishment above timberline. Significant correlations (p < 0.01) between tree establishment and climate were confined to the Front Range, where a positive correlation exists with summer (June-Aug) and cool season (Nov-Apr) temperature range (Tmax-Tmin). Additionally, trees in the Front Range are almost exclusively situated in a random spatial pattern above timberline (4/5 sites). Random spatial patterns imply that positive feedback is of minimal importance and that trees are more closely aligned with broad scale changes in abiotic conditions. This tight coupling between climate and treeline vegetation in the Front Range helps explain synchronous ecological (tree establishment) and climate regime shifts (temperature) during the early 1950s. Similar to the Front Range, a majority of trees at upper treeline in the Bighorn Mountains are in a random spatial pattern, but their existence appears to be dependent on shelter availability in the lee of boulders. This contingency helps explain the lag time between a regime shift to more favorable temperatures and subsequent peaks in tree establishment. The Medicine Bow and Sangre de Cristo Mountains primarily contain clustered spatial patterns of trees above timberline, which indicates a strong reliance on the amelioration of abiotic conditions through positive feedback with nearby vegetation. Although clustered spatial patterns likely originate in response to harsh abiotic conditions such as drought or constant strong winds, the local scale biotic interactions within a clustered formation of trees appears to override the immediate influence of broad scale climate. This is evidenced both by a lack of significant correlations between tree establishment and climate in these mountain ranges, as well as the considerable lag times between initial climate regime shifts and corresponding shifts in tree age structure. Taken together, this research suggests that the influence of broad scale climate on upper treeline ecotonal dynamics is contingent on the local scale spatial patterns of tree establishment and related influences of positive feedback. These findings have global implications for our understanding of how vegetation patterns will respond to various global climate change scenarios.

  20. A multi-scale analysis of streamflow response to changes in evapotranspiration and soil hydrology in the Blue Ridge Mountains

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large amount of research exploring the relationship between watershed forest cover and streamflow quantity has been conducted in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, particularly in association with the USFS Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and the Coweeta LTER. However, a clear ans...

  1. Catchment-scale distribution of radiocesium air dose rate in a mountainous deciduous forest and its relation to topography.

    PubMed

    Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Koarashi, Jun; Takeuchi, Erina; Tsuduki, Katsunori; Nishimura, Syusaku; Matsunaga, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    A large number of air dose rate measurements were collected by walking through a mountainous area with a small gamma-ray survey system, KURAMA-II. The data were used to map the air dose rate of a mountainous deciduous forest that received radiocesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Measurements were conducted in a small stream catchment (0.6 km(2) in area) in August and September 2013, and the relationship between air dose rates and the mountainous topography was examined. Air dose rates increased with elevation, indicating that more radiocesium was deposited on ridges, and suggesting that it had remained there for 2.5 y with no significant downslope migration by soil erosion or water drainage. Orientation in relation to the dominant winds when the radioactive plume flowed to the catchment also strongly affected the air dose rates. Based on our continuous measurements using the KURAMA-II, we describe the variation in air dose rates in a mountainous forest area and suggest that it is important to consider topography when determining sampling points and resolution to assess the spatial variability of dose rates and contaminant deposition. PMID:26005183

  2. Intergrated snow, soil and water-balance measurement strategy for multi-scale environmental observations in mountain areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The building of multiscale environmental observatory networks is a critical step in addressing the woefully inadequate observational infrastructure and understanding of mountain water balances. These networks will support science questions that need estimates of water reservoirs and fluxes at the po...

  3. The effect of scale on gene expression: commercial versus laboratory wine fermentations.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, Debra; Jolly, Neil; Jacobson, Dan; Bauer, Florian F

    2012-02-01

    Molecular and cellular processes that are responsible for industrially relevant phenotypes of fermenting microorganisms are a central focus of biotechnological research. Such research intends to generate insights and solutions for fermentation-based industries with regards to issues such as improving product yield or the quality of the final fermentation product. For logistical reasons, and to ensure data reproducibility, such research is mostly carried out in defined or synthetic media and in small-scale fermentation vessels. Two questions are frequently raised regarding the applicability of this approach to solve problems experienced in industrial fermentations: (1) Is synthetic medium a sufficiently accurate approximation of the generally more complex natural (and frequently highly variable) substrates that are employed in most fermentation-based industries, and (2) can results obtained in small-scale laboratory fermentations be extrapolated to large-scale industrial environments? Here, we address the second question through a comparative transcriptomic approach by assessing the response of an industrial wine yeast strain fermenting a natural grape juice in small-scale laboratory and large-scale industrial conditions. In yeast, transcriptome analysis is arguably the best available tool to holistically assess the physiological state of a population and its response to changing environmental conditions. The data suggest that scale does indeed impact on some environmental parameters such as oxygen availability. However, the data show that small-scale fermentations nevertheless accurately reflect general molecular processes and adaptations during large-scale fermentation and that extrapolation of laboratory datasets to real industrial processes can be justified. PMID:21931974

  4. Single-Event Upset and Scaling Trends in New Generation of the Commercial SOI PowerPC Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; Kouba, Coy K.

    2006-01-01

    SEU from heavy-ions is measured for SOI PowerPC microprocessors. Results for 0.13 micron PowerPC with 1.1V core voltages increases over 1.3V versions. This suggests that improvement in SEU for scaled devices may be reversed. In recent years there has been interest in the possible use of unhardened commercial microprocessors in space because of their superior performance compared to hardened processors. However, unhardened devices are susceptible to upset from radiation space. More information is needed on how they respond to radiation before they can be used in space. Only a limited number of advanced microprocessors have been subjected to radiation tests, which are designed with lower clock frequencies and higher internal core voltage voltages than recent devices [1-6]. However the trend for commercial Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessors is to reduce feature size and internal core voltage and increase the clock frequency. Commercial microprocessors with the PowerPC architecture are now available that use partially depleted SOI processes with feature size of 90 nm and internal core voltage as low as 1.0 V and clock frequency in the GHz range. Previously, we reported SEU measurements for SOI commercial PowerPCs with feature size of 0.18 and 0.13 m [7, 8]. The results showed an order of magnitude reduction in saturated cross section compared to CMOS bulk counterparts. This paper examines SEUs in advanced commercial SOI microprocessors, focusing on SEU sensitivity of D-Cache and hangs with feature size and internal core voltage. Results are presented for the Motorola SOI processor with feature sizes of 0.13 microns and internal core voltages of 1.3 and 1.1 V. These results are compared with results for the Motorola SOI processors with feature size of 0.18 microns and internal core voltage of 1.6 and 1.3 V.

  5. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  6. SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION FOR THE PORT OF NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

    1999-07-01

    Decontamination and beneficial use of dredged material is a component of a comprehensive Dredged Material Management Plan for the Port of New York and New Jersey. The authors describe here a regional contaminated sediment decontamination program that is being implemented to meet the needs of the Port. The components of the train include: (1) dredging and preliminary physical processing (materials handling), (2) decontamination treatment, (3) beneficial use, and (4) public outreach. Several types of treatment technologies suitable for use with varying levels of sediment contamination have been selected based on the results of bench- and pilot-scale tests. This work is being conducted under the auspices of the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA). The use of sediment washing is suitable for sediments with low to moderate contamination levels, typical of industrialized waterways. BioGenesis Enterprises and Roy F. Weston, Inc. performed the first phase of an incremental decontamination demonstration with the goal of decontaminating 700 cubic yards (cy) (pilot-scale) for engineering design and cost economics information for commercial scale operations. This pilot test was completed in March, 1999. The next phase will scale-up to operation of a commercial facility capable of treating 40 cy/hr. It is anticipated that this will be completed by January 2000 (250,000 cy/yr). Manufactured topsoil is one beneficial use product from this process. Tests of two high-temperature treatment technologies are also in progress. They are well suited to produce almost complete destruction of organic compounds in moderate to highly contaminated dredged materials and for production of high-value beneficial reuse products. The Institute of Gas Technology is demonstrating a natural gas-fired thermochemical manufacturing process with an initial treatment capacity of 30,000 cy/yr into operation by the fall of 1999. Design and construction of a 100,000 cy/yr facility will be based on the operational results obtained from the demonstration facility. The decontaminated dredged material will be converted to a construction-grade cement. Prior bench- and pilot-scale tests showed that this treatment removes 99.99% of the organic contaminants and immobilizes the metals. The Westinghouse Science and Technology Center has demonstrated use of a high-temperature plasma to achieve 99.99% removal efficiencies for organic contaminants while immobilizing metals in a glass matrix. It was shown that a glass product such as tiles or fibers can be produced and that it can be used for manufacturing high quality glass tiles on a commercial scale.

  7. THE TESTING OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ENGINEERING AND PLANT SCALE ANNULAR CENTRIFUGAL CONTACTORS FOR THE PROCESSING OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Nick Mann; Scott Herbst

    2006-10-01

    Annular centrifugal contactors are being evaluated for process scale solvent extraction operations in support of United State Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative goals. These contactors have the potential for high stage efficiency if properly employed and optimized for the application. Commercially available centrifugal contactors are being tested at the Idaho National Laboratory to support this program. Hydraulic performance and mass transfer efficiency have been measured for portions of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle using 5-cm diameter annular centrifugal contactors. Advanced features, including low mix sleeves and clean-in-place rotors, have also been evaluated in 5-cm and 12.5-cm contactors.

  8. Removal of Salmonella Enteritidis from commercial unpasteurized liquid egg white using pilot scale crossflow tangential microfiltration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of a pilot-scale cross-flow microfiltration (MF) process for removal of Salmonella enteritidis from liquid egg white (LEW) was evaluated. To facilitate MF, 110 L of unpasteurized LEW from a local egg breaking plant was first wedge screened, homogenized and then diluted (1:2 w/w) w...

  9. Barriers to commercialization of large-scale solar electricity: Lessions learned from the LUZ experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lotker, M.

    1991-11-01

    This report discusses the economic and policy factors leading to the initial successful introduction of Luz International Limited`s Solar Electric Generating Systems (SEGS). It then addresses the wide range of barriers to continued SEGS commercialization, including state and federal tax policy, avoided cost energy pricing, artificial size limitations under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), the loss of effectiveness of PURPA itself, the lack of incentives available to utilities as owners of solar electric plants, and the limited ways in which the environmental benefits of this technology have been recognized. The way in which each of these barriers contributed to the suspension of new LUZ projects is highlighted. In addition, mitigation approaches to each of these barriers are suggested.

  10. Radiation Tests of Highly Scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories - Update 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Allen, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    The space radiation environment poses a certain risk to all electronic components on Earth-orbiting and planetary mission spacecraft. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of high-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories in space because of ever-increasing data volumes and strict power requirements. They are used in a wide variety of spacecraft subsystems. At one end of the spectrum, flash memories are used to store small amounts of mission-critical data such as boot code or configuration files and, at the other end, they are used to construct multi-gigabyte data recorders that record mission science data. This report examines single-event effect (SEE) and total ionizing dose (TID) response in single-level cell (SLC) 32-Gb, multi-level cell (MLC) 64-Gb, and Triple-level (TLC) 64-Gb NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology with feature size of 25 nm.

  11. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  12. Preliminary 3-D site-scale studies of radioactive colloid transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Moridis, G J; Hu, Q; Wu, Y-S; Bodvarsson, G S

    2003-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is actively investigating the technical feasibility of permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. In this study we investigate, by means of numerical simulation, the transport of radioactive colloids under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table. The site hydrology and the effects of the spatial distribution of hydraulic and transport properties in the Yucca Mountain subsurface are considered. The study of migration and retardation of colloids accounts for the complex processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, and includes advection, diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion, kinetic colloid filtration, colloid straining, and radioactive decay. The results of the study indicate that the most important factors affecting colloid transport are the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The transport of colloids is strongly influenced by their size (as it affects diffusion into the matrix, straining at hydrogeologic unit interfaces, and transport velocity) and by the parameters of the kinetic-filtration model used for the simulations. Arrival times at the water table decrease with an increasing colloid size because of smaller diffusion, increased straining, and higher transport velocities. The importance of diffusion as a retardation mechanism increases with a decreasing colloid size, but appears to be minimal in large colloids. PMID:12504362

  13. Preliminary 3-D site-scale studies of radioactive colloid transortin the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, G.J.; Hu, Q.; Wu, Y.-S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S: Department of Energy is actively investigating the technical feasibility of permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this study we investigate, by means of numerical simulation, the transport of radioactive colloids under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table. The site hydrology and the effects of the spatial distribution of hydraulic and transport properties in the Yucca Mountain subsurface are considered. The study of migration and retardation of colloids accounts for the complex processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, and includes advection, diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion, kinetic colloid filtration, colloid straining, and radioactive decay. The results of the study indicate that the most important factors affecting colloid transport are the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The transport of colloids is strongly influenced by their size (as it affects diffusion into the matrix, straining at hydrogeologic unit interfaces, and transport velocity) and by the parameters of the kinetic-filtration model used for the simulations. Arrival times at the water table decrease with an increasing colloid size because of smaller diffusion, increased straining, and higher transport velocities. The importance of diffusion as a retardation mechanism increases with a decreasing colloid size, but appears to be minimal in large colloids.

  14. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D.; Shevenell, L., Garside, L.

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

  15. Large-scale commercial combustion systems for producing energy from municipal solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-02-01

    The large scale combustion systems available on the US market today that use MSW only as fuel are reviewed. Its purpose is to provide waste to energy project participants with basic technical information to facilitate an understanding of the operation and performance of the technologies employed. General technical descriptions of the two types of large scale systems, mass burning and refuel derived fuel burning, are presented. Performance characteristics of each system, based on material and energy balances, are discussed. A description of the typical energy product options (steam only, cogeneration of steam and electricity, or ejectricity only) that may be considered for both types of systems depending on the available market(s) for energy is included. The sources and types of emissions from these systems (air, water, ash and other residue, noise, and odor) are discussed.

  16. System Evaluation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a Commercial-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-11-01

    Results of a system evaluation and lifecycle cost analysis are presented for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) central hydrogen production plant. The plant design relies on grid electricity to power the electrolysis process and system components, and industrial natural gas to provide process heat. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate the reference central plant design capable of producing 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen. The HYSYS software performs mass and energy balances across all components to allow optimization of the design using a detailed process flow sheet and realistic operating conditions specified by the analyst. The lifecycle cost analysis was performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes Microsoft Excel spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. The results of the lifecycle analyses indicate that for a 10% internal rate of return, a large central commercial-scale hydrogen production plant can produce 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen at an average cost of $2.68/kg. When the cost of carbon sequestration is taken into account, the average cost of hydrogen production increases by $0.40/kg to $3.08/kg.

  17. Process Development of Adenoviral Vector Production in Fixed Bed Bioreactor: From Bench to Commercial Scale.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Hanna P; Heikkil, Kati M; Lipponen, Eevi M; Valonen, Piia; Mller, Achim; Rsnen, Eva; Tuunanen, Tarja; Hassinen, Minna M; Parker, Nigel; Karhinen, Minna; Shaw, Robert; Yl-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-08-01

    Large-scale vector manufacturing for phase III and beyond has proven to be challenging. Upscaling the process with suspension cells is increasingly feasible, but many viral production applications are still applicable only in adherent settings. Scaling up the adherent system has proven to be troublesome. The iCELLis() disposable fixed-bed bioreactors offer a possible option for viral vector manufacturing in large quantities in an adherent environment. In this study, we have optimized adenovirus serotype 5 manufacturing using iCELLis Nano with a cultivation area up to 4?m(2). HEK293 cell cultivation, infection, and harvest of the virus (by lysing the cells inside the bioreactor) proved possible, reaching total yield of up to 1.610(14) viral particles (vp)/batch. The iCELLis 500 is designed to satisfy demand for large-scale requirements. Inoculating a large quantity of cell mass into the iCELLis 500 was achieved by first expanding the cell mass in suspension. Upscaling the process into an iCELLis 500/100?m(2) cultivation area cassette was practical and produced up to 6.110(15) vp. Flask productivity per cm(2) in iCELLis Nano and iCELLis 500 was in the same range. As a conclusion, we showed for the first time that iCELLis 500 equipment has provided an effective way to manufacture large batches of adenoviral vectors. PMID:26176404

  18. Field and temperature scaling of the critical current density in commercial REBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senatore, Carmine; Barth, Christian; Bonura, Marco; Kulich, Miloslav; Mondonico, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Scaling relations describing the electromagnetic behaviour of coated conductors (CCs) greatly simplify the design of REBCO-based devices. The performance of REBCO CCs is strongly influenced by fabrication route, conductor architecture and materials, and these parameters vary from one manufacturer another. In the present work we have examined the critical surface for the current density, J c(T, B, θ), of coated conductors from six different manufacturers: American Superconductor Co. (US), Bruker HTS GmbH (Germany), Fujikura Ltd (Japan), SuNAM Co. Ltd (Korea), SuperOx ZAO (Russia) and SuperPower Inc. (US). Electrical transport and magnetic measurements were performed at temperatures between 4.2 K and 77 K and in magnetic fields of up to 19 T. Experiments were conducted at three different orientations of the field with respect to the crystallographic c-axis of the REBCO layer, θ = 0°, 45° and 90°, in order to probe the angular anisotropy of J c. In spite of the large variability of the CCs’ performance, we show here that field and temperature dependences of J c at a given angle can be reproduced over wide ranges using a scaling relation based only on three parameters. Furthermore, we present and validate a new approach combining magnetic and transport measurements for the determination of the scaling parameters with minimal experimental effort.

  19. Circulating regeneration and resource recovery of flue gas desulfurization residuals using a membrane electroreactor: from lab concept to commercial scale.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenglei; Hu, Ying; Cao, Limei; Yang, Ji

    2012-10-16

    Desulfurization residuals (using NaOH sorbent) were regenerated electrochemically, and at the same time sulfur in the flue gas was recovered as H(2)SO(4) and H(2) was produced as a clean energy. Since industrialization should always be the final goal to pursue for lab technologies and the evolution of pilot- and full-scale commercial reactors has taken place relatively slowly, this paper is aimed to develop an electroreactor on a sufficiently large scale to evaluate the application potential of the proposed regeneration process. The following key design parameters are discussed: (1) voltage distributions over electrode, membrane, and electrolyte; and (2) scaling up correlation based on lab-scale reactor operation parameters. Thereafter, in the developed reactor, the desulfurization residuals using NaOH sorbent from a semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) facility of a power plant in Shandong Province were regenerated and it is significant to note that the electrochemical efficiency of the designed reactor is comparable to that of the chlor-alkali industry, showing that the technology is environmentally friendly and economically feasible. If this technology is to be employed for FGD, the facility could be a profit-generating manufacturing part instead of a currently money-consuming burden for the plants. PMID:22974141

  20. Decadal-scale variability of diffuse CO2 emissions and seismicity revealed from long-term monitoring (1995-2013) at Mammoth Mountain, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Cynthia; Bergfeld, Deborah; Farrar, Christopher D.; Doukas, Michael P.; Kelly, Peter J.; Kern, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    Mammoth Mountain, California, is a dacitic volcano that has experienced several periods of unrest since 1989. The onset of diffuse soil CO2 emissions at numerous locations on the flanks of the volcano began in 1989-1990 following an 11-month period of heightened seismicity. CO2 emission rates were measured yearly from 1995 to 2013 at Horseshoe Lake (HSL), the largest tree kill area on Mammoth Mountain, and measured intermittently at four smaller degassing areas around Mammoth from 2006 to 2013. The long-term record at HSL shows decadal-scale variations in CO2 emissions with two peaks in 2000-2001 and 2011-2012, both of which follow peaks in seismicity by 2-3 years. Between 2000 and 2004 emissions gradually declined during a seismically quiet period, and from 2004 to 2009 were steady at ~ 100 metric tonnes per day (t d- 1). CO2 emissions at the four smaller tree-kill areas also increased by factors of 2-3 between 2006 and 2011-2012, demonstrating a mountain-wide increase in degassing. Delays between the peaks in seismicity and degassing have been observed at other volcanic and hydrothermal areas worldwide, and are thought to result from an injection of deep CO2-rich fluid into shallow subsurface reservoirs causing a pressurization event with a delayed transport to the surface. Such processes are consistent with previous studies at Mammoth, and here we highlight (1) the mountain-wide response, (2) the characteristic delay of 2-3 years, and (3) the roughly decadal reoccurrence interval for such behavior. Our best estimate of total CO2 degassing from Mammoth Mountain was 416 t d- 1 in 2011 during the peak of emissions, over half of which was emitted from HSL. The cumulative release of CO2 between 1995 and 2013 from diffuse emissions is estimated to be ~ 2-3 Mt, and extrapolation back to 1989 gives ~ 4.8 Mt. This amount of CO2 release is similar to that produced by the mid-sized (VEI 3) 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano in Alaska (~ 2.3 Mt over 11 months), and significantly lower than long-term emissions from hydrothermal areas such as Solfatara in Campi Flegrei, Italy (16 Mt over 28 years).

  1. Scaling the Problem: How Commercial Interests Have Influenced the U.S. Dialogue on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, G. T.; Rogerson, P.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, corporations and their affiliates have played an increasing role in the national conversation on climate change, with companies weighing in not only on policy debates but also participating in discussions around climate science. A few of these companies in particular have been tremendously influential in dictating how the public understands, or misunderstands, climate science and how the national discourse on climate policy has progressed, or not progressed. To better understand this corporate involvement, we explored the roles that major corporate actors have played during a key time period in 2009 and 2010 when several important climate change policy proposals were being actively debated in the United States. Analyzing multiple venues in which companies engaged in discussion of climate change with different audiencesincluding the government, shareholders, and the publicwe assess the degree to which commercial interests have helped or hindered a science-based public discourse on climate policy in the past decade. Discussion will focus especially on corporations' use of third party organizations, including industry trade groups, think tanks, and others, to exert influence on climate-related policy without accountability.

  2. Characterization of the alumina scale formed on a commercial MCrAlYHfSi coating

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Kinga A; Pint, Bruce A

    2010-01-01

    A commercial NiCoCrAlYHfSi coating deposited on a Ni-base superalloy substrate was characterized before and after high temperature oxidation. The combination of Y, Hf and Si additions are reported to improve coating performance. Advanced characterization techniques including scanning transmission electron microscopy were used to study the segregation behavior of Y and Hf ions to the alumina grain boundaries after 200h at 1050 C and 100 and 200h exposures at 1100 C. After both exposure times, two distinct oxide layers were observed. The outer transient layer included many Y- and Hf-rich oxide particles. The inner layer consisted of columnar -Al2O3 grains normal to the surface of the coating. Segregation of Y and Hf ions was found on the alumina grain boundaries as has been observed in model alloys with similar compositions. Isothermal exposures for up to 200h at 1050 and 1100 C caused a minimal increase in surface roughness. However, 200 one-hour cycles at 1100 C resulted in a more significant increase in surface roughness.

  3. Characterization of the alumina scale formed on a commercial MCrAlYHfSi coating

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Kinga A; Pint, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    A commercial NiCoCrAlYHfSi coating deposited on a Ni-base superalloy substrate was characterized before and after high temperature oxidation. The combination of Y, Hf and Si additions is reported to improve coating performance. Advanced characterization techniques including scanning-transmission electron microscopy were used to study the segregation behavior of Y and Hf ions to the alumina grain boundaries after 200 h at 1050 C and 100 and 200 h exposures at 1100 C. After both exposure times, two distinct oxide layers were observed. The outer transient layer included many Y- and Hf-rich oxide particles. The inner layer consisted of columnar -Al2O3 grains normal to the surface of the coating. Segregation of Y and Hf ions was found on the alumina grain boundaries as has been observed in model alloys with similar compositions. Isothermal exposures for up to 200 h at 1050 and 1100 C caused a minimal increase in surface roughness. However, 200 1-h cycles at 1100 C resulted in a more significant increase in surface roughness.

  4. Full-Scale Structural and NDI Validation Tests of Bonded Composite Doublers for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

    1999-02-01

    Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. Most of the concerns surrounding composite doubler technology pertain to long-term survivability, especially in the presence of non-optimum installations, and the validation of appropriate inspection procedures. This report focuses on a series of full-scale structural and nondestructive inspection (NDI) tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Full-scale tests were conducted on fuselage panels cut from retired aircraft. These full-scale tests studied stress reductions, crack mitigation, and load transfer capabilities of composite doublers using simulated flight conditions of cabin pressure and axial stress. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of aircraft structure repairs were subjected to extreme tension, shear and bending loads to examine the composite laminate's resistance to disbond and delamination flaws. Several of the structures were loaded to failure in order to determine doubler design margins. Nondestructive inspections were conducted throughout the test series in order to validate appropriate techniques on actual aircraft structure. The test results showed that a properly designed and installed composite doubler is able to enhance fatigue life, transfer load away from damaged structure, and avoid the introduction of new stress risers (i.e. eliminate global reduction in the fatigue life of the structure). Comparisons with test data obtained prior to the doubler installation revealed that stresses in the parent material can be reduced 30%--60% through the use of the composite doubler. Tests to failure demonstrated that the bondline is able to transfer plastic strains into the doubler and that the parent aluminum skin must experience significant yield strains before any damage to the doubler will occur.

  5. Single-event upset in highly scaled commercial silicon-on-insulator PowerPc microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad H.

    2004-01-01

    Single event upset effects from heavy ions are measured for Motorola and IBM silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessors with different feature sizes, and core voltages. The results are compared with results for similar devices with build substrates. The cross sections of the SOI processors are lower than their bulk counterparts, but the threshold is about the same, even though the charge collections depth is more than an order of magnitude smaller in the SOI devices. The scaling of the cross section with reduction of feature size and core voltage dependence for SOI microprocessors discussed.

  6. 76 FR 17406 - Postponement of Public Hearing on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Postponement of Public Hearing on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project, Mason County, WV AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Postponement of public hearing. NOTICE: The...

  7. Hydrological and Geomorphological impacts of land cover changes at different spatial scales. An introduction to ecosystem services from Mediterranean mountainous landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garca-Ruiz, J. M.; Lana-Renault, N.

    2012-04-01

    The main characteristic of the Mediterranean mountainous areas is the dramatic land use/land cover change that has significant hydrological and geomorphic consequences regardless of the scale considered. At the end of the 19th Century, depopulation and the modernization of the agricultural systems resulted in a generalized farmland abandonment in the hillslopes (both sloping and bench terraced fields, and shifting agriculture fields), and a reduction in livestock numbers, leading to a complex process of plant re-colonization, depending on soil characteristics, climate and the pre- and post-management of the hillslopes. The primary consequences are evident at the plot scale, where plant re-colonization has caused a rapid decrease in overland flow and soil loss. At the catchment scale, a decrease in sediment sources and channel incision in the secondary streams have been detected. At the regional scale, forests and shrubs cover a large part of the territory, where fifty or eighty years ago the cereal fields and communities of open shrubs prevailed on steep slopes. The most relevant consequences include the progressive lowering in the discharge of rivers, the lower sediment silting in the reservoirs (what increases the useful life of such infrastructures), the improvement of the water quality in the rivers, the decrease in the frequency of the most frequent floods, and changes in channel morphology, with, in general, the enlargement of riparian forests. Moreover, plant re-colonization results in a large homogeneous expansion of forests, favouring the risk of wildfires and a lowering of livestock production. All these processes occurring in the mountain areas have a great impact on the lowlands, where urban, industrial and irrigated areas, as well as tourist resorts are growing. The spatial interactions among land use and runoff generation, soil erosion, sediment yield and fluvial channel dynamics are complex and highlight the need of land management strategies with a multiscalar approach.

  8. Landscape-scale geospatial research utilizing low elevation aerial photography generated with commercial unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipo, C. P.; Lee, C.; Wechsler, S.

    2012-12-01

    With the ability to generate on demand high-resolution imagery across landscapes, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are increasingly become the tools of choice for geospatial researchers. At CSULB, we have implemented a number of aerial systems in order to conduct archaeological, vegetation and terrain analyses. The platforms include the commercially available X100 by Gatewing, a hobby based aircraft, kites, and tethered blimps. From our experience, each platform has advantages and disadvantages n applicability int eh field and derived imagery. The X100, though comparatively more costly, produces images with excellent coverage of areas of interest and can fly in a wide range of weather conditions. The hobby plane solutions are low-cost and flexible in their configuration but their relative lightweight makes them difficult to fly in windy conditions and the sets of images produced can widely vary. The tethered blimp has a large payload and can fly under many conditions but its ability to systematically cover large areas is very limited. Kites are extremely low-cost but have similar limitations to blimps for area coverage and limited payload capabilities. Overall, we have found the greatest return for our investment from the Gatewing X100, despite its relatively higher cost, due to the quality of the images produced. Developments in autopilots, however, may improve the hobby aircraft solution and allow X100 like products to be produced in the near future. Results of imagery and derived products from these UAS missions will be presented and evaluated. Assessment of the viability of these UAS-products will inform the research community of their applicability to a range of applications, and if viable, could provide a lower cost alternative to other image acquisition methods.

  9. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD): Hosted Payload Accommodation on a Commercial Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankton, M.; Eastes, R.; McClintock, W. E.; Pang, R.; Caffrey, R.; Krywonos, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Global-Scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission will perform unprecedented imaging of the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere (TI) system from geostationary (GEO) orbit. Flying as a hosted payload on a commercial communications satellite, GOLD takes advantage of the resource margins available in the early years of the commercial mission's planned 15-year life. This hosted payload approach is a pathfinder for cost-effective NASA science missions. The affordable ride to GEO makes it possible for an Explorer-class Mission of Opportunity to perform Far UltraViolet (FUV) imaging of nearly a complete hemisphere on a 30-minute cadence. This global-scale, high cadence imaging will enable GOLD to distinguish between spatial and temporal variations in the TI system caused by geomagnetic storms, variations in solar EUV, and forcing from the lower atmosphere. The most significant difference between developing instrumentation for a NASA-owned mission and accomplishing the same task for a commercial satellite is that communications satellites are procured on a faster schedule - 24 to 36 months from satellite contract to launch - than the instrument development. GOLD has partnered with SES Government Solutions (SES-GS), the comsat mission owner-operator, to define instrument interfaces and requirements that will be included in the eventual Request for Proposal to candidate spacecraft vendors. SES-GS launches 3 to 4 missions per year, which allows the GOLD-SES-GS partnership to match the instrument's launch readiness date with a suitable mission. In addition to making geostationary orbit accessible to a science instrument at relatively low cost, commercial communications satellites provides a host platform with very high reliability and long life, easy access to continuous high-speed data downlink and near-real-time data delivery, and stable pointing. SES-GS operates their satellite from established Telemetry, Tracking and Control (TT&C) centers. The GOLD Science Operations Center at the University of Colorado Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) will produce instrument command loads for uplink by the TT&C, receive data from the ground station, monitor instrument state of health, and perform quick-look data processing. The GOLD Science Data Center at the University of Central Florida will produce, distribute and archive science data products.

  10. Scaling between reanalyses and high-resolution land-surface modelling in mountainous areas - enabling better application and testing of reanalyses in heterogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, S.; Fiddes, J.

    2013-12-01

    In mountainous topography, the difference in scale between atmospheric reanalyses (typically tens of kilometres) and relevant processes and phenomena near the Earth surface, such as permafrost or snow cover (meters to tens of meters) is most obvious. This contrast of scales is one of the major obstacles to using reanalysis data for the simulation of surface phenomena and to confronting reanalyses with independent observation. At the example of modelling permafrost in mountain areas (but simple to generalise to other phenomena and heterogeneous environments), we present and test methods against measurements for (A) scaling atmospheric data from the reanalysis to the ground level and (B) smart sampling of the heterogeneous landscape in order to set up a lumped model simulation that represents the high-resolution land surface. TopoSCALE (Part A, see http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/gmdd-6-3381-2013) is a scheme, which scales coarse-grid climate fields to fine-grid topography using pressure level data. In addition, it applies necessary topographic corrections e.g. those variables required for computation of radiation fields. This provides the necessary driving fields to the LSM. Tested against independent ground data, this scheme has been shown to improve the scaling and distribution of meteorological parameters in complex terrain, as compared to conventional methods, e.g. lapse rate based approaches. TopoSUB (Part B, see http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/gmd-5-1245-2012) is a surface pre-processor designed to sample a fine-grid domain (defined by a digital elevation model) along important topographical (or other) dimensions through a clustering scheme. This allows constructing a lumped model representing the main sources of fine-grid variability and applying a 1D LSM efficiently over large areas. Results can processed to derive (i) summary statistics at coarse-scale re-analysis grid resolution, (ii) high-resolution data fields spatialized to e.g., the fine-scale digital elevation model grid, or (iii) validation products for locations at which measurements exist, only. The ability of TopoSUB to approximate results simulated by a 2D distributed numerical LSM at a factor of ~10,000 less computations is demonstrated by comparison of 2D and lumped simulations. Successful application of the combined scheme in the European Alps is reported and based on its results, open issues for future research are outlined.

  11. Application of Environmental Seismic Intensity scale (ESI 2007) to Krn Mountains 1998 Mw = 5.6 earthquake (NW Slovenia) with emphasis on rockfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosar, A.

