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1

77 FR 3459 - Cancellation of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project, Mason County, WV AGENCY: U...Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project in Mason County, WV...Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project (DOE/EIS-0445D) for...

2012-01-24

2

Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project Topical Report: Preliminary Public Design Report  

SciTech Connect

This Preliminary Public Design Report consolidates for public use nonproprietary design information on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. The report is based on the preliminary design information developed during the Phase I - Project Definition Phase, spanning the time period of February 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011. The report includes descriptions and/or discussions for: (1) DOE's Clean Coal Power Initiative, overall project & Phase I objectives, and the historical evolution of DOE and American Electric Power (AEP) sponsored projects leading to the current project; (2) Alstom's Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) carbon capture retrofit technology and the carbon storage and monitoring system; (3) AEP's retrofit approach in terms of plant operational and integration philosophy; (4) The process island equipment and balance of plant systems for the CAP technology; (5) The carbon storage system, addressing injection wells, monitoring wells, system monitoring and controls logic philosophy; (6) Overall project estimate that includes the overnight cost estimate, cost escalation for future year expenditures, and major project risks that factored into the development of the risk based contingency; and (7) AEP's decision to suspend further work on the project at the end of Phase I, notwithstanding its assessment that the Alstom CAP technology is ready for commercial demonstration at the intended scale.

Guy Cerimele

2011-09-30

3

Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project  

SciTech Connect

The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.

Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

2011-12-31

4

THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT DRIFT SCALE TEST  

SciTech Connect

The mission for the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is to safely manage and dispose of the nation's spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste in a geologic repository. A potential site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada is being studied by the DOE. Nuclear waste is to be contained in packages which will be emplaced in the repository for thousands of years. After these manmade packages eventually degrade, the repository should continue to isolate nuclear waste from the environment. The repository is to comply with the 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act and its amendments. Also, the health and safety of the workers will not be compromised during the construction and operation of the repository. To investigate important technical issues inherent with the construction, operation, closure, and performance of the repository, a series of in situ experiments have been planned for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) located inside Yucca Mountain. The ESF Thermal Test is an integral part of the Site Characterization Plan developed in 1988 following the Congressional mandate to evaluate only Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. The planning documented in the Site Characterization Program has evolved to include the construction of the ESF to accommodate changing needs and increased understanding of the Yucca Mountain Project. The recently updated ESF thermal testing strategy includes the Drift Scale Test (DST). The DST is more complex, longer duration and larger-scale than its predecessor--the Single Heater Test. The primary purpose of the DST is to acquire a more in-depth understanding of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes anticipated in the rock mass surrounding the proposed repository.

Finley, Ray R.; Boyle, William J.; Danneels, Jefrey J.; Datta, Robin N.; Elkins, Ned Z.; George, James T.; Homuth, E. Red; Lee, Moo Y.; Lin, Wunan; Peters, Mark T.; Riggins, Michael; Tsang, Yvonne

1998-04-28

5

MOUNTAIN-SCALE COUPLED PROCESSES (TH/THC/THM)MODELS  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development and validation of the mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic (TH), thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC), and thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) models. These models provide technical support for screening of features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842], Section 2.1.1.1). The purpose and validation criteria for these models are specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Drift-Scale Abstraction) Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842]). Model results are used to support exclusion of certain FEPs from the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model on the basis of low consequence, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.342 [DIRS 173273]. Outputs from this report are not direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. All the FEPs related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ and SZ flow are discussed in Sections 6 and 7 of this report. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The mountain-scale TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH model captures mountain-scale three-dimensional flow effects, including lateral diversion and mountain-scale flow patterns. The mountain-scale THC model evaluates TH effects on water and gas chemistry, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and the resulting impact to UZ hydrologic properties, flow and transport. The mountain-scale THM model addresses changes in permeability due to mechanical and thermal disturbances in stratigraphic units above and below the repository host rock. The THM model focuses on evaluating the changes in UZ flow fields arising out of thermal stress and rock deformation during and after the thermal period (the period during which temperatures in the mountain are significantly higher than ambient temperatures).

Y.S. Wu

2005-08-24

6

Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes (TH/THC/THM)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Model Report is to document the development of the Mountain-Scale Thermal-Hydrological (TH), Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical (THC), and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) Models and evaluate the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This Model Report was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.12.7), and was developed in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. In this Model Report, any reference to ''repository'' means the nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, and any reference to ''drifts'' means the emplacement drifts at the repository horizon. This Model Report provides the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses for analyzing mountain-scale hydrological/chemical/mechanical changes and predict flow behavior in response to heat release by radioactive decay from the nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH Model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH Model captures mountain-scale three dimensional (3-D) flow effects, including lateral diversion at the PTn/TSw interface and mountain-scale flow patterns. The Mountain-Scale THC Model evaluates TH effects on water and gas chemistry, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and the resulting impact to UZ hydrological properties, flow and transport. The THM Model addresses changes in permeability due to mechanical and thermal disturbances in stratigraphic units above and below the repository host rock. The Mountain-Scale THM Model focuses on evaluating the changes in 3-D UZ flow fields arising out of thermal stress and rock deformation during and after the thermal periods.

P. Dixon

2004-02-09

7

14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section...commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. All commercial air...operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain National Park are prohibited...

2012-01-01

8

14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section...commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. All commercial air...operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain National Park are prohibited...

2013-01-01

9

14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section...commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. All commercial air...operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain National Park are prohibited...

2011-01-01

10

Commercial scale biocatalysis: myths and realities.  

PubMed

The unique ways in which enzymes are differentiated from other catalysts translate into special advantages. Understanding these advantages is the key toward better matching of biocatalysts needs in industrial chemistry. Specific cases where enzymes and biotransformations have been used successfully at the production scale are examined, permitting the realities of using biocatalysts to be separated from the misconceptions and myths. Five such misconceptions will be examined in the context of examples of some commercially-successful biocatalytic processes. PMID:10579534

Rozzell, J D

1999-10-01

11

A Mountain-Scale Monitoring Network for Yucca Mountain PerformanceConfirmation  

SciTech Connect

Confirmation of the performance of Yucca Mountain is required by 10 CFR Part 63.131 to indicate, where practicable, that the natural system acts as a barrier, as intended. Hence, performance confirmation monitoring and testing would provide data for continued assessment during the pre-closure period. In general, to carry out testing at a relevant scale is always important, and in the case of performance confirmation, it is particularly important to be able to test at the scale of the repository. We view the large perturbation caused by construction of the repository at Yucca Mountain as a unique opportunity to study the large-scale behavior of the natural barrier system. Repository construction would necessarily introduce traced fluids and result in the creation of leachates. A program to monitor traced fluids and construction leachates permits evaluation of transport through the unsaturated zone and potentially downgradient through the saturated zone. A robust sampling and monitoring network for continuous measurement of important parameters, and for periodic collection of agrochemical samples, is proposed to observe thermo-hydrogeochemical changes near the repository horizon and down to the water table. The sampling and monitoring network can be used to provide data to (1) assess subsurface conditions encountered and changes in those conditions during construction and waste emplacement operations; and (2) for modeling to determine that the natural system is functioning as intended.

Freifeld, Barry; Tsang, Yvonne

2006-01-20

12

State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states. Semiannual progress report, July-December 1980  

SciTech Connect

The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. Background information is provided; program objectives and the technical approach that is used are discussed; and the benefits of the program are described. The summary of findings is presented. Prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are covered and findings and recommendations are summarized. The commercialization activities carried out by the respective state teams are described for the following: Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

Lunis, B. C.; Toth, W. J. [comps.

1981-10-01

13

Mountains  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

Fuller, M.

1989-01-01

14

State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states. Semiannual progress report, July-December 1981  

SciTech Connect

The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. The period covered is July through December 1981. Background information is provided, program objectives and the technical approach used are discussed, and the benefits of the program are described. Prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are covered and findings and recommendations are summarized.

Lunis, B.C. (ed.)

1982-08-01

15

14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.  

...2014-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain...HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR...Management § 136.35 Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky...

2014-01-01

16

14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain...HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR...Management § 136.35 Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky...

2010-01-01

17

Fine-scale radar observations of orographic precipitation features during a Wasatch Mountain winter storm.  

E-print Network

??Fine-scale spatiotemporal variations in orographic precipitation pose a major challenge for weather prediction in mountainous regions. Here we useground-based X-band radar observations collected during IOP6… (more)

Campbell, Leah Suzanne

2013-01-01

18

Approaches to recreational landscape scaling of mountain resorts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the mountain resorts (MR) the climate and the landscape are natural medical resources which are very sensitive to anthropogenic influences [EGU2011-6740-3; EGU2012-6103]. Positive experience of the climatic and landscape treatment at the MR of the North Caucasus allowed us to establish fundamental interrelation between the quality of recreational landscapes (RL), climatic conditions and the efficiency of medical rehabilitation of people at the MR on the basis of rational use of natural medical resources. There have been registered the following bioclimatic distinctions and physiological responses with the recipients suffering from high disadaptation according to the results of the complex route medical and geophysical studies on the urban and park landscapes. We have defined hot discomfort at the open space of urban territory when the weather is extremely hot and anticyclone - the thermal balance (TB) is higher than +840 W/sq.m, extreme risk of solar erythema burn - UVI - higher than 11, the low content of natural anions - lower than 260 ion/cm3, high coefficient of ions unipolarity (CIU) - 2.16 and a high temperature of the underlying surface (asphalt) 46.40C. At the same time in the resort park of vegetable association Bétula péndula (50 years) TB was significantly lower - +480 W/sq.m, there was no risk of erythema burn (UVI 4), an optimum level of natural anions was 840 ion/cm3 and the value of CIU was 0.98, grass and soil temperature was + 290C and there was a favourable background of evaporating metabolites. At such favourable bioclimatic change the patients have been registered to have the voltage reduction of the vegetative index (from 640 to 380; N-150), the increase in efficiency of neurohumoral regulation (from 0.12 to 0.34; N 0,50), the decrease in spectrum excitability of brain activity in the range of waves: delta 0 … 0.4Hz by 16%, the increase in work activity of the brain in the range of waves: thetra 4 … 8 Hz, alpha 8 … 13 Hz. beta 13 … 19 Hz, gamma 19 … 25Hz by 9-17%; the increase in adaptation layer of the organism by 21% and a versatility indicator of health - by 19%; the decrease in systolic (from 145 to 131 mm of mercury) and diastolic (from 96 to 82 mm of mercury) arterial pressure, the increase in indicators of carpal dynamometry (on the right hand from 27 to 36 kg, on the left hand from 25 to 34 kg), the increase in speed of thermogenesis (from 0.0633 to 0.0944 K/s) and quality of neurovascular reactivity (from 48% to 81%). In the whole the patient`s cenesthesia has improved. We have also studied the responses of adaptive reactions with the recipients at other options of RL. But researches are still being carried out in this direction. Their results will be used as a base of RL scaling of North Caucasus mountain territories. This problem is interdisciplinary, multidimensional and deals with both medical and geophysical issues. The studies were performed by support of the Program "Basic Sciences for Medicine" and RFBR project No.10-05-01014_a.

Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaia, Nina; Slepih, Vladimir

2013-04-01

19

State geothermal commercialization programs in ten Rocky Mountain states. Semi-annual progress report, July-December 1979  

SciTech Connect

The activities and findings of the ten state teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Regional Hydrothermal Commercialization Program for the period are described. A summary of the state projects, compilation of project accomplishments, summary of findings, and a description of the major conclusions and recommendations are presented. Also included are chapters on the commercialization activities carried out by individual teams in each state: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New-Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. (MHR)

Griffith, J.L. (comp.)

1980-08-01

20

Scale-down/scale-up studies leading to improved commercial beer fermentation.  

PubMed

Scale-up/scale-down techniques are vital for successful and safe commercial-scale bioprocess design and operation. An example is given in this review of recent studies related to beer production. Work at the bench scale shows that brewing yeast is not compromised by mechanical agitation up to 4.5 W/kg; and that compared with fermentations mixed by CO(2) evolution, agitation ? 0.04 W/kg is able to reduce fermentation time by about 20%. Work at the commercial scale in cylindroconical fermenters shows that, without mechanical agitation, most of the yeast sediments into the cone for about 50% of the fermentation time, leading to poor temperature control. Stirrer mixing overcomes these problems and leads to a similar reduction in batch time as the bench-scale tests and greatly reduces its variability, but is difficult to install in extant fermenters. The mixing characteristics of a new jet mixer, a rotary jet mixer, which overcomes these difficulties, are reported, based on pilot-scale studies. This change enables the advantages of stirring to be achieved at the commercial scale without the problems. In addition, more of the fermentable sugars are converted into ethanol. This review shows the effectiveness of scale-up/scale-down studies for improving commercial operations. Suggestions for further studies are made: one concerning the impact of homogenization on the removal of vicinal diketones and the other on the location of bubble formation at the commercial scale. PMID:21744501

Nienow, Alvin W; Nordkvist, Mikkel; Boulton, Christopher A

2011-08-01

21

SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION  

E-print Network

of dredged material is a component of a comprehensive Dredged Material Management Plan for the Port of New York and New Jersey. We describe here a regional contaminated sediment decontamination program information for commercial scale operations. This pilot test was completed in March, 1999. The next phase

Brookhaven National Laboratory

22

Landscape-scale genetic variation in a forest outbreak species, the mountain pine beetle ( Dendroctonus ponderosae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae is a native species currently experienc- ing large-scale outbreaks in western North American pine forests. We sought to describe the pattern of genetic variation across the range of this species, to determine whether there were detectable genetic differences between D. ponderosae occupying different host trees in common localities, and to determine whether there was

K. E. M OCK; B. J. B ENTZ; E. M. O' NEILL; J. P. C HONG; J. ORWIN; M. E. PFRENDER

2007-01-01

23

Scaling issues and spatio-temporal variability in ecohydrological modeling on mountain topography: Methods for improving the VELMA model  

EPA Science Inventory

The interactions between vegetation and hydrology in mountainous terrain are difficult to represent in mathematical models. There are at least three primary reasons for this difficulty. First, expanding plot-scale measurements to the watershed scale requires finding the balance...

24

Wildfires, mountain pine beetle and large-scale climate in Northern North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the interactions between biosphere and atmosphere and ocean\\/atmosphere dynamics, concretely on the coupling between ecological processes and large-scale climate, is presented in two studies in Northern North America: the occurrence of large lightning wildfires and the forest area affected by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB). In both cases, large-scale climatic patterns such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation

M. Macias Fauria; E. A. Johnson

2009-01-01

25

How much influence does landscape-scale physiography have on air temperature in a mountain environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatio-temporal patterns of temperature in mountain environments are complex due to both regional synoptic-scale and landscape-scale physiographic controls in these systems. Understanding the nature and magnitude of these physiographic effects has practical and theoretical implications for the development of temperature datasets used in ecosystem assessment and climate change impact studies in regions of complex terrain. This study attempts to quantify

Solomon Z. Dobrowski; John T. Abatzoglou; Jonathan A. Greenberg; S. G. Schladow

2009-01-01

26

A Summary of Operating Conditions Experienced by Three Military Helicopters and a Mountain-Based Commercial Helicopter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a survey of the flight conditions experienced by three military helicopters engaged in simulated and actual military missions, and a commercial helicopter operated in the mountainous terrain surrounding Denver, CO, are presented. The data, obtained with NASA helicopter VGHN recorders, represent 813 flights or 359 flying hours, and are compared where applicable to previous survey results. The current survey results show that none of the helicopters exceeded the maximum design airspeed. One military helicopter, used for instrument flight training, never exceeded 70 percent of its maximum design airspeed. The rates of climb and descent utilized by the IFR training helicopter and of the mountain-based helicopter were generally narrowly distributed within all the airspeed ranges. The number of landings per hour for all four of the helicopters ranged from 1.6 to 3.3. The turbine-engine helicopter experienced more frequent normal-acceleration increments above a threshold of +/-0.4g (where g is acceleration due to gravity) than the mountain-based helicopter, but the mountain-based helicopter experienced acceleration increments of greater magnitude. Limited rotor rotational speed time histories showed that all the helicopters were operated at normal rotor speeds during all flight conditions.

Connor, Andrew B.

1960-01-01

27

SCALE-4 Analysis of LaSalle Unit 1 BWR Commercial Reactor Critical Configurations  

SciTech Connect

Five commercial reactor criticals (CRCs) for the LaSalle Unit 1 boiling-water reactor have been analyzed using KENO V.a, the Monte Carlo criticality code of the SCALE 4 code system. The irradiated fuel assembly isotopics for the criticality analyses were provided by the Waste Package Design team at the Yucca Mountain Project in the US, who performed the depletion calculations using the SAS2H sequence of SCALE 4. The reactor critical measurements involved two beginning-of-cycle and three middle-of-cycle configurations. The CRCs involved relatively low-cycle burnups, and therefore contained a relatively high gadolinium poison content in the reactor assemblies. This report summarizes the data and methods used in analyzing the critical configurations and assesses the sensitivity of the results to some of the modeling approximations used to represent the gadolinium poison distribution within the assemblies. The KENO V.a calculations, performed using the SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 ENDF/B-V cross-section library, yield predicted k{sub eff} values within about 1% {Delta}k/k relative to reactor measurements for the five CRCs using general 8-pin and 9-pin heterogeneous gadolinium poison pin assembly models.

Gauld, I.C.

2000-03-01

28

The key to commercial-scale geological CO2 sequestration: Displaced fluid management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Wyoming State Geological Survey has completed a thorough inventory and prioritization of all Wyoming stratigraphic units and geologic sites capable of sequestering commercial quantities of CO2 (5-15 Mt CO 2/year). This multi-year study identified the Paleozoic Tensleep/Weber Sandstone and Madison Limestone (and stratigraphic equivalent units) as the leading clastic and carbonate reservoir candidates for commercial-scale geological CO2 sequestration in Wyoming. This conclusion was based on unit thickness, overlying low permeability lithofacies, reservoir storage and continuity properties, regional distribution patterns, formation fluid chemistry characteristics, and preliminary fluid-flow modeling. This study also identified the Rock Springs Uplift in southwestern Wyoming as the most promising geological CO2 sequestration site in Wyoming and probably in any Rocky Mountain basin. The results of the WSGS CO2 geological sequestration inventory led the agency and colleagues at the UW School of Energy Resources Carbon Management Institute (CMI) to collect available geologic, petrophysical, geochemical, and geophysical data on the Rock Springs Uplift, and to build a regional 3-D geologic framework model of the Uplift. From the results of these tasks and using the FutureGen protocol, the WSGS showed that on the Rock Springs Uplift, the Weber Sandstone has sufficient pore space to sequester 18 billion tons (Gt) of CO2, and the Madison Limestone has sufficient pore space to sequester 8 Gt of CO2. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Surdam, R. C.; Jiao, Z.; Stauffer, P.; Miller, T.

2011-01-01

29

Mountain scale modeling of transient, coupled gas flow, heat transfer and carbon-14 migration  

SciTech Connect

We simulate mountain-scale coupled heat transfer and gas flow at Yucca Mountain. A coupled rock-gas flow and heat transfer model, TGIF2, is used to simulate mountain-scale two-dimensional transient heat transfer and gas flow. The model is first verified against an analytical solution for the problem of an infinite horizontal layer of fluid heated from below. Our numerical results match very well with the analytical solution. Then, we obtain transient temperature and gas flow distributions inside the mountain. These distributions are used by a transient semianalytical particle tracker to obtain carbon-14 travel times for particles starting at different locations within the repository. Assuming that the repository is filled with 30-year-old waste at an initial areal power density of 57 kw/acre, we find that repository temperatures remain above 60{degrees}C for more than 10,000 years. Carbon-14 travel times to the surface are mostly less than 1000 years, for particles starting at any time within the first 10,000 years.

Lu, Ning; Ross, B. [Disposal Safety, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1993-12-31

30

Air Quality Perturbations Over Rural Mountain Regions by Large-Scale Urbanization in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased large-scale atmospheric pollution resulted from rapid industrialization and urbanization in China is a matter of concern to atmospheric scientists and policy makers at both domestic and international levels. Dispersion and transport of these air pollutants cause serious air quality degradation on a local scale. Meanwhile, by long-range transport, the effect of these air pollutants is observed on a regional and even intercontinental scale. From 2003, we have started program to monitor the large-scale atmospheric composition changes by establishing four surface ozone observatories at different rural mountain regions in China, namely Mt. Tai, (36 15N, 117 06E, 1538 m above sea level) in Shandon Province, eastern China, Mt. Huang (30 08N, 118 09E, 1841 m asl) in Anhui Province, southeastern China, Mt. Hua (34 28N, 110 04E, 2065 m asl) in Shaanxi Province, central eastern China, and Tianchi Lake (43 54N 88 07E, 1925 m asl) in Tianshan mountains, Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, western China. In addition, at some of these observatories carbon monoxide and black carbon measurements are also available. Our results show that the influences from large-scale urbanization in China are clearly observed at all of these rural mountain sites. On a seasonal basis, ozone variations are controlled by air mass climatology and seasonal photochemical activities but on a temporal basis, the frequently observed high mixing ratios and large fluctuation of ozone, carbon monoxide and black carbon indicate the strong nhancements by anthropogenic emission from industrialization and urbanization. Especially at Mt. Tai during early-summer, the episodic pollution events have been observed for four consecutive years. In this presentation, data analysis of ozone, carbon monoxide and black carbon at these mountain sites have been carried out. Categorization and identification of the pollution sources have been made. The characteristics of these air pollutants and their distribution which are associated with different sources will be discussed.

Pochanart, P.; Kanaya, Y.; Komazaki, Y.; Liu, Y.; Akimoto, H.; Wang, X.; Li, J.; Wang, Z.

2006-12-01

31

Large-scale climatic patterns and area affected by mountain pine beetle in British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence of high spatial synchrony in an area affected by mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) across large distances in British Columbia, Canada, in a study of a spatially explicit database of an area affected by MPB-caused tree mortality for the period 1959–2002. We further show that large-scale climatic patterns (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and, to a lesser

Marc Macias Fauria; E. A. Johnson

2009-01-01

32

Multi-scale curvature for automated identification of glaciated mountain landscapes?  

PubMed Central

Erosion by glacial and fluvial processes shapes mountain landscapes in a long-recognized and characteristic way. Upland valleys incised by fluvial processes typically have a V-shaped cross-section with uniform and moderately steep slopes, whereas glacial valleys tend to have a U-shaped profile with a changing slope gradient. We present a novel regional approach to automatically differentiate between fluvial and glacial mountain landscapes based on the relation of multi-scale curvature and drainage area. Sample catchments are delineated and multiple moving window sizes are used to calculate per-cell curvature over a variety of scales ranging from the vicinity of the flow path at the valley bottom to catchment sections fully including valley sides. Single-scale curvature can take similar values for glaciated and non-glaciated catchments but a comparison of multi-scale curvature leads to different results according to the typical cross-sectional shapes. To adapt these differences for automated classification of mountain landscapes into areas with V- and U-shaped valleys, curvature values are correlated with drainage area and a new and simple morphometric parameter, the Difference of Minimum Curvature (DMC), is developed. At three study sites in the western United States the DMC thresholds determined from catchment analysis are used to automatically identify 5 × 5 km quadrats of glaciated and non-glaciated landscapes and the distinctions are validated by field-based geological and geomorphological maps. Our results demonstrate that DMC is a good predictor of glacial imprint, allowing automated delineation of glacially and fluvially incised mountain landscapes. PMID:24748703

Prasicek, Gunther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Montgomery, David R.; Schrott, Lothar

2014-01-01

33

Full-Scale Schlieren Visualization of Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Aerodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficient removal of cooking effluents from commercial kitchens has been identified as the most pressing energy-related issue in the food service industry. A full-scale schlieren optical system with a 2.1x2.7m field-of-view, described at previous APS/DFD meetings, images the convective airflow associated with a typical gas-fired cooking griddle and ventilation hood. Previous attempts to visualize plumes from cooking equipment by smoke and neutrally-buoyant bubbles were not sufficiently keyed to thermal convection. Here, the point where the ventilation hood fails to capture the effluent plume is clearly visible, thus determining the boundary condition for a balanced ventilation system. Further, the strong influence of turbulent entrainment is seen in the behavior of the combustion products vented by the griddle and the interference caused by a makeup-air outlet located too close to the lip of the ventilation hood. Such applications of traditional fluid dynamics techniques and principles are believed to be important to the maturing of ventilation technology. (Research supported by EPRI and IFMA, Inc.)

Miller, J. D.; Settles, G. S.

1996-11-01

34

Sediment budgets of mountain catchments: Scale dependence and the influence of land-use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term sediment budgets of forested mountain catchments are scarcely investigated today. This is because they are traditionally expected to show few erosion features and low sediment delivery. This opinion originates from process-based hydrological studies proving the runoff preventing properties of trees and forest soils. In addition mountain areas have been colonized later and only sporadically compared to the fruitful loess-covered lowlands. On the other hand steep hillslopes, narrow valleys and the availability of regolith cause a high erosion potential. And there is evidence that historical floods and yearly occurring storms initiate intensive but local and sporadic erosion events. Sediment budgets from zero-order catchments of the Palatinate Forest in the south-western sandstone escarpment in Rhineland-Palatinate show spatially varying intensities of land use impact and relief conditions. The budgets are based on field data and a soilscape model of an upper periglacial cover bed with a homogenous thickness. OSL- and 14C-dates of colluvial deposits allow relating erosion events to land-use changes derived from historical maps and written archives. The presented case studies from the Palatinate Forest are of special interest as the high proximity to the loess-covered and intensively cultivated Rhine Graben effected settlement and land-use intensity in the mountain catchments. Clear cuts for settlements were joined by deforestation for agriculture and stretched mainly along the Haardtrand and high order valleys. Off these areas the strength of interference in the forest ecosystem depended on transport possibilities and distance to the Rhine Graben. In the vicinity strong devastation and clear cutting occurred. With increasing distance the felling intensity decreased and some parts seem to be nearly undisturbed until the 18th century. The needs for wood were controlled by the economical development as well as political decisions on local to European scale. The results from Palatinate Forest show that some of the cultural phases, which have been determined as main Holocene erosion phases in the Rhine Graben, did not extend to the mountain areas. The colluvial documentation of settlement history in small catchments directly connected to the Rhine Graben starts in the Neolithic Period but is not continual, while in those within the mountains colluvial layers older than modern times are missing. An inquiry of historical and modern storm events supports the requirements of local differentiation of sediment dynamics. On the meso-scale the sediment budget of the Speyerbach shows, that the output of the catchment is higher than the sedimentation within the catchment area. A diverse pattern occurs on the local scale: while the loess-covered subcatchments show a dominance of sedimentation, the steeper ones with narrow valleys shows an exceeding delivery to the output. As the latter ones are dominant in the Speyerbach catchment, the meso-scale catchment budget seems to be determined by the majority. Micro-scale diversity of land-use history therefore determines the sediment delivery rate of small mountain catchments and underlines the need for systematic archaeological research activities in mountain areas in Germany.

Förster, Helga; Dotterweich, Markus; Wunderlich, Jürgen

2010-05-01

35

Pre-site Characterization Risk Analysis for Commercial-Scale Carbon Sequestration  

E-print Network

Pre-site Characterization Risk Analysis for Commercial-Scale Carbon Sequestration Zhenxue Dai a probability framework to evaluate subsurface risks associated with commercial-scale carbon sequestration to the atmosphere.1-3 The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) is one of seven partnerships tasked

Lu, Zhiming

36

A Mountain-Scale Thermal Hydrologic Model for Simulating FluidFlow and Heat Transfer in Unsaturated Fractured Rock  

SciTech Connect

A multidimensional, mountain-scale, thermal-hydrologic (TH) numerical model is presented for investigating unsaturated flow behavior in response to decay heat from the radioactive waste repository in the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone (UZ), Nevada. The model, consisting of both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) representations of the UZ repository system, is based on the current repository design, drift layout, thermal loading scenario, and estimated current and future climate conditions. This mountain-scale TH model evaluates the coupled TH processes related to mountain-scale UZ flow. It also simulates the impact of radioactive waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including heat-driven processes occurring near and far away from the emplacement tunnels or drifts. The model simulations predict thermally perturbed liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature elevations, as well as the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes and drainage between drifts. These simulations provide mountain-scale thermally perturbed flow fields for assessing the repository performance under thermal loading conditions.

Wu, Yu-Shu; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson,Gudmundur S.

2005-05-25

37

Examining the spatial variability of surface hoar at the mountain range scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface hoar, once buried, often produce a persistent weak layer that is a common instability problem in the snow pack in SW Montana and many other areas around the world. It is relatively well understood that aspect plays an important role in the location of the growth, and survival of these grain forms, due to the unequal distribution of incoming radiation. However, this alone does not completely explain the complex and often confusing pattern of these grains forms throughout the landscape at larger spatial scales. In this paper we present a unique data set including over sixty days of manual observations of surface hoar at sixteen locations on Pioneer Mountain at the Yellowstone Club in southwestern Montana. Using this wealth of observational data located on different aspects, elevations and exposures, coupled with detailed meteorological observations we examine the spatial variability of surface hoar occurrence and its dominant controls. Our results highlight that small-scale meteorological differences and local scale lapse rates can greatly influence the spatial variability of surface hoar, over and above that which aspect alone can explain. These results highlight our incomplete understanding of the processes at this scale, and are likely to have implications for both regional and local scale avalanche forecasting in environments where surface hoar cause ongoing instabilities.

Hendrikx, J.

2013-12-01

38

Effect of small-scale fractures on flow and transport processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Although many conceptual models for fracture-matrix interaction have been evaluated for Yucca Mountain site-characterization studies, the most widely used model is currently based on the dual-permeability concept. It was chosen for use in site-characterization partially because it has proved to be capable of matching many types of field observed data. Another consideration is that net infiltration rates at the site are estimated to be very low (on the order of millimeters/year), or close to saturated matrix hydraulic conductivity. Recent field studies and tests, in particular, fracture mapping data, collected along the walls of the underground tunnels reveal that there exists a significantly large variety in fracture sizes from centimeters to tens of meters. There is a considerable amount of small-scale fractures that have not been considered in the previous modeling studies. Although the majority of these small fractures may not contribute much to global flow and transport through the fracture-matrix system, they may provide large amounts of storage pore space and allow for additional connection areas for well-connected, large-scale fractures and surrounding matrix blocks, which ultimately affect fracture-matrix interactions. However, the currently used dual-permeability model is unable to include the potentially important effect of small fractures. To overcome the limitations of the dual-permeability approach, we have developed a triple-continuum conceptual model to investigate the impact of small-scale fractures on flow and transport processes in fractured rocks. This new conceptual model subdivides fractures into two types: large-scale and small-scale. Large-scale fractures are those responsible for global connections; small-scale fractures are those that provide large-fracture storage space and enhance the local connections to the matrix system without contributing to global flow or transport. Because the triple-continuum model is composed of the rock matrix and two types of fractures, it can be regarded as an extension of the traditional dual-permeability model. Using a generalized triple-continuum approach, the model formulation uses three parallel sets of conservation equations to describe flow and transport processes at each location of the system, for the two-fracture and one-matrix systems, respectively. The proposed triple-continuum model has been implemented using both analytical and numerical approaches and applied to field problems at Yucca Mountain. First we apply the new conceptual model to estimate model-related fracture-matrix parameters using field observation data and inverse modeling approach. Then we incorporate the estimated parameters to perform 3-D site-scale flow and transport simulations with the current hydrogeological model of Yucca Mountain. The 3-D modeling results with the triple-continuum model indicate that small fractures have significant impact on radionuclide transport in the UZ system, while their effects on flow and heat transfer are insignificant.

Wu, Yu-Shu; Liu, H.H.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

2002-12-05

39

PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF ENGINEERED BARIER SYSTEMS FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes two quarter-scale experiments (1.4 m diameter) and associated numerical analyses on granular backfill engineered barrier systems in support of the Yucca Mountain Project for the potential repository. The two configurations include a sloped capillary barrier and a plain backfill. The tests involve application of dyed water as a constant line infiltration source along the top of the test set-up, monitoring water movement through the test, and measuring water exiting the experiments. A complete water balance estimate is made for each test, and observed water movement is compared with (1) detailed numerical analyses conducted using the TOUGH2 code for unsaturated flow in porous media and (2) posttest observations. The results of the testing and analyses show that for the injection rates and configuration applied, the capillary barrier design diverts a significant amount of all injected water and the TOUGH2 pretest predictions show qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data.

S.W. Webb; J.T. George; R.E. Finley

2001-02-01

40

Study of the Behavior of a Commercial Scale Inhibitor on Silica Sand  

E-print Network

squeeze lifetimes in order to minimize the number of treatments, thus reducing the cost. The objective of this thesis is to study the adsorption of the commercial scale inhibitor SI onto silica sand. By investigating this intrinsic phenomenon, an optimized...

Vaca Bustamante, Victor

2010-12-14

41

Quantitation of Employee Exposure to Emission Products Generated by Commercial-Scale Processing of Polyethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although considerable research has been performed on the thermal degradation products of polyethylene, no data that can be compared to occupational exposure limits have been reported on the exposure of workers in commercial polyethylene extrusion operations. In this study, the actual airborne concentrations of previously identified analytes were measured during the commercial-scale processing of polyethylene resins. Nine polyethylene resins, spanning

Tony Tikuisis; Michael R. Phibbs; Kenneth L. Sonnenberg

1995-01-01

42

Observatory Design in the Mountain West: Scaling Measurements and Modeling in the San Joaquin Valley and Sierra Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project represents a key step toward developing an environmental observatory in the semiarid mountain- valley landscape of the far western United States. Two specific aims of this project are: (i) to formulate basin- scale measurement and modeling strategies to meet priority research issues, through analysis of existing operational and research data, and (ii) to assess different instrument cluster designs

M. Conklin; R. Bales; E. Boyer; D. Cayan; J. Dozier; G. Fogg; T. Harmon; J. Kirchner; N. Miller; N. Molotch; K. Redmond

2006-01-01

43

Experiments to Support the Design of a Field Scale Colloid Test at the Yucca Mountain Alcove 8\\/Niche 3 Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alcove 8\\/Niche 3 complex at Yucca Mountain is being used to study flow velocity, matrix diffusion, and fault-fracture-matrix interactions. At the conclusion of the field scale tracer test to meet the above objectives, we plan to inject fluorescent latex microspheres, as a surrogate for colloids, into the system to study their transport behavior under fractured field conditions (apertures vary

E. P. Rosen; M. A. McGraw

2002-01-01

44

Predictive Modeling of Large-Scale Commercial Water Desalination Plants: Data-Based Neural Network and Model-Based Process  

E-print Network

predictive models of large-scale commercial water desalination plants by (1) a data- based approach usingPredictive Modeling of Large-Scale Commercial Water Desalination Plants: Data-Based Neural Network for developing predictive models for large-scale commercial water desalination plants by (1) a data

Liu, Y. A.

45

Sub-metering to Electricity Use in Large-scale Commercial Buildings  

E-print Network

Sub-metering to Electricity Use in Large-scale Commercial Buildings Wang YuanTsinghua University2006.11 Sub-metering and statistics to electricity use in commercial buildings 2 Index #0;?#0;? Situation of Energy consumption in commercial buildings... #0;?#0;? Significanceof sub-metering and statistics #0;?#0;? Method to actualize sub-metering #0;?#0;? Practice??Project example #0;?#0;? Use of data??Analysis Software Sub-metering and statistics to electricity use in commercial buildings 3 Situation...

Yuan, W.

2006-01-01

46

Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40-50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75-89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3-6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale.

Bright, B. C.; Hicke, J. A.; Hudak, A. T.

2012-12-01

47

Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final report, August 1, 1978-February 28, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The work accomplished from August 1978 to February 1980 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program are described. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams and special analyses in support of several federal agencies.

Marlin, J.M.; Cunniff, R.; McDevitt, P.; Nowotny, K.; O'Dea, P.

1981-01-01

48

Regional Operations Research Program for Commercialization of Geothermal Energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final Technical Report, January 1980--March 1981  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The scope of work is as described in New Mexico State University Proposal 80-20-207. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

None

1981-07-01

49

The use of TOUGH2 for the LBL/USGS 3-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The three-dimensional site-scale numerical model o the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is under continuous development and calibration through a collaborative effort between Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major fault zones to the west (Solitario Canyon Fault), east (Bow Ridge Fault) and perhaps to the north by an unconfirmed fault (Yucca Wash Fault). The model consists of about 5,000 grid blocks (elements) with nearly 20,000 connections between them; the grid was designed to represent the most prevalent geological and hydro-geological features of the site including major faults, and layering and bedding of the hydro-geological units. Submodels are used to investigate specific hypotheses and their importance before incorporation into the three-dimensional site-scale model. The primary objectives of the three-dimensional site-scale model are to: (1) quantify moisture, gas and heat flows in the ambient conditions at Yucca Mountain, (2) help in guiding the site-characterization effort (primarily by USGS) in terms of additional data needs and to identify regions of the mountain where sufficient data have been collected, and (3) provide a reliable model of Yucca Mountain that is validated by repeated predictions of conditions in new boreboles and the ESF and has therefore the confidence of the public and scientific community. The computer code TOUGH2 developed by K. Pruess at LBL was used along with the three-dimensional site-scale model to generate these results. In this paper, we also describe the three-dimensional site-scale model emphasizing the numerical grid development, and then show some results in terms of moisture, gas and heat flow.

Bodvarsson, G.; Chen, G.; Haukwa, C.; Kwicklis, E.

1995-12-31

50

An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model For Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain site scale saturated zone transport model has been revised to incorporate the updated flow model based on a hydrogeologic framework model using the latest lithology data, increased grid resolution that better resolves the geology within the model domain, updated Kd distributions for radionuclides of interest, and updated retardation factor distributions for colloid filtration. The resulting numerical transport model is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. The transport model results are validated by comparing the model transport pathways with those derived from geochemical data, and by comparing the transit times from the repository footprint to the compliance boundary at the accessible environment with those derived from {sup 14}C-based age estimates. The transport model includes the processes of advection, dispersion, fracture flow, matrix diffusion, sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport. The transport of sorbing radionuclides in the aqueous phase is modeled as a linear, equilibrium process using the Kd model. The colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides is modeled using two approaches: the colloids with irreversibly embedded radionuclides undergo reversible filtration only, while the migration of radionuclides that reversibly sorb to colloids is modeled with modified values for sorption coefficient and matrix diffusion coefficients. Model breakthrough curves for various radionuclides at the compliance boundary are presented along with their sensitivity to various parameters.

S. Kelkar; H. Viswanathan; A. Eddebbarrh; M. Ding; P. Reimus; B. Robinson; B. Arnold; A. Meijer

2006-09-06

51

75 FR 32171 - American Electric Power Service Corporation's Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pulverized coal-fired electric generating unit, a hyperbolic cooling tower, material delivery and unloading...determined as site characterization work is needed to confirm...including delivery of feed materials and distribution of...management of hazardous materials and other solid...

2010-06-07

52

A MOUNTAIN-SCALE 3-D NUMERICAL MODEL FOR CHARACTERIZING UNSATURATED FLOW AND TRANSPORT IN FRACTURED VOLCANIC ROCK AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional site-scale numerical model has been developed to simulate water and gas flow, heat transfer, and radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the American underground repository site for high level radioactive waste. The modeling approach is based on a mathematical formulation of coupled multiphase fluid and heat flow and tracer transport through porous and fractured rock. This model is intended for use in predicting current and future conditions in the unsaturated zone, so as to aid in assessing the system performance of the repository. In particular, an integrated modeling methodology is discussed for integrating a wide variety of moisture, pneumatic, thermal, and isotopic geochemical data into comprehensive modeling analyses. The reliability and accuracy of the model predictions were the subject of a comprehensive model calibration study, in which the model was calibrated against measured data, including liquid saturation, water potential, and temperature. This study indicates that the model is able to reproduce the overall system behavior at Yucca Mountain with respect to moisture profiles, pneumatic pressure and chloride concentration variations in different geological units, and ambient geothermal conditions.