    2012-05-01

    The 12 April 1998 Mw = 5.6 Krn Mountains earthquake with a maximum intensity of VII-VIII on the EMS-98 scale caused extensive environmental effects in the Julian Alps. The application of intensity scales based mainly on damage to buildings was limited in the epicentral area, because it is a high mountain area and thus very sparsely populated. On the other hand, the effects on the natural environment were prominent and widespread. These facts and the introduction of a new Environmental Seismic Intensity scale (ESI 2007) motivated a research aimed to evaluate the applicability of ESI 2007 to this event. All environmental effects were described, classified and evaluated by a field survey, analysis of aerial images and analysis of macroseismic questionnaires. These effects include rockfalls, landslides, secondary ground cracks and hydrogeological effects. It was realized that only rockfalls (78 were registered) are widespread enough to be used for intensity assessment, together with the total size of affected area, which is around 180 km2. Rockfalls were classified into five categories according to their volume. The volumes of the two largest rockfalls were quantitatively assessed by comparison of Digital Elevation Models to be 15 106 m3 and 3 106 m3. Distribution of very large, large and medium size rockfalls has clearly defined an elliptical zone, elongated parallel to the strike of the seismogenic fault, for which the intensity VII-VIII was assessed. This isoseismal line was compared to the tentative EMS-98 isoseism derived from damage-related macroseismic data. The VII-VIII EMS-98 isoseism was defined by four points alone, but a similar elongated shape was obtained. This isoseism is larger than the corresponding ESI 2007 isoseism, but its size is strongly controlled by a single intensity point lying quite far from others, at the location where local amplification is likely. The ESI 2007 scale has proved to be an effective tool for intensity assessment in sparsely populated mountain regions not only for very strong, but for moderate earthquakes as well. This study has shown that the quantitative definition of rockfall size and frequency, which is diagnostic for each intensity, is not very precise in ESI 2007, but this is understandable since the rockfall size is related not only to the level of shaking, but also depends highly on the vulnerability of rocky slopes.

  12. Scaling and Optimization of Magnetic Refrigeration for Commercial Building HVAC Systems Greater than 175 kW in Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; West, David L; Mallow, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVACR) account for approximately one- third of building energy consumption. Magnetic refrigeration presents an opportunity for significant energy savings and emissions reduction for serving the building heating, cooling, and refrigeration loads. In this paper, we have examined the magnet and MCE material requirements for scaling magnetic refrigeration systems for commercial building cooling applications. Scaling relationships governing the resources required for magnetic refrigeration systems have been developed. As system refrigeration capacity increases, the use of superconducting magnet systems becomes more applicable, and a comparison is presented of system requirements for permanent and superconducting (SC) magnetization systems. Included in this analysis is an investigation of the ability of superconducting magnet based systems to overcome the parasitic power penalty of the cryocooler used to keep SC windings at cryogenic temperatures. Scaling relationships were used to develop the initial specification for a SC magnet-based active magnetic regeneration (AMR) system. An optimized superconducting magnet was designed to support this system. In this analysis, we show that the SC magnet system consisting of two 0.38 m3 regenerators is capable of producing 285 kW of cooling power with a T of 28 K. A system COP of 4.02 including cryocooler and fan losses which illustrates that an SC magnet-based system can operate with efficiency comparable to traditional systems and deliver large cooling powers of 285.4 kW (81.2 Tons).

  13. Seasonal snowpack characteristics influence soil temperature and water content at multiple scales in interior western U.S. mountain ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Gregory E.; Bowling, David R.

    2014-06-01

    Mountain snowpacks directly and indirectly influence soil temperature (Tsoil) and soil water content (?). Vegetation, soil organisms, and associated biogeochemical processes certainly respond to snowpack-related variability in the soil biophysical environment, but there is currently a poor understanding of how snow-soil interactions vary in time and across the mountain landscape. Using data from a network of automated snowpack monitoring stations in the interior western U.S., we quantified seasonal and landscape patterns in Tsoil and ?, and their dependence on snowpack characteristics over an eleven year period. Elevation gradients in Tsoil were absent beneath winter snowpacks, despite large gradients in air temperature (Tair). Winter Tsoil was warmer and less variable than Tair, but interannual and across-site variations in Tsoil were likely large enough to impact biogeochemical processes. Winter ? varied between years and across sites, but during a given winter at a site it changed little between the start of snowpack accumulation and the initiation of spring snowmelt. Winter Tsoil and ? were both higher when early winter snow accumulation was greater. Summer ? was lower when summer Tair was high. Depending on the site and the year examined, summer ? was higher when there was greater summer precipitation, a larger snowpack, later snowpack melt, or a combination of these factors. We found that snowpack-related variability in the soil environment was of sufficient magnitude to influence biogeochemical processes in snow-dominated ecosystems.

  14. The site-scale saturated zone flow model for Yucca Mountain: calibration of different conceptual models and their impact on flow paths.

    PubMed

    Zyvoloski, George; Kwicklis, Edward; Eddebbarh, Al Aziz; Arnold, Bill; Faunt, Claudia; Robinson, Bruce A

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents several different conceptual models of the Large Hydraulic Gradient (LHG) region north of Yucca Mountain and describes the impact of those models on groundwater flow near the potential high-level repository site. The results are based on a numerical model of site-scale saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain. This model is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. The numerical model is calibrated by matching available water level measurements using parameter estimation techniques, along with more informal comparisons of the model to hydrologic and geochemical information. The model software (hydrologic simulation code FEHM and parameter estimation software PEST) and model setup allows for efficient calibration of multiple conceptual models. Until now, the Large Hydraulic Gradient has been simulated using a low-permeability, east-west oriented feature, even though direct evidence for this feature is lacking. In addition to this model, we investigate and calibrate three additional conceptual models of the Large Hydraulic Gradient, all of which are based on a presumed zone of hydrothermal chemical alteration north of Yucca Mountain. After examining the heads and permeabilities obtained from the calibrated models, we present particle pathways from the potential repository that record differences in the predicted groundwater flow regime. The results show that Large Hydraulic Gradient can be represented with the alternate conceptual models that include the hydrothermally altered zone. The predicted pathways are mildly sensitive to the choice of the conceptual model and more sensitive to the quality of calibration in the vicinity on the repository. These differences are most likely due to different degrees of fit of model to data, and do not represent important differences in hydrologic conditions for the different conceptual models. PMID:12714319

  15. The site-scale saturated zone flow model for Yucca Mountain: Calibration of different conceptual models and their impact on flow paths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zyvoloski, G.; Kwicklis, E.; Eddebbarh, A.-A.; Arnold, B.; Faunt, C.; Robinson, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents several different conceptual models of the Large Hydraulic Gradient (LHG) region north of Yucca Mountain and describes the impact of those models on groundwater flow near the potential high-level repository site. The results are based on a numerical model of site-scale saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain. This model is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. The numerical model is calibrated by matching available water level measurements using parameter estimation techniques, along with more informal comparisons of the model to hydrologic and geochemical information. The model software (hydrologic simulation code FEHM and parameter estimation software PEST) and model setup allows for efficient calibration of multiple conceptual models. Until now, the Large Hydraulic Gradient has been simulated using a low-permeability, east-west oriented feature, even though direct evidence for this feature is lacking. In addition to this model, we investigate and calibrate three additional conceptual models of the Large Hydraulic Gradient, all of which are based on a presumed zone of hydrothermal chemical alteration north of Yucca Mountain. After examining the heads and permeabilities obtained from the calibrated models, we present particle pathways from the potential repository that record differences in the predicted groundwater flow regime. The results show that Large Hydraulic Gradient can be represented with the alternate conceptual models that include the hydrothermally altered zone. The predicted pathways are mildly sensitive to the choice of the conceptual model and more sensitive to the quality of calibration in the vicinity on the repository. These differences are most likely due to different degrees of fit of model to data, and do not represent important differences in hydrologic conditions for the different conceptual models. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Validity of Four Commercial Bioelectrical Impedance Scales in Measuring Body Fat among Chinese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the validity in predicting body fat percentage (%BF) of different bioelectrical impedance (BIA) devices among Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 255 Chinese children and adolescents aged 9–19 years old participated in the study. %BF was assessed by BIA scales, namely, Biodynamics-310 (Model A), Tanita TBF-543 (Model B), Tanita BC-545 (Model C), and InBody 520 (Model D). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as the criterion measurement. Lin's concordance correlation coefficients of estimated %BF between Model A, Model B, Model C, and DXA showed poor agreements for both genders. Moderate agreements for %BF were found between DXA and Model D measurements. In boys, differences in %BF were found between DXA and Model B and Model C. No significant %BF differences were found between Model A, Model D, and DXA. However, the two BIA analyzers showed a significant positive correlation between the bias and average %BF between BIA and DXA. In girls, differences in %BF were observed between Model B, Model C, Model D, and DXA. Model A and DXA showed no significant differences of %BF; however, the bias and the average %BF between the BIA and DXA had a significant positive correlation. Using embedded equations in BIA devices should be validated in assessing the %BF of Chinese children and adolescents. PMID:26167491

  17. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-30

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHTM) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOIYM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, comments from the DOE on the Topical Report "Economic Analysis - LPMEOHTM Process as an Add-on to IGCC for Coproduction" were received. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing for the coproduction of dimethyl ether (DIME) and methanol was made. DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed. A recommendation document summarizing catalyst targets, experimental results, and the corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst was issued on 30 June 1997. The off-site, product-use test plan was updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Acurex Environmental Corporation and Air Products screened proposals for this task by the likelihood of the projects to proceed and the timing for the initial methanol requirement. Eight sites from the list have met these criteria. The formal submission of the eight projects for review and concurrence by the DOE will be made during the next reporting period. The site paving and final painting were completed in May of 1997. Start-up activities were completed during the reporting period, and the initial methanol production from the demonstration unit occurred on 02 April 1997. The first extended stable operation at the nameplate capacity of 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day) took place on 06 April 1997. Pressure drop and resistance coefficient across the gas sparger at the bottom of the reactor increased over this initial operating period. The demonstration unit was shut down from 08 May -17 June 1997 as part of a scheduled complex outage for the Kingsport site. During this outage, the gas sparger was removed, cleaned, and reinstalled. After completion of other maintenance activities, the demonstration unit was restarted, and maintained stable operation through the remainder of the reporting period. Again, the gas sparger showed an increase in pressure drop and resistance since the restart, although not as rapidly as during the April-May operation. Fresh oil was introduced online for the first time to a new flush connection on the gas inlet line to the reactov the flush lowered the pressure drop by 1 psi. However, the effects were temporary, and the sparger resistance coefficient continued to increase. Additional flushing with both fresh oil and entrained slurry recovered in the cyclone and secondary oil knock-out drum will be attempted in order to stabilize the sparger resistance coefficient.

  18. Analysis and modeling of low pressure chemical vapor deposition of phosphorus-doped polysilicon in commercial scale reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Ryosuke; Ogino, Masaaki; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Shimogaki, Yukihiro

    2004-07-01

    In a commercial scale low pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor, we analyzed the elementary reaction of silane based CVD with the doping gas of phosphine. The variation of conductivity in the radial direction over a monitor wafer became significant as the phosphine gas partial pressure decreased, and it reached up to about 30% at 6.510-4 Pa. The radial distribution of phosphorus fraction in a film, however, was smaller than 7%. On the basis of the diffusion model of chemical species into the wafer gaps, we found that the sticking probability of phosphine is 2-510-5, which is 1 order of magnitude larger than the one of silane. The reaction kinetics of both silane and phosphine seems almost linear, but slight nonlinearity at high phosphine concentration range was also indicated. .

  19. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHT") demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L. P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day) of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was designed, constructed, and is operating at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to "demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOWM Process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility." The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fiel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four-year demonstration period. The LPMEOITM process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfdly piloted at a 10 tons-per- day (TPD) rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products' LaPorte, Texas, site. This demonstration project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.

  20. Field-scale mobility and persistence of commercial and stargh-encapusulated atrazine and alachlor

    SciTech Connect

    Gish, T.J.; Shirmohammadi, A.; Wienhold, B.J.

    1994-03-01

    Recent laboratory studies have shown that starch-encapsulation (SE) may reduce leachate losses of certain pesticides. This study compares field-scale mobility and persistence of SE-atrazine [2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine] and alachlor [2-chloro-N(2,6 diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl)acetamide] to that of a commerciall formulation (CF) of atrazine and alachlor. The research site consisted of four (0.25 ha) fields. Two fields were under no-tillage management (NT) and two were under conventional tillage (CT). One field in each tillage system received SE-formulated atritzine and alachlor, while the others received CF-atrazine and alachlor. Chemical movement and persistence was determined by analysis of surface samples ({approximately}3 cm) taken immediately after application and 1.1-m soil cores collected seven times over 2 yr. No significant difference in herbicide residue levels was observed between NT and CT, but there was a herbicide formulation effect. Soil residue analysis suggests that SE-atrazine was more persistent and less mobile than CF-atrazine. Starch- encapsulated-alachlor was slightly more persistent than CF-alachlor, but no differences in mobility between formulations was observed. The differential field behavior between SE-herbicides is attributed to the faster release of alachlor from the starch granules. Increased atrazine persistence was attributed to the reduction of leachate losses. The reduction in atrazine leaching is likely due to the slow release from the starch granules and subsequent diffusion into the son matrix where it is less subject to preferential flow processes. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LOMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million effort being conducted under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day (TPD)) of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was designed, constructed, and began a four-year operational period in April of 1997 at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to "demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH?M Process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility." The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fiel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four-year demonstration period. The LPMEOJYM process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfidly piloted at a 10-TPD rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products' LaPorte, Texas, site. This Demonstration Project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.

  2. Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2000-04-01

    Electrochromic glazings promise to be the next major advance in energy-efficient window technology, helping to transform windows and skylights from an energy liability to an energy source for the nation's building stock. Monitored results from a full-scale demonstration of large-area electrochromic windows are given. The test consisted of two side-by-side, 3.7x4.6-m, office-like rooms. In each room, five 62x173-cm lower electrochromic windows and five 62x43-cm upper electrochromic windows formed a large window wall. The window-to-exterior-wall ratio (WWR) was 0.40. The southeast-facing electrochromic windows had an overall visible transmittance (Tv) range of Tv=0.11-0.38 and were integrated with a dimmable electric lighting system to provide constant work plane illuminance and to control direct sun. Daily lighting use from the automated electrochromic window system decreased by 6 to 24% compared to energy use with static, low-transmission (Tv =0.11), unshaded windows in overcast to cle ar sky winter conditions in Oakland, California. Daily lighting energy use increased as much as 13% compared to lighting energy use with static windows that had Tv=0.38. Even when lighting energy savings were not obtainable, the visual environment produced by the electrochromic windows, indicated by well-controlled window and room luminance levels, was significantly improved for computer-type tasks throughout the day compared to the visual environment with unshaded 38%-glazing. Cooling loads were not measured, but previous building energy simulations indicate that additional savings could be achieved. To ensure visual and thermal comfort, electrochromics require occasional use of interior or exterior shading systems when direct sun is present. Other recommendations to improve electrochromic materials and controls are noted along with some architectural constraints.

  3. Genetic Structure across Broad Spatial and Temporal Scales: Rocky Mountain Tailed Frogs (Ascaphus montanus; Anura: Ascaphidae) in the Inland Temperate Rainforest.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Genevieve; Espindola, Anahi; Waits, Lisette P; Sullivan, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary and historical processes interact to structure genetic variation, however discerning between these can be difficult. Here, we analyze range-wide variation at 13 microsatellite loci in 2098 Rocky Mountain tailed frogs, Ascaphus montanus, collected from 117 streams across the species distribution in the Inland Northwest (INW) and interpret that variation in light of historical phylogeography, contemporary landscape genetics, and the reconstructed paleodistribution of the species. Further, we project species distribution models (SDMs) to predict future changes in the range as a function of changing climate. Genetic structure has a strong spatial signature that is precisely congruent with a deep (~1.8 MY) phylogeographic split in mtDNA when we partition populations into 2 clusters (K = 2), and is congruent with refugia areas inferred from our paleorange reconstructions. There is a hierarchical pattern of geographic structure as we permit additional clusters, with populations clustering following mountain ranges. Nevertheless, genetic diversity is the highest in populations at the center of the range and is attenuated in populations closer to the range edges. Similarly, geographic distance is the single best predictor of pairwise genetic differentiation, but connectivity also is an important predictor. At intermediate and local geographic scales, deviations from isolation-by-distance are more apparent, at least in the northern portion of the distribution. These results indicate that both historical and landscape factors are contributing to the genetic structure and diversity of tailed frogs in the Inland Northwest. PMID:26285914

  4. Groundwater Flow in Mountain Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Diana; Voeckler, Hendrik; Welch, Laurie

    2014-05-01

    Mountain watersheds are unique high-relief environments that exhibit geological, landscape, climate, and other characteristics that are distinctive from other types of watersheds/basins. As such, they give rise to complex groundwater systems that circulate water over a range of spatial and temporal scales. This presentation highlights the results of two modeling studies that were conducted to investigate deep groundwater flow processes within mountain watersheds in British Columbia, Canada. The first study focuses on a headwater catchment, and demonstrates that extending the model domain into the bedrock and allowing groundwater to exit the catchment does not compromise the calibration. Deep groundwater loss is estimated at up to 6% of the annual water balance. The second study focuses on deep groundwater flow within the mountain block, which contributes to mountain front recharge. Mountain front recharge is an important source of water to valley-bottom aquifers. Mountain front recharge derives from both mountain streams, which gain water as baseflow from deeply circulating groundwater, and mountain block recharge, which is the subsurface discharge of deep groundwater from the bedrock mountain block to the valley bottom sediments. Baseflow in the mountain streams is found to be sensitive to changes in groundwater recharge across the mountain block.

  5. Comparing current and desired ecological conditions at a landscape scale in the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains, USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Druckenbrod, Dr. Daniel L.; Dale, Virginia H; Olsen, Lisa M

    2007-01-01

    We applied a landscape conservation approach that quantifies current and desired ecological conditions for 10680 km2 of diverse forests in the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains of Tennessee and Kentucky. In this case study, forest cover was classified using Landsat TM imagery and evaluated with forest inventory data. Landform forest associations were characterized by combining forest cover, physiographic descriptions of remnant and historical forests, and forest structure and composition from the inventory data. These landform forest associations estimate current forest conditions and, in comparison with a projection of potential natural forest conditions, indicated that upland deciduous forests in the Plateau have the greatest reduction in cover, particularly in small private ownerships. Although of similar composition, upland deciduous forests in the Plateau also possessed younger stands with smaller trees than observed from potential old-growth conditions. These results provide scientific guidance for transitioning these forests toward desired ecological conditions through regional conservation initiatives.

  6. ‘Oorja’ in India: Assessing a large-scale commercial distribution of advanced biomass stoves to households

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Mark C.; Phadke, Himani; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Shrimali, Gireesh; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2015-01-01

    Replacing traditional stoves with advanced alternatives that burn more cleanly has the potential to ameliorate major health problems associated with indoor air pollution in developing countries. With a few exceptions, large government and charitable programs to distribute advanced stoves have not had the desired impact. Commercially-based distributions that seek cost recovery and even profits might plausibly do better, both because they encourage distributors to supply and promote products that people want and because they are based around properly-incentivized supply chains that could more be scalable, sustainable, and replicable. The sale in India of over 400,000 “Oorja” stoves to households from 2006 onwards represents the largest commercially-based distribution of a gasification-type advanced biomass stove. BP's Emerging Consumer Markets (ECM) division and then successor company First Energy sold this stove and the pelletized biomass fuel on which it operates. We assess the success of this effort and the role its commercial aspect played in outcomes using a survey of 998 households in areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka where the stove was sold as well as detailed interviews with BP and First Energy staff. Statistical models based on this data indicate that Oorja purchase rates were significantly influenced by the intensity of Oorja marketing in a region as well as by pre-existing stove mix among households. The highest rate of adoption came from LPG-using households for which Oorja's pelletized biomass fuel reduced costs. Smoke- and health-related messages from Oorja marketing did not significantly influence the purchase decision, although they did appear to affect household perceptions about smoke. By the time of our survey, only 9% of households that purchased Oorja were still using the stove, the result in large part of difficulties First Energy encountered in developing a viable supply chain around low-cost procurement of “agricultural waste” to make pellets. The business orientation of First Energy allowed the company to pivot rapidly to commercial customers when the household market encountered difficulties. The business background of managers also facilitated the initial marketing and distribution efforts that allowed the stove distribution to reach scale. PMID:25814822

  7. Sediment trap efficiency of paddy fields at the watershed scale in a mountainous catchment in Northwest Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaets, J. I. F.; Schmitter, P.; Hilger, T.; Vien, T. D.; Cadisch, G.

    2015-12-01

    Composite agricultural systems with permanent maize cultivation in the uplands and irrigated rice in the valleys are very common in mountainous Southeast Asia. The soil loss and fertility decline of the upland fields is well documented, but little is known about reallocation of these sediments within the landscape. In this study, a turbidity-based linear mixed model was used to quantify sediment inputs, from surface reservoir irrigation water and from direct overland flow, into a paddy area of 13 hectares. Simultaneously, the sediment load exported from the rice fields was determined. Mid-infrared spectroscopy was applied to analyze sediment particle size. Our results showed that per year, 64 Mg ha-1 of sediments were imported into paddy fields, of which around 75 % were delivered by irrigation water and the remainder by direct overland flow during rainfall events. Overland flow contributed one third of the received sandy fraction, while irrigated sediments were predominantly silty. Overall, rice fields were a net sink for sediments, trapping 28 Mg ha-1 a-1 or almost half of total sediment inputs. As paddy outflow consisted almost exclusively of silt- and clay-sized material, 24 Mg ha-1 a-1 of the trapped amount of sediment was estimated to be sandy. Under continued intensive upland maize cultivation, such a sustained input of coarse material could jeopardize paddy soil fertility, puddling capacity and ultimately also food security of the inhabitants of these mountainous areas. Preventing direct overland flow from entering the paddy fields, however, could reduce sand inputs by up to 34 %.

  8. Catchment Scale Streamflow Response to Climate Variability in the Rain-Snow Transition Zone of California's Sierra Nevada Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepsen, S. M.; Coles, S.; Harmon, T. C.

    2013-12-01

    Streams flowing from California's southern Sierra Nevada mountain range are the primary water supply to the San Joaquin Valley for agriculture, municipalities, and hydropower. It is essential to understand how the timing and quantity of mountain runoff to this region will respond to changes in the timing and phase of precipitation (snowfall versus rainfall) that accompany climate change, as this will better inform efforts to predict and adapt to future water supply scenarios in a region where water will become increasingly scarce. Our goal is to understand and characterize the hydrologic mechanisms that control runoff to streams flowing from catchments in the southern Sierra Nevada, with an emphasis on how changes in the timing and phase of precipitation influence the interplay of fluxes that determine runoff to streams, including groundwater recharge and flow, overland flow, and evapotranspiration. Our hypothesis is that future potential increases in precipitation as rain, with less as snow, will lead to lower runoff ratios (cumulative stream discharge / cumulative precipitation), earlier runoff, and increased soil moisture availability for evapotranspiration. To test this hypothesis, we use the integrated watershed computer model PIHM, Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model, to simulate streamflow via a full coupling of climate, groundwater recharge, lateral groundwater flow, and overland flow, distributed over a 2D (horizontal) mesh. The study area is the Providence watershed of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory, located in the rain-snow transition of the Sierra Nevada National Forest (~ 1500-2100 m elevation). The modeling work is validated against a nine year hydrometeorological dataset and used to gain hydrologic insights that will help inform future efforts to predict and characterize water resources of the San Joaquin Valley.

  9. Northeast-southwest structural transect: Rocky Mountain foreland, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, D.S.

    1987-08-01

    A northeast-southwest structural transect has been constructed across the Rocky Mountain foreland in Wyoming, a distance of about 400 mi. The line of transect begins in the northern Black Hills and traverses the northern Powder River basin, the Bighorn Mountains from Buffalo to Bonanza, the Big Horn basin from Worland to Hamilton dome, the Owl Creek Mountains, the northern Wind River basin at Maverick Springs, the Wind River Mountains to Pinedale in the Green River basin, the Moxa Arch at Big Piney and Riley Ridge, and into the thrust belt, ending at the Idaho border. In terms of a vertical and horizontal scale of 1 in. = 2000 ft, the section is about 90 ft long (i.e., the section is approximately 409 mi long). The data base for the transect includes published geologic maps, commercial photogeologic mapping, well data, and modern seismic data through critical parts of the basin areas. The data base provides an excellent found for analyzing structural relationships on both a regional and a local scale. Regional horizontal shortening of the foreland has occurred primarily through basement-involved displacements on basin-boundary megathrusts, which separate the mountain ranges from sedimentary basins, and on the smaller, intrabasin thrusts, which produced the anticlinal traps for Paleozoic oil accumulations.

  10. Regional-scale analysis of high-mountain multi-hazard and risk indicators in the Pamir (Tajikistan) with GRASS GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, F. E.; Mergili, M.

    2013-11-01

    We present a model framework for the regional-scale analysis of high-mountain multi-hazard and -risk indicators, implemented with the open-source software package GRASS GIS. This framework is applied to a 98 300 km2 study area centred in the Pamir (Tajikistan). It includes (i) rock slides, (ii) ice avalanches, (iii) periglacial debris flows and (iv) lake outburst floods. First, a hazard indicator is assigned to each relevant object (steep rock face, glacier or periglacial slope, lake). This indicator depends on the susceptibility and on the possible event magnitude. Second, the possible travel distances, impact areas and, consequently, impact hazard indicators for all types of processes are computed using empirical relationships. The impact hazard indicators are finally superimposed with an exposure indicator derived from the type of land use, resulting in a raster map of risk indicators finally discretized at the community level. The analysis results are presented and discussed at different spatial scales. The major outcome of the study, a set of comprehensive regional-scale hazard and risk indication maps, shall represent an objective basis for the prioritization of target communities for further research and risk mitigation measures.

  11. Christmas Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Christmas Mountains     View Larger Image ... New Brunswick. Located above image center are the Christmas Mountains, a region of old-growth forest nestled in a remote wilderness. Within ... and in frozen lakes and rivers appears in hues of blue and white. The picture includes parts of eastern Maine at the left and Quebec's ...

  12. Testing space-scale methodologies for automatic geomorphic feature extraction from lidar in a complex mountainous landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passalacqua, Paola; Tarolli, Paolo; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2010-11-01

    The next generation of digital elevation data (?3 m resolution) calls for the development of new algorithms for the objective extraction of geomorphic features, such as channel networks, channel heads, bank geometry, landslide scars, and service roads. In this work, we test the performance of two newly developed algorithms for the extraction of geomorphic features: the wavelet-based extraction methodology developed by Lashermes et al. (2007) and the GeoNet nonlinear diffusion and geodesic paths methodology proposed by Passalacqua et al. (2010). The study area is part of the Rio Cordon basin, a headwater alpine catchment located in the Dolomites, a mountainous region in the eastern Italian Alps. The aim of this work is to compare the capability of the two new algorithms in extracting the channel network and capturing channel heads, relevant channel disruptions corresponding to landslides, and representative channel cross sections. The extracted channel networks are also compared to the ones obtained using classical methodologies on the basis of an area threshold and an area-slope threshold. A high-resolution digital terrain model of 1 m served as the basis for such analysis. The results suggest that, although the wavelet-based methodology performs well in the channel network extraction and is able to detect channel heads and channel disruptions, the local nonlinear filter together with the global geodesic optimization used in GeoNet is more robust and computationally efficient while achieving better localization and extraction of features, especially in areas where gentle slopes prevail. We conclude that these new methodologies should be considered as valid alternatives to classical methodologies for channel network extraction from lidar, in addition to offering the potential for calibration-free channel source identification and also extraction of additional features of interest.

  13. Forecasting Distributional Responses of Limber Pine to Climate Change at Management-Relevant Scales in Rocky Mountain National Park

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, William B.; Cook, Tammy; Melton, Forrest; Connor, Jeff; Bobowski, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Resource managers at parks and other protected areas are increasingly expected to factor climate change explicitly into their decision making frameworks. However, most protected areas are small relative to the geographic ranges of species being managed, so forecasts need to consider local adaptation and community dynamics that are correlated with climate and affect distributions inside protected area boundaries. Additionally, niche theory suggests that species' physiological capacities to respond to climate change may be underestimated when forecasts fail to consider the full breadth of climates occupied by the species rangewide. Here, using correlative species distribution models that contrast estimates of climatic sensitivity inferred from the two spatial extents, we quantify the response of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) to climate change in Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado, USA). Models are trained locally within the park where limber pine is the community dominant tree species, a distinct structural-compositional vegetation class of interest to managers, and also rangewide, as suggested by niche theory. Model forecasts through 2100 under two representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5 W/m2) show that the distribution of limber pine in the park is expected to move upslope in elevation, but changes in total and core patch area remain highly uncertain. Most of this uncertainty is biological, as magnitudes of projected change are considerably more variable between the two spatial extents used in model training than they are between RCPs, and novel future climates only affect local model predictions associated with RCP 8.5 after 2091. Combined, these results illustrate the importance of accounting for unknowns in species' climatic sensitivities when forecasting distributional scenarios that are used to inform management decisions. We discuss how our results for limber pine may be interpreted in the context of climate change vulnerability and used to help guide adaptive management. PMID:24391742

  14. Performance of a commercial-scale DiCOM demonstration facility treating mixed municipal solid waste in comparison with laboratory-scale data.

    PubMed

    Walker, L; Cord-Ruwisch, R; Sciberras, S

    2012-12-01

    The current paper describes the performance of a commercial-scale (20,000 tpa) demonstration facility of the DiCOM process, a biological treatment for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The 21-d process combines aerobic composting and high-solids (30%DM), thermophilic (55 C) anaerobic digestion (AD), within a single vessel. Mechanically sorted OFMSW, derived from mixed household MSW (324 t), was exposed to sequential aerobic/anaerobic/aerobic treatment. The AD, initiated by adding anaerobic inoculum from a previous trial, was stable (without pH intervention) and the onset of methanogenesis, rapid (<3 h). Volatile fatty acids formed during AD (including propionate) were exhausted prior to reuse of the inoculum. As measured by an electron flux from solids to gaseous end-products, AD accounted for the greatest portion of solids degradation (86%=160 m(3)CH(4)/drytOFMSW). However, unlike laboratory trials, limited degradation occurred during initial aerobic treatment. The discharged solids were classified as a composted soil conditioner. PMID:22244951

  15. Catchment-scale variation in the nitrate concentrations of groundwater seeps in the Catskill Mountains, New York, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    West, A.J.; Findlay, S.E.G.; Burns, D.A.; Weathers, K.C.; Lovett, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Forested headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains of New York show significant among-catchment variability in mean annual nitrate (NO3-) concentrations. Large contributions from deep groundwater with high NO3- concentrations have been invoked to explain high NO3- concentrations in stream water during the growing season. To determine whether variable contributions of groundwater could explain among-catchment differences in streamwater, we measured NO3- concentrations in 58 groundwater seeps distributed across six catchments known to have different annual average streamwater concentrations. Seeps were identified based on release from bedrock fractures and bedding planes and had consistently lower temperatures than adjacent streamwaters. Nitrate concentrations in seeps ranged from near detection limits (0.005 mg NO3--N/L) to 0.75 mg NO3--N/L. Within individual catchments, groundwater residence time does not seem to strongly affect NO3- concentrations because in three out of four catchments there were non-significant correlations between seep silica (SiO2) concentrations, a proxy for residence time, and seep NO3- concentrations. Across catchments, there was a significant but weak negative relationship between NO3- and SiO2 concentrations. The large range in NO3- concentrations of seeps across catchments suggests: 1) the principal process generating among-catchment differences in streamwater NO3- concentrations must influence water before it enters the groundwater flow system and 2) this process must act at large spatial scales because among-catchment variability is much greater than intra-catchment variability. Differences in the quantity of groundwater contribution to stream baseflow are not sufficient to account for differences in streamwater NO3- concentrations among catchments in the Catskill Mountains.

  16. Aqueous geochemical data from the analysis of stream-water samples collected in June and July 2006-Taylor Mountains 1:250,00-scale quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Mueller, Seth; Stetson, Sarah; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. Parameters for which data are reported include pH, conductivity, water temperature, major cation and anion concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and dissolved organic-carbon concentrations. Samples were collected as part of a multiyear U.S. Geological Survey project entitled ?Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development.? Data presented here are from samples collected in June and July 2006. The data are being released at this time with minimal interpretation. This is the third release of aqueous geochemical data from this project; aqueous geochemical data from samples collected in 2004 and 2005 were published previously. The data in this report augment but do not duplicate or supersede the previous data release. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first- and second-order drainages. Water sample site selection was based on landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and a cursory field review of mineralogy from pan concentrates. Stream water in the Taylor Mountains quadrangle is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), although in a few samples more than 50 percent of the anionic charge can be attributed to sulfate (SO42-). The major-cation chemistry ranges from Ca2+/Mg2+ dominated to a mix of Ca2+/Mg2+/Na++K+. Generally, good agreement was found between the major cations and anions in the duplicate samples. Many trace elements in these samples were at or near the analytical method detection limit, but good agreement was found between duplicate samples for elements with detectable concentrations. All field blank major-ion and trace-element concentrations were below detection.

  17. Commercial-Scale Performance Predictions for High-Temperature Electrolysis Plants Coupled to Three Advanced Reactor Types

    SciTech Connect

    M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2007-09-01

    This report presents results of system analyses that have been developed to assess the hydrogen production performance of commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plants driven by three different advanced reactor power-cycle combinations: a high-temperature helium cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle, a supercritical CO2-cooled reactor coupled to a direct recompression cycle, and a sodium-cooled fast reactor coupled to a Rankine cycle. The system analyses were performed using UniSim software. The work described in this report represents a refinement of previous analyses in that the process flow diagrams include realistic representations of the three advanced reactors directly coupled to the power cycles and integrated with the high-temperature electrolysis process loops. In addition, this report includes parametric studies in which the performance of each HTE concept is determined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the study indicate that overall thermal-to- hydrogen production efficiencies (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) in the 45 - 50% range can be achieved at reasonable production rates with the high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept, 42 - 44% with the supercritical CO2-cooled reactor and about 33 - 34% with the sodium-cooled reactor.

  18. Commercial scale demonstration enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Annual report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.C.; Snyder, W.O.

    1981-04-01

    This commercial scale test, known as the M-1 Project, is located in Crawford County, Illinois. It encompasses 407 acres of Robinson sand reservoir and covers portions of several waterflood projects that were approaching economic limit. The project includes 248 acres developed on a 2.4-acre five-spot pattern and 159 acres developed on a 5.0-acre five-spot pattern. Development work commenced in late 1974 and has previously been reported. Micellar solution (slug) injection was initiated on February 10, 1977, and is now completed. After 10% of a pore volume of micellar slug was injected, injection of 11% pore volume of Dow 700 Pusher polymer was conducted at a concentration of 1156 ppM. At the end of this reporting period, 625 ppM polymer was being injected into the 2.5-acre pattern and 800 ppM polymer was being injected into the 5.0-acre pattern. The oil cut of the 2.5 and 5.0-acre patterns increased from 8.6% and 5.2%, respectively in September 1979, to 11.0% and 5.9% in September 1980. The oil cut performance has consistently exceeded that predicted for the project. This Fourth Annual Report is organized under the following three Work Breakdown Structures: fluid injection; production; and performance monitoring.

  19. Coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical analyses of the YuccaMountain Drift Scale Test - Comparison of field measurements topredictions of four different numerical models

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Barr, D.; Datta, R.; Gens, A.; Millard, A.; Olivella, S.; Tsang, C.-F.; Tsang, Y.

    2004-08-30

    The Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test (DST) is a multiyear, large-scale underground heater test designed to study coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical behavior in unsaturated fractured and welded tuff. As part of the international cooperative code-comparison project DECOVALEX, four research teams used four different numerical models to simulate and predict coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes at the DST. The simulated processes included above-boiling temperature changes, liquid and vapor water movements, rock-mass stress and displacement, and THM-induced changes in fracture permeability. Model predictions were evaluated by comparison to measurements of temperature, water saturation,displacement, and air permeability. The generally good agreement between simulated and measured THM data shows that adopted continuum model approaches are adequate for simulating relevant coupled THM processes at the DST. Moreover, TM-induced rock-mass deformations were reasonably well predicted using elastic models, although some individual displacements appeared to be better captured using an elasto-plastic model. It is concluded that fracture closure/opening caused by change in normal stress across fractures is the dominant mechanism for TM-induced changes in intrinsic fracture permeability at the DST, whereas fracture shear dilation appears to be less significant. This indicates that TM-induced changes in intrinsic permeability at the DST, which are within one order of magnitude, tend to be reversible.

  20. Seasonal and Event Scale Forcings on the Magnitude and Composition of Particulate Organic Matter Fluxes Across a Small Mountainous River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goni, M. A.; Lerczak, J. A.; Smith, L.; Lemagie, E. P.; Alleau, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Small mountainous rivers along the west coast margin of North America display intense seasonal contrasts in runoff, with event-scale peaks in particulate transport associated with winter-time floods. In-situ observations and rapid-response sampling along a typical river-estuary system (Alsea River/Bay, Oregon) were carried out to investigate variations in the magnitude and composition of particulate organic matter transported across the estuary at seasonal, tidal and event scales. Marked contrasts in the overall concentration of particulate organic matter in the estuary are observed during different river discharge conditions (base flow to 3-yr flood), with distinct trends associated with contrasting tidal stage (spring/neap). Elemental, isotopic and biomarker analyses of individual samples reveal large differences in the provenance (phytoplankton, vascular plants, soil) and composition of organic materials mobilized under different discharge/tidal conditions. Continuous, in-situ measurements of current, salinity, temperature and turbidity, combined with the compositions from individual samples allow us to determine instantaneous material fluxes into and out of Alsea Bay. We use these data to derive net fluxes during wintertime conditions and assess the role of floods in the retention and transport of particulate organic matter across the estuarine interface.

  1. INTEGRATING DETAILED SOIL SURVEY AND LANDTYPE MAPPING FOR WATERSHED SCALE ASSESSMENTS IN THE WESTERN OREGON CASCADE MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the Western Oregon Cascades is one of the most intensely managed and economically important forest regions in North America, a lack of detailed soil information has hindered watershed-scale assessments of forest productivity, water supply, sensitive wildlife species, and...

  2. Thermal-hydrological analysis of large-scale thermal tests in the exploratory studies facility at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1996-02-20

    In situ thermal tests, which are to be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, will provide a major portion of the experimental basis supporting the validation of coupled thermal-hydrological-geomechanical-geochemicaI (T-H-M-C) process models required to assess the total system performance at the site. With respect to advective rock dryout, we have identified three major T-H flow regimes: (1) throttled, nonbuoyant, advective rock dryout; (2) unthrottled, nonbuoyant, advective rock dryout; and (3) unthrottled, buoyant, advective rock dryout. With the V-TOUGH code, we modeled a range of heater test sizes, heating rates, and heating durations under a range of plausible hydrological conditions to help optimize an in situ thermal test design that provides sufficient information for determining (a) the dominant mode(s) of heat flow, (b) the major T-H regime(s) and processes (such as vapor diffusion) that govern the magnitude and direction of vapor and condensate flow, and (c) the influence of heterogeneous properties and conditions on the flow of heat, vapor, and condensate. For the plate thermal test, which uniformly heats a disk-shaped area, we evaluated a wide range of test areas, ranging from 50 to 5077 m{sup 2}. We evaluated the single-drift thermal test, which consists of a row of large-waste-package-sized heaters sitting on the floor of the heater drift, and then developed an optimized thermal test configuration, called the single-drift, winged thermal test, in which the heater drift is flanked by wing heater arrays. For this configuration, we considered three heating schedules (with 1-, 2-, and 4-yr full-power heating periods) and three heating rates (122, 177, and 236 W/m{sup 2}). For determining the dominant T-H regime(s) and dominant heat-flow mode(s), the most important diagnostic measurements are vertical temperature and gas-phase pressure profiles and gas-phase pressure and relative humidity RH histories in the drift.

  3. Spatial Heterogeneity in Ecologically Important Climate Variables at Coarse and Fine Scales in a High-Snow Mountain Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kevin R.; Ettinger, Ailene K.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Raleigh, Mark S.; Hille Ris Lambers, Janneke

    2013-01-01

    Climate plays an important role in determining the geographic ranges of species. With rapid climate change expected in the coming decades, ecologists have predicted that species ranges will shift large distances in elevation and latitude. However, most range shift assessments are based on coarse-scale climate models that ignore fine-scale heterogeneity and could fail to capture important range shift dynamics. Moreover, if climate varies dramatically over short distances, some populations of certain species may only need to migrate tens of meters between microhabitats to track their climate as opposed to hundreds of meters upward or hundreds of kilometers poleward. To address these issues, we measured climate variables that are likely important determinants of plant species distributions and abundances (snow disappearance date and soil temperature) at coarse and fine scales at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington State, USA. Coarse-scale differences across the landscape such as large changes in elevation had expected effects on climatic variables, with later snow disappearance dates and lower temperatures at higher elevations. However, locations separated by small distances (?20 m), but differing by vegetation structure or topographic position, often experienced differences in snow disappearance date and soil temperature as great as locations separated by large distances (>1 km). Tree canopy gaps and topographic depressions experienced later snow disappearance dates than corresponding locations under intact canopy and on ridges. Additionally, locations under vegetation and on topographic ridges experienced lower maximum and higher minimum soil temperatures. The large differences in climate we observed over small distances will likely lead to complex range shift dynamics and could buffer species from the negative effects of climate change. PMID:23762277

  4. Spatial heterogeneity in ecologically important climate variables at coarse and fine scales in a high-snow mountain landscape.

    PubMed

    Ford, Kevin R; Ettinger, Ailene K; Lundquist, Jessica D; Raleigh, Mark S; Hille Ris Lambers, Janneke

    2013-01-01

    Climate plays an important role in determining the geographic ranges of species. With rapid climate change expected in the coming decades, ecologists have predicted that species ranges will shift large distances in elevation and latitude. However, most range shift assessments are based on coarse-scale climate models that ignore fine-scale heterogeneity and could fail to capture important range shift dynamics. Moreover, if climate varies dramatically over short distances, some populations of certain species may only need to migrate tens of meters between microhabitats to track their climate as opposed to hundreds of meters upward or hundreds of kilometers poleward. To address these issues, we measured climate variables that are likely important determinants of plant species distributions and abundances (snow disappearance date and soil temperature) at coarse and fine scales at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington State, USA. Coarse-scale differences across the landscape such as large changes in elevation had expected effects on climatic variables, with later snow disappearance dates and lower temperatures at higher elevations. However, locations separated by small distances (?20 m), but differing by vegetation structure or topographic position, often experienced differences in snow disappearance date and soil temperature as great as locations separated by large distances (>1 km). Tree canopy gaps and topographic depressions experienced later snow disappearance dates than corresponding locations under intact canopy and on ridges. Additionally, locations under vegetation and on topographic ridges experienced lower maximum and higher minimum soil temperatures. The large differences in climate we observed over small distances will likely lead to complex range shift dynamics and could buffer species from the negative effects of climate change. PMID:23762277

  5. Spatial analysis of precipitation in a high-mountain region: exploring methods with multi-scale topographic predictors and circulation types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, D.; Frei, C.

    2014-11-01

    Statistical models of the relationship between precipitation and topography are key elements for the spatial interpolation of rain-gauge measurements in high-mountain regions. This study investigates several extensions of the classical precipitation-height model in a direct comparison and within two popular interpolation frameworks, namely linear regression and kriging with external drift. The models studied include predictors of topographic height and slope at several spatial scales, a stratification by types of a circulation classification, and a predictor for wind-aligned topographic gradients. The benefit of the modeling components is investigated for the interpolation of seasonal mean and daily precipitation using leave-one-out cross-validation. The study domain is a north-south cross section of the European Alps (154 km 187 km) that is inclined towards dense rain-gauge measurements (approx. 440 stations, 1971-2008). The significance of the topographic predictors was found to strongly depend on the interpolation framework. In linear regression, predictors of slope and at multiple scales reduce interpolation errors substantially. But with as many as nine predictors, the resulting interpolation still poorly replicates the across-ridge variation of climatological mean precipitation. Kriging with external drift (KED) leads to much smaller interpolation errors than linear regression, but this is achieved with a single predictor (local topographic height), whereas the incorporation of more extended predictor sets brings only marginal further improvement. Furthermore, the stratification by circulation types and the wind-aligned gradient predictor do not improve over the single predictor KED model. As for daily precipitation, interpolation accuracy improves considerably with KED and the use of a single predictor field (the distribution of seasonal mean precipitation) as compared to ordinary kriging (i.e., without any predictor). Nonetheless, information from circulation types did not improve interpolation accuracy. Our results confirm that the consideration of topography effects is important for spatial interpolation of precipitation in high-mountain regions. But a single predictor may be sufficient and taking appropriate account of the spatial autocorrelation (by kriging) can be more effective than the development of elaborate predictor sets within a regression model. Our results also question a popular practice of using linear regression for predictor selection in spatial interpolation; however they support the common practice of using a climatological mean field as a background in the interpolation of daily precipitation.

  6. Analysis of Fine-Scale Feldspar Zoning and Groundmass by FE-EMPA: An Example from the Jemez Mountains Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, M. C.; Wolff, J. A.; Cornelius, S.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of mineral phases by electron microprobe analysis using a thermal field emission source (FE-EMPA) provides several important advantages compared to EMPA analysis with the more conventional tungsten filament source. The FE-EMPA provides a significant increase in resolution, with the potential for sub-micron quantitative analyses critical for fine-scale zonation. Additionally, a higher beam current may be applied at lower accelerating voltage (~5 KeV) while still retaining a small spot size and sampling volume (smaller zone of excitation), thus allowing for analysis of very small particles without exciting X-rays from the surrounding material. This application is therefore ideally suited for groundmass phase analysis. To test FE-EMPA applications we have focused on several samples of feldspar zonation and groundmass textures from andesites and dacites (63-68 wt% SiO2) from the Tschicoma Formation in the Jemez Mountain Volcanic Field, New Mexico. Prior whole rock geochemical studies have suggested that that the Tschicoma andesites and dacites are generated primarily by magma mixing between crustal material and more primitive basaltic andesites. A variety of complex textures are observed petrographically in the dacites including rapid growth and inclusion entrapment, strongly resorbed zones, regrowth, and very fine-scale oscillatory zoning. Oscillatory zoning is also evident in groundmass feldspar from several samples. Using the natural oscillatory zoning we will present results demonstrating the combined effects of adjusting beam current and accelerating voltage to optimize the spatial resolution of the quantitative analyses. Fine spatial resolution allows us to better constrain rim compositions and compare these directly to feldspar compositions from the fine-grained groundmass. The combination of very fine-scale zoning profiles, with precise rim and groundmass compositions significantly improves our ability to interpret the growth history of individual grains and therefore allows us to redefine our petrogenetic models in environments of complex magma evolution.

  7. Commercial scale demonstration: enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Annual report, October 1980-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.C.

    1982-05-01

    This commercial scale test, known as the M-1 Project, is located in Crawford County, Illinois. It encompasses 407 acres of Robinson sand reservoir and covers portions of several waterflood projects that were approaching economic limit. The project includes 248 acres developed on a 2.5-acre five-spot pattern and 159 acres developed on a 5.0-acre five-spot pattern. Development work commenced in late 1974 and has previously been reported. Micellar solution (slug) injection was initiated on February 10, 1977, and is now completed. After 10% of a pore volume of micellar slug was injected, injection of 11% pore volume of Dow 700 Pusher polymer was conducted at a concentration of 1156 ppM. At the end of this reporting period, 625 ppM polymer was being injected into the 2.5-acre pattern and 800 ppM polymer was being injected into the 5.0-acre pattern. The oil cut of the 2.5-acre pattern has decreased from 11.0% in September 1980, to 7.9% in September 1981. The 2.5-acre pattern had been on a plateau since May 1980, and as of May 1981 appears to be on a decline. The oil cut of the 5.0-acre pattern has increased from 5.9% in September 1980, to 10.9% in September 1981. The 5.0-acre pattern experienced a sharp increase in oil cut after 34% of a pore volume of total fluid had been injected and appears to be continuing its incline. This fifth annual report is organized under the following three work breakdown structures: fluid injection; production; and performance monitoring.

  8. Scale-up of Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, Mark A

    2014-08-27

    The project started in September, 2012 with the goal of scaling up from the existing laboratory scale process for producing carbon fiber (CF) from polyolefin (PO) based precursor fiber using a Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization process. The award was used to develop a process that was capable of producing market development quantities of CF from PO precursor fiber at a rate of 4 kg/h of CF. The CF would target properties that met or exceeded the Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicles Technology [1] standard; i.e., 172 GPa modulus and 1.72 GPa strength at greater than or equal to 1% strain. The Dow proprietary process was capable of meeting and exceeding these targets properties. Project DE-EE0005760 resulted from a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Dow and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with support from the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) and DOE. In the first budget period, the main goal was to design a sulfonation-desulfonation market development plant capable of stabilizing PO precursor fiber at a rate of 5 kg/h using a sulfonation solution. The detailed design, location, and cost estimate were determined as scheduled in the Project Management Plan (PMP). In parallel with this DOE award project was a fundamentals and economic evaluation funded by The Dow Chemical Company (Dow). The goal of the Dow sponsored project was to finalize the mass balances, energy balances, and levelized cost to produce CF using the Dow process. A Go-No-Go decision was scheduled in June, 2013 based on the findings of the DOE sponsored scale up project and the Dow sponsored project. In June, 2013, Dow made the No-Go decision to halt and abandon the Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation process for stabilizing PO precursor fibers for the manufacturing of CF. This No-Go decision was identified in the original proposal and at the start of this project, and the decision was made as scheduled. The decision was based on the high levelized economic cost of the process relative to the manufacture of CF from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor fibers. The capital required to sulfonate the fibers adds a significant cost to the process due to the need for investment in a sulfuric acid recovery plant. This high additional capital over the capital for a PAN based CF plant, reduces the levelized economic cost to slightly advantaged over PAN based CF. The sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization route failed to meet the Dow’s return on investment criterion and the cost advantage target set forth for the DOE project. The DOE and Dow decided to halt spending on the project until a new PO fiber stabilization process could be identified that met the DOE physical properties standard and the levelized economic cost constraints of Dow. When the new technology was developed, then award DE-EE0005760 would be re-started with the same goals of the development of a market development plant capable of producing CF at 4 kg/h with the properties that met or exceed those set forth by the Department of Energy Vehicles Technology standard. Progress on the development of the new process has been slow and thus has delayed the scale up project. Dow’s efforts to date have not progressed to the point of demonstrating a commercially-viable process for production of low cost CF from PO precursors for Dow’s rigorous economic constraints. After extensive discussions within Dow and consultation with DOE’s Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams, Dow has decided to proceed with the formal recommendation to terminate subject project. DOE’s AMO Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams agreed with the termination of the project.

  9. Pre-test simulations of laboratory-scale heater experiments in tuff. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Clifford K.

    1995-09-01

    Laboratory-scale heater experiments are Proposed to observe thermohydrologic Processes in tuffaceous rock using existing equipment and x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the experiments is to gain understanding of the near-field behavior and thermodynamic environment surrounding a heat source. As a prelude to these experiments, numerical simulations are performed to determine design-related parameters such as optimal heating power and heating duration. In addition, the simulations aid in identifying and understanding thermal processes and mechanisms that may occur under a variety of experimental conditions. Results of the simulations show that convection may play an important role in the heat transfer and thermodynamic environment of the heater if the Rayleigh-Darcy number exceeds a critical value (= 10 for the laboratory experiments) depending on the type of backfill material within the annulus (or drift).

  10. Incorporating landscape heterogeneity to understand patterns of stream discharge across spatial and temporal scales in forested mountain watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstrom, A.; Jencso, K. G.; McGlynn, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that catchment characteristics (e.g. geology, vegetation, and topography) modulate runoff generation processes that connect hillslopes to streams. However, there has been little direct quantification of the range of spatial scales and climatic forcing under which catchment characteristics and their topology influence patterns and thresholds in stream flow. We measured changes in discharge across 52 reaches (~200 m long) distributed across 5 nested watersheds ranging from 3.2 to 23 km2 in the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, Montana. We performed dilution gauging from early snowmelt through late summer baseflow in the 2013 and 2014 water years to develop stage-discharge relationships for calculation of real-time stream discharge for each of the 52 reaches. We also computed indices of topography, geology, vegetation, and valley characteristics. Preliminary results suggest that the dominant controls, and their degree of influence on observed changes in discharge shifted across wetness states. Total contributing area to each reach was a significant predictor of discharge at high flow with the slope of the relationship decreasing across the annual recession. We examined incremental changes in discharge for each reach and determined that spatiotemporal variability in discharge was related to the underlying lithology. Contributing areas underlain by granite gneiss yielded more water per unit area than those with sandstone. However, yield was less predictable in areas overlying the granite gneiss formation. Our preliminary analysis has identified specific watershed characteristics and time periods at which they influence discharge across watersheds and spatial scales. We suggest that these results can support improved understanding of space-time variability of stream flow and the representation of watershed characteristics in simulation model structures.

  11. Small scale heterogeneity of Phanerozoic lower crust: evidence from isotopic and geochemical systematics of mid-Cretaceous granulite gneisses, San Gabriel Mountains, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; May, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    An elongate belt of mid-Cretaceous, compositionally banded gneisses and granulites is exposed in Cucamonga terrane, in the southeastern foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. Banded gneisses include mafic granulites of two geochemical types: type 1 rocks are similar to high Al arc basalts and andesites but have higher HFSE (high-field-strength-element) abundances and extremely variable LILE (largeion-lithophile-element) abundances, while type 2 rocks are relatively low in Al and similar to alkali rich MOR (midocean-ridge) or intraplate basalts. Intercalated with mafic granulites are paragneisses which include felsic granulites, aluminous gneisses, marble, and calc-silicate gneisses. Type 1 mafic granulites and calcic trondhjemitic pegmatites also oceur as cross-cutting, synmetamorphic dikes or small plutons. Small-scale heterogeneity of deep continental crust is indicated by the lithologic and isotopic diversity of intercalated ortho-and paragneisses exposed in Cucamonga terrane. Geochemical and isotopic data indicate that K, Rb, and U depletion and Sm/Nd fractionation were associated with biotite +/- muscovite dehydration reactions in type 1 mafic granulites and aluminous gneisses during high-grade metamorphism. Field relations and model initial isotopic ratios imply a wide range of protolith ages, ranging from Early Proterozoic to Phanerozoic. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Major- and Trace-Element Concentrations in Rock Samples Collected in 2006 from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Miller, Marti L.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Kuskokwim mineral belt of Bundtzen and Miller (1997) forms an important metallogenic region in southwestern Alaska that has yielded more than 3.22 million ounces of gold and 400,000 ounces of silver. Precious-metal and related deposits in this region associated with Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary igneous complexes extend into the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle. The U.S. Geological Survey is in the process of conducting a mineral resource assessment of this region. This report presents analytical data collected during the third year of this multiyear study. A total of 138 rock geochemistry samples collected during the 2006 field season were analyzed using the ICP-AES/MS42, ICP-AES10, fire assay, and cold vapor atomic absorption methods described in more detail below. Analytical values are provided in percent (% or pct: 1 gram per 100 grams), parts per million (ppm: 1 gram per 1,000,000 grams), or parts per billion (ppb: 1 gram per 1,000,000,000 grams) as indicated in the column heading of the data table. Data are provided for download in Excel (*.xls), comma delimited (*.csv), dBase 4 (*.dbf) and as a point coverage in ArcInfo interchange (*.e00) formats available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1386/.

  13. Effect of fluorescent light on hatchability of commercial broiler parent stock eggs and on body weight of chickens hatched under large-scale commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, A H

    1989-11-01

    Two experiments involving 11,400 commercial broiler parent stock hatching eggs of varying sizes, ages, and arrangements during incubation were conducted to investigate the effect of fluorescent light (FL) on hatchability and on body weight at hatch. In Experiment 1, there were two trials for a total of 10 incubation trays (units) for lighted treatment as well as the control (nonlighted). All eggs within a trial were laid the same day and were of the same size. Incubation units (150 eggs/unit) of each trial were distributed randomly in the lighted or nonlighted incubators. Experiment 2 used larger sized eggs that were collected for 4 consecutive days to make four independent age groups. Treatment units were positioned on the same level of incubators for lighted and nonlighted groups. In both experiments the only difference between lighted, which extended for 18 days, and nonlighted treatments was the installation of two cool white 40 W fluorescent tubes positioned at the ceiling of the illuminated incubators. After 18 days of incubation, incubated trays were transferred to hatching compartments either distributed randomly in the same hatcher (Experiment 1) or positioned as they were in the incubator (Experiment 2). No significant differences (P greater than .05) in hatchability or body weight at hatch were found between the light treatment and the control. PMID:2608622

  14. Approaches to modeling coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemicalprocesses in the Drift Scale Heater Test at Yucca Mountain.

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenthal, E.; Ito, K.; Spycher, N.; Yui, M.; Apps, J.; Sugita,Y.; Conrad, M.; Kawakami, S.

    2005-03-01

    A large-scale underground thermal test (Drift Scale Test DST) in fractured volcanic tuff resulted in changes to water and gas chemistry as well as mineral precipitation and dissolution in fractures. Thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in the DST were modeled by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ''LBNL'' and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute ''JNC'' as part of the international working group DECOVALEX. Predictions of THC processes in the DST for the 4-year heating and 4-year cooling periods were initially performed by the LBNL group, with the current model reflecting a revised heater operation history and model. JNC used primarily the original data from the prediction and created a new model to evaluate a selected set of data. The approaches taken by the groups differed in several ways and a comparison of the methodologies and results of the simulations allow for a better understanding of modeling coupled processes in unsaturated fractured rock. The LBNL model represented the fractures and rock matrix as a fully interacting dual-continuum (in terms of fluid, heat, and chemical transport) with the local mineral water gas reactions treated by kinetic and equilibrium reactions. The JNC model represented the fractures and matrix as a single effective continuum, with equilibrium mineral-water reactions controlling the chemical evolution. Both models considered aqueous species transport, with gas phase CO2 transport only considered in the LBNL model. Comparisons to data collected from the DST illustrate the behavior of the models and their ability to capture the relevant THC processes. Overall, both models capture the temperature evolution in the rock quite closely, although the JNC model gave a closer match to the initial temperature rise in the rock, likely owing to the use of site-specific thermal data as opposed to average properties used for the LBNL model. Both models showed the contrasting solubility effects of increasing temperature on calcite and silica solubility; yet the dual continuum approach better represented the effects of boiling and condensation on aqueous species chemistry and the distribution of mineral precipitation.

  15. Transport of Radon Gas into a Tunnel at Yucca Mountain-Estimating Large-Scale Fractured Tuff Hydraulic Properties and Implications for the Operation of the Ventilation System

    SciTech Connect

    A. Unger; S. Finsterle; G. Bodvarsson

    2003-06-06

    Radon gas concentrations have been monitored as part of the operation of a tunnel (the Exploratory Studies Facility-ESF) at Yucca Mountain to ensure worker safety. The objective of this study was to examine the potential use of the radon data to estimate large-scale formation properties of fractured tuffs. This objective was examined by developing a numerical model, based upon the characteristics of the ESF and the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) tuff unit, capable of predicting radon concentrations for prescribed ventilation conditions. The model was used to address two specific issues. First, it was used to estimate the permeability and porosity of the fractures in the TSw at the length scale of the ESF and extending tens of meters into the TSw, which surrounds the ESF. Second, the model was used to understand the mechanism leading to radon concentrations exceeding a specified level within the ESF. The mechanism controlling radon concentrations in the ESF is a function of atmospheric barometric fluctuations being propagated down the ESF along with ventilated air flow and the slight suction induced by the ventilation exhaust fans at the South Portal of the ESF. These pressure fluctuations are dampened in the TSw fracture continuum according to its permeability and porosity. Consequently, as the barometric pressure in the ESF drops rapidly, formation gases from the TSw are pulled into the ESF, resulting in an increase in radon concentrations. Model calibration to both radon concentrations measured in the ESF and gas-phase pressure fluctuations in the TSw yielded concurrent estimates of TSw fracture permeability and porosity of l x 10{sup -11} m{sup 2} and 0.00034, respectively. The calibrated model was then used as a design tool to predict the effect of adjusting the current ventilation-system operation strategy for reducing the probability of radon gas concentrations exceeding a specified level.

  16. Transport of radon gas into a tunnel at Yucca Mountain--estimating large-scale fractured tuff hydraulic properties and implications for the operation of the ventilation system.

    PubMed

    Unger, André; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur

    2004-06-01

    Radon gas concentrations have been monitored as part of the operation of a tunnel (the Exploratory Studies Facility-ESF) at Yucca Mountain to ensure worker safety. The objective of this study was to examine the potential use of the radon data to estimate large-scale formation properties of fractured tuffs. This objective was examined by developing a numerical model, based upon the characteristics of the ESF and the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) tuff unit, capable of predicting radon concentrations for prescribed ventilation conditions. The model was used to address two specific issues. First, it was used to estimate the permeability and porosity of the fractures in the TSw at the length scale of the ESF and extending tens of meters into the TSw, which surrounds the ESF. Second, the model was used to understand the mechanism leading to radon concentrations exceeding a specified level within the ESF. The mechanism controlling radon concentrations in the ESF is a function of atmospheric barometric fluctuations being propagated down the ESF along with ventilated air flow and the slight suction induced by the ventilation exhaust fans at the South Portal of the ESF. These pressure fluctuations are dampened in the TSw fracture continuum according to its permeability and porosity. Consequently, as the barometric pressure in the ESF drops rapidly, formation gases from the TSw are pulled into the ESF, resulting in an increase in radon concentrations. Model calibration to both radon concentrations measured in the ESF and gas-phase pressure fluctuations in the TSw yielded concurrent estimates of TSw fracture permeability and porosity of 1 x 10(-11) m2 and 0.00034, respectively. The calibrated model was then used as a design tool to predict the effect of adjusting the current ventilation-system operation strategy for reducing the probability of radon gas concentrations exceeding a specified level. PMID:15134873

  17. Scaling Properties Of Flash-Flood And Snowmelt Dominated Steep Low-Order Streams In Central Texas And The Cascade Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, G.; Strom, K. B.

    2011-12-01

    Channel geometry, grain size, slope, and morphology are examined as a function of drainage area for steep, low-oder streams in two different climates. The first is for the steep, flash-flood dominated bedrock and mixed bedrock-alluvial streams found along the Balcones Escarpment in central Texas. In this region extremely heavy and localized rainfall due to convective thunderstorms and moist air from the Gulf of Mexico combine with thin soil layers to produce some of the largest runoff conditions in the United States. Such storms, soil conditions, and basin physiography make for unique conditions where significant transport of sediment often takes place during rapid episodic events. Therefore, the question is put forward as to how stream morphology and channel geometry develop under such conditions and whether or not stream properties scale as they would in perennial rivers. To aid in the analysis, data from the Balcones Escarpment streams are compared with data from low-order mountain streams in the Pacific Northwest. Channel property scaling in both regions is then compared to classic relationships for higher-order gravel bed rivers. Particular care is given in the analysis in differentiating between bedrock and alluvial rivers, and between flash flood and snowmelt dominated climates. The data and analysis serve to inform the role that climatic forcing has on the development of stream network geometry and the routing of water and sediment through the watershed. Additionally, the simple relations for stream properties can provide needed information to couple with DEMs and rainfall data for predicting water and sediment distribution in basins with little to no on the ground channel information.

  18. Spatial analysis of precipitation in a high-mountain region: exploring methods with multi-scale topographic predictors and circulation types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, D.; Frei, C.

    2014-05-01

    Statistical models of the relationship between precipitation and topography are key elements for the spatial interpolation of rain-gauge measurements in high-mountain regions. This study investigates several extensions of the classical precipitation-height model in a direct comparison and within two popular interpolation frameworks, namely linear regression and kriging with external drift. The models studied include predictors of topographic height and slope, eventually at several spatial scales, a stratification by types of a circulation classification, and a predictor for wind-aligned topographic gradients. The benefit of the modeling components is investigated for the interpolation of seasonal mean and daily precipitation using leave-one-out crossvalidation. The study domain is a north-south cross-section of the European Alps (154 km 187 km), which disposes of dense rain-gauge measurements (approx. 440 stations, 1971-2008). The significance of the topographic predictors was found to strongly depend on the interpolation framework. In linear regression predictors of slope and at multiple scales reduce interpolation errors substantially. But with as many as nine predictors the resulting interpolation still poorly replicates the across-ridge variation. Kriging with external drift (KED) leads to much smaller interpolation errors than linear regression. But this is achieved with a single predictor of local height already, and the extended predictor sets bring only marginal further improvement. Again, the stratification by circulation types and the wind-aligned gradient predictor do not improve over the single predictor KED model. Similarly for daily precipitation, information from circulation types is not improving interpolation accuracy. The results confirm that topographic predictors are essential for reducing interpolation errors, but exploiting the spatial autocorrelation in the data may be as effective as developing elaborate predictor sets. Our results also question a popular practice of using linear regression for predictor selection and they support the common practice of using climatological background fields in the interpolation of daily precipitation.

  19. Schneefernerhaus as a mountain research station for clouds and turbulence - Part 1: Flow conditions and large-scale turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risius, S.; Xu, H.; Di Lorenzo, F.; Xi, H.; Siebert, H.; Shaw, R. A.; Bodenschatz, E.

    2015-01-01

    Cloud measurements are usually carried out with airborne campaigns, which are expensive and are limited by temporal duration and weather conditions. Ground based measurements at high-altitude research stations therefore play a complementary role in cloud study. Using the meteorological data (wind speed, direction, temperature, humidity, visibility, etc.) collected by the German Weather Service (DWD) from 2000 to 2012 and turbulence measurements recorded by multiple ultrasonic sensors (sampled at 10 Hz) in 2010, we show that the Umweltforschungsstation Schneefernerhaus (UFS) located just below the peak of Zugspitze in the German Alps, at a height of 2650 m, is a well-suited station for cloud-turbulence research. The wind at UFS is dominantly in the east-west direction and nearly horizontal. During the summer time (July and August) the UFS is immersed in warm clouds about 25% of the time. The clouds are either from convection originating in the valley in the east, or associated with synoptic-scale weather systems typically advected from the west. Air turbulence, as measured from the second and third order velocity structure functions that exhibit well-developed inertial ranges, possesses Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers up to 104, with the most probable value at ~ 3000. In spite of the complex topography, the turbulence appears to be nearly as isotropic as many laboratory flows when evaluated on the so called "Lumley-triangle".

  20. Caucasus Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Often regarded as the southeastern border of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains can be seen here stretching from the Black Sea (left) to the Caspian Sea (right). The mountain range spans 700 miles (1125 km), crossing the countries of Russian Federation, Georgia, and Azerbaijan from left to right respectively. With a snowline of approximately 11,000 feet and peaks such as Mt. Elbrus, that reach 15,000 feet, much of the snow visible in this image is present year round. Also visible in this image are apparent phytoplankton blooms in the Caspian Sea, marked by blue-green swirls.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Specific Phytochemical Indicatives in Cirivilv?di Ka??ya Prepared Freshly and at Commercial Scale

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Anita; Aramya, A. R.; Manohar, R.; Latha, K.