Yu-Shu Wu

2006-02-28

53

Reach-Scale Channel Adjustments to Channel Network Geometry in Mountain Bedrock Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Channel network geometry (CNG) is a critical determinant of hydrological response and may significantly affect incision processes within the Appalachian Plateau near Richwood, West Virginia. The Williams, Cherry, and Cranberry Rivers share drainage divides and their lower reaches flow atop resistant, quartz-rich sandstones. The lower two-thirds of the Cranberry and Williams Rivers display linear profiles atop the sandstones; whereas the Cherry is concave upwards atop the sandstones. Because lithologies and geological structures are similar among the watersheds, we tested whether differences in CNGs explain the profile shapes and reach-scale channel properties. Specifically, we quantified CNG by calculating reach- specific area-distance functions using DEMs. The area-distance functions were then converted into synthetic hydrographs to model hydrological responses. The Cherry River exhibits a classic dendritic drainage pattern, producing peaked hydrographs and low interval transit times. The Cranberry River displays a trellis-like drainage pattern, which produces attenuated hydrographs and high interval transit times. The upstream reaches of the Williams River have a dendritic drainage pattern, but the lower two-thirds of the watershed transitions into an elongated basin with trellis-like CNG. Reach gradients are steeper in the lower reaches of the Williams and Cranberry Rivers where hydrographs are attenuated. In contrast, peaked hydrographs within the Cherry River are associated with lower reach gradients despite resistant sandstone channel beds. Trellis-like CNG may restrict the ability of downstream reaches within the Williams and Cranberry Rivers to achieve the critical discharge needed to cause incision during floods (all other things being equal). If so, increased reach gradients may be hydraulic adjustments that compensate for comparatively low discharges. We are now applying the synthetic hydrographs to HEC-RAS flow models generated from field channel surveys in order to analyze whether stream power and shear stress are adjusted to reflect CNG at the reach- scale. These models are compared to those with discharges calculated using drainage area and precipitation totals alone. We conclude that gradients in bedrock mountain streams may reflect basin-scale hydrology (CNG) and not simply local geological or geomorphic factors. This challenges the conclusions of others who ascribe local channel adjustments to: i) lithology and structure alone, or ii) local colluvium grain sizes.

Plitzuweit, S. J.; Springer, G. S.

2008-12-01

54

Time-scale dependent sediment flux in the Tajik Pamir Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pamir Mountains (Pamirs) offer the unique possibility to observe landscape shaping processes in a complex climatic environment. While the Westerlies provide most of the moisture as snow in winter, the Indian summer monsoon can also contribute quite significantly to the water budget in summer. Water from snow and ice melt induced by temperature and rainfall mobilizes sediments from hillslopes, debris fans, and moraine remnants. These sediments are transported, re-deposited, and eventually carried out of the orogene. Different approaches are available to assess and quantify the erosion processes at different time-scales. Recent studies applying cosmogenic nuclide (CN) dating suggest erosion rates of approximately 0.65mm/yr for the last 1000 years. In this contribution we want to present modern erosion rates derived from historical archive suspended sediment yield (SSY) data and very recent in situ sampling data, including high-resolution turbidimeter measurements. 10-day averaged SSY data recorded in the past show less erosion by a factor of 2 to 10 compared to CN-derived erosion rates for different catchments. The 10-day SSY data are based on measurements that have been conducted in the morning and evening, thus not accounting for the entire diurnal variation. We installed a turbidimeter with a measuring interval of 10 minutes to better resolve these diurnal variations. We calibrate turbidity with in situ measurements carried out on a daily basis for 9 months to see whether the differences between CN and SSY measurements are really owed to diurnal variations or if rare high magnitude events. e.g. mudflows, landslides, or avalanches disclose this discrepancy. We present single high magnitude SSY events, uncover periodic diurnal sediment variations that systematically lag diurnal temperature variations and relate the sediment amount of such high magnitude events to the smoothed annual cycle. We use the obtained results to discuss whether past changes in climate could explain the observed difference between millennial scale CN vs decadal scale SSY measurements or if single high magnitude events must play the dominant role.

Pohl, Eric; Gloaguen, Richard; Andermann, Christoff; Fuchs, Margret C.

2014-05-01

55

Workshop on the Federal Role in the Commercialization of Large Scale Windmill Technology (summary and papers)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale wind system and windmill technology and prospects for commercial applications are discussed. Barriers that may affect the commerical viability of large-scale windmill systems are identified, including the relatively poor financial condition of much of the utility industry which effectively prevents many utilities from investing substantially in any new projects. The potential market addressed by the Federal program in large-scale windmill systems is examined. Some of the factors that may limit the degree of market penetration for wind energy systems are: costs of competing fossil and nuclear fuels and technologies; rate of acceptance of new technologies; and competition from other solar technologies, including biomass, solar thermal, and photovoltaic systems. Workshop participants agreed that existing Federal legislation provides significant incentives for the commercialization of large-scale wind machines.

Lerner, J. I.; Miller, G.

56

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities Solicitation  

E-print Network

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities biofuels production facility? A.1 An existing biofuels facility is an existing facility that, as of the application due date of PON-13-601, produces (or did produce) biofuels in California. Q.2 Must an eligible

57

From gullies to mountain belts: A review of sediment budgets at various scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the state of the art in the concept as well as in the application of sediment budgets in sedimentary research. Sediments are a product of mass dispersal at the Earth surface and take part in global cycles. Sediment budgets aim at quantifying this mass transfer based on the principle of mass conservation and are the key to determine ancient fluxes of solid matter at the earth surface. This involves fundamental questions about the interplay of uplift, climate and denudation in mountain belts and transfer of sediments from the continents to the oceans as well as applied issues such as soil and gully erosion, reservoir siltation, and coastal protection. First, after introducing basic concepts, relevant scales and methodologies, the different components of Quaternary routing systems from erosion in headwaters, river systems, glacial and paraglacial systems, lakes, deltas, estuaries, coasts, shelves, epicontinental seas, and deep-sea fans are discussed in terms of their sediment budget. Most suitable are sedimentologically closed or semi-closed depositional environments e.g. alluvial fans, lakes, deltas and deep-sea fans. In a second step, the dynamics of passive, active, and collisional tectonic settings and sediment budgets in related sedimentary basins are explored and new concepts of sediment portioning at large geodynamic scales are introduced. Ancient routing systems are more or less incomplete and may be intensively fragmented or destroyed in active tectonic settings. In terms of sedimentary basin types, rifts, intracontinental and epicontinental settings are preferred objects of sediment budgets, because of their persistence and relatively simple overall sedimentary architecture. However, closing basins, such as foreland, forearc, retroarc, piggy-back and wedge-top basins may provide excellent snapshots of orogenic sediment fluxes. In a third step, the large long-lived routing systems of the Amazon, the Ganges-Brahmaputra, and the Rhine are reviewed. For each system estimates of either sediment volumes (mass) or sediment fluxes of continental and marine subsystems have been compiled in order to receive a complete routing in terms of mass conservation for specific time periods since the Late Glacial Maximum as well as the Cenozoic. Following lessons can be taken from these case studies: (i) depositional centers and fluxes show strong shifts in space and time and call for caution when simply looking at subsystems, (ii) the response times of these large systems are within the Milankovich time interval, thus lower than predicted from diffusion models, (iii) cyclic routing of sediments in continental basins is much more dominated by climate (human) control than by eustacy, and (iv) at long time scales, ultimate sinks win over intermittent storage. It is concluded from this review that the quantitative understanding of global sediment cycling over historic and geologic time and its response to allogenic forcing is still in its infancy and further research is needed towards a holistic view of sediment routing systems at various temporal and spatial scales and their coupling with global biogeochemical cycles. This includes (i) to better determine response times of large routing systems by linking Quaternary with Cenozoic sediment budgets and continental with marine sub-systems, (ii) to combine advanced provenance techniques with sediment budgets in order to reconstruct ancient systems, (iii) to study sediment partitioning at the basin scale, (iv) to reconcile continental, supply-dominated sequence stratigraphy with the eustatic-dominated marine concept, and (iv) to account for non-actualism of ancient systems with respect to their erosion and transport mode, in particular, during glaciations and pronounced arid intervals. Glacial and eolian sediment routing may cross over hydrologic boundaries of drainage basins, thus challenging the principle of mass conservation.

Hinderer, Matthias

2012-12-01

58

Decadal scale climate forcing of mass movement and sediment flux in Alpine mountain setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whilst the inevitability of future climate warming is now recognized, and we also know much more about the nature of climatic variability and its causes, our understanding of the effects of such variability upon landscapes at the time scale of decades is much less well known. This is for two reasons: (1) the complex, non-linear and path-dependent nature of the response of a landscape to climate forcing, and (2) the difficulty of investigating this forcing at the timescale of decades to centuries, despite this being the timescale over which significant hypotheses are raised over human impacts upon climate change and hence geomorphic systems. A unique resource to investigate the linkages between climatic variability and geomorphic response is provided by the extensive coverage of aerial imagery commonly available since the 1940s. The information contained in such imagery can be employed to produce high precision digital elevation models (DEMs) over large spatial scales using archival digital photogrammetry. Here, we reconstruct the quantitative history of mass movement and sediment flux in a high mountain Alpine system, over the timescales of decades, through the quantitative comparison of successive DEMs. Propagation of error methods are used to identify locations of significant geomorphic response and to compute volumes of significant erosion and deposition. These are coupled to extant climate data to show how the landscape responds to climate forcing and to geomorphological maps to understand how this response varies between both landscape elements and their spatial organization. The results show distinct landscape response to both warming and cooling periods but these are found to be asymmetrical because the speed of landscape response to warming is greater than the speed of response to cooling. There is a strong variability between landscape elements in their sensitivity. Whilst some elements of the system are exceptionally sensitive to warming and lead to locally high sediment flux, there is a landscape heritage in the system that can, but not always, lead to disconnection of sensitive zones from the valley bottom. This explains the counter-intuitive observation that whilst the asymmetry of landscape response to warming and cooling implies at net increase in sediment flux towards the valley bottom this is not manifest in the valley bottom itself (e.g. in an increase in alluvial fan dynamics) because this flux is commonly disconnected.

Micheletti, Natan; Lane, Stuart; Lambiel, Christophe

2014-05-01

59

Multi-scale field investigation of water flow pathways and residence times in mountainous catchments during monsoon rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "sky islands" of Arizona and New Mexico in the southwestern United States form a unique complex of about 27 mountain ranges whose ecosystems support many perennial and ephemeral streams in an arid climate. Among these sky islands are the Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson, AZ, with a peak elevation of 9157 ft at Mt. Lemmon. Sabino Canyon Creek is the main stream which runs on the south face of the mountain range. It usually flows from July through April with an average daily flow of approximately 0.28 m3/s (10 cfs). However, flash floods are common both during summer as a result of intense monsoon rains and during spring because of rapid snowmelt. During these events, flow increases drastically, reaching peak flows up to 480 m3/s (15,984 cfs, July 2006). Characterizing water flow pathways and residence times in these complex catchments is important for improving flash flood warning systems, estimating mountain front recharge, managing forest and wild fires, and understanding ecosystem functions. In the summer of 2006, we set up an extensive hydrometrical and hydro- chemical monitoring network in Sabino Canyon Creek, comprising 40 tipping bucket rain gauges (two of which were equipped to automatically collect rainwater samples), 5 automatic surface water level stations (three of which were equipped with auto samplers), and 8 manual soil lysimeters. In addition, several rain and stream water grab samples were collected manually during intensive rain events. Water samples are analyzed for major ions and liquid water isotopic concentration (2H and 18O) in rain, soil, ground and surface water. The data allows for a detailed reconstruction of water flow pathways and residence times at 3 different catchment scales (2 km2, 8 km2, and 91 km2) during the recorded flow events, including the highest monsoon rainfall-runoff event ever recorded in these mountains.

Troch, P. A.; Lyon, S. W.; Desilets, S.

2007-05-01

60

An experimental study of potential residential and commercial applications of small-scale hybrid power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented in this thesis provides an understanding of small-scale hybrid power systems. Experiments were conducted to identify potential applications of renewable energy in residential and commercial applications in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Solar and wind energy converted into electric energy was stored in batteries and inverted to power common household and commercial appliances. Several small to medium size hybrid power systems were setup and utilized to conduct numerous tests to study renewable energy prospects and feasibility for various applications. The experimental results obtained indicate that carefully constructed solar power systems can provide people living in isolated communities with sufficient energy to consistently meet their basic power needs.

Acosta, Michael Anthony

61

Secondary mineral evidence of large-scale water table fluctuations at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

At Yucca Mountain, currently under consideration as a potential permanent underground repository for high-level radioactive wastes, the present-day water table is 500 to 700 m deep. This thick unsaturated zone (UZ) is part of the natural barrier system and is regarded as a positive attribute of the potential site. The USGS has studied the stable isotopes and petrography of secondary calcite and silica minerals that coat open spaces in the UZ and form irregular veins and masses in the saturated zone (SZ). This paper reviews the findings from the several studies undertaken at Yucca Mountain on its mineralogy.

Whelan, J.F.; Moscati, R.J.; Marshall, B.D [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Yucca Mountain Project Branch; Roedder, E. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-12-01

62

Forest plant diversity at local and landscape scales in the Cascade Mountains of southwestern Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest are known to support high levels of diversity across the varied landscapes they occupy. On 1200 plots distributed over the Cascade Mountains in southwestern Washington, climatic, physiographic, edaphic and floristic data were collected to evaluate the ecological characteristics of these coniferous forests and develop a classification framework useful in land management. The resulting abundance

Dale G. Brockway

1998-01-01

63

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Role of Narrow Mountains in Large-Scale Organization of Asian  

E-print Network

University of Information Science and Technology, Nan- jing, China. Corresponding author address: Dr. Shang for this organization is not well understood. Analysis of new satellite observations reveals that narrow mountain ranges. Introduction Every summer, the southwest monsoon arrives in the Indian Ocean, South China Sea, and far western

Wang, Yuqing

64

Scale-up studies on high shear wet granulation process from mini-scale to commercial scale.  

PubMed

A newly developed mini-scale high shear granulator was used for scale-up study of wet granulation process from 0.2 to 200 L scales. Under various operation conditions and granulation bowl sizes, powder mixture composed of anhydrous caffeine, D-mannitol, dibasic calcium phosphate, pregelatinized starch and corn starch was granulated by adding water. The granules were tabletted, and disintegration time and hardness of the tablets were evaluated to seek correlations of granulation conditions and tablet properties. As the granulation proceeded, disintegration time was prolonged and hardness decreased. When granulation processes were operated under the condition that agitator tip speed was the same, similar relationship between granulation time and tablet properties, such as disintegration time and hardness, between 0.2 L and 11 L scales were observed. Likewise, between 11 L and 200 L scales similar relationship was observed when operated under the condition that the force to the granulation mass was the same. From the above results, the mini-scale high shear granulator should be useful tool to predict operation conditions of large-scale granulation from its mini-scale operation conditions, where similar tablet properties should be obtained. PMID:18827384

Aikawa, Shouhei; Fujita, Naomi; Myojo, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Takashi; Tanino, Tadatsugu

2008-10-01

65

Empirical study on influence between listed commercial banks corporate governance and scale efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese listed commercial banks in the end of 2009 and Agricultural Bank of China are regarded as the researching objects, definition the meaning of listed banking companies corporate governance and these scale efficiency. basing on above sampies' 2004 - 2009 financial data, selected assets?î wages and benefits as input indicators, loan?î deposit?î storage and bid with the industry as output

Li Kaifeng

2011-01-01

66

Septic Tank Treatment of the Effluent from a Small-Scale Commercial Recycle Aquaculture System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of a conventional domestic septic tank for primary treatment of the wastewater effluent from a small-scale commercial recycle aquaculture system (RAS) was evaluated. The aquaculture facility had five 39.2-m dual-drain culture tanks and a total system volume of 249.9 m. The mean standing stock of fish during the study was 4,837 kg (25.6 kg\\/m) consisting of 9.6% largemouth

Robert C. Summerfelt; Christopher R. Penne

2007-01-01

67

Estimation of host rock thermal conductivities using thetemperature data from the drift-scale test at Yucca Mountain,Nevada  

SciTech Connect

A large volume of temperature data has been collected from a very large, underground heater test, the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The DST was designed to obtain thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical (THMC) data in the unsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain. Sophisticated numerical models have been developed to analyze the collected THMC data. In these analyses, thermal conductivities measured from core samples have been used as input parameters to the model. However, it was not known whether these core measurements represented the true field-scale thermal conductivity of the host rock. Realizing these difficulties, elaborate, computationally intensive geostatistical simulations have also been performed to obtain field-scale thermal conductivity of the host rock from the core measurements. In this paper, we use the temperature data from the DST as the input (instead of the measured core-scale thermal conductivity values) to develop an estimate of the field-scale thermal conductivity values. Assuming a conductive thermal regime, we develop an analytical solution for the temperature rise in the host rock of the DST; and using a nonlinear fitting routine, we obtain a best-fit estimate of field-scale thermal conductivity for the DST host rock. The temperature data collected from the DST shows clear evidence of two distinct thermal regimes: a zone below boiling (wet) and a zone above boiling (dry). We obtain estimates of thermal conductivity for both the wet and dry zones. We also analyze the sensitivity of these estimates to the input heating power of the DST.

Mukhopadhyay, Sumitra; Tsang, Y.W.

2003-11-25

68

Scaling considerations for a multi-megawatt class supercritical CO2 brayton cycle and commercialization.  

SciTech Connect

Small-scale supercritical CO2 demonstration loops are successful at identifying the important technical issues that one must face in order to scale up to larger power levels. The Sandia National Laboratories supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle test loops are identifying technical needs to scale the technology to commercial power levels such as 10 MWe. The small size of the Sandia 1 MWth loop has demonstration of the split flow loop efficiency and effectiveness of the Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHXs) leading to the design of a fully recuperated, split flow, supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle demonstration system. However, there were many problems that were encountered, such as high rotational speeds in the units. Additionally, the turbomachinery in the test loops need to identify issues concerning the bearings, seals, thermal boundaries, and motor controller problems in order to be proved a reliable power source in the 300 kWe range. Although these issues were anticipated in smaller demonstration units, commercially scaled hardware would eliminate these problems caused by high rotational speeds at small scale. The economic viability and development of the future scalable 10 MWe solely depends on the interest of DOE and private industry. The Intellectual Property collected by Sandia proves that the ~10 MWe supercritical CO2 power conversion loop to be very beneficial when coupled to a 20 MWth heat source (either solar, geothermal, fossil, or nuclear). This paper will identify a commercialization plan, as well as, a roadmap from the simple 1 MWth supercritical CO2 development loop to a power producing 10 MWe supercritical CO2 Brayton loop.

Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Conboy, Thomas M.; Pasch, James Jay; Wright, Steven Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Fuller, Robert Lynn [Barber-Nichols, Inc., Arvada, CO] [Barber-Nichols, Inc., Arvada, CO

2013-11-01

69

Time Series Photometry on Different Scales at the BYU West Mountain Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present multiple examples of differential time series photometry using the 0.9-meter telescope located at the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory. The observations include monitoring of a supernova and an AGN over a period of more than 100 days. An extragalactic Cepheid that was observed nightly for two months has also been included as an example in this summary. Finally, we report on target of opportunity observations secured on objects such as delta Scuti stars, eclipsing binaries, and candidate planetary transit stars. The West Mountain Observatory operates using student and faculty observers who participate in several monitoring projects that are scheduled during each observing season in addition to their own primary program. This model has given student observers an opportunity to gain useful experience on a wide variety of different monitoring projects involving carefully timed and executed photometric observations. These observations have proven especially valuable for both observatory support and student training during the May through August portion of the observing season when most regular classes are not a competing activity. Despite the use of a considerable number of different observers at many stages of training, most of the various programs undertaken at the observatory have been successfully completed over the past five years. We wish to thank the Brigham Young University College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences as well as the Department of Physics and Astronomy for their continued support of the research activities at the West Mountain Observatory.

Joner, Michael D.

2014-01-01

70

Scale-Free Networks and Commercial Air Carrier Transportation in the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Network science, or the art of describing system structure, may be useful for the analysis and control of large, complex systems. For example, networks exhibiting scale-free structure have been found to be particularly well suited to deal with environmental uncertainty and large demand growth. The National Airspace System may be, at least in part, a scalable network. In fact, the hub-and-spoke structure of the commercial segment of the NAS is an often-cited example of an existing scale-free network After reviewing the nature and attributes of scale-free networks, this assertion is put to the test: is commercial air carrier transportation in the United States well explained by this model? If so, are the positive attributes of these networks, e.g. those of efficiency, flexibility and robustness, fully realized, or could we effect substantial improvement? This paper first outlines attributes of various network types, then looks more closely at the common carrier air transportation network from perspectives of the traveler, the airlines, and Air Traffic Control (ATC). Network models are applied within each paradigm, including discussion of implied strengths and weaknesses of each model. Finally, known limitations of scalable networks are discussed. With an eye towards NAS operations, utilizing the strengths and avoiding the weaknesses of scale-free networks are addressed.

Conway, Sheila R.

2004-01-01

71

Bench- and pilot-scale thermal desorption treatability studies on pesticide-contaminated soils from Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

Thermal desorption is being considered as a potential remediation technology for pesticide-contaminated soils at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in Denver, Colorado. From 1988 through 1992, numerous laboratory- and bench-scale indirect-heated thermal desorption (IHTD) treatability studies have been performed on various soil medium groups from the arsenal. RMA has contracted Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a pilot-scale direct-fired thermal desorption (DFTD) treatability study on pesticide-contaminated RMA soil. The purpose of this treatability study is to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the DFTD technology on contaminated RMA soils and to provide data upon which future conceptual design assumptions and cost estimates for a full-scale system can be made. The equipment used in the DFTD treatability study is of large enough scale to provide good full-scale design parameters and operating conditions. The study will also provide valuable-emissions and materials-handling data. Specifically this program will determine if DFTD can achieve reductions in soil contamination below the RMA preliminary remediation goals (PRGs), define system operating conditions for achieving the PRGs, and determine the fate of arsenic and other hazardous metals at these operating conditions. This paper intends to compare existing data from a bench-scale IHTD treatability study using equipment operated in the batch mode to new data from a pilot-scale DFTD operated in a parallel-flow continuous mode. Delays due to materials-handling problems and permit issues have delayed the start of the pilot-scale DFTD testing. The first pilot-scale test is scheduled for the flat week in January 1995. The available data will be presented March 9, 1995, at the Seventh Annual Gulf Coast Environmental Conference in Houston, Texas.

Swanstrom, C.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Besmer, M. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, CO (United States)

1995-03-09

72

Quantifying mountain block recharge by means of catchment-scale storage-discharge relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the importance of mountainous catchments for providing freshwater resources, especially in semi-arid regions, little is known about key hydrological processes such as mountain block recharge (MBR). Here we implement a data-based method informed by isotopic data to quantify MBR rates using recession flow analysis. We applied our hybrid method in a semi-arid sky island catchment in southern Arizona, United States. Sabino Creek is a 91 km2 catchment with its sources near the summit of the Santa Catalina Mountains northeast of Tucson. Southern Arizona's climate has two distinct wet seasons separated by prolonged dry periods. Winter frontal storms (November-March) provide about 50% of annual precipitation, and summers are dominated by monsoon convective storms from July to September. Isotope analyses of springs and surface water in the Sabino Creek catchment indicate that streamflow during dry periods is derived from groundwater storage in fractured bedrock. Storage-discharge relationships are derived from recession flow analysis to estimate changes in storage during wet periods. To provide reliable estimates, several corrections and improvements to classic base flow recession analysis are considered. These corrections and improvements include adaptive time stepping, data binning, and the choice of storage-discharge functions. Our analysis shows that (1) incorporating adaptive time steps to correct for streamflow measurement errors improves the coefficient of determination, (2) the quantile method is best for streamflow data binning, (3) the choice of the regression model is critical when the stage-discharge function is used to predict changes in bedrock storage beyond the maximum observed flow in the catchment, and (4) the use of daily or night-time hourly streamflow does not affect the form of the storage-discharge relationship but will impact MBR estimates because of differences in the observed range of streamflow in each series.

Ajami, Hoori; Troch, Peter A.; Maddock, Thomas, III; Meixner, Thomas; Eastoe, Chris

2011-04-01

73

Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.; Balsavich, J.

1992-01-01

74

State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain States. Semi-annual progress report, January-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

The following are included: a summary of the state projects, a summary of findings, public outreach, and a description of the major conclusions and recommendations. The commercialization activities carried out by the state teams are described for Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. (MHR)

Tuttle, J.; Coe, B.A.; Gertsch, W.D.; Meyer, R.T.

1980-12-01

75

Analysis of Coupled Multiphase Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Mechanical Deformation at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test  

SciTech Connect

A numerical simulation of coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transfer, and mechanical deformation was carried out to study coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test (DST) and for validation of a coupled THM numerical simulator. The ability of the numerical simulator to model relevant coupled THM processes at the DST was evaluated by comparison of numerical results to in situ measurements of temperature, water saturation, displacement, and fracture permeability. Of particular relevance for coupled THM processes are thermally induced rock-mass stress and deformations, with associated changes in fracture aperture and fractured rock permeability. Thermally induced rock-mass deformation and accompanying changes in fracture permeability were reasonably well predicted using a continuum elastic model, although some individual measurements of displacement and permeability indicate inelastic mechanical responses. It is concluded that fracture closure/opening caused by a change in thermally induced normal stress across fractures is an important mechanism for changes in intrinsic fracture permeability at the DST, whereas fracture shear dilation appears to be less significant. Observed and predicted maximum permeability changes at the DST are within one order of magnitude. These data are important for bounding model predictions of potential changes in rock-mass permeability at a future repository in Yucca Mountain.

J. Rutqvist; C.F. Tsang; Y. Tsang

2005-05-17

76

Coarse-scale population structure of pathogenic Armillaria species in a mixed-conifer forest in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coarse-scale population structure of pathogenic Armillaria (Fr.) Staude species was determined on ap- proximately 16 100 ha of relatively dry, mixed-conifer forest in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon. Sampling of recently dead or live, symptomatic conifers produced 112 isolates of Armillaria from six tree species. Armillaria spe- cies identifications done by using a polymerase chain reaction based diagnostic

B. A. Ferguson; T. A. Dreisbach; C. G. Parks; G. M. Filip; C. L. Schmitt

2003-01-01

77

Implications of the fault scaling law for the growth of topography: mountain ranges in the broken foreland of north-east Tibet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fault scaling law suggests that, over eight orders of magnitude, fault length L is linearly related to maximum displacement D. Individual faults may therefore retain a constant ratio of D ? L as they grow. If erosion is minor compared with tectonic uplift, the length and along-strike relief of young mountain ranges should thus reflect fault growth. Topographic profiles

Ralf Hetzel; Mingxin Tao; Samuel Niedermann; Manfred R. Strecker; Susan Ivy-Ochs; Peter W. Kubik; Bo Gao

2004-01-01

78

Large Scale Application of Vibration Sensors for Fan Monitoring at Commercial Layer Hen Houses  

PubMed Central

Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable. PMID:22163544

Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A.; Heber, Albert J.; Bogan, Bill W.; Chai, Li-Long

2010-01-01

79

Landscape-Scale Factors Affecting Feral Horse Habitat Use During Summer Within The Rocky Mountain Foothills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public lands occupied by feral horses in North America are frequently managed for multiple uses with land use conflict occurring among feral horses, livestock, wildlife, and native grassland conservation. The factors affecting habitat use by horses is critical to understand where conflict may be greatest. We related horse presence and abundance to landscape attributes in a GIS to examine habitat preferences using 98 field plots sampled within a portion of the Rocky Mountain Forest Reserve of SW Alberta, Canada. Horse abundance was greatest in grassland and cut block habitats, and lowest in conifer and mixedwood forest. Resource selection probability functions and count models of faecal abundance indicated that horses preferred areas closer to water, with reduced topographic ruggedness, situated farther from forests, and located farther away from primary roads and trails frequented by recreationalists, but closer to small linear features (i.e. cut lines) that may be used as beneficial travel corridors. Horse presence and abundance were closely related to cattle presence during summer, suggesting that both herbivores utilise the same habitats. Estimates of forage biomass removal (44 %) by mid-July were near maximum acceptable levels. In contrast to horse-cattle associations, horses were negatively associated with wild ungulate abundance, although the mechanism behind this remains unclear and warrants further investigation. Our results indicate that feral horses in SW Alberta exhibit complex habitat selection patterns during spring and summer, including overlap in use with livestock. This finding highlights the need to assess and manage herbivore populations consistent with rangeland carrying capacity and the maintenance of range health.

Girard, Tisa L.; Bork, Edward W.; Neilsen, Scott E.; Alexander, Mike J.

2013-02-01

80

Observatory Design in the Mountain West: Scaling Measurements and Modeling in the San Joaquin Valley and Sierra Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project represents a key step toward developing an environmental observatory in the semiarid mountain- valley landscape of the far western United States. Two specific aims of this project are: (i) to formulate basin- scale measurement and modeling strategies to meet priority research issues, through analysis of existing operational and research data, and (ii) to assess different instrument cluster designs to provide the ground- based measurements needed for hydrologic process research. Achieving these aims will both help to establish a "virtual" observatory, and provide direction for building new infrastructure in an actual observatory. The observatory design concept involves establishing intensive measurements at ground-based instrument clusters, integrated with broad coverage offered by satellite remote sensing, plus operational networks. The main science challenge is that of scaling between the instrument clusters. Basing an observatory design on instrument clusters at representative points across the landscape recognizes that it is logistically infeasible to measure everything, everywhere, all the time. Instrument clusters co-locate key measurements, in order to illuminate linkages among processes within each cluster's relatively small footprint. Design challenges include configuring instrument clusters to maximize the scientific payoff for a given investment of resources; and determining how well the data from these clusters represent the landscape that surrounds them, beyond the footprint of the measurements themselves.

Conklin, M.; Bales, R.; Boyer, E.; Cayan, D.; Dozier, J.; Fogg, G.; Harmon, T.; Kirchner, J.; Miller, N.; Molotch, N.; Redmond, K.

2006-12-01

81

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Ak Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOITM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this reporting period, DOE accepted the recommendation to continue with dimethyl ether (DME) design verification testing (DVT). DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stzibility is being developed. Planning for a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) was recommended. DOE issued a letter dated 31 July 1997 accepting the recommendation to continue design verification testing. In order to allow for scale-up of the manufacturing technique for the dehydration catalyst from the pilot plant to the commercial scale, the time required to produce the catalyst to the AFDU has slipped. The new estimated delivery date is 01 June 1998.

None

1997-09-30

82

Total System Performance Assessment - Analyses for Disposal of Commercial and DOE Waste Inventories at Yucca Mountain - Input to Final Environmental Impact Statement and Site Suitability Evaluation, Rev. 00  

SciTech Connect

This Letter Report presents the results of calculations to assess long-term performance of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and Greater Than Class C (GTCC) radioactive waste and DOE Special Performance Assessment Required (SPAR) radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in Nye County Nevada with respect to the 10,000-year performance period specified in 40 CFR Part 197.30 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32134) with regard to radiation-protection standards. The EPA Final Rule 40 CFR Part 197 has three separate standards, individual-protection, human-intrusion, and groundwater-protection standards, all with a compliance timeframe of 10,000 years. These calculations evaluate the dose to receptors for each of these standards. Further, this Letter Report includes the results of simulations to the 1,000,000-year performance period described in 40 CFR Part 197.35 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32135) which calls for the calculation of the peak dose to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) that would occur after 10,000 years and within the period of geological stability. In accordance with TSPA-SR the ''period of geologic stability'' is from zero to 1,000,000 years after repository closure. The calculations also present the 5th and 95th percentiles, and the mean and median of the set of probabilistic simulations used to evaluate various disposal scenarios.

NA

2001-09-17

83

Ecological niche modeling of the sympatric giant and red pandas on a mountain-range scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat use and separation between the two sympatric species, the giant panda and the red panda, have been primary causes\\u000a of coexistence at the fine scale. In this paper, we addressed the question of coexistence between species in space. By Ecological\\u000a Niche Factor Analysis, we calculated species-specific habitat requirements, built habitat suitability maps and examined interspecific\\u000a differences in spatial niche

Dunwu Qi; Yibo Hu; Xiaodong Gu; Ming Li; Fuwen Wei

2009-01-01

84

Classification of local- and landscape-scale ecological types in the southern Appalachian Mountains.  

PubMed

Five local ecological types based on vegetative communities and two landscape types based on groups of communities, were identified by integrating landform, soil, and vegetation components using multivariate techniques. Elevation and several topographic and soil variables were highly correlated with types of both scales. Landscape ecological types based only on landform and soil variables without vegetation did not correspond with types developed using vegetation. Models developed from these relationships could allow classification and mapping of extensive areas using geographic information systems. PMID:24198007

McNab, W H

1996-01-01

85

Design and Fabrication of the First Commercial-Scale Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHT) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert synthesis gas (syngas), primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, to methanol. Because of its superior heat management the process can utilize directly the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks. The LPMEOHM Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P., a partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Eastman Chemical Company, to produce methanol from coal-derived syngas. Construction of the LPMEOH~ Process Demonstration Plant at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport was completed in January 1997. Following commissioning and shakedown activities, the fwst production of methanol from the facility occurred on April 2, 1997. Nameplate capacity of 260 short tons per day (TPD) was achieved on April 6, 1997, and production rates have exceeded 300 TPD of methanol at times. This report describes the design, fabrication, and installation of the Kingsport LPMEOEFM reactor, which is the first commercial-scale LPMEOEPM reaetor ever built. The vessel is 7.5 feet in diameter and 70 feet tall with design conditions of 1000 psig at 600 `F. These dimensions represent a significant scale-up from prior experience at the DOE-owned Alternative Fuels Development Unit in LaPorte, Texas, where 18-inch and 22-inch diameter reactors have been tested successfidly over thousands of hours. The biggest obstacles discovered during the scale- up, however, were encountered during fabrication of the vessel. The lessons learned during this process must be considered in tailoring the design for future sites, where the reactor dimensions may grow by yet another factor of two.

None

1998-12-21

86

Iceberg calving as a primary source of regional?scale glacier?generated seismicity in the St. Elias Mountains, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since the installation of the Alaska Regional Seismic Network in the 1970s, data analysts have noted nontectonic seismic events thought to be related to glacier dynamics. While loose associations with the glaciers of the St. Elias Mountains have been made, no detailed study of the source locations has been undertaken. We performed a two-step investigation surrounding these events, beginning with manual locations that guided an automated detection and event sifting routine. Results from the manual investigation highlight characteristics of the seismic waveforms including single-peaked (narrowband) spectra, emergent onsets, lack of distinct phase arrivals, and a predominant cluster of locations near the calving termini of several neighboring tidewater glaciers. Through these locations, comparison with previous work, analyses of waveform characteristics, frequency-magnitude statistics and temporal patterns in seismicity, we suggest calving as a source for the seismicity. Statistical properties and time series analysis of the event catalog suggest a scale-invariant process that has no single or simple forcing. These results support the idea that calving is often a response to short-lived or localized stress perturbations. Our results demonstrate the utility of passive seismic instrumentation to monitor relative changes in the rate and magnitude of iceberg calving at tidewater glaciers that may be volatile or susceptible to ensuing rapid retreat, especially when existing seismic infrastructure can be used.

O'Neel, Shad R.; Larsen, Christopher F.; Rupert, Natalia; Hansen, Roger

2010-01-01

87

Droughts and broad-scale climate variability reflected by temperature-sensitive tree growth in the Qinling Mountains, central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between temperature and drought was investigated using the temperature-sensitive growth of Larix chinensis Beissn in the Qinling Mountains, central China. Extremely high tree-ring width index values (TRWI) agreed well with dry conditions defined by the dryness-wetness index (DWI) obtained from data in Chinese historical documents and climate-related papers between 1814 and 1956 (before the short of instrumental measurements); the reverse applied to extremely low TRWI values. The main severe drought epochs occurred from the late 1850s to the 1870s, the 1920s to 1930s and in the 2000s, whereas wet spells occurred from 1817-1827 and 1881-1886. The droughts in the 2000s exhibited a similar pattern as the ones from the 1920s to 1930s, with obviously an increasing temperature. The variation of tree growth agreed well with other reconstructed temperature series from nearby and remote regions, suggesting that Larix chinensis could respond to broad-scale climate variability. The longest cold interval, 1817-1827, could be associated with the influence of the Tambora eruption in 1815.

Liu, Na; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Qi; Bao, Guang

2013-01-01

88

Towards commercial scale postcombustion capture of CO2 with monoethanolamine solvent: key considerations for solvent management and environmental impacts.  

PubMed

Chemical absorption with aqueous amine solvents is the most advanced technology for postcombustion capture (PCC) of CO(2) from coal-fired power stations and a number of pilot scale programs are evaluating novel solvents, optimizing energy efficiency, and validating engineering models. This review demonstrates that the development of commercial scale PCC also requires effective solvent management guidelines to ensure minimization of potential technical and environmental risks. Furthermore, the review reveals that while solvent degradation has been identified as a key source of solvent consumption in laboratory scale studies, it has not been validated at pilot scale. Yet this is crucial as solvent degradation products, such as organic acids, can increase corrosivity and reduce the CO(2) absorption capacity of the solvent. It also highlights the need for the development of corrosion and solvent reclamation technologies, as well as strategies to minimize emissions of solvent and degradation products, such as ammonia, aldehydes, nitrosamines and nitramines, to the atmosphere from commercial scale PCC. Inevitably, responsible management of aqueous and solid waste will require more serious consideration. This will ultimately require effective waste management practices validated at pilot scale to minimize the likelihood of adverse human and environmental impacts from commercial scale PCC. PMID:22324566

Reynolds, Alicia J; Verheyen, T Vincent; Adeloju, Samuel B; Meuleman, Erik; Feron, Paul

2012-04-01

89

On the relationship between ecosystem-scale hyperspectral reflectance and CO2 exchange in European mountain grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we explore the use of hyperspectral reflectance measurements and vegetation indices (VIs) derived therefrom in estimating carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes (net ecosystem exchange - NEE; gross primary production - GPP), and some key ecophysiological variables related to NEE and GPP (light use efficiency - ?; initial quantum yield - ?; and GPP at saturating light - GPPmax) for grasslands. Hyperspectral reflectance data (400-1000 nm), CO2 fluxes and biophysical parameters were measured at three grassland sites located in European mountain regions. The relationships between CO2 fluxes, ecophysiological variables and VIs derived using all two-band combinations of wavelengths available from the whole hyperspectral data space were analysed. We found that hyperspectral VIs generally explained a large fraction of the variability in the investigated dependent variables and that they generally exhibited more skill in estimating midday and daily average GPP and NEE, as well as GPPmax, than ? and ?. Relationships between VIs and CO2 fluxes and ecophysiological parameters were site-specific, likely due to differences in soils, vegetation parameters and environmental conditions. Chlorophyll and water content related VIs (e.g. CI, NPCI, WI), reflecting seasonal changes in biophysical parameters controlling the photosynthesis process, explained the largest fraction of variability in most of the dependent variables. A limitation of the hyperspectral sensors is that their cost is still high and the use laborious. At the eddy covariance with a limited budget and without technical support, we suggest to use at least dual or four channels low cost sensors in the the following spectral regions: 400-420 nm; 500-530 nm; 750-770 nm; 780-800 nm and 880-900 nm. In addition, our findings have major implications for up-scaling terrestrial CO2 fluxes to larger regions and for remote and proximal sensing sampling and analysis strategies and call for more cross-site synthesis studies linking ground-based spectral reflectance with ecosystem-scale CO2 fluxes.

Balzarolo, M.; Vescovo, L.; Hammerle, A.; Gianelle, D.; Papale, D.; Wohlfahrt, G.