    2015-01-01

    Ka??ya or decoction is an Ayurvedic dosage form, prescribed based on the stage of the disease according to the principles of Ayurveda. This dosage form is traditionally prepared fresh and consumed on the same day but for the sake of convenience; the process of preparation has been modified so that it can be stored with longer shelf life, easy availability and produced in large quantities. There is a need to understand the implications of this modification in terms of chemical changes. This work attempted to check the phytochemical profile of both freshly prepared decoction and commercially available decoction with reference to some analytical parameters like pH, total soluble solids, phenols, alkaloids, potassium and to assess the changes in the thin layer chromatography profiling of the decoction. The results showed that phenols and potassium are found to be two fold higher in freshly prepared decoction, compared to commercially available decoction diluted to dosage in practice (1:4 ratio). However, the total alkaloid content was found to be approximately ten fold higher in commercially available decoction. It was observed that the thin layer chromatography profile of decoctions was extracted into petroleum ether and chloroform was similar and consistent with different batches though the bands in commercially available decoction were slightly more intense compared to freshly prepared decoction. The total soluble solids in commercially available decoction were four times higher than freshly prepared decoction. The study reveals that there are differences in the phytochemical profiles of the freshly prepared decoction and commercially available decoction of the same formulation. However, the significance of these differences can be determined only by further clinical studies. On the other hand, the study lends support to the practice of diluting the commercially available decoction to make it equivalent to freshly prepared decoction. PMID:26798186

  2. A multi-scale analysis of streamflow response to changes in evapotranspiration and soil hydrology in the Blue Ridge Mountains (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, K.; Jackson, C. R.

    2013-12-01

    A large amount of research exploring the relationship between watershed forest cover and streamflow quantity has been conducted in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, particularly in association with the USFS Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and the Coweeta LTER. However, a clear answer to the question ';How does changing tree cover influence runoff?' has not yet emerged for guidance of policy and management. The southern Blue Ridge is the source of water reaching much of the drought-sensitive Southeastern US, and a firmer understanding of the complexities of this issue is critical for water resources management for millions of people and diverse aquatic habitats. When this question has been explored in mesoscale systems (10s to 100s km2), results indicate that watersheds with greater forest cover have greater baseflow. Associated work has shown that hydraulic conductivities in forest soils are nearly an order of magnitude greater than lawn and pasture soils in this region. Our interpretation has been that in these mesoscale systems, the compaction of soil associated with forest conversion to other land uses has played a bigger role than related changes in evapotranspiration (ET) in shaping watershed dynamics and the overall water budget. Particular influence has been seen in baseflows, we posit, due to reduced infiltration and recharge. However, nearly a century of research in small experimental watersheds at Coweeta has shown that forest ET substantially reduces streamflows, including baseflows, when soils are not substantially altered. At this smaller scale of observations, details of forest composition and species water use variability have been thoroughly considered, while in the mesoscale studies 'forest cover' is treated as regionally uniform. Current small-scale work at Coweeta has shown that hemlock decline and subsequent replacement with other species has changed the magnitude and seasonality of ET, which is detectible in streamflow quantity and timing. Here, we attempt to resolve the seemingly conflicting results from experimental watershed and mesoscale studies, and consider the implications for even larger systems more directly linked to policy and management. A singular focus on streamflow quantities ignores broader water quality considerations related to forest management and conversion. We explore the idea that the pronounced control of precipitation variability on streamflow variability in this region confounds the inference of the relative importance of other influences, such as ET and soil hydraulics, particularly at moderate levels of disturbance. We also consider the complexities of heterogeneous land use and geomorphology, which are inevitably encountered in larger watersheds. Finally, we suggest preliminary guidance and future research approaches to provide information to policy and management on the sensitivity of various systems to forest removal or species conversion, across a range of spatial scales.

  3. Coupled soil respiration and transpiration dynamics from tree-scale to catchment scale in dry Rocky Mountain pine forests and the role of snowpack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, E.; Barnard, H. R.; Brooks, P. D.; Adams, H.; Burns, M. A.; Wilson, W.; Stielstra, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    A current ecohydrological challenge is quantifying the exact nature of carbon (C) and water couplings across landscapes. An emerging framework of understanding places plant physiological processes as a central control over soil respiration, the largest source of CO2 to the atmosphere. In dry montane forests, spatial and temporal variability in forest physiological processes are governed by hydrological patterns. Critical feedbacks involving respiration, moisture supply and tree physiology are poorly understood and must be quantified at the landscape level to better predict carbon cycle implications of regional drought under future climate change. We present data from an experiment designed to capture landscape variability in key coupled hydrological and C processes in forests of Colorado's Front Range. Sites encompass three catchments within the Boulder Creek watershed, range from 1480 m to 3021 m above sea level and are co-located with the DOE Niwot Ridge Ameriflux site and the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory. Key hydrological measurements (soil moisture, transpiration) are coupled with soil respiration measurements within each catchment at different landscape positions. This three-dimensional study design also allows for the examination of the role of water subsidies from uplands to lowlands in controlling respiration. Initial findings from 2012 reveal a moisture threshold response of the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature. This threshold may derive from tree physiological responses to variation in moisture availability, which in turn is controlled by the persistence of snowpack. Using data collected in 2013, first, we determine whether respiration moisture thresholds represent triggers for transpiration at the individual tree level. Next, using stable isotope ratios of soil respiration and xylem and soil water, we compare the depths of respiration to depths of water uptake to assign tree vs. understory sources of respiration. This will help determine whether tree root-zone respiration exhibits a similar moisture threshold. Lastly, we examine whether moisture thresholds to temperature sensitivity are consistent across a range of snowpack persistence. Findings are compared to data collected from sites in Arizona and New Mexico to better establish the role of winter precipitation in governing growing season respiration rates. The outcome of this study will contribute to a better understanding of linkages among water, tree physiology, and soil respiration with the ultimate goal of scaling plot-level respiration fluxes to entire catchments.

  4. Development and scale-up of a commercial fed batch refolding process for an anti-CD22 two chain immunotoxin.

    PubMed

    Linke, Thomas; Aspelund, Matthew T; Thompson, Christopher; Xi, Guoling; Fulton, Andrew; Wendeler, Michaela; Pabst, Timothy M; Wang, Xiangyang; Wang, William K; Ram, Kripa; Hunter, Alan K

    2014-01-01

    We describe the development and scale-up of a novel two chain immunotoxin refolding process. This work provides a case study comparing a clinical manufacturing process and the commercial process developed to replace it. While the clinical process produced high quality material, it suffered from low yield and high yield variability. A systematic approach to process development and understanding led to a number of improvements that were implemented in the commercial process. These include a shorter inclusion body recovery process, limiting the formation of an undesired deamidated species and the implementation of fed batch dilution refolding for increased refold titers. The use of a combination of urea, arginine and DTT for capture column cleaning restored the binding capacity of the capture step column and resulted in consistent capture step yields compared to the clinical process. Scalability is shown with data from 250 L and 950 L scale refolding processes. Compared to the clinical process it replaces, the commercial process demonstrated a greater than fivefold improvement in volumetric productivity at the 950 L refolding scale. PMID:25139260

  5. Development and scale-up of a commercial fed batch refolding process for an anti-CD22 two chain immunotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Linke, Thomas; Aspelund, Matthew T; Thompson, Christopher; Xi, Guoling; Fulton, Andrew; Wendeler, Michaela; Pabst, Timothy M; Wang, Xiangyang; Wang, William K; Ram, Kripa; Hunter, Alan K

    2014-01-01

    We describe the development and scale-up of a novel two chain immunotoxin refolding process. This work provides a case study comparing a clinical manufacturing process and the commercial process developed to replace it. While the clinical process produced high quality material, it suffered from low yield and high yield variability. A systematic approach to process development and understanding led to a number of improvements that were implemented in the commercial process. These include a shorter inclusion body recovery process, limiting the formation of an undesired deamidated species and the implementation of fed batch dilution refolding for increased refold titers. The use of a combination of urea, arginine and DTT for capture column cleaning restored the binding capacity of the capture step column and resulted in consistent capture step yields compared to the clinical process. Scalability is shown with data from 250 L and 950 L scale refolding processes. Compared to the clinical process it replaces, the commercial process demonstrated a greater than fivefold improvement in volumetric productivity at the 950 L refolding scale. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:1380–1389, 2014 PMID:25139260

  6. Aqueous Geochemical Data From the Analysis of Stream-Water Samples Collected in June and July 2005--Taylor Mountains 1:250,000 Scale Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Mueller, Seth; Stetson, Sarah; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

    2006-01-01

    We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle. Parameters for which data are reported include pH, conductivity, water temperature, major cation and anion concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and dissolved organic-carbon concentrations. Samples were collected as part of a multiyear U.S. Geological Survey project 'Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development.' Data presented here are from samples collected in June and July of 2005. The data are being released at this time with minimal interpretation. This is the second release of aqueous geochemical data from this project; 2004 aqueous geochemical data were published previously (Wang and others, 2006). The data in this report augment but do not duplicate or supersede the previous data release. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first- and second-order drainages. Water sample site selection was based on landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and a cursory field review of mineralogy from pan concentrates. Stream water in the Taylor Mountians quadrangle is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), though in a few samples more than 50 percent of the anionic charge can be attributed to sulfate (SO42-). The major-cation chemistry ranges from Ca2+/Mg2+ dominated to a mix of Ca2+/Mg2+/Na++K+. In general, good agreement was found between the major cations and anions in the duplicate samples. Many trace elements in these samples were at or near the analytical method detection limit, but good agreement was found between duplicate samples for elements with detectable concentrations. With the exception of a total mercury concentration of 0.33 ng/L detected in a field blank, field blank major-ion and trace-elements concentrations were below detection.

  7. Major- and trace-element concentrations in rock samples collected in 2004 from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Miller, Marti L.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Karl, Sue M.; Baichtal, James F.; Blodgett, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    The Kuskokwim mineral belt of Bundtzen and Miller (1997) forms an important metallogenic region in southwestern Alaska that has yielded more than 3.22 million ounces of gold and 400,000 ounces of silver. Precious-metal and related deposits in this region associated with Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary igneous complexes extend into the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting geologic mapping and a mineral resource assessment of this area that will provide a better understanding of the geologic framework, regional geochemistry, and may provide targets for mineral exploration and development. During the 2004 field season 137 rock samples were collected for a variety of purposes. The 4 digital files accompanying this report reflect the type of analysis performed and its intended purpose and are available for download as an Excel workbook, comma delimited format (*.csv), dBase 4 files (*.dbf) or as point coverages in ArcInfo interchange format (*.e00). Data values are provided in percent, pct (1gram per 100grams), or parts per million, ppm (1gram per 1,000,000grams) per the column heading in the table. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 42 trace-elements (icp42.*) to provide data for use in geochemical exploration as well as some baseline data. Selected samples were analyzed by additional methods; 104 targeted geochemical exploration samples were analyzed for gold, arsenic, and mercury (auashg.*); 21 of these samples were also analyzed to obtain concentrations of 10 loosely bound metals (icp10.*); 33 rock samples were analyzed for major element oxides to support the regional mapping program (reg.*), of which 28 sedimentary rock samples were also analyzed for total carbon, and carbonate carbon.

  8. Analysis of Thermally Induced Changes in Fractured Rock Permeability during Eight Years of Heating and Cooling at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Min, K.-B.; Elsworth, D.; Tsang, Y.

    2008-06-01

    We analyzed a data set of thermally induced changes in fractured rock permeability during a four-year heating (up to 200 C) and subsequent four-year cooling of a large volume, partially saturated and highly fractured volcanic tuff at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test, in Nevada, USA. Permeability estimates were derived from about 700 pneumatic (air-injection) tests, taken periodically at 44 packed-off borehole intervals during the heating and cooling cycle from November 1997 through November 2005. We analyzed air-permeability data by numerical modeling of thermally induced stress and moisture movements and their impact on air permeability within the highly fractured rock. Our analysis shows that changes in air permeability during the initial four-year heating period, which were limited to about one order of magnitude, were caused by the combined effects of thermal-mechanically-induced stress on fracture aperture and thermal-hydrologically-induced changes in fracture moisture content. At the end of the subsequent four-year cooling period, air-permeability decreases (to as low as 0.2 of initial) and increases (to as high as 1.8 of initial) were observed. By comparison to the calculated thermo-hydro-elastic model results, we identified these remaining increases or decreases in air permeability as irreversible changes in intrinsic fracture permeability, consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). In this paper, we discuss the possibility that such fracture asperity shortening and associated decrease in fracture permeability might be enhanced by dissolution of highly stressed surface asperities over years of elevated stress and temperature.

  9. Decades-Scale Degradation of Commercial, Side-Chain, Fluorotelomer-Based Polymers in Soils and Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs) are a primary product of the jluorotelomer industry, yet the role of commercial FTPs in degrading to form perjluorocarboxylic acids (P FCAs), including perjluorooctanoic acid, and P FCA precursors, remains ill-defined. Here we report on a 376-d...

  10. Jumpstarting commercial-scale CO2 capture and storage with ethylene production and enhanced oil recovery in the US Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, Richard S.; Levine, Jonathan S.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Carey, J. William; Stauffer, Philip H.

    2015-04-27

    CO2 capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technology has yet to be widely deployed at a commercial scale despite multiple high-profile demonstration projects. We suggest that developing a large-scale, visible, and financially viable CCUS network could potentially overcome many barriers to deployment and jumpstart commercial-scale CCUS. To date, substantial effort has focused on technology development to reduce the costs of CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. Here, we propose that near-term investment could focus on implementing CO2 capture on facilities that produce high-value chemicals/products. These facilities can absorb the expected impact of the marginal increase in the cost of production on the price of their product, due to the addition of CO2 capture, more than coal-fired power plants. A financially viable demonstration of a large-scale CCUS network requires offsetting the costs of CO2 capture by using the CO2 as an input to the production of market-viable products. As a result, we demonstrate this alternative development path with the example of an integrated CCUS system where CO2 is captured from ethylene producers and used for enhanced oil recovery in the U.S. Gulf Coast region.

  11. A Study to Develop an Industrial-Scale, Computer-Controlled High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) System to Assist in Commercializing the Novel, Enabling HMFP Manufacturing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz-; Chourey, Aashish

    2010-08-01

    As the original magnet designer and manufacturer of ORNL s 9T, 5-inch ID bore magnet, American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) has collaborated with ORNL s Materials Processing Group s and this partnership has been instrumental in the development of our unique thermo-magnetic facilities and expertise. Consequently, AMI and ORNL have realized that the commercial implementation of the High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) technology will require the evolution of robust, automated superconducting (SC) magnet systems that will be cost-effective and easy to operate in an industrial environment. The goal of this project and CRADA is to significantly expedite the timeline for implementing this revolutionary and pervasive cross-cutting technology for future US produced industrial components. The successful completion of this project is anticipated to significantly assist in the timely commercialization and licensing of our HMFP intellectual property for a broad spectrum of industries; and to open up a new market for AMI. One notable outcome of this project is that the ThermoMagnetic Processing Technology WON a prestigious 2009 R&D 100 Awards. This award acknowledges and recognizes our TMP Technology as one of the top 100 innovative US technologies in 2009. By successfully establishing the design requirements for a commercial scale magnetic processing system, this project effort has accomplished a key first step in facilitating the building and demonstration of a superconducting magnetic processing coil, enabling the transition of the High Magnetic Field Processing Technology beyond a laboratory novelty into a commercially viable and industrially scalable Manufacturing Technology.

  12. How Close We Are to Achieving Commercially Viable Large-Scale Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria: A Review of the Biological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. PMID:25793279

  13. How close we are to achieving commercially viable large-scale photobiological hydrogen production by cyanobacteria: a review of the biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. PMID:25793279

  14. Mountains: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the lessons from "Mountain: A Global Resource" that were developed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and The Mountain Institute for use by NCSS members and their students. Provides an overview that introduces the mountains, mountain cultures, historical perceptions, and the geographical importance of mountains. (CMK)

  15. Commercial-scale evaluation of two agricultural waste products, cotton burr/stem and module wraps in thermoplastic composites and comparison with laboratory-scale results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory-scale research had shown the potential of using cotton burr/stem (CBS) as a fiber filler in thermoplastic composites. This study evaluates the potential of using waste materials from cotton harvesting/ginning operations, CBS, and cotton module wraps (CMW) as a filler and substrate in ther...

  16. Cadillac Mountain Summit

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An image of the summit of Cadillac Mountain. At 1,528 feet in elevation, Cadillac Mountain is the highest point in Acadia National Park, and is composed of a unique granite, the Cadillac Mountain granite unit....

  17. Cadillac Mountain Summit Panorama

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A panorama of the summit of Cadillac Mountain. At 1,528 feet in elevation, Cadillac Mountain is the highest point in Acadia National Park, and is composed of a unique granite, the Cadillac Mountain granite unit....

  18. Toward systems-level analysis of agricultural production from crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM): scaling from cell to commercial production.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sarah C; Ming, Ray; LeBauer, David S; Long, Stephen P

    2015-10-01

    Systems-level analyses have become prominent tools for assessing the yield, viability, economic consequences and environmental impacts of agricultural production. Such analyses are well-developed for many commodity crops that are used for food and biofuel, but have not been developed for agricultural production systems based on drought-tolerant plants that use crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). We review the components of systems-level evaluations, and identify the information available for completing such analyses for CAM cropping systems. Specific needs for developing systems-level evaluations of CAM agricultural production include: improvement of physiological models; assessment of product processing after leaving the farm gate; and application of newly available genetic tools to the optimization of CAM species for commercial production. PMID:26094655

  19. 2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  20. Scale-Up of CdTe Photovoltaic Device Processes for Commercial Application: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-196

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D.

    2013-02-01

    Through this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, NREL and PrimeStar Solar will work together to scale up the NREL CdTe photovoltaic process from the laboratory to produce photovoltaic devices in a size that is commercially viable. The work in this phase will focus on the transference of NREL CdTe device fabrication techniques to PrimeStar Solar. NREL and PrimeStar Solar will engage in a series of technical exchange meetings and laboratory training sessions to transfer the knowledge of CdTe PV film growth from NREL to PrimeStar Solar. PrimeStar Solar will grow thin films on PrimeStar Solar equipment and interleave them with NREL-grown films in an effort to develop a commercial scale process on PrimeStar Solar equipment. Select NREL film growth equipment will be upgraded either by PrimeStar Solar or at PrimeStar Solar's expense to increase equipment reliability and throughput.

  1. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system: Phase 3, Quarterly progress report No. 9, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1993-05-01

    In the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, etc. These buildings generally require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. Objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system is a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen Inc. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS (Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation). The combustor concept employs centrifugal forces combined with a staged combustion process to achieve high carbon conversion efficiencies and low N oxides generation. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system includes pollution control devices to meet targeted values of SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions. In general, the system is designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems. During the 8th quarter of this program, a demonstration plan was developed for installation and operation of the space heating system at an actual installation. Also, equipment upgrades were implemented and laboratory testing performed to evaluate the performance of the system with these changes.

  2. YUCCA MOUNTAIN FACTS AT A GLANCE

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2001-06-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for more than 20 years to determine its suitability as a geologic repository for the nation's commercial and defense spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A semi-arid climate, limited surface water, and deep water tables characterize the area. The DOE believes Yucca Mountain is a promising site for a geologic repository.

  3. A Study to Develop an Industrial-Scale, Computer-Controlled High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) System to Assist in Commercializing the Novel, Enabling HMFP Manufacturing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lutdka, G. M.; Chourey, A.

    2010-05-12

    As the original magnet designer and manufacturer of ORNL’s 9T, 5-inch ID bore magnet, American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) has collaborated with ORNL’s Materials Processing Group’s and this partnership has been instrumental in the development of our unique thermo-magnetic facilities and expertise. Consequently, AMI and ORNL have realized that the commercial implementation of the High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) technology will require the evolution of robust, automated superconducting (SC) magnet systems that will be cost-effective and easy to operate in an industrial environment. The goal of this project and CRADA is to significantly expedite the timeline for implementing this revolutionary and pervasive cross-cutting technology for future US produced industrial components. The successful completion of this project is anticipated to significantly assist in the timely commercialization and licensing of our HMFP intellectual property for a broad spectrum of industries; and to open up a new market for AMI. One notable outcome of this project is that the ThermoMagnetic Processing Technology WON a prestigious 2009 R&D 100 Awards. This award acknowledges and recognizes our TMP Technology as one of the top 100 innovative US technologies in 2009. By successfully establishing the design requirements for a commercial scale magnetic processing system, this project effort has accomplished a key first step in facilitating the building and demonstration of a superconducting magnetic processing coil, enabling the transition of the High Magnetic Field Processing Technology beyond a laboratory novelty into a commercially viable and industrially scalable Manufacturing Technology.

  4. A two-compartment bioreactor system made of commercial parts for bioprocess scale-down studies: impact of oscillations on Bacillus subtilis fed-batch cultivations.

    PubMed

    Junne, Stefan; Klingner, Arne; Kabisch, Johannes; Schweder, Thomas; Neubauer, Peter

    2011-08-01

    This study describes an advanced version of a two-compartment scale-down bioreactor that simulates inhomogeneities present in large-scale industrial bioreactors on the laboratory scale. The system is made of commercially available parts and is suitable for sterilization with steam. The scale-down bioreactor consists of a usual stirred tank bioreactor (STR) and a plug flow reactor (PFR) equipped with static mixer modules. The PFR module with a working volume of 1.2 L is equipped with five sample ports, and pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) sensors. The concept was applied using the non-sporulating Bacillus subtilis mutant strain AS3, characterized by a SpoIIGA gene knockout. In a fed-batch process with a constant feed rate, it is found that oscillating substrate and DO concentration led to diminished glucose uptake, ethanol formation and an altered amino acid synthesis. Sampling at the PFR module allowed the detection of dynamics at different concentrations of intermediates, such as pyruvic acid, lactic acid and amino acids. Results indicate that the carbon flux at excess glucose and low DO concentrations is shifted towards ethanol formation. As a result, the reduced carbon flux entering the tricarboxylic acid cycle is not sufficient to support amino acid synthesis following the oxaloacetic acid branch point. PMID:21751400

  5. Assessment of Constructed Wetland in Nutrient Reduction, in the Commercial Scale Experiment Ponds of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Tariq; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guosen

    2016-03-01

    A free water surface constructed wetland (CW) was integrated into two commercial ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to evaluate the role of CW in reducing the excess nutrient concentration and other pollutants produced from the aquaculture waste. Hydraulic residence time was kept constant (24 h). There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in total suspended solids (TSS, 73.2 ± 15.4 %) and total nitrogen (TN, 39.6 ± 44.2 %) between wetland inflow and wetland outflow. The performance of the CW was highly impacted by the low concentration of dissolved nutrients at the inflow of CW. Results showed about 43.8 ± 24.6 % NO3 (-), 25.7 ± 23.0 % NH4 (+), 14.3 ± 1.0 % NO2 (-), 28.4 ± 18.8 % DIN and 13.1 ± 10.0 % PO4 (3-) were removed. In agreement with previous published investigations, comparing values of pollutants before and after recirculation, this study concludes that a CW system can provide good water quality and minimize external water input. PMID:26679323

  6. Single-Event Upset and Scaling Trends in New Generation of the Commercial SOI PowerPC Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; Kouba, Coy K.

    2006-01-01

    Single-event upset effects from heavy ions are measured for Motorola silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessor with 90 nm feature sizes. The results are compared with previous results for SOI microprocessors with feature sizes of 130 and 180 nm. The cross section of the 90 nm SOI processors is smaller than results for 130 and 180 nm counterparts, but the threshold is about the same. The scaling of the cross section with reduction of feature size and core voltage for SOI microprocessors is discussed.

  7. A Quality Assurance Initiative for Commercial-Scale Production in High-Throughput Cryopreservation of Blue Catfish Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Hu, E; Liao, T. W.; Tiersch, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of fish sperm has been studied for decades at a laboratory (research) scale. However, high-throughput cryopreservation of fish sperm has recently been developed to enable industrial-scale production. This study treated blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) sperm high-throughput cryopreservation as a manufacturing production line and initiated quality assurance plan development. The main objectives were to identify: 1) the main production quality characteristics; 2) the process features for quality assurance; 3) the internal quality characteristics and their specification designs; 4) the quality control and process capability evaluation methods, and 5) the directions for further improvements and applications. The essential product quality characteristics were identified as fertility-related characteristics. Specification design which established the tolerance levels according to demand and process constraints was performed based on these quality characteristics. Meanwhile, to ensure integrity throughout the process, internal quality characteristics (characteristics at each quality control point within process) that could affect fertility-related quality characteristics were defined with specifications. Due to the process feature of 100% inspection (quality inspection of every fish), a specific calculation method, use of cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts, was applied to monitor each quality characteristic. An index of overall process evaluation, process capacity, was analyzed based on in-control process and the designed specifications, which further integrates the quality assurance plan. With the established quality assurance plan, the process could operate stably and quality of products would be reliable. PMID:23872356

  8. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system: Phase 2, Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, April 1, 1992--June 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for the commercial sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS) fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen Inc. under contract to the Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr. will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 million Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems. This report documents the work carried out in the seventh quarter of the program. During this period, proof-of-concept tests aimed at eliminating ash accumulation in the combustor and boiler were conducted. A compressed air soot blower system was installed on the boiler and combustor design changes implemented to reduced direct impingement of slurry on the upper chamber partition. As part of this testing, emission performance goals using Kentucky Hazard Prince Mine coal water slurry were met. Also, during this period the automatic control system for the system was installed and operation with this system was implemented.

  9. Geologic Sequestration of CO2 in Deep, Unmineable Coalbeds: An Integrated Researdh and Commercial-Scale Field Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves; George Koperna

    2008-09-30

    The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative consortium with the objective of advancing industry's understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. This will allow primary recovery, enhanced recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration operations to be commercially enhanced and/or economically deployed. The project was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coalseams. The initial project accomplished a number of important objectives, which mainly revolved around performing baseline experimental studies, documenting and analyzing existing field projects, and establishing a global network for technology exchange. The results from that Phase have been documented in a series of reports which are publicly available. An important outcome of the initial phase was that serious limitations were uncovered in our knowledge of reservoir behavior when CO{sub 2} is injected into coal. To address these limitations, the project was extended in 2005 as a government-industry collaborative consortium. Selected accomplishments from this phase have included the identification and/or development of new models for multi-component sorption and diffusion, laboratory studies of coal geomechanical and permeability behavior with CO{sub 2} injection, additional field validation studies, and continued global technology exchange. Further continuation of the consortium is currently being considered. Some of the topics that have been identified for investigation include further model development/refinement related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins, the extension of the work to gas shale reservoirs, and continued global technology exchange.

  10. Scale Matters: An Action Plan for Realizing Sector-Wide"Zero-Energy" Performance Goals in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Stephen; Selkowitz, Stephen; Granderson, Jessica; Haves, Philip; Mathew, Paul; Harris, Jeff

    2008-06-16

    It is widely accepted that if the United States is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions it must aggressively address energy end use in the building sector. While there have been some notable but modest successes with mandatory and voluntary programs, there have also been puzzling failures to achieve expected savings. Collectively, these programs have not yet reached the majority of the building stock, nor have they yet routinely produced very large savings in individual buildings. Several trends that have the potential to change this are noteworthy: (1) the growing market interest in 'green buildings' and 'sustainable design', (2) the major professional societies (e.g. AIA, ASHRAE) have more aggressively adopted significant improvements in energy efficiency as strategic goals, e.g. targeting 'zero energy', carbon-neutral buildings by 2030. While this vision is widely accepted as desirable, unless there are significant changes to the way buildings are routinely designed, delivered and operated, zero energy buildings will remain a niche phenomenon rather than a sector-wide reality. Toward that end, a public/private coalition including the Alliance to Save Energy, LBNL, AIA, ASHRAE, USGBC and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) are developing an 'action plan' for moving the U.S. commercial building sector towards zero energy performance. It addresses regional action in a national framework; integrated deployment, demonstration and R&D threads; and would focus on measurable, visible performance indicators. This paper outlines this action plan, focusing on the challenge, the key themes, and the strategies and actions leading to substantial reductions in GHG emissions by 2030.

  11. Protection of the Mountain Ridgelines Utilizing GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, M.

    2013-12-01

    Korean peninsula is characterized by numerous hills and mountains. The longest mountain ridgeline starting from Mt. Baekdusan to Mt. Jirisan is called Baekdudaegan which is similar to the continental divide or topographical watershed. In this study, GIS data, such as remotesensing images, national digital map, and watershed map, are used to analyze Korean mountain ridgelines structure and one Baekdudaegan data and nine Ridgelines are extracted. When extracted Baekdudaegan and other Ridgelines are overlaid on geologic maps, granite and gneiss are main components on the mountain ridgelines. The main mountain ridgelines are considered as the spiritual heritage overlapped in the land in Korea. As the environmental state is relatively better than those of other region in Korea, so many mountain ridgelines are legally protected by national legislation. The mountain ridgelines has hierarchical system; Baekdudaegan, Jeongmaek, Gimaek and Jimaek etc. according to their scale and total lengths of ridgelines. As only part of mountain ridgelines are currently protected by law or managed in environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedure, we think that most part of them should be under protection. Considering the environmental state of the ridgelines, we think that some protective measures should be set up nearby 1 km on both sides of them. If there goes a development plan or project near the main mountain ridgelines, topographical change index (TCI) and topographical scale index (TSI) etc. are to be applied in EIA. This study intends: firstly, to analyze the topological characteristics of the Korean mountain ridgelines using GIS, secondly, to analyze the geological characteristics of nearby mountain ridgelines, and lastly, to find a way to utilize the results on EIA.

  12. Efficacy of commercial produce sanitizers against nontoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 during processing of iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale leafy green processing line.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gordon R; Buchholz, Annemarie L; Ryser, Elliot T

    2013-11-01

    Chemical sanitizers are routinely used during commercial flume washing of fresh-cut leafy greens to minimize cross-contamination from the water. This study assessed the efficacy of five commercial sanitizer treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce, in wash water, and on equipment during simulated commercial production in a pilot-scale processing line. Iceberg lettuce (5.4 kg) was inoculated to contain 10(6) CFU/g of a four-strain cocktail of nontoxigenic, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 and processed after 1 h of draining at ~22 °C. Lettuce was shredded using a commercial slicer, step-conveyed to a flume tank, washed for 90 s using six different treatments (water alone, 50 ppm of peroxyacetic acid, 50 ppm of mixed peracid, or 50 ppm of available chlorine either alone or acidified to pH 6.5 with citric acid [CA] or T-128), and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Various product (25-g) and water (50-ml) samples collected during processing along with equipment surface samples (100 cm(2)) from the flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer were homogenized in neutralizing buffer and plated on tryptic soy agar. During and after iceberg lettuce processing, none of the sanitizers were significantly more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than water alone at reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations on lettuce, with reductions ranging from 0.75 to 1.4 log CFU/g. Regardless of the sanitizer treatment used, the centrifugal dryer surfaces yielded E. coli O157:H7 populations of 3.49 to 4.98 log CFU/100 cm(2). Chlorine, chlorine plus CA, and chlorine plus T-128 were generally more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than the other treatments, with reductions of 3.79, 5.47, and 5.37 log CFU/ml after 90 s of processing, respectively. This indicates that chlorine-based sanitizers will likely prevent wash water containing low organic loads from becoming a vehicle for cross-contamination. PMID:24215685

  13. Commercial-scale recycling of NdFeB-type magnets with grain boundary modification yields products with 'designer properties' that exceed those of starting materials.

    PubMed

    Zakotnik, M; Tudor, C O

    2015-10-01

    NdFeB-type magnets dominate the market for high performance magnetic materials, yet production of 'virgin' magnets via mining is environmentally, financially and energetically costly. Hence, interest is growing in 'magnet to magnet' recycling schemes that offer the potential for cheaper, more environmentally-friendly solutions to the world's growing appetite for rare-earth based magnetic materials. Unfortunately, previously described recycling processes only partially capitalise on this potential, because the methods described to date are limited to 'laboratory scale' or operate only under ideal conditions and result in products that fail to recapture the coercivity of the starting, scrap materials. Herein, we report a commercial scale process (120 kg batches) that completely recovers the properties of the starting scrap magnets. Indeed, 'grain boundary modification', via careful addition of a proprietary mix of blended elements, produces magnets with 'designer properties' that can exceed those of the starting materials and can be closely tailored to meet a wide variety of end-user applications, including high-coercivity (>2000 kA/m), sintered magnets suitable for motor applications. PMID:26239935

  14. Resprout and Survival of Willow (Salix) Cuttings on Bioengineering Structures in Actively Eroding Gullies in Marls in a Mountainous Mediterranean Climate: A Large-Scale Experiment in the Francon Catchment (Southern Alps, France).