2014-07-01

90

Pre-site characterization risk analysis for commercial-scale carbon sequestration.  

PubMed

This study develops a probability framework to evaluate subsurface risks associated with commercial-scale carbon sequestration in the Kevin Dome, Montana. Limited knowledge of the spatial distribution of physical attributes of the storage reservoir and the confining rocks in the area requires using regional data to estimate project risks during the pre-site characterization analysis. A set of integrated Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess four risk proxies: the CO2 injectivity, area of review (AoR), migration rate into confining rocks, and a monitoring strategy prior to detailed site characterization. Results show a reasonable likelihood of reaching the project goal of injecting 1 Mt in 4 years with a single injection well (>58%), increasing to >70% if the project is allowed to run for 5 years. The mean radius of the AoR, based on a 0.1 MPa pressure change, is around 4.8 km. No leakage of CO2 through the confining units is seen in any simulations. The computed CO2 detection probability suggests that the monitoring wells should be located at less than 1.2 km away from the injection well so that CO2 is likely to be detected within the time frame of the project. The scientific results of this study will be used to inform the detailed site characterization process and to provide more insight for understanding operational and technical risks before injecting CO2. PMID:24625081

Dai, Zhenxue; Stauffer, Philip H; Carey, J William; Middleton, Richard S; Lu, Zhiming; Jacobs, John F; Hnottavange-Telleen, Ken; Spangler, Lee H

2014-04-01

91

Multi-scale responses of vegetation to removal of horse grazing from Great Basin (USA) mountain ranges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although free-roaming equids occur on all of the world's continents except Antarctica, very few studies (and none in the Great Basin, USA) have either investigated their grazing effects on vegetation at more than one spatial scale or compared characteristics of areas from which grazing has been removed to those of currently grazed areas. We compared characteristics of vegetation at 19 sites in nine mountain ranges of the western Great Basin; sites were either grazed by feral horses (Equus caballus) or had had horses removed for the last 10-14 years. We selected horse-occupied and horse-removed sites with similar aspect, slope, fire history, grazing pressure by cattle (minimal to none), and dominant vegetation (Artemisia tridentata). During 1997 and 1998, line-intercept transects randomly located within sites revealed that horse-removed sites exhibited 1.1-1.9 times greater shrub cover, 1.2-1.5 times greater total plant cover, 2-12 species greater plant species richness, and 1.9-2.9 times greater cover and 1.1-2.4 times greater frequency of native grasses than did horse-occupied sites. In contrast, sites with horses tended to have more grazing-resistant forbs and exotic plants. Direction and magnitude of landscape-scale results were corroborated by smaller-scale comparisons within horse-occupied sites of horse-trail transects and (randomly located) transects that characterized overall site conditions. Information-theoretic analyses that incorporated various subsets of abiotic variables suggested that presence of horses was generally a strong determinant of those vegetation-related variables that differed significantly between treatments, especially frequency and cover of grasses, but also species richness and shrub cover and frequency. In contrast, abiotic variables such as precipitation, site elevation, and soil erodibility best predicted characteristics such as forb cover, shrub frequency, and continuity of the shrub canopy. We found species richness of plants monotonically decreased across sites as grazing disturbance increased, suggesting that either the bell-shaped diversity-disturbance curve of the intermediate-disturbance hypothesis does not apply in this system or that most sites are already all on the greater-disturbance slope of the curve. In our study, numerous vegetation properties of less-grazed areas and sites differed notably from horse-grazed sites at local and landscape scales during a wetter and an average-precipitation year. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Beever, E.A.; Tausch, R.J.; Thogmartin, W.E.

2008-01-01

92

Improving rainfall representation for large-scale hydrological modelling of tropical mountain basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Errors in the forcing data are sometimes overlooked in hydrological studies even when they could be the most important source of uncertainty. The latter particularly holds true in tropical countries with short historical records of rainfall monitoring and remote areas with sparse rain gauge network. In such instances, alternative data such as the remotely sensed precipitation from the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite have been used. These provide a good spatial representation of rainfall processes but have been established in the literature to contain volumetric biases that may impair the results of hydrological modelling or worse, are compensated during model calibration. In this study, we analysed precipitation time series from the TMPA (TRMM Multiple Precipitation Algorithm, version 6) against measurements from over 300 gauges in the Andes and Amazon regions of Peru and Ecuador. We found moderately good monthly correlation between the pixel and gauge pairs but a severe underestimation of rainfall amounts and wet days. The discrepancy between the time series pairs is particularly visible over the east side of the Andes and may be attributed to localized and orographic-driven high intensity rainfall, which the satellite product may have limited skills at capturing due to technical and scale issues. This consequently results in a low bias in the simulated streamflow volumes further downstream. In comparison, with the recently released TMPA, version 7, the biases reduce. This work further explores several approaches to merge the two sources of rainfall measurements, each of a different spatial and temporal support, with the objective of improving the representation of rainfall in hydrological simulations. The methods used are (1) mean bias correction (2) data assimilation using Kalman filter Bayesian updating. The results are evaluated by means of (1) a comparison of runoff ratios (the ratio of the total runoff and the total precipitation over an extended period) in multiple basins, and (2) a comparison of the outcome of hydrological modelling using the distributed JULES (Joint-UK Land Environment Simulator) land surface model. First results indicate an improvement in the water balance that directly translates into an increased hydrological performance. The more interesting aspect of the study, however, will be the insights into the nature of satellite precipitation errors in this extreme environment and the optimal means of improving the data to generate increased confidence in hydrological predictions.

Zulkafli, Zed; Buytaert, Wouter; Onof, Christian; Lavado, Waldo; Guyot, Jean-Loup

2013-04-01

93

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase methanol (LPMEOH) Process A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program seeks to offer the energy marketplace more efficient and environmentally benign coal utilization technology options by demonstrating them in industrial settings. This document is a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of one of the projects selected in Round III of the CCT Program, the commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process, initially described in a Report to Congress by DOE in 1992. Methanol is an important, large-volume chemical with many uses. The desire to demonstrate a new process for the production of methanol from coal, prompted Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to submit a proposal to DOE. In October 1992, DOE awarded a cooperative agreement to Air Products to conduct this project. In March 1995, this cooperative agreement was transferred to Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership), a partnership between Air Products and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman). DOE provided 43 percent of the total project funding of $213.7 million. Operation of the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit, which is sited at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee, commenced in April 1997. Although operation of the CCT project was completed in December 2002, Eastman continues to operate the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit for the production of methanol. The independent evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from Volume 2 of the project's Final Report (Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Co., L.P. 2003), as well as other references cited.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2003-10-27

94

Correcting basin-scale snowfall in a mountainous basin using a distributed snowmelt model and remote-sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adequate estimation of the spatial distribution of snowfall is critical in hydrologic modelling. However, this is a well-known problem in estimating basin-scale snowfall, especially in mountainous basins with data scarcity. This study focuses on correction and estimation of this spatial distribution, which considers topographic effects within the basin. A method is proposed that optimises an altitude-based snowfall correction factor (Cfsnow). This is done through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed, multilayer energy and water balance-based snowmelt model (WEB-DHM-S) with observed discharge and remotely sensed snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Shuffled Complex Evolution-University of Arizona (SCE-UA) automatic search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal value of Cfsnow for minimum cumulative error in discharge and snow cover simulations. Discharge error is quantified by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and relative volume deviation, and snow cover error was estimated by pixel-by-pixel analysis. The study region is the heavily snow-fed Yagisawa Basin of the Upper Tone River in northeast Japan. First, the system was applied to one snow season (2002-2003), obtaining an optimised Cfsnow of 0.0007 m-1. For validation purposes, the optimised Cfsnow was implemented to correct snowfall in 2004, 2002 and 2001. Overall, the system was effective, implying improvements in correlation of simulated versus observed discharge and snow cover. The 4 yr mean of basin-average snowfall for the corrected spatial snowfall distribution was 1160 mm (780 mm before correction). Execution of sensitivity runs against other model input and parameters indicated that Cfsnow could be affected by uncertainty in shortwave radiation and setting of the threshold air temperature parameter. Our approach is suitable to correct snowfall and estimate its distribution in poorly gauged basins, where elevation dependence of snowfall amount is strong.

Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

2014-02-01

95

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOTH) Process  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOI-P Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman coal-to-chemicals complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, initial planning and procurement work continued on the seven project sites which have been accepted for participation in the off-site, product-use test program. Approximately 12,000 gallons of fuel-grade methanol (98+ wt% methanol, 4 wt% water) produced during operation on carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas at the LPMEOW Demonstration Unit was loaded into trailers and shipped off-site for Mure product-use testing. At one of the projects, three buses have been tested on chemical-grade methanol and on fhel-grade methanol from the LPMEOW Demonstration Project. During the reporting period, planning for a proof-of-concept test run of the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME~ Process at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, TX continued. The commercial catalyst manufacturer (Calsicat) has prepared the first batch of dehydration catalyst in large-scale equipment. Air Products will test a sample of this material in the laboratory autoclave. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laborato~ autoclave), was monitored for the initial extended operation at the lower initial reactor operating temperature of 235oC. At this condition, the decrease in catalyst activity with time from the period 20 December 1997 through 27 January 1998 occurred at a rate of 1.0% per day, which represented a significant improvement over the 3.4Yi per day decline measured during the initial six weeks of operation in April and May of 1997. The deactivation rate also improved from the longer-term rate of 1.6% per day calculated throughout the summer and autumn of 1997.

None

1998-12-21

96

COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF THE LIQUID PHASE METHANOL (LPMEOH) PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

This project, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate the production of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas), has completed the 69-month operating phase of the program. The purpose of this Final Report for the ''Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process'' is to provide the public with details on the performance and economics of the technology. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project was a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the DOE and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The DOE's cost share was $92,708,370 with the remaining funds coming from the Partnership. The LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit is located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The technology was the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} Process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern coal gasifiers. Originally tested at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU), a small, DOE-owned process development facility in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project accomplished the objectives set out in the Cooperative Agreement with DOE for this Clean Coal Technology project. Overall plant availability (defined as the percentage of time that the LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit was able to operate, with the exclusion of scheduled outages) was 97.5%, and the longest operating run without interruption of any kind was 94 days. Over 103.9 million gallons of methanol was produced; Eastman accepted all of the available methanol for use in the production of methyl acetate, and ultimately cellulose acetate and acetic acid.

E.C. Heydorn; B.W. Diamond; R.D. Lilly

2003-06-01

97

Generating local scale land use/cover change scenarios: case studies of high-risk mountain areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between land use/cover changes and consequences to human well-being is well acknowledged and has led to higher interest of both researchers and decision makers in driving forces and consequences of such changes. For example, removal of natural vegetation cover or urban expansion resulting in new elements at risk can increase hydro-meteorological risk. This is why it is necessary to study how the land use/cover could evolve in the future. Emphasis should especially be given to areas experiencing, or expecting, high rates of socio-economic change. A suitable approach to address these changes is scenario development; it offers exploring possible futures and the corresponding environmental consequences, and aids decision-making, as it enables to analyse possible options. Scenarios provide a creative methodology to depict possible futures, resulting from existing decisions, based on different assumptions of future socio-economic development. They have been used in various disciplines and on various scales, such as flood risk and soil erosion. Several studies have simulated future scenarios of land use/cover changes at a very high success rate, however usually these approaches are tailor made for specific case study areas and fit to available data. This study presents a multi-step scenario generation framework, which can be transferable to other local scale case study areas, taking into account the case study specific consequences of land use/cover changes. Through the use of experts' and decision-makers' knowledge, we aimed to develop a framework with the following characteristics: (1) it enables development of scenarios that are plausible, (2) it can overcome data inaccessibility, (3) it can address intangible and external driving forces of land use/cover change, and (4) it ensures transferability to other local scale case study areas with different land use/cover change processes and consequences. To achieve this, a set of different methods is applied including: qualitative methods such as interviews, group discussions and fuzzy cognitive mapping to identify land use/cover change processes, their driving forces and possible consequences, and final scenario generation; and geospatial methods such as GIS, geostatistics and environmental modeling in an environment for geoprocessing objects (Dinamica EGO) for spatial allocation of these scenarios. The methods were applied in the Italian Alps and the Romanian Carpathians. Both are mountainous areas, however they differ in terms of past and most likely future socio-economic development, and therefore consequent land use/cover changes. Whereas we focused on urban expansion due to tourism development in the Alps, we focused on possible deforestation trajectories in the Carpathians. In both areas, the recognized most significant driving forces were either not covered by accessible data, or were characterized as intangible. With the proposed framework we were able to generate futures scenarios despite these shortcomings, and enabling the transferability of the method.

Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas; Boerboom, Luc

2014-05-01

98

A multi-scale analysis of streamflow response to changes in evapotranspiration and soil hydrology in the Blue Ridge Mountains  

EPA Science Inventory

A large amount of research exploring the relationship between watershed forest cover and streamflow quantity has been conducted in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, particularly in association with the USFS Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and the Coweeta LTER. However, a clear ans...

99

Changes in Stream Water Quality Related to Land Use and Watershed Scale in the Catskill Mountains of New York State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New York City`s West-of-Hudson reservoir system supplies about 85% of the city`s water supply. Land use management in this region has strong implications for water quality because it is the water supply for 9 million people. The city needs information on the effects of current and future land use on water quality. To address these needs the U.S. Geological Survey operates 34 stream gaging stations within the West-of-Hudson reservoir system in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. Water quality and stream flow data are collected at 12 of these sites, grab samples are collected bi-weekly and storm samples are collected using automated samplers. The gages are arranged in a nested watershed design with one or more forested ``upper-nodes`` and a ``lower node`` located at some distance downstream. The watersheds range in size from 2.0 to 177.7 km2 and data for this study were collected from 2000 to 2004. The two principal land uses within the region are forest and agriculture. Residential and commercial land use account for less than 1% of the area in the watersheds included in the study. Watersheds with agricultural land use greater than 2% had the highest median concentration of total phosphorus (TP) and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) in stream water, but there was no relation between the percentage of agricultural land use and TP or TDP concentration. The watershed with the highest percentage of agricultural land use (38%) had TP and TDP concentrations similar to another watershed with 3% agricultural land use. The highest TP and TDP stream water concentrations were measured in a watershed that had 20% agricultural land use, but was the smallest of the lower node watersheds (37 km2). Likewise there was no relation between land use and median nitrate concentration, indeed the highest median nitrate concentration was measured in a watershed that was 99% forested. Water quality from forested watersheds had lower nutrient concentrations than that from agricultural watersheds, although not all agricultural watersheds had high nutrient concentrations. Since agriculture in this region typically consists of small, family-operated dairy farms, their influence on water quality is small. Base cations increased from upper nodes to lower nodes as did pH and acid neutralizing capacity, but these increases were not related to land use. Neither changes in flow nor change in basin size was correlated with the change in water chemistry from upper nodes to lower nodes. These results underscore the difficulty in trying to generalize the effect of land use on stream water quality in areas where there are not large variations in land use or when land use does not profoundly affect the landscape. Analysis of individual storms that occurred in all of the watersheds may provide additional insight into watershed responses during high flow.

McHale, M.

2005-12-01

100

Broilers Welfare and Economics under Two Management Alternatives on Commercial Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to clarify the effect of two management systems (cages Vs floor system) on welfare status and economics of broiler chicks. Two commercial flocks each of about 12375 day old Hubbard broiler chicks of mixed sex were housed in two fully environmentally controlled pens (cage and floor pens) from 0-6 weeks of age. Welfare was assessed through

Manal A. Fouad; Abeer H. Abdel Razek; El Sayed M. Badawy

2008-01-01

101

Radiation Tests of Highly Scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories - Update 2010  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories with NAND architecture are now available from several manufacturers. This report examines SEE effects and TID response in single-level cell (SLC) and multi-level cell (MLC) NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology.

Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.

2010-01-01

102

Radiation Tests of Highly scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories--Update 2011  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories with NAND architecture are now available from several manufacturers. This report examines SEE effects and TID response in single-level cell (SLC) 32Gb and multi-level cell (MLC) 64Gb NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology.

Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.

2011-01-01

103

Decades-Scale Degradation of Commercial, Side-Chain, Fluorotelomer-based Polymers in Soils & Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs) are a primary product of the jluorotelomer industry, yet the role of commercial FTPs in degrading to form perjluorocarboxylic acids (P FCAs), including perjluorooctanoic acid, and P FCA precursors, remains ill-defined. Here we report on a 376-d...

104

Occurrence of Eimeria Species Parasites on Small-Scale Commercial Chicken Farms in Africa and Indication of Economic Profitability  

PubMed Central

Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa. PMID:24391923

Fornace, Kimberly M.; Clark, Emily L.; Macdonald, Sarah E.; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A.; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P.; Rushton, Jonathan

2013-01-01

105

Occurrence of Eimeria species parasites on small-scale commercial chicken farms in Africa and indication of economic profitability.  

PubMed

Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa. PMID:24391923

Fornace, Kimberly M; Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P; Rushton, Jonathan

2013-01-01

106

High-throughput cryopreservation of spermatozoa of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus): establishment of an approach for commercial-scale processing  

PubMed Central

Hybrid catfish created by crossing of female channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and male blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are being used increasingly in foodfish aquaculture because of their fast growth and efficient food conversion. However, the availability of blue catfish males is limited, and their peak spawning is at a different time than that of the channel catfish. As such, cryopreservation of sperm of blue catfish could improve production of hybrid catfish, and has been studied in the laboratory and tested for feasibility in a commercial dairy bull cryopreservation facility. However, an approach for commercially relevant production of cryopreserved blue catfish sperm is still needed. The goal of this study was to develop practical approaches for commercial-scale sperm cryopreservation of blue catfish by use of an automated high-throughput system (MAPI, CryoBioSystem Co.). The objectives were to: 1) refine cooling rate and cryoprotectant concentration, and evaluate their interactions; 2) evaluate the effect of sperm concentration on cryopreservation; 3) refine cryoprotectant concentration based on the highest effective sperm concentration; 4) compare the effect of thawing samples at 20 °C or 40 °C; 5) evaluate the fertility of thawed sperm at a research scale by fertilizing with channel catfish eggs; 6) test the post-thaw motility and fertility of sperm from individual males in a commercial setting, and 7) test for correlation of cryopreservation results with biological indices used for male evaluation. The optimal cooling rate was 5 °C/min (Micro Digitcool, IMV) for high-throughput cryopreservation using CBS high-biosecurity 0.5-ml straws with 10% methanol, and a concentration of 1 × 109 sperm/ml. There was no difference in post-thaw motility when samples were thawed at 20 °C for 40 s or 40 °C for 20 s. After fertilization, the percentage of neurulation (Stage V embryos) was 80 ± 21%, and percentage of embryonic mobility (Stage VI embryo) was 51 ± 22%. There was a significant difference among the neurulation values produced by thawed blue catfish sperm, fresh blue catfish sperm (P = 0.010) and channel catfish sperm (P = 0.023), but not for Stage VI embryos (P ? 0.585). Cryopreserved sperm from ten males did not show significant variation in post-thaw motility or fertility at the neurulation stage. This study demonstrates that the protocol established for high-throughput cryopreservation of blue catfish sperm can provide commercially relevant quantities and quality of sperm with stable fertility for hybrid catfish production and provides a model for establishment of commercial-scale approaches for other aquatic species. PMID:21176772

Hu, E; Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R.

2012-01-01

107

Astronomical time scale for the Middle Oxfordian to Late Kimmeridgian in the Swiss and French Jura Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed investigation of facies and sedimentary structures reveals that, during the Middle Oxfordian to Late Kimmeridgian,\\u000a the shallow carbonate platform of the Swiss and French Jura Mountains recorded high-frequency sea-level fluctuations quite\\u000a faithfully. The cyclostratigraphic analysis within the established biostratigraphic and sequence-chronostratigraphic framework\\u000a implies that the resulting hierarchically stacked depositional sequences formed in tune with the orbital cycles of precession

André Strasser

2007-01-01

108

Northern Rocky Mountain Wildfires and Debris Flows: Millennial-Scale Interactions among Climate, Fire, Vegetation, and Geomorphic Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As summer droughts and rising temperatures in the Western U.S. continue to fuel large wildfires, understanding the role of fire in mountain ecosystems becomes increasingly relevant. Past relationships among fire, climate, and vegetation change may help place recent fires within a historic context. In addition, post-fire floods and debris flows contribute large amounts of sediment to rivers and streams. Quantifying fire-related sediment inputs is important for disciplines ranging from stream ecology to landscape evolution. We examine evidence of fires and related hillslope erosion through 14C dating of alluvial charcoal fragments preserved in Holocene fire-related deposits in alluvial fans and stream sediments throughout a range of ecosystems in Idaho, USA. In addition, we measure sediment yields from recent fire-related debris flows and extrapolate the contribution of fire-related sediment inputs to streams over millennial timescales. Over Holocene timescales, independent records of forest-fires and fire-related erosion from ecosystems ranging from sagebrush steppe, pinion-juniper, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine and mixed conifer forests indicate that sedimentation rates and processes on alluvial fans vary temporally with Holocene climate, and spatially with vegetation type. Despite variations in ecosystem type and associated fire regimes, many sites show similar broad-scale patterns. During the Pleistocene-Holocene transition large fires burned across many ecosystems. The mid-Holocene (~4-8 ka) is characterized by few fire-related deposits; however, this relatively fire-free interval is punctuated by fire peaks and associated sheetflooding ~7-6 ka. Since regional paleoclimatic reconstructions indicate the mid-Holocene was generally warm and dry the lack of fire is somewhat counterintuitive; however, decreased fuel loads, combined with perhaps a more stable climate may reduce fire and storm intensity and frequency. The late Holocene (last ~3 ka) cooler, wetter and more variable climates are characterized by an increase in fire activity at all sites, and a general increase in large debris flows. Medieval droughts correspond with major fire and debris flow peaks ~1000-800 cal yr BP; decadal to annual droughts during the generally cooler and wetter LIA also promote fire peaks ~500-300 cal yr BP. The last ~ 3 ka also corresponds with the arrival of fire-prone pine species at several of the study areas. In the Middle Fork Salmon River of central Idaho, > 40% of the watershed has burned in the last 30 years and erosion from severely burned hillslopes produced many large fire-related debris flows. Fire-related deposits compose 74 ± 25% of total alluvial fan thickness in upper wetter ecosystems versus 41 ± 33% recorded in lower drier basins. Recent (1997-2008) moderate to high-severity fires produced debris flows in tributary basins underlain by easily erodible Idaho Batholith granites. Sediment yields from these debris flow range from ~1,450-34,550 Mg/km2. Over the last 6 ka, we estimate fire-related debris flows have contributed ~30-100 Mg/km2/ yr of sediment to the Middle Fork Salmon River.

Pierce, J. L.; Riley, K. E.; Weppner, K.

2012-12-01

109

Preliminary 3-D site-scale studies of radioactive colloid transortin the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The U.S: Department of Energy is actively investigating the technical feasibility of permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this study we investigate, by means of numerical simulation, the transport of radioactive colloids under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table. The site hydrology and the effects of the spatial distribution of hydraulic and transport properties in the Yucca Mountain subsurface are considered. The study of migration and retardation of colloids accounts for the complex processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, and includes advection, diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion, kinetic colloid filtration, colloid straining, and radioactive decay. The results of the study indicate that the most important factors affecting colloid transport are the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The transport of colloids is strongly influenced by their size (as it affects diffusion into the matrix, straining at hydrogeologic unit interfaces, and transport velocity) and by the parameters of the kinetic-filtration model used for the simulations. Arrival times at the water table decrease with an increasing colloid size because of smaller diffusion, increased straining, and higher transport velocities. The importance of diffusion as a retardation mechanism increases with a decreasing colloid size, but appears to be minimal in large colloids.

Moridis, G.J.; Hu, Q.; Wu, Y.-S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

2001-09-01

110

Christmas Mountains  

article title:  Christmas Mountains     View Larger Image ... New Brunswick. Located above image center are the Christmas Mountains, a region of old-growth forest nestled in a remote wilderness. Within ...

2013-04-17

111

Single-Event Upset and Scaling Trends in New Generation of the Commercial SOI PowerPC Microprocessors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SEU from heavy-ions is measured for SOI PowerPC microprocessors. Results for 0.13 micron PowerPC with 1.1V core voltages increases over 1.3V versions. This suggests that improvement in SEU for scaled devices may be reversed. In recent years there has been interest in the possible use of unhardened commercial microprocessors in space because of their superior performance compared to hardened processors. However, unhardened devices are susceptible to upset from radiation space. More information is needed on how they respond to radiation before they can be used in space. Only a limited number of advanced microprocessors have been subjected to radiation tests, which are designed with lower clock frequencies and higher internal core voltage voltages than recent devices [1-6]. However the trend for commercial Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessors is to reduce feature size and internal core voltage and increase the clock frequency. Commercial microprocessors with the PowerPC architecture are now available that use partially depleted SOI processes with feature size of 90 nm and internal core voltage as low as 1.0 V and clock frequency in the GHz range. Previously, we reported SEU measurements for SOI commercial PowerPCs with feature size of 0.18 and 0.13 m [7, 8]. The results showed an order of magnitude reduction in saturated cross section compared to CMOS bulk counterparts. This paper examines SEUs in advanced commercial SOI microprocessors, focusing on SEU sensitivity of D-Cache and hangs with feature size and internal core voltage. Results are presented for the Motorola SOI processor with feature sizes of 0.13 microns and internal core voltages of 1.3 and 1.1 V. These results are compared with results for the Motorola SOI processors with feature size of 0.18 microns and internal core voltage of 1.6 and 1.3 V.

Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; Kouba, Coy K.

2006-01-01

112

Mountain Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about processes that affect the shape of mountains. While determining the relative age of mountains involves a variety of complex interacting factors, this probe is designed to determine if students consider weathering factors or if they intuitively believe taller mountains are older.

Eberle, Francis; Farrin, Lynn; Keeley, Page

2005-01-01

113

Growth performance of disk abalone Haliotis discus hannai in pilot- and commercial-scale recirculating aquaculture systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the growth performance of abalone from juvenile to marketable size in a commercial-scale recirculating\\u000a aquaculture system. The rearing system consisted of 12 raceways (4.0 × 0.8 × 0.6 m) with a protein skimmer and a submerged\\u000a biofilter for juveniles and 10 raceways (6.6 × 1.3 × 0.6 m) with a protein skimmer and a trickling biofilter for on-growing.\\u000a Sea mustard (Undaria pinnatifida) and kelp (Laminaria japonica) were

Pyong-Kih Kim; Jae-Yoon Jo

2008-01-01

114

Hydrological and Geomorphological impacts of land cover changes at different spatial scales. An introduction to ecosystem services from Mediterranean mountainous landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristic of the Mediterranean mountainous areas is the dramatic land use/land cover change that has significant hydrological and geomorphic consequences regardless of the scale considered. At the end of the 19th Century, depopulation and the modernization of the agricultural systems resulted in a generalized farmland abandonment in the hillslopes (both sloping and bench terraced fields, and shifting agriculture fields), and a reduction in livestock numbers, leading to a complex process of plant re-colonization, depending on soil characteristics, climate and the pre- and post-management of the hillslopes. The primary consequences are evident at the plot scale, where plant re-colonization has caused a rapid decrease in overland flow and soil loss. At the catchment scale, a decrease in sediment sources and channel incision in the secondary streams have been detected. At the regional scale, forests and shrubs cover a large part of the territory, where fifty or eighty years ago the cereal fields and communities of open shrubs prevailed on steep slopes. The most relevant consequences include the progressive lowering in the discharge of rivers, the lower sediment silting in the reservoirs (what increases the useful life of such infrastructures), the improvement of the water quality in the rivers, the decrease in the frequency of the most frequent floods, and changes in channel morphology, with, in general, the enlargement of riparian forests. Moreover, plant re-colonization results in a large homogeneous expansion of forests, favouring the risk of wildfires and a lowering of livestock production. All these processes occurring in the mountain areas have a great impact on the lowlands, where urban, industrial and irrigated areas, as well as tourist resorts are growing. The spatial interactions among land use and runoff generation, soil erosion, sediment yield and fluvial channel dynamics are complex and highlight the need of land management strategies with a multiscalar approach.

García-Ruiz, J. M.; Lana-Renault, N.

2012-04-01

115

Technology Scaling Trends and Accelerated Testing for Soft Errors in Commercial Silicon Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. We consider the soft error sensitivity trends to various memory and logic components as they are scaled to smaller dimensions, higher integration densities, and lower operating voltages. We also review the three radiation mechanisms responsible for soft errors in the terrestrial environment and discuss the methods for characterizing radiation sensitivity and methods for extrapolating product soft

Robert Baumann

2003-01-01

116

Radiation Tests of Highly Scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories - Update 2012  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space radiation environment poses a certain risk to all electronic components on Earth-orbiting and planetary mission spacecraft. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of high-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories in space because of ever-increasing data volumes and strict power requirements. They are used in a wide variety of spacecraft subsystems. At one end of the spectrum, flash memories are used to store small amounts of mission-critical data such as boot code or configuration files and, at the other end, they are used to construct multi-gigabyte data recorders that record mission science data. This report examines single-event effect (SEE) and total ionizing dose (TID) response in single-level cell (SLC) 32-Gb, multi-level cell (MLC) 64-Gb, and Triple-level (TLC) 64-Gb NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology with feature size of 25 nm.

Irom, Farokh; Allen, Gregory R.

2012-01-01

117

Circulating regeneration and resource recovery of flue gas desulfurization residuals using a membrane electroreactor: from lab concept to commercial scale.  

PubMed

Desulfurization residuals (using NaOH sorbent) were regenerated electrochemically, and at the same time sulfur in the flue gas was recovered as H(2)SO(4) and H(2) was produced as a clean energy. Since industrialization should always be the final goal to pursue for lab technologies and the evolution of pilot- and full-scale commercial reactors has taken place relatively slowly, this paper is aimed to develop an electroreactor on a sufficiently large scale to evaluate the application potential of the proposed regeneration process. The following key design parameters are discussed: (1) voltage distributions over electrode, membrane, and electrolyte; and (2) scaling up correlation based on lab-scale reactor operation parameters. Thereafter, in the developed reactor, the desulfurization residuals using NaOH sorbent from a semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) facility of a power plant in Shandong Province were regenerated and it is significant to note that the electrochemical efficiency of the designed reactor is comparable to that of the chlor-alkali industry, showing that the technology is environmentally friendly and economically feasible. If this technology is to be employed for FGD, the facility could be a profit-generating manufacturing part instead of a currently money-consuming burden for the plants. PMID:22974141

Yang, Chenglei; Hu, Ying; Cao, Limei; Yang, Ji

2012-10-16

118

Single-event upset in highly scaled commercial silicon-on-insulator PowerPc microprocessors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single event upset effects from heavy ions are measured for Motorola and IBM silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessors with different feature sizes, and core voltages. The results are compared with results for similar devices with build substrates. The cross sections of the SOI processors are lower than their bulk counterparts, but the threshold is about the same, even though the charge collections depth is more than an order of magnitude smaller in the SOI devices. The scaling of the cross section with reduction of feature size and core voltage dependence for SOI microprocessors discussed.

Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad H.

2004-01-01

119

Scaling the Problem: How Commercial Interests Have Influenced the U.S. Dialogue on Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, corporations and their affiliates have played an increasing role in the national conversation on climate change, with companies weighing in not only on policy debates but also participating in discussions around climate science. A few of these companies in particular have been tremendously influential in dictating how the public understands, or misunderstands, climate science and how the national discourse on climate policy has progressed, or not progressed. To better understand this corporate involvement, we explored the roles that major corporate actors have played during a key time period in 2009 and 2010 when several important climate change policy proposals were being actively debated in the United States. Analyzing multiple venues in which companies engaged in discussion of climate change with different audiences—including the government, shareholders, and the public—we assess the degree to which commercial interests have helped or hindered a science-based public discourse on climate policy in the past decade. Discussion will focus especially on corporations' use of third party organizations, including industry trade groups, think tanks, and others, to exert influence on climate-related policy without accountability.

Goldman, G. T.; Rogerson, P.

2012-12-01

120

[Simulation of temporal-spatial variation characteristics of surface runoff in Changbai Mountain based on process model for landscape scale].  

PubMed

The seasonal dynamics and spatial distribution characteristics of surface runoff in Changbai Mountain simulated by the process model (EPPML), and the relationships between surface runoff and environmental conditions were analyzed. The results showed that the seasonal variation of surface runoff in Changbai Mountain presented obvious three-peak pattern, i.e., the lowest values in June and September, peak values in August (2.58 mm.d-1), similar to that of soil water content. Total trend of surface runoff for different vegetations in the growing season was in order of grass and shrub > coniferous forest > broad-leaved forest > mixed broad-leaved and Korean pine forest, highly correlated to LAI. Annual surface runoff in 1995 was estimated to be 0.203 m.yr.-1, mostly ranging from 0.0 to 0.246.m.yr.-1, accounting for 69.3%. The trend of spatially increasing annual surface runoff along with increasing altitude was obvious. The maximum annual surface runoff appeared in alpine grass (0.619 m.yr.-1), minimum in mixed broad-leaved and Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest (0.081 m.yr.-1), others being alpine tundra, Betula ermanii forest, meadow, shrub, mixed spruce (Picea asperata) and fir (Abies nephrolepis) forest, Changbai larch (Larix olgensis) forest and broad-leaved forest. Vegetation and environmental conditions controlled the main trend of the spatial distribution of annual surface runoff in Changbai Mountain. There was very strong negative exponential correlativity between annual surface runoff and LAI (R2 = 0.857). The more LAI, the more literfall, the more precipitation intercepted by litter, thus, the less surface runoff. Annual surface runoff was highly negatively correlated with air temperature and total solar radiation (R2 being 0.965 and 0.836 respectively), however, it was highly positively correlated with precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed (R2 being more than 0.950). And annual surface runoff was also strongly correlated to soil characteristics. PMID:12924112

Zhang, Na; Yu, Guirui; Yu, Zhenliang; Zhao, Shidong

2003-05-01

121

Comparing current and desired ecological conditions at a landscape scale in the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains, USA.  

SciTech Connect

We applied a landscape conservation approach that quantifies current and desired ecological conditions for 10680 km2 of diverse forests in the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains of Tennessee and Kentucky. In this case study, forest cover was classified using Landsat TM imagery and evaluated with forest inventory data. Landform forest associations were characterized by combining forest cover, physiographic descriptions of remnant and historical forests, and forest structure and composition from the inventory data. These landform forest associations estimate current forest conditions and, in comparison with a projection of potential natural forest conditions, indicated that upland deciduous forests in the Plateau have the greatest reduction in cover, particularly in small private ownerships. Although of similar composition, upland deciduous forests in the Plateau also possessed younger stands with smaller trees than observed from potential old-growth conditions. These results provide scientific guidance for transitioning these forests toward desired ecological conditions through regional conservation initiatives.

Druckenbrod, Dr. Daniel L. [Longwood University; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Olsen, Lisa M [ORNL

2007-01-01

122

Landscape-scale geospatial research utilizing low elevation aerial photography generated with commercial unmanned aerial systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the ability to generate on demand high-resolution imagery across landscapes, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are increasingly become the tools of choice for geospatial researchers. At CSULB, we have implemented a number of aerial systems in order to conduct archaeological, vegetation and terrain analyses. The platforms include the commercially available X100 by Gatewing, a hobby based aircraft, kites, and tethered blimps. From our experience, each platform has advantages and disadvantages n applicability int eh field and derived imagery. The X100, though comparatively more costly, produces images with excellent coverage of areas of interest and can fly in a wide range of weather conditions. The hobby plane solutions are low-cost and flexible in their configuration but their relative lightweight makes them difficult to fly in windy conditions and the sets of images produced can widely vary. The tethered blimp has a large payload and can fly under many conditions but its ability to systematically cover large areas is very limited. Kites are extremely low-cost but have similar limitations to blimps for area coverage and limited payload capabilities. Overall, we have found the greatest return for our investment from the Gatewing X100, despite its relatively higher cost, due to the quality of the images produced. Developments in autopilots, however, may improve the hobby aircraft solution and allow X100 like products to be produced in the near future. Results of imagery and derived products from these UAS missions will be presented and evaluated. Assessment of the viability of these UAS-products will inform the research community of their applicability to a range of applications, and if viable, could provide a lower cost alternative to other image acquisition methods.

Lipo, C. P.; Lee, C.; Wechsler, S.

2012-12-01

123

Scaling and Optimization of Magnetic Refrigeration for Commercial Building HVAC Systems Greater than 175 kW in Capacity  

SciTech Connect

Heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVACR) account for approximately one- third of building energy consumption. Magnetic refrigeration presents an opportunity for significant energy savings and emissions reduction for serving the building heating, cooling, and refrigeration loads. In this paper, we have examined the magnet and MCE material requirements for scaling magnetic refrigeration systems for commercial building cooling applications. Scaling relationships governing the resources required for magnetic refrigeration systems have been developed. As system refrigeration capacity increases, the use of superconducting magnet systems becomes more applicable, and a comparison is presented of system requirements for permanent and superconducting (SC) magnetization systems. Included in this analysis is an investigation of the ability of superconducting magnet based systems to overcome the parasitic power penalty of the cryocooler used to keep SC windings at cryogenic temperatures. Scaling relationships were used to develop the initial specification for a SC magnet-based active magnetic regeneration (AMR) system. An optimized superconducting magnet was designed to support this system. In this analysis, we show that the SC magnet system consisting of two 0.38 m3 regenerators is capable of producing 285 kW of cooling power with a T of 28 K. A system COP of 4.02 including cryocooler and fan losses which illustrates that an SC magnet-based system can operate with efficiency comparable to traditional systems and deliver large cooling powers of 285.4 kW (81.2 Tons).

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; West, David L [ORNL] [ORNL; Mallow, Anne M [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01

124

Mountain research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The newly incorporated International Mountain Society (IMS) will in May begin publication of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, Mountain Research and Development. The quarterly will be copublished with the United National University; additional support will come from UNESCO.A primary objective of IMS is to ‘help solve mountain land-use problems by developing a foundation of scientific and technical knowledge on which to base management decisions,’ according to Jack D. Ives, president of the Boulder-based organization. ‘The Society is strongly committed to the belief that a rational worldwide approach to mountain problems must involve a wide range of disciplines in the natural and human sciences, medicine, architecture, engineering, and technology.’

125

THE NATURE OF MOUNTAIN GEOMORPHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A century of study suggests many common characteristics in the geomorphic nature of high mountain areas. These include important structural influences in the landscape, usually on a variety of spatial scales; and contrasting climatic conditions (often confounded with vegetation distributions) which also exhibit a wide spatial variability. Most high mountain terrain also shows evidence of ancient erosion surfaces as well

NEL CAINE

1984-01-01

126

Tourism and Commercial Recreation Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies  

E-print Network

Tourism and Commercial Recreation Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies Green Mountain and the commercial recreation enterprise as elements of the leisure services delivery system. Topical areas include

Brown, Gregory G.

127

Implementing high-temperature short-time media treatment in commercial-scale cell culture manufacturing processes.  

PubMed

The production of therapeutic proteins by mammalian cell culture is complex and sets high requirements for process, facility, and equipment design, as well as rigorous regulatory and quality standards. One particular point of concern and significant risk to supply chain is the susceptibility to contamination such as bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, and viruses. Several technologies have been developed to create barriers for these agents to enter the process, e.g. filtration, UV inactivation, and temperature inactivation. However, if not implemented during development of the manufacturing process, these types of process changes can have significant impact on process performance if not managed appropriately. This article describes the implementation of the high-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment of cell culture media as an additional safety barrier against adventitious agents during the transfer of a large-scale commercial cell culture manufacturing process. The necessary steps and experiments, as well as subsequent results during qualification runs and routine manufacturing, are shown. PMID:24362912

Pohlscheidt, Michael; Charaniya, Salim; Kulenovic, Fikret; Corrales, Mahalia; Shiratori, Masaru; Bourret, Justin; Meier, Steven; Fallon, Eric; Kiss, Robert

2014-04-01

128

Measures for minimizing radiation hazardous to the environment in the advent of large-scale space commercialization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of hazardous effects from radio-frequency (RF), light, infrared, and nuclear radiation on human and other biological species in the advent of large-scale space commercialization is considered. Attention is focused on RF/microwave radiation from earth antennas and domestic picture phone communication links, exposure to microwave radiation from space solar-power satellites, and the continuous transmission of information from spacecraft as well as laser radiation from space. Measures for preventing and/or reducing these effects are suggested, including the use of interlocks for cutting off radiation toward ground, off-pointing microwave energy beams in cases of altitude failure, limiting the satellite off-axis gain data-rate product, the use of reflective materials on buildings and in personnel clothing to protect from space-borne lasers, and underwater colonies in cases of high-power lasers. For nuclear-power satellites, deposition in stable points in the solar system is proposed.

Murthy, S. Nataraja

129

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHTM) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOIYM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, comments from the DOE on the Topical Report "Economic Analysis - LPMEOHTM Process as an Add-on to IGCC for Coproduction" were received. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing for the coproduction of dimethyl ether (DIME) and methanol was made. DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed. A recommendation document summarizing catalyst targets, experimental results, and the corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst was issued on 30 June 1997. The off-site, product-use test plan was updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Acurex Environmental Corporation and Air Products screened proposals for this task by the likelihood of the projects to proceed and the timing for the initial methanol requirement. Eight sites from the list have met these criteria. The formal submission of the eight projects for review and concurrence by the DOE will be made during the next reporting period. The site paving and final painting were completed in May of 1997. Start-up activities were completed during the reporting period, and the initial methanol production from the demonstration unit occurred on 02 April 1997. The first extended stable operation at the nameplate capacity of 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day) took place on 06 April 1997. Pressure drop and resistance coefficient across the gas sparger at the bottom of the reactor increased over this initial operating period. The demonstration unit was shut down from 08 May -17 June 1997 as part of a scheduled complex outage for the Kingsport site. During this outage, the gas sparger was removed, cleaned, and reinstalled. After completion of other maintenance activities, the demonstration unit was restarted, and maintained stable operation through the remainder of the reporting period. Again, the gas sparger showed an increase in pressure drop and resistance since the restart, although not as rapidly as during the April-May operation. Fresh oil was introduced online for the first time to a new flush connection on the gas inlet line to the reactov the flush lowered the pressure drop by 1 psi. However, the effects were temporary, and the sparger resistance coefficient continued to increase. Additional flushing with both fresh oil and entrained slurry recovered in the cyclone and secondary oil knock-out drum will be attempted in order to stabilize the sparger resistance coefficient.

None

1997-06-30

130

Field-scale mobility and persistence of commercial and stargh-encapusulated atrazine and alachlor  

SciTech Connect

Recent laboratory studies have shown that starch-encapsulation (SE) may reduce leachate losses of certain pesticides. This study compares field-scale mobility and persistence of SE-atrazine [2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine] and alachlor [2-chloro-N(2,6 diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl)acetamide] to that of a commerciall formulation (CF) of atrazine and alachlor. The research site consisted of four (0.25 ha) fields. Two fields were under no-tillage management (NT) and two were under conventional tillage (CT). One field in each tillage system received SE-formulated atritzine and alachlor, while the others received CF-atrazine and alachlor. Chemical movement and persistence was determined by analysis of surface samples ({approximately}3 cm) taken immediately after application and 1.1-m soil cores collected seven times over 2 yr. No significant difference in herbicide residue levels was observed between NT and CT, but there was a herbicide formulation effect. Soil residue analysis suggests that SE-atrazine was more persistent and less mobile than CF-atrazine. Starch- encapsulated-alachlor was slightly more persistent than CF-alachlor, but no differences in mobility between formulations was observed. The differential field behavior between SE-herbicides is attributed to the faster release of alachlor from the starch granules. Increased atrazine persistence was attributed to the reduction of leachate losses. The reduction in atrazine leaching is likely due to the slow release from the starch granules and subsequent diffusion into the son matrix where it is less subject to preferential flow processes. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Gish, T.J.; Shirmohammadi, A.; Wienhold, B.J. [USDA-ARS Hydrology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States)

1994-03-01

131

Seasonal snowpack characteristics influence soil temperature and water content at multiple scales in interior western U.S. mountain ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

snowpacks directly and indirectly influence soil temperature (Tsoil) and soil water content (?). Vegetation, soil organisms, and associated biogeochemical processes certainly respond to snowpack-related variability in the soil biophysical environment, but there is currently a poor understanding of how snow-soil interactions vary in time and across the mountain landscape. Using data from a network of automated snowpack monitoring stations in the interior western U.S., we quantified seasonal and landscape patterns in Tsoil and ?, and their dependence on snowpack characteristics over an eleven year period. Elevation gradients in Tsoil were absent beneath winter snowpacks, despite large gradients in air temperature (Tair). Winter Tsoil was warmer and less variable than Tair, but interannual and across-site variations in Tsoil were likely large enough to impact biogeochemical processes. Winter ? varied between years and across sites, but during a given winter at a site it changed little between the start of snowpack accumulation and the initiation of spring snowmelt. Winter Tsoil and ? were both higher when early winter snow accumulation was greater. Summer ? was lower when summer Tair was high. Depending on the site and the year examined, summer ? was higher when there was greater summer precipitation, a larger snowpack, later snowpack melt, or a combination of these factors. We found that snowpack-related variability in the soil environment was of sufficient magnitude to influence biogeochemical processes in snow-dominated ecosystems.

Maurer, Gregory E.; Bowling, David R.

2014-06-01

132

Patterns of snow, deposition, and soil nutrients at multiple spatial scales at a Rocky Mountain tree line ecotone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forest-alpine tundra ecotone in the Front Range of Colorado typically occurs as a gradual transition from the treeless tundra to the closed canopy coniferous subalpine forest. We evaluated the patterns of snow, deposition inputs, and soil properties at three spatial scales: across the entire ecotone, with distance from tree limit in the transitional krummholz zone, and around individual trees. Snow depth was deepest in the krummholz zone and lowest in the alpine tundra and upwind of trees near tree limit, but was not predictive of most soil properties except for surface litter decomposition. Inorganic deposition ranged from 0.7 to 7.7 g m-2 yr-1 across the ecotone and tended to be higher downwind than upwind of trees. The exchangeable acid cation concentrations were significantly higher in the forest and increased gradually toward the tundra. The exchangeable base cations (Ca, Mg, and K) were only predictable at the scale of individual trees with greater concentrations downwind of trees. Resin bag available N was rarely predictable at any spatial scale, but was correlated among seasons. While the ecotone is in many ways a gradual transition from alpine tundra to subalpine forest, patterns observed across this vegetation gradient were often replicated on the scale of individual trees: downwind of trees was more similar to the forest, and upwind of trees was more similar to the tundra. No single spatial scale or gradient can provide uniform generalities about the amounts or fluxes of materials that determine the soil properties of this ecotone.

Liptzin, Daniel; Seastedt, Timothy R.

2009-12-01

133

Catchment-scale variation in the nitrate concentrations of groundwater seeps in the Catskill Mountains, New York, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forested headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains of New York show significant among-catchment variability in mean annual nitrate (NO3-) concentrations. Large contributions from deep groundwater with high NO3- concentrations have been invoked to explain high NO3- concentrations in stream water during the growing season. To determine whether variable contributions of groundwater could explain among-catchment differences in streamwater, we measured NO3- concentrations in 58 groundwater seeps distributed across six catchments known to have different annual average streamwater concentrations. Seeps were identified based on release from bedrock fractures and bedding planes and had consistently lower temperatures than adjacent streamwaters. Nitrate concentrations in seeps ranged from near detection limits (0.005 mg NO3--N/L) to 0.75 mg NO3--N/L. Within individual catchments, groundwater residence time does not seem to strongly affect NO3- concentrations because in three out of four catchments there were non-significant correlations between seep silica (SiO2) concentrations, a proxy for residence time, and seep NO3- concentrations. Across catchments, there was a significant but weak negative relationship between NO3- and SiO2 concentrations. The large range in NO3- concentrations of seeps across catchments suggests: 1) the principal process generating among-catchment differences in streamwater NO3- concentrations must influence water before it enters the groundwater flow system and 2) this process must act at large spatial scales because among-catchment variability is much greater than intra-catchment variability. Differences in the quantity of groundwater contribution to stream baseflow are not sufficient to account for differences in streamwater NO3- concentrations among catchments in the Catskill Mountains.

West, A.J.; Findlay, S.E.G.; Burns, D.A.; Weathers, K.C.; Lovett, G.M.

2001-01-01

134

Polyphase exhumation in the western Qinling Mountains, China: Rapid Early Cretaceous cooling along a lithospheric-scale tear fault and pulsed Cenozoic uplift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western sector of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt plays a key role in both Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous "Yanshanian" intracontinental tectonics and Cenozoic lateral escape triggered by India-Asia collision. The Taibai granite in the northern Qinling Mountains is located at the westernmost tip of a Yanshanian granite belt. It consists of multiple intrusions, constrained by new Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages (156 ± 3 Ma and 124 ± 1 Ma). Applying various geochronometers (40Ar/39Ar on hornblende, biotite and K-feldspar, apatite fission-track, apatite [U-Th-Sm]/He) along a vertical profile of the Taibai Mountain refines the cooling and exhumation history. The new age constraints record the prolonged pre-Cenozoic intracontinental deformation as well as the cooling history mostly related to India-Asia collision. We detected rapid cooling for the Taibai granite from ca. 800 to 100 °C during Early Cretaceous (ca. 123 to 100 Ma) followed by a period of slow cooling from ca. 100 Ma to ca. 25 Ma, and pulsed exhumation of the low-relief Cretaceous peneplain during Cenozoic times. We interpret the Early Cretaceous rapid cooling and exhumation as a result from activity along the southern sinistral lithospheric scale tear fault of the recently postulated intracontinental subduction of the Archean/Palaeoproterozoic North China Block beneath the Alashan Block. A Late Oligocene to Early Miocene cooling phase might be triggered either by the lateral motion during India-Asia collision and/or the Pacific subduction zone. Late Miocene intensified cooling is ascribed to uplift of the Tibetan Plateau.

Heberer, Bianca; Anzenbacher, Thomas; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Dong, Yunpeng; Dunkl, István

2014-03-01

135

Testing space-scale methodologies for automatic geomorphic feature extraction from lidar in a complex mountainous landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of digital elevation data (?3 m resolution) calls for the development of new algorithms for the objective extraction of geomorphic features, such as channel networks, channel heads, bank geometry, landslide scars, and service roads. In this work, we test the performance of two newly developed algorithms for the extraction of geomorphic features: the wavelet-based extraction methodology developed by Lashermes et al. (2007) and the GeoNet nonlinear diffusion and geodesic paths methodology proposed by Passalacqua et al. (2010). The study area is part of the Rio Cordon basin, a headwater alpine catchment located in the Dolomites, a mountainous region in the eastern Italian Alps. The aim of this work is to compare the capability of the two new algorithms in extracting the channel network and capturing channel heads, relevant channel disruptions corresponding to landslides, and representative channel cross sections. The extracted channel networks are also compared to the ones obtained using classical methodologies on the basis of an area threshold and an area-slope threshold. A high-resolution digital terrain model of 1 m served as the basis for such analysis. The results suggest that, although the wavelet-based methodology performs well in the channel network extraction and is able to detect channel heads and channel disruptions, the local nonlinear filter together with the global geodesic optimization used in GeoNet is more robust and computationally efficient while achieving better localization and extraction of features, especially in areas where gentle slopes prevail. We conclude that these new methodologies should be considered as valid alternatives to classical methodologies for channel network extraction from lidar, in addition to offering the potential for calibration-free channel source identification and also extraction of additional features of interest.

Passalacqua, Paola; Tarolli, Paolo; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

2010-11-01

136

Forecasting Distributional Responses of Limber Pine to Climate Change at Management-Relevant Scales in Rocky Mountain National Park  

PubMed Central

Resource managers at parks and other protected areas are increasingly expected to factor climate change explicitly into their decision making frameworks. However, most protected areas are small relative to the geographic ranges of species being managed, so forecasts need to consider local adaptation and community dynamics that are correlated with climate and affect distributions inside protected area boundaries. Additionally, niche theory suggests that species' physiological capacities to respond to climate change may be underestimated when forecasts fail to consider the full breadth of climates occupied by the species rangewide. Here, using correlative species distribution models that contrast estimates of climatic sensitivity inferred from the two spatial extents, we quantify the response of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) to climate change in Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado, USA). Models are trained locally within the park where limber pine is the community dominant tree species, a distinct structural-compositional vegetation class of interest to managers, and also rangewide, as suggested by niche theory. Model forecasts through 2100 under two representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5 W/m2) show that the distribution of limber pine in the park is expected to move upslope in elevation, but changes in total and core patch area remain highly uncertain. Most of this uncertainty is biological, as magnitudes of projected change are considerably more variable between the two spatial extents used in model training than they are between RCPs, and novel future climates only affect local model predictions associated with RCP 8.5 after 2091. Combined, these results illustrate the importance of accounting for unknowns in species' climatic sensitivities when forecasting distributional scenarios that are used to inform management decisions. We discuss how our results for limber pine may be interpreted in the context of climate change vulnerability and used to help guide adaptive management. PMID:24391742

Monahan, William B.; Cook, Tammy; Melton, Forrest; Connor, Jeff; Bobowski, Ben

2013-01-01

137

Coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical analyses of the YuccaMountain Drift Scale Test - Comparison of field measurements topredictions of four different numerical models  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test (DST) is a multiyear, large-scale underground heater test designed to study coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical behavior in unsaturated fractured and welded tuff. As part of the international cooperative code-comparison project DECOVALEX, four research teams used four different numerical models to simulate and predict coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes at the DST. The simulated processes included above-boiling temperature changes, liquid and vapor water movements, rock-mass stress and displacement, and THM-induced changes in fracture permeability. Model predictions were evaluated by comparison to measurements of temperature, water saturation,displacement, and air permeability. The generally good agreement between simulated and measured THM data shows that adopted continuum model approaches are adequate for simulating relevant coupled THM processes at the DST. Moreover, TM-induced rock-mass deformations were reasonably well predicted using elastic models, although some individual displacements appeared to be better captured using an elasto-plastic model. It is concluded that fracture closure/opening caused by change in normal stress across fractures is the dominant mechanism for TM-induced changes in intrinsic fracture permeability at the DST, whereas fracture shear dilation appears to be less significant. This indicates that TM-induced changes in intrinsic permeability at the DST, which are within one order of magnitude, tend to be reversible.

Rutqvist, J.; Barr, D.; Datta, R.; Gens, A.; Millard, A.; Olivella, S.; Tsang, C.-F.; Tsang, Y.

2004-08-30

138

Patterns of snow, deposition, and soil nutrients at multiple spatial scales at a Rocky Mountain tree line ecotone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forest-alpine tundra ecotone in the Front Range of Colorado typically occurs as a gradual transition from the treeless tundra to the closed canopy coniferous subalpine forest. We evaluated the patterns of snow, deposition inputs, and soil properties at three spatial scales: across the entire ecotone, with distance from tree limit in the transitional krummholz zone, and around individual trees.

Daniel Liptzin; Timothy R. Seastedt

2009-01-01

139

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

140

Spatial heterogeneity in ecologically important climate variables at coarse and fine scales in a high-snow mountain landscape.  

PubMed

Climate plays an important role in determining the geographic ranges of species. With rapid climate change expected in the coming decades, ecologists have predicted that species ranges will shift large distances in elevation and latitude. However, most range shift assessments are based on coarse-scale climate models that ignore fine-scale heterogeneity and could fail to capture important range shift dynamics. Moreover, if climate varies dramatically over short distances, some populations of certain species may only need to migrate tens of meters between microhabitats to track their climate as opposed to hundreds of meters upward or hundreds of kilometers poleward. To address these issues, we measured climate variables that are likely important determinants of plant species distributions and abundances (snow disappearance date and soil temperature) at coarse and fine scales at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington State, USA. Coarse-scale differences across the landscape such as large changes in elevation had expected effects on climatic variables, with later snow disappearance dates and lower temperatures at higher elevations. However, locations separated by small distances (?20 m), but differing by vegetation structure or topographic position, often experienced differences in snow disappearance date and soil temperature as great as locations separated by large distances (>1 km). Tree canopy gaps and topographic depressions experienced later snow disappearance dates than corresponding locations under intact canopy and on ridges. Additionally, locations under vegetation and on topographic ridges experienced lower maximum and higher minimum soil temperatures. The large differences in climate we observed over small distances will likely lead to complex range shift dynamics and could buffer species from the negative effects of climate change. PMID:23762277

Ford, Kevin R; Ettinger, Ailene K; Lundquist, Jessica D; Raleigh, Mark S; Hille Ris Lambers, Janneke

2013-01-01

141

Multi-scale responses of vegetation to removal of horse grazing from Great Basin (USA) mountain ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although free-roaming equids occur on all of the world’s continents except Antarctica, very few studies (and none in the Great\\u000a Basin, USA) have either investigated their grazing effects on vegetation at more than one spatial scale or compared characteristics\\u000a of areas from which grazing has been removed to those of currently grazed areas. We compared characteristics of vegetation\\u000a at 19

Erik A. Beever; Robin J. Tausch; Wayne E. Thogmartin

2008-01-01

142

Spatial Heterogeneity in Ecologically Important Climate Variables at Coarse and Fine Scales in a High-Snow Mountain Landscape  

PubMed Central

Climate plays an important role in determining the geographic ranges of species. With rapid climate change expected in the coming decades, ecologists have predicted that species ranges will shift large distances in elevation and latitude. However, most range shift assessments are based on coarse-scale climate models that ignore fine-scale heterogeneity and could fail to capture important range shift dynamics. Moreover, if climate varies dramatically over short distances, some populations of certain species may only need to migrate tens of meters between microhabitats to track their climate as opposed to hundreds of meters upward or hundreds of kilometers poleward. To address these issues, we measured climate variables that are likely important determinants of plant species distributions and abundances (snow disappearance date and soil temperature) at coarse and fine scales at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington State, USA. Coarse-scale differences across the landscape such as large changes in elevation had expected effects on climatic variables, with later snow disappearance dates and lower temperatures at higher elevations. However, locations separated by small distances (?20 m), but differing by vegetation structure or topographic position, often experienced differences in snow disappearance date and soil temperature as great as locations separated by large distances (>1 km). Tree canopy gaps and topographic depressions experienced later snow disappearance dates than corresponding locations under intact canopy and on ridges. Additionally, locations under vegetation and on topographic ridges experienced lower maximum and higher minimum soil temperatures. The large differences in climate we observed over small distances will likely lead to complex range shift dynamics and could buffer species from the negative effects of climate change. PMID:23762277

Ford, Kevin R.; Ettinger, Ailene K.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Raleigh, Mark S.; Hille Ris Lambers, Janneke

2013-01-01

143

Stone Mountain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

2004-01-01

144

Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers several sets of questions for students to answer about where mountain ranges are located and why they are where they are. Many of the questions have links to more information and/or images. Questions address the role of plate tectonics in the process of mountain building. A computer isn't necessary to answer the questions, but is highly recommended so that the students can use the links provided. These questions require some prior knowledge of the content.

145

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive resource students slide a bar across the screen and view the steps in the water cycle as a water-laden air mass hits a mountain range. They see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the mountain, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air.

146

Commercial-Scale Performance Predictions for High-Temperature Electrolysis Plants Coupled to Three Advanced Reactor Types  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of system analyses that have been developed to assess the hydrogen production performance of commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plants driven by three different advanced reactor – power-cycle combinations: a high-temperature helium cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle, a supercritical CO2-cooled reactor coupled to a direct recompression cycle, and a sodium-cooled fast reactor coupled to a Rankine cycle. The system analyses were performed using UniSim software. The work described in this report represents a refinement of previous analyses in that the process flow diagrams include realistic representations of the three advanced reactors directly coupled to the power cycles and integrated with the high-temperature electrolysis process loops. In addition, this report includes parametric studies in which the performance of each HTE concept is determined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the study indicate that overall thermal-to- hydrogen production efficiencies (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) in the 45 - 50% range can be achieved at reasonable production rates with the high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept, 42 - 44% with the supercritical CO2-cooled reactor and about 33 - 34% with the sodium-cooled reactor.

M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

2007-09-01

147

Commercial scale demonstration enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Annual report, October 1979-September 1980  

SciTech Connect

This commercial scale test, known as the M-1 Project, is located in Crawford County, Illinois. It encompasses 407 acres of Robinson sand reservoir and covers portions of several waterflood projects that were approaching economic limit. The project includes 248 acres developed on a 2.4-acre five-spot pattern and 159 acres developed on a 5.0-acre five-spot pattern. Development work commenced in late 1974 and has previously been reported. Micellar solution (slug) injection was initiated on February 10, 1977, and is now completed. After 10% of a pore volume of micellar slug was injected, injection of 11% pore volume of Dow 700 Pusher polymer was conducted at a concentration of 1156 ppM. At the end of this reporting period, 625 ppM polymer was being injected into the 2.5-acre pattern and 800 ppM polymer was being injected into the 5.0-acre pattern. The oil cut of the 2.5 and 5.0-acre patterns increased from 8.6% and 5.2%, respectively in September 1979, to 11.0% and 5.9% in September 1980. The oil cut performance has consistently exceeded that predicted for the project. This Fourth Annual Report is organized under the following three Work Breakdown Structures: fluid injection; production; and performance monitoring.

Howell, J.C.; Snyder, W.O.

1981-04-01

148

Environmental drivers of small scale spatial variation in the reproductive schedule of a commercially important bivalve mollusc.  

PubMed

Understanding variability in reproductive schedules is essential to the management of recruitment limited fisheries such as that of Pecten maximus. Small scale (<5 km) variation in gonad condition and the onset of spawning of P. maximus were found among commercial scallop grounds in Isle of Man waters. Environmental and fishing drivers of these spatial patterns were investigated using a generalised additive model. Rate of change in temperature over the month prior to sampling was identified as the short term driver of gonad weight associated with the autumn spawning event. Long term drivers were average annual chlorophyll a concentration, scallop density, stratification index and shell size. The model explained 42.8% of deviance in gonad weight. Within site variation in gonad condition was high, indicating a "bet hedging" reproductive strategy which may decrease the chance of fertilisation especially at low densities. Therefore, areas protected from fishing, where scallop densities can increase may help buffer against reproductive failure. An increase in shell length from 100 mm to 110 mm equated to an increase of approximately 20% in gonad weight. Protecting scallops from fishing mortality until 110 mm (age four) compared to 100 mm (age three) may lead to an overall increase in lifetime reproductive output by a factor of 3.4. PMID:24138797

Hold, Natalie; Murray, Lee G; Hinz, Hilmar; Neill, Simon P; Lass, Sarah; Lo, Mandy; Kaiser, Michel J

2013-12-01

149

``Strain Under Scrutiny": Multi-Scale Analysis of Deformation in Welded Block and Ash Flow Deposits, Meager Mountain, BC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2400BP eruption of Mt. Meager has produced a variety of pyroclastic deposits including pumice fall deposits, lavas, and pumiceous pyroclastic flows. The most unique and enigmatic of these is a 100m-thick, valley-filling, welded block and ash flow deposit. Pyroclasts in this deposit range in size from ~1m blocks to fine ash, but the dominant clast size ranges from 5-15cm. Clasts mainly (85-95%) comprise angular to subrounded, variably vesicular fragments of dacitic lava. The welding intensity ranges from a densely welded, vitrophyric breccia to a weakly welded or indurated deposit, to an unconsolidated deposit of blocks and ash. The variably welded aspect of the deposit provides an excellent opportunity to study the unique conditions and processes that have contributed to the welding of this pyroclastic flow. Our approach has been to collect and analyze field data from the block and ash flow deposit, with the intent of quantifying the strain accumulated during the welding process. The main dataset derives from thirteen, hand-drawn, texture maps of 1m square areas from select outcrops of the block and ash flow deposit. These textural sketch-maps have been scanned into digital images, which have been used for image analysis purposes. For each map, image analysis provides quantitative estimates of clast numbers, sizes, orientations, eccentricities, and proportions of clasts to matrix. These metrics are then used to quantify the total strain in the deposit at the map scale and explore the degree of coupling between clasts and matrix during deformation. Future work involves parallel strain analysis on scanned images of rock slabs and thin sections to investigate how strain is partitioned at these scales. Our analysis will also elucidate the extent to which strain is accommodated as: i) volume strain, as evidenced by a reduction in porosity versus ii) pure shear strain, as indicated by more flattening than can be accommodated by porosity loss alone. Further analysis at smaller scales will serve to reinforce these trends and produce more specific values of strain, as well as determine the proportions of shear to volume strain.

Michol, K. A.; Russell, J. K.

2005-12-01

150

Pre-test simulations of laboratory-scale heater experiments in tuff. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-scale heater experiments are Proposed to observe thermohydrologic Processes in tuffaceous rock using existing equipment and x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the experiments is to gain understanding of the near-field behavior and thermodynamic environment surrounding a heat source. As a prelude to these experiments, numerical simulations are performed to determine design-related parameters such as optimal heating power and heating duration. In addition, the simulations aid in identifying and understanding thermal processes and mechanisms that may occur under a variety of experimental conditions. Results of the simulations show that convection may play an important role in the heat transfer and thermodynamic environment of the heater if the Rayleigh-Darcy number exceeds a critical value (= 10 for the laboratory experiments) depending on the type of backfill material within the annulus (or drift).

Ho, Clifford K.

1995-09-01

151

Transport of Radon Gas into a Tunnel at Yucca Mountain-Estimating Large-Scale Fractured Tuff Hydraulic Properties and Implications for the Operation of the Ventilation System  

SciTech Connect

Radon gas concentrations have been monitored as part of the operation of a tunnel (the Exploratory Studies Facility-ESF) at Yucca Mountain to ensure worker safety. The objective of this study was to examine the potential use of the radon data to estimate large-scale formation properties of fractured tuffs. This objective was examined by developing a numerical model, based upon the characteristics of the ESF and the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) tuff unit, capable of predicting radon concentrations for prescribed ventilation conditions. The model was used to address two specific issues. First, it was used to estimate the permeability and porosity of the fractures in the TSw at the length scale of the ESF and extending tens of meters into the TSw, which surrounds the ESF. Second, the model was used to understand the mechanism leading to radon concentrations exceeding a specified level within the ESF. The mechanism controlling radon concentrations in the ESF is a function of atmospheric barometric fluctuations being propagated down the ESF along with ventilated air flow and the slight suction induced by the ventilation exhaust fans at the South Portal of the ESF. These pressure fluctuations are dampened in the TSw fracture continuum according to its permeability and porosity. Consequently, as the barometric pressure in the ESF drops rapidly, formation gases from the TSw are pulled into the ESF, resulting in an increase in radon concentrations. Model calibration to both radon concentrations measured in the ESF and gas-phase pressure fluctuations in the TSw yielded concurrent estimates of TSw fracture permeability and porosity of l x 10{sup -11} m{sup 2} and 0.00034, respectively. The calibrated model was then used as a design tool to predict the effect of adjusting the current ventilation-system operation strategy for reducing the probability of radon gas concentrations exceeding a specified level.

A. Unger; S. Finsterle; G. Bodvarsson

2003-06-06

152

Caucasus Mountains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Often regarded as the southeastern border of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains can be seen here stretching from the Black Sea (left) to the Caspian Sea (right). The mountain range spans 700 miles (1125 km), crossing the countries of Russian Federation, Georgia, and Azerbaijan from left to right respectively. With a snowline of approximately 11,000 feet and peaks such as Mt. Elbrus, that reach 15,000 feet, much of the snow visible in this image is present year round. Also visible in this image are apparent phytoplankton blooms in the Caspian Sea, marked by blue-green swirls.

2002-01-01

153

A multi-scale analysis of streamflow response to changes in evapotranspiration and soil hydrology in the Blue Ridge Mountains (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large amount of research exploring the relationship between watershed forest cover and streamflow quantity has been conducted in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, particularly in association with the USFS Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and the Coweeta LTER. However, a clear answer to the question ';How does changing tree cover influence runoff?' has not yet emerged for guidance of policy and management. The southern Blue Ridge is the source of water reaching much of the drought-sensitive Southeastern US, and a firmer understanding of the complexities of this issue is critical for water resources management for millions of people and diverse aquatic habitats. When this question has been explored in mesoscale systems (10s to 100s km2), results indicate that watersheds with greater forest cover have greater baseflow. Associated work has shown that hydraulic conductivities in forest soils are nearly an order of magnitude greater than lawn and pasture soils in this region. Our interpretation has been that in these mesoscale systems, the compaction of soil associated with forest conversion to other land uses has played a bigger role than related changes in evapotranspiration (ET) in shaping watershed dynamics and the overall water budget. Particular influence has been seen in baseflows, we posit, due to reduced infiltration and recharge. However, nearly a century of research in small experimental watersheds at Coweeta has shown that forest ET substantially reduces streamflows, including baseflows, when soils are not substantially altered. At this smaller scale of observations, details of forest composition and species water use variability have been thoroughly considered, while in the mesoscale studies 'forest cover' is treated as regionally uniform. Current small-scale work at Coweeta has shown that hemlock decline and subsequent replacement with other species has changed the magnitude and seasonality of ET, which is detectible in streamflow quantity and timing. Here, we attempt to resolve the seemingly conflicting results from experimental watershed and mesoscale studies, and consider the implications for even larger systems more directly linked to policy and management. A singular focus on streamflow quantities ignores broader water quality considerations related to forest management and conversion. We explore the idea that the pronounced control of precipitation variability on streamflow variability in this region confounds the inference of the relative importance of other influences, such as ET and soil hydraulics, particularly at moderate levels of disturbance. We also consider the complexities of heterogeneous land use and geomorphology, which are inevitably encountered in larger watersheds. Finally, we suggest preliminary guidance and future research approaches to provide information to policy and management on the sensitivity of various systems to forest removal or species conversion, across a range of spatial scales.

Price, K.; Jackson, C. R.

2013-12-01

154

Coupled soil respiration and transpiration dynamics from tree-scale to catchment scale in dry Rocky Mountain pine forests and the role of snowpack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current ecohydrological challenge is quantifying the exact nature of carbon (C) and water couplings across landscapes. An emerging framework of understanding places plant physiological processes as a central control over soil respiration, the largest source of CO2 to the atmosphere. In dry montane forests, spatial and temporal variability in forest physiological processes are governed by hydrological patterns. Critical feedbacks involving respiration, moisture supply and tree physiology are poorly understood and must be quantified at the landscape level to better predict carbon cycle implications of regional drought under future climate change. We present data from an experiment designed to capture landscape variability in key coupled hydrological and C processes in forests of Colorado's Front Range. Sites encompass three catchments within the Boulder Creek watershed, range from 1480 m to 3021 m above sea level and are co-located with the DOE Niwot Ridge Ameriflux site and the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory. Key hydrological measurements (soil moisture, transpiration) are coupled with soil respiration measurements within each catchment at different landscape positions. This three-dimensional study design also allows for the examination of the role of water subsidies from uplands to lowlands in controlling respiration. Initial findings from 2012 reveal a moisture threshold response of the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature. This threshold may derive from tree physiological responses to variation in moisture availability, which in turn is controlled by the persistence of snowpack. Using data collected in 2013, first, we determine whether respiration moisture thresholds represent triggers for transpiration at the individual tree level. Next, using stable isotope ratios of soil respiration and xylem and soil water, we compare the depths of respiration to depths of water uptake to assign tree vs. understory sources of respiration. This will help determine whether tree root-zone respiration exhibits a similar moisture threshold. Lastly, we examine whether moisture thresholds to temperature sensitivity are consistent across a range of snowpack persistence. Findings are compared to data collected from sites in Arizona and New Mexico to better establish the role of winter precipitation in governing growing season respiration rates. The outcome of this study will contribute to a better understanding of linkages among water, tree physiology, and soil respiration with the ultimate goal of scaling plot-level respiration fluxes to entire catchments.

Berryman, E.; Barnard, H. R.; Brooks, P. D.; Adams, H.; Burns, M. A.; Wilson, W.; Stielstra, C. M.

2013-12-01

155

Appalachian Mountains  

... (nadir) view of the eastern United States, stretching from Lake Ontario to northern Georgia, and spanning the Appalachian Mountains. The ... MISR uses this multi-angle technique to monitor particulate pollution and to distinguish different types of haze. These observations reveal ...

2014-05-15

156

Mountain Sickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HAVE just come back from a journey in the region of the Andes, and in looking over the numbers of NATURE, which had accumulated during my absence, I came across the extract, which you make in your notes of February 21, from the Revue Scientifique, on the subject of mountain sickness. I cannot agree with M. Kronecker's statement that

George Griffith

1895-01-01

157

Submergence of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) in commercial scale sea-cages: A potential short-term solution to poor surface conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submergence of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in commercial scale sea-cages (1600–2000 m3) affected their behaviour, but did not alter growth rates, food conversion ratios, appetite, condition factor or fin condition in comparison with control cages held under similar environmental conditions. Four sea-cages each held 3300–4200 Atlantic salmon of 0.45 kg; two cages acted as controls, while two were submerged for 22 days

Tim Dempster; Øyvind Korsøen; Ole Folkedal; Jon-Erik Juell; Frode Oppedal

2009-01-01

158

Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of a series of lessons in a continuing study of change. It is designed to give students hands-on experience manipulating and controlling the variables involved in the process of soil erosion. They will be able to identify variables that influence rates of change and use group consensus to design and build what they believe to be the strongest mountain possible.

1998-01-01

159

Mountains: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the lessons from "Mountain: A Global Resource" that were developed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and The Mountain Institute for use by NCSS members and their students. Provides an overview that introduces the mountains, mountain cultures, historical perceptions, and the geographical importance of mountains. (CMK)

Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

1999-01-01

160

2005 Community-Scale Air Toxics Monitoring Grant Proposal Clearing the Air: Understanding Air Toxics and Carbonyl Pollutant Sources at the Urban\\/Mountain Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boulder County sits at the confluence of the pristine high alpine wilderness of the Rocky Mountains and the heavily urbanized city of Denver, Colorado, and the agricultural and intensive oil and gas activities in neighboring counties. This urban\\/rural interface creates a complex air quality environment characterized by shifting upslope and downslope conditions that can intensify air toxics in relatively pristine

Pamela Herman Milmoe; Michael Hannigan

161

Advancement in the modeling of pressure-flow for the guidance of development and scale-up of commercial-scale biopharmaceutical chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the advancements made in the modeling of open column and packed bed pressure-flow. The theoretical description is a one-dimensional elasticity model. By accounting for the loss of intra-particle porosity through empiricism, and by systematically selecting the functional form of the elastic modulus from stress–strain data, this model can accurately predict several kinds of large-scale behavior from small-scale

Ronald N. Keener; Erik J. Fernandez; James E. Maneval; Roger A. Hart

2008-01-01

162

Mountain Stage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain Stage, a famous Charleston, West Virginia, venue where folk musicians play, is broadcast on National Public Radio, and can be heard on the NPR website, simply by clicking on "Listen", next to the artist's picture and brief bio. Visitors wishing to read more about the artist's musical history can click on the name of the artist next to their picture. Included in the history is their set list for the broadcast show. Visitors can comment on each artist's show, or recommend it to other visitors, by clicking on the icons at the bottom of each brief bio on the homepage.

163

2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

164

Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.; Balsavich, J.

1992-01-01

165

Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission: Science from Geostationary Orbit on-board a Commercial Communications Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geostationary orbits are ideal for many science investigations of the Earth system on global scales. These orbits allow continuous observations of the same geographic region, enabling spatial and temporal changes to be distinguished and eliminating the ambiguity inherent to observations from low Earth orbit (LEO). Just as observations from geostationary orbit have revolutionized our understanding of changes in the troposphere, they will dramatically improve our understanding of the space environment at higher altitudes. However, geostationary orbits are infrequently used for science missions because of high costs. Geostationary satellites are large, typically weighing tons. Consequently, devoting an entire satellite to a science mission requires a large financial commitment, both for the spacecraft itself and for sufficient science instrumentation to justify a dedicated spacecraft. Furthermore, the small number of geostationary satellites produced for scientific missions increases the costs of each satellite. For these reasons, it is attractive to consider flying scientific instruments on satellites operated by commercial companies, some of whom have fleets of ~40 satellites. However, scientists' lack of understanding of the capabilities of commercial spacecraft as well as commercial companies' concerns about risks to their primary mission have impeded the cooperation necessary for the shared use of a spacecraft. Working with a commercial partner, the GOLD mission has successfully overcome these issues. Our experience indicates that there are numerous benefits to flying on commercial communications satellites (e.g., it is possible to downlink large amounts of data) and the costs are low if the experimental requirements adequately match the capabilities and available resources of the host spacecraft. Consequently, affordable access to geostationary orbit aboard a communications satellite now appears possible for science payloads.

Eastes, R.; Deaver, T.; Krywonos, A.; Lankton, M. R.; McClintock, W. E.; Pang, R.

2011-12-01

166

Two Problems in Computational Wave Dynamics: Klemp-Wilhelmson Splitting at Large Scales and Wave-Wave Instabilities in Rotating Mountain Waves  

E-print Network

parameter space spanned by the mountain iv height (Nh/U) and the Rossby number (U/fL). Steady solutions are found using a newly developed solver based on a nonlinear Newton iteration. Results from the steady solver show that the critical heights for wave.... Nonlinear effects in rotating flows . . . . . . . . . . . 59 4. Resonant wave-wave instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 B. Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 IV A NEWTON SOLVER FOR NONLINEAR WAVES WITH ROTATION...

Viner, Kevin Carl

2011-02-22

167

Scale-Up of CdTe Photovoltaic Device Processes for Commercial Application: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-196  

SciTech Connect

Through this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, NREL and PrimeStar Solar will work together to scale up the NREL CdTe photovoltaic process from the laboratory to produce photovoltaic devices in a size that is commercially viable. The work in this phase will focus on the transference of NREL CdTe device fabrication techniques to PrimeStar Solar. NREL and PrimeStar Solar will engage in a series of technical exchange meetings and laboratory training sessions to transfer the knowledge of CdTe PV film growth from NREL to PrimeStar Solar. PrimeStar Solar will grow thin films on PrimeStar Solar equipment and interleave them with NREL-grown films in an effort to develop a commercial scale process on PrimeStar Solar equipment. Select NREL film growth equipment will be upgraded either by PrimeStar Solar or at PrimeStar Solar's expense to increase equipment reliability and throughput.

Albin, D.