    PubMed

    Rey, F; Labonne, S

    2015-10-01

    Improving the understanding of the role of vegetation and bioengineering structures on erosion and sedimentation control, especially in torrent-prone catchments in a mountainous Mediterranean climate, has become a key issue today for the scientific community working in ecological engineering and restoration ecology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of willow (Salix) cuttings in resprouting and survival on bioengineering structures in actively eroding gullies in marls and to identify the factors influencing this performance. Measurements were taken from 2008 to 2011 on 336 bioengineering structures, namely brush layers on wooden sills (BL) and brush layers with brush mats on wooden sills (BLM), using 8890 cuttings of Salix purpurea and Salix incana. These structures were built in 18 gullies of the Francon Catchment in marls (73 ha) in the Southern French Alps. After four growing seasons, the results revealed a total cutting survival rate of 45%. They also demonstrated that in BLM, brush mats provided better survival (56%) than brush layers (37%). In BL, brush layers alone showed 51% cutting survival. Cutting resprout and survival were observed for all structure aspects. They were positively related to increasing gully size and vegetation cover on gully sides. The results of this large-scale experiment clarified previous data obtained on a limited sample of bioengineering structures, providing further detail and showing that it is possible to use such structures made of willow cuttings to revegetate actively eroding gullies in marls within a mountainous Mediterranean climate. PMID:26006221

  15. The use of stable isotopes of H and O as indicators of shifts in hydrological processes across multiple land-use types at the hillslope scale in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, J. S.; Singh, N. K.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    The hydrological processes giving rise to runoff on relatively undisturbed, vegetated hillslopes have been extensively studied and are understood reasonably well. Less well understood is the role of land-use change in modifying runoff generation and transport on vegetated hillslopes. As human land use expands into headwater catchments where runoff generation occurs, it becomes prudent to examine the ways in which hillslope hydrological processes are impacted. Here we investigate the relationship between land-use change and hydrological processes at the hillslope scale within the Little Tennessee River Basin in the southern Appalachian Mountains as a component of the ongoing Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) project at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory. Using hydrometric data and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen as conservative tracers for precipitation, groundwater and stream water, we evaluate runoff generation and transport along the hillslope-to-stream continuum at sites representing a range of land-use types in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We present initial results and analyses from continuous hydrometric monitoring and monthly isotope samples collected during 2011. These results are placed in broader hillslope and watershed contexts using LIDAR-based terrain indices.

  16. Resprout and Survival of Willow ( Salix) Cuttings on Bioengineering Structures in Actively Eroding Gullies in Marls in a Mountainous Mediterranean Climate: A Large-Scale Experiment in the Francon Catchment (Southern Alps, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, F.; Labonne, S.

    2015-10-01

    Improving the understanding of the role of vegetation and bioengineering structures on erosion and sedimentation control, especially in torrent-prone catchments in a mountainous Mediterranean climate, has become a key issue today for the scientific community working in ecological engineering and restoration ecology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of willow ( Salix) cuttings in resprouting and survival on bioengineering structures in actively eroding gullies in marls and to identify the factors influencing this performance. Measurements were taken from 2008 to 2011 on 336 bioengineering structures, namely brush layers on wooden sills (BL) and brush layers with brush mats on wooden sills (BLM), using 8890 cuttings of Salix purpurea and Salix incana. These structures were built in 18 gullies of the Francon Catchment in marls (73 ha) in the Southern French Alps. After four growing seasons, the results revealed a total cutting survival rate of 45 %. They also demonstrated that in BLM, brush mats provided better survival (56 %) than brush layers (37 %). In BL, brush layers alone showed 51 % cutting survival. Cutting resprout and survival were observed for all structure aspects. They were positively related to increasing gully size and vegetation cover on gully sides. The results of this large-scale experiment clarified previous data obtained on a limited sample of bioengineering structures, providing further detail and showing that it is possible to use such structures made of willow cuttings to revegetate actively eroding gullies in marls within a mountainous Mediterranean climate.

  17. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  18. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  19. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. The ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky Mountain ...

  20. Reassessing regime shifts in the North Pacific: incremental climate change and commercial fishing are necessary for explaining decadal-scale biological variability.

    PubMed

    Litzow, Michael A; Mueter, Franz J; Hobday, Alistair J

    2014-01-01

    In areas of the North Pacific that are largely free of overfishing, climate regime shifts - abrupt changes in modes of low-frequency climate variability - are seen as the dominant drivers of decadal-scale ecological variability. We assessed the ability of leading modes of climate variability [Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA), North Pacific Index (NPI), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)] to explain decadal-scale (1965-2008) patterns of climatic and biological variability across two North Pacific ecosystems (Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea). Our response variables were the first principle component (PC1) of four regional climate parameters [sea surface temperature (SST), sea level pressure (SLP), freshwater input, ice cover], and PCs 1-2 of 36 biological time series [production or abundance for populations of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), groundfish, herring (Clupea pallasii), shrimp, and jellyfish]. We found that the climate modes alone could not explain ecological variability in the study region. Both linear models (for climate PC1) and generalized additive models (for biology PC1-2) invoking only the climate modes produced residuals with significant temporal trends, indicating that the models failed to capture coherent patterns of ecological variability. However, when the residual climate trend and a time series of commercial fishery catches were used as additional candidate variables, resulting models of biology PC1-2 satisfied assumptions of independent residuals and out-performed models constructed from the climate modes alone in terms of predictive power. As measured by effect size and Akaike weights, the residual climate trend was the most important variable for explaining biology PC1 variability, and commercial catch the most important variable for biology PC2. Patterns of climate sensitivity and exploitation history for taxa strongly associated with biology PC1-2 suggest plausible mechanistic explanations for these modeling results. Our findings suggest that, even in the absence of overfishing and in areas strongly influenced by internal climate variability, climate regime shift effects can only be understood in the context of other ecosystem perturbations. PMID:23996901

  1. Lesson 2: Sacred Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson in which the students are divided into four Mountain Study Teams in order to examine a sacred mountain. Explains that the students in each group assume a particular role, such as an historian or scientist. Provides a profile on the four mountains and a definition of the seven student roles. (CMK)

  2. Geology of North Mountain in eastern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, S.L. . Dept. of Geology); Lessing, P. ); Kulander, B.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-03-01

    The North Mountain fault is one of the largest overthrusts in the folded Appalachian mountain belt and serves as the boundary between the detached Massanutten-Blue Ridge overthrust sheet (i.e. Great Valley and Blue Ridge) and Valley and Ridge fold structures in eastern West Virginia, northwestern Virginia, west-central maryland and south-central Pennsylvania. Past work has shown the sedimentary rock section on North Mountain and immediately west of the North Mountain fault to consist of an overturned sequence of Upper Ordovician to Middle Devonian strata, with a break thrust on the west side of North Mountain, placing Silurian formations against Devonian strata. Recent 1:24,000 scale mapping by the West Virginia Geological Survey has delineated this break thrust and its continuity from Maryland, through West Virginia and into Frederick County, Virginia. This previously unnamed structure, designated Back Creek fault, formed as a footwall splay from the North Mountain fault complex. The structure of North Mountain is a horse, bounded by the North Mountain fault complex in the Great Valley to the east and Back Creek fault on the west side of North Mountain. The overturned stratigraphic sequence on North Mountain reverses dip on the western flank of the mountain just east of Back Creek in Berkeley County, West Virginia, creating Back Creek syncline. This structure is a classic fault propagation fold, formed by the emplacement of North Mountain fault and extending from Maryland into Frederick County, Virginia.

  3. Photocatalytic mineralization of commercial herbicides in a pilot-scale solar CPC reactor: photoreactor modeling and reaction kinetics constants independent of radiation field.

    PubMed

    Colina-Mrquez, Jose; Machuca-Martnez, Fiderman; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2009-12-01

    The six-flux absorption-scattering model (SFM) of the radiation field in the photoreactor, combined with reaction kinetics and fluid-dynamic models, has proved to be suitable to describe the degradation of water pollutants in heterogeneous photocatalytic reactors, combining simplicity and accuracy. In this study, the above approach was extended to model the photocatalytic mineralization of a commercial herbicides mixture (2,4-D, diuron, and ametryne used in Colombian sugar cane crops) in a solar, pilot-scale, compound parabolic collector (CPC) photoreactor using a slurry suspension of TiO(2). The ray-tracing technique was used jointly with the SFM to determine the direction of both the direct and diffuse solar photon fluxes and the spatial profile of the local volumetric rate of photon absorption (LVRPA) in the CPC reactor. Herbicides mineralization kinetics with explicit photon absorption effects were utilized to remove the dependence of the observed rate constants from the reactor geometry and radiation field in the photoreactor. The results showed that the overall model fitted the experimental data of herbicides mineralization in the solar CPC reactor satisfactorily for both cloudy and sunny days. Using the above approach kinetic parameters independent of the radiation field in the reactor can be estimated directly from the results of experiments carried out in a solar CPC reactor. The SFM combined with reaction kinetics and fluid-dynamic models proved to be a simple, but reliable model, for solar photocatalytic applications. PMID:19943672

  4. The effects of aircraft on climate and pollution. Part II: 20-year impacts of exhaust from all commercial aircraft worldwide treated individually at the subgrid scale.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M Z; Wilkerson, J T; Naiman, A D; Lele, S K

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the 20-year impacts of emissions from all commercial aircraft flights worldwide on climate, cloudiness, and atmospheric composition. Aircraft emissions from each individual flight worldwide were modeled to evolve from the subgrid to grid scale with the global model described and evaluated in Part I of this study. Simulations with and without aircraft emissions were run for 20 years. Aircraft emissions were found to be responsible for -6% of Arctic surface global warming to date, -1.3% of total surface global warming, and -4% of global upper tropospheric warming. Arctic warming due to aircraft slightly decreased Arctic sea ice area. Longer simulations should result in more warming due to the further increase in CO2. Aircraft increased atmospheric stability below cruise altitude and decreased it above cruise altitude. The increase in stability decreased cumulus convection in favor of increased stratiform cloudiness. Aircraft increased total cloud fraction on average. Aircraft increased surface and upper tropospheric ozone by -0.4% and -2.5%, respectively and surface and upper-tropospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) by -0.1% and -5%, respectively. Aircraft emissions increased tropospheric OH, decreasing column CO and CH4 by -1.7% and -0.9%, respectively. Aircraft emissions increased human mortality worldwide by -620 (-240 to 4770) deaths per year, with half due to ozone and the rest to particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5). PMID:24601012

  5. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale for screening of the drowsy driving: comparison with the maintenance of wakefulness test in an Iranian sample of commercial drivers.

    PubMed

    Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Moller, Henry J; Saraei, Maryam; Aminian, Omid; Khajeh-Mehrizi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Traffic fatalities are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Iran. Occupational sleep medicine field needs more cost-effective and applicable tests for screening purposes. This study reports on a pilot screening study for drowsy drivers in an urban Iranian sample of commercial drivers. The Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) measures the ability to remain awake objectively. Sleep latency in MWT is a reasonable predictor of driving simulator performance in drivers. In this study, we evaluate whether the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and MWT are equally useful in drivers with possible Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS). 46 consecutive road truck drivers in a transportation terminal entered into this study. The ESS score of patients with normal and abnormal MWT was 3.242.4 and 4.083 respectively which was not significantly differenced (P value = 0.34). No significant correlation was found between the ESS and sleep latency in MWT (r=-0.28, 95%CI= -0.58 to 0.02). By using the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve was found to be 0.57 (95% confidence interval = 0.37- 0.77) which is not statistically acceptable (P value=0.46). Our finding showed that the MWT and ESS do not measure the same parameter. PMID:24659070

  6. Triclocarban, triclosan and its transformation product methyl triclosan in native earthworm species four years after a commercial-scale biosolids application.

    PubMed

    Macherius, Andr; Lapen, David R; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Rmbke, Jrg; Topp, Edward; Coors, Anja

    2014-02-15

    Triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS) and methyl triclosan (Me-TCS) were detected in soil and the native population of earthworms of an agricultural field in Ottawa, Canada, about four years after a commercial-scale application of biosolids. In soil that received biosolids, TCC and TCS were detected at median concentrations of 13.0 and 1.5 ng/g soil (d.w.), respectively, while Me-TCS, the transformation product of triclosan, was detected at a six-fold higher median concentration than its precursor. In earthworms collected at the biosolids-amended field-plot about four years post application, Me-TCS was also detected at higher concentrations (26 to 114 ng/g tissue d.w.) than TCS (16-51 ng/g) and TCC (4-53 ng/g). These data provide evidence that not only parent compounds but also their transformation products need to be considered in faunal bioaccumulation studies. Moreover, the preliminary results for pooled earthworm samples from different ecological groups suggest that the degree of bioaccumulation of biosolids-associated contaminants may depend on the habitat and feeding behavior of the organisms. PMID:24291564

  7. The influence of industrial-scale canning on cadmium and lead levels in sardines and anchovies from commercial fishing centres of the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Galitsopoulou, Augoustina; Georgantelis, Dimitrios; Kontominas, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The current study encompassed a survey on the levels of toxic trace elements in two highly consumed fish species in commercial fishing centres of western, central and eastern Mediterranean Sea. A Zeeman GTA-AAS graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry system was used throughout the study. Toxicological evaluation of the samples revealed a low Cd content in the raw samples, ranging between 0.003 and 0.027 mg kg?. Pb presented significantly higher values, from 0.037 to 0.297 mg kg?, occasionally reaching the limit of 0.3 mg kg?. Heavy metal levels were particularly higher in bones, thus raising queries about the safe consumption of fish intended to be eaten as a whole, a very common practice for small fish and canned products. The influence of industrial-scale canning showed that canning enhanced heavy metal levels by 35%-80%. The effect of canning depended on metal type and reduction of moisture loss after the steam-roasting step of the canning procedure. PMID:24779699

  8. Pilot Studies of Geologic and Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in the Big Sky Region, USA, and Opportunities for Commercial Scale Deployment of New Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waggoner, L. A.; Capalbo, S. M.; Talbott, J.

    2007-05-01

    Within the Big Sky region, including Montana, Idaho, South Dakota, Wyoming and the Pacific Northwest, industry is developing new coal-fired power plants using the abundant coal and other fossil-based resources. Of crucial importance to future development programs are robust carbon mitigation plans that include a technical and economic assessment of regional carbon sequestration opportunities. The objective of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) is to promote the development of a regional framework and infrastructure required to validate and deploy carbon sequestration technologies. Initial work compiled sources and potential sinks for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Big Sky Region and developed the online Carbon Atlas. Current efforts couple geologic and terrestrial field validation tests with market assessments, economic analysis and regulatory and public outreach. The primary geological efforts are in the demonstration of carbon storage in mafic/basalt formations, a geology not yet well characterized but with significant long-term storage potential in the region and other parts of the world; and in the Madison Formation, a large carbonate aquifer in Wyoming and Montana. Terrestrial sequestration relies on management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO2 to storage in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration method can be implemented today and is on the front-line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO2 emissions. Details of pilot projects are presented including: new technologies, challenges and successes of projects and potential for commercial-scale deployment.

  9. Commercializing Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  10. Environmental and Economic Performance of Commercial-scale Solar Photovoltaic Systems: A Field Study of Complex Energy Systems at the Desert Research Institute (DRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.

    2014-12-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are being aggressively deployed at residential, commercial, and utility scales to complement power generation from conventional sources. This is motivated both by the desire to reduce carbon footprints and by policy-driven financial incentives. Although several life cycle analyses (LCA) have investigated environmental impacts and energy payback times of solar PV systems, most results are based on hypothetical systems rather than actual, deployed systems that can provide measured performance data. Over the past five years, Desert Research Institute (DRI) in Nevada has installed eight solar PV systems of scales from 3 to 1000 kW, the sum of which supply approximately 40% of the total power use at DRI's Reno and Las Vegas campuses. The goal of this work is to explore greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts and examine the economic performance of DRI's PV systems by developing and applying a comprehensive LCA and techno-economic (TEA) model. This model is built using data appropriate for each type of panel used in the DRI systems. Power output is modeled using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) model PVWatts. The performance of PVWatts is verified by the actual measurements from DRI's PV systems. Several environmental and economic metrics are quantified for the DRI systems, including life cycle GHG emissions and energy return. GHG results are compared with Nevada grid-based electricity. Initial results indicate that DRI's solar-derived electricity offers clear GHG benefits compared to conventional grid electricity. DRI's eight systems have GHG intensity values of 29-56 gCO2e/kWh, as compared to the GHG intensity of 212 gCO2e/kWh of national average grid power. The major source of impacts (82-92% of the total) is the upstream life cycle burden of manufacturing PV panels, which are made of either mono-crystalline or multi-crystalline silicon. Given the same type of PV panel, GHG intensity decreases as the scale of the system increases. Energy payback times of DRI's solar PV systems range from 0.5 to 1.5 years. The cost payback time for the DRI PV systems and the cost per ton of CO2 avoided by replacing Nevada-specific electrical power will be determined. The sensitivity of these environmental and economic impacts with respect to specific model parameters is being investigated.

  11. Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail

  12. Analysis of precipitation data from in situ and large-scale source in a tropical mountain environment. Study case of the Cordillera Blanca region, Peru.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourre, Lise; Junquas, Clmentine; Condom, Thomas; Lebel, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    The study area, the watershed of the Rio Santa in Peru, accuses a strong longitudinal climatic gradient, from the humid Amazonian lowlands to the drier Pacific coast, associated with an altitudinal gradient, with the highest point of the watershed at 6,768 meters asl. The Cordillera Blanca situated in this area, had more than 600 km of glacier coverage at the end of the 20th century, with more than half that belongs to the watershed of the Rio Santa. The application of a hydrological model in this area requires the analysis and regionalization of precipitation, a key variable for the establishment of a water balance. In this context, different sources of precipitation data are useful in order to catch the spatial and temporal variability: in situ meteorological stations, TRMM 3B42 and 3B43 product satellite data and outputs of WRF model (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) at 3 km of spatial resolution. Precipitations are dependent on both the large-scale atmospheric circulation and local parameters such as topography or albedo. As all these variables cannot be properly taken into account in large scale models, it is important to evaluate the contribution of regional models in the analysis and the understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of precipitation across a watershed. To investigate the spatial and temporal variability of precipitations, two approaches have been adopted in this work. In a first approach the spatial repartition of precipitation is described from station data. The second approach is focused on the assessment of a high-scale regional climate model (WRF) and the TRMM satellite data to reproduce spatially and temporally in situ observed precipitations. This comparison was carried out for different time-scale variability: on a monthly time scale with the observation of the seasonal cycle, on the daily time scale to study the occurrence of precipitation, and finally with the hourly data to study the representation of diurnal cycle. First results show that the strong seasonality of rainfall in this area (more than 80 % of precipitation between October and April) seems better represented in WRF output than in TRMM data. Regarding the diurnal cycle, the WRF model is able to correctly reproduce the main characteristics of the diurnal cycle of precipitation, such as a maximum in the afternoon.

  13. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  14. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  15. The Verkhoyansk Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Verkhoyansk Mountains mark the eastern edge of the Central Siberian Plateau in Russia. This true-color MODIS image from November 13, 2001, shows the mountains (top and right) covered in snow. Following the curve of the mountains, the frozen Aldan River traces an east, then north, then westward path across the landscape, which brings it to the Lena River, the much larger river beginning at image left. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... altitude. If you have fluid in your lungs (pulmonary edema), treatment may include: Oxygen A high blood pressure ...

  17. Effect of Limited-scale Improvement Works on the Maintenance of Food for Japanese Crested Ibis in Hilly and Mountainous Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takenobu; Misawa, Shinichi; Yoshikawa, Natsuki; Takahara, Eiji

    This study examines whether the adequate population of loaches, one of the main food resources of Japanese Crested Ibis (Toki), can be maintained by the implementation of limited-scale improvement works of the habitat. As a result of the monitoring survey with the mark-recapture method, it was confirmed that the number of loaches was estimated to be 1.5 per m2 in the study paddy field, and 5.2 per m2 in the study canal, which in turn, exceeded the necessary amount for feeding Japanese Crested Ibis reported by Japan Wildlife Research Center. The major factors leading to this favorable outcome are considered to be the existence of the intercepting drain in the paddy field, the canal fishway, the paddy field fishway, and environment-conscious canal. It is also supposed that the loaches' range of activity is quite limited in comparison with the spatial extent of improvement works. These outcomes leads to a conclusion that the limited-scale improvement works are effective for the maintenance of loach population.

  18. Geophysical expression of the Ghost Dance fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Antler and Live Yucca Ridges, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, reveal small-scale faulting associated with the Ghost Dance and possibly other faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  19. Geophysical expression of the Ghost Dance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.

    1995-12-01

    Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Antler and Live Yucca Ridges, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, reveal small-scale faulting associated with the Ghost Dance and possibly other faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  20. MARBLE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, Mary M.; Hale, William N.

    1984-01-01

    The Marble Mountain Wilderness is located in the north-central Klamath Mountains of northern California. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral investigations indicate that the wilderness has areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for placer gold, for chromite, and for marble. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

  1. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MR power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full- sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, and (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MR Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  2. Does Nature and Persistence of Substrate at a Mesohabitat Scale Matter for Chironomidae Assemblages? a Study of Two Perennial Mountain Streams in Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Epele, Luis Beltrán; Miserendino, María Laura; Brand, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Chironomid substrate—specific associations regarding the nature (organic—inorganic) and stability (stable—unstable) of different habitats were investigated at two low order Patagonian streams, during high and low water periods. Nant y Fall and Glyn rivers were visited twice (October 2007 and March 2008) and seven different habitat types were identified. A total of 60 samples were collected using a Surber sampler (0.09 m -2 and 250 µm) and a set of 23 environmental descriptors including physicochemical parameters and different fractions of particulate organic matter were assessed. 35 Chironomidae taxa were recorded with Orthocladiinae (20), Chironominae (7), and Podonominae (4) being the most well—represented subfamilies. Paratrichocladius sp. 1, Parapsectrocladius sp. 2, Parametriocnemus sp. 1, Pseudochironomus sp., and Rheotanytarsus sp. were the most abundant taxa. According to the relative preference index, at least 14 taxa showed strong affinity for a particular substrate. The structurally complex macrophyte Myriophyllum quitense supported 11 taxa compared with only five taxa found on the less complex Isoetes savatieri. Generally, stable substrates (boulders, cobbles, and rooted plants) supported significantly higher chironomids richness, abundance, and diversity than unstable ones (gravel—sand). Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that detritus (leaves, seeds, and biomass), macrophyte biomass, and secondarily hydraulic variables had high explanatory power on chironomids species composition and structure. This work suggests that more complex substrates showing persistence in the temporal dimension supported a diverse array of chironomids, meaning that the maintenance of natural habitat heterogeneity is essential for the community. Land—use practices having significant effects on ecological stream attributes such as increased turbidity, sediment deposition, and runoff patterns will alter assemblages. Understanding environmental associations of the Chironomidae assemblage at the habitat scale is significant for conservation purposes and for the management of low order streams in Patagonia. PMID:22947060

  3. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  4. Economic geology of the Copper Mountain Supracrustal Belt, Owl Creek Mountains, Fremont County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hausel, W.D.; Graff, P.J.; Albert, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Archean stratigraphy and associated mineral deposits at Copper Mountain were investigated to determine if this supracrustal belt has potential commercial mineral deposits. It was concluded Copper Mountain lacks the stratigraphic and structural character of a classical greenstone belt, exhibits higher metamorphic grade, and may be better classified as a high-grade terrain. However, potential is noted for stratiform Au associated with iron formation, stratiform W associated with gneiss, and Cu-Au mineralization in strike veins. 63 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs. (ACR)

  5. Lake oxygen isotopes as recorders of North American Rocky Mountain hydroclimate: Holocene patterns and variability at multi-decadal to millennial time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Berkelhammer, Max; Barron, John A.; Steinman, Byron A.; Finney, Bruce P.; Abbott, Mark B.

    2016-02-01

    Lake sediment oxygen isotope records (calcium carbonate-δ18O) in the western North American Cordillera developed during the past decade provide substantial evidence of Pacific ocean-atmosphere forcing of hydroclimatic variability during the Holocene. Here we present an overview of 18 lake sediment δ18O records along with a new compilation of lake water δ18O and δ2H that are used to characterize lake sediment sensitivity to precipitation-δ18O in contrast to fractionation by evaporation. Of the 18 records, 14 have substantial sensitivity to evaporation. Two records reflect precipitation-δ18O since the middle Holocene, Jellybean and Bison Lakes, and are geographically positioned in the northern and southern regions of the study area. Their comparative analysis indicates a sequence of time-varying north-south precipitation-δ18O patterns that is evidence for a highly non-stationary influence by Pacific ocean-atmosphere processes on the hydroclimate of western North America. These observations are discussed within the context of previous research on North Pacific precipitation-δ18O based on empirical and modeling methods. The Jellybean and Bison Lake records indicate that a prominent precipitation-δ18O dipole (enriched-north and depleted-south) was sustained between ~ 3.5 and 1.5 ka, which contrasts with earlier Holocene patterns, and appears to indicate the onset of a dominant tropical control on North Pacific ocean-atmosphere dynamics. This remains the state of the system today. Higher frequency reversals of the north-south precipitation-δ18O dipole between ~ 2.5 and 1.5 ka, and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, also suggest more varieties of Pacific ocean-atmosphere modes than a single Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) type analogue. Results indicate that further investigation of precipitation-δ18O patterns on short (observational) and long (Holocene) time scales is needed to improve our understanding of the processes that drive regional precipitation-δ18O responses to Pacific ocean-atmosphere variability, which in turn, will lead to a better understanding of internal Pacific ocean-atmosphere variability and its response to external climate forcing mechanisms.

  6. Lake oxygen isotopes as recorders of North American Rocky Mountain hydroclimate: Holocene patterns and variability at multi-decadal to millennial time scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Max Berkelhammer; Barron, John A.; Steinman, Byron A.; Finney, Bruce P.; Abbott, Mark B.

    2016-01-01

    Lake sediment oxygen isotope records (calcium carbonate-?18O) in the western North American Cordillera developed during the past decade provide substantial evidence of Pacific oceanatmosphere forcing of hydroclimatic variability during the Holocene. Here we present an overview of 18 lake sediment ?18O records along with a new compilation of lake water ?18O and ?2H that are used to characterize lake sediment sensitivity to precipitation-?18O in contrast to fractionation by evaporation. Of the 18 records, 14 have substantial sensitivity to evaporation. Two records reflect precipitation-?18O since the middle Holocene, Jellybean and Bison Lakes, and are geographically positioned in the northern and southern regions of the study area. Their comparative analysis indicates a sequence of time-varying northsouth precipitation-?18O patterns that is evidence for a highly non-stationary influence by Pacific oceanatmosphere processes on the hydroclimate of western North America. These observations are discussed within the context of previous research on North Pacific precipitation-?18O based on empirical and modeling methods. The Jellybean and Bison Lake records indicate that a prominent precipitation-?18O dipole (enriched-north and depleted-south) was sustained between ~3.5 and 1.5ka, which contrasts with earlier Holocene patterns, and appears to indicate the onset of a dominant tropical control on North Pacific oceanatmosphere dynamics. This remains the state of the system today. Higher frequency reversals of the northsouth precipitation-?18O dipole between ~2.5 and 1.5ka, and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, also suggest more varieties of Pacific oceanatmosphere modes than a single Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) type analogue. Results indicate that further investigation of precipitation-?18O patterns on short (observational) and long (Holocene) time scales is needed to improve our understanding of the processes that drive regional precipitation-?18O responses to Pacific oceanatmosphere variability, which in turn, will lead to a better understanding of internal Pacific oceanatmosphere variability and its response to external climate forcing mechanisms.

  7. Mountaineering fatalities on Denali.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott E; Campbell, Aaron D; Dow, Jennifer; Grissom, Colin K

    2008-01-01

    Mount McKinley, or Denali, is the tallest mountain in North America and attracts over 1,000 climbers annually from around the world. Since Denali is located within a national park, the National Park Service (NPS) manages mountaineering activities and attempts to maintain a balance of an adventurous experience while promoting safety. We retrospectively reviewed the fatalities on Denali from 1903 to 2006 to assist the NPS, medical personnel, and mountaineers improve safety and reduce fatalities on the mountain. Historical records and the NPS climber database were reviewed. Demographics, mechanisms, and circumstances surrounding each fatality were examined. Fatality rates and odds ratios for country of origin were calculated. From 1903 through the end of the 2006 climbing season, 96 individuals died on Denali. The fatality rate is declining and is 3.08/1,000 summit attempts. Of the 96 deaths, 92% were male, 51% occurred on the West Buttress route, and 45% were due to injuries sustained from falls. Sixty-one percent occurred on the descent and the largest number of deaths in 1 year occurred in 1992. Climbers from Asia had the highest odds of dying on the mountain. Fatalities were decreased by 53% after a NPS registration system was established in 1995. Although mountaineering remains a high-risk activity, safety on Denali is improving. Certain groups have a significantly higher chance of dying. Registration systems and screening methods provide ways to target at-risk groups and improve safety on high altitude mountains such as Denali. PMID:18331224

  8. Existence of Large Turbulent Eddies in the Early-Morning Boundary Layer Acting as an Effective Mountain to Force Mountain Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    Numerical modelling suggests that the turbulent boundary layer can act as an effective mountain forcing mountain waves. In the daytime, convective rolls can cover the mountains, raising the mountain-wave launching height. In non-convective conditions, the nature of the effective mountain is unknown. Here, we investigate if the early-morning boundary layer, moving rapidly across mountains, also contains large eddies of size comparable with convective cells. Temperature profiles from thousands of high-resolution radiosondes show superadiabatic gradients of vertical scale a few hundred metres in the boundary layer, appearing as the boundary-layer wind speed increases. These are explained by the overturning of potential temperature surfaces in large eddies advected with the wind and/or longitudinal rolls. An early-morning satellite image shows longitudinal rolls over mountains up to 1 km height. It is suggested that early-morning fast-moving airflow over mountains, producing mountain waves, also creates a turbulent boundary layer underneath them containing large eddies of scale a few hundred metres, in addition to classic turbulence. These are part of the effective mountain, higher than the actual mountain, which explains the formation of mountain waves.

  9. Existence of Large Turbulent Eddies in the Early-Morning Boundary Layer Acting as an Effective Mountain to Force Mountain Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, R. M.

    2016-04-01

    Numerical modelling suggests that the turbulent boundary layer can act as an effective mountain forcing mountain waves. In the daytime, convective rolls can cover the mountains, raising the mountain-wave launching height. In non-convective conditions, the nature of the effective mountain is unknown. Here, we investigate if the early-morning boundary layer, moving rapidly across mountains, also contains large eddies of size comparable with convective cells. Temperature profiles from thousands of high-resolution radiosondes show superadiabatic gradients of vertical scale a few hundred metres in the boundary layer, appearing as the boundary-layer wind speed increases. These are explained by the overturning of potential temperature surfaces in large eddies advected with the wind and/or longitudinal rolls. An early-morning satellite image shows longitudinal rolls over mountains up to 1 km height. It is suggested that early-morning fast-moving airflow over mountains, producing mountain waves, also creates a turbulent boundary layer underneath them containing large eddies of scale a few hundred metres, in addition to classic turbulence. These are part of the effective mountain, higher than the actual mountain, which explains the formation of mountain waves.

  10. Development and testing of a commercial scale coal-fired combustion system -- Phase 3. Final technical progress report, September 26, 1990--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.; Breault, R.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of work performed in the development and testing of a coal-fired space heating system for the commercial market sector. Although coal is the most plentiful energy resource in the US, its use since World War II has been largely restricted to utility power generation for environmental and economic reasons. Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant heating fuels for office buildings, apartment complexes, and similar structures. Generally, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program was to design, build, and test a coal-based heating system for this sector, and determine the economic viability and market potential for the system. Coal water slurry (CWS) fuel was chosen as the fuel form for this development effort. CWS eliminates the need to use dry pulverized coal with its attendant handling, metering, and dusting problems, as well as its explosive potential. A brief description of the overall system design is given in this report, as well as a discussion of the unique features of the system configuration and key components. This is followed by a summary of the testing performed, including a comparison between system performance and program goals. Finally, the results of the economic evaluation are presented, along with a commercialization plan for the technology. A key issue in the eventual commercialization of the technology is the availability of a competitively priced coal water slurry fuel. Predicted prices and availability of CWS are discussed.

  11. Implications of gene flow in the scale-up and commercial use of biotechnology-derived crops: Economic and policy considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide, the area planted to biotechnology-derived crops (i.e. ‘genetically modified’ or ‘GM’ crops) has expanded rapidly, increasing more than fifty-fold since first commercialized in 1996. In 2005, GM crops expanded to 90 million ha and were produced in 21 countries on six continents. The US i...

  12. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    PubMed

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect. PMID:20659880

  13. Organic contaminants in mountains.

    PubMed

    Daly, Gillian L; Wania, Frank

    2005-01-15

    The study of organic contaminants at high altitudes is motivated by the potential risk that they pose to humans living in, or depending on resources derived from, mountains and to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in alpine areas. Mountains are also ideal settings to study contaminant transport and behavior along gradients of climate and surface cover. Information on organic contaminants in mountains is compiled from the literature and synthesized, with a focus on atmospheric transport and deposition, contaminant dynamics in alpine lakes and aquatic organisms, and concentration differences with altitude. Diurnal mountain winds, in connection with enhanced deposition at higher elevations caused by low temperatures and high precipitation rates, conspire to make mid-latitude mountains become convergence zones for selected persistent organic chemicals. In particular, the more volatile constituents of contaminant mixtures seem to become enriched, relative to the less volatile constituents at higher altitudes. For selected contaminants, concentration inversions (i.e., concentrations that increase with elevation) have been observed. A notable difference between cold trapping in high latitudes and high altitudes is the likely importance of precipitation. High rates of snow deposition in mid- and high-latitude mountains may lead to a large contaminant release during snowmelt. Regions above the tree line often have little capacity to retain the released contaminants, suggesting the potential for a highly dynamic contaminant fate situation during the snow-free season with significant revolatilization and runoff. The chemical and environmental factors that control the orographic cold trapping of organic contaminants should be examined further by measuring and comparatively interpreting concentration gradients along several mountain slopes with widely different characteristics. Future efforts should further focus on the bioaccumulation and potential effects of contaminants in the upper trophic levels of alpine food chains, on measuring more water-soluble, persistent organic contaminants, and on studying how climate change may affect contaminant dynamics in mountain settings. PMID:15707037

  14. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  15. Rocky Mountain acidification study

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.H.; Galloway, J.N.; Schofield, C.; McFee, W.; Johnson, R.; McCarley, S.; Dise, N.; Herzog, D.