2013-02-01

168

From genetic improvement to commercial-scale mass culture of a Chilean strain of the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis with enhanced productivity of the red ketocarotenoid astaxanthin  

PubMed Central

Astaxanthin is a red ketocarotenoid, widely used as a natural red colourant in marine fish aquaculture and poultry and, recently, as an antioxidant supplement for humans and animals. The green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the richest natural sources of this pigment. However, its slow growth rate and complex life cycle make mass culture difficult for commercial purposes. The aims of this research were (i) to standardize and apply a genetic improvement programme to a Chilean strain of H. pluvialis in order to improve its carotenogenic capacity and (ii) to evaluate the performance of a selected mutant strain in commercial-sized (125 000 L) open ponds in the north of Chile. Haematococcus pluvialis strain 114 was mutated by ethyl methanesulfonate. The level of mutagen dose (exposure time and concentration) was one that induced at least 90 % mortality. Surviving colonies were screened for resistance to the carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor diphenylamine (25 µM). Resistant mutants were grown in a 30-mL volume for 30 days, after which the total carotenoid content was determined by spectrophotometry. Tens of mutants with improved carotenogenic capacity compared with the wild-type strain were isolated by the application of these standardized protocols. Some mutants exhibited curious morphological features such as spontaneous release of astaxanthin and loss of flagella. One of the mutants was grown outdoors in commercial-sized open ponds of 125 000 L in the north of Chile. Grown under similar conditions, the mutant strain accumulated 30 % more astaxanthin than the wild-type strain on a per dry weight basis and 72 % more on a per culture volume basis. We show that random mutagenesis/selection is an effective strategy for genetically improving strains of H. pluvialis and that improved carotenogenic capacity is maintained when the volume of the cultures is scaled up to a commercial size. PMID:23789055

Gomez, Patricia I.; Inostroza, Ingrid; Pizarro, Mario; Perez, Jorge

2013-01-01

169

Protection of the Mountain Ridgelines Utilizing GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Korean peninsula is characterized by numerous hills and mountains. The longest mountain ridgeline starting from Mt. Baekdusan to Mt. Jirisan is called Baekdudaegan which is similar to the continental divide or topographical watershed. In this study, GIS data, such as remotesensing images, national digital map, and watershed map, are used to analyze Korean mountain ridgelines structure and one Baekdudaegan data and nine Ridgelines are extracted. When extracted Baekdudaegan and other Ridgelines are overlaid on geologic maps, granite and gneiss are main components on the mountain ridgelines. The main mountain ridgelines are considered as the spiritual heritage overlapped in the land in Korea. As the environmental state is relatively better than those of other region in Korea, so many mountain ridgelines are legally protected by national legislation. The mountain ridgelines has hierarchical system; Baekdudaegan, Jeongmaek, Gimaek and Jimaek etc. according to their scale and total lengths of ridgelines. As only part of mountain ridgelines are currently protected by law or managed in environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedure, we think that most part of them should be under protection. Considering the environmental state of the ridgelines, we think that some protective measures should be set up nearby 1 km on both sides of them. If there goes a development plan or project near the main mountain ridgelines, topographical change index (TCI) and topographical scale index (TSI) etc. are to be applied in EIA. This study intends: firstly, to analyze the topological characteristics of the Korean mountain ridgelines using GIS, secondly, to analyze the geological characteristics of nearby mountain ridgelines, and lastly, to find a way to utilize the results on EIA.

Lee, S.; Lee, M.

2013-12-01

170

A practical overview and comparison of certain commercial forensic software tools for processing large-scale digital investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to show the usefulness of modern forensic software tools for processing large-scale digital investigations. In particular, we focus on the new version of Nuix 4.2 and compare it with AccessData FTK 4.2, X-Ways Forensics 16.9 and Guidance Encase Forensic 7 regarding its performance, functionality, usability and capability. We will show how these software tools work with large forensic images and how capable they are in examining complex and big data scenarios.

Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2013-05-01

171

Single-Event Upset and Scaling Trends in New Generation of the Commercial SOI PowerPC Microprocessors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single-event upset effects from heavy ions are measured for Motorola silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessor with 90 nm feature sizes. The results are compared with previous results for SOI microprocessors with feature sizes of 130 and 180 nm. The cross section of the 90 nm SOI processors is smaller than results for 130 and 180 nm counterparts, but the threshold is about the same. The scaling of the cross section with reduction of feature size and core voltage for SOI microprocessors is discussed.

Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; Kouba, Coy K.

2006-01-01

172

A Quality Assurance Initiative for Commercial-Scale Production in High-Throughput Cryopreservation of Blue Catfish Sperm  

PubMed Central

Cryopreservation of fish sperm has been studied for decades at a laboratory (research) scale. However, high-throughput cryopreservation of fish sperm has recently been developed to enable industrial-scale production. This study treated blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) sperm high-throughput cryopreservation as a manufacturing production line and initiated quality assurance plan development. The main objectives were to identify: 1) the main production quality characteristics; 2) the process features for quality assurance; 3) the internal quality characteristics and their specification designs; 4) the quality control and process capability evaluation methods, and 5) the directions for further improvements and applications. The essential product quality characteristics were identified as fertility-related characteristics. Specification design which established the tolerance levels according to demand and process constraints was performed based on these quality characteristics. Meanwhile, to ensure integrity throughout the process, internal quality characteristics (characteristics at each quality control point within process) that could affect fertility-related quality characteristics were defined with specifications. Due to the process feature of 100% inspection (quality inspection of every fish), a specific calculation method, use of cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts, was applied to monitor each quality characteristic. An index of overall process evaluation, process capacity, was analyzed based on in-control process and the designed specifications, which further integrates the quality assurance plan. With the established quality assurance plan, the process could operate stably and quality of products would be reliable. PMID:23872356

Hu, E; Liao, T. W.; Tiersch, T. R.

2013-01-01

173

Geologic Sequestration of CO2 in Deep, Unmineable Coalbeds: An Integrated Researdh and Commercial-Scale Field Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative consortium with the objective of advancing industry's understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. This will allow primary recovery, enhanced recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration operations to be commercially enhanced and/or economically deployed. The project was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coalseams. The initial project accomplished a number of important objectives, which mainly revolved around performing baseline experimental studies, documenting and analyzing existing field projects, and establishing a global network for technology exchange. The results from that Phase have been documented in a series of reports which are publicly available. An important outcome of the initial phase was that serious limitations were uncovered in our knowledge of reservoir behavior when CO{sub 2} is injected into coal. To address these limitations, the project was extended in 2005 as a government-industry collaborative consortium. Selected accomplishments from this phase have included the identification and/or development of new models for multi-component sorption and diffusion, laboratory studies of coal geomechanical and permeability behavior with CO{sub 2} injection, additional field validation studies, and continued global technology exchange. Further continuation of the consortium is currently being considered. Some of the topics that have been identified for investigation include further model development/refinement related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins, the extension of the work to gas shale reservoirs, and continued global technology exchange.

Scott Reeves; George Koperna

2008-09-30

174

Mountains and Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Completed in 2013, this portal for digital collections pertaining to mountains and mountaineering brings together thousands of images from the University of Washington Libraries. Visitors should read the narrative introduction on the homepage and then move around through the various Topics, which include The Mountaineers Activities and Early Climbing and Tourism at Mt. Rainier. This last area offers a piquant look through the history of the massive peak known simply as "the Mountain" by locals. Visitors can explore the records of the adventurous spirits who have climbed the mountain over the years, along with the papers of Dee Molenaar, a celebrated geologist and local climber. The site also includes a Resources area that includes links to mountain climbing groups and such.

2013-01-01

175

SP mountain data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

1981-01-01

176

Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

1995-09-25

177

Mammoth Mountain Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By watching this National Geographic video, you will learn about the seismic activity of Mammoth Mountain. Located in the eastern Sierra Mountains, everyday earthquakes shake the region and there are signs of an imminent volcanic eruption.

2010-01-01

178

Acute mountain sickness  

MedlinePLUS

High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

179

Large Scale Solid Phase Synthesis of Peptide Drugs: Use of Commercial Anion Exchange Resin as Quenching Agent for Removal of Iodine during Disulphide Bond Formation.  

PubMed

The S-acetamidomethyl (Acm) or trityl (Trt) protecting groups are widely used in the chemical synthesis of peptides that contain one or more disulfide bonds. Treatment of peptides containing S-Acm protecting group with iodine results in simultaneous removal of the sulfhydryl protecting group and disulfide formation. However, the excess iodine needs to be quenched or adsorbed as quickly as possible after completion of the disulfide bond formation in order to minimize side reactions that are often associated with the iodination step. We report here a simple method for simultaneous quenching and removal of iodine and isolation of disulphide bridge peptides. The use of excess inexpensive anion exchange resin to the oxidized peptide from the aqueous acetic acid/methanol solution affords quantitative removal of iodine and other color impurities. This improves the resin life time of expensive chromatography media that is used in preparative HPLC column during the purification of peptide using preparative HPLC. Further, it is very useful for the conversion of TFA salt to acetate in situ. It was successfully applied commercially, to the large scale synthesis of various peptides including Desmopressin, Oxytocin, and Octreotide. This new approach offers significant advantages such as more simple utility, minimal side reactions, large scale synthesis of peptide drugs, and greater cost effectiveness. PMID:23118772

Reddy, K M Bhaskara; Kumari, Y Bharathi; Mallikharjunasarma, Dokka; Bulliraju, Kamana; Sreelatha, Vanjivaka; Ananda, Kuppanna

2012-01-01

180

Large Scale Solid Phase Synthesis of Peptide Drugs: Use of Commercial Anion Exchange Resin as Quenching Agent for Removal of Iodine during Disulphide Bond Formation  

PubMed Central

The S-acetamidomethyl (Acm) or trityl (Trt) protecting groups are widely used in the chemical synthesis of peptides that contain one or more disulfide bonds. Treatment of peptides containing S-Acm protecting group with iodine results in simultaneous removal of the sulfhydryl protecting group and disulfide formation. However, the excess iodine needs to be quenched or adsorbed as quickly as possible after completion of the disulfide bond formation in order to minimize side reactions that are often associated with the iodination step. We report here a simple method for simultaneous quenching and removal of iodine and isolation of disulphide bridge peptides. The use of excess inexpensive anion exchange resin to the oxidized peptide from the aqueous acetic acid/methanol solution affords quantitative removal of iodine and other color impurities. This improves the resin life time of expensive chromatography media that is used in preparative HPLC column during the purification of peptide using preparative HPLC. Further, it is very useful for the conversion of TFA salt to acetate in situ. It was successfully applied commercially, to the large scale synthesis of various peptides including Desmopressin, Oxytocin, and Octreotide. This new approach offers significant advantages such as more simple utility, minimal side reactions, large scale synthesis of peptide drugs, and greater cost effectiveness. PMID:23118772

Reddy, K. M. Bhaskara; Kumari, Y. Bharathi; Mallikharjunasarma, Dokka; Bulliraju, Kamana; Sreelatha, Vanjivaka; Ananda, Kuppanna

2012-01-01

181

Geology of North Mountain in eastern West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

The North Mountain fault is one of the largest overthrusts in the folded Appalachian mountain belt and serves as the boundary between the detached Massanutten-Blue Ridge overthrust sheet (i.e. Great Valley and Blue Ridge) and Valley and Ridge fold structures in eastern West Virginia, northwestern Virginia, west-central maryland and south-central Pennsylvania. Past work has shown the sedimentary rock section on North Mountain and immediately west of the North Mountain fault to consist of an overturned sequence of Upper Ordovician to Middle Devonian strata, with a break thrust on the west side of North Mountain, placing Silurian formations against Devonian strata. Recent 1:24,000 scale mapping by the West Virginia Geological Survey has delineated this break thrust and its continuity from Maryland, through West Virginia and into Frederick County, Virginia. This previously unnamed structure, designated Back Creek fault, formed as a footwall splay from the North Mountain fault complex. The structure of North Mountain is a horse, bounded by the North Mountain fault complex in the Great Valley to the east and Back Creek fault on the west side of North Mountain. The overturned stratigraphic sequence on North Mountain reverses dip on the western flank of the mountain just east of Back Creek in Berkeley County, West Virginia, creating Back Creek syncline. This structure is a classic fault propagation fold, formed by the emplacement of North Mountain fault and extending from Maryland into Frederick County, Virginia.

Dean, S.L. (Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology); Lessing, P. (West Virginia Geological Survey, Morgantown, WV (United States)); Kulander, B.R. (Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1994-03-01

182

Warming permafrost in European mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present the first systematic measurements of European mountain permafrost temperatures from a latitudinal transect of six boreholes extending from the Alps, through Scandinavia to Svalbard. Boreholes were drilled in bedrock to depths of at least 100 m between May 1998 and September 2000. Geothermal profiles provide evidence for regional-scale secular warming, since all are nonlinear, with near-surface warm-side

Charles Harris; Daniel Vonder Mühll; Ketil Isaksen; Wilfried Haeberli; Johan Ludvig Sollid; Lorenz King; Per Holmlund; Francesco Dramis; Mauro Guglielmin; David Palacios

2003-01-01

183

POTENTAIL HABITAT MOUNTAIN PLOVERS  

E-print Network

POTENTAIL HABITAT FOR MOUNTAIN PLOVERS ON COLORADO SPRINGS UTILITIES PROPERTY A Report to Colorado Delivery Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-8002 #12;INTRODUCTION The Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus with the USFWS. According to Knopf and Miller (1994), "the Continental population of Mountain Plovers has

184

Reassessing regime shifts in the North Pacific: incremental climate change and commercial fishing are necessary for explaining decadal-scale biological variability.  

PubMed

In areas of the North Pacific that are largely free of overfishing, climate regime shifts - abrupt changes in modes of low-frequency climate variability - are seen as the dominant drivers of decadal-scale ecological variability. We assessed the ability of leading modes of climate variability [Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA), North Pacific Index (NPI), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)] to explain decadal-scale (1965-2008) patterns of climatic and biological variability across two North Pacific ecosystems (Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea). Our response variables were the first principle component (PC1) of four regional climate parameters [sea surface temperature (SST), sea level pressure (SLP), freshwater input, ice cover], and PCs 1-2 of 36 biological time series [production or abundance for populations of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), groundfish, herring (Clupea pallasii), shrimp, and jellyfish]. We found that the climate modes alone could not explain ecological variability in the study region. Both linear models (for climate PC1) and generalized additive models (for biology PC1-2) invoking only the climate modes produced residuals with significant temporal trends, indicating that the models failed to capture coherent patterns of ecological variability. However, when the residual climate trend and a time series of commercial fishery catches were used as additional candidate variables, resulting models of biology PC1-2 satisfied assumptions of independent residuals and out-performed models constructed from the climate modes alone in terms of predictive power. As measured by effect size and Akaike weights, the residual climate trend was the most important variable for explaining biology PC1 variability, and commercial catch the most important variable for biology PC2. Patterns of climate sensitivity and exploitation history for taxa strongly associated with biology PC1-2 suggest plausible mechanistic explanations for these modeling results. Our findings suggest that, even in the absence of overfishing and in areas strongly influenced by internal climate variability, climate regime shift effects can only be understood in the context of other ecosystem perturbations. PMID:23996901

Litzow, Michael A; Mueter, Franz J; Hobday, Alistair J

2014-01-01

185

The influence of industrial-scale canning on cadmium and lead levels in sardines and anchovies from commercial fishing centres of the Mediterranean Sea.  

PubMed

The current study encompassed a survey on the levels of toxic trace elements in two highly consumed fish species in commercial fishing centres of western, central and eastern Mediterranean Sea. A Zeeman GTA-AAS graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry system was used throughout the study. Toxicological evaluation of the samples revealed a low Cd content in the raw samples, ranging between 0.003 and 0.027 mg kg(-1). Pb presented significantly higher values, from 0.037 to 0.297 mg kg(-1), occasionally reaching the limit of 0.3 mg kg(-1). Heavy metal levels were particularly higher in bones, thus raising queries about the safe consumption of fish intended to be eaten as a whole, a very common practice for small fish and canned products. The influence of industrial-scale canning showed that canning enhanced heavy metal levels by 35%-80%. The effect of canning depended on metal type and reduction of moisture loss after the steam-roasting step of the canning procedure. PMID:24779699

Galitsopoulou, Augoustina; Georgantelis, Dimitrios; Kontominas, Michael

2012-01-01

186

Triclocarban, triclosan and its transformation product methyl triclosan in native earthworm species four years after a commercial-scale biosolids application.  

PubMed

Triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS) and methyl triclosan (Me-TCS) were detected in soil and the native population of earthworms of an agricultural field in Ottawa, Canada, about four years after a commercial-scale application of biosolids. In soil that received biosolids, TCC and TCS were detected at median concentrations of 13.0 and 1.5 ng/g soil (d.w.), respectively, while Me-TCS, the transformation product of triclosan, was detected at a six-fold higher median concentration than its precursor. In earthworms collected at the biosolids-amended field-plot about four years post application, Me-TCS was also detected at higher concentrations (26 to 114 ng/g tissue d.w.) than TCS (16-51 ng/g) and TCC (4-53 ng/g). These data provide evidence that not only parent compounds but also their transformation products need to be considered in faunal bioaccumulation studies. Moreover, the preliminary results for pooled earthworm samples from different ecological groups suggest that the degree of bioaccumulation of biosolids-associated contaminants may depend on the habitat and feeding behavior of the organisms. PMID:24291564

Macherius, André; Lapen, David R; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Römbke, Jörg; Topp, Edward; Coors, Anja

2014-02-15

187

Pilot Studies of Geologic and Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in the Big Sky Region, USA, and Opportunities for Commercial Scale Deployment of New Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Big Sky region, including Montana, Idaho, South Dakota, Wyoming and the Pacific Northwest, industry is developing new coal-fired power plants using the abundant coal and other fossil-based resources. Of crucial importance to future development programs are robust carbon mitigation plans that include a technical and economic assessment of regional carbon sequestration opportunities. The objective of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) is to promote the development of a regional framework and infrastructure required to validate and deploy carbon sequestration technologies. Initial work compiled sources and potential sinks for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Big Sky Region and developed the online Carbon Atlas. Current efforts couple geologic and terrestrial field validation tests with market assessments, economic analysis and regulatory and public outreach. The primary geological efforts are in the demonstration of carbon storage in mafic/basalt formations, a geology not yet well characterized but with significant long-term storage potential in the region and other parts of the world; and in the Madison Formation, a large carbonate aquifer in Wyoming and Montana. Terrestrial sequestration relies on management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO2 to storage in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration method can be implemented today and is on the front-line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO2 emissions. Details of pilot projects are presented including: new technologies, challenges and successes of projects and potential for commercial-scale deployment.

Waggoner, L. A.; Capalbo, S. M.; Talbott, J.

2007-05-01

188

Scales  

ScienceCinema

Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

Murray Gibson

2010-01-08

189

Analysis of precipitation data from in situ and large-scale source in a tropical mountain environment. Study case of the Cordillera Blanca region, Peru.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area, the watershed of the Rio Santa in Peru, accuses a strong longitudinal climatic gradient, from the humid Amazonian lowlands to the drier Pacific coast, associated with an altitudinal gradient, with the highest point of the watershed at 6,768 meters asl. The Cordillera Blanca situated in this area, had more than 600 km² of glacier coverage at the end of the 20th century, with more than half that belongs to the watershed of the Rio Santa. The application of a hydrological model in this area requires the analysis and regionalization of precipitation, a key variable for the establishment of a water balance. In this context, different sources of precipitation data are useful in order to catch the spatial and temporal variability: in situ meteorological stations, TRMM 3B42 and 3B43 product satellite data and outputs of WRF model (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) at 3 km of spatial resolution. Precipitations are dependent on both the large-scale atmospheric circulation and local parameters such as topography or albedo. As all these variables cannot be properly taken into account in large scale models, it is important to evaluate the contribution of regional models in the analysis and the understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of precipitation across a watershed. To investigate the spatial and temporal variability of precipitations, two approaches have been adopted in this work. In a first approach the spatial repartition of precipitation is described from station data. The second approach is focused on the assessment of a high-scale regional climate model (WRF) and the TRMM satellite data to reproduce spatially and temporally in situ observed precipitations. This comparison was carried out for different time-scale variability: on a monthly time scale with the observation of the seasonal cycle, on the daily time scale to study the occurrence of precipitation, and finally with the hourly data to study the representation of diurnal cycle. First results show that the strong seasonality of rainfall in this area (more than 80 % of precipitation between October and April) seems better represented in WRF output than in TRMM data. Regarding the diurnal cycle, the WRF model is able to correctly reproduce the main characteristics of the diurnal cycle of precipitation, such as a maximum in the afternoon.

Mourre, Lise; Junquas, Clémentine; Condom, Thomas; Lebel, Thierry

2014-05-01

190

Mountain Weather: A Climber's Story  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, mountain-climber Rob Taylor gives an account of his failed attempt to scale the peak of Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro. Because it is a free-standing mountain, the tallest in the world, climbers must ascend from the base through several climate zones, from tropical heat to sub-zero temperatures, before reaching the summit. After falling near the summit and nearly freezing to death, Taylor thought his worst problems were behind him when the moist trpoical climate near the bottom triggered a runaway infection in his injured leg. The segment is four minutes forty-two seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the video.

191

Mountain Building Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module was designed to be used with a college course in physical geography. Subject matter covered includes these four categories: folded mountains, volcanic mountains, fault block mountains, and granitic batholiths. It also covers complex mountain chains formed at convergent plate boundaries, where they are folded and faulted and intruded by volcanic features. Complex mountains include Andean-type (ocean-continent) plate boundaries and Himalayan-type (continent-continent) plate boundaries. Mountains such as the Coast Ranges of California are believed to have formed by the accretion (addition) of crustal blocks called foreign terranes. This module also covers the process called isostatic adjustment. It contains a study guide and outline notes, study questions about California geomorphic provinces, place names of landforms handout, and practice quizzes. A feature of the module is a web exploration section with links to fifteen outside sites that augment the instruction.

Haberlin, Rita

192

Life History of the Mountain Sucker, Catostomus platyrhynchus, in Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life history of the mountain sucker, Catostomus platyrhynchus, was studied in southwestern Montana during 1966 and 1967. Most specimens studied were collected from two streams by seining or electrofishing. Annuli were determined on scales from 491 fish. Annuli were formed during early June. Growth history of mountain suckers was based on the calculated length at the last annulus for

William J. Hauser

1969-01-01

193

Geophysical expression of the Ghost Dance fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Antler and Live Yucca Ridges, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, reveal small-scale faulting associated with the Ghost Dance and possibly other faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

Ponce, D. A.; Langenheim, V. E.

1995-01-01

194

Galileo's Moon Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Galileo's Moon Mountain Model illustrates the method used by Galileo to measure the height of a mountain on the Moon. Using his improved telescope design, Galileo was able to see spots of light in the otherwise dark potion of the Moon. He interpreted these spots as mountain peaks which caught the rays of the sun even though the sun did not illuminate the Moon's surface at the base of the mountain. He measured the distance of the bright spot from the terminator (the line separating the lit and unlit portions of the Moon) as a fraction of the Moon's radius. Then he was able to use a geometrical argument to determine the height of the mountain as a fraction of the Moon's radius. Galileo knew that the Moon's radius was approximately 1600 km (he didn't use those units, of course), which allowed him to determine the absolute height of the mountain. (Note that the modern value for the Moon's radius is about 1740 km.) One window shows the view from above the North pole of the Moon. The mountain appears near the bottom of this window. A ray of sunlight which just grazes the Moon's surface at the terminator is shown. Controls allow the user to adjust the angle of sunlight (thus altering the Moon's phase) and the height of the mountain. The other window shows the view from Earth. When sunlight strikes the top of the mountain a bright spot becomes visible in the dark area of the Moon. Likewise, when the mountain is in the bright region it casts a shadow. The distance across the Moon's face from terminator to mountain in shown.

Timberlake, Todd

2011-05-18

195

Remote sensing and geomorphometry for studying relief production in high mountains  

E-print Network

to explain climate change and mountain buil- ding (Molnar and England, 1990; Raymo and Ruddi- man, 1992Remote sensing and geomorphometry for studying relief production in high mountains Michael P Abstract Mountain topography is the result of highly scale-dependent interactions involving climatic

Thaxton, Christopher S.

196

MARBLE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Marble Mountain Wilderness is located in the north-central Klamath Mountains of northern California. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral investigations indicate that the wilderness has areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for placer gold, for chromite, and for marble. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

Donato, Mary, M.; Hale, William, N.

1984-01-01

197

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... tick species which is a North, Central, and South American carrier of Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria, which cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Credit: CDC Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tickborne disease first recognized in 1896 in the Snake River Valley of Idaho. It was originally called “black ...

198

Stone Mountain in Context  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The colored square in this grayscale image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity highlights the location of Stone Mountain, located within the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop.

2004-01-01

199

Mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli), a small, cavity-nesting songbird, is one of the most common birds of montane and coniferous forest from southern Arizona and Baja California north to British Columbia and the Yukon territory. This publication describes the life history of the Mountain Chickadee.

McCallum, D. Archibald; Grundel, Ralph; Dahlsten, Donald L.

1999-01-01

200

Mountain Pine Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan has students working in small groups to research the Mountain Pine Beetle in Colorado and other inter-mountain Western states. Students identify the factors that control pine beetle population and research how warmer winters and decreasing spring snowpack allow the population of pine beetles to expand.

Barker, Melissa; Moulton, Jim; Keith, Barbara; Manning, Cheryl; Learnmoreaboutclimate, University of Colorado, Boulder

201

Does Nature and Persistence of Substrate at a Mesohabitat Scale Matter for Chironomidae Assemblages? a Study of Two Perennial Mountain Streams in Patagonia, Argentina  

PubMed Central

Chironomid substrate—specific associations regarding the nature (organic—inorganic) and stability (stable—unstable) of different habitats were investigated at two low order Patagonian streams, during high and low water periods. Nant y Fall and Glyn rivers were visited twice (October 2007 and March 2008) and seven different habitat types were identified. A total of 60 samples were collected using a Surber sampler (0.09 m -2 and 250 µm) and a set of 23 environmental descriptors including physicochemical parameters and different fractions of particulate organic matter were assessed. 35 Chironomidae taxa were recorded with Orthocladiinae (20), Chironominae (7), and Podonominae (4) being the most well—represented subfamilies. Paratrichocladius sp. 1, Parapsectrocladius sp. 2, Parametriocnemus sp. 1, Pseudochironomus sp., and Rheotanytarsus sp. were the most abundant taxa. According to the relative preference index, at least 14 taxa showed strong affinity for a particular substrate. The structurally complex macrophyte Myriophyllum quitense supported 11 taxa compared with only five taxa found on the less complex Isoetes savatieri. Generally, stable substrates (boulders, cobbles, and rooted plants) supported significantly higher chironomids richness, abundance, and diversity than unstable ones (gravel—sand). Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that detritus (leaves, seeds, and biomass), macrophyte biomass, and secondarily hydraulic variables had high explanatory power on chironomids species composition and structure. This work suggests that more complex substrates showing persistence in the temporal dimension supported a diverse array of chironomids, meaning that the maintenance of natural habitat heterogeneity is essential for the community. Land—use practices having significant effects on ecological stream attributes such as increased turbidity, sediment deposition, and runoff patterns will alter assemblages. Understanding environmental associations of the Chironomidae assemblage at the habitat scale is significant for conservation purposes and for the management of low order streams in Patagonia. PMID:22947060

Epele, Luis Beltran; Miserendino, Maria Laura; Brand, Cecilia

2012-01-01

202

Does nature and persistence of substrate at a mesohabitat scale matter for Chironomidae assemblages? A study of two perennial mountain streams in Patagonia, Argentina.  

PubMed

Chironomid substrate-specific associations regarding the nature (organic-inorganic) and stability (stable-unstable) of different habitats were investigated at two low order Patagonian streams, during high and low water periods. Nant y Fall and Glyn rivers were visited twice (October 2007 and March 2008) and seven different habitat types were identified. A total of 60 samples were collected using a Surber sampler (0.09 m(-2) and 250 µm) and a set of 23 environmental descriptors including physicochemical parameters and different fractions of particulate organic matter were assessed. 35 Chironomidae taxa were recorded with Orthocladiinae (20), Chironominae (7), and Podonominae (4) being the most well-represented subfamilies. Paratrichocladius sp. 1, Parapsectrocladius sp. 2, Parametriocnemus sp. 1, Pseudochironomus sp., and Rheotanytarsus sp. were the most abundant taxa. According to the relative preference index, at least 14 taxa showed strong affinity for a particular substrate. The structurally complex macrophyte Myriophyllum quitense supported 11 taxa compared with only five taxa found on the less complex Isoetes savatieri. Generally, stable substrates (boulders, cobbles, and rooted plants) supported significantly higher chironomids richness, abundance, and diversity than unstable ones (gravel-sand). Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that detritus (leaves, seeds, and biomass), macrophyte biomass, and secondarily hydraulic variables had high explanatory power on chironomids species composition and structure. This work suggests that more complex substrates showing persistence in the temporal dimension supported a diverse array of chironomids, meaning that the maintenance of natural habitat heterogeneity is essential for the community. Land-use practices having significant effects on ecological stream attributes such as increased turbidity, sediment deposition, and runoff patterns will alter assemblages. Understanding environmental associations of the Chironomidae assemblage at the habitat scale is significant for conservation purposes and for the management of low order streams in Patagonia. PMID:22947060

Epele, Luis Beltrán; Miserendino, María Laura; Brand, Cecilia

2012-01-01

203

Economic geology of the Copper Mountain Supracrustal Belt, Owl Creek Mountains, Fremont County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Archean stratigraphy and associated mineral deposits at Copper Mountain were investigated to determine if this supracrustal belt has potential commercial mineral deposits. It was concluded Copper Mountain lacks the stratigraphic and structural character of a classical greenstone belt, exhibits higher metamorphic grade, and may be better classified as a high-grade terrain. However, potential is noted for stratiform Au associated with iron formation, stratiform W associated with gneiss, and Cu-Au mineralization in strike veins. 63 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs. (ACR)

Hausel, W.D.; Graff, P.J.; Albert, K.G.

1985-01-01

204

Chemical and U-Sr isotopic variations of stream and source waters at a small catchment scale (the Strengbach case; Vosges mountains; France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first comprehensive study dealing with major and trace element data as well as 87Sr/86Sr isotope and (234U/238U) activity ratios (AR) determined on the totality of springs and brooks of the Strengbach catchment. It shows that the small and more or less monolithic catchment drains different sources and streamlets with very different isotopic and geochemical signatures. Different parameters control the diversity of the source characteristics. Of importance is especially the hydrothermal overprint of the granitic bedrock, which was stronger for the granite from the northern than from the southern slope; also significant are the different meteoric alteration processes of the bedrock causing the formation of 0.5 to 9 m thick saprolite and above the formation of an up to 1 m thick soil system. These processes mainly account for springs and brooks from the northern slope having higher Ca/Na, Mg/Na, Sr/Na ratios but lower 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios than those from the southern slope. The chemical compositions of the source waters in the Strengbach catchment are only to a small extent the result of alteration of primary bedrock minerals and rather reflect dissolution/precipitation processes of secondary mineral phases like clay minerals. The (234U/238U) AR, however, are decoupled from the 87Sr/86Sr isotope system and reflect to some extent the level of altitude of the source and, thus, the degree of alteration of the bedrock. The sources emerging at high altitudes have circulated through already weathered materials (saprolite and fractured rock depleted in 234U) implying (234U/238U) AR < 1, which is uncommon for surface waters. Preferential flow paths along constant fractures in the bedrocks might explain the over time homogeneous U AR of the different spring waters. However, the geochemical and isotopic variations of stream waters at the outlet of the catchment are controlled by variable contributions of different springs depending on the hydrological conditions. It appears that the (234U/238U) AR is an appropriate very important tracer for studying and deciphering the contribution of the different source fluxes at the catchment scale because this unique geochemical parameter is different for each individual spring and at the same time remains unchanged for each of the springs with changing discharge and fluctuating hydrological conditions. This study further highlights the important impact of different and independent water pathways in fractured granite controlling the different geochemical and isotopic signatures of the waters.

Pierret, M. C.; Stille, P.; Prunier, J.; Viville, D.; Chabaux, F.

2014-03-01

205

Newton's Mountain JS Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Newton's Mountain JS model illustrates the motion of a projectile launched from the top of a VERY tall mountain on Earth. The diagram shown in the simulation is taken from Newton's A Treatise on the System of the World, which he wrote after the Principia, but the basic idea is found in the Principia itself. Newton concluded that a projectile launched horizontally with sufficient speed would orbit Earth rather than crashing to Earth's surface. Thus the motion of a projectile fired on Earth was not qualitatively different from that of the moon orbiting Earth. EJS Newton's Mountain JS Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool.

Timberlake, Todd; Belloni, Mario

2014-01-05

206

Mountains and Moving Plates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the lecture notes for a class on plate tectonics and mountain building which is taught at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The course describes the connections between the earth's tectonic plates, earthquakes, and its many mountain ranges. Topics include basic geography, the structure of the earth's interior, the relationships between the seismic cycle, volcanism, and plate movements, erosion of mountains, and mass wasting. Links are provided to additional resources, including aerial photos of geologic features, an interactive map of geology and topography of the United States, and a glossary.

207

Cadell's Mountain Building Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These animations show reconstructions of Cadell's famous experiments in mountain building, performed at an open day of the British Geological Survey at Murchison House, Edinburgh. Various versions at different resolutions are available.

208

The Strongest Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After learning about weathering and erosion, fifth-grade students worked in cooperative groups to create a "mountain" that could resist the effects of water erosion and demonstrate their understanding of the subject.

Monnes, Colleen

2004-10-01

209

MOUNTAIN LAKE BIOLOGICAL STATION  

E-print Network

MOUNTAIN LAKE BIOLOGICAL STATION USER HANDBOOK Updated: 07Mar2013 For the most Events . . . 15 Volunteer Ac vi es . . . 15 Recrea on . . . . . 16 Safety, and the logis cal support necessary for a wide variety of research and teaching programs. MLBS

Acton, Scott

210

Smoky Mountain Field School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Tennessee Division of Continuing Education contains the home page for the Smoky Mountain Field School which offers supervised wilderness adventures for people of all ages and levels of experience. http://www.ce.utk.edu/Smoky/

211

Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs  

SciTech Connect

A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests and potentially large-scale laboratory demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

Ozdemir, L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (USA); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)

1991-01-01

212

Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs  

SciTech Connect

A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests, and potentially large-scale lab. demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well-quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs.

Ozdemir, L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1991-12-31

213

YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION  

SciTech Connect

The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

A.M. Simmons

2004-04-16

214

HAWK MOUNTAIN SANCTUARY, PA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTlCT.--Bimodal migration patterns occur in many raptor species but have not been conclusively documented for American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) along their Appalachian migration route. Kestrels migrating past Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, Pennsylvania had a bimodal fall migration pattern when data were averaged over a 26-year period (1963-1988). Peaks at Hawk Mountain centered around 11 September and 2 October. Proportion of males

NANCY G. STOTZ; LAURIE J. GOODRICH

215

Tall tower or mountain top measurements?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolving the regional transport and distribution of greenhouse gases in the troposphere is a key topic that challenges both modelers and experimentalists. A dense network of measurement stations would be required, in particular including measurements at high elevation to better represent the entire lower troposphere, and not only small-scale local conditions in the near-surface atmosphere. While this can be achieved by tall towers, also mountain top stations (e.g. Schauinsland, Brocken) and other stations at high elevation (e.g., Mouna Loa, Jungfraujoch) are often appropriate, due to their extended concentration footprint. However, especially over complex, mountainous terrain, the transport of atmospheric gases and their spatio-temporal distribution is difficult to predict due to the development of thermally induced local wind patterns and boundary layer processes. Therefore, the main goal of our study is to test to what extend boundary layer processes at the surface and local wind patterns close to the ground at a mountain top site influence the ambient greenhouse gas patterns compared to measurements taken at a similar altitude but at a tall tower site. To this end we use measurements from the Zugerberg mountain top station, located at a pre-Alpine mountain ridge (987 m a.s.l., 4 m above ground) exposed to the prevailing synoptic winds in Switzerland, and compare these measurements with a neighboring tall tower site (Beromünster radio broadcast tower with its top at 1014 m a.s.l., 217 m above local ground level, and ?500 m above the Swiss Plateau). The Beromünster tall tower is located at a distance of only 30 km from the mountain top station as the bird flies, and hence a direct comparison minimizes confounding factors that are not related to the tall tower vs. mountain top position of the measurements. Both stations are part of the CarboCount CH greenhouse gas observation network (http://www.carbocount.ch) initiated for long-term monitoring and modeling of greenhouse gas fluxes at a regional scale in order to achieve a better understanding about CO2 and CH4 fluxes and their response to climate. We will present first direct comparisons of measurements obtained from continuously calibrated laser absorption spectrometers to quantify the atmospheric concentrations of carbon-dioxide and methane, but also from meteorological sensors and turbulence measurements. Data from the sensors at the two stations will be used to address the following question: can a mountain top station provide similar quality of data and spatial representativeness as a tall tower for the investigation of atmospheric patterns of greenhouse gases at diurnal to seasonal scale?

Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Leuenberger, Markus; Schanda, Rüdiger; Henne, Stephan; Buchmann, Nina

2014-05-01

216

Commercial Crew  

NASA Video Gallery

Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

217

OTEC Commercialization Update June 14, 2011  

E-print Network

OTEC Commercialization Update June 14, 2011 6/1/2011 1 #12;Ocean Thermal Energy 2 * A Preliminary OTEC? 6/1/2011 3 #12;OTEC System Block Diagram 6/1/2011 4 #12;5 Risk Reduction Utility Scale Commercial for Commercialization + Commercialization Roadmap 6/1/2011 #12;Cold Water Pipe (CWP) The Pipe The Process Fabrication

218

P wave velocity structure in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed a crustal tomographic inversion using over 250,000 P arrival times from local earthquake sources and surface explosions in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, region. Within the shallowest 2-3 km, topographic features tend to dominate the structure with high velocities imaged under Bare Mountain, the Funeral Mountains, and higher terrain to the east of Yucca Mountain and low velocities imaged under Crater Flat, Jackass Flat, the Amargosa Desert, and the caldera complexes. Imaged shallow velocities also show correlation with several known gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies. Below the basins (˜2-3 km depth), velocities vary between 5.5 and 6.5 km/s and lose many of the correlations seen in the shallowest layers; however, a few major structures, such as the Bare Mountain block, can be traced to at least 10 km depth. Additionally, we image structures that may be associated with the Wahmonie intrusion and pre-Tertiary structural trends. Yucca Mountain itself is underlain by a high-velocity upper crustal-scale structure similar to other structures in the region such as Bare Mountain and may represent a Basin and Range style back-tilted block, which may provide a structural explanation for Yucca Mountain's topographic expression. Additionally, the imaged, relatively low velocity basement under Crater Flat may provide a preferred conduit for magma intrusion into Crater Flat compared to Yucca Mountain, accounting for the lack of post-Miocene volcanism observed at the mountain proper. We explore our tomographic results in the context of four major tectonic models that have been proposed for the Yucca Mountain region.

Preston, Leiph; Smith, Ken; von Seggern, David

2007-11-01

219

Estimating the technical and scale efficiency of Greek commercial banks: The impact of credit risk, off-balance sheet activities, and international operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) to investigate the efficiency of the Greek commercial banking industry over the period 2000–2004. Our results indicate that the inclusion of loan loss provisions as an input increases the efficiency scores, but off-balance sheet items do not have a significant impact. The differences between the efficiency scores obtained through the profit-oriented and the

Fotios Pasiouras

2008-01-01

220

Pacific Mountain System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page guides the user through the Pacific Mountain System geologic province, one of the most geologically young and tectonically active in North America. The generally rugged, mountainous landscape of this province, which includes parts of Washington, Oregon, and California, provides evidence of ongoing mountain-building. One map shows the plate tectonic setting of the Pacific Mountain System which straddles the boundaries between several of Earth's moving plates. This province includes the active volcanoes of the Cascade Range and the young, steep mountains of the Pacific Border and the Sierra Nevada. The user can find out more with links to USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory, Seattle region earthquake hazards, or North Cascades National Park geology. Links are provided to a simple shaded relief map and to several other shaded relief maps including ones with National Park locations and with major and subprovince boundaries. Image gallery links are given to several national parks sites: Lassen Volcanic National Park, Yosemite National Park, and North Cascades National Park.

221

From magic mountain to table mountain.  

PubMed

Prior to the introduction of chemotherapy, tuberculosis management relied upon aerotherapy, heliotherapy and good nutrition. This "treatment", exemplified by the regimen applied in Swiss and other European mountain resorts, is described by Thomas Mann in the book "The Magic Mountain". Tuberculosis chemotherapy began in 1944 with the introduction of streptomycin and para-amino-salicylic acid, later augmented by isoniazid. Early experience taught physicians that treatment must be given with multiple drugs to prevent emergence of resistance and that prolonged treatment adherence for 18-24 months was needed for a permanent cure of tuberculosis. Between 1970 and 1980 rifampicin was introduced and with pyrazinamide it made "short-course" treatment possible. For 30 years, a 6-month directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) based on the three compounds isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide was the foundation of tuberculosis control strategies world-wide, and in recent years this was supplemented with ethambutol in view of increasing rates of isoniazid resistance. However, even 6 months of treatment is too long to easily ensure the compliance necessary to permanently cure tuberculosis. The recent spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has placed tuberculosis programmes under severe pressure and is accompanied by an increase in drug-resistance making tuberculosis virtually untreatable in some instances. In 2004 the first of a new generation of anti-tuberculosis drugs entered clinical evaluation. A series of clinical trials, often conducted at sites in Cape Town, South Africa, has shown them to be efficacious and hold promise of being able to shorten tuberculosis treatment and treat drug-resistant tuberculosis. Development and assessment of these drugs is ongoing but there is renewed hope that these new drugs and regimens will assist in finally conquering tuberculosis, preventing a return to Magic Mountain where sunshine and fresh air was all that could be offered to patients. PMID:22915310

Diacon, Andreas H; von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Donald, Peter R

2012-01-01

222

InterMountain 2 Big White Salmon  

E-print Network

Columbia River Basin Subbasins #12;Lower Columbia Columbia Plateau Columbia Estuary Mountain Snake Upper Snake Middle Snake Columbia Cascade Columbia Gorge InterMountain Mountain Columbia Blue Mountain Seattle Portland Boise Missoula

223

Evaluating effects of an expanding mountain goat population on native bighorn sheep: a simulation model of competition and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological invasions create serious conservation problems at local to global scales, and decisions about their management require evaluation of the likely environmental consequences of an expanding population. An expanding population of exotic mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) occupy an area near Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA (RMNP), an area managed for preservation of natural communities and processes. If mountain goats

J. E Gross

2001-01-01

224

Pinnacle Mountain Field Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in teams and on their own to determine the most likely origin of block fields on Pinnacle Mountain, central AR. Teams of two or three students collect and analyze field data on grain size, roughness, and orientation of boulders on Pinnacle Mountain. On their own, students research possible origins of block fields and interpret their results in a written report. This activity provides students with practice using field skills (including GPS/PDA experience), interpreting data, reading the literature, developing hypotheses, working in teams, and report writing. Designed for a geomorphology course

Mcmillan, Margaret

225

STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

1984-01-01

226

Mountain Health Choices Beneficiary Report  

E-print Network

Mountain Health Choices Beneficiary Report A Report to the West Virginia Bureau for Medical of Health and Human Resources, Bureau for Medical Services. #12; 1 Table of Contents I. EXECUTIVE .......................................................................................................................... 5 II. MOUNTAIN HEALTH CHOICES

Mohaghegh, Shahab

227

MPRS (URBOT) commercialization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel

2003-09-01

228

Distribution of Mycorrhizal Types among Alpine Vascular Plant Families on the Beartooth Plateau, Rocky Mountains, U.S.A., in Reference to Large-Scale Patterns in Arctic–Alpine Habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycorrhizal symbiosis is critical to plant establishment and survival, influences plant community structure and function, and could be particularly important in harsh environments such as the alpine tundra. An examination of 53 vascular plant species in 21 families from alpine areas of the Beartooth Plateau (Rocky Mountains) revealed most were mycorrhizal (68%) and four distinct types of symbioses were present.

Cathy L. Cripps; Leslie H. Eddington

2005-01-01

229

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 2, July 1--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The project involves the construction of a 260 tons-per-day (TPD) or 80,000 gallon per day methanol demonstration unit utilizing an existing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression, liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated was developed by Air Products in a DOE sponsored program that started in 1981. Originally tested at a small, DOE-owned experimental facility in LaPorte, Texas, the LPMEOH{trademark} process offers several advantages over current methods of making methanol. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The liquid dissipates heat from the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the gas-to-methanol reaction to proceed at higher rates. The process is ideally suited to the type of gas produced by modern coal gasifiers. At the Eastman Chemical complex, the technology will be integrated with existing coal gasifiers to demonstrate the commercially important aspects of the operation of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process to produce methanol. A four-year demonstration will prove the commercial applicability of the process. An off-site product-use test program will prove the suitability of the methanol as a transportation fuel and as a fuel for stationary applications in the power industry.

NONE

1994-12-31

230

Rainfall characteristics along mountainous transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment is an experiment framework that aims at improving our understanding and quantification of processes related to the hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean region at different scales (from the individual event scale to seasonal and inter-annual variability). During the Special Observation Period (SOP-1) conducted from September 5th to November 6th 2012, an important and complementary remote sensing network (operational radars, X band research radars, Micro Rain Radars, disdrometers, and a dense network of rain gauges) has been deployed in the Cévennes-Vivarais region (South of France). This network was specifically designed to investigate the structure and the heterogeneity of precipitations as well as, in particular, the impact of orography on this structure and it has provided us with high resolution data (time and space) along strong topographic gradients (small hills, foothills and mountain). Hence, these data will support our research to precisely describe the precipitation systems and their structures over a complex terrain. In this work, we will describe the characteristics of rainfall along two topographic gradients based on the major events observed during the fall 2012 campaign period. A classification according to the type of precipitation (convective, stratiform and orographic) which can affect the region has been made to investigate orographic impact under different rainfall regimes. We will also examine the influence of the relief on the vertical and horizontal structure of precipitation. In particular, we will illustrate the modification of the drop size distribution toward smaller droplets as we go from the small hills to the mountains.

Zwiebel, Jimmy; Van Baelen, Joël; Anquetin, Sandrine; Pointin, Yves; Boudevillain, Brice

2014-05-01

231

Rocky Mountain High.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Colorado's Eagle Rock School, which offers troubled teens a fresh start by transporting them to a tuition- free campus high in the mountains. The program encourages spiritual development as well as academic growth. The atmosphere is warm, loving, structured, and nonthreatening. The article profiles several students' experiences at the…

Hill, David

2001-01-01

232

Greening of Blue Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the revegetation of Blue Mountain in Palmertown, Pennsylvania, which was biologically destroyed by a zinc smelting operation. After application of industrial fly ash and a municipal sludge mixture, grasses and microbes and some tree seedlings are present. The article outlines in detail the processes of testing and experimentation with the soils and the plants.

W. E. Sopper; J. M. McMahon

1987-01-01

233

The Strongest Mountain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

Monnes, Colleen

2004-01-01

234

Carve That Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students further investigate major landforms (e.g., mountains, rivers, plains, hills, oceans and plateaus). They build a three-dimensional model of a landscape depicting several of these landforms. Once they have built their model, they act as civil and transportation engineers to build a road through the landscape they have created.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

235

Mountains & Hills Piedmont Slope  

E-print Network

et al. 1981 alluvial fill Tertiary volcanic rocks Tertiary plutonic rocks Precambrian rocks Paleozoic sedimentary rocks Paleoclimate and Landscape Evolution #12;Basin Floor Piedmont Slope (Bajada) Mountains #12;#12;clay coatings & iron oxides quartz rock fragment quartz quartz quartz quartz qtz qtz qtz qtz

236

Why Man Climbs Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a report on the results of a study of 266 members of the Alpine Club of Canada, Calgary Section. The study attempted to gain further insight into why people climb mountains. The results indicate that an everchanging mosaic of primary and secondary motives for climbing exist. Age, ability and sex would appear to be three of the

Robert D. Bratton; George Kinnear; Gary Koroluk

1979-01-01

237

The Mountaineer Minority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

1974-01-01

238

Mountains and Atmospheres  

E-print Network

gravity limits the size of mountains - it turns out that the Himalayas on Earth are about as high gravity vary on different planets? The mass of a planet of density and radius r is 3 3 4 rM = #12;Surface Gravity So how can we work out the surface gravity of a planet? The acceleration of an object

Francis, Paul

239

Mountains: top down.  

PubMed

Mountainous regions offer not only essential habitat and resources, including water, to the earth's more than 6 billion inhabitants, but also insights into how the global human habitat works, how it is being changed at the moment as global climates are disrupted, and how the disruption may lead to global biotic and economic impoverishment. At least 600 million of the earth's more than 6 billion humans dwell in mountainous regions. Such regions feed water into all the major rivers of the world whose valleys support most of the rest of us. At least half of the valley dwellers receive part or all of their water from montane sources, many from the melt water of glaciers, others from the annual snow melt. Glaciers are retreating globally as the earth warms as a result of human-caused changes in the composition of the atmosphere. Many are disappearing, a change that threatens municipal water supplies virtually globally. The warming is greatest in the higher latitudes where the largest glaciers such as those of Greenland and the Antarctic Continent have become vulnerable. The melting of ice in the northern hemisphere raises serious concerns about the continued flow of the Gulf Stream and the possibility of massive climatic changes in Scandinavia and northern Europe. Mountains are also biotic islands in the sea life, rich in endemism at the ecotype level. The systematic warming of the earth changes the environment out from under these genetically specialized strains (ecotypes) which are then maladapted and vulnerable to diseases of all types. The process is systematic impoverishment in the pattern conspicuous on mountain slopes with increasing exposure to climatic extremes. It is seen now in the increased mortality and morbidity of plants as climatic changes accumulate. The seriousness of the global climatic disruption is especially clear in any consideration of mountains. It can and must be addressed constructively despite the adamancy of the current US administration. PMID:15575181

Woodwell, George M

2004-11-01

240

What Is Scale?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scale is one of the big ideas that cross the science domains. Whether one is talking about the weight of a blue whale, the size of a galaxy or a molecule, or the age of a mountain range, scale is an essential tool in understanding the universe in a scient

Taylor, Amy R.; Jones, M. G.; Falvo, Michael R.

2009-09-01

241

A mountain scene in Yukon, Alaska depicts how vegetation changes from the base to the top of the mountain due to differences in elevation and topograp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A mountain scene in Yukon, Alaska depicts how vegetation changes from the base to the top of the mountain due to differences in elevation and topography. The base of the mountain is vegetated by spruce forests. Progressing up the mountain, the forest gives way to subalpine shrub, alpine meadows, and tundra. The tops of the mountains are covered by glaciers. The mountains shown in the image are typical of areas that are protected from development because they are located in national or provincial parks. Understanding large-scale patterns of plant and animal distribution within and between these parks will enable the biota to be effectively conserved. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (15:4) in April of 2005.

Danby, Ryan

2010-02-12

242

Computation of spatial significance of mountain objects extracted from multiscale digital elevation models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The derivation of spatial significance is an important aspect of geospatial analysis and hence, various methods have been proposed to compute the spatial significance of entities based on spatial distances with other entities within the cluster. This paper is aimed at studying the spatial significance of mountain objects extracted from multiscale digital elevation models (DEMs). At each scale, the value of spatial significance index SSI of a mountain object is the minimum number of morphological dilation iterations required to occupy all the other mountain objects in the terrain. The mountain object with the lowest value of SSI is the spatially most significant mountain object, indicating that it has the shortest distance to the other mountain objects. It is observed that as the area of the mountain objects reduce with increasing scale, the distances between the mountain objects increase, resulting in increasing values of SSI. The results obtained indicate that the strategic location of a mountain object at the centre of the terrain is more important than its size in determining its reach to other mountain objects and thus, its spatial significance.

Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh

2014-06-01

243

Comparison of three rocky mountain spotted fever vaccines.  

PubMed Central

Growth of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) rickettsiae in duck embryo cell (DEC) cultures and chicken embryo cell (CEC) cultures was evaluated. Experimental lots of duck embryo cell- and chicken embryo cell-grown Rocky Mountain spotted fever vaccines and a commercial lot of yolk sac-grown vaccine were compared for protective efficacy in rhesus monkeys. Incidence and magnitude of antibody response, febrile response, and rickettsemia, as well as incidence of fatalities, suggested that both cell culture-derived vaccines were more immunogenic than the yolk sac-grown vaccine. PMID:810494

Kenyon, R H; Sammons, L S; Pedersen, C E

1975-01-01

244

Mountain West Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formed as part of a consortium between universities, colleges, museums, and historical societies in Utah, Nevada, and Idaho, the Mountain West Digital Library contains dozens of digital collections whose content ranges far beyond that of the geographical area covered by the Mountain West region. On their homepage, visitors can learn about the "Featured Collection" and then browse all of the available collections via a list of partner institutions. All told, there are over 100 collections here, and visitors can search the entire archive for text, images, video, or audio clips. A couple of the collections should not be missed, including "Before Gaming: Las Vegas Centennial", which provides visual documentation of a (relatively) quiet Las Vegas before the emergence of gambling. Additionally, the Mormon publication "The Young Woman's Journal" provides insight into the lives of Mormon women in the early 20th century.

245

Yucca Mountain Milestone  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy project to determine if the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is suitable for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste reached a major milestone in late April when a 25-foot-diameter tunnel boring machine ``holed through'' completing a five-mile-long, horseshoe-shaped excavation through the mountain. When the cutting-head of the giant machine broke through to daylight at the tunnel's south portal, it ended a 2 1/2-year excavation through the mountain that was completed ahead of schedule and with an outstanding safety record. Video of the event was transmitted live by satellite to Washington, DC, where it was watched by Secretary of Energy Frederico Pena and other high-level DOE officials, signifying the importance of the project's mission to find a repository for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants. This critical undertaking is being performed by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The tunnel is the major feature of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which serves as an underground laboratory for engineers and scientists to help determine if Yucca Mountain is suitable to serve as a repository for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Morrison Knudsen's Environmental/Government Group is providing design and construction-management services on the project. The MK team is performing final design for the ESF and viability assessment design for the underground waste repository that will be built only if the site is found suitable for such a mission. In fact, if at anytime during the ESF phase, the site is found unsuitable, the studies will be stopped and the site restored to its natural state.

Hunt, Rod

1997-06-09

246

Folds, Faults, and Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash explores forces and processes that deform rocks by creating folds, faults, and mountain ranges. The overview covers topics such as stress, tension, deformation, strike, dip, folds and thrusts, and an interactive model allows users to model different processes related to these topics. This site provides diagrams, interactive animations, and supplementary information suitable for introductory level undergraduate physical geology or high school Earth science students.

Smoothstone; Company, Houghton M.

247

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 11, January 1--March 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter, the third draft of the Topical Report on Process Economics Studies was issued for review. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing on the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) was made. A liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed, and a decision to proceed with a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) is pending the release of a memo from Air Products on the catalyst targets and corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst. The off-site product-use test plan is to be updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Air Products and Acurex Environmental Corporation continued developing the listing of product-use test participants who are involved in fuel cell, transportation, and stationary power plant applications. Start-up activities (Task 3.1) began during the reporting period, and coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was introduced to the demonstration unit. The recycle compressor was tested successfully on syngas at line pressure of 700 psig, and the reactor loop reached 220 C for carbonyl burnout. Iron carbonyl in the balanced gas feed remained below the 10 ppbv detection limit for all samples but one. Within the reactor loop, iron carbonyl levels peaked out near 200 ppbv after about 40 hours on-stream, before decreasing to between 10--20 ppbv at 160 hours on -stream. Nickel carbonyl measurements reached a peak of about 60 ppbv, and decreased at all sampling locations to below the 10 ppbv detection limit by 70 hours on-stream. Catalyst activation of the nine 2,250 lb batches required for the initial catalyst charge began and concluded. All batches met or slightly exceeded the theoretical maximum uptake of 2.82 SCF of reducing gas/lb catalyst.

NONE

1997-06-11

248

Commercial Capaciflector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

Vranish, John M.

1991-01-01

249

Land use/cover changes in European mountain areas: identifying links between global driving forces and local consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minor land use/cover changes in mountain areas can aggravate the consequences of hydro-meteorological hazards such as landslides, avalanches, rockfall and flash floods. What is more, they change the provisioning of ecosystem services; also as their recovery after anthropogenic induced changes in mountains are slower or not occurring at all due to harsh climate and soil conditions. Examples of these changes are urbanization in high risk areas or deforestation on slopes. To understand the driving forces behind land use/cover changes in European mountain areas, the focus is on the two case study areas: The Val Canale valley in the Italian Alps and the Buzau valley in the Romanian Carpathians. Land use/cover changes were analyzed in the recent decades applying various remote sensing techniques, such as satellite imagery classification and visual interpretation, as well as integration of various databases (e.g. forestry, spatial planning and cadaster plans). Instead of identifying the statistical significance of particular variables (e.g. population change), the links between different driving forces of global change (e.g. political and policy changes, infrastructural plans) and local socio-economic variables were investigated further through interviewing local and regional stakeholders. The results show how both areas differ in the consequences of global changes in terms of land use/cover change. The Italian area witnessed a trajectory from a commercially active and competitive area, to an area with a large portion of abandoned commercial, customs, industrial and mining zones. These processes were accompanied by the expansion of settlements comprised mostly of secondary housing on areas with high risk, resulting in catastrophic consequences in recent flash floods and debris flows events. The Romanian site also witnessed a breakdown of local commercial and industrial activities. Together with land ownership reforms, this has resulted in the emergence of subsistence farming and illegal logging. This intensification of activities has mostly affected land on slopes in an area where over 40 % of the area is subject to landslides. Relatively, the prevailing land use/cover change process in both areas, as usually in most European mountain areas, is reforestation. Small-scale changes however were most important in terms of negative consequences. Therefore we think it is necessary to focus on the local scale when identifying possible future negative consequences of land use/cover change. Acknowledgement This work is a part of the CHANGES project (Changing hydro-meteorological risks - as Analysed by a New Generation of European Scientists), a Marie Curie Initial Training Network, funded by the European Community's 7'th Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under Grant Agreement No. 263953.

Malek, Žiga; Schröter, Dagmar; Glade, Thomas

2013-04-01

250

Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

Frazer, Charles F.

251

The Evolution of Mountain Permafrost in Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permafrost, defined as lithospheric material whose temperature remains below 0 °C for two or more consecutive years, occurs in many high-mountain regions of the European Alps. Mountain permafrost in the European Alps is characterised by temperatures only a few degrees below zero and is therefore particularly sensitive to projected climate changes in the 21st century. To evaluate the sensitivity of mountain permafrost to climatic changes and to assess its future evolution, not only climatic variables such as air temperature, radiation and timing and duration of snow cover have to be considered, but also subsurface characteristics such as ground temperature, ice content, porosity or hydraulic properties. In Switzerland, permafrost monitoring started only 1-2 decades ago but currently comprises a large set of meteorological, geophysical, kinematic and ground thermal parameters at a large variety of field sites. Within a large integrating national project (The evolution of mountain permafrost in Switzerland: TEMPS) these data sets are jointly analysed for the first time by combining observations with model simulations using a dynamic process-oriented soil model capable of addressing frozen terrain. In combination with results from Regional Climate Model ensembles, the project TEMPS aims to create plausible evolution scenarios of mountain permafrost at specific sites and will investigate the interactions between atmosphere and permafrost focusing on the evolution of ground temperature, ice content and related degradation and creep processes. This contribution will show first results concerning (a) new observation techniques in high-mountain permafrost, including thermal, geophysical and kinematic methods, (b) sensitivity studies with the soil model COUP regarding the impact of temperature and precipitation anomalies on different permafrost landforms and (c) strategies for downscaling and debiasing RCM output data for permafrost analysis on the station scale at high altitudes. The results illustrate the difficulties of scale mismatch between spatial models and point observations, as well as the problem of short time series in a climate context, but they highlight also the large potential of bringing together the monitoring and modelling communities, as both can provide key data for each other in the context of anticipated impacts of climate change. First results regarding the permafrost evolution in the Swiss Alps indicate several monitoring stations with permafrost temperatures close to the melting point, with corresponding phase changes observable with e.g. geophysical methods. Simulations suggest increasing air and ground temperatures until the end of the century with a corresponding reduction in snow cover, which does, however, not offset a general warming trend of permafrost temperatures in the simulation models. Nevertheless, the high variability of surface and subsurface materials in the permafrost regions of the European Alps will strongly modulate any general warming trend which might be visible within the coming decades.

Hauck, C.; Delaloye, R.; Roer, I. H.; Hilbich, C.; Hoelzle, M.; Kenner, R.; Kotlarski, S.; Lambiel, C.; Marmy, A.; Müller, J.; Noetzli, J.; Phillips, M.; Rajczak, J.; Salzmann, N.; Schaepman, M. E.; Schar, C.; Staub, B.; Völksch, I.

2013-12-01

252

ACULEATA HYMENOPTERA OF SAND MOUNTAIN AND BLOW SAND MOUNTAINS, NEVADA  

E-print Network

vegetation was Atriplex con fertifolia (Torr. & Frem.), Tetradymia tetra meres (Blake), Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus (Hookl), Astragalus lentiginousus Dougl., and Psoralea lanceolata (Pursh.), and at Sand Mountain

Hanks, Lawrence M.

253

Tropical mountains and coal formation: A climate model study of the Westphalian (306 MA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global climate model has been used to study the seasonal sensitivity of tropical rainfall and soil moisture to the presence of Himalayan-scale mountains at tropical latitudes during the Westphalian. These mountains act to retard the northward progression of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in their vicinity during the Northern Hemisphere summer such that there is converging low-level flow from both

Bette L. Otto-Bliesner

1993-01-01

254

Use of Integrated Decay Heat Limits to Facilitate Spent Nuclear Fuel Loading to Yucca Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an alternative to the use of the linear loading or areal power density (APD) concept, using integrated decay heat limits based on the use of mountain-scale heat transfer analysis is considered to represent the thermal impact from the deposited spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Yucca Mountain repository. Two different integrated decay heat limits were derived to represent both

Jun Li; Man-Sung Yim; David McNelis; Steven Piet

2007-01-01

255

Cascading effects of fire exclusion in Rocky Mountain ecosystems: a literature review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The health of many Rocky Mountain ecosystems is in decline because of the policy of excluding fire in the management of these ecosystems. Fire exclusion has actually made it more difficult to fight fires, and this poses greater risks to the people who fight fires and for those who live in and around Rocky Mountain forests and rangelands. This paper discusses the extent of fire exclusion in the Rocky Mountains, then details the diverse and cascading effects of suppressing fires in the Rocky Mountain landscape by spatial scale, ecosystem characteristic, and vegetation type. Also discussed are the varied effects of fire exclusion on some important, keystone ecosystems and human concerns.

Keane, R.E.; Ryan, K.C.; Veblen, T.T.; Allen, C.D.; Logan, J.; Hawkes, B.

2002-01-01

256

Mountain-eering University of Trento Spin off  

E-print Network

. Collaboration with research institutions and universities on· applied research projects. Venture capital:· environmental engineering and green technology solutions for the hydrological analysis of the territory. Technology (products and services) Mountain-eering works to provide solutions at 360° to complex challenges

257

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part...

2010-10-01

258

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain...fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United...the central and mountain standard time zones described in § 71.7 and east...

2013-10-01

259

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain...fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United...the central and mountain standard time zones described in § 71.7 and east...

2012-10-01

260

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain...fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United...the central and mountain standard time zones described in § 71.7 and east...

2011-10-01

261

Landform Interpretation: Table Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working collaboratively, groups of students [3-4]develop hypotheses addressing the paleotopography of a Miocene river channel [Table Mountain Latite] and processes that have resulted in its current topographic expression. Students use observations/data gained from topographic maps [Sonora, Keystone, Melones Dam and Knight's Ferry 7.5 minute quadrangles], San Francisco-San Jose Regional Geological Map, aerial photos, and Google Earth [120 39 01W; 37 48 15N to 120 26 17W; 37 57 36N]. Using PowerPoint, students present and defend their hypotheses and plans for further research during the final week of the semester. Designed for a geomorphology course

Pearson, Gene

262

Surface Pressure and Mountain Drag for Transient Airflow over a Mountain Ridge.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linear problem of rotating, stratified, adiabatic, hydrostatic, Boussinesq airflow over a mountain ridge is solved analytically for the case where the spatially uniform, normally incident airflow is the sum of a steady and sinusoidally varying component. The mountain generates a response at the fundamental frequency of the wind and all higher harmonics.During flow acceleration, the evanescent (vertically decaying) modes deepen and broaden the high-low pressure asymmetry across the ridge and increase the mountain drag. In contrast, the evanescent modes for steady airflow product only a symmetric mountain anticyclone that generates no drag. The influence of the acceleration is more pronounced for mesoscale and synoptic-scale ridges (i.e., ridges whose Rossby number is order unity or smaller) and when the fundamental period is near the inertial period.The transience also amplifies the magnitude of the maximum wave drag over its value predicted from steady airflow theory using the instantaneous wind speed. The total acceleration reaction due to both evanescent and wave modes can be larger than this steady airflow drag.

Bannon, Peter R.; Zehnder, Joseph A.

1985-12-01

263

Commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

264

Successful commercialization of nanophotonic technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exploitation of nanotechnology from proof of principle to realizable commercial applications encounters considerable challenges in regards to high volume, large scale, low cost manufacturability and social ethics. This has led to concerns over converting powerful intellectual property into realizable, industry attractive technologies. At The Technology Partnership we specifically address the issue of successful integration of nanophotonics into industry in markets such as biomedical, ophthalmic, energy, telecommunications, and packaging. In this paper we draw on a few examples where we have either developed industrial scale nanophotonic technology or engineering platforms which may be used to fortify nano/microphotonic technologies and enhance their commercial viability.

Jaiswal, Supriya L.; Clarke, Roger B. M.; Hyde, Sam C. W.

2006-08-01

265

Hydrology and the natural heritage of the Scottish mountains.  

PubMed

The physical natures of the Scottish mountains and their geographical position have created a montane environment, which can be considered as unique in European terms. The mountains of Scotland have been subjected to major environmental changes throughout the past centuries including climate change, deforestation, hydropower developments and more recently the expansion of plantation forestry. Mountain ecosystems have the ability to withstand large climatic variations and extreme events but it is suggested that they may not withstand some of the climatic barriers, which have recently been crossed. The greatest recent land use change in Scotland's mountains has been the expansion of plantation forests. The effects on headwater catchment hydrology are mainly in the reduction in runoff. It is suggested that plantation forestry has a more significant impact on the natural heritage through other influences such as water chemistry and river sediments. Future management of the Scottish mountains needs to consider the great natural heritage value in addition to other interests such as water resources, hydropower generation, commercial forestry and tourism. PMID:12169004

Johnson, R C; Thompson, D B

2002-07-22

266

A Day on Bare Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students may have the idea that all mountains are volcanoes and were formed by eruptions. The story in this chapter brings up questions about the geology of mountains and the weathering and erosion that takes place as nature breaks down the higher landsca

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2010-03-12

267

Associate Program, Commercial Banking Commercial Banking  

E-print Network

Associate Program, Commercial Banking Commercial Banking Job Code 0203 � Level 6 CIBC is a leading and services to 11 million individual, small business, commercial, corporate and institutional clients Group of Companies please visit CIBC.com. Job Overview The Commercial Banking Associate Program provides

Northern British Columbia, University of

268

COMMERCIAL SPACE ACCOMPLISHMENTS Commercial Cargo Space Accomplishments  

E-print Network

11/13/2013 COMMERCIAL SPACE ACCOMPLISHMENTS Commercial Cargo Space Accomplishments The Obama Administration's ambitious commercial space program, which has bipartisan support in Congress, has enabled NASA NASA does business, helping build a strong American commercial space industry, and freeing the agency

Waliser, Duane E.

269

YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --  

SciTech Connect

This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

NA

2003-08-05

270

Nature and continuity of the Sundance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the detailed geologic mapping (1:2,400 scale) that was performed in the northern part of the potential nuclear waste repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine the nature and extent of the Sundance Fault zone and to evaluate structural relations between the Sundance and other faults.

Potter, Christopher J.; Dickerson, Robert P.; Day, Warren C.

2000-01-12

271

ESTIMATES OF CLOUD WATER DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM SITES IN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY, Whitetop Mountain, VA, and Clingrnan's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). ...

272

Commercially available CO capture technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many CO removal technologies are being researched through laboratory and pilot-scale testing, an existing technology has a significant operating history at commercial-scale facilities, where it is collecting CO from multiple sources, including low-CO concentration flue gas with high oxygen concentrations. This is an advanced amine-based post-combustion CO capture technology developed by Fluor called Ecoamine FG Plus (EFG+). This has

D. W. Johnson; S. Reddy; J. H. Brown

2009-01-01

273

Rocky Mountain Online Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rocky Mountain Online Archive contains archival collections in Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico from 20 participating institutions. To view a list of these institutions, visitors should click on the "About" tab at the top of the page, then click on the link "Participating Institutions". Visitors can click on the "Browse the Archive" tab at the top of the page to browse by institutions, subcategorized by Colorado, Wyoming and New Mexico, or by subjects, which includes the subcategories of subjects, genre, and places. The genres represented are "Audio-visual", "Correspondence", "Diaries", and "Photographs". Visitors may find the abundance of oral histories available under the "Audio-visual" tab very interesting to explore. The "Inventory of the Alamo Navajo Oral History Project 1977-1984", "Inventory of Italians of Albuquerque Oral History Project, 1995-1996", and "Guide to the North Poudre Irrigation Company Oral history Collection" are just some of the many available oral histories.

274

COMMERCIAL SCALE SOLAR-POWERED DESALINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies dealing with the potential of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) for desalination along the Mediterranean Coast and in the Middle East choose to use RES to generate electricity first, and then use this electricity to power desalination. The present work eliminates the phase of electricity generation by using solar thermal energy directly for distillation by evaporation. Saving the thermal

Dan Sagie; Eli Mandelberg; Joseph Weinberg

275

Bald Mountain, Washington Plantation, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides information on the geology of Bald Mountain, an outstanding example of an unvegetated mountain summit in western Maine. Topics include the petrology of the metamorphic rocks exposed on the mountain (layered quartzite and schist), which preserve evidence of their sedimentary origin (graded bedding, cross-bedding). There is also information on the glacial history of the area, as indicated by the presence of glacial striations and erratics. For visitors, there is information on permission and access, directions, sampling information, and activities. References are included.

276

Reconnaissance and economic geology of Copper Mountain metamorphic complex, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Copper Mountain metamorphic complex lies within a westerly trending belt of Precambrian exposures known as the Owl Creek Mountains uplift. The metamorphic complex at Copper Mountain is part of a larger complex known as the Owl Creek Mountains greenstone belt. Until more detailed mapping and petrographic studies can be completed, the Copper Mountain area is best referred to as

W. Dan Hausel

1983-01-01

277

Effective discharge in Rocky Mountain headwater streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whereas effective discharge (Qeff) in mountain streams is commonly associated with a moderate flow such as bankfull discharge (Qbf), this study found that the maximum discharge (Qmax), and not bankfull discharge, is the channel forming or effective flow for gravel transport in plane-bed streams where partial bed mobility causes steep gravel transport rating curves. Qeff may approach bankfull flow in some step-pool channels where gravel moves over a static cobble/boulder bed. Our conclusions are based on magnitude-frequency analyses conducted at 41 gauged Rocky Mountain headwater streams. Because these gauged streams lacked gravel transport data, as is typical, comparable streams with measured transport rates were used to develop scaling relations for rating curve exponents with stream and watershed characteristics. Those scaling relations were then used to estimate the steepness of gravel rating curves at the 41 gauged but unsampled sites. The measured flow frequency distributions were characterized by two fitted power functions. The steepness of the flow frequency distributions and the estimated steepness of gravel transport relations were combined in magnitude-frequency analyses to compute Qeff.

Bunte, Kristin; Abt, Steven R.; Swingle, Kurt W.; Cenderelli, Dan A.

2014-11-01

278

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat  

PubMed Central

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images PMID:16593655

Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

1986-01-01

279

Field Studies Delve Into the Intricacies of Mountain Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain meteorology, in particular weather prediction in complex (rugged) terrain, is emerging as an important topic for science and society. Large urban settlements such as Los Angeles, Hong Kong, and Rio de Janeiro have grown within or in the shadow of complex terrain, and managing the air quality of such cities requires a good understanding of the air flow patterns that spill off of mountains. On a daily time scale, the interconnected engineered and natural systems that sustain urban metabolism and quality of life are affected by weather [Fernando, 2010]. Further, recent military engagements in remote mountainous areas have heightened the need for better weather predictions—alpine warfare is considered to be one of the most dangerous types of combat.

Fernando, Harindra J. S.; Pardyjak, Eric R.

2013-09-01

280

Yucca Mountain Project public interactions  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to keeping the citizens of Nevada informed about activities that relate to the high-level nuclear waste repository program. This paper presents an overview of the Yucca Mountain Project`s public interaction philosophy, objectives, activities and experiences during the two years since Congress directed the DOE to conduct site characterization activities only for the Yucca Mountain site.

Reilly, B.E.

1990-04-01

281

Weather observations on Whistler Mountain during five storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A greater understanding of precipitation formation processes over complex terrain near the west coast of British Colombia will contribute to many relevant applications, such as climate studies, local hydrology, transportation, and winter sport competition. The phase of precipitation is difficult to determine because of the warm and moist weather conditions experienced during the wintertime in coastal mountain ranges. The goal of this study is to investigate the wide range of meteorological conditions that generated precipitation on Whistler Mountain from 4-12 March 2010 during the SNOW-V10 field campaign. During this time period, five different storms were documented in detail and were associated with noticeably different meteorological conditions in the vicinity of Whistler Mountain. New measurement techniques, along with the SNOW-V10 instrumentation, were used to obtain in situ observations during precipitation events along the Whistler mountainside. The results demonstrate a high variability of weather conditions ranging from the synoptic-scale to the macro-scale. These weather events were associated with a variation of precipitation along the mountainside, such as events associated with snow, snow pellets, and rain. Only two events associated with a rain-snow transition along the mountainside were observed, even though above-freezing temperatures along the mountainside were recorded 90 % of the time. On a smaller scale, these events were also associated with a high variability of snowflake types that were observed simultaneously near the top of Whistler Mountain. Overall, these detailed observations demonstrate the importance of understanding small-scale processes to improve observational techniques, short-term weather prediction, and longer-term climate projections over mountainous regions.

Thériault, Julie M.; Rasmussen, Kristen L.; Fisico, Teresa; Stewart, Ronald E.; Joe, Paul; Gultepe, Ismail; Clément, Marilys; Isaac, George A.

2014-01-01

282

Climb every mountain.  

PubMed

In Egypt, the Association of Garbage Collectors for Community Development (AGCCD), created and administered with government support by Zabballeen (low-income people who have collected, sorted, and recycled Cairo's mountains of garbage since 1970), serves an urban settlement of 16,000 where entire households supplement their living from scavenging by raising pigs, chickens, and rabbits. The AGCCD employs 44 women in a primary health care and credit program for women that involves home visits, provision of primary health care, disease prevention, immunization, and reproductive health care (RHC). The low status of the women has meant that the birth of a girl is rarely registered, so that Zabballeen girls can not enjoy the benefits of citizenship. The main goal of the AGCCD has been to increase the role of women in RHC decision-making in their families. Many women have been successful in convincing their husbands of the need for permanent contraception and have resisted efforts to have daughters married at an early age. Recently, RHC discussions have been conducted with men. Women have also begun to actively oppose female genital mutilation. Future challenges for AGCCD include gender training, increasing the birth registration of girls, forming new groups of girls and women to promote women's health by improving gender relations, and providing legal advice and assistance to women, especially those whose births were not registered. PMID:12348580

Awad, L; Traboulsi, O; Abu-habib, L

1998-03-01

283

COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GASDESULFURIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the commercial development of the advancedsilicate (ADVACATE) process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This commercialization follows several years of bench-scale sorbentdevelopment, pilot plant process optimization, and field pilotevaluation. esults are pr...

284

Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

Whipple, Kelin X.

2004-01-01

285

Commercial Development Suborbital Rocket Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The enclosed report provides information on the sixth flight of the Consort suborbital rocket series. Consort 6 is currently scheduled for launch on February 19, 1993, with lift off at 11:00 a.m., Mountain Time. It will carry seven materials and biotechnology experiments, two accelerometer systems, a controller and battery packs in a module nearly 12 feet tall and weighing approximately 1,004 pounds. Consort 6 will reach an apogee of approximately 200 miles providing about 7 minutes of microgravity time. The entire mission, from launch to touchdown, is expected to last approximately 15 minutes. The Consort series is part of a unique suborbital rocket launch services program conducted by the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) in conjunction with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). This service is managed through the Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS), a CCDS based University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). at the This suborbital rocket program provides CCDS investigators with a microgravity environment to achieve commercial development objectives, or to test developmental hardware or techniques in preparation for orbital flights or additional follow-on work. Rocket and launch services for Consort 6, including use of the Starfire 1 launch vehicle, are provided by EER Systems Corporation. Integration of the payload into Starfire 1 will be handled by McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company.

1993-01-01

286

Building for the Future by Expatiating the Past: High Drama from the Summit of China's Learning Mountain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a large-scale learning initiative, the Chinese Communist Party has declared Lushan to be a "learning mountain". There have been people learning at Lushan Mountain for 2000 years. In 1959 there was a Central Committee meeting at Lushan, where Mao Zedong purged his widely respected comrade Peng Dehuai for daring to say people were…

Boshier, Roger; Huang, Yan

2006-01-01

287

Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory  

E-print Network

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory Galveston, Texas Penaeid Shrimp Life Cvcle ^.y Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Circular 307 #12;The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory at commercially important species of shrimp in the Gulf of Mexico through four research programs: (1) Shrimp

288

Monitoring the Snowpack in Remote, Ungauged Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our objective is to estimate seasonal snow volumes, relative to historical trends and extremes, in snow-dominated mountains that have austere infrastructure, sparse gauging, challenges of accessibility, and emerging or enduring insecurity related to water resources. The world's mountains accumulate substantial snow and, in some areas, produce the bulk of the runoff. In ranges like Afghanistan's Hindu Kush, availability of water resources affects US policy, military and humanitarian operations, and national security. The rugged terrain makes surface measurements difficult and also affects the analysis of remotely sensed data. To judge feasibility, we consider two regions, a validation case and a case representing inaccessible mountains. For the validation case, we use the Sierra Nevada of California, a mountain range of extensive historical study, emerging scientific innovation, and conflicting priorities in managing water for agriculture, urban areas, hydropower, recreation, habitat, and flood control. For the austere regional focus, we use the Hindu Kush, where some of the most persistent drought in the world causes food insecurity and combines with political instability, and occasional flooding. Our approach uses a mix of satellite data and spare modeling to present information essential for planning and decision making, ranging from optimization of proposed infrastructure projects to assessment of water resources stored as snow for seasonal forecasts. We combine optical imagery (MODIS on Terra/Aqua), passive microwave data (SSM/I and AMSR-E), retrospective reconstruction with energy balance calculations, and a snowmelt model to establish the retrospective context. With the passive microwave data we bracket the historical range in snow cover volume. The rank orders of total retrieved volume correlates with reconstructions. From a library of historical reconstruction, we find similar cases that provide insights about snow cover distribution at a finer scale than the passive retrievals. Specifically, we examine the decade-long record from Terra and Aqua to bracket the historical record. In the California Sierra Nevada, surface measurements have sufficient spatial and temporal resolution for us to validate our approach, whereas in the Hindu Kush surface data are sparse and access presents significant difficulties.

Dozier, J.; Davis, R. E.; Bair, N.; Rittger, K. E.