    1983-10-01

    The objectives of this report were to determine the sensitivity of watersheds characteristic of the Rocky Mountain Region and the relationship of watershed sensitivity to geology and soils; to evaluate the extent of current acidification and the potential for increasing acidification with increasing deposition of nitrate and sulfate; to evaluate the results of the preceding in terms of impacts on fish populations; and to develop recommendations for assessment of future trends in both changing water chemistry and impacts on fish populations. Areas selected for study included the Rocky Mountain National Ppark and Yellowstone National Park, exemplifying two different geologic types that are representative of a large portion of the Rocky Mountain region. Rocky Mountain National Park is primarily underlain by granite and Yellowstone National Park by volcanic materials. Sensitivity is primarily determined by bedrock geology and varies inversely with elevation. High-elevation lakes and streams in the central Rocky Mountain region are very sensitive to acidic deposition. With respect to fish populations there is currently no evidence of chronic acidification and thus no apparent impact on fisheries. However, the very low base cation concentration observed in the headwater drainages of Rocky Mountain National Park suggests extreme sensitivity to acidification. Waters in volcanic areas such as Yellowstone National Park are generally of high alkalinity and do not represent potentially sensitive habitats. 109 references, 31 figures, 24 tables.

  16. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdemir, L.; Hansen, F.D.

    1991-12-31

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests, and potentially large-scale lab. demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well-quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs.

  17. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdemir, L.; Hansen, F.D.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests and potentially large-scale laboratory demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat

  19. Commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Togai, Masaki

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on commercial applications of fuzzy logic in Japan are presented. Topics covered include: suitable application area of fuzzy theory; characteristics of fuzzy control; fuzzy closed-loop controller; Mitsubishi heavy air conditioner; predictive fuzzy control; the Sendai subway system; automatic transmission; fuzzy logic-based command system for antilock braking system; fuzzy feed-forward controller; and fuzzy auto-tuning system.

  20. Development and testing of a commercial scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.; Breault, R.

    1992-10-23

    This report summarizes the results of work performed in the development and proof-of-concept (POC) testing of a coal-fired space heating system for the commercial market sector. The objective of this program is to design, build and test a coal based heating system for this sector and determine the economic viability and market potential for the system. Coal water slurry (CWS) fuel has been chosen as the fuel form for this development effort. CWS eliminates the need to use dry pulverized coal with its attendant handling, metering and dusting problems as well as its explosive potential. Equally important in selecting a fuel form is the impact on emission levels and pollution control equipment requirements. CWS is amenable to coal washing since coal cleaning technologies are generally water-based processes requiring the fine grinding of the coal. In the first stage. an overall system heat balance was prepared, system components were designed and manufactured or purchased, the system was fully assembled and preliminary testing performed to validate component performance and identify key operating variables. In the second stage the system was operated for prolonged periods to simulate a commercial application, and combustion and thermal efficiencies; tendencies to slag, foul, erode and corrode; and gaseous and particulate emissions were evaluated. Also during the second stage, an assessment of the commercial viability of the system was made. This assessment included an evaluation of the economics and market potential, including the sensitivity to fluctuations in fuel prices.

  1. Tall tower or mountain top measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Leuenberger, Markus; Schanda, Rüdiger; Henne, Stephan; Buchmann, Nina

    2014-05-01

    Resolving the regional transport and distribution of greenhouse gases in the troposphere is a key topic that challenges both modelers and experimentalists. A dense network of measurement stations would be required, in particular including measurements at high elevation to better represent the entire lower troposphere, and not only small-scale local conditions in the near-surface atmosphere. While this can be achieved by tall towers, also mountain top stations (e.g. Schauinsland, Brocken) and other stations at high elevation (e.g., Mouna Loa, Jungfraujoch) are often appropriate, due to their extended concentration footprint. However, especially over complex, mountainous terrain, the transport of atmospheric gases and their spatio-temporal distribution is difficult to predict due to the development of thermally induced local wind patterns and boundary layer processes. Therefore, the main goal of our study is to test to what extend boundary layer processes at the surface and local wind patterns close to the ground at a mountain top site influence the ambient greenhouse gas patterns compared to measurements taken at a similar altitude but at a tall tower site. To this end we use measurements from the Zugerberg mountain top station, located at a pre-Alpine mountain ridge (987 m a.s.l., 4 m above ground) exposed to the prevailing synoptic winds in Switzerland, and compare these measurements with a neighboring tall tower site (Beromünster radio broadcast tower with its top at 1014 m a.s.l., 217 m above local ground level, and ≡500 m above the Swiss Plateau). The Beromünster tall tower is located at a distance of only 30 km from the mountain top station as the bird flies, and hence a direct comparison minimizes confounding factors that are not related to the tall tower vs. mountain top position of the measurements. Both stations are part of the CarboCount CH greenhouse gas observation network (http://www.carbocount.ch) initiated for long-term monitoring and modeling of greenhouse gas fluxes at a regional scale in order to achieve a better understanding about CO2 and CH4 fluxes and their response to climate. We will present first direct comparisons of measurements obtained from continuously calibrated laser absorption spectrometers to quantify the atmospheric concentrations of carbon-dioxide and methane, but also from meteorological sensors and turbulence measurements. Data from the sensors at the two stations will be used to address the following question: can a mountain top station provide similar quality of data and spatial representativeness as a tall tower for the investigation of atmospheric patterns of greenhouse gases at diurnal to seasonal scale?

  2. Mountain building and mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W.; Conrad, Clinton P.; Husson, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mountain building at convergent margins requires tectonic forces that can overcome frictional resistance along large-scale thrust faults and support the gravitational potential energy stored within the thickened crust of the orogen. A general, dynamic model for this process is still lacking. Here we propose that mountain belts can be classified between two end-members. First, those of "slab pull" type, where subduction is mainly confined to the upper mantle, and rollback trench motion lead to moderately thick crustal stacks, such as in the Mediterranean. Second, those of "slab suction" type, where whole-mantle convection cells ("conveyor belts") lead to the more extreme expressions of orogeny, such as the largely thickened crust and high plateaus of present-day Tibet and the Altiplano. For the slab suction type, deep mantle convection produces the unique conditions to drag plates toward each other, irrespective of their nature and other boundary conditions. We support this hypothesis by analyzing the orogenic, volcanic, and convective history associated with the Tertiary formation of the Andes after ~40 Ma and Himalayas after collision at ~55 Ma. Based on mantle circulation modeling and tectonic reconstructions, we surmise that the forces necessary to sustain slab-suction mountain building in those orogens derive, after transient slab ponding, from the mantle drag induced upon slab penetration into the lower mantle, and from an associated surge of mantle upwelling beneath Africa. This process started at ~65-55 Ma for Tibet-Himalaya, when the Tethyan slab penetrated into the lower mantle, and ~10 Myr later in the Andes, when the Nazca slab did. This surge of mantle convection drags plates against each other, generating the necessary compressional forces to create and sustain these two orogenic belts. If our model is correct, the available geological records of orogeny can be used to decipher time-dependent mantle convection, with implications for the supercontinental cycle.

  3. From magic mountain to table mountain.

    PubMed

    Diacon, Andreas H; von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Donald, Peter R

    2012-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of chemotherapy, tuberculosis management relied upon aerotherapy, heliotherapy and good nutrition. This "treatment", exemplified by the regimen applied in Swiss and other European mountain resorts, is described by Thomas Mann in the book "The Magic Mountain". Tuberculosis chemotherapy began in 1944 with the introduction of streptomycin and para-amino-salicylic acid, later augmented by isoniazid. Early experience taught physicians that treatment must be given with multiple drugs to prevent emergence of resistance and that prolonged treatment adherence for 18-24 months was needed for a permanent cure of tuberculosis. Between 1970 and 1980 rifampicin was introduced and with pyrazinamide it made "short-course" treatment possible. For 30 years, a 6-month directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) based on the three compounds isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide was the foundation of tuberculosis control strategies world-wide, and in recent years this was supplemented with ethambutol in view of increasing rates of isoniazid resistance. However, even 6 months of treatment is too long to easily ensure the compliance necessary to permanently cure tuberculosis. The recent spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has placed tuberculosis programmes under severe pressure and is accompanied by an increase in drug-resistance making tuberculosis virtually untreatable in some instances. In 2004 the first of a new generation of anti-tuberculosis drugs entered clinical evaluation. A series of clinical trials, often conducted at sites in Cape Town, South Africa, has shown them to be efficacious and hold promise of being able to shorten tuberculosis treatment and treat drug-resistant tuberculosis. Development and assessment of these drugs is ongoing but there is renewed hope that these new drugs and regimens will assist in finally conquering tuberculosis, preventing a return to Magic Mountain where sunshine and fresh air was all that could be offered to patients. PMID:22915310

  4. Incorporating Watershed-Scale Groundwater/Surface Water Interactions to Better Understand How ENSO/PDO Teleconnections Affect Streamflow Variability in Geologically Complex, Semiarid, Snow-Dominated Mountainous Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsinnajinnie, L.; Frisbee, M. D.; Wilson, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    In the Southwestern U.S., warm anomalies in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are associated with increased probability of wetter than normal winter precipitation. For semiarid, snow-dominated mountainous watersheds, teleconnections, such as ENSO, may strongly affect the magnitude and timing of snowmelt pulses in streamflow. In examining stream-gage data, an implicit assumption is made that all the streamflow generation processes operative within the watershed are captured by the stream gage. However, zones of strong groundwater discharge to the stream alternating with zones of strong recharge from the stream may emerge in geologically complex watersheds. The spatial complexity of these groundwater/surface water interactions may not be captured in the stream-gage discharge data. This may not be a problem in watersheds where streamflow is generated primarily by shallow, fast runoff processes. In that case, changes associated with ENSO can be quickly apparent in streamflow (i.e., an increase in snowpack associated with warm ENSO anomalies will quickly translate to increases in daily and peak streamflow). However, the spatial complexity of groundwater/surface water interactions creates a problem in geologically complex watersheds where interactions with deep, regional groundwater are present. In this case, we test the hypothesis that the combined effect of complex geology and deep groundwater interactions creates phase shifts between peak snowpack, onset and peak of snowmelt pulses, and teleconnection indices. Using time-series analysis, the relationships between teleconnections, and metrics for snowpack and streamflow are evaluated for selected watersheds in New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado. A phase shift (lag) is observed between the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI) and onset and peak of snowmelt pulses in streamflow in snow-dominated watersheds with complex geology across scales of 50 to 1600 km2. Additionally, strong relationships between teleconnections and streamflow are not observed at larger snow-dominated watersheds with known significant deep groundwater contributions. We conclude that the effects of complex geology and deep groundwater interactions must be considered when quantifying the effects of ENSO and other teleconnections on the timing of the onset of the snowmelt pulse.

  5. Aqueous geochemical data from the analysis of stream-water samples collected in June and August 2008Taylor Mountains 1:250,000- and Dillingham D-4 1:63,360-scale quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Owens, Victoria; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000- and Dillingham D-4 1:63,360-scale quadrangles, Alaska. Reported parameters include pH, conductivity, water temperature, major cation and anion concentrations, and trace-element concentrations. We collected the samples as part of a multiyear U.S. Geological Survey project entitled "Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development." Data presented here are from samples collected in June and August 2008. Minimal interpretation accompanies this data release. This is the fourth release of aqueous geochemical data from this project; data from samples collected in 2004, 2005, and 2006 were published previously. The data in this report augment but do not duplicate or supersede the previous data releases. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first- and second-order drainages. Water sample sites were selected on the basis of landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and a cursory field review of mineralogy from pan concentrates. Stream water in the study area is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), although in a few samples more than 50 percent of the anionic charge can be attributed to sulfate (SO42-). The major-cation chemistry of these samples ranges from Ca2+-Mg2+ dominated to a mix of Ca2+-Mg2+-Na++K2+. In most cases, analysis of duplicate samples showed good agreement for the major cation and major anions with the exception of the duplicate samples at site 08TA565. At site 08TA565, Ca, Mg, Cl, and CaCO3 exceeded 25 percent and the concentrations of trace elements As, Fe and Mn also exceeded 25 percent in this duplicate pair. Chloride concentration varied by more than 25 percent in 5 of the 11 duplicated samples. Trace-element concentrations in these samples generally were at or near the detection limit for the method used and, except for Co at site 08TA565, generally good agreement was determined between duplicate samples for elements with detectable concentrations. Major-ion concentrations were below detection limits in all field blanks, and the trace-element concentrations also were generally below detection limits; however, Co, Mn, Na, Zn, Cl, and Hg were detected in one or more field blank samples.

  6. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3. Technical progress report, October 1990--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  7. Mountain Home Well - Photos

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-01-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  8. WILSON MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromfield, Calvin S.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    The Wilson Mountains Wilderness consists of about 68 sq mi in the San Miguel Mountains in southwestern Colorado. Based on a mineral survey two areas in the wilderness have a probable mineral-resource potential. One area is on the east margin of the area in the Trout Lake mining district, and the other is near the center of the area, the Mount Wilson mining district. Both areas have had a modest base and (or) precious metal production from narrow veins and have a probable potential for the occurrence of similar deposits. Of more significance is a probable mineral-resource potential for disseminated copper mineralization in the Mount Wilson mining district.

  9. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  10. Mountain Road with Autumn Foliage

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A mountain road and surrounding early autumn foliage photographed from a higher elevation in the Appalachian Mountains. The especially prominent orange leaves of a maple tree are in the foreground....

  11. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  12. Managing Small-Scale Commercial Fisheries for Adaptive Capacity: Insights from Dynamic Social-Ecological Drivers of Change in Monterey Bay

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Stacy E.; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C.; Carr, Mark H.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Crowder, Larry B.; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C.; Kittinger, John N.; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M.; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience. PMID:25790464

  13. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Stacy E; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C; Carr, Mark H; Cinner, Joshua E; Crowder, Larry B; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C; Kittinger, John N; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience. PMID:25790464

  14. Western Mountain Initiative: predicting ecosystem responses to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.; Peterson, David L.; Wilson, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems of the western United States provide irreplaceable goods and services such as water, timber, biodiversity, and recreational opportunities, but their responses to climatic changes are complex and not well understood. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI), a collaboration between USGS and U.S. Forest Service scientists, catalyzes assessment and synthesis of the effects of disturbance and climate change across western mountain areas, focusing on national parks and surrounding national forests. The WMI takes an ecosystem approach to science, integrating research across science disciplines at scales ranging from field studies to global trends.

  15. Integral imaging-based large-scale full-color 3-D display of holographic data by using a commercial LCD panel.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Bin; Ai, Ling-Yu; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2016-02-22

    We propose a new type of integral imaging-based large-scale full-color three-dimensional (3-D) display of holographic data based on direct ray-optical conversion of holographic data into elemental images (EIs). In the proposed system, a 3-D scene is modeled as a collection of depth-sliced object images (DOIs), and three-color hologram patterns for that scene are generated by interfering each color DOI with a reference beam, and summing them all based on Fresnel convolution integrals. From these hologram patterns, full-color DOIs are reconstructed, and converted into EIs using a ray mapping-based direct pickup process. These EIs are then optically reconstructed to be a full-color 3-D scene with perspectives on the depth-priority integral imaging (DPII)-based 3-D display system employing a large-scale LCD panel. Experiments with a test video confirm the feasibility of the proposed system in the practical application fields of large-scale holographic 3-D displays. PMID:26907021

  16. Rainfall characteristics along mountainous transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwiebel, Jimmy; Van Baelen, Joël; Anquetin, Sandrine; Pointin, Yves; Boudevillain, Brice

    2014-05-01

    The HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment is an experiment framework that aims at improving our understanding and quantification of processes related to the hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean region at different scales (from the individual event scale to seasonal and inter-annual variability). During the Special Observation Period (SOP-1) conducted from September 5th to November 6th 2012, an important and complementary remote sensing network (operational radars, X band research radars, Micro Rain Radars, disdrometers, and a dense network of rain gauges) has been deployed in the Cévennes-Vivarais region (South of France). This network was specifically designed to investigate the structure and the heterogeneity of precipitations as well as, in particular, the impact of orography on this structure and it has provided us with high resolution data (time and space) along strong topographic gradients (small hills, foothills and mountain). Hence, these data will support our research to precisely describe the precipitation systems and their structures over a complex terrain. In this work, we will describe the characteristics of rainfall along two topographic gradients based on the major events observed during the fall 2012 campaign period. A classification according to the type of precipitation (convective, stratiform and orographic) which can affect the region has been made to investigate orographic impact under different rainfall regimes. We will also examine the influence of the relief on the vertical and horizontal structure of precipitation. In particular, we will illustrate the modification of the drop size distribution toward smaller droplets as we go from the small hills to the mountains.

  17. Predicting the Future at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Wilson

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes a climate-prediction model funded by the DOE for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Several articles in the open literature attest to the effects of the Global Ocean Conveyor upon paleoclimate, specifically entrance and exit from the ice age. The data shows that these millennial-scale effects are duplicated on the microscale of years to decades. This work also identifies how man may have influenced the Conveyor, affecting global cooling and warming for 2,000 years.

  18. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no

  19. DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An

  20. DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An…

  1. Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This is a compilation of petrographic slides detailing the microstructure and petrographic character of the tuff deposits associated with the Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. It describes crystal structures, clay alterations, and mineral associations. The paper contains a description of the petrographic thin-sections but contains no narrative or conclusions of what the slides suggest with regards to the facility.

  2. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  3. White Mountain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    This illustrated reader is part of a series designed for use in the Alaska State-Operated Schools' bilingual education program. The reader describes in story form some aspects of life, primarily hunting, fishing and related activities, among natives of the White Mountain region of Alaska. The text is provided in both English and Inupiat and is…

  4. Freshness in the Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Kay Slattery; Clauss, Judith Enz

    2000-01-01

    Situated in a western mountain range, the North Carolina Center for the Advancement of Teaching is a residential facility that houses teachers seeking intellectual refreshment. The center pays all expenses, aiming to advance teaching as an art and a profession via seminars and a relaxed atmosphere. (MLH)

  5. The Strongest Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnes, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

  6. The Strongest Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnes, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop

  7. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health

  8. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  9. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program as they have developed over the past 5 years; what follows will be focused on Yucca Mountain, but not restricted to it.

  10. Mountains: top down.

    PubMed

    Woodwell, George M

    2004-11-01

    Mountainous regions offer not only essential habitat and resources, including water, to the earth's more than 6 billion inhabitants, but also insights into how the global human habitat works, how it is being changed at the moment as global climates are disrupted, and how the disruption may lead to global biotic and economic impoverishment. At least 600 million of the earth's more than 6 billion humans dwell in mountainous regions. Such regions feed water into all the major rivers of the world whose valleys support most of the rest of us. At least half of the valley dwellers receive part or all of their water from montane sources, many from the melt water of glaciers, others from the annual snow melt. Glaciers are retreating globally as the earth warms as a result of human-caused changes in the composition of the atmosphere. Many are disappearing, a change that threatens municipal water supplies virtually globally. The warming is greatest in the higher latitudes where the largest glaciers such as those of Greenland and the Antarctic Continent have become vulnerable. The melting of ice in the northern hemisphere raises serious concerns about the continued flow of the Gulf Stream and the possibility of massive climatic changes in Scandinavia and northern Europe. Mountains are also biotic islands in the sea life, rich in endemism at the ecotype level. The systematic warming of the earth changes the environment out from under these genetically specialized strains (ecotypes) which are then maladapted and vulnerable to diseases of all types. The process is systematic impoverishment in the pattern conspicuous on mountain slopes with increasing exposure to climatic extremes. It is seen now in the increased mortality and morbidity of plants as climatic changes accumulate. The seriousness of the global climatic disruption is especially clear in any consideration of mountains. It can and must be addressed constructively despite the adamancy of the current US administration. PMID:15575181

  11. Digital mountains: toward development and environment protection in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaobo

    2007-06-01

    Former studies on mountain system are focused on the department or subject characters, i.e. different department and branches of learning carry out researches only for their individual purposes and with individual characters of the subject of interests. As a whole, their investigation is lacking of comprehensive study in combination with global environment. Ecological environment in mountain regions is vulnerable to the disturbance of human activities. Therefore, it is a key issue to coordinate economic development and environment protection in mountain regions. On the other hand, a lot of work is ongoing on mountain sciences, especially depending on the application of RS and GIS. Moreover, the development of the Digital Earth (DE) provides a clue to re-understand mountains. These are the background of the emergence of the Digital Mountains (DM). One of the purposes of the DM is integrating spatial related data and information about mountains. Moreover, the DM is a viewpoint and methodology of understanding and quantifying mountains holistically. The concept of the DM is that, the spatial and temporal data related to mountain regions are stored and managed in computers; moreover, manipulating, analyzing, modeling, simulating and sharing of the mountain information are implemented by utilizing technologies of RS, GIS, GPS, Geo-informatic Tupu, computer, virtual reality (VR), 3D simulation, massive storage, mutual operation and network communication. The DM aims at advancing mountain sciences and sustainable mountain development. The DM is used to providing information and method for coordinating the mountain regions development and environment protection. The fundamental work of the DM is the design of the scientific architecture. Furthermore, construct and develop massive databases of mountains are the important steps these days.

  12. Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Charles F.

    Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

  13. Field-scale examination of neonicotinoid insecticide persistence in soil as a result of seed treatment use in commercial maize (corn) fields in southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Schaafsma, Arthur; Limay-Rios, Victor; Xue, Yingen; Smith, Jocelyn; Baute, Tracey

    2016-02-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides, especially as seed treatments, have raised concerns about environmental loading and impacts on pollinators, biodiversity, and ecosystems. The authors measured concentrations of neonicotinoid residues in the top 5?cm of soil before planting of maize (corn) in 18 commercial fields with a history of neonicotinoid seed treatment use in southwestern Ontario in 2013 and 2014 using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. A simple calculator based on first-order kinetics, incorporating crop rotation, planting date, and seed treatment history from the subject fields, was used to estimate dissipation rate from the seed zone. The estimated half-life (the time taken for 50% of the insecticide to have dissipated by all mechanisms) based on 8 yr of crop history was 0.64 (range, 0.25-1.59) yr and 0.57 (range, 0.24-2.12) yr for 2013 and 2014, respectively. In fields where neonicotinoid residues were measured in both years, the estimated mean half-life between 2013 and 2014 was 0.4 (range, 0.27-0.6) yr. If clothianidin and thiamethoxam were used annually as a seed treatment in a typical crop rotation of maize, soybean, and winter wheat over several years, residues would plateau rather than continue to accumulate. Residues of neonicotinoid insecticides after 3 yr to 4 yr of repeated annual use tend to plateau to a mean concentration of less than 6?ng/g in agricultural soils in southwestern Ontario. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:295-302. 2015 SETAC. PMID:26332416

  14. Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 11, January 1--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-11

    During this quarter, the third draft of the Topical Report on Process Economics Studies was issued for review. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing on the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) was made. A liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed, and a decision to proceed with a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) is pending the release of a memo from Air Products on the catalyst targets and corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst. The off-site product-use test plan is to be updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Air Products and Acurex Environmental Corporation continued developing the listing of product-use test participants who are involved in fuel cell, transportation, and stationary power plant applications. Start-up activities (Task 3.1) began during the reporting period, and coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was introduced to the demonstration unit. The recycle compressor was tested successfully on syngas at line pressure of 700 psig, and the reactor loop reached 220 C for carbonyl burnout. Iron carbonyl in the balanced gas feed remained below the 10 ppbv detection limit for all samples but one. Within the reactor loop, iron carbonyl levels peaked out near 200 ppbv after about 40 hours on-stream, before decreasing to between 10--20 ppbv at 160 hours on -stream. Nickel carbonyl measurements reached a peak of about 60 ppbv, and decreased at all sampling locations to below the 10 ppbv detection limit by 70 hours on-stream. Catalyst activation of the nine 2,250 lb batches required for the initial catalyst charge began and concluded. All batches met or slightly exceeded the theoretical maximum uptake of 2.82 SCF of reducing gas/lb catalyst.

  15. Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report No. 1, October 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products). This document describes major accomplishments in project development for Fiscal Year 1993. The preliminary process hazards review, project safety plan, schedule, and cost management report are included as appendices. The demonstration is sited at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. Air Products and Eastman are working on a partnership agreement which will form the Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. As a limited partner in the venture, Eastman will own and operate the demonstration unit. The project involves the construction of a 260 tons-per-day (TPD) or 80,000 gallon per day methanol demonstration unit utilizing an existing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression, liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated was developed by Air Products in a DOE sponsored program that started in 1981. Originally tested at a small, DOE-owned experimental facility in LaPorte, Texas, the LPMEOH{trademark} process offers several advantages over current methods of making methanol. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The liquid dissipates heat from the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the gas-to-methanol reaction to proceed at higher rates. The process is ideally suited to the type of gas produced by modem coal gasifiers. At the Eastman Chemical complex, the technology will be integrated with existing coal gasifiers to demonstrate the commercially important aspects of the operation of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process to produce methanol.

  16. Rockfall exposures in Montserrat mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontquerni Gorchs, Sara; Vilaplana Fernández, Joan Manuel; Guinau Sellés, Marta; Jesús Royán Cordero, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    This study shows the developed methodology to analyze the exposure level on a 1:25000 scale, and the results obtained by applying it to an important part of the Monataña de Montserrat Natural Park for vehicles with and without considering their occupants. The development of this proposal is part of an ongoing study which focuses more in-depth in the analysis of the rockfall risk exposure in different scales and in different natural and social contexts. This research project applies a methodology to evaluate the rockfall exposure level based on the product of the frequency of occurrence of the event by an exposure function of the vulnerable level on a 1:25,000 scale although the scale used for the study was 1:10,000. The proposed methodology to calculate the exposure level is based on six phases: 1- Identification, classification and inventory of every element potentially under risk. 2- Zoning of the frequency of occurrence of the event in the studied area. 3- Design of the exposure function for each studied element. 4- Obtaining the Exposure index, it can be defined as the product of the frequency of occurrence by the exposure function of the vulnerable element through SIG analysis obtained with ArcGis software (ESRI) 5- Obtaining exposure level by grouping into categories the numerical values of the exposure index. 6- Production of the exposition zoning map. The different types of vulnerable elements considered in the totality of the study are: Vehicles in motion, people in vehicles in motion, people on paths, permanent elements and people in buildings. Each defined typology contains all elements with same characteristics and an exposure function has been designed for each of them. For the exposure calculation, two groups of elements have been considered; firstly the group of elements with no people involved and afterwards same group of elements but with people involved. This is a first comprehensive and synthetic work about rockfall exposure on the Montserrat Mountain. It is important to mention that the exposure level calculation has been obtained from natural hazard data do not protected by defense works. Results of this work enable us to consider best strategies to reduce rockfalls risk in the PNMM. It is clear that, apart from the required structural defense works, some of them already made, implementation of strategies not involving structural defense is, in the medium and long term, the best policy to mitigate the risk. In the PNMM case, rethinking of mobility and traffic management on the mountain access would be definitely helpful to achieve a minimized geological risk.

  17. Characterizing the Severe Turbulence Environments Associated with Commercial Aviation Accidents. Part 2; Hydrostatic Mesobeta Scale Numerical Simulations of Supergradient Wind Flow and Streamwise Ageostrophic Frontogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Huffman, Allan W.; Lux, Kevin M.; Cetola, Jeffrey D.; Charney, Joseph J.; Riordan, Allen J.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Waight, Kenneth T., III; Proctor, Fred (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Simulation experiments reveal key processes that organize a hydrostatic environment conducive to severe turbulence. The paradigm requires juxtaposition of the entrance region of a curved jet stream, which is highly subgeostrophic, with the entrance region of a straight jet stream, which is highly supergeostrophic. The wind and mass fields become misphased as the entrance regions converge resulting in the significant spatial variation of inertial forcing, centripetal forcing, and along- and cross-stream pressure gradient forcing over a mesobeta scale region. This results in frontogenesis and the along-stream divergence of cyclonic and convergence of cyclonic ageostrophic vertical vorticity. The centripetally forced mesoscale front becomes the locus of large gradients of ageostrophic vertical vorticity along an overturning isentrope. This region becomes favorable for streamwise vorticity gradient formation enhancing the environment for organization of horizontal vortex tubes in the presence of buoyant forcing.

  18. Commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  19. ADVANCES IN YUCCA MOUNTAIN DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, P.G.; Gardiner, J.T.; Russell, P.R.Z.; Lachman, K.D.; McDaniel, P.W.; Boutin, R.J.; Brown, N.R.; Trautner, L.J.

    2003-02-27

    Since site designation of the Yucca Mountain Project by the President, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the transition from the site characterization phase of the project to preparation of the license application. As part of this transition, an increased focus has been applied to the repository design. Several evolution studies were performed to evaluate the repository design and to determine if improvements in the design were possible considering advances in the technology for handling and packaging nuclear materials. The studies' main focus was to reduce and/or eliminate uncertainties in both the pre-closure and post-closure performance of the repository and to optimize operations. The scope and recommendations from these studies are the subjects of this paper and include the following topics: (1) a more phased approach for the surface facility that utilize handling and packaging of the commercial spent nuclear fuel in a dry environment rather than in pools as was presented in the site recommendation; (2) slight adjustment of the repository footprint and a phased approach for construction and emplacement of the repository subsurface; and (3) simplification of the construction, fabrication and installation of the waste package and drip shield.

  20. EASTERN PIONEER MOUNTAINS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    Eight mining districts and numerous individual mines ring the eastern Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana, and are within 4 mi of the boundary of the eastern Pioneer area. Mineralized ground peripheral to these districts extends into the area at several places. Three of 12 molybdenum prospects in the Pioneer Mountains are within the eastern Pioneer area. Several areas of Paleozoic carbonate rocks are mineralized or favorably situated with respect to the Pioneer batholith. All such areas have probable resource potential. Detailed studies of structural and stratigraphic controls of ore deposition and its association with intrusive rocks of particular types and ages may be useful in providing the basis for a more precise resource assessment.

  1. Data envelopment analysis of space and terrestrially-based large scale commercial power systems for earth: A prototype analysis of their relative economic advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Criswell, D.R.; Thompson, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Society must develop a large new source of electric power to adequately meet human needs in the 21st Century. The Lunar Solar Power system (LSP) is a new option that is independent of the biosphere. LSP captures sunlight on the moon, converts the solar power to microwaves, and beams the power to receivers on Earth that output electricity. The collimated microwave beams are low in intensity (< 20% of sunlight), safe, and environmentally benign. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) enables the detailed quantitative comparison of alternative economic systems. We use DEA methodology to compare the technical efficiency of the large-scale power systems needed to meet the growing energy needs of terrestrial society. This comparison suggests the efficiencies to be gained from LSP are large indeed. Such gains remain even if the resources needed for LSP are 10-fold greater than estimated from United States government studies. In terms of benefits versus costs, normalized to the range of 0-1, DEA reveals that LSP is much more efficient than conventional terrestrial solar-thermal and photovoltaic, fossil, and nuclear systems. LSP is also environmentally benign compared to the conventional systems.. 1 ref., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  2. Geological map of Bare Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Monsen, S.A.; Carr, M.D.; Reheis, M.C.; Orkild, P.P.

    1992-12-31

    Bare Mountain comprises the isolated complex of mountain peaks southeast of the town of Beatty in southern Nye County, Nevada. This small mountain range lies between the alluvial basins of Crater Flat to the east and the northern Amargosa Desert to the southwest. The northern boundary of the range is less well defined, but for this report, the terrane of faulted Miocene volcanic rocks underlying Beatty Mountain and the unnamed hills to the east are considered to be the northernmost part of Bare Mountain. The southern tip of the mountain range is at Black Marble, the isolated hill at the southeast corner of the map. The main body of the range, between Fluorspar Canyon and Black Marble, is a folded and complexly faulted, but generally northward-dipping (or southward-dipping and northward-overturned), sequence of weakly to moderately metamorphosed upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic marine strata, mostly miogeoclinal (continental shelf) rocks. The geology of Bare Mountain is mapped at a scale of 1:24,000.

  3. Yucca Mountain Milestone

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Rod

    1997-06-09

    The Department of Energy project to determine if the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is suitable for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste reached a major milestone in late April when a 25-foot-diameter tunnel boring machine ``holed through'' completing a five-mile-long, horseshoe-shaped excavation through the mountain. When the cutting-head of the giant machine broke through to daylight at the tunnel's south portal, it ended a 2 1/2-year excavation through the mountain that was completed ahead of schedule and with an outstanding safety record. Video of the event was transmitted live by satellite to Washington, DC, where it was watched by Secretary of Energy Frederico Pena and other high-level DOE officials, signifying the importance of the project's mission to find a repository for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants. This critical undertaking is being performed by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The tunnel is the major feature of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which serves as an underground laboratory for engineers and scientists to help determine if Yucca Mountain is suitable to serve as a repository for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Morrison Knudsen's Environmental/Government Group is providing design and construction-management services on the project. The MK team is performing final design for the ESF and viability assessment design for the underground waste repository that will be built only if the site is found suitable for such a mission. In fact, if at anytime during the ESF phase, the site is found unsuitable, the studies will be stopped and the site restored to its natural state.