2013-12-01

289

10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE AUXILIARY STRUCTURES. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

290

Native Plants of Montara Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is always inspiring to find websites that have been created by a committed individual who is passionate about the site's subject. Developed by naturalist Chuck Kozak, Native Plants of Montara Mountain is just that type of website. Mr. Kozak has assembled a nice online field guide of plants native to Montara Mountain, a northern spur of California's Santa Cruz Mountains. The guide organizes plants by Family and Scientific name, Common name, or Color and Type. Site visitors can also find plants by using the alphabetically organized Master Index. The numerous plant entries include clear photos and brief descriptions. Although the website focuses on the flora of a specific area, many of these plants can be found in other geographic regions as well. This site is also reviewed in the September 3, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

291

Magnetic investigations along selected high-resolution seismic traverses in the central block of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Ground magnetic data collected along several traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are interpreted. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Magnetic data and models along traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain reveal anomalies associated with known faults and indicate a number of possible concealed faults beneath the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain. The central part of the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain is characterized by numerous small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting. Magnetic modeling of the terrain along the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain indicates that terrain induced magnetic anomalies of about 100 to 150 nT are present along some profiles where steep terrain exists above the magnetometer.

Ponce, D.A.; Sikora, R.F.; Roberts, C.W.; Morin, R.L.; Halvorson, P.F.

1995-12-31

292

Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station  

SciTech Connect

A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

Lyles Brad,McCurdy Greg,Chapman Jenny,Miller Julianne

2012-01-01

293

BLOOD MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-resource survey of the Blood Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia, indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources. Natural gas may be present at great depth, perhaps 5 mi down and below the overthrust sheets of the Blue Ridge Mountains, but presently available information is not adequate to evaluate the resource potential of this commodity. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

Koeppen, Robert, P.; Armstrong, Michelle, K.

1984-01-01

294

Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides data on plants and fungi from the Hengduan Mountains and adjacent areas of south-central China, including the Gaoligong Mountains and Tibetan Himalaya. The data were derived from georeferenced collections made on recent expeditions (1984-present) to the region, and include specimens with DNA tissue. Users can browse specimens by name; search by taxon, collector number, or date; or browse collecting localities in the database using Google Earth (TM). There is also information on expeditions and personnel, the Biodiversity of the Eastern Himalaya project, an image gallery, a multilingual gazetteer and thesaurus, and a map showing the historic Tibetan provinces of the region.

295

78 FR 29366 - Green Mountain Power Corporation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...TS04-277-002] Green Mountain Power Corporation...that on May 2, 2013, Green Mountain Power Corporation...intervention to the Federal Energy Regulatory...

2013-05-20

296

Conservation Assessment of the Sacramento Mountain Salamander.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document synthesizes existing information on the Sacramento Mountain salamander, a terrestrial amphibian endemic to three mountain ranges in southern New Mexico. The salamander is found in mixed-conifer forests primarily on USDA Forest Service lands,...

C. A. Ramotnik

1997-01-01

297

RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project  

E-print Network

RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project Continuing a pumped storage project to generate electricity during peak demand. The proposed Red Mountain Bar Pumped for irrigation water storage, flood control, power production and recreation, the Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage

Laughlin, Robert B.

298

Early petroleum exploration, Rocky Mountain region, USA  

SciTech Connect

Historically, geology exposed on the flanks of Rocky Mountain uplifts has given unique opportunities to integrate surface and subsurface data to understand the petroleum geology of the intermontane basins. Exploration evolved from drilling near seeps to mapping of surface anticlines, to use of geophysics and subsurface data acquired by drilling. Oil seeps were first recorded by explorers in Wyoming in 1832 (Dallas dome, Wind River basin) and 1847 (Absaroka thrust, southwest area). Oil skimmed from springs was used for medicinal purposes and sold for wagon lubrication. The first commercial well was drilled in 1862 by an oil seep 9 mi north of Florence, Colorado. Subsequent drilling led to the discovery of the Florence field which has now produced more than 15,000,000 barrels of oil. Production is from fractured Cretaceous shale in a tilted graben with a fault trap on the updip side. Early fields were geologically diverse and reports describing the accumulations developed concepts that guided exploration in the region. The following fields illustrate the wide range of trapping conditions. (1) Faults and fractures on homoclinal dip: Florence-Oil Creek area (1862) and Boulder (1901), Colorado; Uinta basin, Utah. (2) Closed anticline: Dallas dome (1884) and Salt Creek (1908), Wyoming; Rangely (1902), Colorado. (3) Stratigraphic change on anticlinal plunge or regional dip: Moorcroft (1888) and Shannon (1889), Wyoming. (4) Syncline: Mexican Hat (1907), Utah; Blanco gas field (1926), New Mexico. (5) Unconformity: Kevin-Sunburst (1922), Montana. Techniques and ideas developed in areas peripheral to the Rocky Mountains also influence exploration in the overall region, especially Kansas, Oklahoma, and Canada.

Weimer, R.J.

1991-03-01

299

Superconductors; Slowly moving to commercialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that, although progress continues in high-temperature superconductors (HTS), as reported at the Washington Materials forum and the 93rd Annual Meeting of the American Ceramic Society earlier this year, the ceramics community has realized that many problems must be solved before commercialization is possible. For large-scale applications such as high-field magnetic coils, the materials must be fabricated in

Sheppard

1991-01-01

300

BotEC: Scale of the Himalayas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Question Let's imagine a scale model of the Earth, and let's imagine that the Earth is the size of a basketball. Suppose that you wanted to build the Himalayas to scale on the surface of the basketball. How tall would you make your scale mountains?

Tewksbury, Barb

301

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2010-04-01

302

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2010-04-01

303

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2010-04-01

304

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213 Section 9.213 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.213 Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

2010-04-01

305

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2010-04-01

306

27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80 Section 9.80 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.80 York Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2010-04-01

307

Atmospheric deposition maps for the Rocky Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variability in atmospheric deposition across the Rocky Mountains is influenced by elevation, slope, aspect, and precipitation amount and by regional and local sources of air pollution. To improve estimates of deposition in mountainous regions, maps of average annual atmospheric deposition loadings of nitrate, sulfate, and acidity were developed for the Rocky Mountains by using spatial statistics. A parameter-elevation regressions on

Leora Nanus; Donald H. Campbell; George P. Ingersoll; David W. Clow; M. Alisa Mast

2003-01-01

308

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2013-04-01

309

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2013-04-01

310

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2014-04-01

311

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2012-04-01

312

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2014-04-01

313

27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80 Section 9.80 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.80 York Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2013-04-01

314

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2012-04-01

315

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2011-04-01

316

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2014-04-01

317

27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80 Section 9.80 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.80 York Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2011-04-01

318

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2012-04-01

319

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2011-04-01

320

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2011-04-01

321

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2013-04-01

322

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213 Section 9.213 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.213 Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

2012-04-01

323

Mountain restoration: Soil and surface wildlife habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much wildlife habitat is being destroyed by extractive resource industries in mountain environments. This article illustrates how mountain wildlife habitat was restored in a devastated area. A strip mine for coal on the east slopes of the Alberta Rockies, occupied during its operations by Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis, Shaw 1803), was reclaimed as bighorn habitat. By considering

B. N. MacCullum; V. Geist

1992-01-01

324

BEHAVIOR OF HIGH RISK MOUNTAIN LIONS  

E-print Network

BEHAVIOR OF HIGH RISK MOUNTAIN LIONS BIG BEND NATIONAL PARK, TEXAS Final Report Cooperative Parks incidents have occurred in the last five years, in which mountain lions (Felis concolor of humans. In thirty previous years (1953-1983, at least thirty-eight occurrences of mountain lions

Packard, Jane M.

325

A comparison of two potential repositories: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Two repositories in the same country, yet Congress and the DOE manage them differently. While Congress encumbers WIPP with unanticipated oversight and inappropriate regulations, Congress streamlines the commercial repository program and promises improved regulations for Yucca Mountain. While DOE encouraged science at the expense of the WIPP infrastructure, DOE postponed its scientific investigations at Yucca Mountain and constructed an infrastructure, large enough to support an ambitious program that was never realized. Somewhere between WIPP and Yucca Mountain lies an ideal repository program. A program where consistent national policy promotes progress; where lucid regulations inspire confidence; where science and infrastructure are balanced; and where oversight groups do not become the tail that wags the dog. Neither WIPP nor Yucca Mountain are ideal programs, but each has its advantages that approach the ideal. Consistent national policy would steer the ideal repository program in a predictable direction. Here Yucca Mountain has the advantage. Successive legislation has streamlined the siting process and promises better regulations. From the beginning, the ideal program would know its regulators and regulations. Again, Yucca Mountain has the advantage. More familiar with regulators and regulations, the Yucca Mountain program had the foresight not to declare HLW to be hazardous and subject to dual regulations. The ideal program would equitably balance its science and infrastructure. Here neither program has the advantage and could possibly represent extremes. The WIPP`s emphasis on scientific investigations left it with little or no infrastructure to deal with regulations and oversight. A regulatory infrastructure, for example, could have forewarned WIPP that its in situ tests were not relevant to the regulations. On the opposite extreme, the Yucca Mountain`s emphasis on infrastructure left it with less money for scientific investigations.

Pflum, C.G.

1994-07-11

326

Seasonal pattern of regional carbon balance in the central Rocky Mountains from surface and airborne measurements  

E-print Network

, King's College, London, UK. 3 Now at School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Arizona severely damaged by drought, fire, and insect outbreaks, which have been quantified at local scales but not assessed in terms of carbon uptake at regional scales. The Airborne Carbon in the Mountains Experiment

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

327

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia  

PubMed Central

We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that >21% of the serum samples had antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae. PMID:18214179

Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P.; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David

2007-01-01

328

Plate Borders and Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features animations of four different types of plate boundaries, including one animation of the collision of two pieces of continental crust, forming steep mountain ranges. The animations are all presented in flash, and the plate convergence offers a useful, generic view of orogeny.

Schlumberger Excellence In Educational Development, Inc.

329

AN ANCIENT ROCKY MOUNTAIN CAVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

High in the southern Rocky Mountains, a man in his early 40s died ca. 8000 years ago in a small cave. His skeletal remains were discovered in 1988 by three cave explorers. Realizing the implications of their discovery, the explorers ini- tiated contacts to form a research team to study the site. Our team has spent many hours discussing the

CYNDI J. MOSCH; PATTY JO WATSON

330

Artifical Mountains: A Synthetic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a secondary science unit which uses an urban environment to develop a comparison between naturally formed mountains and man-constructed skyscrapers. The unit is one in a series of fifty laboratory activities designed to stimulate students of earth science by interrelating scientific principles and procedures to a familiar environment.…

Sipiera, Paul P.; Aumann, John A.

1974-01-01

331

Mountain Heritage, Revised Edition (1975).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written by West Virginia scholars, this resource book consists of 12 chapters and is designed to: (1) produce understanding and appreciation of West Virginians' cultural heritage, and (2) aid in developing cultural educational programs. Beginning with man's entry into the mountain wilderness, the contents progressively move through his cultural…

Maurer, B. B., Ed.

332

WONDER MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, WASHINGTON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys in the Wonder Mountain Roadless Area, Washington indicate a probable resource potential for manganese. Deposits are small (less than 12,000 tons of demonstrated resources) and are primarily manganese silicate (bementite) which is difficult to refine. There is no indication of any resource potential for other metallic, nonmetallic or energy resources in the area.

Church, S. E.; Iverson, S. R.

1984-01-01

333

BisonMountain Third Floor  

E-print Network

BisonMountain Lion Fishes of Texas up to 4th floorv vdown to 2nd floor Third Floor TheMuseum Store in Texas, including a few that are currently endangered or threatened in the wild. The Fishes of Texas. Being an urban watershed, Waller Creek suffers many pollution problems. Trash from the streets washes

Johnston, Daniel

334

Rocky Mountain Bio Lab: Wildflowers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explores the work of environmentalist John Hart, a Professor of Environmental Science at U.C. Berkley. In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, Dr. Hart has established an experimental laboratory in which he has artificially created and maintained a 3-degree increase in surface temperature of a plot of land, and documented the impact on plant species occupying the plot.

Geographic, National

335

Commercial combustion research: ISS hardware and commercial products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary ISS hardware to be used for commercial combustion research, and the first commercial hardware to be sent to ISS, is SpaceDRUMS™. The centerpiece of the display is a full-scale mockup of the SpaceDRUMS™ facility, which is scheduled to be launched to ISS aboard UF-1 in January, 2001. This facility was developed by CCACS industrial member Guigné International Ltd. (GIL), in partnership with SpaceHab™. It is capable of high-precision positioning, manipulation and shaping of both solid and liquid samples. The positioning system operates by application of pulsed acoustic restoring forces. This display features some of the commercial combustion hardware planned for the International Space Station, as well as one of the early commercial products to come out of the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines. Backing up the display is a board showing all of the combustion research within CCACS. Each of the projects is described, along with the hardware planned for the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. The industrial partners in CCACS are listed, along with the project interests of each. Finally, summaries of the investments made to date by all the parties are shown. The display also contains a new commercial product, a de-modulating digital camera, which was developed in the course of the combustion research within CCACS and in conjunction with member Princeton Instruments (now a division of Roper Scientific). The camera operates through lock-in detection and amplification applied to the signals associated with each pixel in the field of view. By employing a modulation/de-modulation technique, weak images can be extracted from the strong backgrounds that characterize combustion experiments. Particular portions of flames and solid matter within flames can be observed using this camera. .

Schowengerdt, F. D.

2000-01-01

336

NASA commercial programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

1988-01-01

337

Commercialization and Startup Primer  

E-print Network

Technology Commercialization and Startup Primer Office of Technology Licensing (OTL) and UF Tech Connect® Where Science Meets Business #12;Table of Contents page Overview 1 Technology Commercialization and assistance to faculty, staff, and entrepreneurs who may be interested in commercializing University

Jawitz, James W.

338

Pennsylvania Commercial Vegetable  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations #12;NOT TO BE USED BY HOME GARDENERS This copy of the Pennsylvania Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations for 2014 replaces all previous production guide is intended for the commercial vegetable grower who has to make numerous managerial

Guiltinan, Mark

339

Nanotechnology Commercialization in Oregon  

E-print Network

Nanotechnology Commercialization in Oregon February 27, 2012 Portland State University Physics Seminar Robert D. "Skip" Rung President and Executive Director #12;2 Nanotechnology Commercialization the transfer of new technologies into products for commercial and public benefit; To develop and sustain

Moeck, Peter

340

PHOTOVOLTAICS AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS--  

E-print Network

PHOTOVOLTAICS AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS-- A NATURAL MATCH A study highlighting strategic? Business owners and commercial users are uniquely positioned to capitalize on other important factors: · PV's electrical output matches well with patterns of energy use in commercial buildings, promoting effective

Perez, Richard R.

341

Commercial Radio as Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

1996-01-01

342

Environmental Impacts of Transportation to the Potential Repository at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada analyzes a Proposed Action to construct, operate, monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. As part of the Proposed Action, the EIS analyzes the potential impacts of transporting commercial and DOE spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to Yucca Mountain from 77 sites across the United States. The analysis includes information on the comparative impacts of transporting these materials by truck and rail and discusses the impacts of building a rail line or using heavy-haul trucks to move rail casks from a mainline railroad in Nevada to the site. This paper provides an overview of the analyses and the potential impacts of these transportation activities. The potential transportation impacts were looked at from two perspectives: transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste by legal-weight truck or by rail on a national scale and impacts specific to Nevada from the transportation of these materials from the State borders to the Yucca Mountain site. In order to address the range of impacts that could result from the most likely modes, legal-weight truck and rail, the EIS employed two analytical scenarios--mostly legal-weight truck and mostly rail. Estimated national transportation impacts were based on 24 years of transportation activities. Approximately 8 fatalities could occur from all causes in the nationwide general population from incident-free transportation activities of the mostly legal-weight truck scenario and about 4 from the mostly rail scenario. The analysis examined the radiological consequences under the maximum foreseeable accident scenario and also overall accident risk. The overall accident risk over the 24 year period would be about 0.0002 latent cancer fatality for the mostly legal-weight truck scenario and about 0.0005 latent cancer fatality for the mostly rail scenario. The maximum reasonably foreseeable accident scenario resulted in 0.55 latent cancer fatality for the legal-weight truck case and 5 latent cancer fatalities in the case of mostly rail. The EIS also analyzed the impacts associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the State of Nevada. This included: constructing a branch rail line and using it to ship waste to the repository; upgrading highways in Nevada for use by heavy-haul trucks; constructing and operating an intermodal transfer station; and transporting personnel and materials to support construction and operation of the repository.

R.L. Sweeney; R. Best; P. Bolton; P. Adams

2002-01-03

343

Trace gas and aerosol measurements at Whiteface Mountain, New York  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a 12-month program of atmospheric chemical measurements performed at Whiteface Mountain, New York. The purpose of this program was to study the concentrations and seasonal variability of several atmospheric chemical species which are of importance in the acid deposition issue. Whiteface Mountain (WFM) was chosen as the site of these measurements because it lies in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, one of the areas considered susceptible to ecological damage from acid deposition. These measurements were the first long term study of atmospheric chemistry in the Adirondacks. Continuous real-time measurements of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ were made with commercial instruments modified for increased sensitivity and stability, and aerosol composition, HNO/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/ were measured with a three-stage filter pack. The main conclusions of this work are (1) that concentrations of gaseous SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ are highest in the winter months, whereas their oxidation products SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and HNO/sub 3/ were highest in summer; (2) that aerosol acidity is closely associated with SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, aerosol NO/sub 3//sup -/ concentrations being very low in all seasons; (3) and that the relative importance of aerosol acidity and HNO/sub 3/ vary with season, because the strong seasonal variation in SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ results in a very strong seasonal variation in aerosol acidity.

Kelly, T.J.

1985-09-01

344

BIOSPHERE MODELING AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the biosphere modeling efforts are to assess how radionuclides potentially released from the proposed repository could be transported through a variety of environmental media. The study of these transport mechanisms, referred to as pathways, is critical in calculating the potential radiation dose to man. Since most of the existing and pending regulations applicable to the Project are radiation dose based standards, the biosphere modeling effort will provide crucial technical input to support the Viability Assessment (VA), the Working Draft of License Application (WDLA), and the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). In 1982, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) was enacted into law. This federal law, which was amended in 1987, addresses the national issue of geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste generated by commercial nuclear power plants, as well as defense programs during the past few decades. As required by the law, the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a site characterization project at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, approximately 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, to determine if the site is suitable for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository.

NING LIU, JEFFERY J.TAPPEN, DE WU AND CHAO-HSIUNG TUNG

1998-01-28

345

Ecology of Streams and Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides an introduction to the ecology of streams and mountains. It discusses how trees falling into a mountain stream can provide habitat by creating logjams, even going so far as to float to the sea during spring floods, where they provide cover for ocean fish. There is also a description of alpine ecosystems, those which exist above the tree line, and the animals that live or visit there, and a discussion of the idea of structure and function as it pertains to organisms as diverse as elephants and fungi. A section on soil ecology describes the relationship between mushrooms, the soil, and other organisms such as trees. A quiz and glossary are also provided.

346

Recompression therapy of mountain sickness.  

PubMed

This paper describes the treatment of a severe case of acute mountain sickness with a portable hyperbaric chamber. A 37-year old climber was treated for acute high altitude pulmonary oedema, which developed on the North Col of Mount Everest, at an altitude of 7,060 m. The treatment in the portable Gamow bag hyperbaric chamber lasted two hours, with a bag pressure of 103 mm Hg (0.136 kg/cm2 or 2 psig) using ambient air, without the addition of oxygen. With this pressure increase, the hyperbaric chamber lowered the patient's effective ambient altitude from 6,050 to 4,400 m. The treatment was successful and the pulmonary oedema disappeared. Outside the hyperbaric chamber, the patient recovered fully when he reached the altitude of 2,000 m. Portable hyperbaric chamber is recommended for the treatment of severe cases of acute mountain sickness, as well as for risky descent to lower altitudes. PMID:12150075

Markovi?, Dubravko; Kovacevi?, Hasan

2002-03-01

347

Glass mountain geothermal exploration project  

SciTech Connect

Although often perceived as time-consuming, complex, and difficult, the environmental review process for proposed geothermal exploration projects in California can be completed in a timely, straight-forward, and cost-efficient fashion. All that is required is a well-defined project and thorough understanding of the pertinent environmental issues at the beginning of the process, close coordination with the lead agencies throughout the process, and preparation of a thorough environmental document that adequately addresses all issues. An example of this type of success is the Environmental Assessment/Initial Study for the Glass Mountain Geothermal Exploration Project. For this project, California Energy General Corporation (as Unit Operator) has proposed to implement a Plan of Operation for exploratory geothermal drilling near Glass Mountain in northeastern California. Utilizing the steps outlined above, the environmental review process for the project was completed in less than 11 months, even though multiple agencies were involved in the process.

Adams, H.; McClenahan, L. [MHA Environmental Consulting, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); McClain, D. [CE General Corporation, Portland, OR (United States)

1995-12-31

348

Humps and hollows: basalt weathering in low-latitude mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical, chemical and biological weathering processes are significant contributors to landscape development in mountain blocks worldwide, and over long time scales, but the interplay between different weathering processes is uncertain. Jurassic-age basalt lava flows underlie the Drakensberg mountain range of eastern Lesotho, southern Africa (summits 3200-3400 m asl), and weathered bedrock is commonly exposed on flat plateau surfaces. Subaerial weathering throughout the Quaternary and Holocene has resulted in a range of weathering forms, some of which exploit pre-existing cooling fractures within the basalts, and some of which are independent of geological control. These forms include pseudokarst-style potholes, karren and other microforms. The geometry, chemistry of water contained within the potholes, seasonal presence of ice, sediment and organic residues all suggest that physical, chemical and biological weathering processes are significant at different times and in different ways in subaerial weathering. Moreover, it is also likely that these process-types show pronounced seasonal variability that means that the interplay between different processes is subtle. Aggregated rates of land surface denudation or geomorphic development of single landforms therefore hide this subtle interplay between different processes. Changes in mountain summit soil depth (through soil erosion), ecosystems and climate will change this balance between different processes, and will operate over different spatial and temporal scales.

Knight, Jasper; Grab, Stefan

2013-04-01

349

TSPA Model for the Yucca Mountain Unsaturated Zone  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being considered as a potential site for a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment (TSPA) calculations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Such calculations require submodels for all important engineered and natural components of the disposal system. There are five submodels related to the unsaturated zone: climate, infiltration, mountain-scale flow of water, seepage into emplacement drifts, and radionuclide transport. For each of these areas, models have been developed and implemented for use in TSPA. The climate model is very simple (a set of climate states have been deduced from paleoclimate data, and the times when climate changes occur in the future have been estimated), but the other four models make use of complex process models involving time-consuming computer runs. An important goal is to evaluate the impact of uncertainties (e.g., incomplete knowledge of the site) on the estimates of potential repository performance, so particular attention is given to the key uncertainties for each area. Uncertainties in climate, infiltration, and mountain-scale flow are represented in TSPA simulations by means of discrete high, medium, and low cases. Uncertainties in seepage and radionuclide transport are represented by means of continuous probability distributions for several key parameters.

Wilson, M. L.; Ho, C. K.

2002-02-26

350

TSPA Model for the Yucca Mountain Unsaturated Zone  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being considered as a potential site for a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment (TSPA) calculations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Such calculations require submodels for all important engineered and natural components of the disposal system. There are five submodels related to the unsaturated zone: climate, infiltration, mountain-scale flow of water, seepage into emplacement drifts, and radionuclide transport. For each of these areas, models have been developed and implemented for use in TSPA. The climate model is very simple (a set of climate states have been deduced from paleoclimate data, and the times when climate changes occur in the future have been estimated), but the other four models make use of complex process models involving time-consuming computer runs. An important goal is to evaluate the impact of uncertainties (e.g., incomplete knowledge of the site) on the estimates of potential repository performance, so particular attention is given to the key uncertainties for each area. Uncertainties in climate, infiltration, and mountain-scale flow are represented in TSPA simulations by means of discrete high, medium, and low cases, Uncertainties in seepage and radionuclide transport are represented by means of continuous probability distributions for several key parameters.

M.L. Wilson; C.K. Ho

2001-12-12

351

Mountain pine beetle infestation impacted by water availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation pattern and landscape structure intersect to exert strong control over ecohydrological dynamics at the watershed scale. The hydrologic implications of vegetation disturbance (e.g. fire, disease etc.) depend on the spatial pattern and form of environmental change. Here we investigate this intersection at Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF), Montana with a focus on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic currently affecting the Rocky Mountains. We calibrated QuickBird remote sensing imagery with a leaf-level spectral library of local vegetation. We used this spectral library to determine optimal vegetation indices for differentiating stages of beetle infestation within the 37 km2 TCEF watershed. These indices formed the basis of a three-component mixing model to quantify the extent and magnitude of beetle infestation across the TCEF watershed. We compared disturbance patterns to spatially distributed topography and vegetation variables derived from a LiDAR-based digital elevation model (DEM) of TCEF. We determined that certain landscape characteristics (low vegetation density, south facing slopes, steep slopes, locations with small contributing areas, and locations with lower values of the topographic wetness index (TWI)) were significantly more likely to exhibit the effects of beetle infestation. Our efforts to monitor vegetation mortality across space and time provide a context for assessing landscape susceptibility to initial mountain pine beetle infestation via feedbacks between biodiversity and hydrological patterns and further research into understanding how outbreak (i.e. landscape scale infestation) patterns may affect watershed ecohydrology via altered water and biogeochemical cycles.

Kaiser, K. E.; McGlynn, B.; Emanuel, R.

2012-04-01

352

Weathering of Stone Mountain Granite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weathering of Stone Mountain Granite (adamellitc) forms kaolinite, endcllite, allophane and gibbsite of which kaolinite is the most stable. Bulk density ranges from 2.65 in fresh rock to a minimum of 1.48 in saprolite. It is a good index of weathering. Abrasion pH ranges from 5.0 in saprolite to 9.3 in fresh rock, and is direct)y related to bulk

1962-01-01

353

Gravity and magnetic investigations of the Ghost Dance and Solitario Canyon faults, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Ground magnetic and gravity data collected along traverses across the Ghost Dance and Solitario Canyon faults on the eastern and western flanks, respectively, of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are interpreted. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Gravity and magnetic data and models along traverses across the Ghost Dance and Solitario Canyon faults show prominent anomalies associated with known faults and reveal a number of possible concealed faults beneath the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain. The central part of the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain is characterized by several small amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small scale faulting.

Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.

1995-12-31

354

Laser Technology in Commercial Atomic Clocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial atomic frequency standards (AFS) are deployed in diverse civilian, military, and aerospace applications, ranging from high-precision measurement and calibration to navigation, communications and, of course, timekeeping. Currently, commercially available AFS include magnetically-selected cesium beam frequency standards and hydrogen masers and lamp-pumped rubidium oscillators. Despite the revolution in atomic physics and laboratory-scale AFS brought about by the advent of the

R. Lutwak

2006-01-01

355

Micrometeorites from the Transantarctic Mountains  

PubMed Central

We report the discovery of large accumulations of micrometeorites on the Myr-old, glacially eroded granitic summits of several isolated nunataks in the Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains. The number (>3,500) of large (>400 ?m and up to 2 mm in size) melted and unmelted particles is orders of magnitudes greater than other Antarctic collections. Flux estimates, bedrock exposure ages and the presence of ?0.8-Myr-old microtektites suggest that extraterrestrial dust collection occurred over the last 1 Myr, taking up to 500 kyr to accumulate based on 2 investigated find sites. The size distribution and frequency by type of cosmic spherules in the >200-?m size fraction collected at Frontier Mountain (investigated in detail in this report) are similar to those of the most representative known micrometeorite populations (e.g., South Pole Water Well). This and the identification of unusual types in terms of composition (i.e., chondritic micrometeorites and spherulitic aggregates similar to the ?480-kyr-old ones recently found in Antarctic ice cores) and size suggest that the Transantarctic Mountain micrometeorites constitute a unique and essentially unbiased collection that greatly extends the micrometeorite inventory and provides material for studies on micrometeorite fluxes over the recent (?1 Myr) geological past. PMID:19011091

Rochette, P.; Folco, L.; Suavet, C.; van Ginneken, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Perchiazzi, N.; Braucher, R.; Harvey, R. P.

2008-01-01

356

Hydrology of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Yucca Mountain, located in southern Nevada in the Mojave Desert, is being considered as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Although the site is arid, previous studies indicate net infiltration rates of 5-10 mm yr-1 under current climate conditions. Unsaturated flow of water through the mountain generally is vertical and rapid through the fractures of the welded tuffs and slow through the matrix of the nonwelded tuffs. The vitric-zeolitic boundary of the nonwelded tuffs below the potential repository, where it exists, causes perching and substantial lateral flow that eventually flows through faults near the eastern edge of the potential repository and recharges the underlying groundwater system. Fast pathways are located where water flows relatively quickly through the unsaturated zone to the water table. For the bulk of the water a large part of the travel time from land surface to the potential repository horizon (~300 m below land surface) is through the interlayered, low fracture density, nonwelded tuff where flow is predominately through the matrix. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being modeled using a three-dimensional, dual-continuum numerical model to predict the results of measurements and observations in new boreholes and excavations. The interaction between experimentalists and modelers is providing confidence in the conceptual model and the numerical model and is providing researchers with the ability to plan further testing and to evaluate the usefulness or necessity of further data collection.

Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Fabryka-Martin, J. M.

2001-01-01

357

COMMERCIAL SERVICES SUSTAINABLE FOOD POLICY  

E-print Network

COMMERCIAL SERVICES SUSTAINABLE FOOD POLICY February 2013 Commercial Services (CS) provides a range, and associated action plan, through the Commercial Services Sustainability Steering Group and the University

Haase, Markus

358

The Mountains of Io: Global and Geological Perspectives from Voyager and Galileo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To search for local and global scale geologic associations that may be related to the internal dynamics of Io, we have completed a global catalog of all mountains and volcanic centers. We have identified 115 mountain structures (covering approx. 3% of the surface) and 541 volcanic centers, including paterae (calderas and dark spots) and shield volcanoes. The average length of an Ionian mountain is 157 km, with the longest being 570 km. The mean height of Ionian mountains is 6.3 km, and the highest known mountain is Boosaule Montes (17.5 +/- 3 km). Five basic morphologic types of mountains have been identified; mesa, plateau peak, ridge, and massif. Very few mountains bear any physical similarity. to classic volcanic landforms, but many resemble flatiron mountains on Earth and are interpreted as tilted crustal blocks. This would be consistent with the hypothesis that most mountains are thrust blocks formed as a result of compressive stresses built up in the lower crust due to the global subsidence of volcanic layers as they are buried over time. More than one mechanism may be responsible for all Ionian mountains, however. The proximity of some mountains to paterae may indicate a direct link between some mountains and volcanism, although it is not always clear which came first. In contrast to earlier studies, a pronounced bimodal pattern is observed in the global distribution of both mountains and volcanic centers. The regions of highest areal densities of volcanic centers are near the sub- and anti-Jovian regions, but are offset roughly 90deg in longitude from the two, regions of greatest concentration of mountains. This anticorrelation may indicate the overprinting of a second stress field on the global compressive stresses due to subsidence. The bimodal distribution of volcanic centers and mountains is consistent with models of asthenospheric tidal heating and internal convection developed by Tackley et al.Over regions of mantle upwelling, compressive stresses in the lower crust induced by global subsidence might be reduced, encouraging volcanism and discouraging mountain building. In regions of mantle downwelling, these compressive stresses in the lower crust might be increased, discouraging volcanism and encouraging mountain building. Alternatively, the global pattern may be related to possible (but undocumented) nonsynchronous rotation of lo, which would produce two regions each of compression and extension in the crust. Evidence of layering and of mass wasting, including landslides, block sliding, debris aprons and downslope creep, on Ionian mountains suggests that the crust of Io is essentially a layered stack of partially consolidated volcanic lavas and plume deposits, becoming more consolidated with depth. The lower crust especially may also be ductily deformed, punctuated by volcanic intrusions and faulting at paterae, and broken into blocks, some of which have been uplifted to form mountains.

Schenk, Paul; Hargitai, Henrik; Wilson, Ronda; McEwen, Alfred; Thomas, Peter; Bredekamp, Joe (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

359

The structure and stratigraphy of South Mountain, west-central Vermont  

SciTech Connect

The geology of South Mountain, in Bristol, Vermont, consists of rift-related clastic sediments on a Middle Proterozoic basement. Both the basement and the sediments have been subsequently deformed by the Taconic and Acadian orogenies. South Mountain lies at the northern end of the Ripton anticline, a basement-cored, doubly-plunging, map-scale fold. The Late Proterozoic to Lower Cambrian stratigraphic sequence above the basement includes the Pinnacle Formation, the Forestdale Marble, the Fairfield Pond Formation and the Cheshire Quartzite. This study concentrates on the Cheshire Quartzite and the Fairfield Pond Formation in order to work out a more detailed structural and stratigraphic model for the Cheshire Quartzite and to examine the contact relationship between the two formations. Although in general agreement with previous studies of nearby areas, this study shows that stratigraphic and structural relationships on South Mountain are more complex than previously reported. Preliminary results of mapping show a series of medium and large scale folds trending NNE on the east side of the mountain and trending due north on the west. A regionally penetrative east-dipping cleavage is folded on the east side of the mountain by east verging folds with west-dipping axial planes. A later, west-dipping cleavage associated with the west-dipping axial planes becomes sub-vertical toward the central part of the mountain. On the west side of the mountain, however, the late cleavage is either not present or is very weakly expressed in the rocks. Additionally, some rocks currently mapped as the eastern-most Cheshire Quartzite are structurally below the Fairfield Pond Formation and hence may be part of the Pinnacle Formation. This may require new structural interpretations including the possibility of a fault along the eastern side of South Mountain.

Condon, R.K. (Middlebury College, VT (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-03-01

360

Large Scale Online Learning of Image Similarity through Ranking  

E-print Network

, 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View CA, 94043 Varun Sharma vasharma@google.com Google, RMZ of Jerusalem, 91904, Israel Samy Bengio bengio@google.com Google, 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View CA that is most similar. For large scale data, where man-in-the-loop experiments are prohibitively costly

Kim, Tae-Kyun

361

Laser Technology in Commercial Atomic Clocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial atomic frequency standards (AFS) are deployed in diverse civilian, military, and aerospace applications, ranging from high-precision measurement and calibration to navigation, communications and, of course, timekeeping. Currently, commercially available AFS include magnetically-selected cesium beam frequency standards and hydrogen masers and lamp-pumped rubidium oscillators. Despite the revolution in atomic physics and laboratory-scale AFS brought about by the advent of the tunable laser in the early 1970s, commercial AFS invariably rely on more conventional atomic physics technology developed in the 1950s. The reason for this lack of advancement of commercial AFS technology is the relatively poor reliability and environmental sensitivity of narrow-linewidth single-mode laser sources at atomic resonance wavelengths. Over the past 8 years, Symmetricom, in collaboration with laser manufacturers, has developed specialized laser sources for commercial AFS applications. These laser devices, optimized for high spectral purity and long-term reliability, will enable a new generation of commercial AFS. This talk will briefly describe two laser-based atomic frequency standard development programs at Symmetricom. The Chip-Scale Atomic Clock, two orders of magnitude smaller and lower power than any commercial AFS, will enable atomic timing accuracy in portable battery-powered applications. The Optically-Pumped Cesium Beam Frequency Standard, under development for deployment onboard the GPS-III satellite constellation, will provide enhanced short-term stability and longer lifetime compared to magnetically-selected cesium beam AFS.

Lutwak, R.

2006-05-01

362

Ecohydrology of the Luquillo Mountains of Northeast Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal humid tropical mountains are major sources of sediment, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved fluxes to the ocean. They are also important sources of food, fiber, municipal and agricultural water. Unlike water-limited drylands their ecohydrology is influenced by excess water and a high frequency of natural and hydrologically induced disturbances. However, like water-limited drylands, the spatial distribution of water across the landscape can play a fundamental role on biogeochemical and ecological processes. This paper reviews the influence of water on the critical zones and ecohydrology of the Luquillo Mountains of Northeastern Puerto Rico. Over a horizontal distance of 10 to 20 km, Luquillo life zones change from subtropical dry conditions at the coast to cloud enshrouded mountain peaks where the vegetation is stunted, evapotranspiration is reduced, and cloud water interception adds to annual precipitation such that annual rainfall approaches annual runoff. Along this elevational gradient there are systematic changes in climate, vegetation structure and diversity, gross and net primary productivity, carbon storage, and hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles. At the scale of hillslopes within the elevational gradients, soil nutrients, soil moisture, and soil oxygen vary systematically from ridge tops to adjacent valleys and topographic position is correlated to landscape stability and vegetation composition and structure. At landscape scales, hurricanes are the major control on forest age and structure and their associated defoliation and biomass loss can have large influences on both hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, because of the rapid re-growth of hurricane disturbed forests, the fluxes of most hydrologic pathways return to pre-hurricane rates within a year. Biogeochemical can take years to decades to return to pre-hurricane conditions. This presentation reviews these relationships and the challenges and opportunities related to measuring hydrologic and ecohydrologic properties in this and similar humid tropical mountains.

Scatena, F. N.

2012-12-01

363

Lunar Commercialization Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

Martin, Gary L.

2008-01-01

364

Lighting in Commercial Buildings  

EIA Publications

Lighting is a major consumer of electricity in commercial buildings and a target for energy savings through use of energy-efficient light sources along with other advanced lighting technologies. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) collects information on types of lighting equipment, the amount of floorspace that is lit, and the percentage of floorspace lit by each type. In addition, CBECS data are used to model end-use consumption, including energy consumed for lighting in commercial buildings.

2009-01-01

365

Evolution of an ophiolitic tectonic melange, Marble Mountains, northern California Klamath Mountains ( USA).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Describes multiply deformed amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks of the Marble Mountain and western Hayfork terranes in the western Paleozoic and Triassic belt of the northern Klamath Mountains, California.-from Author

Donato, M. M.

1987-01-01

366

Marketing the Mountains: An Environmental History of Tourism in Rocky Mountain National Park  

E-print Network

Marketing the Mountains explores the impact of tourism upon the natural world of Rocky Mountain National Park. Moving beyond culutral analysis of the development of tourism in the American West, this dissertation seeks to ...

Frank, Jerritt

2008-09-05

367

Commercialization of space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space-commercialization activities are grouped into five categories: private sector development from existing technology for private sector use; pure privatization; private sector development for U.S. government use; private sector development from novel technology for private sector use; and, finally, full commercialization. The commercialization of space categories is defined, and the key issues in each are highlighted. A description of key NASA actions is included for each category. It is concluded that NASA and other government agency involvement is a common thread across the spectrum of space commercialization activities.

Rose, James T.; Stone, Barbara A.

1988-01-01

368

Project Title: The Western Mountain Initiative: Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Western Mountain Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate warming is affecting Western mountain ecosystems, directly through changes in water dynamics and indirectly through altered disturbance regimes. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI; http:\\/\\/www.cfr.washington.edu\\/research.fme\\/wmi) team explores the effects of climate change on ecological disturbance, responses of forest vegetation, mountain hydrology, and the coupled hydro-ecological responses that determine vulnerability of Western mountain ecosystems to change. Extensive data sets, empirical studies,

Nathan L. Stephenson

369

Hydrologic Evaluation of Satellite Precipitation Products in Mountainous Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advancements in space-based precipitation estimation have opened up new horizons in hydrological applications at global scale. Utilization of satellite-based products is of particular importance for complex terrain regions where in-situ observations are inexistent or sparse. As we now stand at the doorstep of a global-scale precipitation mission, named Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), a comprehensive investigation/evaluation of the use of current satellite products in hydrologic applications appears mandatory and can serve as a valuable reference to the mission's designers as well as highlight its usefulness to society. This study focuses on the hydrologic evaluation of a number of available quasi-global satellite precipitation products over the mountainous region of eastern Italian Alps. Specifically, TMPA 3B42, CMORPH and PERSIANN products are used to force a semi-distributed hydrologic model. The model is part of the Adige River Flood Forecasting System (ARFFS) and simulates runoff response for a number of mountainous basins ranging in scale from 200 to ~7000 km2. Runoff simulations for the period 2002 - 2010 generated based on the different satellite products are analyzed and compared to reference runoff simulations driven with dense raingauge rainfall measurements. Results highlight the differences between the products examined and the overall performance of satellite-based hydrologic simulations in this region. Dependence of results on a) season and b) basin scale is analyzed to further delineate the performance of the various products.