  4. Condensation versus diffusion. A spatial-scale-independent theory of aggregate structures in edible oils: applications to model systems and commercial shortenings studied via rheology and USAXS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pink, David A.; Peyronel, Fernanda; Quinn, Bonnie; Singh, Pratham; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how solid fats structures come about in edible oils and quantifying their structures is of fundamental importance in developing edible oils with pre-selected characteristics. We considered the great range of fractal dimensions, from 1.91 to 2.90, reported from rheological measurements. We point out that, if the structures arise via DLA/RLA or DLCA/RLCA, as has been established using ultra small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS), we would expect fractal dimensions in the range ~1.7 to 2.1, and ~2.5 or ~3.0. We present new data for commercial fats and show that the fractal dimensions deduced lie outside these values. We have developed a model in which competition between two processes can lead to the range of fractal dimensions observed. The two processes are (i) the rate at which the solid fat particles are created as the temperature is decreased, and (ii) the rate at which these particles diffuse, thereby meeting and forming aggregates. We assumed that aggregation can take place essentially isotropically and we identified two characteristic times: a time characterizing the rate of creation of solid fats, {τ\\text{create}}(T)\\equiv 1/{{R}S}(T) , where {{R}S}(T) is the rate of solid condensation (cm3 s-1), and the diffusion time of solid fats, {τ\\text{diff}}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right)=< {{r}2}> /6{D}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right) , where {D}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right) is their diffusion coefficient and < {{r}2}> is the typical average distance that fats must move in order to aggregate. The intent of this model is to show that a simple process can lead to a wide range of fractal dimensions. We showed that in the limit of very fast solid creation, {τ\\text{create}}\\ll {τ\\text{diff}} the fractal dimension is predicted to be that of DLCA, ~1.7, relaxing to that of RLCA, 2.0-2.1, and that in the limit of very slow solid creation, {τ\\text{create}}\\gg {τ\\text{diff}} , the fractal dimension is predicted to be that obtained via DLA, ~2.5, relaxing to that of RLA, 3.0. We predict that, given a system which satisfies our model assumptions and which can either be cooled rapidly or cooled slowly to yield fractal dimensions {{D}\\text{rapid}} and {{D}\\text{slow}}~ then {{D}\\text{rapid}}≤slant {{D}\\text{slow}} . This is supported by both rheological [1] and USAXS measurements [2, 3] even though the latter models do not conform to the assumptions of those presented here.

  5. Commercial-scale demonstration of the liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report No. 4, 1 April--30 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L. P.(the Partnership). A facility producing 260 TPD of methanol will be designed and constructed at a site located at the Eastman Chemical complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration facility operational period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to ``demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH{trademark} process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.`` The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low sulfur dioxide, low nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research shows promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the operations phase. During this last quarter the project transitioned to the design phase. the project requires review under the National environmental Policy Act to move to the construction phase, which is scheduled to begin in August of 1995. DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment, and a Finding of No Significant Impact was issued during this quarter. The facility is scheduled to be mechanically complete in November of 1996.

  6. Last Glacial Maximum lacustrine and fluviatile Formations in the Tibesti and other Saharan mountains, and large-scale climatic teleconnections linked to the activity of the Subtropical Jet Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maley, Jean

    2000-11-01

    In the mountains of the central Sahara (lat ca. 20 to 22N, long 16 to 19E) and particularly in the Tibesti mountains, important lacustrine formations developed during the late Pleistocene, primarily during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Two main phases, separated by a brief regression, intervened between ca. 20,000 and 15,500 BP, and between 15,000 and 12,500 BP. Pollen analyses were carried out on four samples of this formation. The high lacustrine levels were associated to both important precipitations and a reduced evaporation linked to lower temperatures. Similar lacustrine deposits were found in the Djebel Marra in the south of the Sahara. In the mountains of the central and eastern Sahara, during the same period and until the middle Holocene, the "Middle Terrace" Formation was deposited in the river valleys of the Tibesti, Hoggar, Air and the Red Sea Hills. Since the southern headwaters of the Nile were dry from ca. 20,000 to 12,500 BP, the fluviatile sediments deposited in the Nile valley in Nubia may have resulted almost entirely from the numerous wadis flowing from the Red Sea Hills. The rainfalls which fed these lacustrine and fluviatile formations were related to the Tropical Depressions which are formed in the southern part of the westerlies and are linked to the activity of the Subtropical Jet Stream (STJ), whose path remained over the central Sahara from 20,000 BP to the early Holocene. In the Rocky Mountains of the western US, the palaeolakes Lahontan and Bonneville were very large during the LGM and the main fluctuations exhibit similar chronology to that of the Saharan mountains. Broecker [Broecker, W.S., 1994. Massive iceberg discharges as triggers for global climate change. Nature 372, 421-424] estimates that these two large U.S. wet events between ca. 20,000-15,500 BP and ca. 15,000-12,500 BP may have been an indirect result of two large ice surges in the North Atlantic, related to Heinrich layers 1 and 2. We can assume, however, that the similar climatic variation of the Rocky Mountains and the central and eastern Saharan mountains was also a result of the activity of the STJ all along its path, which marks the boundary between the polar and tropical circulations. STJ activity can apparently produce long-distance climatic teleconnections. During the LGM similar teleconnections also existed in the Southern Hemisphere between South Africa and Australia. The Tropical Depressions result from the interaction of polar troughs and the influx of humid equatorial air forming transversal cloud bands. The large increase in the intensity of atmospheric circulation during the LGM was responsible for a large increase in Tropical Depressions in both hemispheres.

  7. Mountain treelines: A roadmap for research orientation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malanson, George P.; Resler, Lynn M.; Bader, Maaike Y.; Holtmeier, Fredrich-Karl; Butler, David R.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Daniels, Lori D.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    For over 100 years, mountain treelines have been the subject of varied research endeavors and remain a strong area of investigation. The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of the epistemology of mountain treeline research-that is, to investigate how knowledge on treelines has been acquired and the changes in knowledge acquisition over time, through a review of fundamental questions and approaches. The questions treeline researchers have raised and continue to raise have undoubtedly directed the current state of knowledge. A continuing, fundamental emphasis has centered on seeking the general cause of mountain treelines, thus seeking an answer to the question, "What causes treeline?" with a primary emphasis on searching for ecophysiological mechanisms of low-temperature limitation for tree growth and regeneration. However, treeline research today also includes a rich literature that seeks local, landscape-scale causes of treelines and reasons why treelines vary so widely in three-dimensional patterns from one location to the next, and this approach and some of its consequences are elaborated here. In recent years, both lines of research have been motivated greatly by global climate change. Given the current state of knowledge, we propose that future research directions focused on a spatial approach should specifically address cross-scale hypotheses using statistics and simulations designed for nested hierarchies; these analyses will benefit from geographic extension of treeline research.

  8. Computation of spatial significance of mountain objects extracted from multiscale digital elevation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh

    2014-06-01

    The derivation of spatial significance is an important aspect of geospatial analysis and hence, various methods have been proposed to compute the spatial significance of entities based on spatial distances with other entities within the cluster. This paper is aimed at studying the spatial significance of mountain objects extracted from multiscale digital elevation models (DEMs). At each scale, the value of spatial significance index SSI of a mountain object is the minimum number of morphological dilation iterations required to occupy all the other mountain objects in the terrain. The mountain object with the lowest value of SSI is the spatially most significant mountain object, indicating that it has the shortest distance to the other mountain objects. It is observed that as the area of the mountain objects reduce with increasing scale, the distances between the mountain objects increase, resulting in increasing values of SSI. The results obtained indicate that the strategic location of a mountain object at the centre of the terrain is more important than its size in determining its reach to other mountain objects and thus, its spatial significance.

  9. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, R.A.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  10. Land use/cover changes in European mountain areas: identifying links between global driving forces and local consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Schröter, Dagmar; Glade, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Minor land use/cover changes in mountain areas can aggravate the consequences of hydro-meteorological hazards such as landslides, avalanches, rockfall and flash floods. What is more, they change the provisioning of ecosystem services; also as their recovery after anthropogenic induced changes in mountains are slower or not occurring at all due to harsh climate and soil conditions. Examples of these changes are urbanization in high risk areas or deforestation on slopes. To understand the driving forces behind land use/cover changes in European mountain areas, the focus is on the two case study areas: The Val Canale valley in the Italian Alps and the Buzau valley in the Romanian Carpathians. Land use/cover changes were analyzed in the recent decades applying various remote sensing techniques, such as satellite imagery classification and visual interpretation, as well as integration of various databases (e.g. forestry, spatial planning and cadaster plans). Instead of identifying the statistical significance of particular variables (e.g. population change), the links between different driving forces of global change (e.g. political and policy changes, infrastructural plans) and local socio-economic variables were investigated further through interviewing local and regional stakeholders. The results show how both areas differ in the consequences of global changes in terms of land use/cover change. The Italian area witnessed a trajectory from a commercially active and competitive area, to an area with a large portion of abandoned commercial, customs, industrial and mining zones. These processes were accompanied by the expansion of settlements comprised mostly of secondary housing on areas with high risk, resulting in catastrophic consequences in recent flash floods and debris flows events. The Romanian site also witnessed a breakdown of local commercial and industrial activities. Together with land ownership reforms, this has resulted in the emergence of subsistence farming and illegal logging. This intensification of activities has mostly affected land on slopes in an area where over 40 % of the area is subject to landslides. Relatively, the prevailing land use/cover change process in both areas, as usually in most European mountain areas, is reforestation. Small-scale changes however were most important in terms of negative consequences. Therefore we think it is necessary to focus on the local scale when identifying possible future negative consequences of land use/cover change. Acknowledgement This work is a part of the CHANGES project (Changing hydro-meteorological risks - as Analysed by a New Generation of European Scientists), a Marie Curie Initial Training Network, funded by the European Community's 7'th Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under Grant Agreement No. 263953.

  11. The Evolution of Mountain Permafrost in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, C.; Delaloye, R.; Roer, I. H.; Hilbich, C.; Hoelzle, M.; Kenner, R.; Kotlarski, S.; Lambiel, C.; Marmy, A.; Mller, J.; Noetzli, J.; Phillips, M.; Rajczak, J.; Salzmann, N.; Schaepman, M. E.; Schar, C.; Staub, B.; Vlksch, I.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost, defined as lithospheric material whose temperature remains below 0 C for two or more consecutive years, occurs in many high-mountain regions of the European Alps. Mountain permafrost in the European Alps is characterised by temperatures only a few degrees below zero and is therefore particularly sensitive to projected climate changes in the 21st century. To evaluate the sensitivity of mountain permafrost to climatic changes and to assess its future evolution, not only climatic variables such as air temperature, radiation and timing and duration of snow cover have to be considered, but also subsurface characteristics such as ground temperature, ice content, porosity or hydraulic properties. In Switzerland, permafrost monitoring started only 1-2 decades ago but currently comprises a large set of meteorological, geophysical, kinematic and ground thermal parameters at a large variety of field sites. Within a large integrating national project (The evolution of mountain permafrost in Switzerland: TEMPS) these data sets are jointly analysed for the first time by combining observations with model simulations using a dynamic process-oriented soil model capable of addressing frozen terrain. In combination with results from Regional Climate Model ensembles, the project TEMPS aims to create plausible evolution scenarios of mountain permafrost at specific sites and will investigate the interactions between atmosphere and permafrost focusing on the evolution of ground temperature, ice content and related degradation and creep processes. This contribution will show first results concerning (a) new observation techniques in high-mountain permafrost, including thermal, geophysical and kinematic methods, (b) sensitivity studies with the soil model COUP regarding the impact of temperature and precipitation anomalies on different permafrost landforms and (c) strategies for downscaling and debiasing RCM output data for permafrost analysis on the station scale at high altitudes. The results illustrate the difficulties of scale mismatch between spatial models and point observations, as well as the problem of short time series in a climate context, but they highlight also the large potential of bringing together the monitoring and modelling communities, as both can provide key data for each other in the context of anticipated impacts of climate change. First results regarding the permafrost evolution in the Swiss Alps indicate several monitoring stations with permafrost temperatures close to the melting point, with corresponding phase changes observable with e.g. geophysical methods. Simulations suggest increasing air and ground temperatures until the end of the century with a corresponding reduction in snow cover, which does, however, not offset a general warming trend of permafrost temperatures in the simulation models. Nevertheless, the high variability of surface and subsurface materials in the permafrost regions of the European Alps will strongly modulate any general warming trend which might be visible within the coming decades.

  12. Patterns of fault displacement and strain at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Alan P.; Ferrill, David A.; Sims, Darrell W.; Franklin, Nathan; Waiting, Deborah J.

    2004-09-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is the sole candidate site for underground disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The mountain is composed of Tertiary (12.8-11.6 Ma) volcanic tuff, cut by west-dipping normal faults that divide the mountain into north-trending, east-dipping cuestas. Geologic characterization of Yucca Mountain by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has focused on mapping lithostratigraphic units, faults (including single plane, small-displacement surfaces of discontinuity, and large-displacement fault zones), and fractures (quasi-planar zones that have experienced loss of cohesion, including joints, partially mineralized joints, veins, and small-displacement faults). Faults and fractures are important to repository design because they affect seismic hazard, rockfall, and fluid transmissivity in the surrounding rock mass. Geologic maps and detailed studies of rock pavements and tunnel walls reveal that faults and fractures within Yucca Mountain are not uniform in orientation or intensity. We investigate two aspects of distributed deformation arising from fault displacement patterns at Yucca Mountain. First, fault-parallel strains (elongation parallel to cutoff lines where stratigraphic horizons intersect fault planes) develop as a result of lateral fault displacement gradients. Using existing data, we analyze the likely state of strain in fault blocks at Yucca Mountain. Second, fault-strike-perpendicular strains can develop where two normal faults propagate past each other. A component of the total strain is distributed into the surrounding rock to produce synthetic layer dip or a network of smaller faults and fractures. We find that small-scale faulting and fracturing at Yucca Mountain is variable and is strongly controlled by larger scale fault system architecture.

  13. Mountain system monitoring at Senator Beck Basin, San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, C. C.; Lyon, P.; Painter, T. H.; Barrett, A. P.

    2006-12-01

    Alpine mountain systems exhibit particular sensitivity to climate change in the form of altered patterns in plant communities, snowcover and hydrologic characteristics, biogeochemical fluxes, and energy budgets. Monitoring of such systems, across elevational gradients, and using an integrative approach, could yield early evidence of long-term trends in local and regional mountain processes and the ecological and economic services they provide. Climate change and ecological modelers can also eventually benefit from field verification of their forecasts. To these ends, the Senator Beck Basin Study Area has been developed in the western San Juan Mountains, a high altitude, mid-latitude, continental mountain range located in southwest Colorado, USA. This 290 ha 'headwater' catchment spans elevations from 3353 to 4118 m, a gradient that captures alpine (arctic-like) tundra at the highest elevations, sub-alpine forest at the lowest, and the dynamic krumholz ecotone between. Seasonal snowcover dominates this landscape for up to nine months per year, and monitoring and research infrastructure has been conceived and developed to capture this (mountain) snow system's behaviors. Two extensive arrays of instrumentation monitor weather, snowpack, energy budget, and basic soil condition parameters. A stream gauge at the basin pour point monitors streamflow and basic water properties. Routine snow profiles monitor snowpack properties adjacent to the micro-met sites. And, a comprehensive inventory of the basin's plant communities was performed in 2004, at three elevational bands, and field monuments were installed to facilitate routine repeat studies. Significantly different populations and degrees of diversity were found at each elevational band. Researchers currently being hosted in the basin are exploring the effects of desert dust depositions on alpine snowpack, hydrologic, biogeochemical, and climatic processes, at multiple spatio-temporal scales. Comparable integrative research projects utilizing the Senator Beck Basin Study Area are encouraged, and collaborators are sought for the continued development of an integrated monitoring and research program supporting investigations of interactions driving, being driven by, and otherwise comprising the mountain (snow) system.

  14. Estimating snow-water equivalent (SWE) over long mountain transects with snowmobile-mounted GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, W. S.; Provart, M.; Miller, S. N.; Dogan, M.

    2014-12-01

    The hydrologic balance in most alpine watersheds is dominated by snowmelt, which provides peak spring runoff and recharges mountain aquifers, contributing to baseflow throughout the year. Measurement of snow-water equivalent (SWE) is necessary for accurate modeling of alpine hydrology but is challenging due to the variability in snow accumulation, ablation and redistribution at scales from microtopography to hillslopes to mountainsides. Here we present a method for imaging snow stratigraphy and estimating SWE over large distances from a ground-penetrating radar system mounted on a snowmobile. We mount commercial GPR systems (500 and 800 MHz) to the front of the snowmobile to provide maximum mobility and ensure that measurements are taken on pristine snow. High-quality images show detailed snow stratigraphy down to the ground surface over snow depths up to at least 8 m, enabling elucidation of snow accumulation and redistribution processes. We estimate snow density (and thus SWE, assuming no liquid water) by measuring radar velocity of the snowpack through migration focusing analysis. Results from the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming, show that estimates of snow density from GPR (0.400.15 gm/cm3) are in good agreement with those from coincident snow cores (0.350.08 gm/cm3). Using this method, snow thickness, snow density, and therefore SWE can be measured over large areas solely from rapidly acquired common-offset GPR profiles, without the need for common-midpoint acquisition or snow cores.

  15. Bedrock infiltration estimates using catchment water storage in the mountain rain snow transition zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimates of bedrock infiltration from mountain catchments in the western U.S. are essential to water resource managers because they provide an estimate of mountain block recharge to regional aquifers. On smaller scales, bedrock infiltration is an important term in water mass balance studies, which...

  16. Human impacts to mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope/channel connections, process domains, physical and ecological roles of disturbance, and stream resilience.

  17. Cascading effects of fire exclusion in Rocky Mountain ecosystems: a literature review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keane, R.E.; Ryan, K.C.; Veblen, T.T.; Allen, C.D.; Logan, J.; Hawkes, B.

    2002-01-01

    The health of many Rocky Mountain ecosystems is in decline because of the policy of excluding fire in the management of these ecosystems. Fire exclusion has actually made it more difficult to fight fires, and this poses greater risks to the people who fight fires and for those who live in and around Rocky Mountain forests and rangelands. This paper discusses the extent of fire exclusion in the Rocky Mountains, then details the diverse and cascading effects of suppressing fires in the Rocky Mountain landscape by spatial scale, ecosystem characteristic, and vegetation type. Also discussed are the varied effects of fire exclusion on some important, keystone ecosystems and human concerns.

  18. Assessing climate change effects on mountain ecosystems using integrated models: A case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Running, Steven W.; Keane, Robert E.; Peterson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Mountain systems are characterized by strong environmental gradients, rugged topography and extreme spatial heterogeneity in ecosystem structure and composition. Consequently, most mountainous areas have relatively high rates of endemism and biodiversity, and function as species refugia in many areas of the world. Mountains have long been recognized as critical entities in regional climatic and hydrological dynamics but their importance as terrestrial carbon stores has only been recently underscored (Schimel et al. 2002; this volume). Mountain ecosystems, therefore, are globally important as well as unusually complex. These ecosystems challenge our ability to understand their dynamics and predict their response to climatic variability and global-scale environmental change.

  19. Chemical weathering within high mountain depositional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emberson, R.; Hovius, N.; Hsieh, M.; Galy, A.

    2013-12-01

    Material eroded from active mountain belts can spend extended periods in depositional structures within the mountain catchments before reaching its final destination. This can be in the form of colluvial fills, debris fans, or alluvial valley fills and terraces. The existence of these landforms is testament to the catastrophic nature of the events that lead to their formation. Sourced by landslides or debris flows, the material that forms them is in many cases either unweathered or incompletely weathered (e.g. Hsieh and Chyi 2010). Due to their porosity and permeability, these deposits likely serve as locations for extensive chemical weathering within bedrock landscapes. Recent studies considering the weathering flux from active mountain belts (e.g. Calmels et al. 2011) have distinguished between shallow and deep groundwater in terms of the contribution to the solute budget from a catchment; in this study we have attempted to more tightly constrain the sources of these groundwater components in the context of the previously mentioned depositional structures. We have collected water samples from a large number of sites within the Chen-you-lan catchment (370 km2) in central west Taiwan to elucidate the location of chemical weathering as well as how the sourcing of weathering products varies depending on the meteorological conditions. Central Taiwan has good attributes for this work considering both the extremely active tectonics and tropical climate, (including extensive cyclonic activity) which stimulate both extensive physical erosion (Dadson et al. 2003) and chemical weathering (Calmels et al. 2011). The Chen-you-lan catchment in particular contains some of the largest alluvial deposits inside the Taiwan mountain belt (Hsieh and Chyi 2010). Our preliminary results suggest that weathering within intramontane deposits may be a significant source of solutes, with the hyporheic systems within mountain rivers of particular import. This input of solutes occurs over relatively short length scales, with moderate increases in dissolved solutes over as little as 1km along the course of a river crossing a debris fan within the catchment. We hypothesise that debris fans and associated hyporheic regimes act as a filter of sorts, with the solute output from these sources being driven by dissolution and reprecipitation depending on the residence time of water within the vadose zone. This is controlled primarily by the prevailing seasonal weather: groundwater reservoirs are rapidly flushed during heavy precipitation associated with typhoons and tropical storms. In view of an expected increase of typhoon activity in the region, we propose that long-term monitoring of hydrological and chemical fluxes from mixed bedrock-alluvial mountain catchments can contribute to understanding of the impact of climate variability and change on Earth's carbon cycle.

  20. Oil and gas exploration near Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Grow, J.A.; Barker, C.E.; Harris, A.G.

    1994-12-31

    Three oil exploration wells were drilled within 20 km of Yucca Mountain in 1991. Conodont samples from two of these new wells and 190 locations near Yucca Mountain and have been analyzed for color alteration indices (CAI), which can be correlated to thermal maturity and petroleum generation. Cambrian through Triassic rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain have experienced temperatures too high to be capable of generating oil, except for a narrow zone (20 x 100 km) northeast of Yucca Mountain, where Mississippian through Triassic rocks are just within the upper limit of the oil generating window. Organic geochemical samples from the Mississippian Eleana Formation in this zone have low total organic carbon and low hydrogen indices, which, combined with overall pattern of CAI values, indicates that the entire Cambrian through Triassic sedimentary column is unfavorable as oil source rocks. While much of the Cambrian through Triassic rocks have thermal potential for gas, extensive Late Tertiary faulting at Yucca Mountain suggest that seals might be inadequate for retaining gas. No commercial gas fields have been found to date in Nevada or adjacent parts of California. Organic geochemistry on samples from a few Tertiary lacustrine deposits do show high carbon and hydrogen indices. However, the lacustrine deposits in these basin and range type valleys lack long range continuity and none of the present Nevada oil fields produce from such Tertiary valley-fill.

  1. Hydrology and the natural heritage of the Scottish mountains.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R C; Thompson, D B

    2002-07-22

    The physical natures of the Scottish mountains and their geographical position have created a montane environment, which can be considered as unique in European terms. The mountains of Scotland have been subjected to major environmental changes throughout the past centuries including climate change, deforestation, hydropower developments and more recently the expansion of plantation forestry. Mountain ecosystems have the ability to withstand large climatic variations and extreme events but it is suggested that they may not withstand some of the climatic barriers, which have recently been crossed. The greatest recent land use change in Scotland's mountains has been the expansion of plantation forests. The effects on headwater catchment hydrology are mainly in the reduction in runoff. It is suggested that plantation forestry has a more significant impact on the natural heritage through other influences such as water chemistry and river sediments. Future management of the Scottish mountains needs to consider the great natural heritage value in addition to other interests such as water resources, hydropower generation, commercial forestry and tourism. PMID:12169004

  2. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  3. Mountain Meteorology: Fundamentals and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, Charles D.

    2000-06-01

    Published by Oxford University Press. Mountain Meteorology: Fundamentals and Applications aims to heighten awareness and appreciation of the weather in mountainous areas by introducing the reader to the basic principles and concepts of mountain meteorology and by discussing applications of these principles and concepts in natural resource management. The reader will learn to recognize characteristic mountain weather patterns and events, to anticipate their evolution and to evaluate their impact on planned activities. More than 180 figures, diagrams and photographs, most in full color, support the text and promote a conceptual understanding of mountain meteorology. In the figures and in the text, observable indicators (winds, temperature, clouds) of atmospheric processes are emphasized to facilitate the recognition of weather systems and events.

  4. Warming permafrost in European mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Charles; Vonder Mhll, Daniel; Isaksen, Ketil; Haeberli, Wilfried; Sollid, Johan Ludvig; King, Lorenz; Holmlund, Per; Dramis, Francesco; Guglielmin, Mauro; Palacios, David

    2003-11-01

    Here we present the first systematic measurements of European mountain permafrost temperatures from a latitudinal transect of six boreholes extending from the Alps, through Scandinavia to Svalbard. Boreholes were drilled in bedrock to depths of at least 100 m between May 1998 and September 2000. Geothermal profiles provide evidence for regional-scale secular warming, since all are nonlinear, with near-surface warm-side temperature deviations from the deeper thermal gradient. Topographic effects lead to variability between Alpine sites. First approximation estimates, based on curvature within the borehole thermal profiles, indicate a maximum ground surface warming of +1 C in Svalbard, considered to relate to thermal changes in the last 100 years. In addition, a 15-year time series of thermal data from the 58-m-deep Murtl-Corvatsch permafrost borehole in Switzerland, drilled in creeping frozen ice-rich rock debris, shows an overall warming trend, but with high-amplitude interannual fluctuations that reflect early winter snow cover more strongly than air temperatures. Thus interpretation of the deeper borehole thermal histories must clearly take account of the potential effects of changing snow cover in addition to atmospheric temperatures.

  5. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a separation of functions between stack convention and fuel processing, i.e. external reforming using low-cost, non-catalytic under-oxidized burners. Even for fuel cell technologies capable of internal reforming, the separation of functions offers the advantage of separate optimization of the fuel cell stack and fuel processor, leading to fuel flexibility and lower systems costs. The combination of small size fuel cells, high market values, low development and demonstration costs, low market entry costs, and availability of off-the-shelf balance-of-system components, provides a low financial and technical risk scenario for fuel cell commercialization.

  6. Radar studies of heavy convective rainfall in mountainous terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landel, Gregoire; Smith, James A.; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Steiner, Matthias; Ogden, Fred L.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall, topography, storm motion, and storm evolution are closely linked for four storms that produced catastrophic flooding along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains and the east slope of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Storms selected for detailed study in this paper are the Rapidan storm of June 27, 1995, the Fort Collins storm of July 28, 1997, the Buffalo Creek storm of July 12, 1996, and the Monocacy storm of June 18, 1996. The Buffalo Creek storm and the Fort Collins storm occurred in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado; the Rapidan and Monocacy storms occurred along the east slopes of the Blue Ridge of Virginia and southern Pennsylvania. The four storms caused catastrophic flooding at drainage basin scales between 1 and 1000 km2. The scale of flood response for these events imposes a need to characterize rainfall variability at very fine space scales and timescales, of the order of 1 km spatial scale and 1-5 min timescale. A fundamental issue for the hydrometeorology of extreme rainfall in mountainous terrain is whether anomalously large rainfall accumulations in orographic convection result from anomalously slow net storm motion, anomalously large rainfall rates, or both. Anomalous storm motion and processes resulting in catastrophic rainfall rates are examined for each of the four storms. Of particular importance for anomalous storm motion in orographic convection are interactions between the low-level wind field and terrain features.

  7. Nature and continuity of the Sundance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Christopher J.; Dickerson, Robert P.; Day, Warren C.

    2000-01-12

    This report describes the detailed geologic mapping (1:2,400 scale) that was performed in the northern part of the potential nuclear waste repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine the nature and extent of the Sundance Fault zone and to evaluate structural relations between the Sundance and other faults.

  8. Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gail Heath

    2012-07-01

    Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

  9. Modeling surface winds in mountainous catchments as a function of topography and vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop accurate distributed hydrological models, spatially accurate meteorological forcing fields are required. In mountainous basins, elevation and topography strongly influence temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure, and wind. At the watershed scale, temperature, precipitation, ...

  10. Review of Yucca Mountain Disposal Criticality Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Scaglione, John M; Wagner, John C

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, submitted a license application for construction authorization of a deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in June of 2008. The license application is currently under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However,on March 3, 2010 the DOE filed a motion requesting withdrawal of the license application. With the withdrawal request and the development of the Blue Ribbon Commission to seek alternative strategies for disposing of spent fuel, the status of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is uncertain. What is certain is that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will continue to be generated and some long-lived components of the SNF will eventually need a disposition path(s). Strategies for the back end of the fuel cycle will continue to be developed and need to include the insights from the experience gained during the development of the Yucca Mountain license application. Detailed studies were performed and considerable progress was made in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues regarding geologic disposal of SNF. This paper reviews selected technical studies performed in support of the disposal criticality analysis licensing basis and the use of burnup credit. Topics include assembly misload analysis, isotopic and criticality validation, commercial reactor critical analyses, loading curves, alternative waste package and criticality control studies, radial burnup data and effects, and implementation of a conservative application model in the criticality probabilistic evaluation as well as other information that is applicable to operations regarding spent fuel outside the reactor. This paper summarizes the work and significant accomplishments in these areas and provides a resource for future, related activities.

  11. Glacial effects limiting mountain height.

    PubMed

    Egholm, D L; Nielsen, S B; Pedersen, V K; Lesemann, J-E

    2009-08-13

    The height of mountain ranges reflects the balance between tectonic rock uplift, crustal strength and surface denudation. Tectonic deformation and surface denudation are interdependent, however, and feedback mechanisms-in particular, the potential link to climate-are subjects of intense debate. Spatial variations in fluvial denudation rate caused by precipitation gradients are known to provide first-order controls on mountain range width, crustal deformation rates and rock uplift. Moreover, limits to crustal strength are thought to constrain the maximum elevation of large continental plateaus, such as those in Tibet and the central Andes. There are indications that the general height of mountain ranges is also directly influenced by the extent of glaciation through an efficient denudation mechanism known as the glacial buzzsaw. Here we use a global analysis of topography and show that variations in maximum mountain height correlate closely with climate-controlled gradients in snowline altitude for many high mountain ranges across orogenic ages and tectonic styles. With the aid of a numerical model, we further demonstrate how a combination of erosional destruction of topography above the snowline by glacier-sliding and commensurate isostatic landscape uplift caused by erosional unloading can explain observations of maximum mountain height by driving elevations towards an altitude window just below the snowline. The model thereby self-consistently produces the hypsometric signature of the glacial buzzsaw, and suggests that differences in the height of mountain ranges mainly reflect variations in local climate rather than tectonic forces. PMID:19675651

  12. ESTIMATES OF CLOUD WATER DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM SITES IN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY, Whitetop Mountain, VA, and Clingrnan's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). ...

  13. Landscape Morphology of the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinlan, K. T.; Barnes, J. B.; Pavelsky, T.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers and rivers can significantly modify the shape of mountain landscapes. Following deformation and glaciation, bedrock river form and incision patterns are primarily controlled by variations in geologic structure, the glacial preconditioning of the landscape, and climate. However, the extent to which these factors integrate to affect Holocene patterns and rates of fluvial processes is poorly understood. Fluvial processes dominate the morphology of the Canadian Rocky Mountains today, though the inherited imprint of glaciers remains substantial. This study of fluvial geomorphology in the Athabasca River watershed in Jasper National Park, Alberta, addresses two primary ideas: (1) the fluvial response to deglaciation in alpine environments, and (2) the role of thrust belt geology affecting differential erosion in shaping post-orogenic topography. We use the 0.75 arc-second GeoBase Digital Elevation Model (~18m resolution) to analyze patterns of river concavity (?) and normalized steepness index (ksn), estimate rock erodibility with field-based proxy measurements, and determine basin-averaged erosion rates using existing river gauge data. We find that bedrock geology and glacial preconditioning exhibit different yet recognizable morphological signatures and that they appear to be related to basin erosion rate. The principal differences we observe include the shape and scale of knickzones, magnitude of channel steepness values, channel concavity patterns, and relationship to bedrock geology. We find that lithologically controlled channel steepness patterns are contained to local spatial scales (<500m) and feature sharp increases in channel steepness at or near contacts between lithologies with differences in measured erodibility. By contrast, glacially controlled steepness patterns are expansive in spatial extent (1-10km), are insensitive to bedrock geology, and have higher overall channel steepness values than areas of lithologically controlled channel steepness. Our findings provide insight into the long-term physiographic evolution of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and other orogenic landscapes.

  14. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Snipes Mountain. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, Snipes Mountain is a term of viticultural...

  15. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Snipes Mountain. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, Snipes Mountain is a term of viticultural...

  16. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Snipes Mountain. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, Snipes Mountain is a term of viticultural...

  17. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Red Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  18. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is York Mountain. (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  19. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Snipes Mountain. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, Snipes Mountain is a term of viticultural...

  20. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is York Mountain. (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  1. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Red Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  2. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is York Mountain. (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  3. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Snipes Mountain. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, Snipes Mountain is a term of viticultural...