Mei, Yiwen; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Borga, Marco

2014-05-01

370

Downscaling Climate over Complex Terrain: High Finescale (<1000 m) Spatial Variation of Near-Ground Temperatures in a Montane Forested Landscape (Great Smoky Mountains)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landscape-driven microclimates in mountainous terrain pose significant obstacles to predicting the re- sponse of organisms to atmospheric warming, but few if any studies have documented the extent of such finescale variation over large regions. This paper demonstrates that ground-level temperature regimes in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Tennessee and North Carolina) vary considerably over fine spatial scales and are only

Jason D. Fridley

2009-01-01

371

Santa Monica Mountain Steelhead Assessment Santa Monica Mountains Steelhead Habitat Assessment  

E-print Network

Santa Monica Mountain Steelhead Assessment 1 Santa Monica Mountains Steelhead Habitat Assessment: Watershed Hydrologic Analysis Lee Harrison, Edward Keller, and Matt Sallee University of California, Santa identify which basins in the Santa Monica Mountains (SMM) are most capable of supporting steelhead trout

Keller, Ed

372

Commercial fertilizers 1991  

SciTech Connect

This document contains consumption data for commercial fertilizers in the USA for 1991. Graphical information on the consumption by class is given for the nation. State by state data for consumption of several types of commercial fertilizers are presented. Only numerical data is included.

Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.; Montgomery, M.H.

1991-12-01

373

Toy commercials across Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compares toy commercials in France, Germany and Italy in relation to globalisation, which is claimed to produce a uniform consumer culture. Investigates the roles performed by different territories (international, national, regional and local) in advertising directed at children of these different nationalities. Focuses on the apparent tendency towards universalism in the form and content of TV commercials aimed at children,

Simona de Iulio; Zouha Jarrin

2004-01-01

374

Algae Biodiesel: Commercialization  

E-print Network

and Materials (ASTM) standards for biodiesel (ASTM 6751) #12;Reasons for Algae Biofuel Development in New MexicoAlgae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Algae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Center conservation and biomonitoring · Algae biodiesel is largest CEHMM project #12;Project Overview: The Missing

Tullos, Desiree

375

Commercial Real Estate Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the commercial real estate market, which is perceived to be relatively inefficient, investors have comparative advantages; hence there are significant costs to diversification. This paper presents for the first time a series of market (or quasi-market) returns for a large data base. This data base is believed to be the most complete commercial real estate data base yet constructed.

Mike Miles; Tom McCue

1984-01-01

376

Technology Transfer and Commercialization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

2001-01-01

377

77 FR 66478 - Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13XL1109AF; HAG13-0011] Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Meetings AGENCY...Land Management (BLM), the Steens Mountain Advisory Council (SMAC) will meet as...August 14, 2001, pursuant to the Steens Mountain Cooperative Management and...

2012-11-05

378

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2010-01-01

379

Doctor on a mountaineering expedition.  

PubMed Central

Doctors are welcome members on mountaineering expeditions to remote areas, but practical advice on how to prepare and what kit to take can be difficult to find. This article is a ragbag of useful advice on diverse topics. It explains the necessary preparation, provides tips for a healthy expedition, and summarises the common disorders encountered at high altitude. The comprehensive drug and equipment lists and first aid kit for climbers were used for the 1992 Everest in winter expedition. They are there to be sacrificed to personal preference and the experience and size of individual expeditions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7767198

A'Court, C. H.; Stables, R. H.; Travis, S.

1995-01-01

380

Yucca Mountain and The Environment  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Project places a high priority on protecting the environment. To ensure compliance with all state and federal environmental laws and regulations, the Project established an Environmental Management System. Important elements of the Environmental Management System include the following: (1) monitoring air, water, and other natural resources; (2) protecting plant and animal species by minimizing land disturbance; (3) restoring vegetation and wildlife habitat in disturbed areas; (4) protecting cultural resources; (5) minimizing waste, preventing pollution, and promoting environmental awareness; and (6) managing of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. Reducing the impacts of Project activities on the environment will continue for the duration of the Project.

NA

2005-04-12

381

Interpretive geophysical fault map across the central block of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical data collected along 29 traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada reveal anomalies associated with known fault sand indicate a number of possible concealed faults beneath the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain. Geophysical interpretations indicate that Midway Valley is characterized by several known and previously unknown faults, that the existence of the Yucca Wash fault is equivocal, and that the central part of the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain is characterized by numerous low-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect numerous small-scale faults. Gravity and magnetic data also reveal several large-amplitude anomalies that reflect larger-scale faulting along the margins of the central block.

Ponce, D.A.

1996-12-31

382

Commercial imagery archive product development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lockheed Martin (LM) team had garnered over a decade of operational experience in digital imagery management and analysis for the US Government at numerous worldwide sites. Recently, it set out to create a new commercial product to serve the needs of large-scale imagery archiving and analysis markets worldwide. LM decided to provide a turnkey commercial solution to receive, store, retrieve, process, analyze and disseminate in 'push' or 'pull' modes components and adapted and developed its own algorithms to provide added functionality not commercially available elsewhere. The resultant product, Intelligent Library System, satisfies requirements for (a) a potentially unbounded, data archive automated workflow management for increased user productivity; (c) automatic tracking and management of files stored on shelves; (d) ability to ingest, process and disseminate data involves with bandwidths ranging up to multi-gigabit per second; (e) access through a thin client- to-server network environment; (f) multiple interactive users needing retrieval of filters in seconds from both archived images or in real time, and (g) scalability that maintains information throughput performance as the size of the digital library grows.

Sakkas, Alysa

1999-12-01

383

Worldwide acceleration of mountain erosion under a cooling climate.  

PubMed

Climate influences the erosion processes acting at the Earth's surface. However, the effect of cooling during the Late Cenozoic era, including the onset of Pliocene-Pleistocene Northern Hemisphere glaciation (about two to three million years ago), on global erosion rates remains unclear. The uncertainty arises mainly from a lack of consensus on the use of the sedimentary record as a proxy for erosion and the difficulty of isolating the respective contributions of tectonics and climate to erosion. Here we compile 18,000 bedrock thermochronometric ages from around the world and use a formal inversion procedure to estimate temporal and spatial variations in erosion rates. This allows for the quantification of erosion for the source areas that ultimately produce the sediment record on a timescale of millions of years. We find that mountain erosion rates have increased since about six million years ago and most rapidly since two million years ago. The increase of erosion rates is observed at all latitudes, but is most pronounced in glaciated mountain ranges, indicating that glacial processes played an important part. Because mountains represent a considerable fraction of the global production of sediments, our results imply an increase in sediment flux at a global scale that coincides closely with enhanced cooling during the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs. PMID:24352288

Herman, Frédéric; Seward, Diane; Valla, Pierre G; Carter, Andrew; Kohn, Barry; Willett, Sean D; Ehlers, Todd A

2013-12-19

384

Clustering Billions of Images with Large Scale Nearest Neighbor Search  

E-print Network

@google.com Charles Rosenberg chuck@google.com Google Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA Henry A. Rowley har containing bil- lions of images a reality. Image collections on this scale make performing even the most

Tomkins, Andrew

385

Flow resistance in alluvial and mountain rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open channel flow resistance has been fruitfully studied in alluvial rivers. However, due to the complex dynamics of shallow water flow, there remains difficulties in the flow resistance study of mountain rivers. Most of studies about resistance in mountain rivers inherit the modifications of resistance relations in alluvial rivers despite significant differences existing in the mechanisms of flow resistance. Resistance relationships of mountain rivers are almost semi-experienced relying on field data. To the author's best knowledge, there is no unified description of the resistance relation covering both mountain and alluvial rivers. In this study, we aim to propose the first attempt on the uniform of the resistance relation. Fluid resistance is partitioned into skin friction and bed form drag through the partitioning of hydraulic radius. Corresponding to the skin friction and the bed form drag, the grain roughness and the bed form roughness are considered separately. We formulate the equations of the energy losses due to bed form drag in mountain rivers e.g. step-pool structures, considering its consistency with bed form drag of alluvial rivers. Thus bed form roughness of mountain rivers could be estimated referring to those of alluvial rivers. The consistent expression of bed form roughness allows a unified form drag formula suitable to both alluvial and mountain rivers by a modified Einstein flow intensity parameter. The formula agrees with the field survey data very well, demonstrating the inherent uniformity in the resistance relations of mountain and alluvial rivers to some extent.

Fu, X.; Zhang, L.; Ma, H.; Li, T.; Guo, D.

2013-12-01

386

Arkansas' Ozark Mountain Blacks: An Introduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces research which attempted to determine if black Arkansas hill people could reasonably be referred to as hillbillies in the sense that isolated rural white mountain dwellers are so referred, finding that the few black mountaineers left are not hillbillies in the sense indicated of whites. (Author/JM)

Morgan, Gordon D.; Kunkel, Peter

1973-01-01

387

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2010-07-01

388

Mountain Infantry - Is There a Need?  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study uses the past as a basis for establishing the need for mountain infantry units by comparing the combat operations of the 88th Infantry Division and the 10th Mountain Division during World War II on the Italian peninsula. An analysis of current ...

J. D. Greer

1988-01-01

389

Mountain building in Taiwan: A thermokinematic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taiwan mountain belt is classically viewed as a case example of a critical wedge growing essentially by frontal accretion and therefore submitted to distributed shortening. However, a number of observations call for a significant contribution of underplating to the growth of the orogenic wedge. We propose here a new thermokinematic model of the Taiwan mountain belt reconciling existing kinematic,

Martine Simoes; Jean Philippe Avouac; Olivier Beyssac; Bruno Goffé; Kenneth A. Farley; Yue-Gau Chen

2007-01-01

390

Research Article Estimating Abundance of Mountain Lions  

E-print Network

Research Article Estimating Abundance of Mountain Lions From Unstructured Spatial Sampling ROBIN E lions (Puma concolor) are often difficult to monitor because of their low capture probabilities density and abundance of mountain lions in western Montana. Volunteers and state agency personnel

391

Approximate clustering via the mountain method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a simple and effective approach for approximate estimation of the cluster centers on the basis of the concept of a mountain function. We call the procedure the mountain method. It can be useful for obtaining the initial values of the clusters that are required by more complex cluster algorithms. It also can be used as a stand alone

R. R. Yager; D. P. Filev

1994-01-01

392

Frozen Ground 9 PERMAFROST HAZARDS IN MOUNTAINS  

E-print Network

Frozen Ground 9 PERMAFROST HAZARDS IN MOUNTAINS Andreas Kääb, University of Zurich, Zurich of potentially hazardous processes in regions with mountain permafrost. Buildings and utilities may be dam- aged by permafrost-induced debris flows or rockfalls. Con- struction activities are affected by thaw or instability

Kääb, Andreas

393

A Mountain Cultural Curriculum: Telling Our Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the development and implementation of a six-week curriculum to expose denigrating Appalachian Mountain stereotypes and supplant them with images that children create after investigating their West Virginia mountain cultural history of oppression and rebellion. Bases the development of the curriculum on multiple conceptions of multicultural…

Morris, Christine Ballengee

1997-01-01

394

Physical Sciences MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITYBOZEMAN MOUNTAINS & MINDS  

E-print Network

Physical Sciences MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITYBOZEMAN MOUNTAINS & MINDS Chemistry The Department is in surficial geology/physical geography, along with a traditional strength in snow science. The Mountain of industrial and agricultural chemicals, fundamental work in materials science, and the biochemistry portion

Dyer, Bill

395

Mountains and Arid Climates of Middle Latitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations from a global climate model with and without orography have been used to investigate the role of mountains in maintaining extensive arid climates in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Dry climates similar to those observed were simulated over central Asia and western interior North America in the experiment with mountains, whereas relatively moist climates were simulated in these

S. Manabe; A. J. Broccoli

1990-01-01

396

U.S. Mountaineering Libraries: A Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a 3-year period (1985-1987) site visits were made to selected U.S. libraries that focus on climbing or mountaineering as a specific area for comprehensive collection building to survey their monographic holdings, serial holdings, and special collections. The monographic collections were compared to two lists of outstanding mountaineering

Seiser, Virginia; Lockerby, Robert

397

Geology Fieldnotes: Catoctin Mountain Park, Maryland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains Catoctin Mountain Park information, a park map, and visitor information. A general cultural history of the park is given, from the first human inhabitants to its development into a park. Also mentioned are recreational attractions and Cunningham Falls State Park, located next to Catoctin. This park lies in the Appalachian Mountain chain.

398

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2013-07-01

399

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2012-07-01

400

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2011-07-01

401

Mountain lion depredation in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain lion (Puma concolor) depredation incidents on livestock herds were recorded at 15 ranches in southern Brazil from 1993 to 1995. Maximum losses to mountain lions were 78% for goats, 84% for sheep, and 16% for cattle. Cattle mortality arising from causes other than depredation assumed a greater importance in herd productivity. In contrast, attacks on sheep and goats were

Marcelo Mazzolli; Mauricio E. Graipel; Nigel Dunstone

2002-01-01

402

METEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGY 280280280280 Intro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain Meteorology  

E-print Network

will not be given to circumvent rules concerning the dropping of courses! Classroom protocol Cell phones and Laptop computers: Students and Instructor will please turn their cell phones off or put them on vibrate mode while and behavior evaluate mountain weather impacts on snow pack behavior Required Texts/Readings Mountain

Clements, Craig

403

Memory Coherence Activity Prediction in Commercial Workloads  

E-print Network

completely overlap the shared read miss latency. This paper studies two prediction mechanisms that are used improvements for scientific applica- tions in distributed shared memory multiprocessors. Important commercial as technology scales. Therefore it is important to in- vestigate prediction of memory coherence activity

Wenisch, Thomas F.

404

Hydrologic and topographic variability modulate channel change in mountain rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between flow hydrology, topography, and channel change in mountain rivers is important to understanding landscape evolution, the structure and persistence of aquatic habitat, and also the physiochemical cycling of upstream derived organic and inorganic materials. There is a paucity of detailed studies that analyze the joint roles of hydrology and topography in controlling multiple mechanisms of channel change in mountain rivers. In this study, gravel and cobble channel change in a bedrock river canyon were analyzed in light of a controlled yet natural experiment where 4491 metric tonnes of rounded gravel and cobble was augmented below a sediment-barrier dam in a 1200 m long mountain river reach that had no prior sources of rounded gravel or cobble and still experiences floods above the bankfull discharge. The overall study goal was to investigate how flow hydrology can modulate multiple channel change processes depending on the topographic features engaged by the flow. Channel change was assessed via differencing of high resolution repeat topographic and bathymetric surveys, along with cm-scale aerial photography post injection. Statistical tests used to implicate topographic feature-specific mechanisms of channel change that vary with discharge included analyzing geomorphic covariance structures of flow dependent width, bed elevation, and channel change as well as autocorrelation of flow width spatial series. Stage dependent topographic steering was inferred from associations of erosion and deposition with changes in 2D model derived flow directions at multiple discharges. A variety of mechanisms of channel change were qualitatively and quantitatively confirmed including particle hiding, topographic steering, eddying, and flow convergence. No single mechanism explained the observed patterns of channel change but rather it is thought that process-blending occurs, as modulated by the interactions of flow hydrology with complex topography. Results from this study suggest that both existing channel boundary variability and input hydrologic variability work together to create hydrodynamic spatial patterns that control the fate and transport of sediments in mountain rivers and ultimately their spatial structure.

Brown, Rocko A.; Pasternack, Gregory B.

2014-03-01

405

Paleohydrology of late pleistocene superflooding, altay mountains, siberia.  

PubMed

Cataclysmic flooding is a geomorphological process of planetary significance. Landforms of flood origin resulted from late Pleistocene ice-dammed lake failures in the Altay Mountains of south-central Siberia. Peak paleoflows, which exceeded 18 x 10(6) cubic meters per second, are comparable to the largest known terrestrial discharges of freshwater and show a hydrological scaling relation to floods generated by catastrophic dam failures. These seem to have been Earth's greatest floods, based on a variety of reconstructed paleohydraulic parameters. PMID:17832349

Baker, V R; Benito, G; Rudoy, A N

1993-01-15

406

Bedrock geologic map of the central block area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This study was funded by the US Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bon, (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the vicinity of the potential repository. In addition to structural considerations, ongoing subsurface excavation and geologic mapping within the exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), development of a three-dimensional-framework geologic model, and borehole investigations required use of a constituent stratigraphic system to facilitate surface to underground comparisons. The map units depicted in this report correspond as closely as possible to the proposed stratigraphic nomenclature by Buesch and others (1996), as described here.

Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A. [Pacific Western Technologies Ltd., Denver, CO (United States)

1998-11-01

407

Morphological and sedimentological responses of streams to human impact in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological and sedimentological responses of streams to basin-scale impact have been well documented for intensively agricultural or urban areas. Sensitivity thresholds of streams to modest levels of disturbance, however, are not well understood. This study addresses the influence of forest conversion on streams of the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, a region that has received little attention with respect to human

Katie Price; David S. Leigh

2006-01-01

408

Spatial and temporal controls on watershed ecohydrology in the northern Rocky Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation water stress plays an important role in the movement of water through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. However, the effects of water stress on evapotranspiration (ET) and other hydrological processes at the watershed scale remain poorly understood due in part to spatially and temporally heterogeneous conditions within the watershed, especially in areas of mountainous terrain. We used a spatially distributed model

Ryan E. Emanuel; Howard E. Epstein; Brian L. McGlynn; Daniel L. Welsch; Daniel J. Muth; Paolo D'Odorico

2010-01-01

409

Cloud water in windward and leeward mountain forests: The stable isotope signature of orographic cloud water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud water can be a significant hydrologic input to mountain forests. Because it is a precipitation source that is vulnerable to climate change, it is important to quantify amounts of cloud water input at watershed and regional scales. During this study, cloud water and rain samples were collected monthly for 2 years at sites on windward and leeward East Maui.

M. A. Scholl; T. W. Giambelluca; S. B. Gingerich; M. A. Nullet; L. L. Loope

2007-01-01

410

Statistical representation of mountain shading Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(6), 10451050 (2004) EGU  

E-print Network

, topography, surface energy balance, statistical parameterisation Introduction Solar radiation is a major-grid scales in a surface energy balance model, a statistical representation has to be used. Slope components component of the energy balance of the land surface. In mountainous regions, the amount of direct-beam solar

Boyer, Edmond

411

Scenario planning based on geomatics: a case study in Zijin mountain national forest park  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of forest tourism, it is crucial to coordinate the conflicting goals of a forest park by making a scientific plan. It is difficult to determine the complex relationship by means of traditional laboratory and field experiments on the scale of landscape. Zijin Mountain national forest park is taken as a case study area, while RS and

Mingyang Li; Yanjie He; Guangcai Xu; Wenhao Wu; Baozhong Wang

2007-01-01

412

Regional and local controls on postglacial vegetation and fire in the Siskiyou Mountains, northern California, USA  

E-print Network

from topographically- influenced microclimates and coastal-to-inland climate gradients. © 2008 Elsevier created by mountains transform large- regional scale climate patterns into site-specific microclimates in which different aspects and elevations strongly influence vegetation and fire across the landscape

Higuera, Philip E.

413

Introduction Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) is located at a high  

E-print Network

·Confined animal feeding ·Nitrogen fertilizers ·Wildfires Effects of Nitrogen Deposition ·SoilIntroduction ·Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) is located at a high elevation with low nitrogen retention in plants and soil. ·Upslope wind events in the region are caused by synoptic scale storms as well

414

Bedrock geologic Map of the Central Block Area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As such, this map focuses on the central block at Yucca Mountain, which contains the potential repository site. The central block is a structural block of Tertiary volcanic rocks bound on the west by the Solitario Canyon Fault, on the east by the Bow Ridge Fault, to the north by the northwest-striking Drill Hole Wash Fault, and on the south by Abandoned Wash. Earlier reconnaissance mapping by Lipman and McKay (1965) provided an overview of the structural setting of Yucca Mountain and formed the foundation for selecting Yucca Mountain as a site for further investigation. They delineated the main block-bounding faults and some of the intrablock faults and outlined the zoned compositional nature of the tuff units that underlie Yucca Mountain. Scott and Bonk (1984) provided a detailed reconnaissance geologic map of favorable area at Yucca Mountain in which to conduct further site-characterization studies. Of their many contributions, they presented a detailed stratigraphy for the volcanic units, defined several other block-bounding faults, and outlined numerous intrablock faults. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bonk (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the vicinity of the potential repository. In addition to structural considerations, ongoing subsurface excavation and geologic mapping within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), development of a three-dimensional-framework geologic model, and borehole investigations required use of a consistent stratigraphic system to facilitate surface to underground comparisons. The map units depicted in this report correspond as closely as possible to the proposed stratigraphic nomenclature by Buesch and others (1996), as described.

W.C. Day; C. Potter; D. Sweetkind; R.P. Dickerson; C.A. San Juan

1998-09-29

415

Mineral resources of the Mormon Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Lincoln County, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey conducted investigations to appraise the identified resources and to assess the potential for undiscovered resources of the Mormon Mountains Wilderness Study Area, southeastern Nevada. There are no identified resources in or near the study area; however, there are no occurrences of commercial-grade limestones and sand gravel. The study area has

D. R. Shawe; H. R. Jr. Blank; B. P. Wernicke; G. J. Axer; H. N. Barton; G. W. Day; R. L. Rains

1988-01-01

416

Technology Commercialization Program 1991  

SciTech Connect

This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

Not Available

1991-11-01

417

Commercial Actors Stage Strike  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On May 1, 2000, 75,000 members of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists staged a walk-out in protest of advertisers's proposed changes to the ways in which actors get paid for work in commercials. According to the current pay scheme, principle on-screen actors appearing in network commercials earn $479 in base pay as well as a residual payment ranging from $47 to $123. Over a standard thirteen-week run, actors earn an average of $13,000 per commercial. However, actors in cable commercials make a flat fee of $479 to $1,014 for the same thirteen-week run. SAG and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists are demanding a fourteen percent pay raise for both types of commercials. However, the advertisers would like to pay the actors only $2,575 for an unlimited thirteen-week network run. While this amount may seem like a lot of money, the average income for members of the SAG members is only $7000 a year, reflecting the possibility that actors may only appear in one or two commercials a year. This is the first major strike in the entertainment industry since 1988.

Missner, Emily D.

418

CONDREY MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-resource study indicates that the Condrey Mountain Roadless Area has areas of probable resource potential for copper, zinc, gold, and silver in the westernmost extremities of the area. Although there are no presently exposed chromite concentrations in the serpentinite bodies within the roadless area, the possibility that chromite occurs in the subsurface within these bodies should not be overlooked and they are shown as areas of probable chromite resource potential. No potential for energy resources was identified in the study. The common association of the silver schist and copper-zinc mineralization suggests the two are genetically related. Further study of favorable lithologies in the westernmost part of the roadless area are warranted to refine the estimate of resource potential. 4 refs.

Coleman, R.G.; Mayerle, Ron

1984-01-01

419

Examining Repository Loading Options to Expand Yucca Mountain Repository Capacity  

SciTech Connect

Siting a high level nuclear waste repository entails high economic, social, and political costs. Given the difficulty in siting the Yucca Mountain repository and the already identified need for additional capacity, the concept of expanding the capacity of the Yucca Mountain repository is of significant interest to the nuclear industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). As the capacity of the repository is limited by the decay heat inventory of the spent nuclear fuel in relation to the thermal design limits, expanding the capacity requires appropriate schemes for decay heat and spent fuel loading management. The current Yucca Mountain repository is based on a single level, fixed drift spacing design for a fixed area or footprint. Studies performed to date investigating the capacity of Yucca Mountain often assume that the loading of spent fuel is uniform throughout the repository and use the concept of a linear loading or areal power density (APD). However, use of linear loading or APD can be problematic with the various cooling times involved. The temperature within the repository at any point in time is controlled by the integral of the heat deposited in the repository. The integral of the decay heat varies as a function of pre-loading cooling periods even for a fixed linear loading. A meaningful repository capacity analysis requires the use of a computer model that describes the time-dependent temperature distributions of the rock from the dissipation of the heat through the repository system. If variations from the current Yucca Mountain repository design were to be considered, expanding the capacity of the repository would be pursued in several ways including: (1) increase the footprint size; (2) implement multiple-levels in the repository for the given footprint; (3) allow the drift distance to vary within thermal limits; and, (4) allow non-uniform loading of wastes into the drifts within thermal limits. Options (1) and (2) have been investigated by other researchers. This paper investigates options (3) and (4) for possible expansion of the Yucca Mountain repository capacity. To support the work, a thermal analysis model was needed to describe the temperature changes in the rock around the waste packages against the thermal design limits as a function of spent fuel characteristics and composition. Under the high temperature operating mode (HTOM), the relevant thermal design limits are: (1) the rock temperature midway between adjacent drifts must remain below the local boiling point (96 deg. C); and (2) the rock temperature at drift walls must remain below 200 deg. C. As the work involves a large number of calculations, examining the compliance within thermal design limits, the capability to perform efficient mountain-scale heat-transfer analyses was necessary. A related topic of importance in this investigation was also the effect of uncertainty. As the modeling exercise relies on the use of computational models, uncertainties are unavoidable and understanding the uncertainty in the interpretation of the results is important. The concept of variable drift spacing and variable drift thermal loading was investigated with respect to possible capacity expansion of the Yucca Mountain repository. Also, a computer model was developed for efficient repository heat transfer calculations and sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were performed to identify key parameters and to estimate the uncertainty in the results and understand how the repository capacity estimation would be affected by the uncertainty. (authors)

Li, Jun; Nicholson, Mark; Proctor, W. Cyrus; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University (United States)

2007-07-01

420

A Precipitation Climatology of the Snowy Mountains, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precipitation that falls in the Snowy Mountains region of southeastern Australia provides critical water resources for hydroelectric power generation. Water storages in this region are also a major source of agricultural irrigation, environmental flows, and offer a degree of flood protection for some of the major river systems in Australia. Despite this importance, there remains a knowledge gap regarding the long-term, historic variability of the synoptic weather systems that deliver precipitation to the region. This research aims to increase the understanding of long-term variations in precipitation-bearing weather systems resulting in runoff into the Snowy Mountains catchments and reservoirs, and the way in which these are influenced by large-scale climate drivers. Here we present initial results on the development of a climatology of precipitation-bearing synoptic weather systems (synoptic typology), spanning a period of over 100 years. The synoptic typology is developed from the numerical weather model re-analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), in conjunction with regional precipitation and temperature data from a network of private gauges. Given the importance of surface, mid- and upper-air patterns on seasonal precipitation, the synoptic typing will be based on a range of meteorological variables throughout the depth of the troposphere, highlighting the importance of different atmospheric levels on the development and steering of synoptic precipitation bearing systems. The temporal and spatial variability of these synoptic systems, their response to teleconnection forcings and their contribution to inflow generation in the headwater catchments of the Snowy Mountains will be investigated. The resulting climatology will provide new understanding of the drivers of regional-scale precipitation variability at inter- and intra-annual timescales. It will enable greater understanding of how variability in synoptic scale atmospheric circulation affects the hydroclimate of alpine environments in southeast Australia - allowing recently observed precipitation declines to be placed in the context of a long-term record spanning at least 100 years. This information will provide further insight into the impacts of predicted anthropogenic climate change and will ultimately lead to more informed water resource management in the Snowy Mountains.

Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish; Speirs, Johanna

2014-05-01

421

How fast is the denudation of the Taiwan Mountains? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orogenic settings are particularly well suited to study and quantify the coupling relations between tectonics, topography, climate and erosion since they record tectonic evolution along convergent margins and the connection between deep and surface processes. However, the interaction of deep and shallow processes is still poorly understood and the role they play in the exhumation of rocks, the structural and kinematic evolution of orogenic wedges, and the relation between tectonics and climate-dependent surface processes are still debated. Therefore, quantification of denudation rates in a wide range of climatic and tectonic settings, as well as at various time and space scales, is a critical step in calibrating and validating landscape evolution models. In this study, we focus on the mountains of the arc-continent collision in Taiwan, which serve as one of the best examples in the world to understand and study mountain building processes. We investigate the pattern and magnitude of denudation rates at the scale of the orogenic system, deriving denudation rates from in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclide 10Be concentrations measured in (1) river-borne quartz minerals sampled at major watersheds outlets, and (2) bedrock outcrops along ridge crests and at summits located along the major drainage divide of the belt. We determined a denudation pattern showing a clear discrepancy between the western (1.7×0.2 mm/yr) and eastern (4.1×0.5 mm/yr) sides of the range. Conversely, bedrock denudation determined along ridge crests, summits and flat surfaces preserved at high elevations are characterized by significantly lower denudation rates on the order of 0.24×0.03 mm/yr. Altogether, the cosmogenic-derived denudation pattern at the orogen-scale reflects fundamental mountain building processes from frontal accretion in the Western Foothills to basal accretion and fast exhumation in the Central Range. Applied to the whole orogen, such field-based approach thus provides important input data to validate and calibrate the parameters to be supplied to landscape evolution models. Moreover, the comparison between cosmogenic bedrock-derived and basin-derived denudation rates allows discussing how the topographic relief of Taiwan has evolved through the last thousands of years, and thus documenting whether or not the Taiwan Mountains are in a topographic steady state.

Siame, L. L.; Derrieux, F.; KANG, C.; Bourles, D. L.; Braucher, R.; Léanni, L.; Chen, R.; Lee, J.; Chu, H.; Chang, C.; Byrne, T. B.

2013-12-01

422

commercializaTion office Agriculture  

E-print Network

Technology commercializaTion office Agriculture ·Biotechnology ·Blueberries ·Cotton ·ForagesSolutionstoGlobalNeeds The University of Georgia Technology Commercialization Office, rankedamongthebestuniversitytechnologytransfer 2009-2013 The Technology Commercialization Office (TCO) servesthe Universityof

Arnold, Jonathan

423

The chemical agent experience at Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) was constructed and commissioned in 1942 for the production of sulfur mustard and other chemical munitions for possible use in World War II. RMA also became a production site for Lewisite and Sarin, including synthesis and munition filling. Other chemical agents such as Phosgene were routinely handled, filled into munitions and demilitarized. During the 1970`s and the early 1980`s, RMA served as a primary demilitarization facility for the destruction of chemical agents. Throughout its chemical weapons history, RMA generated waste materials from production, neutralization, decontamination and testing. These operations led to the possibility of chemical agent contamination in soils, process equipment and structures that have required special attention as part of the overall Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) environmental cleanup operations being conducted by the Program Manager Rocky Mountain Arsenal (PMRMA). Adjusting normal sampling operations associated with CERCLA-type activities for the special Army regulations covering chemical agents has been a difficult task. This presentation will describe the evolution of chemical agent related efforts and operations as they pertain to RMA environmental cleanup activities, to include field sampling requirements, analytical methods, commercial laboratory use and the role of the on-site PMRMA laboratory.

Mohrman, G. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States)

1995-06-01

424

Transport of neptunium through Yucca Mountain tuffs  

SciTech Connect

Neptunium has a high solubility in groundwaters from Yucca Mountain [1]. Uranium in nuclear reactors produces {sup 237}Np which has a half-life of 2.1 4 {times} 10{sup 6} years. Consequently, the transport of {sup 237}Np through tuffs is of major importance in assessing the performance of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The objective of this work is to determine the amount of Np retardation that is provided by the minerals in Yucca Mountain tuffs as a function of groundwater chemistry.

Triay, I.R.; Robinson, B.A.; Mitchell, A.J.; Overly, C.M.; Lopez, R.M.

1993-02-01

425

Mountain Lion Sighting DATE: 10/7/12  

E-print Network

WARNING Mountain Lion Sighting DATE: 10/7/12 TIME: 8:00 PM LOCATION: ALONG FENCE LINE NEAR. PRECAUTIONS: Although mountain lions are secretive and human attacks are rare they still occur. Mountain lions. If you encounter a mountain lion you should: 1. To avoid an attack, always keep children and pets close

Sze, Lawrence

426

RockyMountainParkInn.com 888.465.4329  

E-print Network

-central Colorado sacred. Anthropologists and historians consider Old Man Mountain (on the western end of currentRockyMountainParkInn.com 888.465.4329 Rocky Mountain Park Inn - Directions: From Denver take I-25, Rocky Mountain Park Inn is located on the SW corner, at the intersection of US Hwy. 36 and CO Hwy. 7

Rutledge, Steven

427

Managing a Scarce Natural Resource: The High Altitude Mountaineering Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identifies some characteristics of mountaineering visitors, climbers' perceptions of the mountain environment, and certain preferred management options affecting both the mountain environment and the mountaineer on Mt. McKinley and adjacent Alaska Range peaks. Approximately 360 registered climbers were asked to complete a 26-item…

Ewert, Alan

428

Commercialization of NESSUS: Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plan was initiated in 1988 to commercialize the Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress (NESSUS) probabilistic structural analysis software. The goal of the on-going commercialization effort is to begin the transfer of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) developed technology into industry and to develop additional funding resources in the general area of structural reliability. The commercialization effort is summarized. The SwRI NESSUS Software System is a general purpose probabilistic finite element computer program using state of the art methods for predicting stochastic structural response due to random loads, material properties, part geometry, and boundary conditions. NESSUS can be used to assess structural reliability, to compute probability of failure, to rank the input random variables by importance, and to provide a more cost effective design than traditional methods. The goal is to develop a general probabilistic structural analysis methodology to assist in the certification of critical components in the next generation Space Shuttle Main Engine.

Thacker, Ben H.; Millwater, Harry R.

1991-01-01

429

Mountain hydrology, snow color, and the fourth paradigm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world's mountain ranges accumulate substantial snow, whose melt produces the bulk of runoff and often combines with rain to cause floods. Worldwide, inadequate understanding and a reliance on sparsely distributed observations limit our ability to predict seasonal and paroxysmal runoff as climate changes, ecosystems adapt, populations grow, land use evolves, and societies make choices. To improve assessments of snow accumulation, melt, and runoff, scientists and community planners can take advantage of two emerging trends: (1) an ability to remotely sense snow properties from satellites at a spatial scale appropriate for mountain regions (10- to 100-meter resolution, coverage of the order of 100,000 square kilometers) and a daily temporal scale appropriate for the dynamic nature of snow and (2) The Fourth Paradigm [Hey et al., 2009], which posits a new scientific approach in which insight is discovered through the manipulation of large data sets as the evolutionary step in scientific thinking beyond the first three paradigms: empiricism, analyses, and simulation. The inspiration for the book's title comes from pioneering computer scientist Jim Gray, based on a lecture he gave at the National Academy of Sciences 3 weeks before he disappeared at sea.

Dozier, Jeff

2011-10-01

430

Aerogel commercialization pilot project. Final program report  

SciTech Connect

Aerogels are extremely light weight, high surface area, very insulative materials that offer many potential improvements to commercial products. Aerogels have been the subject of extensive research at Department of Energy Laboratories and have been considered one of the technology most ready for commercialization. However, commercialization of the technology had been difficult for the National Laboratories since end users were not interested in the high temperature and high pressure chemical processes involved in manufacturing the raw material. Whereas, Aerojet as a supplier of rocket fuels, specialty chemicals and materials had the manufacturing facilities and experience to commercially produce aerogel-type products. Hence the TRP provided a link between the technology source (National Laboratories), the manufacturing (Aerojet) and the potential end users (other TRP partners). The program successfully produced approximately 500 ft{sup 2} of organic aerogel but failed to make significant quantities of silica aerogel. It is significant that this production represents both the largest volume and biggest pieces of organic aerogel ever produced. Aerogels, available from this program, when tested in several prototype commercial products were expected to improve the products performance, but higher than expected projected production costs for large scale manufacture of aerogels has limited continued commercial interest from these partners. Aerogels do, however, offer potential as a specialty material for some high value technology and defense products.

NONE

1996-02-13

431

Commercial Fisheries Surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this chapter, we describe methods for sampling commercial fisheries and identify factors affecting the design of sampling plans. When sampled properly, commercial fisheries can provide important information on the response of aquatic organisms to exploitation; such information can be used by management agencies to develop regulations for ensuring long-term production of the resource and long-term economic benefit. Fishery statistics are typically used to estimate abundance, mortality, recruitment, growth, and other vital characterisitcs of populations. Fishery statistics can also be used to study changes in fish community composition resulting from differential exploitation of species.

Fabrizio, Mary C.; R. Anne Richards

1996-01-01

432

Commercialization of solar space power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary

1995-01-01

433

Hydrothermal alteration of late-to post-tectonic Lyon Mountain Granitic Gneiss, Adirondack Mountains, New York: Origin of  

E-print Network

Hydrothermal alteration of late- to post-tectonic Lyon Mountain Granitic Gneiss, Adirondack) leucogranites of Lyon Mountain Gneiss (LMG) in the Adirondack Mountains, New York State. Most recent± sillimanite veins and nodules in the Adirondack Mountains (Figs 1 & 2) resulted from alkali leaching by acidic

Soja, Constance M.

434

30-SECOND COMMERCIAL What is a "30-Second Commercial"?  

E-print Network

30-SECOND COMMERCIAL What is a "30-Second Commercial"? For the purpose of professional networking to create a personal "commercial." It is essentially an overview of your experience, skills, strengths, accomplishments and goals � all in 30 seconds! When Will I Use It? You will use your 30-second commercial

Suzuki, Masatsugu

435

Pulmonary hypertension and chronic mountain sickness.  

PubMed

Chronic mountain sickness is a syndrome of severe symptomatic polycythemia and hypoxemia occurring in natives or long-term high altitude sojourners. The condition may be complicated by pulmonary hypertension in proportion to decreased oxygenation, indicating hypoxic vasoconstriction and remodeling. Exercise in these patients is associated with a steep slope of pulmonary artery pressure-flow relationships and decreased vascular distensibility. Correction of pulmonary vascular resistance for increased hematocrit decreases the severity of pulmonary hypertension. Exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension in chronic mountain sickness does not affect exercise capacity, in relation to high oxygen content of the blood and increased lung diffusing capacity. Right ventricular failure seems to be an uncommon complication of chronic mountain sickness, but the exact prevalence of the condition is not known. Acetazolamide given for 6 months to patients with chronic mountain sickness improves oxygenation, polycythemia, and pulmonary artery pressure. PMID:23795731

Naeije, Robert; Vanderpool, Rebecca

2013-06-01

436

ConcepTest: Linear Mountain Range  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In exploring a new planet, you discover a long, linear mountain range crossing a broad low-lying area that is interpreted to represent an ancient basin. Predict what type of plate tectonic feature this represents. ...

437

Thermally-forced Circulation II: Mountain/Valley Breezes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module describes the phenomena of the mountain/valley breeze. It examines factors that lead to the formation of a mountain/valley breeze, modifying effects on mountain/valley breeze development, how mesoscale NWP models handle mountain/valley breezes, and mountain/valley breeze forecast parameters. Like other modules in the Mesoscale Meteorology Primer, this module comes with audio narration, rich graphics, and a companion print version.

Spangler, Tim

2002-01-01

438

Using noble gases to investigate mountain-front recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain-front recharge is a major component of recharge to inter-mountain basin-fill aquifers. The two components of mountain-front recharge are (1) subsurface inflow from the mountain block (subsurface inflow), and (2) infiltration from perennial and ephemeral streams near the mountain front (stream seepage). The magnitude of subsurface inflow is of central importance in source protection planning for basin-fill aquifers and in

Andrew H Manning; D. Kip Solomon

2003-01-01

439

Photochemical pollution in a rural mountainous area in the northeast of Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a two-week-long campaign in June/July 2006, samples of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air were simultaneously collected at two sites located at different altitudes (500 and 950 masl) in the northern mountainous region of Portugal (Alvão Natural Pa