  4. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Bell Mountain. (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  5. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Bell Mountain. (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  6. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is York Mountain. (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  7. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Red Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  8. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Bell Mountain. (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  9. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Bell Mountain. (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  10. Effective discharge in Rocky Mountain headwater streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunte, Kristin; Abt, Steven R.; Swingle, Kurt W.; Cenderelli, Dan A.

    2014-11-01

    Whereas effective discharge (Qeff) in mountain streams is commonly associated with a moderate flow such as bankfull discharge (Qbf), this study found that the maximum discharge (Qmax), and not bankfull discharge, is the channel forming or effective flow for gravel transport in plane-bed streams where partial bed mobility causes steep gravel transport rating curves. Qeff may approach bankfull flow in some step-pool channels where gravel moves over a static cobble/boulder bed. Our conclusions are based on magnitude-frequency analyses conducted at 41 gauged Rocky Mountain headwater streams. Because these gauged streams lacked gravel transport data, as is typical, comparable streams with measured transport rates were used to develop scaling relations for rating curve exponents with stream and watershed characteristics. Those scaling relations were then used to estimate the steepness of gravel rating curves at the 41 gauged but unsampled sites. The measured flow frequency distributions were characterized by two fitted power functions. The steepness of the flow frequency distributions and the estimated steepness of gravel transport relations were combined in magnitude-frequency analyses to compute Qeff.

  11. Laboratory experiments on mountain-induced rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knigge, C.; Etling, D.; Paci, A.; Eiff, O.

    2010-09-01

    The problem of mountain-induced rotors has received considerable interest in recent years, which cumulated in the large international field experiment T-REX (Grubisic et al, 2008). Also several numerical simulations on the formation of rotors have been published recently (e.g. Vosper, 2004; Doyle and Durran, 2007). Although much insight into the rotor problem has been gathered through these activities, some additional information might be provided by laboratory experiments in stratified towing tanks. This kind of research has been used frequently with respect to the lee wave problem (e.g. Eiff and Bonneton, 2000), but not many systematic laboratory experiments on the rotor problem have been performed. Here we present some results on laboratory experiments on the formation of mountain-induced rotors, which have been performed in the large towing tank (22.0 m length, 3.0 m width, 1,5 m hight) of Meteo-France at Toulouse. The new aspect of our experiments is the use of variable vertical stratification as compared to the usual linear density profile (constant Brunt-Vaisala frequency) as used in the same tank by Eiff and Bonneton (2000). In fact we were guided by the numerical simulations of Vosper (2004) who has shown, that an elevated inversion (density jump) above the mountain top is favourable for the formation of rotors on the lee side slope. These simulations have provided information, under which combinations of inversion height, inversion strength and upstream wind speed rotors, lee waves or hydraulic jumps can be expected. By proper scaling of the experimental set up we were able, to find these mountain-induced phenomena also in our laboratory experiments within nearly the same parameter range as in the simulations of Vosper. The flow phenomena were made visible by streakline photographs. The velocity fields within lee waves and rotors were obtained by a PIV method. By this we were also able to perform some quantitative comparison with results from numerical simulations, especially concerning the return flow in the lower part of rotors and the sweeping of boundary layer vorticity into the upper part of rotors. Our laboratory experiments confirm, that an elevated inversion is supporting the formation of rotors in the lee side of mountains, as was already indicated in numerical simulations mentioned above. Doyle, J.D. and D.D. Durran: J.Atmos.Sci, 64, 4202-4221 (2007). Eiff, O.S. and P. Bonneton: Phys.Fluids, 12, 1073-1086 (2000). Grubisic, V. et al.: Bull.Amer.Meteor.Soc., 89, 1513-1533 (2008). Vosper, S.B.: Quart.J.Roy.Meteor.Soc., 130, 1723-1748 (2004).

  12. The structure of mountain ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, P.

    1986-07-01

    The underlying structure - the tectonics - of mountain ranges is described. The question of what holds mountain ranges up is examined. Some ranges stand on plates of strong rock; others are buoyed by crustal roots reaching deep into the mantle. The latter may collapse if their flanks are not buttressed horizontally. The Tibetan plateau and the Andes are areas that may be undergoing such a collapse. The forces that create mountain ranges and support them are also considered with respect to the Alps, Himalayas and Rockies. The work of such pioneers as George Everest, J. H. Pratt and Britain's Astronomer Royal George B. Airy, leading to the first advances in understanding of the structure of mountains, is considered.

  13. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  14. Snowslip Mountain Weather Station, MT

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Physical Scientist Erich Peitzsch sets up a weather station on Snowslip Mountain in Glacier National Park. It provides meteorological data for avalanche forecasting and research, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, and net radiation measurements....

  15. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  16. Yucca Mountain Project public interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, B.E.

    1990-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to keeping the citizens of Nevada informed about activities that relate to the high-level nuclear waste repository program. This paper presents an overview of the Yucca Mountain Project`s public interaction philosophy, objectives, activities and experiences during the two years since Congress directed the DOE to conduct site characterization activities only for the Yucca Mountain site.

  17. Uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, E.

    1987-09-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains, a major continental range, extend approximately 3,000 kilometers, vary from less than 50 to more than 400 kilometers wide, and have elevations of up to 4,500 meters. Earth scientists have generally defined the stratigraphy of the range and recognize that uplift of the region occurred after the Jurassic period but still know very little about the processes that effected uplift. Unlike other major mountain chains, the Transantarctic Mountains show no evidence of thrusting, folding, regional metamorphism, and andesitic volcanism associated with their uplift. The objectives during austral summer 1987-1988 are to map the uplift geometry of the Transantarctic Mountains using erosion surfaces (pre-Devonian Kukir peneplain) and widespread terrace levels as datum planes and to determine the uplift rates for the mountain range using fission-track dating of apatites. Presently, fission-track dating provides only quantitative data on the initiation time, amount, and rate of uplift. Through research, the authors hopes to extend data from Victoria Land through 1,600 kilometers of the Transantarctic Mountains. This study also has implications for the glacial history of Antarctica, because the uplift occurred during the inception, growth, and subsequent fluctuations of the east and west antarctic ice sheets. It will also add to our understanding of the nature of the East-West Antarctic boundary and to the knowledge of the sedimentation history in the Ross embayment and the basins beneath polar plateau.

  18. Climb every mountain.

    PubMed

    Awad, L; Traboulsi, O; Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    In Egypt, the Association of Garbage Collectors for Community Development (AGCCD), created and administered with government support by Zabballeen (low-income people who have collected, sorted, and recycled Cairo's mountains of garbage since 1970), serves an urban settlement of 16,000 where entire households supplement their living from scavenging by raising pigs, chickens, and rabbits. The AGCCD employs 44 women in a primary health care and credit program for women that involves home visits, provision of primary health care, disease prevention, immunization, and reproductive health care (RHC). The low status of the women has meant that the birth of a girl is rarely registered, so that Zabballeen girls can not enjoy the benefits of citizenship. The main goal of the AGCCD has been to increase the role of women in RHC decision-making in their families. Many women have been successful in convincing their husbands of the need for permanent contraception and have resisted efforts to have daughters married at an early age. Recently, RHC discussions have been conducted with men. Women have also begun to actively oppose female genital mutilation. Future challenges for AGCCD include gender training, increasing the birth registration of girls, forming new groups of girls and women to promote women's health by improving gender relations, and providing legal advice and assistance to women, especially those whose births were not registered. PMID:12348580

  19. On the Measurement of Turbulence Over Complex Mountainous Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiperski, Ivana; Rotach, Mathias W.

    2015-11-01

    The theoretical treatment of turbulence is largely based on the assumption of horizontally homogeneous and flat underlying surfaces. Correspondingly, approaches developed over the years to measure turbulence statistics in order to test this theoretical understanding or to provide model input, are also largely based on the same assumption of horizontally homogeneous and flat terrain. Here we discuss aspects of turbulence measurements that require special attention in mountainous terrain. We especially emphasize the importance of data quality (flux corrections, data quality assessment, uncertainty estimates) and address the issues of coordinate systems and different post-processing options in mountainous terrain. The appropriate choice of post-processing methods is then tested based on local scaling arguments. We demonstrate that conclusions drawn from turbulence measurements obtained in mountainous terrain are rather sensitive to these post-processing choices and give suggestions as to those that are most appropriate.

  20. Monitoring low density avian populations: An example using Mountain Plovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dreitz, V.J.; Lukacs, P.M.; Knopf, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Declines in avian populations highlight a need for rigorous, broad-scale monitoring programs to document trends in avian populations that occur in low densities across expansive landscapes. Accounting for the spatial variation and variation in detection probability inherent to monitoring programs is thought to be effort-intensive and time-consuming. We determined the feasibility of the analytical method developed by Royle and Nichols (2003), which uses presence-absence (detection-non-detection) field data, to estimate abundance of Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) per sampling unit in agricultural fields, grassland, and prairie dog habitat in eastern Colorado. Field methods were easy to implement and results suggest that the analytical method provides valuable insight into population patterning among habitats. Mountain Plover abundance was highest in prairie dog habitat, slightly lower in agricultural fields, and substantially lower in grassland. These results provided valuable insight to focus future research into Mountain Plover ecology and conservation. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  1. The fate of glacierized mountain systems in a +4oC world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J.; Harrison, S.

    2012-12-01

    Mountain landscapes are sensitive to climate change because glaciers, alpine permafrost and mountain ecosystems exist at or near to their temperature and precipitation limits. Most records worldwide show mountain glaciers and alpine permafrost are in retreat, particularly on mid- and low-latitude mountains, and are expected to retreat dramatically in a + 4oC world. GCMs show that global warming will produce significant albedo- and ecosystem-driven changes in heat balance over glacierized mountains which will accelerate the rate of warming and associated land surface changes. Such climate amplification will facilitate glacier retreat and permafrost warming, destabilizing rock slopes, liberating loose sediments and increasing the potential for geohazards. We argue that retreat of mountain glaciers and permafrost over the next decades will lead to a directional change in the dominant geomorphic process domain, from glacial/periglacial to paraglacial. Under + 4oC warming, a significant portion of glacierized mountains worldwide will become dominated by paraglacial processes, characterized by increased meltwater production, land surface instability, and sediment yield into mountain catchments. Mountain geohazards triggered by the onset of widespread paraglacial relaxation and more variable climatic regimes will be significant geomorphic processes and of relevance to planning and adaption in mountain regions. On medium time scales (50-100 years), decreased glacier-fed water supply will become the most significant issue, affecting large agricultural regions in precipitation-limited continental interiors. The nonlinear response of land surface processes to climate forcing means that mountain geohazards and patterns of glacier-fed water supply have low predictability. This is particularly where downscaled GCMs are too coarse to provide well-constrained inputs into land surface models. As such, the fate of glacierized mountains is a modeling, geomorphic and management/adaption problem for the 21st Century and beyond.

  2. Model-based exploration of the drivers of mountain cold-trapping in soil.

    PubMed

    Westgate, John N; Wania, Frank

    2013-12-01

    A pollutant is said to undergo mountain cold-trapping if it is found at higher concentrations in a surface medium (soil, snow, foliage) high on a mountain, where it is colder, than in the same medium lower on the mountain. The processes that lead to mountain cold-trapping in soil were explored for a set of hypothetical Perfectly Persistent Pollutants (PPPs) by varying several environmental parameters in a fugacity based fate and transport box model. These parameters were: the spatial scale of the mountain; the rate and location of rain; the amount of particles in the atmosphere; the presence and magnitude of the upslope temperature gradient. The relative potential of each hypothetical PPP to exhibit mountain cold-trapping was expressed in terms of its Mountaintop Contamination Potential (MCP). The PPPs with the highest MCPs were those that neither were deposited from the atmosphere to the surface in the lower zones in the model nor left the model domain without being deposited at all. The simulations revealed that under most conditions wet-gaseous deposition is the biggest driver of mountain cold-trapping in soils, and its effects are greatly enhanced by large negative temperature gradients and increased precipitation upslope. Dry-gaseous and wet-and-dry-particle deposition processes cause similar PPPs to exhibit mountain cold-trapping, and the contributions to MCP by the dry processes are of the same magnitude as wet-particle deposition. Dry gaseous deposition alone is insufficient to cause mountain cold-trapping in soils under any conditions modelled here. Those measuring organic contaminants in mountains should expect to find that mountains with different climates cold-trap different pollutants, and that some mountains may not exhibit upslope enrichment of any species. PMID:24132144

  3. Weather observations on Whistler Mountain during five storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thériault, Julie M.; Rasmussen, Kristen L.; Fisico, Teresa; Stewart, Ronald E.; Joe, Paul; Gultepe, Ismail; Clément, Marilys; Isaac, George A.

    2014-01-01

    A greater understanding of precipitation formation processes over complex terrain near the west coast of British Colombia will contribute to many relevant applications, such as climate studies, local hydrology, transportation, and winter sport competition. The phase of precipitation is difficult to determine because of the warm and moist weather conditions experienced during the wintertime in coastal mountain ranges. The goal of this study is to investigate the wide range of meteorological conditions that generated precipitation on Whistler Mountain from 4-12 March 2010 during the SNOW-V10 field campaign. During this time period, five different storms were documented in detail and were associated with noticeably different meteorological conditions in the vicinity of Whistler Mountain. New measurement techniques, along with the SNOW-V10 instrumentation, were used to obtain in situ observations during precipitation events along the Whistler mountainside. The results demonstrate a high variability of weather conditions ranging from the synoptic-scale to the macro-scale. These weather events were associated with a variation of precipitation along the mountainside, such as events associated with snow, snow pellets, and rain. Only two events associated with a rain-snow transition along the mountainside were observed, even though above-freezing temperatures along the mountainside were recorded 90 % of the time. On a smaller scale, these events were also associated with a high variability of snowflake types that were observed simultaneously near the top of Whistler Mountain. Overall, these detailed observations demonstrate the importance of understanding small-scale processes to improve observational techniques, short-term weather prediction, and longer-term climate projections over mountainous regions.

  4. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  5. The interaction of katabatic winds and mountain waves

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    The variation in the oft-observed, thermally-forced, nocturnal katabatic winds along the east side of the Rocky Mountains can be explained by either internal variability or interactions with various other forcings. Though generally katabatic flows have been studied as an entity protected from external forcing by strong thermal stratification, this work investigates how drainage winds along the Colorado Front Range interact with, in particular, topographically forced mountain waves. Previous work has shown, based on measurements taken during the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain 1993 field program, that the actual dispersion in katabatic flows is often greater than reflected in models of dispersion. The interaction of these phenomena is complicated and non-linear since the amplitude, wavelength and vertical structure of mountain waves developed by flow over the Rocky Mountain barrier are themselves partly determined by the evolving atmospheric stability in which the drainage flows develop. Perturbations to katabatic flow by mountain waves, relative to their more steady form in quiescent conditions, are found to be caused by both turbulence and dynamic pressure effects. The effect of turbulent interaction is to create changes to katabatic now depth, katabatic flow speed, katabatic jet height and, vertical thermal stratification. The pressure effect is found to primarily influence the variability of a given katabatic now through the evolution of integrated column wave forcing on surface pressure. Variability is found to occur on two scales, on the mesoscale due to meso-gamma scale mountain wave evolution, and on the microscale, due to wave breaking. Since existing parameterizations for the statically stable case are predominantly based on nearly flat terrain atmospheric measurements under idealized or nearly quiescent conditions, it is no surprise that these parameterizations often contribute to errors in prediction, particularly in complex terrain.

  6. Analysis on mountain forest distributional variation with slope aspects in the northern flank of the central Tianshan Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Zhang, B.

    2014-12-01

    Slope aspect has an important effect on spatial distribution of forest. As for forest on Tianshan Mountains, previous studies have focused mainly on the simple comparison between northern flank and southern flank in macro scale. However, there is little quantitative analysis on the distribution of mountain forest varying with slope aspects in local scale in northern flank. This paper explores how the upper and lower limits of altitude and the area of mountain coniferous forest vary with aspect in the northern flank of the central Tianshan Mountains. The spatial information of mountain coniferous forest and slope aspects are extracted respectively from SPOT5 image and 1:50,000 DEM. The results are shown as follows: (1) 98.6% of coniferous forest distribute from 1500 to 2700 meters above sea level. The average upper and lower limits of altitude of mountain coniferous forest are respectively 2730m and 1519m. The forest area has a U shaped pattern along 0-360? slope aspects. The area of forest on the shady slope is largest while on the sunny slope is smallest and this distribution is similar to that in macro scale. The area of forest on the western slope is larger than on the eastern slope. (2) The upper and lower limits of altitude of mountain coniferous forest vary little with aspects. The upper limit of altitude is slightly higher on the eastern slope and slightly lower on the western slope. The highest upper limit of altitude of forest is 2790m on the eastern slope while the lowest upper limit of altitude is 2691m on the western southwestern slope. There is no significant exposure effect on treeline elevation in local scale, which is different from that in macro scale.(3) The forest area near the climatic tree line also has a U shaped pattern along 0-360? slope aspects, but there is a difference that the area of forest near tree line on the eastern slope is larger than on the western slope, which suggests eastern slope is more suitable for treeline update.

  7. Elevation dependency of mountain snow depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, T.; Bühler, Y.; Lehning, M.

    2014-12-01

    Elevation strongly affects quantity and distribution patterns of precipitation and snow. Positive elevation gradients were identified by many studies, usually based on data from sparse precipitation stations or snow depth measurements. We present a systematic evaluation of the elevation-snow depth relationship. We analyse areal snow depth data obtained by remote sensing for seven mountain sites near to the time of the maximum seasonal snow accumulation. Snow depths were averaged to 100 m elevation bands and then related to their respective elevation level. The assessment was performed at three scales: (i) the complete data sets (10 km scale), (ii) sub-catchments (km scale) and (iii) slope transects (100 m scale). We show that most elevation-snow depth curves at all scales are characterised through a single shape. Mean snow depths increase with elevation up to a certain level where they have a distinct peak followed by a decrease at the highest elevations. We explain this typical shape with a generally positive elevation gradient of snow fall that is modified by the interaction of snow cover and topography. These processes are preferential deposition of precipitation and redistribution of snow by wind, sloughing and avalanching. Furthermore, we show that the elevation level of the peak of mean snow depth correlates with the dominant elevation level of rocks (if present).

  8. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  9. Mountain biking injuries: an update.

    PubMed

    Kronisch, Robert L; Pfeiffer, Ronald P

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the available literature regarding injuries in off-road bicyclists. Recent progress in injury research has allowed the description of several patterns of injury in this sport. Mountain biking remains popular, particularly among young males, although sales and participation figures have decreased in the last several years. Competition in downhill racing has increased, while cross-country racing has decreased somewhat in popularity. Recreational riders comprise the largest segment of participants, but little is known about the demographics and injury epidemiology of noncompetitive mountain cyclists. Most mountain bikers participating in surveys reported a history of previous injuries, but prospective studies conducted at mountain bike races have found injury rates of <1%. The most common mechanism of injury involves a forward fall over the handlebars, usually while riding downhill, which can result in direct trauma to the head, torso and upper extremities. A variety of factors can be associated with this type of fall, including trail surface irregularities, mechanical failures and loss of control. In mountain bike racing the risk of injury may be higher for women than men. Minor injuries such as abrasions and contusions occur frequently, but are usually of little consequence. Fractures usually involve the torso or upper extremities, and shoulder injuries are common. Head and face injuries are not always prevented by current helmet designs. Fatal injuries are rare but have been reported. Improvements in safety equipment, rider training and racecourse design are suggested injury prevention measures. The authors encourage continued research in this sport. PMID:12076178

  10. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

  11. Drainage flows: A mountain-plains interface numerical case study

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.; Bossert, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In January/February, 1991 an intensive set of measurements was taken around Rocky Flats near Denver, CO, USA under the auspices of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program. This region of the country is known as the Front Range, and is characterized by a transition from the relatively flat terrain of the Great Plains to the highly varied terrain of the Rocky Mountains. The mountains are oriented north-south and rise from 1800m above mean sea level (MSL) to 3600m MSL at the Continental Divide. Numerous east-west oriented valleys begin in the mountains and end at the plains interface. This terrain makes the Front Range a challenging region to model. One of the more important flows created by this severe terrain are the highly-varying drainage flows found during stagnant, wintertime conditions. These flows can interact with larger-scale mountain and synoptic winds. One goal of the ASCOT 1991 program was to gain insight into multi-scale meteorological interaction by observing wintertime drainage conditions at the mountain-valley-plains interface. ASCOT data included surface and upper air measurements on approximately a 50km{sup 2} scale. Simultaneously, an SF{sub 6} tracer release study was being conducted around Rocky Flats, a nuclear materials production facility. Detailed surface concentration measurements were completed for the SF{sub 6} plume. This combination of meteorological and tracer concentration data provided a unique data set for comparisons of mesoscale and dispersion modeling results with observations and for evaluating our capability to predict pollutant transport. Our approach is to use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model to simulate atmospheric conditions and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) to model the dispersion of the SF{sub 6}.

  12. Drainage flows: A mountain-plains interface numerical case study

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.; Bossert, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    In January/February, 1991 an intensive set of measurements was taken around Rocky Flats near Denver, CO, USA under the auspices of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program. This region of the country is known as the Front Range, and is characterized by a transition from the relatively flat terrain of the Great Plains to the highly varied terrain of the Rocky Mountains. The mountains are oriented north-south and rise from 1800m above mean sea level (MSL) to 3600m MSL at the Continental Divide. Numerous east-west oriented valleys begin in the mountains and end at the plains interface. This terrain makes the Front Range a challenging region to model. One of the more important flows created by this severe terrain are the highly-varying drainage flows found during stagnant, wintertime conditions. These flows can interact with larger-scale mountain and synoptic winds. One goal of the ASCOT 1991 program was to gain insight into multi-scale meteorological interaction by observing wintertime drainage conditions at the mountain-valley-plains interface. ASCOT data included surface and upper air measurements on approximately a 50km{sup 2} scale. Simultaneously, an SF{sub 6} tracer release study was being conducted around Rocky Flats, a nuclear materials production facility. Detailed surface concentration measurements were completed for the SF{sub 6} plume. This combination of meteorological and tracer concentration data provided a unique data set for comparisons of mesoscale and dispersion modeling results with observations and for evaluating our capability to predict pollutant transport. Our approach is to use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model to simulate atmospheric conditions and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) to model the dispersion of the SF{sub 6}.

  13. Mountaineer`s gas facilities decision support system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Mountaineer Gas Co. of Charleston, W.Va., is justifiably proud of its capacity to combine electronic maps with a full database of information about its facilities and customers, and use that mix to make the decisions required in operating a gas company with better information and more quickly. Determining when a pipeline needs replacement or repair used to take several days at Mountaineer. With the new system in place, the decision can be made in a matter of minutes. The paper describes the system and its development, then discusses adding customer information as the next step.

  14. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Cook Inlet Region, Alaska-Including Parts of the Talkeetna, Talkeetna Mountains, Tyonek, Anchorage, Lake Clark, Kenai, Seward, Iliamna, Seldovia, Mount Katmai, and Afognak 1:250,000-scale Quadrangles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geologic map compiled by Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Schmoll, Henry R.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Yehle, Lynn A.; Digital files prepared by Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora

    2009-01-01

    The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. The files named __geol contain geologic polygons and line (contact) attributes; files named __fold contain fold axes; files named __lin contain lineaments; and files named __dike contain dikes as lines. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

  15. Commercial combustion research: ISS hardware and commercial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    2000-01-01

    The primary ISS hardware to be used for commercial combustion research, and the first commercial hardware to be sent to ISS, is SpaceDRUMS. The centerpiece of the display is a full-scale mockup of the SpaceDRUMS facility, which is scheduled to be launched to ISS aboard UF-1 in January, 2001. This facility was developed by CCACS industrial member Guign International Ltd. (GIL), in partnership with SpaceHab. It is capable of high-precision positioning, manipulation and shaping of both solid and liquid samples. The positioning system operates by application of pulsed acoustic restoring forces. This display features some of the commercial combustion hardware planned for the International Space Station, as well as one of the early commercial products to come out of the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines. Backing up the display is a board showing all of the combustion research within CCACS. Each of the projects is described, along with the hardware planned for the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. The industrial partners in CCACS are listed, along with the project interests of each. Finally, summaries of the investments made to date by all the parties are shown. The display also contains a new commercial product, a de-modulating digital camera, which was developed in the course of the combustion research within CCACS and in conjunction with member Princeton Instruments (now a division of Roper Scientific). The camera operates through lock-in detection and amplification applied to the signals associated with each pixel in the field of view. By employing a modulation/de-modulation technique, weak images can be extracted from the strong backgrounds that characterize combustion experiments. Particular portions of flames and solid matter within flames can be observed using this camera. .

  16. Commercialism in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kirstin

    2001-01-01

    This document gives voice to concerns raised by critics and supporters of commercialism in schools and provides brief descriptions of several important resources on this topic. "Commercial Activities in School" (U.S. General Accounting Office) reports on the nature and frequency of commercial activities in public schools, as well as the laws and…

  17. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two

  18. Building for the Future by Expatiating the Past: High Drama from the Summit of China's Learning Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger; Huang, Yan

    2006-01-01

    As part of a large-scale learning initiative, the Chinese Communist Party has declared Lushan to be a "learning mountain". There have been people learning at Lushan Mountain for 2000 years. In 1959 there was a Central Committee meeting at Lushan, where Mao Zedong purged his widely respected comrade Peng Dehuai for daring to say people were

  19. Building for the Future by Expatiating the Past: High Drama from the Summit of China's Learning Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger; Huang, Yan

    2006-01-01

    As part of a large-scale learning initiative, the Chinese Communist Party has declared Lushan to be a "learning mountain". There have been people learning at Lushan Mountain for 2000 years. In 1959 there was a Central Committee meeting at Lushan, where Mao Zedong purged his widely respected comrade Peng Dehuai for daring to say people were…

  20. Mountain hydrology of the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, R.C.; Molotch, N.P.; Painter, T.H.; Dettinger, M.D.; Rice, R.; Dozier, J.

    2006-01-01

    Climate change and climate variability, population growth, and land use change drive the need for new hydrologic knowledge and understanding. In the mountainous West and other similar areas worldwide, three pressing hydrologic needs stand out: first, to better understand the processes controlling the partitioning of energy and water fluxes within and out from these systems; second, to better understand feedbacks between hydrological fluxes and biogeochemical and ecological processes; and, third, to enhance our physical and empirical understanding with integrated measurement strategies and information systems. We envision an integrative approach to monitoring, modeling, and sensing the mountain environment that will improve understanding and prediction of hydrologic fluxes and processes. Here extensive monitoring of energy fluxes and hydrologic states are needed to supplement existing measurements, which are largely limited to streamflow and snow water equivalent. Ground-based observing systems must be explicitly designed for integration with remotely sensed data and for scaling up to basins and whole ranges. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Yucca Mountain and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.; Cotton, A.T.

    2007-07-01

    Renewed U.S. interest in advanced nuclear fuel cycles involving reprocessing and recycling, embodied in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative, has raised questions about the role of a Yucca Mountain repository - what it will be used for, and when. While the repository is widely recognized as a key part of U.S. waste management strategy, the potential for advanced fuel cycles to improve the capacity and performance of a repository have led some to question whether its development can be deferred pending resolution of questions about the fuel cycle and the fate of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). This paper discusses the rationale for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) goal of completing the proposed Yucca Mountain repository by 2017 in parallel with pursuit of its goals for GNEP, as well as issues posed for the repository program by deployment of the initial facilities of an advanced fuel cycle. (authors)

  2. Modeling heterogeneous unsaturated porous media flow at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Robey, T.H.

    1994-03-01

    Geologic systems are inherently heterogeneous and this heterogeneity can have a significant impact on unsaturated flow through porous media. Most previous efforts to model groundwater flow through Yucca Mountain have used stratigraphic units with homogeneous properties. However, modeling heterogeneous porous and fractured tuff in a more realistic manner requires numerical methods for generating heterogeneous simulations of the media, scaling of material properties from core scale to computational scale, and flow modeling that allows channeling. The Yucca Mountain test case of the INTRAVAL project is used to test the numerical approaches. Geostatistics is used to generate more realistic representations of the stratigraphic units and heterogeneity within units is generated using sampling from property distributions. Scaling problems are reduced using an adaptive grid that minimizes heterogeneity within each flow element. A flow code based on the dual mixed-finite-element method that allows for heterogeneity and channeling is employed. In the Yucca Mountain test case, the simulated volumetric water contents matched the measured values at drill hole USW UZ-16 except in the nonwelded portion of Prow Pass.

  3. Monitoring the Snowpack in Remote, Ungauged Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozier, J.; Davis, R. E.; Bair, N.; Rittger, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Our objective is to estimate seasonal snow volumes, relative to historical trends and extremes, in snow-dominated mountains that have austere infrastructure, sparse gauging, challenges of accessibility, and emerging or enduring insecurity related to water resources. The world's mountains accumulate substantial snow and, in some areas, produce the bulk of the runoff. In ranges like Afghanistan's Hindu Kush, availability of water resources affects US policy, military and humanitarian operations, and national security. The rugged terrain makes surface measurements difficult and also affects the analysis of remotely sensed data. To judge feasibility, we consider two regions, a validation case and a case representing inaccessible mountains. For the validation case, we use the Sierra Nevada of California, a mountain range of extensive historical study, emerging scientific innovation, and conflicting priorities in managing water for agriculture, urban areas, hydropower, recreation, habitat, and flood control. For the austere regional focus, we use the Hindu Kush, where some of the most persistent drought in the world causes food insecurity and combines with political instability, and occasional flooding. Our approach uses a mix of satellite data and spare modeling to present information essential for planning and decision making, ranging from optimization of proposed infrastructure projects to assessment of water resources stored as snow for seasonal forecasts. We combine optical imagery (MODIS on Terra/Aqua), passive microwave data (SSM/I and AMSR-E), retrospective reconstruction with energy balance calculations, and a snowmelt model to establish the retrospective context. With the passive microwave data we bracket the historical range in snow cover volume. The rank orders of total retrieved volume correlates with reconstructions. From a library of historical reconstruction, we find similar cases that provide insights about snow cover distribution at a finer scale than the passive retrievals. Specifically, we examine the decade-long record from Terra and Aqua to bracket the historical record. In the California Sierra Nevada, surface measurements have sufficient spatial and temporal resolution for us to validate our approach, whereas in the Hindu Kush surface data are sparse and access presents significant difficulties.

  4. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

  5. WHITE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. If mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significanlty, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  6. BLOOD MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koeppen, Robert P.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Blood Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia, indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources. Natural gas may be present at great depth, perhaps 5 mi down and below the overthrust sheets of the Blue Ridge Mountains, but presently available information is not adequate to evaluate the resource potential of this commodity. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

  7. White Mountain Wilderness, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Segerstrom, K.; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey made during 1971-1973, the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. In mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significantly, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  8. 10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE AUXILIARY STRUCTURES. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  9. Understanding Mountain Range Spatial Variability of Surface Hoar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrikx, J.

    2014-12-01

    Surface hoar, once buried often produce a persistent weak layer that is a common instability problem in the snow pack in SW Montana and many other areas around the world. Surface hoar is a common weak layer type in avalanche accidents in a continental and intermountain snowpack. It is however relatively well understood that aspect plays an important role in the spatial location of the growth, and survival of these grain forms, due to the unequal distribution of incoming radiation. However this factor alone does not explain the complex and often confusing spatial pattern of these grains forms throughout the landscape at larger, mountain range spatial scales. In this paper we present a unique data set including over one hundred days of manual observations of surface hoar at sixteen locations on Pioneer Mountain at the Yellowstone Club in southwestern Montana. Using this wealth of observational data located on different aspects, elevations and exposures, coupled with detailed meteorological observations, detailed site scale observations (e.g. Sky view plots) we examine the spatial variability of surface hoar at this scale, and examine the factors that control its spatial distribution. Our results further supports our preliminary work, which shows that small-scale meteorological differences, site scale differences, and local scale lapse rates can greatly influence the spatial variability of surface hoar, over and above that which aspect alone can explain. These results highlight our incomplete understanding of the processes at this large, mountain range scale, and are likely to have implications for both regional and local scale avalanche forecasting in environments where surface hoar cause ongoing instabilities.

  10. Dependence of snowmelt simulations on scaling of the forcing processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spatial organization and scaling relationships of snow distribution in mountain environs is ultimately dependent on the controlling processes. These processes include interactions between weather, topography, vegetation, snow state, and seasonally-dependent radiation inputs. In large scale snow...

  11. Estimation of Solar Radiation on Building Roofs in Mountainous Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agugiaro, G.; Remondino, F.; Stevanato, G.; De Filippi, R.; Furlanello, C.

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study is estimating solar radiation on building roofs in complex mountain landscape areas. A multi-scale solar radiation estimation methodology is proposed that combines 3D data ranging from regional scale to the architectural one. Both the terrain and the nearby building shadowing effects are considered. The approach is modular and several alternative roof models, obtained by surveying and modelling techniques at varying level of detail, can be embedded in a DTM, e.g. that of an Alpine valley surrounded by mountains. The solar radiation maps obtained from raster models at different resolutions are compared and evaluated in order to obtain information regarding the benefits and disadvantages tied to each roof modelling approach. The solar radiation estimation is performed within the open-source GRASS GIS environment using r.sun and its ancillary modules.

  12. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Howell Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  13. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  14. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Howell Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  15. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  16. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Howell Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  17. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  18. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Howell Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  19. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is Howell Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  20. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  1. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  2. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.”...

  3. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.”...

  4. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS