Sample records for mountaineer commercial scale

  1. Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project Topical Report: Preliminary Public Design Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Cerimele

    2011-01-01

    This Preliminary Public Design Report consolidates for public use nonproprietary design information on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. The report is based on the preliminary design information developed during the Phase I - Project Definition Phase, spanning the time period of February 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011. The report includes descriptions and\\/or discussions for: (1)

  2. Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

    2011-01-01

    The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design,

  3. Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

    2011-12-31

    The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.

  4. Yucca Mountain drift scale test progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Apps, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Peterson,J.E.; Sonnenthal, E.; Spycher, N.; Tsang, Y.W.; Williams, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Drift Scale Test (DST) is part of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Thermal Test being conducted underground at the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of the ESF Thermal Test is to acquire a more in-depth understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes likely to be encountered in the rock mass surrounding the potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain. These processes are monitored by a multitude of sensors to measure the temperature, humidity, gas pressure, and mechanical displacement, of the rock formation in response to the heat generated by the heaters. In addition to collecting passive monitoring data, active hydrological and geophysical testing is also being carried out periodically in the DST. These active tests are intended to monitor changes in the moisture redistribution in the rock mass, to collect water and gas samples for chemical and isotopic analysis, and to detect microfiacturing due to heating. On December 3, 1998, the heaters in the DST were activated. The planned heating phase of the DST is 4 years, and the cooling phase following the power shutoff will be of similar duration. The present report summarizes interpretation and analysis of thermal, hydrological, chemical, and geophysical data for the first 6 months; it is the first of many progress reports to be prepared during the DST.

  5. MOUNTAIN-SCALE COUPLED PROCESSES (TH/THC/THM)MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Y.S. Wu

    2005-08-24

    This report documents the development and validation of the mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic (TH), thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC), and thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) models. These models provide technical support for screening of features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842], Section 2.1.1.1). The purpose and validation criteria for these models are specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Drift-Scale Abstraction) Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842]). Model results are used to support exclusion of certain FEPs from the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model on the basis of low consequence, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.342 [DIRS 173273]. Outputs from this report are not direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. All the FEPs related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ and SZ flow are discussed in Sections 6 and 7 of this report. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The mountain-scale TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH model captures mountain-scale three-dimensional flow effects, including lateral diversion and mountain-scale flow patterns. The mountain-scale THC model evaluates TH effects on water and gas chemistry, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and the resulting impact to UZ hydrologic properties, flow and transport. The mountain-scale THM model addresses changes in permeability due to mechanical and thermal disturbances in stratigraphic units above and below the repository host rock. The THM model focuses on evaluating the changes in UZ flow fields arising out of thermal stress and rock deformation during and after the thermal period (the period during which temperatures in the mountain are significantly higher than ambient temperatures).

  6. Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes (TH/THC/THM)

    SciTech Connect

    P. Dixon

    2004-02-09

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the development of the Mountain-Scale Thermal-Hydrological (TH), Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical (THC), and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) Models and evaluate the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This Model Report was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.12.7), and was developed in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. In this Model Report, any reference to ''repository'' means the nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, and any reference to ''drifts'' means the emplacement drifts at the repository horizon. This Model Report provides the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses for analyzing mountain-scale hydrological/chemical/mechanical changes and predict flow behavior in response to heat release by radioactive decay from the nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH Model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH Model captures mountain-scale three dimensional (3-D) flow effects, including lateral diversion at the PTn/TSw interface and mountain-scale flow patterns. The Mountain-Scale THC Model evaluates TH effects on water and gas chemistry, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and the resulting impact to UZ hydrological properties, flow and transport. The THM Model addresses changes in permeability due to mechanical and thermal disturbances in stratigraphic units above and below the repository host rock. The Mountain-Scale THM Model focuses on evaluating the changes in 3-D UZ flow fields arising out of thermal stress and rock deformation during and after the thermal periods.

  7. A mountain-scale model for characterizing unsaturated flow and transport in fractured tuffs of Yucca Mountain

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Guoping; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    Site-Scale Model for the Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, High Level Radioactive WasteYucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed underground repository site for storing high-level radioactive waste.

  8. Thermal analysis of Yucca Mountain commercial high-level waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Altenhofen, M.K. [Altenhofen (M.K.), Richland, WA (United States); Eslinger, P.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-10-01

    The thermal performance of commercial high-level waste packages was evaluated on a preliminary basis for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. The purpose of this study is to provide an estimate for waste package component temperatures as a function of isolation time in tuff. Several recommendations are made concerning the additional information and modeling needed to evaluate the thermal performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system.

  9. 76 FR 17406 - Postponement of Public Hearing on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project, Mason County, WV AGENCY...Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project...

  10. Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

  11. State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states. Semiannual progress report, July-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B. C.; Toth, W. J. [comps.

    1981-10-01

    The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. Background information is provided; program objectives and the technical approach that is used are discussed; and the benefits of the program are described. The summary of findings is presented. Prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are covered and findings and recommendations are summarized. The commercialization activities carried out by the respective state teams are described for the following: Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

  12. A Mountain-Scale Monitoring Network for Yucca Mountain PerformanceConfirmation

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, Barry; Tsang, Yvonne

    2006-01-20

    Confirmation of the performance of Yucca Mountain is required by 10 CFR Part 63.131 to indicate, where practicable, that the natural system acts as a barrier, as intended. Hence, performance confirmation monitoring and testing would provide data for continued assessment during the pre-closure period. In general, to carry out testing at a relevant scale is always important, and in the case of performance confirmation, it is particularly important to be able to test at the scale of the repository. We view the large perturbation caused by construction of the repository at Yucca Mountain as a unique opportunity to study the large-scale behavior of the natural barrier system. Repository construction would necessarily introduce traced fluids and result in the creation of leachates. A program to monitor traced fluids and construction leachates permits evaluation of transport through the unsaturated zone and potentially downgradient through the saturated zone. A robust sampling and monitoring network for continuous measurement of important parameters, and for periodic collection of agrochemical samples, is proposed to observe thermo-hydrogeochemical changes near the repository horizon and down to the water table. The sampling and monitoring network can be used to provide data to (1) assess subsurface conditions encountered and changes in those conditions during construction and waste emplacement operations; and (2) for modeling to determine that the natural system is functioning as intended.

  13. Mountain-Scale Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Processes Around the Potential Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    E. Sonnenthal; C. Haukwa; N. Spycher

    2001-06-04

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) effects on flow and geochemistry in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain at a mountain scale. The major THC processes important in the UZ are (1) mineral precipitation/dissolution affecting flow and transport to and from the potential repository, and (2) changes in the compositions of gas and liquid that may seep into drifts.

  14. Large-Scale Flow Response to the Breaking of Mountain Gravity Waves

    E-print Network

    Lott, Francois

    Large-Scale Flow Response to the Breaking of Mountain Gravity Waves François Lott, LMD, Ecole Normale Supérieure; flott@lmd.ens.fr 1) General: gravity waves and their impact on climate 2) Regional and synoptic impacts of mountain gravity waves breaking observations Some diagnostics tools Parameterization

  15. Approaches to recreational landscape scaling of mountain resorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaia, Nina; Slepih, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    In the mountain resorts (MR) the climate and the landscape are natural medical resources which are very sensitive to anthropogenic influences [EGU2011-6740-3; EGU2012-6103]. Positive experience of the climatic and landscape treatment at the MR of the North Caucasus allowed us to establish fundamental interrelation between the quality of recreational landscapes (RL), climatic conditions and the efficiency of medical rehabilitation of people at the MR on the basis of rational use of natural medical resources. There have been registered the following bioclimatic distinctions and physiological responses with the recipients suffering from high disadaptation according to the results of the complex route medical and geophysical studies on the urban and park landscapes. We have defined hot discomfort at the open space of urban territory when the weather is extremely hot and anticyclone - the thermal balance (TB) is higher than +840 W/sq.m, extreme risk of solar erythema burn - UVI - higher than 11, the low content of natural anions - lower than 260 ion/cm3, high coefficient of ions unipolarity (CIU) - 2.16 and a high temperature of the underlying surface (asphalt) 46.40C. At the same time in the resort park of vegetable association Bétula péndula (50 years) TB was significantly lower - +480 W/sq.m, there was no risk of erythema burn (UVI 4), an optimum level of natural anions was 840 ion/cm3 and the value of CIU was 0.98, grass and soil temperature was + 290C and there was a favourable background of evaporating metabolites. At such favourable bioclimatic change the patients have been registered to have the voltage reduction of the vegetative index (from 640 to 380; N-150), the increase in efficiency of neurohumoral regulation (from 0.12 to 0.34; N 0,50), the decrease in spectrum excitability of brain activity in the range of waves: delta 0 … 0.4Hz by 16%, the increase in work activity of the brain in the range of waves: thetra 4 … 8 Hz, alpha 8 … 13 Hz. beta 13 … 19 Hz, gamma 19 … 25Hz by 9-17%; the increase in adaptation layer of the organism by 21% and a versatility indicator of health - by 19%; the decrease in systolic (from 145 to 131 mm of mercury) and diastolic (from 96 to 82 mm of mercury) arterial pressure, the increase in indicators of carpal dynamometry (on the right hand from 27 to 36 kg, on the left hand from 25 to 34 kg), the increase in speed of thermogenesis (from 0.0633 to 0.0944 K/s) and quality of neurovascular reactivity (from 48% to 81%). In the whole the patient`s cenesthesia has improved. We have also studied the responses of adaptive reactions with the recipients at other options of RL. But researches are still being carried out in this direction. Their results will be used as a base of RL scaling of North Caucasus mountain territories. This problem is interdisciplinary, multidimensional and deals with both medical and geophysical issues. The studies were performed by support of the Program "Basic Sciences for Medicine" and RFBR project No.10-05-01014_a.

  16. A saturated zone site-scale flow model for Yucca mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Eddebbarh, Al Aziz [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    A saturated zone site-scale flow model (YMSZFM) was developed for licensing requirements for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository to incorporate recent data and analyses including recent stratigraphic and water-level data from Nye County wells, single-and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and recent hydrochemistry data. Analyses include use of data from the 2004 transient Death Valley Regional (ground-water) Flow System (DVRFS) model, the 2003 unsaturated zone flow model, and the latest hydrogeologic framework model (HFM). This model includes: (1) the latest understanding of SZ flow, (2) enhanced model validation and uncertainty analyses, (3) improved locations and definitions of fault zones, (4) refined grid resolution (500-to 250-m grid spacing), and (5) use of new data. The flow model was completed using the three-dimensional, Finite-Element Heat and Mass Transfer computer code (FEHM). The SZ site-scale flow model was calibrated with the commercial parameter estimation code, PEST to achieve a minimum difference between observed water levels and predicted water levels, and also between volumetric/mass flow rates along specific boundary segments as supplied by the DVRFS. A total of 161 water level and head measurements with varied weights were used for calibration. A comparison between measured water-level data and the potentiometric surface yielded an RMSE of 20.7 m (weighted RMSE of 8.8 m). The calibrated model was used to generate flow paths and specific discharge predictions. Model confidence was built by comparing: (l) calculated to observed hydraulic heads, and (2) calibrated to measured permeabilities (and therefore specific discharge). In addition, flowpaths emanating from below the repository footprint are consistent with those inferred both from gradients of measured head and from independent water-chemistry data. Uncertainties in the SZ site-scale flow model were quantified because all uncertainty contributes to inaccuracy in system representation and response. Null space and solution space uncertainties were determined.

  17. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  18. SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    1 SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION FOR THE PORT OF NEW YORK Dredging Seminar Louisville, Kentucky - May 15-20, 1999 ABSTRACT Decontamination and beneficial use York and New Jersey. We describe here a regional contaminated sediment decontamination program

  19. Modeling studies of mountain-scale radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George J.; Seol, Yongkoo; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2003-04-29

    We investigate radionuclide transport from a high-level nuclear waste repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. Several radioactive solutes (that cover the range of sorption behavior) and colloids of various sizes are studied. The results of the study indicate the importance of the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The effects of the climatic conditions, diffusion, and sorption (for solutes) or infiltration (for colloids) onto the matrix are discussed. The influence of the colloid size on transport is also investigated.

  20. Landscape-scale genetic variation in a forest outbreak species, the mountain pine beetle ( Dendroctonus ponderosae )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. M OCK; B. J. B ENTZ; E. M. O' NEILL; J. P. C HONG; J. ORWIN; M. E. PFRENDER

    2007-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae is a native species currently experienc- ing large-scale outbreaks in western North American pine forests. We sought to describe the pattern of genetic variation across the range of this species, to determine whether there were detectable genetic differences between D. ponderosae occupying different host trees in common localities, and to determine whether there was

  1. A Summary of Operating Conditions Experienced by Three Military Helicopters and a Mountain-Based Commercial Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connor, Andrew B.

    1960-01-01

    The results of a survey of the flight conditions experienced by three military helicopters engaged in simulated and actual military missions, and a commercial helicopter operated in the mountainous terrain surrounding Denver, CO, are presented. The data, obtained with NASA helicopter VGHN recorders, represent 813 flights or 359 flying hours, and are compared where applicable to previous survey results. The current survey results show that none of the helicopters exceeded the maximum design airspeed. One military helicopter, used for instrument flight training, never exceeded 70 percent of its maximum design airspeed. The rates of climb and descent utilized by the IFR training helicopter and of the mountain-based helicopter were generally narrowly distributed within all the airspeed ranges. The number of landings per hour for all four of the helicopters ranged from 1.6 to 3.3. The turbine-engine helicopter experienced more frequent normal-acceleration increments above a threshold of +/-0.4g (where g is acceleration due to gravity) than the mountain-based helicopter, but the mountain-based helicopter experienced acceleration increments of greater magnitude. Limited rotor rotational speed time histories showed that all the helicopters were operated at normal rotor speeds during all flight conditions.

  2. SCALE-4 Analysis of LaSalle Unit 1 BWR Commercial Reactor Critical Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I.C.

    2000-03-16

    Five commercial reactor criticals (CRCs) for the LaSalle Unit 1 boiling-water reactor have been analyzed using KENO V.a, the Monte Carlo criticality code of the SCALE 4 code system. The irradiated fuel assembly isotopics for the criticality analyses were provided by the Waste Package Design team at the Yucca Mountain Project in the United States, who performed the depletion calculations using the SAS2H sequence of SCALE 4. The reactor critical measurements involved two beginning-of-cycle and three middle-of-cycle configurations. The CRCs involved relatively low-cycle burnups, and therefore contained a relatively high gadolinium poison content in the reactor assemblies. This report summarizes the data and methods used in analyzing the critical configurations and assesses the sensitivity of the results to some of the modeling approximations used to represent the gadolinium poison distribution within the assemblies. The KENO V.a calculations, performed using the SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 ENDF/B-V cross-section library, yield predicted k{sub eff} values within about 1% {Delta}k/k relative to reactor measurements for the five CRCs using general 8-pin and 9-pin heterogeneous gadolinium poison pin assembly models.

  3. SCALE-4 Analysis of LaSalle Unit 1 BWR Commercial Reactor Critical Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I.C.

    2000-03-01

    Five commercial reactor criticals (CRCs) for the LaSalle Unit 1 boiling-water reactor have been analyzed using KENO V.a, the Monte Carlo criticality code of the SCALE 4 code system. The irradiated fuel assembly isotopics for the criticality analyses were provided by the Waste Package Design team at the Yucca Mountain Project in the US, who performed the depletion calculations using the SAS2H sequence of SCALE 4. The reactor critical measurements involved two beginning-of-cycle and three middle-of-cycle configurations. The CRCs involved relatively low-cycle burnups, and therefore contained a relatively high gadolinium poison content in the reactor assemblies. This report summarizes the data and methods used in analyzing the critical configurations and assesses the sensitivity of the results to some of the modeling approximations used to represent the gadolinium poison distribution within the assemblies. The KENO V.a calculations, performed using the SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 ENDF/B-V cross-section library, yield predicted k{sub eff} values within about 1% {Delta}k/k relative to reactor measurements for the five CRCs using general 8-pin and 9-pin heterogeneous gadolinium poison pin assembly models.

  4. Multi-scale curvature for automated identification of glaciated mountain landscapes?

    PubMed Central

    Prasicek, Günther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Montgomery, David R.; Schrott, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    Erosion by glacial and fluvial processes shapes mountain landscapes in a long-recognized and characteristic way. Upland valleys incised by fluvial processes typically have a V-shaped cross-section with uniform and moderately steep slopes, whereas glacial valleys tend to have a U-shaped profile with a changing slope gradient. We present a novel regional approach to automatically differentiate between fluvial and glacial mountain landscapes based on the relation of multi-scale curvature and drainage area. Sample catchments are delineated and multiple moving window sizes are used to calculate per-cell curvature over a variety of scales ranging from the vicinity of the flow path at the valley bottom to catchment sections fully including valley sides. Single-scale curvature can take similar values for glaciated and non-glaciated catchments but a comparison of multi-scale curvature leads to different results according to the typical cross-sectional shapes. To adapt these differences for automated classification of mountain landscapes into areas with V- and U-shaped valleys, curvature values are correlated with drainage area and a new and simple morphometric parameter, the Difference of Minimum Curvature (DMC), is developed. At three study sites in the western United States the DMC thresholds determined from catchment analysis are used to automatically identify 5 × 5 km quadrats of glaciated and non-glaciated landscapes and the distinctions are validated by field-based geological and geomorphological maps. Our results demonstrate that DMC is a good predictor of glacial imprint, allowing automated delineation of glacially and fluvially incised mountain landscapes. PMID:24748703

  5. Toward Characterizing the 4D Structure of Precipitation at the Headwater Catchment Scale in Mountainous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, A. P.; Prat, O. P.; Sun, X.; Shrestha, P.; Miller, D.

    2009-04-01

    The classic conceptual model of orographic rainfall depicts strong stationary horizontal gradients in rainfall accumulations and landcover contrasts across topographic divides (i.e. the rainshadow) at the broad scale of mountain ranges, or isolated orographic features. Whereas this model is sufficient to fingerprint the land-modulation of precipitation at the macroscale in climate studies, and can be useful to force geological models of land evolution for example, it fails to describe the active 4D space-time gradients that are critical at the fundamental scale of mountain hydrometeorology and hydrology, that is the headwater catchment. That is, the scale at which flash-floods are generated and landslides are triggered. Our work surveying the spatial and temporal habits of clouds and rainfall for some of the world's major mountain ranges from remotely-sensed data shows a close alignment of spatial scaling behavior with landform down to the mountain fold scale, that is the ridge-valley. Likewise, we find that diurnal and seasonal cycles are organized and constrained by topography from the macro- to the meso- to the alpha-scale of individual basins varying with synoptic weather conditions. At the catchment scale, the diurnal cycle exhibits an oscillatory behavior with storm features moving up and down from the ridge crests to the valley floor and back and forth from head to mouth along the valley with strong variations in rainfall intensity and duration. Direct observations to provide quantitative estimates of precipitation at this scale are beyond the capability of satellite-based observations present and anticipated in the next 10-20 years. This limitation can be addressed by assimilating the space-time modes of variability of rainfall into satellite-observations at coarser scale using multiscale blending algorithms. The challenge is to characterize the modes of space-time variability of precipitation in a systematic, and quantitative fashion that can be generalized. It requires understanding the physical controls that govern the diurnal cycle and how these physical controls translate into spatial and temporal variability of dynamics and microphysics of precipitation in headwater catchments, and especially in the context of extreme events for natural hazards assessments. Toward this goal, we have initiated a sequence of number of intense observing period (IOP) campaigns in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park using radiosondes, tethersondes, microrain radars, and a high resolution raingauge network that for the first time monitors rainfall systematically along ridges in the Appalachians. Along with field observations, a high-resolution coupled model has been implemented to diagnose the evolution of the 4D structure of regional circulations and associated precipitation for IOP conditions and for reconstructing historical extremes associated with the interaction of tropical cyclones with the mountains. A synthesis of data analysis and model simulations will be presented.

  6. Sub-metering to Electricity Use in Large-scale Commercial Buildings

    E-print Network

    Yuan, W.

    2006-01-01

    Sub-metering to Electricity Use in Large-scale Commercial Buildings Wang YuanTsinghua University2006.11 Sub-metering and statistics to electricity use in commercial buildings 2 Index #0;?#0;? Situation of Energy consumption in commercial buildings...

  7. Simulating large-scale evacuation scenarios in commercial shopping districts - methodologies and case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel D. Rossetti; Qingbiao Ni

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale regional evacuation is an important component of homeland security emergency response planning; however, evacuations involving large commercial shopping areas have not been a major focus area for research initiatives. This paper presents microscopic simulation methods for modeling large scale evacuations within the context of a case study involving the evacuation of parking lots within a commercial shopping district. A

  8. Pre-site Characterization Risk Analysis for Commercial-Scale Carbon Sequestration

    E-print Network

    Lu, Zhiming

    Pre-site Characterization Risk Analysis for Commercial-Scale Carbon Sequestration Zhenxue Dai a probability framework to evaluate subsurface risks associated with commercial-scale carbon sequestration to the atmosphere.1-3 The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) is one of seven partnerships tasked

  9. Cross-Scale Analysis of the Region Effect on Vascular Plant Species Diversity in Southern and Northern European Mountain Ranges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Lenoir; Jean-Claude Gégout; Antoine Guisan; Pascal Vittoz; Thomas Wohlgemuth; Niklaus E. Zimmermann; Stefan Dullinger; Harald Pauli; Wolfgang Willner; John-Arvid Grytnes; Risto Virtanen; Jens-Christian Svenning; Jon Moen

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities?Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in

  10. Commercial scale research and assessment of poultry welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian Stamp Dawkins

    2012-01-01

    1. Commercial level research on poultry welfare is increasingly important because of the insight it gives into what improves welfare in the context of other important drivers such as human health, environmental impact and cost.2. There are, however, a number of problems with conducting commercial level research – such as conflicts over aims, financial compensation and legal issues – that

  11. Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final report, August 1, 1978-February 28, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Marlin, J.M.; Cunniff, R.; McDevitt, P.; Nowotny, K.; O'Dea, P.

    1981-01-01

    The work accomplished from August 1978 to February 1980 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program are described. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams and special analyses in support of several federal agencies.

  12. Photonic integration in a commercial scaled bulk-CMOS process

    E-print Network

    Kaertner, Franz X.

    We demonstrate the first photonic chip designed for a commercial bulk CMOS process (65 nm-node) using standard process layers combined with post-processing, enabling dense photonic integration with high-performance ...

  13. Reliability and utility of a visual analog scale for the assessment of acute mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Dale R; Tatsugawa, Kevin; Parker, Daryl; Young, Troy A

    2007-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common condition that affects people that ascend too rapidly to high altitude. It is typically assessed with the Lake Louise AMS Self-report Score (LLSelf) that uses a categorical numeric rating scale to answer five questions addressing AMS-related symptoms, such as headache. A 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) is commonly used to assess subjective phenomena such as pain, but this scale has never been used for the self-assessment of AMS. The purpose of this study was to compare a VAS score to the total LLSelf and to evaluate the test-retest and interrater reliability of the VAS when used as an assessment of AMS. Participants (N = 356) completed both the LLSelf and the VAS on the summit of Mt. Whitney (4419 m). There was a significant relationship (r = 0.65, p < 0.01) between the LLSelf (2.8 +/- 2.0, mean +/- SD) and the VAS (14.4 +/- 14.1 mm). Fifty-seven participants were randomly selected for reliability testing of the VAS. Both test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.996, 95% CI = 0.992 to 0.998) and interrater reliability (ICC = 1.000, 95% CI = 0.999 to 1.000) were high. The mean difference in the VAS score between tests was <1 mm, as was the difference between raters. These results demonstrate excellent reliability for the VAS as an assessment of AMS. PMID:17394414

  14. The use of TOUGH2 for the LBL/USGS 3-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.; Chen, G.; Haukwa, C.; Kwicklis, E.

    1995-12-31

    The three-dimensional site-scale numerical model o the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is under continuous development and calibration through a collaborative effort between Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major fault zones to the west (Solitario Canyon Fault), east (Bow Ridge Fault) and perhaps to the north by an unconfirmed fault (Yucca Wash Fault). The model consists of about 5,000 grid blocks (elements) with nearly 20,000 connections between them; the grid was designed to represent the most prevalent geological and hydro-geological features of the site including major faults, and layering and bedding of the hydro-geological units. Submodels are used to investigate specific hypotheses and their importance before incorporation into the three-dimensional site-scale model. The primary objectives of the three-dimensional site-scale model are to: (1) quantify moisture, gas and heat flows in the ambient conditions at Yucca Mountain, (2) help in guiding the site-characterization effort (primarily by USGS) in terms of additional data needs and to identify regions of the mountain where sufficient data have been collected, and (3) provide a reliable model of Yucca Mountain that is validated by repeated predictions of conditions in new boreboles and the ESF and has therefore the confidence of the public and scientific community. The computer code TOUGH2 developed by K. Pruess at LBL was used along with the three-dimensional site-scale model to generate these results. In this paper, we also describe the three-dimensional site-scale model emphasizing the numerical grid development, and then show some results in terms of moisture, gas and heat flow.

  15. Mountain Hemlock Growth Responds to Climatic Variability at Annual and Decadal Time Scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Peterson; David L. Peterson

    2001-01-01

    Improved understanding of tree growth responses to climate is needed to model and predict forest ecosystem responses to current and future climatic variability. We used dendroecological methods to study the effects of climatic variability on radial growth of a subalpine conifer, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana). Tree-ring chronologies were developed for 31 sites, spanning the latitudinal and elevational ranges of mountain

  16. Implication of mountain shading and topographic scaling on energy for snowmelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, C.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Spiteri, R.

    2011-12-01

    In many parts of the world, snowmelt energetics are dominated by incoming solar radiation. This is the case in the Canadian Rockies, where sunny winters result in high insolation. Solar irradiance on the snow surface is affected by the atmosphere, the slope and aspect of the immediate topography, and shading from surrounding terrain. Errors in estimating solar irradiation are cumulative over a season and can lead to large errors in snowmelt predictions. Adaptive triangular meshes, a type of unstructured triangular mesh that can adapt to fine-scale processes during model runtime, are more efficient in their use of DEM data than fixed grids when producing solar irradiance maps. An experimental design to calculate the effect of changes in DEM resolution on adaptive mesh irradiation calculations and implication for snowmelt is presented. As part of this experiment, the accuracy of these techniques is compared to measurements of mountain shadows and solar irradiance collected in Marmot Creek Research Basin, Alberta. Time-lapse digital cameras and networks of radiometers provide datasets for diagnosis of model accuracy. Further improvements in computational efficiency are achieved by taking advantage of parallel processing using graphical processing units (GPUs) is also discussed.

  17. Sediment fining processes in a mountain stream at multiple time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bouteiller, Caroline; Mathys, Nicolle; Klotz, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    Downstream fining of sediment is observed in most gravel bed rivers, and is attributed to two mechanisms. The first one is an apparent fining that results from a collective effect called selective sorting: smaller grains travel further downstream while larger grains deposit preferentially upstream. The second one is generally referred to as abrasion and encompasses all the fining processes that affect each grain during its travel along the stream. The latter type of processes is dominant in the mountainous streams of the Draix observatory and is the focus of this study. Draix catchments are characterized by hard climatic conditions with winter frost and storm-induced floods, and a very erodible lithology (marl). During the floods, at the time scale of a few minutes, sediment size is reduced by surface abrasion and fragmentation due to the collisions between grains. In between the floods, at the time scale of a few weeks to months, sediments that remain exposed on bars at low flow are affected by weathering due to frost/thaw and wetting/drying alternations, which also reduces their size. Using field measurements, we measured the global sediment fining rate that results from both short-term (flood) and long-term (low flow) processes. The very high value obtained (51%/km) reflects the combination of the soft lithology with hard climatic conditions. We then combined various field and laboratory experiments to quantify the efficiency of each fining process (surface abrasion and fragmentation during a flood, frost/thaw weathering and wetting/drying weathering). Results indicate that short-term and long-term processes are equally efficient and that both are needed to explain the in-situ global fining rates. We finally propose a simplified model to describe the observed fining patterns, which we use to predict the system response to changes in the hydrological or climatic regime.

  18. Modeling solute transport through saturated zone ground water at 10 km scale: example from the Yucca Mountain license application.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, Sharad; Ding, Mei; Chu, Shaoping; Robinson, Bruce A; Arnold, Bill; Meijer, Arend; Eddebbarh, Al-Aziz

    2010-09-20

    This paper presents a study of solute transport through ground water in the saturated zone and the resulting breakthrough curves (BTCs), using a field-scale numerical model that incorporates the processes of advection, dispersion, matrix diffusion in fractured volcanic formations, sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport. Such BTCs at compliance boundaries are often used as performance measures for a site. The example considered here is that of the saturated zone study prepared for the Yucca Mountain license application. The saturated zone at this site occurs partly in volcanic, fractured rock formations and partly in alluvial formations. This paper presents a description of the site and the ground water flow model, the development of the conceptual model of transport, model uncertainties, model validation, and the influence of uncertainty in input parameters on the downstream BTCs at the Yucca Mountain site. PMID:20633953

  19. The study on the effect of commercial space under the plan and construction of rail transport in the mountainous cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zexin Li; Qiaoling Bao

    2011-01-01

    Rail transportation is becoming the main form of public transport in cities, as a high capacity, fast, on-time traffic, its huge crowd gathered effect and specific corridor, give the city a tremendous impact on the development of commercial space. Through depth study of light rail on the 2nd elevated railway construction in Chongqing, the writer study the evolution of commercial

  20. Commercial-scale in-pond raceway system piques catfish farmers interest in west Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Construction of a commercial-scale fixed floor In-pond Raceway System (IPRS) began in December 2006 on a 430-water acre farm in Dallas County, AL. The initial IPRS was installed in a traditional 6-acre earthen pond (since the construction of this initial unit, several other farmers have built simila...

  1. Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities Solicitation

    E-print Network

    Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities biofuels production facility? A.1 An existing biofuels facility is an existing facility that, as of the application due date of PON-13-601, produces (or did produce) biofuels in California. Q.2 Must an eligible

  2. Seismological evidence for crustal-scale thrusting in the Zagros mountain belt (Iran)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Paul; Ayoub Kaviani; Denis Hatzfeld; Jérôme Vergne; Mohammad Mokhtari

    2006-01-01

    Crustal receiver functions (RFs) computed from the records of 45 temporary seismological stations installed on a 620-km-long profile across central Zagros provide the first direct evidence for crustal thickening in this mountain belt. Due to a rather short 14 km average station spacing, the migrated section computed from radial RFs displays the Moho depth variations across the belt with good

  3. Design of a three-dimensional site scale model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, C.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chornack, M.P.; Flint, A.L.; Lewis, B.D.; Spengler, R.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Flint, L.E. [Raytheon Services Nevada, Mercury, NV (US); Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-10-01

    This paper discusses a three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain which is being developed. The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the east and west. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on locations of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Different maps, such as contour maps and isopachs maps, are presented for the different infiltration zones, and for the base of the Tiva Canyon, the Paintbrush, and the Topopah Spring hydrogeological units.

  4. Design of a three-dimensional site-scale model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, C.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chornack, M.P.; Flint, A.L.; Lewis, B.D.; Spengler, R.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Flint, L.E. [Raytheon Services Nevada, Mercury, NV (United States); Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed. This site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the east and west. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on location of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Different maps, such as contour maps and isopachs maps, are presented for the different infiltration zones, and for the base of the Tiva Canyon, the Paintbrush, and the Topopah Spring hydrogeological units.

  5. Woody Species Diversity in Forest Plantations in a Mountainous Region of Beijing, China: Effects of Sampling Scale and Species Selection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Shuang; Ma, Keming; Fu, Bojie; Anand, Madhur

    2014-01-01

    The role of forest plantations in biodiversity conservation has gained more attention in recent years. However, most work on evaluating the diversity of forest plantations focuses only on one spatial scale; thus, we examined the effects of sampling scale on diversity in forest plantations. We designed a hierarchical sampling strategy to collect data on woody species diversity in planted pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr.), planted larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.), and natural secondary deciduous broadleaf forests in a mountainous region of Beijing, China. Additive diversity partition analysis showed that, compared to natural forests, the planted pine forests had a different woody species diversity partitioning pattern at multi-scales (except the Simpson diversity in the regeneration layer), while the larch plantations did not show multi-scale diversity partitioning patterns that were obviously different from those in the natural secondary broadleaf forest. Compare to the natural secondary broadleaf forests, the effects of planted pine forests on woody species diversity are dependent on the sampling scale and layers selected for analysis. Diversity in the planted larch forest, however, was not significantly different from that in the natural forest for all diversity components at all sampling levels. Our work demonstrated that the species selected for afforestation and the sampling scales selected for data analysis alter the conclusions on the levels of diversity supported by plantations. We suggest that a wide range of scales should be considered in the evaluation of the role of forest plantations on biodiversity conservation. PMID:25545860

  6. Digital structural interpretation of mountain-scale photogrammetric 3D models (Kamnik Alps, Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolžan, Erazem; Vrabec, Marko

    2015-04-01

    From the earliest days of geological science, mountainous terrains with their extreme topographic relief and sparse to non-existent vegetation were utilized to a great advantage for gaining 3D insight into geological structure. But whereas Alpine vistas may offer perfect panoramic views of geology, the steep mountain slopes and vertical cliffs make it very time-consuming and difficult (if not impossible) to acquire quantitative mapping data such as precisely georeferenced traces of geological boundaries and attitudes of structural planes. We faced this problem in mapping the central Kamnik Alps of northern Slovenia, which are built up from Mid to Late Triassic succession of carbonate rocks. Polyphase brittle tectonic evolution, monotonous lithology and the presence of temporally and spatially irregular facies boundary between bedded platform carbonates and massive reef limestones considerably complicate the structural interpretation of otherwise perfectly exposed, but hardly accessible massif. We used Agisoft Photoscan Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric software to process a series of overlapping high-resolution (~0.25 m ground resolution) vertical aerial photographs originally acquired by the Geodetic Authority of the Republic of Slovenia for surveying purposes, to derive very detailed 3D triangular mesh models of terrain and associated photographic textures. Phototextures are crucial for geological interpretation of the models as they provide additional levels of detail and lithological information which is not resolvable from geometrical mesh models alone. We then exported the models to Paradigm Gocad software to refine and optimize the meshing. Structural interpretation of the models, including mapping of traces and surfaces of faults and stratigraphic boundaries and determining dips of structural planes, was performed in MVE Move suite which offers a range of useful tools for digital mapping and interpretation. Photogrammetric model was complemented by georeferenced geological field data acquired along mountain trail transects, mainly using the MVE Field Move software application. In our experience, vertical aerophotos were sufficient to generate precise surface models in all but the steepest mountain cliffs. Therefore, using existing vertical photoimagery (where available) is a very cost-effective alternative to organizing shooting campaigns with rented aircraft. For handling reasonably large models (cca 3 x 3 km, up to 10 million triangles), a low-end computer workstation with mid-range professional 3D graphic card is sufficient. The biggest bottleneck is the photogrammetric processing step which is time-consuming (10s of hrs) and has large RAM requirements, although those can be offset by dividing models into smaller parts. The major problem with geological modeling software like Gocad or Move is that it at present does not handle well projecting of phototextures. Whereas Photoscan-generated orthophotos can be vertically projected onto mesh models, this results in unacceptable distortions and gaps in subvertical or overhanging parts of the mountain cliff models. A real 3D UV texture mapping method, such as implemented in Photoscan, would be required to realistically model such areas. This limitations notwithstanding, digital geological mapping of photogrammetric models of mountains is a very promising, cost- and time-effective method for rapid structural interpretation and mapping of barren mountainous terrains, particularly when it is complemented by field measurements and observations.

  7. Sulphonated polyether ether ketone diaphragms used in commercial scale alkaline water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Jesus; Sese, Javier; Michaus, Igor; Santa Maria, Maria; Guelbenzu, Eugenio; Irusta, Silvia; Carrilero, Isabel; Arruebo, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    Sulphonated poly-ether-ether-ketone porous diaphragms were prepared by immersion precipitation using chemically induced phase separation to obtain a tight diaphragm skin layer and underneath finger-like bulk morphology. Different variables including sulphonation degree, diaphragm thickness, precipitation temperature and the presence of an inorganic filler were analyzed in order to evaluate the performance of the resulting diaphragms in water alkaline electrolysis using a bipolar electrolyzer and a commercial scale (50 kW) electrolyzer stack. Their performance was compared with a commercially available diaphragm in terms of cell voltage and oxygen purity (HTO) under normal operation conditions (10 bar, 80 °C) and under transient operation with up to 80 shutdown cycles (a total of 20 days in operation). Long term stability and operation reliability were assured for the SPEEK diaphragms showing lower cell voltage and HTO than the ones obtained with the commercial Zirfon® HTP 500 diaphragm.

  8. Bench- and pilot-scale thermal desorption treatability studies on pesticide-contaminated soils from Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Swanstrom, C.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Besmer, M. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, CO (United States)

    1995-03-09

    Thermal desorption is being considered as a potential remediation technology for pesticide-contaminated soils at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in Denver, Colorado. From 1988 through 1992, numerous laboratory- and bench-scale indirect-heated thermal desorption (IHTD) treatability studies have been performed on various soil medium groups from the arsenal. RMA has contracted Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a pilot-scale direct-fired thermal desorption (DFTD) treatability study on pesticide-contaminated RMA soil. The purpose of this treatability study is to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the DFTD technology on contaminated RMA soils and to provide data upon which future conceptual design assumptions and cost estimates for a full-scale system can be made. The equipment used in the DFTD treatability study is of large enough scale to provide good full-scale design parameters and operating conditions. The study will also provide valuable-emissions and materials-handling data. Specifically this program will determine if DFTD can achieve reductions in soil contamination below the RMA preliminary remediation goals (PRGs), define system operating conditions for achieving the PRGs, and determine the fate of arsenic and other hazardous metals at these operating conditions. This paper intends to compare existing data from a bench-scale IHTD treatability study using equipment operated in the batch mode to new data from a pilot-scale DFTD operated in a parallel-flow continuous mode. Delays due to materials-handling problems and permit issues have delayed the start of the pilot-scale DFTD testing. The first pilot-scale test is scheduled for the flat week in January 1995. The available data will be presented March 9, 1995, at the Seventh Annual Gulf Coast Environmental Conference in Houston, Texas.

  9. State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain States. Semi-annual progress report, January-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, J.; Coe, B.A.; Gertsch, W.D.; Meyer, R.T.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: a summary of the state projects, a summary of findings, public outreach, and a description of the major conclusions and recommendations. The commercialization activities carried out by the state teams are described for Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. (MHR)

  10. Septic Tank Treatment of the Effluent from a Small-Scale Commercial Recycle Aquaculture System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Summerfelt; Christopher R. Penne

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of a conventional domestic septic tank for primary treatment of the wastewater effluent from a small-scale commercial recycle aquaculture system (RAS) was evaluated. The aquaculture facility had five 39.2-m dual-drain culture tanks and a total system volume of 249.9 m. The mean standing stock of fish during the study was 4,837 kg (25.6 kg\\/m) consisting of 9.6% largemouth

  11. Coupled Analysis of Change in Fracture Permeability during the Cooling Phase of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Tsang, Y.W.; Min, K.B.; Elsworth, D.

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents results from a coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical analysis of thermally-induced permeability changes during heating and cooling of fractured volcanic rock at the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The analysis extends the previous analysis of the four-year heating phase to include newly available data from the subsequent four year cooling phase. The new analysis of the cooling phase shows that the measured changes in fracture permeability follows that of a thermo-hydro-elastic model on average, but at several locations the measured permeability indicates (inelastic) irreversible behavior. At the end of the cooling phase, the air-permeability had decreased at some locations (to as low as 0.2 of initial), whereas it had increased at other locations (to as high as 1.8 of initial). Our analysis shows that such irreversible changes in fracture permeability are consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). These data are important for bounding model predictions of potential thermally-induced changes in rock-mass permeability at a future repository at Yucca Mountain.

  12. Cross-Scale Analysis of the Region Effect on Vascular Plant Species Diversity in Southern and Northern European Mountain Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Guisan, Antoine; Vittoz, Pascal; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Dullinger, Stefan; Pauli, Harald; Willner, Wolfgang; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Virtanen, Risto; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n?=?403 in each region) to quantify four diversity components: (i) total number of species occurring in a region (total ?-diversity), (ii) number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific ?-diversity), (iii) pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot ?-diversity) and (iv) number of species present per plot (plot ?-diversity). We found strong region effects on total ?-diversity, habitat-specific ?-diversity and plot-to-plot ?-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot ?-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale) diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale) diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot ?-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity components. For instance, plot connectivity and/or selection for high dispersal ability may increase plot ?-diversity and compensate for low total ?-diversity. PMID:21203521

  13. Scale-Free Networks and Commercial Air Carrier Transportation in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila R.

    2004-01-01

    Network science, or the art of describing system structure, may be useful for the analysis and control of large, complex systems. For example, networks exhibiting scale-free structure have been found to be particularly well suited to deal with environmental uncertainty and large demand growth. The National Airspace System may be, at least in part, a scalable network. In fact, the hub-and-spoke structure of the commercial segment of the NAS is an often-cited example of an existing scale-free network After reviewing the nature and attributes of scale-free networks, this assertion is put to the test: is commercial air carrier transportation in the United States well explained by this model? If so, are the positive attributes of these networks, e.g. those of efficiency, flexibility and robustness, fully realized, or could we effect substantial improvement? This paper first outlines attributes of various network types, then looks more closely at the common carrier air transportation network from perspectives of the traveler, the airlines, and Air Traffic Control (ATC). Network models are applied within each paradigm, including discussion of implied strengths and weaknesses of each model. Finally, known limitations of scalable networks are discussed. With an eye towards NAS operations, utilizing the strengths and avoiding the weaknesses of scale-free networks are addressed.

  14. Quantitation of employee exposure to emission products generated by commercial-scale processing of polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Tikuisis, T; Phibbs, M R; Sonnenberg, K L

    1995-08-01

    Although considerable research has been performed on the thermal degradation products of polyethylene, no data that can be compared to occupational exposure limits have been reported on the exposure of workers in commercial polyethylene extrusion operations. In this study, the actual airborne concentrations of previously identified analytes were measured during the commercial-scale processing of polyethylene resins. Nine polyethylene resins, spanning LDPE, LLDPE, and HDPE product slates were processed under commercial-scale conditions appropriate to their application: blown film, extrusion coating, blow molding, pipe extrusion, and rotational molding. Air samples were taken from operator breathing zones and of representative workplace air and contained air (inside film bubbles and molded parts) using recognized occupational health and safety protocols. The compounds selected for monitoring consisted of aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, butyraldehyde, crotonaldehyde, and benzaldehyde), aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylenes, and styrene), formic and acetic acids, furan and tetrahydrofuran, and acetone. Airborne particulates also were measured. Of the 450 concentration measured from workplace air and operator breathing zones, 440 were below detection limits. Nine of the remaining ten concentrations were < 10% of the established exposure limits, while one particulate measurement was < 50% of the established exposure limit. As well, 180 contained-air samples were taken. Off-gases trapped inside film bubbles and molded parts accumulated to concentrations above those measured in the ambient air. It was concluded that polyethylene extrusion presents minimal inhalation hazards in a moderately ventilated environment. PMID:7653436

  15. Performance evaluation of a pilot-scale permeable reactive barrier at former Naval Air Station Moffett Field, Mountain View, California: Volume 1. Final report, April 1996November 1998

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Reeter; A. Gavaskar; B. Sass; N. Gupta; J. Hicks

    1998-01-01

    A pilot scale permeable reactive barrier (PRB) or treatment wall demonstration project was initiated by the US Navy EFA West at the former Naval Air Station Moffett Field site in Mountain View, California about 3 years ago. Performance evaluations and cost-benefit analyses were performed by the US Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and were sponsored by the Department of

  16. A quantitative approach to conservation planning: using resource selection functions to map the distribution of mountain caribou at multiple spatial scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris J. Johnson; Dale R. Seip; Mark S. Boyce

    2004-01-01

    Summary 1. Visualizing the distribution of rare or threatened species is necessary for effective implementation of conservation initiatives. Generalized linear models and geographical information systems (GIS) are now powerful tools for conservation planning, but issues of data availability, scale and model extrapolation complicate some applications. 2. Mountain caribou are an endangered ecotype of woodland caribou Rangifer tarandus caribou that occurs

  17. Transport of radon gas into a tunnel at Yucca Mountain—estimating large-scale fractured tuff hydraulic properties and implications for the operation of the ventilation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Unger; Stefan Finsterle; Gudmundur Bodvarsson

    2004-01-01

    Radon gas concentrations have been monitored as part of the operation of a tunnel (the Exploratory Studies Facility—ESF) at Yucca Mountain to ensure worker safety. The objective of this study was to examine the potential use of the radon data to estimate large-scale formation properties of fractured tuffs. This objective was examined by developing a numerical model, based upon the

  18. Transport of Radon Gas into a Tunnel at Yucca Mountain-Estimating Large-Scale Fractured Tuff Hydraulic Properties and Implications for the Operation of the Ventilation System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Unger; S. Finsterle; G. Bodvarsson

    2003-01-01

    Radon gas concentrations have been monitored as part of the operation of a tunnel (the Exploratory Studies Facility-ESF) at Yucca Mountain to ensure worker safety. The objective of this study was to examine the potential use of the radon data to estimate large-scale formation properties of fractured tuffs. This objective was examined by developing a numerical model, based upon the

  19. Ambient Facile Synthesis of Gram-Scale Copper Selenide Nanostructures from Commercial Copper and Selenium Powder.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin Qi; Li, Zhen; Dou, Shi Xue

    2015-06-24

    Grams of copper selenides (Cu2-xSe) were prepared from commercial copper and selenium powders in the presence of thiol ligands by a one-pot reaction at room temperature. The resultant copper selenides are a mixture of nanoparticles and their assembled nanosheets, and the thickness of nanosheets assembled is strongly dependent on the ratio of thiol ligand to selenium powder. The resultant Cu2-xSe nanostructures were treated with hydrazine solution to remove the surface ligands and then explored as a potential thermoelectric candidate in comparison with commercial copper selenide powders. The research provides a novel ambient approach for preparation of Cu2-xSe nanocrystallines on a large scale for various applications. PMID:26020682

  20. Comparison of Five Small-Scale Laboratory Gins to Seven Commercial Gins Sampled Across the Cotton Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In research, cotton lint ginned from small seed cotton samples with laboratory scale gin stands is analyzed to estimate properties of lint after commercial ginning, but these gin stands differ from commercial gins. The objective of this experiment was to compare the fiber properties of lint from se...

  1. DNA barcoding at riverscape scales: assessing biodiversity among fishes of the genus Cottus (Teleostei) in northern Rocky Mountain streams.

    PubMed

    Young, Michael K; McKelvey, Kevin S; Pilgrim, Kristine L; Schwartz, Michael K

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in broad-scale biodiversity assessments that can serve as benchmarks for identifying ecological change. Genetic tools have been used for such assessments for decades, but spatial sampling considerations have largely been ignored. Here, we demonstrate how intensive sampling efforts across a large geographical scale can influence identification of taxonomic units. We used sequences of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b, analysed with maximum parsimony networks, maximum-likelihood trees and genetic distance thresholds, as indicators of biodiversity and species identity among the taxonomically challenging fishes of the genus Cottus in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Analyses of concatenated sequences from fish collected in all major watersheds of this area revealed eight groups with species-level differences that were also geographically circumscribed. Only two of these groups, however, were assigned to recognized species, and these two assignments resulted in intraspecific genetic variation (>2.0%) regarded as atypical for individual species. An incomplete inventory of individuals from throughout the geographical ranges of many species represented in public databases, as well as sample misidentification and a poorly developed taxonomy, may have hampered species assignment and discovery. We suspect that genetic assessments based on spatially robust sampling designs will reveal previously unrecognized biodiversity in many other taxa. PMID:23496857

  2. Radionuclide transport simulation and uncertainty analyses with the saturated-zone site-scale model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Arnold, B W; Kuzio, S P; Robinson, B A

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of radionuclide transport in the saturated zone (SZ) to the accessible environment is an important component of performance assessment for the proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Simulations of radionuclide migration in the SZ have been performed using the calibrated three-dimensional (3-D) SZ site-scale flow and transport model. An innovative particle-tracking method was used to simulate transport that includes the processes of advection, dispersion, matrix diffusion, and sorption. The uncertainties in groundwater flow and radionuclide transport were quantitatively evaluated to develop uncertainty distributions for key model parameters, and multiple realizations of the SZ system were simulated using the SZ site-scale model. The results of multiple realizations of radionuclide transport indicate significant aggregate uncertainty in transport times through the SZ. The simulated radionuclide mass breakthrough curves in the SZ have been coupled with other components of the repository system in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses and constitute the means by which uncertainty in the SZ is incorporated into regulatory analyses. Regression analysis has been used to determine the sensitivity of radionuclide transport simulation results to the uncertainty of individual model input parameters. Results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that median radionuclide transport times were dominantly controlled by uncertainty in the specific discharge in the SZ, with sorption and retardation in the alluvium playing important roles for some radionuclides. PMID:12714302

  3. Landscape-scale factors affecting feral horse habitat use during summer within the rocky mountain foothills.

    PubMed

    Girard, Tisa L; Bork, Edward W; Nielsen, Scott E; Neilsen, Scott E; Alexander, Mike J

    2013-02-01

    Public lands occupied by feral horses in North America are frequently managed for multiple uses with land use conflict occurring among feral horses, livestock, wildlife, and native grassland conservation. The factors affecting habitat use by horses is critical to understand where conflict may be greatest. We related horse presence and abundance to landscape attributes in a GIS to examine habitat preferences using 98 field plots sampled within a portion of the Rocky Mountain Forest Reserve of SW Alberta, Canada. Horse abundance was greatest in grassland and cut block habitats, and lowest in conifer and mixedwood forest. Resource selection probability functions and count models of faecal abundance indicated that horses preferred areas closer to water, with reduced topographic ruggedness, situated farther from forests, and located farther away from primary roads and trails frequented by recreationalists, but closer to small linear features (i.e. cut lines) that may be used as beneficial travel corridors. Horse presence and abundance were closely related to cattle presence during summer, suggesting that both herbivores utilise the same habitats. Estimates of forage biomass removal (44 %) by mid-July were near maximum acceptable levels. In contrast to horse-cattle associations, horses were negatively associated with wild ungulate abundance, although the mechanism behind this remains unclear and warrants further investigation. Our results indicate that feral horses in SW Alberta exhibit complex habitat selection patterns during spring and summer, including overlap in use with livestock. This finding highlights the need to assess and manage herbivore populations consistent with rangeland carrying capacity and the maintenance of range health. PMID:23183796

  4. On the relationship between ecosystem-scale hyperspectral reflectance and CO2 exchange in European mountain grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzarolo, M.; Vescovo, L.; Hammerle, A.; Gianelle, D.; Papale, D.; Tomelleri, E.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we explore the skill of hyperspectral reflectance measurements and vegetation indices (VIs) derived from these in estimating carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes of grasslands. Hyperspectral reflectance data, CO2 fluxes and biophysical parameters were measured at three grassland sites located in European mountain regions using standardized protocols. The relationships between CO2 fluxes, ecophysiological variables, traditional VIs and VIs derived using all two-band combinations of wavelengths available from the whole hyperspectral data space were analysed. We found that VIs derived from hyperspectral data generally explained a large fraction of the variability in the investigated dependent variables but differed in their ability to estimate midday and daily average CO2 fluxes and various derived ecophysiological parameters. Relationships between VIs and CO2 fluxes and ecophysiological parameters were site-specific, likely due to differences in soils, vegetation parameters and environmental conditions. Chlorophyll and water-content-related VIs explained the largest fraction of variability in most of the dependent variables. Band selection based on a combination of a genetic algorithm with random forests (GA-rF) confirmed that it is difficult to select a universal band region suitable across the investigated ecosystems. Our findings have major implications for upscaling terrestrial CO2 fluxes to larger regions and for remote- and proximal-sensing sampling and analysis strategies and call for more cross-site synthesis studies linking ground-based spectral reflectance with ecosystem-scale CO2 fluxes.

  5. Preliminary development of the LBL/USGS three-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, C. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France). Dept. Geothermie et Hydroenergie; Chen, G.; Bodvarsson, G.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chornack, M.; Flint, A.; Flint, L.; Kwicklis, E.; Spengler, R. [US Geologic Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center

    1995-06-01

    A 3-D model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed at LBL in cooperation with USGS. This site-scale model covers an area of about 34 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the north, east, and west. The relatively coarse-grid model includes about 300 horizontal grid-blocks and 17 layers. Contour maps and isopach maps are presented defining different types of infiltration zones, and the spatial distribution of Tiva Canyon, Paintbrush, and Topopah Spring hydrogeological units. Matrix flow is approximated using the van Genuchten model, and the equivalent continuum approximation is used to account for fracture flow in the welded units. One-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations are conducted using the TOUGH2 computer program. Steady-state simulations are performed with various uniform and nonuniform infiltration rates; results are interpreted in terms of effect of fault characteristics on moisture flow distribution, and on the location and formation of preferential pathways.

  6. Photogeologic study of small-scale linear features near a potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nye County, Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Throckmorton

    1987-01-01

    Linear features were mapped from 1:2400-scale aerial photographs of the northern half of the potential underground nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain by means of a Kern PG 2 stereoplotter. These features were thought to be the expression of fractures at the ground surface (fracture traces), and were mapped in the caprock, upper lithophysal, undifferentiated lower lithophysal and hackly units

  7. Large Scale Application of Vibration Sensors for Fan Monitoring at Commercial Layer Hen Houses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A.; Heber, Albert J.; Bogan, Bill W.; Chai, Li-Long

    2010-01-01

    Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable. PMID:22163544

  8. Scaling the Pseudo-Spectral Mountain: Spherical Anelasticity at 10,000 Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Featherstone, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    The last decade has witnessed a blossoming in the use of numerical simulations to examine global-scale dynamo processes operating in stellar convection zones. Increasing availability of computational resources has allowed many insights into these phenomena to be gained through the wide application of the Anelastic Spherical Harmonic (ASH) code in particular. ASH has been applied extensively to the study of solar-like stars; most notably to the various dynamo states attainable within such stars and to the processes that drive and maintain the solar differential rotation. Its application has also provided a window into the inner workings of convection zones with a decidedly less shellular geometry, such as the fully convective, low-mass M stars, or the convective cores of high-mass A- and B-type stars. ASH solves the anelastic MHD equations within a pseudo-spectral framework, employing a spherical harmonic decomposition on spherical shells and either a Chebyshev polynomial or finite-difference formulation in the radial direction. The spectral transforms associated with the pseudo-spectral treatment, and the inherent Poisson solve arising from the anelastic formulation, imply that ASH suffers from the same communication drawbacks associated with many other pseudo-spectral methods. Historically, the efficient application of this code has been limited to the use of roughly 2000 cores for problems with 10243 gridpoints, but recently, a thorough restructuring of ASH has allowed for strong scaling of 10243 class problems out to 17,000 cores. These improvements in scalability arise primarily from a careful load balancing of the Poisson solve and its associated communication pathways, as well as from aggregation of the spectral transform communication. I will discuss in detail the current implementation of ASH, accomplished entirely with MPI, and then touch on why an OpenMP hybridization (recently successful in some pseudo-spectral applications) seems unlikely to yield additional scalability gains in this particular instance. I will conclude with some highlights of the new research opportunities now arising in the solar context from this improved scalability. This scaling allows, on one hand, for the efficient computation of low- to mid-resolution problems that require tens of millions of iterations of time integration, such as those seeking to resolve several stellar dynamo cycles. On the other hand, problems that are inherently high resolution in nature, such as MHD simulation of overshooting into a stable radiative zone, or treatment of the solar near-surface shear layer, are now becoming computationally tractable within a global framework.

  9. ‘Oorja’ in India: Assessing a large-scale commercial distribution of advanced biomass stoves to households

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Mark C.; Phadke, Himani; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Shrimali, Gireesh; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2015-01-01

    Replacing traditional stoves with advanced alternatives that burn more cleanly has the potential to ameliorate major health problems associated with indoor air pollution in developing countries. With a few exceptions, large government and charitable programs to distribute advanced stoves have not had the desired impact. Commercially-based distributions that seek cost recovery and even profits might plausibly do better, both because they encourage distributors to supply and promote products that people want and because they are based around properly-incentivized supply chains that could more be scalable, sustainable, and replicable. The sale in India of over 400,000 “Oorja” stoves to households from 2006 onwards represents the largest commercially-based distribution of a gasification-type advanced biomass stove. BP's Emerging Consumer Markets (ECM) division and then successor company First Energy sold this stove and the pelletized biomass fuel on which it operates. We assess the success of this effort and the role its commercial aspect played in outcomes using a survey of 998 households in areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka where the stove was sold as well as detailed interviews with BP and First Energy staff. Statistical models based on this data indicate that Oorja purchase rates were significantly influenced by the intensity of Oorja marketing in a region as well as by pre-existing stove mix among households. The highest rate of adoption came from LPG-using households for which Oorja's pelletized biomass fuel reduced costs. Smoke- and health-related messages from Oorja marketing did not significantly influence the purchase decision, although they did appear to affect household perceptions about smoke. By the time of our survey, only 9% of households that purchased Oorja were still using the stove, the result in large part of difficulties First Energy encountered in developing a viable supply chain around low-cost procurement of “agricultural waste” to make pellets. The business orientation of First Energy allowed the company to pivot rapidly to commercial customers when the household market encountered difficulties. The business background of managers also facilitated the initial marketing and distribution efforts that allowed the stove distribution to reach scale. PMID:25814822

  10. Scaling of Transient Storage Parameter Estimates with Increasing Reach Length in a Mountain Headwater Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, M.; Gooseff, M. N.; McGlynn, B.

    2006-12-01

    . Numerous studies have used the methods of stream tracer experiments and subsequent solute transport modeling to determine transient storage characteristics of streams. Experimental reach length is often determined by site logistics, morphology, specific study goals, etc. Harvey et al. [1996] provided guidance for optimal study reach lengths, based on the Dahmkoler number, as a balance between timescales of advective transport and transient storage. In this study, we investigate the scaling of parameters in a solute transport model (OTIS) with increasing spatial scale of investigation. We conducted 2 6-hour constant rate injections of dissolved NaCl in Spring Park Creek, a headwater stream in the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, Montana. Below the first injection we sampled 4 reaches ~200m in length, we then moved upstream 640m for the second injection and sampled 3 more ~200 m reaches. Solute transport simulations were conducted for each of these sub-reaches and for combinations of these sub-reaches, from which we assessed estimates of solute velocity, dispersion, transient storage exchange, storage zone size, and Fmed (proportion of median transport time due to storage). Dahmkoler values calculated for each simulation (sub-reaches as well as longer combined reach) were within an order of magnitude of 1, suggesting that our study reach lengths were appropriate. Length-weighted average solute transport and transient storage parameters for the sub-reaches were found to be comparable to their counterparts in the longer reach simulation. In particular the average dispersion found for the sub-reaches (0.43 m2/s) compared very favorably with the value for dispersion calculated for the larger reach (0.40 m2/s). In contrast the weighted average of storage zone size for the sub-reaches was much greater (1.17 m2) than those calculated for the injection reach as a whole (0.09 m2) by a factor of ~13. Weighted average values for transient storage exchange and size for the sub-reaches were both found to be higher than that of the reach as a whole, but only by factors of ~2.5 and 3 respectively. This study indicates that some values of solute transport and transient storage for a particular reach can be reasonably extrapolated from its corresponding component reach values.

  11. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences; Shevenell, L., Garside, L. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

  12. Scale effects on the controls on mountain grassland leaf stomatal and ecosystem surface conductance to water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslwanter, Alois; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2010-05-01

    Stomata are the major pathway by which plants exert control on the exchange of trace gases and water vapour with the aerial environment and thus provide a key link between the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and the state and composition of the atmosphere. Understanding the nature of this control, i.e. how stomatal conductance differs between plant species and ecosystems and how it varies in response to external and internal forcings, is key to predicting feedbacks plants may be providing to changing climatic conditions. Despite a long history of research on stomatal functioning, a fully mechanistic understanding of how stomata function in response to biotic and abiotic controls is still elusive which has led to the development of a large number of (semi-)empirical models of varying complexity. Two of the most widely used models go back to Jarvis (1976) and Ball, Woodrow and Berry (1987), termed J-model and BWB-model, respectively, in the following. The J-model simulates stomatal conductance as some maximal value attenuated by a series of multiplicative functions which are bound between zero and unity, while the BWB-model predicts stomatal conductance as a linear function of photosynthesis, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration in the leaf boundary layer. Both models were developed for the prediction of leaf-scale stomatal conductance to water vapour, but have been applied for simulating ecosystem-scale surface conductance as well. The objective of the present paper is to compare leaf- and ecosystem-scale conductances to water vapour and to assess the respective controls using the two above-mentioned models as analysis frameworks. To this end leaf-level stomatal conductance has been measured by means of leaf-gas exchange methods and ecosystem-scale surface conductance by inverting eddy covariance evapotranspiration estimates at a mountain grassland site in Austria. Our major findings are that the proportionality parameter in the BWB-model is scale-consistent, i.e. does not differ significantly between the leaf- and ecosystem scale, while the residual conductance (at zero light) scales with the amount of above-ground transpiring plant area. Among the environmental forcings, air humidity (either relative humidity or vapour pressure deficit) and carbon dioxide concentration in the boundary layer explained most of the variability of stomatal conductance at the leaf level, while the photosynthetic photon flux density was by far the dominant control at the ecosystem-level. References: Ball J.T., Woodrow I.E., Berry J.A., 1987. A model predicting stomatal conductance and its contribution to the control of photosynthesis under different environmental conditions. In: J. Biggens (Editor), Progress in Photosynthesis Research, Vol. IV. Proceedings of the VII International Congress on Photosynthesis. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp. 221-224. Jarvis P.G., 1976. The interpretation of the variations in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance found in canopies in the field. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London 273(B), 593-610.

  13. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1997-09-30

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Ak Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOITM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this reporting period, DOE accepted the recommendation to continue with dimethyl ether (DME) design verification testing (DVT). DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stzibility is being developed. Planning for a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) was recommended. DOE issued a letter dated 31 July 1997 accepting the recommendation to continue design verification testing. In order to allow for scale-up of the manufacturing technique for the dehydration catalyst from the pilot plant to the commercial scale, the time required to produce the catalyst to the AFDU has slipped. The new estimated delivery date is 01 June 1998.

  14. Multidimensionality and scale in a landscape ethnoecological partitioning of a mountainous landscape (Gyimes, Eastern Carpathians, Romania)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional habitat knowledge is an understudied part of traditional knowledge. Though the number of studies increased world-wide in the last decade, this knowledge is still rarely studied in Europe. We document the habitat vocabulary used by Csángó people, and determine features they used to name and describe these categories. Study area and methods Csángó people live in Gyimes (Carpathians, Romania). The area is dominated by coniferous forests, hay meadows and pastures. Animal husbandry is the main source of living. Data on the knowledge of habitat preference of 135 salient wild plant species were collected (2908 records, 44 interviewees). Data collected indoors were counterchecked during outdoor interviews and participatory field work. Results Csángós used a rich and sophisticated vocabulary to name and describe habitat categories. They distinguished altogether at least 142–148 habitat types, and named them by 242 habitat terms. We argue that the method applied and the questions asked (‘what kind of place does species X like?’) helped the often implicit knowledge of habitats to be verbalized more efficiently than usual in an interview. Habitat names were highly lexicalized and most of them were widely shared. The main features were biotic or abiotic, like land-use, dominant plant species, vegetation structure, successional stage, disturbance, soil characteristics, hydrological, and geomorphological features. Csángós often used indicator species (28, mainly herbaceous taxa) in describing habitats of species. To prevent reduction in the quantity and/or quality of hay, unnecessary disturbance of grasslands was avoided by the Csángós. This could explain the high number of habitats (35) distinguished dominantly by the type and severity of disturbance. Based on the spatial scale and topological inclusiveness of habitat categories we distinguished macro-, meso-, and microhabitats. Conclusions Csángó habitat categories were not organized into a single hierarchy, and the partitioning was multidimensional. Multidimensional description of habitats, made the nuanced characterization of plant species’ habitats possible by providing innumerable possibilities to combine the most salient habitat features. We conclude that multidimensionality of landscape partitioning and the number of dimensions applied in a landscape seem to depend on the number of key habitat gradients in the given landscape. PMID:23388111

  15. Towards commercial scale postcombustion capture of CO2 with monoethanolamine solvent: key considerations for solvent management and environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Alicia J; Verheyen, T Vincent; Adeloju, Samuel B; Meuleman, Erik; Feron, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Chemical absorption with aqueous amine solvents is the most advanced technology for postcombustion capture (PCC) of CO(2) from coal-fired power stations and a number of pilot scale programs are evaluating novel solvents, optimizing energy efficiency, and validating engineering models. This review demonstrates that the development of commercial scale PCC also requires effective solvent management guidelines to ensure minimization of potential technical and environmental risks. Furthermore, the review reveals that while solvent degradation has been identified as a key source of solvent consumption in laboratory scale studies, it has not been validated at pilot scale. Yet this is crucial as solvent degradation products, such as organic acids, can increase corrosivity and reduce the CO(2) absorption capacity of the solvent. It also highlights the need for the development of corrosion and solvent reclamation technologies, as well as strategies to minimize emissions of solvent and degradation products, such as ammonia, aldehydes, nitrosamines and nitramines, to the atmosphere from commercial scale PCC. Inevitably, responsible management of aqueous and solid waste will require more serious consideration. This will ultimately require effective waste management practices validated at pilot scale to minimize the likelihood of adverse human and environmental impacts from commercial scale PCC. PMID:22324566

  16. Correcting basin-scale snowfall in a mountainous basin using a distributed snowmelt model and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Adequate estimation of the spatial distribution of snowfall is critical in hydrologic modeling. However, this is a well-known problem in estimating basin-scale snowfall, especially in mountainous basins with data scarcity. This study focuses on correction and estimation of this spatial distribution, which considers topographic effects within the basin. A method is proposed that optimizes an altitude-based snowfall correction factor (Cfsnow). This is done through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed, multilayer energy and water balance-based snowmelt model (WEB-DHM-S) with observed discharge and remotely sensed snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Shuffled Complex Evolution - University of Arizona automatic search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal value of Cfsnow for minimum cumulative error in discharge and snow cover simulations. Discharge error is quantified by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and relative volume deviation, and snow cover error was estimated by pixel-by-pixel analysis. The study region is the heavily snow-fed Yagisawa Basin of the Upper Tone River in northeast Japan. First, the system was applied to one snow season (2002-2003), obtaining an optimized Cfsnow of 0.0007 m-1. For validation purposes, the optimized Cfsnow was implemented to correct snowfall in 2004, 2002 and 2001. Overall, the system was effective, implying improvements in correlation of simulated vs. observed discharge and snow cover. The 4 yr mean of basin-average snowfall for the corrected spatial snowfall distribution was 1160 mm (780 mm before correction). Execution of sensitivity runs against other model input and parameters indicated that Cfsnow could be affected by uncertainty in shortwave radiation and setting of the threshold air temperature parameter. Our approach is suitable to correct snowfall and estimate its distribution in poorly-gauged basins, where elevation dependence of snowfall amount is strong.

  17. Correcting basin-scale snowfall in a mountainous basin using a distributed snowmelt model and remote-sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Adequate estimation of the spatial distribution of snowfall is critical in hydrologic modelling. However, this is a well-known problem in estimating basin-scale snowfall, especially in mountainous basins with data scarcity. This study focuses on correction and estimation of this spatial distribution, which considers topographic effects within the basin. A method is proposed that optimises an altitude-based snowfall correction factor (Cfsnow). This is done through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed, multilayer energy and water balance-based snowmelt model (WEB-DHM-S) with observed discharge and remotely sensed snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Shuffled Complex Evolution-University of Arizona (SCE-UA) automatic search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal value of Cfsnow for minimum cumulative error in discharge and snow cover simulations. Discharge error is quantified by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and relative volume deviation, and snow cover error was estimated by pixel-by-pixel analysis. The study region is the heavily snow-fed Yagisawa Basin of the Upper Tone River in northeast Japan. First, the system was applied to one snow season (2002-2003), obtaining an optimised Cfsnow of 0.0007 m-1. For validation purposes, the optimised Cfsnow was implemented to correct snowfall in 2004, 2002 and 2001. Overall, the system was effective, implying improvements in correlation of simulated versus observed discharge and snow cover. The 4 yr mean of basin-average snowfall for the corrected spatial snowfall distribution was 1160 mm (780 mm before correction). Execution of sensitivity runs against other model input and parameters indicated that Cfsnow could be affected by uncertainty in shortwave radiation and setting of the threshold air temperature parameter. Our approach is suitable to correct snowfall and estimate its distribution in poorly gauged basins, where elevation dependence of snowfall amount is strong.

  18. Crustal-scale structural architecture in central Chile based on seismicity and surface geology: Implications for Andean mountain building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FaríAs, Marcelo; Comte, Diana; Charrier, Reynaldo; Martinod, Joseph; David, Claire; Tassara, AndréS.; Tapia, Felipe; Fock, AndréS.

    2010-06-01

    We document a crustal-scale structural model for the central Chile Andes based on seismicity and surface geology, which consists in a major east verging ramp-detachment structure connecting the subduction zone with the cordillera. The ramp rises from the subducting slab at ˜60 km depth to 15-20 km below the western edge of the cordillera, extending eastward as a 10 km depth flat detachment. This structure plays a fundamental role in the Andean orogenesis because most of the shortening has been accommodated by structures rooted in it and allows the distribution of crustal thickening in a "simple shear deformation mode." Indeed, despite shortening distribution being very asymmetric (˜16 km versus ˜70 km in the western and eastern side, respectively), the western side is higher and thicker than what is expected. Yield strength envelopes show strong rheological control on this structure. Vp and Vp/Vs variations in the upper mantle and in the deepest limit of the seismogenic interplate contact mark the intersection of the ramp with the slab, which coincides with the blueschist-eclogite transition. Therefore, subduction processes would control the depth where the major east verging structure may merge with the slab. Such a ramp-flat structure is observed in other parts of the Chilean margin; hence, it seems to be a first-order feature in the Andean subduction zone. This structure delimitates upward the rocks, transmitting part of the plate convergence stress from the plate interface, and controls mountain-building tectonics, thus playing a key role in the Andean orogeny.

  19. Performance analysis of commercial scale Ar–Cs disk MHD generator connected to electric power system with synchronous generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Kang; Y Inui; T Matsuo; M Ishikawa; J Umoto

    2000-01-01

    Performance analyses of a commercial scale closed-cycle MHD disk generator are performed. A large scale MHD generator, superconducting magnet, inversion system and synchronous generator are designed. The MHD generator is operated with Ar–Cs plasma and connected to the ac power infinite bus through line-commutated inverters, while the synchronous generator is operated in parallel. The thermal input is 1000 MW, and

  20. CFD modeling of commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of an advanced coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle system requires an accurate numerical prediction of gasifier performance. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to model the turbulent multiphase reacting flow inside commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers. Due to the complexity of the physical and chemical processes involved, the accuracy of sub-models requires further improvement. Built upon a previously developed CFD model for entrained-flow gasification, the advanced physical and chemical sub-models presented in this paper include a moisture vaporization model with consideration of high mass transfer rate and a coal devolatilization model with more species to represent coal volatiles and the heating rate effect on volatile yield. The global gas phase reaction kinetics is also carefully selected. To predict a reasonable peak temperature of the coal/O{sub 2} flame inside an entrained-flow gasifier, the reserve reaction of H{sub 2} oxidation is included in the gas phase reaction model. The enhanced CFD model is applied to simulate two typical commercial-scale oxygen-blown entrained-flow configurations including a single-stage down-fired gasifier and a two-stage up-fired gasifier. The CFD results are reasonable in terms of predicted carbon conversion, syngas exit temperature, and syngas exit composition. The predicted profiles of velocity, temperature, and species mole fractions inside the entrained-flow gasifier models show trends similar to those observed in a diffusion-type flame. The predicted distributions of mole fractions of major species inside both gasifiers can be explained by the heterogeneous combustion and gasification reactions and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. It was also found that the syngas compositions at the CFD model exits are not in chemical equilibrium, indicating the kinetics for both heterogeneous and gas phase homogeneous reactions are important. Overall, the results achieved here indicate that the gasifier models reported in this paper are reliable and accurate enough to be incorporated into process/CFD co-simulations of IGCC power plants for system-wide design and optimization.

  1. Mountain Biking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Announcing a new WWW page for Mountain Biking enthusiasts. This page focuses on mountain biking in the San Francisco Bay area (including descriptions of several local trails), but also contains links to descriptions of mountain biking in other areas, including Pittsburgh, Colorado, Utah and New Zealand.

  2. Mountain Age

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Francis Eberle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about processes that affect the shape of mountains. While determining the relative age of mountains involves a variety of complex interacting factors, this probe is designed to determine if students consider weathering factors or if they intuitively believe taller mountains are older.

  3. Generating local scale land use/cover change scenarios: case studies of high-risk mountain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas; Boerboom, Luc

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between land use/cover changes and consequences to human well-being is well acknowledged and has led to higher interest of both researchers and decision makers in driving forces and consequences of such changes. For example, removal of natural vegetation cover or urban expansion resulting in new elements at risk can increase hydro-meteorological risk. This is why it is necessary to study how the land use/cover could evolve in the future. Emphasis should especially be given to areas experiencing, or expecting, high rates of socio-economic change. A suitable approach to address these changes is scenario development; it offers exploring possible futures and the corresponding environmental consequences, and aids decision-making, as it enables to analyse possible options. Scenarios provide a creative methodology to depict possible futures, resulting from existing decisions, based on different assumptions of future socio-economic development. They have been used in various disciplines and on various scales, such as flood risk and soil erosion. Several studies have simulated future scenarios of land use/cover changes at a very high success rate, however usually these approaches are tailor made for specific case study areas and fit to available data. This study presents a multi-step scenario generation framework, which can be transferable to other local scale case study areas, taking into account the case study specific consequences of land use/cover changes. Through the use of experts' and decision-makers' knowledge, we aimed to develop a framework with the following characteristics: (1) it enables development of scenarios that are plausible, (2) it can overcome data inaccessibility, (3) it can address intangible and external driving forces of land use/cover change, and (4) it ensures transferability to other local scale case study areas with different land use/cover change processes and consequences. To achieve this, a set of different methods is applied including: qualitative methods such as interviews, group discussions and fuzzy cognitive mapping to identify land use/cover change processes, their driving forces and possible consequences, and final scenario generation; and geospatial methods such as GIS, geostatistics and environmental modeling in an environment for geoprocessing objects (Dinamica EGO) for spatial allocation of these scenarios. The methods were applied in the Italian Alps and the Romanian Carpathians. Both are mountainous areas, however they differ in terms of past and most likely future socio-economic development, and therefore consequent land use/cover changes. Whereas we focused on urban expansion due to tourism development in the Alps, we focused on possible deforestation trajectories in the Carpathians. In both areas, the recognized most significant driving forces were either not covered by accessible data, or were characterized as intangible. With the proposed framework we were able to generate futures scenarios despite these shortcomings, and enabling the transferability of the method.

  4. Nonlinear processes in mountain building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, N.; Lavier, L.

    2009-04-01

    The growth of a mountain belt is classically believed to be a quasi-stationary process ending in a steady state. Starting from a simple 2D analytic model of mass conservation during mountain growth we explore the domains of stability of a mountain for both nonlinear erosion laws and deformation laws that lead to quasistatic yielding of the mountain over different time scales. This model is composed of a pure shear mountain attached to a critical wedge. We show that if erosive processes are focused on the front ranges of growing mountains then uplift is enhanced in mountain belt interiors. This model of rain shadow development has important implications for plateau uplift and makes predictions about changes in erosive flux to sedimentary basins. However, mass conservation integrated over the models does not make predictions about the movement of material within a mountain belt without the adoption of specific mass flux boundary conditions and a rheological model. We therefore extend our models by using a simple force balance between the Mohr-Coulomb wedge and the mountain interior, which deforms by pure shear. We also choose to model the mountain interior as a viscoelastic material. This allows us to test the effects of stress change in the mountain belt due to the formation of localized semibrittle shear zone at the depth of the brittle ductile transition. Once the mountain belt grows to sufficient size, nonlinear deformation within its interior becomes important and leads to nonlinear macroscopic behavior of mountains, such as long-period aseismic oscillations that interact with shorter-time-scale seismic processes. These dynamical models make direct predictions about the movement of material within a mountain belt and can therefore be constrained by surface observations.

  5. Evaluation of microbial stability, bioactive compounds, physicochemical properties, and consumer acceptance of pomegranate juice processed in a commercial scale pulsed electric field system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper investigated the feasibility for pasteurizing raw pomegranate juice in a commercial scale pulsed electric field (PEF) system. The juice was processed in a commercial scale PEF processing system at 35 and 38 kV/cm for 281 µs at 55 degree C with a flow rate of 100 L/h. Effect of PEF process...

  6. Calculating the azimuth of mountain waves, using the eect of tilted ne-scale stable layers on VHF radar echoes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    radar echoes Richard M. Worthington Department of Physics, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Dyfed, SY23 between four o-vertical radar beams, caused by mountain waves, can be used to calculate the orientation of the wavevector), is given by the vector WPE À PWY WPN À PS; PN, PS, PE, PW are radar echo powers, measured in d

  7. Catchment-scale distribution of radiocesium air dose rate in a mountainous deciduous forest and its relation to topography.

    PubMed

    Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Koarashi, Jun; Takeuchi, Erina; Tsuduki, Katsunori; Nishimura, Syusaku; Matsunaga, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    A large number of air dose rate measurements were collected by walking through a mountainous area with a small gamma-ray survey system, KURAMA-II. The data were used to map the air dose rate of a mountainous deciduous forest that received radiocesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Measurements were conducted in a small stream catchment (0.6 km(2) in area) in August and September 2013, and the relationship between air dose rates and the mountainous topography was examined. Air dose rates increased with elevation, indicating that more radiocesium was deposited on ridges, and suggesting that it had remained there for 2.5 y with no significant downslope migration by soil erosion or water drainage. Orientation in relation to the dominant winds when the radioactive plume flowed to the catchment also strongly affected the air dose rates. Based on our continuous measurements using the KURAMA-II, we describe the variation in air dose rates in a mountainous forest area and suggest that it is important to consider topography when determining sampling points and resolution to assess the spatial variability of dose rates and contaminant deposition. PMID:26005183

  8. Intergrated snow, soil and water-balance measurement strategy for multi-scale environmental observations in mountain areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The building of multiscale environmental observatory networks is a critical step in addressing the woefully inadequate observational infrastructure and understanding of mountain water balances. These networks will support science questions that need estimates of water reservoirs and fluxes at the po...

  9. A hierarchical approach for scaling forest inventory and fuels data from local to landscape scales in the Davis Mountains, Texas, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen M. Poulos; Ann E. Camp; Richard G. Gatewood; Lynn Loomis

    2007-01-01

    This study combined hierarchical cluster analysis and classification and regression tree algorithms to quantify vegetation and fuel characteristics and to generate spatially explicit vegetation and fuels maps for forest and fire management in the Davis Mountains of west Texas, USA. We used field data, landscape metrics derived from digital elevation models, and spectral information from remotely sensed imagery to (1)

  10. Preliminary 3-D site-scale studies of radioactive colloid transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Moridis, G J; Hu, Q; Wu, Y-S; Bodvarsson, G S

    2003-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is actively investigating the technical feasibility of permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. In this study we investigate, by means of numerical simulation, the transport of radioactive colloids under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table. The site hydrology and the effects of the spatial distribution of hydraulic and transport properties in the Yucca Mountain subsurface are considered. The study of migration and retardation of colloids accounts for the complex processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, and includes advection, diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion, kinetic colloid filtration, colloid straining, and radioactive decay. The results of the study indicate that the most important factors affecting colloid transport are the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The transport of colloids is strongly influenced by their size (as it affects diffusion into the matrix, straining at hydrogeologic unit interfaces, and transport velocity) and by the parameters of the kinetic-filtration model used for the simulations. Arrival times at the water table decrease with an increasing colloid size because of smaller diffusion, increased straining, and higher transport velocities. The importance of diffusion as a retardation mechanism increases with a decreasing colloid size, but appears to be minimal in large colloids. PMID:12504362

  11. Northern Rocky Mountain Wildfires and Debris Flows: Millennial-Scale Interactions among Climate, Fire, Vegetation, and Geomorphic Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, J. L.; Riley, K. E.; Weppner, K.

    2012-12-01

    As summer droughts and rising temperatures in the Western U.S. continue to fuel large wildfires, understanding the role of fire in mountain ecosystems becomes increasingly relevant. Past relationships among fire, climate, and vegetation change may help place recent fires within a historic context. In addition, post-fire floods and debris flows contribute large amounts of sediment to rivers and streams. Quantifying fire-related sediment inputs is important for disciplines ranging from stream ecology to landscape evolution. We examine evidence of fires and related hillslope erosion through 14C dating of alluvial charcoal fragments preserved in Holocene fire-related deposits in alluvial fans and stream sediments throughout a range of ecosystems in Idaho, USA. In addition, we measure sediment yields from recent fire-related debris flows and extrapolate the contribution of fire-related sediment inputs to streams over millennial timescales. Over Holocene timescales, independent records of forest-fires and fire-related erosion from ecosystems ranging from sagebrush steppe, pinion-juniper, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine and mixed conifer forests indicate that sedimentation rates and processes on alluvial fans vary temporally with Holocene climate, and spatially with vegetation type. Despite variations in ecosystem type and associated fire regimes, many sites show similar broad-scale patterns. During the Pleistocene-Holocene transition large fires burned across many ecosystems. The mid-Holocene (~4-8 ka) is characterized by few fire-related deposits; however, this relatively fire-free interval is punctuated by fire peaks and associated sheetflooding ~7-6 ka. Since regional paleoclimatic reconstructions indicate the mid-Holocene was generally warm and dry the lack of fire is somewhat counterintuitive; however, decreased fuel loads, combined with perhaps a more stable climate may reduce fire and storm intensity and frequency. The late Holocene (last ~3 ka) cooler, wetter and more variable climates are characterized by an increase in fire activity at all sites, and a general increase in large debris flows. Medieval droughts correspond with major fire and debris flow peaks ~1000-800 cal yr BP; decadal to annual droughts during the generally cooler and wetter LIA also promote fire peaks ~500-300 cal yr BP. The last ~ 3 ka also corresponds with the arrival of fire-prone pine species at several of the study areas. In the Middle Fork Salmon River of central Idaho, > 40% of the watershed has burned in the last 30 years and erosion from severely burned hillslopes produced many large fire-related debris flows. Fire-related deposits compose 74 ± 25% of total alluvial fan thickness in upper wetter ecosystems versus 41 ± 33% recorded in lower drier basins. Recent (1997-2008) moderate to high-severity fires produced debris flows in tributary basins underlain by easily erodible Idaho Batholith granites. Sediment yields from these debris flow range from ~1,450-34,550 Mg/km2. Over the last 6 ka, we estimate fire-related debris flows have contributed ~30-100 Mg/km2/ yr of sediment to the Middle Fork Salmon River.

  12. Demonstration of an electronic photonic integrated circuit in a commercial scaled bulk CMOS process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason S. Orcutt; Anatol Khilo; M. A. Popovic; C. W. Holzwarth; B. Moss; Hanqing Li; M. S. Dahlem; T. D. Bonifield; F. X. Kartner; E. P. Ippen; J. L. Hoyt; R. J. Ram; V. Stojanovic

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate the first photonic chip designed in a commercial bulk CMOS process (65 nm node) using standard process layers combined with scalable post-processing, enabling dense photonic integration with high-performance microprocessor electronics.

  13. Simulation of commercial scale CO2 injection into a fracture reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Li, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic Carbon Sequestration is a proposed means to reduce atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2). At Teapot Dome, Wyoming, CO2 will be injected into the Tensleep Formation, a depleted oil reservoir characterized with significant heterogeneity including facies, faults, and fractures. We've collected geological and engineering characterization data of the entire Teapot Dome field, including core data, well logs, seismic data, and production records. All data were screened for accuracy, before subsets of the data are used to build a geologic reservoir model. A formation structural model is created first by interpreting faults and stratigraphy from 3D seismic data. Formation MicroImager logs are analyzed for fracture characteristics to generate in-situ fracture intensity at wells, which is subsequently interpolated throughout the model with kriging. Based on the intensity and a set of geometric fracture parameters (constrained by outcrop and core measurements), a 3D stochastic Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) is created. One realization of the DFN is upscaled to a dual-porosity simulation model using a variant of the Oda's method. This method upscales the fracture network to an effective grid-block fracture permeability. To account for fluid transfer from matrix to fracture, a sigma factor is computed using average fracture spacings within the grid block. Matrix porosity is populated in the model by kriging interpolation of well-log-derived values. With the dual-porosity model, CO2 is injected near the crest of the dome (the proposed location) at a rate of 2.6 Mt/year for 50 years, with an injection bottomhole pressure set at 160% hydrostatic pressure. Boundary of the model is open except along one bounding fault assumed sealed. Results of the simulation suggest that provided that fluid pressure buildup is not an issue (simulated pressure buildup near the fault is minor), the Tensleep Formation at Teapot Dome can sustain commercial-scale injection over time. However, at the end of 50 years, 26% of the injected gas is trapped and dissolved, thus leakage risk from mobile gas flow is significant. This result is subject to uncertainty though, due to multiple sources of model and parameter uncertainties. A set of computationally efficient sensitivity analysis is currently underway to fully assess these uncertainties and their impact on CO2 flow and storage predictions.

  14. The site-scale saturated zone flow model for Yucca Mountain: calibration of different conceptual models and their impact on flow paths.

    PubMed

    Zyvoloski, George; Kwicklis, Edward; Eddebbarh, Al Aziz; Arnold, Bill; Faunt, Claudia; Robinson, Bruce A

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents several different conceptual models of the Large Hydraulic Gradient (LHG) region north of Yucca Mountain and describes the impact of those models on groundwater flow near the potential high-level repository site. The results are based on a numerical model of site-scale saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain. This model is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. The numerical model is calibrated by matching available water level measurements using parameter estimation techniques, along with more informal comparisons of the model to hydrologic and geochemical information. The model software (hydrologic simulation code FEHM and parameter estimation software PEST) and model setup allows for efficient calibration of multiple conceptual models. Until now, the Large Hydraulic Gradient has been simulated using a low-permeability, east-west oriented feature, even though direct evidence for this feature is lacking. In addition to this model, we investigate and calibrate three additional conceptual models of the Large Hydraulic Gradient, all of which are based on a presumed zone of hydrothermal chemical alteration north of Yucca Mountain. After examining the heads and permeabilities obtained from the calibrated models, we present particle pathways from the potential repository that record differences in the predicted groundwater flow regime. The results show that Large Hydraulic Gradient can be represented with the alternate conceptual models that include the hydrothermally altered zone. The predicted pathways are mildly sensitive to the choice of the conceptual model and more sensitive to the quality of calibration in the vicinity on the repository. These differences are most likely due to different degrees of fit of model to data, and do not represent important differences in hydrologic conditions for the different conceptual models. PMID:12714319

  15. Occurrence of Eimeria species parasites on small-scale commercial chicken farms in Africa and indication of economic profitability.

    PubMed

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P; Rushton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa. PMID:24391923

  16. High-throughput cryopreservation of spermatozoa of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus): establishment of an approach for commercial-scale processing

    PubMed Central

    Hu, E; Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid catfish created by crossing of female channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and male blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are being used increasingly in foodfish aquaculture because of their fast growth and efficient food conversion. However, the availability of blue catfish males is limited, and their peak spawning is at a different time than that of the channel catfish. As such, cryopreservation of sperm of blue catfish could improve production of hybrid catfish, and has been studied in the laboratory and tested for feasibility in a commercial dairy bull cryopreservation facility. However, an approach for commercially relevant production of cryopreserved blue catfish sperm is still needed. The goal of this study was to develop practical approaches for commercial-scale sperm cryopreservation of blue catfish by use of an automated high-throughput system (MAPI, CryoBioSystem Co.). The objectives were to: 1) refine cooling rate and cryoprotectant concentration, and evaluate their interactions; 2) evaluate the effect of sperm concentration on cryopreservation; 3) refine cryoprotectant concentration based on the highest effective sperm concentration; 4) compare the effect of thawing samples at 20 °C or 40 °C; 5) evaluate the fertility of thawed sperm at a research scale by fertilizing with channel catfish eggs; 6) test the post-thaw motility and fertility of sperm from individual males in a commercial setting, and 7) test for correlation of cryopreservation results with biological indices used for male evaluation. The optimal cooling rate was 5 °C/min (Micro Digitcool, IMV) for high-throughput cryopreservation using CBS high-biosecurity 0.5-ml straws with 10% methanol, and a concentration of 1 × 109 sperm/ml. There was no difference in post-thaw motility when samples were thawed at 20 °C for 40 s or 40 °C for 20 s. After fertilization, the percentage of neurulation (Stage V embryos) was 80 ± 21%, and percentage of embryonic mobility (Stage VI embryo) was 51 ± 22%. There was a significant difference among the neurulation values produced by thawed blue catfish sperm, fresh blue catfish sperm (P = 0.010) and channel catfish sperm (P = 0.023), but not for Stage VI embryos (P ? 0.585). Cryopreserved sperm from ten males did not show significant variation in post-thaw motility or fertility at the neurulation stage. This study demonstrates that the protocol established for high-throughput cryopreservation of blue catfish sperm can provide commercially relevant quantities and quality of sperm with stable fertility for hybrid catfish production and provides a model for establishment of commercial-scale approaches for other aquatic species. PMID:21176772

  17. Mountain Watch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    If you've ever wanted to turn your hiking skills into helpful information, the Mountain Watch section of the Appalachian Mountain Club website may be of great interest. The site is designed to turn hikers into "citizen scientists" who can "aid in the collection of data that measures the ecological health of our mountains." The site contains four areas (including "Mountain Plants" and "Mountain Weather") where visitors can submit their own recent findings and observations. First-time visitors will need to fill out the volunteer data section, and this takes just a few minutes. After this, visitors will receive a password which will allow them to report on alpine flowers, air quality, and related subjects. Visitors can also read the observations of others, and read up on their "Naturalist Blog".

  18. Evaluating Treatment Efficacy in Commercial Food Facilities: Insights Gained from Small-Scale Simulated Warehouse Experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although critical to a successful IPM program, it is challenging to evaluate treatment efficacy in commercial food facilities because of the inability to obtain absolute estimates of insect population levels. These populations are spatially fragmented and occupy cryptic habitats, such as equipment,...

  19. Radiation Tests of Highly scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories--Update 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.

    2011-01-01

    High-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories with NAND architecture are now available from several manufacturers. This report examines SEE effects and TID response in single-level cell (SLC) 32Gb and multi-level cell (MLC) 64Gb NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology.

  20. Mountain Watch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-05-14

    Mountain Watch is a group of ongoing trail-side citizen science programs that track reproductive (flower/fruit development) plant phenology of a small set of alpine and forest plants in the U.S.'s Eastern Appalachian mountains and other northeast areas. The program encourages hikers, families, school groups and conservationists to help scientists make observations along the trails on the timing of plant flower and fruit development for inclusion in a long-term study to understand how shifts in climate trends may impact mountain flora. Resources to help teachers get started are available at the website.

  1. Mountain Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

  2. THE TESTING OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ENGINEERING AND PLANT SCALE ANNULAR CENTRIFUGAL CONTACTORS FOR THE PROCESSING OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Nick Mann; Scott Herbst

    2006-10-01

    Annular centrifugal contactors are being evaluated for process scale solvent extraction operations in support of United State Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative goals. These contactors have the potential for high stage efficiency if properly employed and optimized for the application. Commercially available centrifugal contactors are being tested at the Idaho National Laboratory to support this program. Hydraulic performance and mass transfer efficiency have been measured for portions of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle using 5-cm diameter annular centrifugal contactors. Advanced features, including low mix sleeves and clean-in-place rotors, have also been evaluated in 5-cm and 12.5-cm contactors.

  3. Comparing current and desired ecological conditions at a landscape scale in the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains, USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Druckenbrod, Dr. Daniel L. [Longwood University; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Olsen, Lisa M [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    We applied a landscape conservation approach that quantifies current and desired ecological conditions for 10680 km2 of diverse forests in the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains of Tennessee and Kentucky. In this case study, forest cover was classified using Landsat TM imagery and evaluated with forest inventory data. Landform forest associations were characterized by combining forest cover, physiographic descriptions of remnant and historical forests, and forest structure and composition from the inventory data. These landform forest associations estimate current forest conditions and, in comparison with a projection of potential natural forest conditions, indicated that upland deciduous forests in the Plateau have the greatest reduction in cover, particularly in small private ownerships. Although of similar composition, upland deciduous forests in the Plateau also possessed younger stands with smaller trees than observed from potential old-growth conditions. These results provide scientific guidance for transitioning these forests toward desired ecological conditions through regional conservation initiatives.

  4. The first commercial large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits: current status and performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hurtt; A. G. Dentai; J. L. Pleumeekers; A. Mathur; R. Muthiah; C. Joyner; R. P. Schneider; R. Nagarajan; F. A. Kish; D. F. Welch

    2007-01-01

    Summary form only given. Infinera has commercialized the first digital transport network (DTN) systems as a highly reliable, small footprint system to the telecommunications carriers. The key technology in the DTN is optical-electrical-optical (O-E-O) digital signal processing. O-E-O processing allows the carriers to install systems at more locations, which translates into more entry points into the network. The photonic integrated

  5. Timing of the last deglaciation revealed by receding glaciers at the Alpine-scale: impact on mountain geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnault, Romain; Rolland, Yann; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier; Revel, Marie; Sanchez, Guillaume; Bouissou, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    New Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclides (TCN) 10Be ages obtained on glacially polished rocks from the SW Alps (Tinée Valley, France) allow a comparison with ages obtained using similar methods for dating the deglaciation steps after the Last Glacial Maximum on the northern and southern sides of the Alps. The data presented in this study highlight three stages of glacial retreat on the southern flank of the Alps at remarkably similar ages that are 14.9 ± 0.8 10Be ka for the end of Oldest Dryas cold period, 10.9 ± 1.1 10Be ka for the end of Younger Dryas cold period and 8.4 ± 0.9 10Be ka for a late ice retreat stage. Previously published data from the Northern Alps lead also to an age of 15.7 ± 1.0 ka for the Oldest Dryas deglaciation, followed by the Younger Dryas at 11.3 ± 1.0 ka, and a late discrete ice retreat event at 9.7 ± 1.2 ka. The last glacial retreats occur thus simultaneously across the Alps and the deglaciation process was most likely unrelated to variations in latitude or to mountain flank exposition throughout the Alps. This may be ascribed to a relatively rapid climate change. Subsequent mountain slope evolution following the rapid glacier unloading is reflected by landslides and fault reactivation directly following the deglacial period. This temporal coincidence is ascribed to a cause-to-consequence effect of glacial unloading and water infiltration into tectonic and landslide triggering.

  6. Atlas Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These are the Anti-Atlas Mountains, part of the Atlas Mountain range in southern Morocco, Africa. The region contains some of the world's largest and most diverse mineral resources, most of which are still untouched. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on June 22, 2001. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  7. Mountain Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this interactive resource students slide a bar across the screen and view the steps in the water cycle as a water-laden air mass hits a mountain range. They see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the mountain, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air.

  8. Mountain Building

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site offers several sets of questions for students to answer about where mountain ranges are located and why they are where they are. Many of the questions have links to more information and/or images. Questions address the role of plate tectonics in the process of mountain building. A computer isn't necessary to answer the questions, but is highly recommended so that the students can use the links provided. These questions require some prior knowledge of the content.

  9. Mountain Mash

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    Learners model the processes that formed some of Earth's largest mountain ranges: the Himalayas, the Andes, and the Alps. Using layers of clay to represent continental plates, learners push the clay together to see model mountains form. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

  10. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  11. Novel technique for scaling up of micropropagated Ruta graveolens shoots using liquid culture systems: a step towards commercialization.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2008-06-01

    Wide applications of Ruta graveolens L. in pharmaceutical industry has led to increased interest in large-scale plant production, with emphasis on use of in vitro cultures. Earlier reports describe use of in vitro germinated seedlings for raising shoot cultures and not regeneration. There is only a single regeneration protocol of R. graveolens; however, it employs conventional labour intensive techniques deterring automation. The aim of present investigation was to establish a cost effective protocol for large-scale plant production. We report for the first time a one-step protocol with improved regeneration efficiency for multiple shoots induction employing liquid culture systems. Effect of polyamines (putrescine and spermine) on growth and furanocoumarin was studied. Addition of spermine enhanced the number of multiple shoots formed (2.5-fold) and reduced the time taken by half. Spermine addition resulted in 1.47-fold in furanocoumarin production. The selected shoot line, RS2 was successfully scaled up to 5L in culture vessels, with 1.53-fold increase in biomass without affecting the productivity of these cultures. This proves to be a commercially feasible alternative to bioreactors for large-scale biomass and furanocoumarin production. PMID:18504023

  12. Aqueous geochemical data from the analysis of stream water samples collected in August 2004--Taylor Mountains 1:250,000 scale Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Mueller, Seth; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

    2006-01-01

    We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000 quadrangle. Samples were collected as part of the multi-year U.S. Geological Survey's project -- Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development. Data presented here are from water samples collected primarily in the northeastern part of the Taylor Mountains quadrangle. The data include samples taken from the Taylor Mountains C1, C2, D1, D2, and D4 1:63,360 scale quadrangles. The data are being released at this time with minimal interpretation. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first and second order drainages. Water sampling site selection was based on landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and the cursory field review of the mineralogy from the pan concentrates. Stream water in the Taylor Mountians quadrangle is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), though in a few samples more than 50% of the anionic charge can be attibuted to sulfate ( SO42-). The major-cation chemistry range from Ca/Mg dominated to a mix of Ca/Mg/Na+K. Good agreement was found between the major cation and anions in the duplicate samples. Many trace elements were at or near the method detection limit in these samples but good agreement was found between duplicate samples for elements with detectable concentrations. Major ion concentrations were below detection in all field blanks and the trace elements concentrations generally were below detection. However, Ta (range 0.9 -.1 ug/L) and Zn (1 to 3.5 ug/L) were detected in all blanks and Ba ( 0.24 ug/L) and Th (0.2 ug/L) were detected in one blank. There was good agreement between dupilicate total- and methyl- mercury and DOC samples; however, total mercury, methyl-mercury and dissolve organic carbon (DOC) were detected in the blank at 2.35 ng/L, 0.07 ng/L and 0.57 mg/L, respectively.

  13. Aqueous geochemical data from the analysis of stream-water samples collected in June and July 2006-Taylor Mountains 1:250,00-scale quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Mueller, Seth; Stetson, Sarah; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. Parameters for which data are reported include pH, conductivity, water temperature, major cation and anion concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and dissolved organic-carbon concentrations. Samples were collected as part of a multiyear U.S. Geological Survey project entitled ?Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development.? Data presented here are from samples collected in June and July 2006. The data are being released at this time with minimal interpretation. This is the third release of aqueous geochemical data from this project; aqueous geochemical data from samples collected in 2004 and 2005 were published previously. The data in this report augment but do not duplicate or supersede the previous data release. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first- and second-order drainages. Water sample site selection was based on landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and a cursory field review of mineralogy from pan concentrates. Stream water in the Taylor Mountains quadrangle is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), although in a few samples more than 50 percent of the anionic charge can be attributed to sulfate (SO42-). The major-cation chemistry ranges from Ca2+/Mg2+ dominated to a mix of Ca2+/Mg2+/Na++K+. Generally, good agreement was found between the major cations and anions in the duplicate samples. Many trace elements in these samples were at or near the analytical method detection limit, but good agreement was found between duplicate samples for elements with detectable concentrations. All field blank major-ion and trace-element concentrations were below detection.

  14. Polyphase exhumation in the western Qinling Mountains, China: Rapid Early Cretaceous cooling along a lithospheric-scale tear fault and pulsed Cenozoic uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberer, Bianca; Anzenbacher, Thomas; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Dong, Yunpeng; Dunkl, István

    2014-03-01

    The western sector of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt plays a key role in both Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous "Yanshanian" intracontinental tectonics and Cenozoic lateral escape triggered by India-Asia collision. The Taibai granite in the northern Qinling Mountains is located at the westernmost tip of a Yanshanian granite belt. It consists of multiple intrusions, constrained by new Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages (156 ± 3 Ma and 124 ± 1 Ma). Applying various geochronometers (40Ar/39Ar on hornblende, biotite and K-feldspar, apatite fission-track, apatite [U-Th-Sm]/He) along a vertical profile of the Taibai Mountain refines the cooling and exhumation history. The new age constraints record the prolonged pre-Cenozoic intracontinental deformation as well as the cooling history mostly related to India-Asia collision. We detected rapid cooling for the Taibai granite from ca. 800 to 100 °C during Early Cretaceous (ca. 123 to 100 Ma) followed by a period of slow cooling from ca. 100 Ma to ca. 25 Ma, and pulsed exhumation of the low-relief Cretaceous peneplain during Cenozoic times. We interpret the Early Cretaceous rapid cooling and exhumation as a result from activity along the southern sinistral lithospheric scale tear fault of the recently postulated intracontinental subduction of the Archean/Palaeoproterozoic North China Block beneath the Alashan Block. A Late Oligocene to Early Miocene cooling phase might be triggered either by the lateral motion during India-Asia collision and/or the Pacific subduction zone. Late Miocene intensified cooling is ascribed to uplift of the Tibetan Plateau.

  15. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  16. Seasonal and Event Scale Forcings on the Magnitude and Composition of Particulate Organic Matter Fluxes Across a Small Mountainous River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goni, M. A.; Lerczak, J. A.; Smith, L.; Lemagie, E. P.; Alleau, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Small mountainous rivers along the west coast margin of North America display intense seasonal contrasts in runoff, with event-scale peaks in particulate transport associated with winter-time floods. In-situ observations and rapid-response sampling along a typical river-estuary system (Alsea River/Bay, Oregon) were carried out to investigate variations in the magnitude and composition of particulate organic matter transported across the estuary at seasonal, tidal and event scales. Marked contrasts in the overall concentration of particulate organic matter in the estuary are observed during different river discharge conditions (base flow to 3-yr flood), with distinct trends associated with contrasting tidal stage (spring/neap). Elemental, isotopic and biomarker analyses of individual samples reveal large differences in the provenance (phytoplankton, vascular plants, soil) and composition of organic materials mobilized under different discharge/tidal conditions. Continuous, in-situ measurements of current, salinity, temperature and turbidity, combined with the compositions from individual samples allow us to determine instantaneous material fluxes into and out of Alsea Bay. We use these data to derive net fluxes during wintertime conditions and assess the role of floods in the retention and transport of particulate organic matter across the estuarine interface.

  17. Removal of Salmonella Enteritidis from commercial† unpasteurized liquid egg white using pilot scale crossflow tangential microfiltration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of a pilot-scale cross-flow microfiltration (MF) process for removal of Salmonella enteritidis from liquid egg white (LEW) was evaluated. To facilitate MF, 110 L of unpasteurized LEW from a local egg breaking plant was first wedge screened, homogenized and then diluted (1:2 w/w) w...

  18. Forecasting distributional responses of limber pine to climate change at management-relevant scales in Rocky Mountain National Park.

    PubMed

    Monahan, William B; Cook, Tammy; Melton, Forrest; Connor, Jeff; Bobowski, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Resource managers at parks and other protected areas are increasingly expected to factor climate change explicitly into their decision making frameworks. However, most protected areas are small relative to the geographic ranges of species being managed, so forecasts need to consider local adaptation and community dynamics that are correlated with climate and affect distributions inside protected area boundaries. Additionally, niche theory suggests that species' physiological capacities to respond to climate change may be underestimated when forecasts fail to consider the full breadth of climates occupied by the species rangewide. Here, using correlative species distribution models that contrast estimates of climatic sensitivity inferred from the two spatial extents, we quantify the response of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) to climate change in Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado, USA). Models are trained locally within the park where limber pine is the community dominant tree species, a distinct structural-compositional vegetation class of interest to managers, and also rangewide, as suggested by niche theory. Model forecasts through 2100 under two representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5 W/m(2)) show that the distribution of limber pine in the park is expected to move upslope in elevation, but changes in total and core patch area remain highly uncertain. Most of this uncertainty is biological, as magnitudes of projected change are considerably more variable between the two spatial extents used in model training than they are between RCPs, and novel future climates only affect local model predictions associated with RCP 8.5 after 2091. Combined, these results illustrate the importance of accounting for unknowns in species' climatic sensitivities when forecasting distributional scenarios that are used to inform management decisions. We discuss how our results for limber pine may be interpreted in the context of climate change vulnerability and used to help guide adaptive management. PMID:24391742

  19. Scaling the Problem: How Commercial Interests Have Influenced the U.S. Dialogue on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, G. T.; Rogerson, P.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, corporations and their affiliates have played an increasing role in the national conversation on climate change, with companies weighing in not only on policy debates but also participating in discussions around climate science. A few of these companies in particular have been tremendously influential in dictating how the public understands, or misunderstands, climate science and how the national discourse on climate policy has progressed, or not progressed. To better understand this corporate involvement, we explored the roles that major corporate actors have played during a key time period in 2009 and 2010 when several important climate change policy proposals were being actively debated in the United States. Analyzing multiple venues in which companies engaged in discussion of climate change with different audiences—including the government, shareholders, and the public—we assess the degree to which commercial interests have helped or hindered a science-based public discourse on climate policy in the past decade. Discussion will focus especially on corporations' use of third party organizations, including industry trade groups, think tanks, and others, to exert influence on climate-related policy without accountability.

  20. INTEGRATING DETAILED SOIL SURVEY AND LANDTYPE MAPPING FOR WATERSHED SCALE ASSESSMENTS IN THE WESTERN OREGON CASCADE MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the Western Oregon Cascades is one of the most intensely managed and economically important forest regions in North America, a lack of detailed soil information has hindered watershed-scale assessments of forest productivity, water supply, sensitive wildlife species, and...

  1. Large-scale fabrication of commercially available, nonpolar linear polymer film with a highly ordered honeycomb pattern.

    PubMed

    Bui, Van-Tien; Ko, Seung Hyeon; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2015-05-20

    Highly ordered, hexagonally patterned poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin film is successfully fabricated using an improved phase separation method. A mixture of chloroform and methanol, which is used as a volatile solvent/nonsolvent pair, effectively controls the surface morphology and sensitively determines the ordered pattern. In particular, the methanol accumulation, which induces the formation of a gel-like protective layer and enhances the lateral capillary force, is crucial in the formation of the highly ordered hexagonal pattern even when using a nonpolar polymer such as PMMA. The convergence of cost-effective and large-scale production of highly ordered micropatterned film has wide potential for application, and it can enable new prospects for the commercialization of future high-tech devices that require specific multifunctionality. PMID:25923842

  2. Spatial Heterogeneity in Ecologically Important Climate Variables at Coarse and Fine Scales in a High-Snow Mountain Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kevin R.; Ettinger, Ailene K.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Raleigh, Mark S.; Hille Ris Lambers, Janneke

    2013-01-01

    Climate plays an important role in determining the geographic ranges of species. With rapid climate change expected in the coming decades, ecologists have predicted that species ranges will shift large distances in elevation and latitude. However, most range shift assessments are based on coarse-scale climate models that ignore fine-scale heterogeneity and could fail to capture important range shift dynamics. Moreover, if climate varies dramatically over short distances, some populations of certain species may only need to migrate tens of meters between microhabitats to track their climate as opposed to hundreds of meters upward or hundreds of kilometers poleward. To address these issues, we measured climate variables that are likely important determinants of plant species distributions and abundances (snow disappearance date and soil temperature) at coarse and fine scales at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington State, USA. Coarse-scale differences across the landscape such as large changes in elevation had expected effects on climatic variables, with later snow disappearance dates and lower temperatures at higher elevations. However, locations separated by small distances (?20 m), but differing by vegetation structure or topographic position, often experienced differences in snow disappearance date and soil temperature as great as locations separated by large distances (>1 km). Tree canopy gaps and topographic depressions experienced later snow disappearance dates than corresponding locations under intact canopy and on ridges. Additionally, locations under vegetation and on topographic ridges experienced lower maximum and higher minimum soil temperatures. The large differences in climate we observed over small distances will likely lead to complex range shift dynamics and could buffer species from the negative effects of climate change. PMID:23762277

  3. Multi-scale responses of vegetation to removal of horse grazing from Great Basin (USA) mountain ranges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik A. Beever; Robin J. Tausch; Wayne E. Thogmartin

    2008-01-01

    Although free-roaming equids occur on all of the world’s continents except Antarctica, very few studies (and none in the Great\\u000a Basin, USA) have either investigated their grazing effects on vegetation at more than one spatial scale or compared characteristics\\u000a of areas from which grazing has been removed to those of currently grazed areas. We compared characteristics of vegetation\\u000a at 19

  4. Major- and Trace-Element Concentrations in Rock Samples Collected in 2006 from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Miller, Marti L.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Kuskokwim mineral belt of Bundtzen and Miller (1997) forms an important metallogenic region in southwestern Alaska that has yielded more than 3.22 million ounces of gold and 400,000 ounces of silver. Precious-metal and related deposits in this region associated with Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary igneous complexes extend into the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle. The U.S. Geological Survey is in the process of conducting a mineral resource assessment of this region. This report presents analytical data collected during the third year of this multiyear study. A total of 138 rock geochemistry samples collected during the 2006 field season were analyzed using the ICP-AES/MS42, ICP-AES10, fire assay, and cold vapor atomic absorption methods described in more detail below. Analytical values are provided in percent (% or pct: 1 gram per 100 grams), parts per million (ppm: 1 gram per 1,000,000 grams), or parts per billion (ppb: 1 gram per 1,000,000,000 grams) as indicated in the column heading of the data table. Data are provided for download in Excel (*.xls), comma delimited (*.csv), dBase 4 (*.dbf) and as a point coverage in ArcInfo interchange (*.e00) formats available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1386/.

  5. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1997-06-30

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHTM) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOIYM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, comments from the DOE on the Topical Report "Economic Analysis - LPMEOHTM Process as an Add-on to IGCC for Coproduction" were received. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing for the coproduction of dimethyl ether (DIME) and methanol was made. DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed. A recommendation document summarizing catalyst targets, experimental results, and the corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst was issued on 30 June 1997. The off-site, product-use test plan was updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Acurex Environmental Corporation and Air Products screened proposals for this task by the likelihood of the projects to proceed and the timing for the initial methanol requirement. Eight sites from the list have met these criteria. The formal submission of the eight projects for review and concurrence by the DOE will be made during the next reporting period. The site paving and final painting were completed in May of 1997. Start-up activities were completed during the reporting period, and the initial methanol production from the demonstration unit occurred on 02 April 1997. The first extended stable operation at the nameplate capacity of 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day) took place on 06 April 1997. Pressure drop and resistance coefficient across the gas sparger at the bottom of the reactor increased over this initial operating period. The demonstration unit was shut down from 08 May -17 June 1997 as part of a scheduled complex outage for the Kingsport site. During this outage, the gas sparger was removed, cleaned, and reinstalled. After completion of other maintenance activities, the demonstration unit was restarted, and maintained stable operation through the remainder of the reporting period. Again, the gas sparger showed an increase in pressure drop and resistance since the restart, although not as rapidly as during the April-May operation. Fresh oil was introduced online for the first time to a new flush connection on the gas inlet line to the reactov the flush lowered the pressure drop by 1 psi. However, the effects were temporary, and the sparger resistance coefficient continued to increase. Additional flushing with both fresh oil and entrained slurry recovered in the cyclone and secondary oil knock-out drum will be attempted in order to stabilize the sparger resistance coefficient.

  6. Validity of Four Commercial Bioelectrical Impedance Scales in Measuring Body Fat among Chinese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the validity in predicting body fat percentage (%BF) of different bioelectrical impedance (BIA) devices among Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 255 Chinese children and adolescents aged 9–19 years old participated in the study. %BF was assessed by BIA scales, namely, Biodynamics-310 (Model A), Tanita TBF-543 (Model B), Tanita BC-545 (Model C), and InBody 520 (Model D). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as the criterion measurement. Lin's concordance correlation coefficients of estimated %BF between Model A, Model B, Model C, and DXA showed poor agreements for both genders. Moderate agreements for %BF were found between DXA and Model D measurements. In boys, differences in %BF were found between DXA and Model B and Model C. No significant %BF differences were found between Model A, Model D, and DXA. However, the two BIA analyzers showed a significant positive correlation between the bias and average %BF between BIA and DXA. In girls, differences in %BF were observed between Model B, Model C, Model D, and DXA. Model A and DXA showed no significant differences of %BF; however, the bias and the average %BF between the BIA and DXA had a significant positive correlation. Using embedded equations in BIA devices should be validated in assessing the %BF of Chinese children and adolescents.

  7. Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2000-04-01

    Electrochromic glazings promise to be the next major advance in energy-efficient window technology, helping to transform windows and skylights from an energy liability to an energy source for the nation's building stock. Monitored results from a full-scale demonstration of large-area electrochromic windows are given. The test consisted of two side-by-side, 3.7x4.6-m, office-like rooms. In each room, five 62x173-cm lower electrochromic windows and five 62x43-cm upper electrochromic windows formed a large window wall. The window-to-exterior-wall ratio (WWR) was 0.40. The southeast-facing electrochromic windows had an overall visible transmittance (Tv) range of Tv=0.11-0.38 and were integrated with a dimmable electric lighting system to provide constant work plane illuminance and to control direct sun. Daily lighting use from the automated electrochromic window system decreased by 6 to 24% compared to energy use with static, low-transmission (Tv =0.11), unshaded windows in overcast to cle ar sky winter conditions in Oakland, California. Daily lighting energy use increased as much as 13% compared to lighting energy use with static windows that had Tv=0.38. Even when lighting energy savings were not obtainable, the visual environment produced by the electrochromic windows, indicated by well-controlled window and room luminance levels, was significantly improved for computer-type tasks throughout the day compared to the visual environment with unshaded 38%-glazing. Cooling loads were not measured, but previous building energy simulations indicate that additional savings could be achieved. To ensure visual and thermal comfort, electrochromics require occasional use of interior or exterior shading systems when direct sun is present. Other recommendations to improve electrochromic materials and controls are noted along with some architectural constraints.

  8. Mountain Building

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    This activity is part of a series of lessons in a continuing study of change. It is designed to give students hands-on experience manipulating and controlling the variables involved in the process of soil erosion. They will be able to identify variables that influence rates of change and use group consensus to design and build what they believe to be the strongest mountain possible.

  9. Efficacy of activated sludge\\/powdered activated carbon for removal of organic constituents in wastewater from commercial-scale, high-Btu coal gasification plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Harrison; D. L. Ford

    1980-01-01

    Bench-scale, activated-sludge (AS) treatability studies indicate that approximately 98 percent of total organic constituents can be removed from wastewater generated by HYGAS and slagging-type, high-Btu coal gasification pilot plants. This suggests that the most important unit of a wastewater treatment system for organics removal in commercial-scale versions of such plants will be the AS unit, augmented by powdered activated carbon

  10. Approaches to modeling coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemicalprocesses in the Drift Scale Heater Test at Yucca Mountain.

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenthal, E.; Ito, K.; Spycher, N.; Yui, M.; Apps, J.; Sugita,Y.; Conrad, M.; Kawakami, S.

    2005-03-01

    A large-scale underground thermal test (Drift Scale Test DST) in fractured volcanic tuff resulted in changes to water and gas chemistry as well as mineral precipitation and dissolution in fractures. Thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in the DST were modeled by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ''LBNL'' and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute ''JNC'' as part of the international working group DECOVALEX. Predictions of THC processes in the DST for the 4-year heating and 4-year cooling periods were initially performed by the LBNL group, with the current model reflecting a revised heater operation history and model. JNC used primarily the original data from the prediction and created a new model to evaluate a selected set of data. The approaches taken by the groups differed in several ways and a comparison of the methodologies and results of the simulations allow for a better understanding of modeling coupled processes in unsaturated fractured rock. The LBNL model represented the fractures and rock matrix as a fully interacting dual-continuum (in terms of fluid, heat, and chemical transport) with the local mineral water gas reactions treated by kinetic and equilibrium reactions. The JNC model represented the fractures and matrix as a single effective continuum, with equilibrium mineral-water reactions controlling the chemical evolution. Both models considered aqueous species transport, with gas phase CO2 transport only considered in the LBNL model. Comparisons to data collected from the DST illustrate the behavior of the models and their ability to capture the relevant THC processes. Overall, both models capture the temperature evolution in the rock quite closely, although the JNC model gave a closer match to the initial temperature rise in the rock, likely owing to the use of site-specific thermal data as opposed to average properties used for the LBNL model. Both models showed the contrasting solubility effects of increasing temperature on calcite and silica solubility; yet the dual continuum approach better represented the effects of boiling and condensation on aqueous species chemistry and the distribution of mineral precipitation.

  11. Mountain Snow System Interactions - An Integrative Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Landry; T. H. Painter; A. P. Barrett

    2004-01-01

    Snow scientists now have capabilities and opportunities unimagined in the 1950's due to refinements in field techniques and instrumentation, and the advent of remote sensing platforms. These technical advances enable snow scientists to observe the mountain snow system at virtually any spatial scale. Mountain snow covers are essential water resources in many regions and are increasingly recognized as sensitive bellwethers

  12. Geophysical Setting of the Blue Mountain Geothermal Area, North-Central Nevada and its Relationship to a Crustal-Scale Fracture Associated with the Inception of the Yellowstone Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, D. A.; Bouligand, C.; Casteel, J.; Glen, J. M.; Watt, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    The Blue Mountain geothermal field, located about 35 km northwest of Winnemucca, Nevada, is situated along a prominent crustal-scale fracture interpreted from total-intensity aeromagnetic and gravity data. Aeromagnetic data indicate that this feature is related to the intrusion of mafic dikes, similar to the Northern Nevada Rift, and may be associated with the inception of the ~16 Ma Yellowstone Hotspot. This pre-existing large-scale crustal feature may have influenced the location of the geothermal prospect and the spatially associated epithermal gold deposit on the western flank of Blue Mountain. Other epithermal gold deposits in north-central Nevada are strongly correlated with this and other similar crustal-scale fractures associated with the Yellowstone Hotspot as well (Ponce and Glen, 2002). We investigate mafic dikes exposed along the western flank of Blue Mountain, and encountered in drill-holes DB-1 and DB-2 at depths of about 500 and 750 meters, respectively. The dikes are composed of gabbro to diorite and physical-property measurements indicate they have an average saturated-bulk density of 2852 kg/m3 and a moderately magnetic susceptibility of about 18.0 x 10-3 SI. Geologic investigations by Wyld (2002) and paleomagnetic investigations of the dikes indicate they are no younger than about 10 Ma and have a paleomagnetic direction consistent with a mid-Miocene age, suggesting they may be related to the inception of the Yellowstone Hotspot. Gravity, magnetic, and physical-property data were collected in the area in order to improve the regional data coverage, which was relatively sparse throughout this part of north-central Nevada, especially on pre-Cenozoic bedrock. These data are used to better constrain the geophysical setting of Blue Mountain. In particular, we invert gravity data to determine the geometry of the basins in the area which may yield important structural information. Simultaneous forward modeling of magnetic and gravity anomaly data is used to help locate subsurface structures, dikes, or concealed faults that may have influenced the location of the geothermal area. Combined with other geologic and geophysical studies, these data suggest that the Blue Mountain geothermal prospect is preferentially located along a pre-existing crustal-scale fracture associated with the inception of the Yellowstone Hotspot. This suggests that other crustal-scale features in northern Nevada may likely be favorable for geothermal resources.

  13. Major- and trace-element concentrations in rock samples collected in 2004 from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Miller, Marti L.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Karl, Sue M.; Baichtal, James F.; Blodgett, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    The Kuskokwim mineral belt of Bundtzen and Miller (1997) forms an important metallogenic region in southwestern Alaska that has yielded more than 3.22 million ounces of gold and 400,000 ounces of silver. Precious-metal and related deposits in this region associated with Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary igneous complexes extend into the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting geologic mapping and a mineral resource assessment of this area that will provide a better understanding of the geologic framework, regional geochemistry, and may provide targets for mineral exploration and development. During the 2004 field season 137 rock samples were collected for a variety of purposes. The 4 digital files accompanying this report reflect the type of analysis performed and its intended purpose and are available for download as an Excel workbook, comma delimited format (*.csv), dBase 4 files (*.dbf) or as point coverages in ArcInfo interchange format (*.e00). Data values are provided in percent, pct (1gram per 100grams), or parts per million, ppm (1gram per 1,000,000grams) per the column heading in the table. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 42 trace-elements (icp42.*) to provide data for use in geochemical exploration as well as some baseline data. Selected samples were analyzed by additional methods; 104 targeted geochemical exploration samples were analyzed for gold, arsenic, and mercury (auashg.*); 21 of these samples were also analyzed to obtain concentrations of 10 loosely bound metals (icp10.*); 33 rock samples were analyzed for major element oxides to support the regional mapping program (reg.*), of which 28 sedimentary rock samples were also analyzed for total carbon, and carbonate carbon.

  14. Aqueous Geochemical Data From the Analysis of Stream-Water Samples Collected in June and July 2005--Taylor Mountains 1:250,000 Scale Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Mueller, Seth; Stetson, Sarah; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

    2006-01-01

    We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle. Parameters for which data are reported include pH, conductivity, water temperature, major cation and anion concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and dissolved organic-carbon concentrations. Samples were collected as part of a multiyear U.S. Geological Survey project 'Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development.' Data presented here are from samples collected in June and July of 2005. The data are being released at this time with minimal interpretation. This is the second release of aqueous geochemical data from this project; 2004 aqueous geochemical data were published previously (Wang and others, 2006). The data in this report augment but do not duplicate or supersede the previous data release. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first- and second-order drainages. Water sample site selection was based on landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and a cursory field review of mineralogy from pan concentrates. Stream water in the Taylor Mountians quadrangle is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), though in a few samples more than 50 percent of the anionic charge can be attributed to sulfate (SO42-). The major-cation chemistry ranges from Ca2+/Mg2+ dominated to a mix of Ca2+/Mg2+/Na++K+. In general, good agreement was found between the major cations and anions in the duplicate samples. Many trace elements in these samples were at or near the analytical method detection limit, but good agreement was found between duplicate samples for elements with detectable concentrations. With the exception of a total mercury concentration of 0.33 ng/L detected in a field blank, field blank major-ion and trace-elements concentrations were below detection.

  15. Commercial-Scale Performance Predictions for High-Temperature Electrolysis Plants Coupled to Three Advanced Reactor Types

    SciTech Connect

    M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2007-09-01

    This report presents results of system analyses that have been developed to assess the hydrogen production performance of commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plants driven by three different advanced reactor – power-cycle combinations: a high-temperature helium cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle, a supercritical CO2-cooled reactor coupled to a direct recompression cycle, and a sodium-cooled fast reactor coupled to a Rankine cycle. The system analyses were performed using UniSim software. The work described in this report represents a refinement of previous analyses in that the process flow diagrams include realistic representations of the three advanced reactors directly coupled to the power cycles and integrated with the high-temperature electrolysis process loops. In addition, this report includes parametric studies in which the performance of each HTE concept is determined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the study indicate that overall thermal-to- hydrogen production efficiencies (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) in the 45 - 50% range can be achieved at reasonable production rates with the high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept, 42 - 44% with the supercritical CO2-cooled reactor and about 33 - 34% with the sodium-cooled reactor.

  16. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more information on enabling JavaScript. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria, which cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Credit: CDC Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a ...

  17. Mountain Barriers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. This lesson focuses on the changes that occur when mountains rise, thus changing the climate of the area and the plants and animals that live there. Students perform an experiment to observe differences in hot and cold air that help cause this phenomenon. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, audio vocabulary, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  18. Mountain Stage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mountain Stage, a famous Charleston, West Virginia, venue where folk musicians play, is broadcast on National Public Radio, and can be heard on the NPR website, simply by clicking on "Listen", next to the artist's picture and brief bio. Visitors wishing to read more about the artist's musical history can click on the name of the artist next to their picture. Included in the history is their set list for the broadcast show. Visitors can comment on each artist's show, or recommend it to other visitors, by clicking on the icons at the bottom of each brief bio on the homepage.

  19. Spatio-temporal variability of soil water content on the local scale in a Mediterranean mountain area (Vallcebre, North Eastern Spain). How different spatio-temporal scales reflect mean soil water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Antonio J.; Latron, Jérôme; Rubio, Carles M.; Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar

    2014-08-01

    As a result of complex human-land interactions and topographic variability, many Mediterranean mountain catchments are covered by agricultural terraces that have locally modified the soil water content dynamic. Understanding these local-scale dynamics helps us grasp better how hydrology behaves on the catchment scale. Thus, this study examined soil water content variability in the upper 30 cm of the soil on a Mediterranean abandoned terrace in north-east Spain. Using a dataset of high spatial (regular grid of 128 automatic TDR probes at 2.5 m intervals) and temporal (20-min time step) resolution, gathered throughout a 84-day period, the spatio-temporal variability of soil water content at the local scale and the way that different spatio-temporal scales reflect the mean soil water content were investigated. Soil water content spatial variability and its relation to wetness conditions were examined, along with the spatial structuring of the soil water content within the terrace. Then, the ability of single probes and of different combinations of spatial measurements (transects and grids) to provide a good estimate of mean soil water content on the terrace scale was explored by means of temporal stability analyses. Finally, the effect of monitoring frequency on the magnitude of detectable daily soil water content variations was studied. Results showed that soil water content spatial variability followed a bimodal pattern of increasing absolute variability with increasing soil water content. In addition, a linear trend of decreasing soil water content as the distance from the inner part of the terrace increased was identified. Once this trend was subtracted, resulting semi-variograms suggested that the spatial resolution examined was too high to appreciate spatial structuring in the data. Thus, the spatial pattern should be considered as random. Of all the spatial designs tested, the 10 × 10 m mesh grid (9 probes) was considered the most suitable option for a good, time-stable estimate of mean soil water content, as no improvement was obtained with the 5 × 5 m mesh grid (30 probes). Finally, the results of temporal aggregation showed that decreasing the monitoring frequency down to 8 h during wetting-up periods and to 1 day during drying-down ones did not result in a loss of information on daily soil water content variations.

  20. Commercial scale demonstration: enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Annual report, October 1980-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.C.

    1982-05-01

    This commercial scale test, known as the M-1 Project, is located in Crawford County, Illinois. It encompasses 407 acres of Robinson sand reservoir and covers portions of several waterflood projects that were approaching economic limit. The project includes 248 acres developed on a 2.5-acre five-spot pattern and 159 acres developed on a 5.0-acre five-spot pattern. Development work commenced in late 1974 and has previously been reported. Micellar solution (slug) injection was initiated on February 10, 1977, and is now completed. After 10% of a pore volume of micellar slug was injected, injection of 11% pore volume of Dow 700 Pusher polymer was conducted at a concentration of 1156 ppM. At the end of this reporting period, 625 ppM polymer was being injected into the 2.5-acre pattern and 800 ppM polymer was being injected into the 5.0-acre pattern. The oil cut of the 2.5-acre pattern has decreased from 11.0% in September 1980, to 7.9% in September 1981. The 2.5-acre pattern had been on a plateau since May 1980, and as of May 1981 appears to be on a decline. The oil cut of the 5.0-acre pattern has increased from 5.9% in September 1980, to 10.9% in September 1981. The 5.0-acre pattern experienced a sharp increase in oil cut after 34% of a pore volume of total fluid had been injected and appears to be continuing its incline. This fifth annual report is organized under the following three work breakdown structures: fluid injection; production; and performance monitoring.

  1. Scale-up of Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, Mark A [The Dow Chemical Company

    2014-08-27

    The project started in September, 2012 with the goal of scaling up from the existing laboratory scale process for producing carbon fiber (CF) from polyolefin (PO) based precursor fiber using a Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization process. The award was used to develop a process that was capable of producing market development quantities of CF from PO precursor fiber at a rate of 4 kg/h of CF. The CF would target properties that met or exceeded the Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicles Technology [1] standard; i.e., 172 GPa modulus and 1.72 GPa strength at greater than or equal to 1% strain. The Dow proprietary process was capable of meeting and exceeding these targets properties. Project DE-EE0005760 resulted from a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Dow and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with support from the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) and DOE. In the first budget period, the main goal was to design a sulfonation-desulfonation market development plant capable of stabilizing PO precursor fiber at a rate of 5 kg/h using a sulfonation solution. The detailed design, location, and cost estimate were determined as scheduled in the Project Management Plan (PMP). In parallel with this DOE award project was a fundamentals and economic evaluation funded by The Dow Chemical Company (Dow). The goal of the Dow sponsored project was to finalize the mass balances, energy balances, and levelized cost to produce CF using the Dow process. A Go-No-Go decision was scheduled in June, 2013 based on the findings of the DOE sponsored scale up project and the Dow sponsored project. In June, 2013, Dow made the No-Go decision to halt and abandon the Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation process for stabilizing PO precursor fibers for the manufacturing of CF. This No-Go decision was identified in the original proposal and at the start of this project, and the decision was made as scheduled. The decision was based on the high levelized economic cost of the process relative to the manufacture of CF from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor fibers. The capital required to sulfonate the fibers adds a significant cost to the process due to the need for investment in a sulfuric acid recovery plant. This high additional capital over the capital for a PAN based CF plant, reduces the levelized economic cost to slightly advantaged over PAN based CF. The sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization route failed to meet the Dow’s return on investment criterion and the cost advantage target set forth for the DOE project. The DOE and Dow decided to halt spending on the project until a new PO fiber stabilization process could be identified that met the DOE physical properties standard and the levelized economic cost constraints of Dow. When the new technology was developed, then award DE-EE0005760 would be re-started with the same goals of the development of a market development plant capable of producing CF at 4 kg/h with the properties that met or exceed those set forth by the Department of Energy Vehicles Technology standard. Progress on the development of the new process has been slow and thus has delayed the scale up project. Dow’s efforts to date have not progressed to the point of demonstrating a commercially-viable process for production of low cost CF from PO precursors for Dow’s rigorous economic constraints. After extensive discussions within Dow and consultation with DOE’s Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams, Dow has decided to proceed with the formal recommendation to terminate subject project. DOE’s AMO Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams agreed with the termination of the project.

  2. Development and scale-up of a commercial fed batch refolding process for an anti-CD22 two chain immunotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Linke, Thomas; Aspelund, Matthew T; Thompson, Christopher; Xi, Guoling; Fulton, Andrew; Wendeler, Michaela; Pabst, Timothy M; Wang, Xiangyang; Wang, William K; Ram, Kripa; Hunter, Alan K

    2014-01-01

    We describe the development and scale-up of a novel two chain immunotoxin refolding process. This work provides a case study comparing a clinical manufacturing process and the commercial process developed to replace it. While the clinical process produced high quality material, it suffered from low yield and high yield variability. A systematic approach to process development and understanding led to a number of improvements that were implemented in the commercial process. These include a shorter inclusion body recovery process, limiting the formation of an undesired deamidated species and the implementation of fed batch dilution refolding for increased refold titers. The use of a combination of urea, arginine and DTT for capture column cleaning restored the binding capacity of the capture step column and resulted in consistent capture step yields compared to the clinical process. Scalability is shown with data from 250 L and 950 L scale refolding processes. Compared to the clinical process it replaces, the commercial process demonstrated a greater than fivefold improvement in volumetric productivity at the 950 L refolding scale. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:1380–1389, 2014 PMID:25139260

  3. Mountains and Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    Completed in 2013, this portal for digital collections pertaining to mountains and mountaineering brings together thousands of images from the University of Washington Libraries. Visitors should read the narrative introduction on the homepage and then move around through the various Topics, which include The Mountaineers Activities and Early Climbing and Tourism at Mt. Rainier. This last area offers a piquant look through the history of the massive peak known simply as "the Mountain" by locals. Visitors can explore the records of the adventurous spirits who have climbed the mountain over the years, along with the papers of Dee Molenaar, a celebrated geologist and local climber. The site also includes a Resources area that includes links to mountain climbing groups and such.

  4. Small scale heterogeneity of Phanerozoic lower crust: evidence from isotopic and geochemical systematics of mid-Cretaceous granulite gneisses, San Gabriel Mountains, southern California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Barth; J. L. Wooden; D. J. May

    1992-01-01

    An elongate belt of mid-Cretaceous, compositionally banded gneisses and granulites is exposed in Cucamonga terrane, in the southeastern foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. Banded gneisses include mafic granulites of two geochemical types: type 1 rocks are similar to high Al arc basalts and andesites but have higher HFSE (high-field-strength-element) abundances and extremely variable LILE (largeion-lithophile-element) abundances,

  5. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-09-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  6. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  7. How Close We Are to Achieving Commercially Viable Large-Scale Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria: A Review of the Biological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. PMID:25793279

  8. How close we are to achieving commercially viable large-scale photobiological hydrogen production by cyanobacteria: a review of the biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. PMID:25793279

  9. Rapid large scale purification of ellagitannins from pomegranate husk, a by-product of the commercial juice industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Seeram; R. Lee; M. Hardy; D. Heber

    2005-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed fresh and in processed forms as juice, jams and wine. Pomegranate fruit husk\\/peel is a rich source of hydrolyzable tannins called ellagitannins (ETs). In the commercial pomegranate juice (PJ) industry, these ETs are extracted from the husk in significant quantities into the juice due to their hydrophilic properties. Pomegranate husk, a by-product

  10. Decades-Scale Degradation of Commercial, Side-Chain, Fluorotelomer-Based Polymers in Soils and Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs) are a primary product of the jluorotelomer industry, yet the role of commercial FTPs in degrading to form perjluorocarboxylic acids (P FCAs), including perjluorooctanoic acid, and P FCA precursors, remains ill-defined. Here we report on a 376-d...

  11. Hydrocarbonization process evaluation report. Volume I. Conceptual design and cost estimate of a commercial-scale facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Holmes; D. A. Dyslin; M. S. Edwards; D. S. Joy; G. R. Peterson; C. B. Smith; P. M. Lantz

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design and an economic evaluation of a Hydrocarbonization Facility based on United States Steel Corporation's Clean Coke process are presented. Volume I includes the conceptual design and cost estimate of a commercial facility for producing clean char, oil, and pipeline gas fuels having a heating value comparable to 100,000 bbl of fuel oil per day. Volume II of

  12. Analysis of products from the pyrolysis of plastics recovered from the commercial scale recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Hall; Paul T. Williams

    2007-01-01

    Three plastic fractions from a commercial waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) processing plant were collected and investigated for the possibility of recycling them by batch pyrolysis. The first plastic was from equipment containing cathode ray tubes (CRTs), the second plastic was from refrigeration equipment, and the third plastic was from mixed WEEE. Initially, the decomposition of each of the

  13. How Mountains are Formed

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students investigate how mountains are formed. Concepts include the composition and structure of the Earth's tectonic plates and tectonic plate boundaries, with an emphasis on plate convergence as it relates to mountain formation. Students learn that geotechnical engineers design technologies to measure movement of tectonic plates and mountain formation, as well as design to alter the mountain environment to create safe and dependable roadways and tunnels.

  14. United States Department of Agriculture / Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station

    E-print Network

    United States Department of Agriculture / Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station General Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 51 p. Abstract Reliable predictions of how changing climate imputation transfers predictions of fine-scale forest composition and structure across geographic space

  15. GREEN MOUNTAIN MORRIS DANCERS

    E-print Network

    GREEN MOUNTAIN MORRIS DANCERS A young men's team performing Morris & Sword dances from England Mountain (boys) and Maple Leaf (girls) will be recruiting new members in January 2009, typically 6th grade, but as a springtime dance, to awaken the earth. The Green Mountain Morris and Maple Leaf Morris are based in Norwich

  16. Prediction of mountain stream morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Wohl; David Merritt

    2005-01-01

    We use a large and diverse data set from mountain streams around the world to explore relationships between reach-scale channel morphology and control variables. The data set includes 177 step-pool reaches, 44 plane-bed reaches, and 114 pool-riffle reaches from the western United States, Panama, and New Zealand. We performed several iterations of stepwise discriminant analysis on these data. A three-variable

  17. From genetic improvement to commercial-scale mass culture of a Chilean strain of the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis with enhanced productivity of the red ketocarotenoid astaxanthin

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Patricia I.; Inostroza, Ingrid; Pizarro, Mario; Pérez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a red ketocarotenoid, widely used as a natural red colourant in marine fish aquaculture and poultry and, recently, as an antioxidant supplement for humans and animals. The green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the richest natural sources of this pigment. However, its slow growth rate and complex life cycle make mass culture difficult for commercial purposes. The aims of this research were (i) to standardize and apply a genetic improvement programme to a Chilean strain of H. pluvialis in order to improve its carotenogenic capacity and (ii) to evaluate the performance of a selected mutant strain in commercial-sized (125 000 L) open ponds in the north of Chile. Haematococcus pluvialis strain 114 was mutated by ethyl methanesulfonate. The level of mutagen dose (exposure time and concentration) was one that induced at least 90 % mortality. Surviving colonies were screened for resistance to the carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor diphenylamine (25 µM). Resistant mutants were grown in a 30-mL volume for 30 days, after which the total carotenoid content was determined by spectrophotometry. Tens of mutants with improved carotenogenic capacity compared with the wild-type strain were isolated by the application of these standardized protocols. Some mutants exhibited curious morphological features such as spontaneous release of astaxanthin and loss of flagella. One of the mutants was grown outdoors in commercial-sized open ponds of 125 000 L in the north of Chile. Grown under similar conditions, the mutant strain accumulated 30 % more astaxanthin than the wild-type strain on a per dry weight basis and 72 % more on a per culture volume basis. We show that random mutagenesis/selection is an effective strategy for genetically improving strains of H. pluvialis and that improved carotenogenic capacity is maintained when the volume of the cultures is scaled up to a commercial size. PMID:23789055

  18. From genetic improvement to commercial-scale mass culture of a Chilean strain of the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis with enhanced productivity of the red ketocarotenoid astaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Patricia I; Inostroza, Ingrid; Pizarro, Mario; Pérez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a red ketocarotenoid, widely used as a natural red colourant in marine fish aquaculture and poultry and, recently, as an antioxidant supplement for humans and animals. The green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the richest natural sources of this pigment. However, its slow growth rate and complex life cycle make mass culture difficult for commercial purposes. The aims of this research were (i) to standardize and apply a genetic improvement programme to a Chilean strain of H. pluvialis in order to improve its carotenogenic capacity and (ii) to evaluate the performance of a selected mutant strain in commercial-sized (125 000 L) open ponds in the north of Chile. Haematococcus pluvialis strain 114 was mutated by ethyl methanesulfonate. The level of mutagen dose (exposure time and concentration) was one that induced at least 90 % mortality. Surviving colonies were screened for resistance to the carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor diphenylamine (25 µM). Resistant mutants were grown in a 30-mL volume for 30 days, after which the total carotenoid content was determined by spectrophotometry. Tens of mutants with improved carotenogenic capacity compared with the wild-type strain were isolated by the application of these standardized protocols. Some mutants exhibited curious morphological features such as spontaneous release of astaxanthin and loss of flagella. One of the mutants was grown outdoors in commercial-sized open ponds of 125 000 L in the north of Chile. Grown under similar conditions, the mutant strain accumulated 30 % more astaxanthin than the wild-type strain on a per dry weight basis and 72 % more on a per culture volume basis. We show that random mutagenesis/selection is an effective strategy for genetically improving strains of H. pluvialis and that improved carotenogenic capacity is maintained when the volume of the cultures is scaled up to a commercial size. PMID:23789055

  19. Scale-Up of CdTe Photovoltaic Device Processes for Commercial Application: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-196

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D.

    2013-02-01

    Through this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, NREL and PrimeStar Solar will work together to scale up the NREL CdTe photovoltaic process from the laboratory to produce photovoltaic devices in a size that is commercially viable. The work in this phase will focus on the transference of NREL CdTe device fabrication techniques to PrimeStar Solar. NREL and PrimeStar Solar will engage in a series of technical exchange meetings and laboratory training sessions to transfer the knowledge of CdTe PV film growth from NREL to PrimeStar Solar. PrimeStar Solar will grow thin films on PrimeStar Solar equipment and interleave them with NREL-grown films in an effort to develop a commercial scale process on PrimeStar Solar equipment. Select NREL film growth equipment will be upgraded either by PrimeStar Solar or at PrimeStar Solar's expense to increase equipment reliability and throughput.

  20. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system: Phase 3, Quarterly progress report No. 9, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1993-05-01

    In the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, etc. These buildings generally require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. Objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system is a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen Inc. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS (Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation). The combustor concept employs centrifugal forces combined with a staged combustion process to achieve high carbon conversion efficiencies and low N oxides generation. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system includes pollution control devices to meet targeted values of SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions. In general, the system is designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems. During the 8th quarter of this program, a demonstration plan was developed for installation and operation of the space heating system at an actual installation. Also, equipment upgrades were implemented and laboratory testing performed to evaluate the performance of the system with these changes.

  1. A two-compartment bioreactor system made of commercial parts for bioprocess scale-down studies: impact of oscillations on Bacillus subtilis fed-batch cultivations.

    PubMed

    Junne, Stefan; Klingner, Arne; Kabisch, Johannes; Schweder, Thomas; Neubauer, Peter

    2011-08-01

    This study describes an advanced version of a two-compartment scale-down bioreactor that simulates inhomogeneities present in large-scale industrial bioreactors on the laboratory scale. The system is made of commercially available parts and is suitable for sterilization with steam. The scale-down bioreactor consists of a usual stirred tank bioreactor (STR) and a plug flow reactor (PFR) equipped with static mixer modules. The PFR module with a working volume of 1.2 L is equipped with five sample ports, and pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) sensors. The concept was applied using the non-sporulating Bacillus subtilis mutant strain AS3, characterized by a SpoIIGA gene knockout. In a fed-batch process with a constant feed rate, it is found that oscillating substrate and DO concentration led to diminished glucose uptake, ethanol formation and an altered amino acid synthesis. Sampling at the PFR module allowed the detection of dynamics at different concentrations of intermediates, such as pyruvic acid, lactic acid and amino acids. Results indicate that the carbon flux at excess glucose and low DO concentrations is shifted towards ethanol formation. As a result, the reduced carbon flux entering the tricarboxylic acid cycle is not sufficient to support amino acid synthesis following the oxaloacetic acid branch point. PMID:21751400

  2. Mountain Weather: A Climber's Story

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this video segment, mountain-climber Rob Taylor gives an account of his failed attempt to scale the peak of Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro. Because it is a free-standing mountain, the tallest in the world, climbers must ascend from the base through several climate zones, from tropical heat to sub-zero temperatures, before reaching the summit. After falling near the summit and nearly freezing to death, Taylor thought his worst problems were behind him when the moist trpoical climate near the bottom triggered a runaway infection in his injured leg. The segment is four minutes forty-two seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the video.

  3. Analyzing flow patterns in unsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain using an integrated modeling approach

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Guoping; Zhang, Keni; Pan, Lehua; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2008-01-01

    site-scale model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, High Level Radioactive WasteYucca Mountain, Nevada, a proposed underground repository site for storing high-level radioactive waste.Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a proposed underground repository site for storing high-level radioactive waste.

  4. Short Communication: Earth is (mostly) flat, but mountains dominate global denudation: apportionment of the continental mass flux over millennial time scales, revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willenbring, J. K.; Codilean, A. T.; Ferrier, K. L.; McElroy, B.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide consumption by silicate mineral weathering and the subsequent precipitation of carbonate sediments sequesters CO2 over geologic timescales. The rate of this carbon sequestration is coupled to rates of continental erosion, which exposes fresh minerals to weathering. Steep mountain landscapes represent a small fraction of continental surfaces but contribute disproportionately to global erosion rates. However, the relative contributions of Earth's much vaster, but more slowly eroding, plains and hills remain the subject of debate. Recently, Willenbring et al. (2013) analyzed a compilation of denudation rates and topographic gradients and concluded that low-gradient regions dominate global denudation fluxes and silicate weathering rates. Here, we show that Willenbring et al. (2003) topographic and statistical analyses were subject to methodological errors that affected their conclusions. We correct these errors, and reanalyze their denudation rate and topographic data. In contrast to the results of Willenbring et al. (2013), we find that the denudation flux from the steepest 10% of continental topography nearly equals the flux from the other 90% of the continental surface combined. This new analysis implies global denudation fluxes of ∼23 Gt yr-1, roughly five times the value reported in Willenbring et al. (2013) and closer to previous estimates found elsewhere in the literature. Although low-gradient landscapes make up a small proportion of the global fluxes, they remain important because of the human reliance, and impact, on these vast areas.

  5. Yucca Mountain Project Surface Facilities Design

    SciTech Connect

    P.W. McDaniel; N.R. Brown; P.G. Harrington; J.T. Gardiner; L.J. Trautner

    2002-11-20

    With the recent designation of the Yucca Mountain site as a proposed repository for the disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel, DOE spent nuclear fuel and high- level waste, work is proceeding on the design of surface facilities to receive, unload, and package the waste into waste packages for emplacement in the repository. This paper summarizes recent progress in the design of these surface facilities.

  6. Development of new punch shape to replicate scale-up issues in laboratory tablet press II: a new design of punch head to emulate consolidation and dwell times in commercial tablet press.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Shigeru; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Ito, Manabu

    2014-06-01

    Differences between laboratory and commercial tablet presses are frequently observed during scale-up of tableting process. These scale-up issues result from the differences in total compression time that is the sum of consolidation and dwell times. When a lubricated blend is compressed into tablets, the tablet thickness produced by the commercial tablet press is often thicker than that by a laboratory tablet press. A new punch shape design, designated as shape adjusted for scale-up (SAS), was developed and used to demonstrate the ability to replicate scale-up issues in commercial-scale tableting processes. It was found that the consolidation time can be slightly shortened by changing the vertical curvature of the conventional punch head rim. However, this approach is not enough to replicate the consolidation time. A secondary two-stage SAS punch design and an embossed punch head was designed to replicate the consolidation and dwell times on a laboratory tablet press to match those of a commercial tablet press. The resulting tablet thickness using this second SAS punch on a laboratory tablet press was thicker than when using a conventional punch in the same laboratory tablet press. The secondary SAS punches are more useful tools for replicating and understanding potential scale-up issues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci. PMID:24797714

  7. Geologic Sequestration of CO2 in Deep, Unmineable Coalbeds: An Integrated Researdh and Commercial-Scale Field Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves; George Koperna

    2008-09-30

    The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative consortium with the objective of advancing industry's understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. This will allow primary recovery, enhanced recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration operations to be commercially enhanced and/or economically deployed. The project was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coalseams. The initial project accomplished a number of important objectives, which mainly revolved around performing baseline experimental studies, documenting and analyzing existing field projects, and establishing a global network for technology exchange. The results from that Phase have been documented in a series of reports which are publicly available. An important outcome of the initial phase was that serious limitations were uncovered in our knowledge of reservoir behavior when CO{sub 2} is injected into coal. To address these limitations, the project was extended in 2005 as a government-industry collaborative consortium. Selected accomplishments from this phase have included the identification and/or development of new models for multi-component sorption and diffusion, laboratory studies of coal geomechanical and permeability behavior with CO{sub 2} injection, additional field validation studies, and continued global technology exchange. Further continuation of the consortium is currently being considered. Some of the topics that have been identified for investigation include further model development/refinement related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins, the extension of the work to gas shale reservoirs, and continued global technology exchange.

  8. A Quality Assurance Initiative for Commercial-Scale Production in High-Throughput Cryopreservation of Blue Catfish Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Hu, E; Liao, T. W.; Tiersch, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of fish sperm has been studied for decades at a laboratory (research) scale. However, high-throughput cryopreservation of fish sperm has recently been developed to enable industrial-scale production. This study treated blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) sperm high-throughput cryopreservation as a manufacturing production line and initiated quality assurance plan development. The main objectives were to identify: 1) the main production quality characteristics; 2) the process features for quality assurance; 3) the internal quality characteristics and their specification designs; 4) the quality control and process capability evaluation methods, and 5) the directions for further improvements and applications. The essential product quality characteristics were identified as fertility-related characteristics. Specification design which established the tolerance levels according to demand and process constraints was performed based on these quality characteristics. Meanwhile, to ensure integrity throughout the process, internal quality characteristics (characteristics at each quality control point within process) that could affect fertility-related quality characteristics were defined with specifications. Due to the process feature of 100% inspection (quality inspection of every fish), a specific calculation method, use of cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts, was applied to monitor each quality characteristic. An index of overall process evaluation, process capacity, was analyzed based on in-control process and the designed specifications, which further integrates the quality assurance plan. With the established quality assurance plan, the process could operate stably and quality of products would be reliable. PMID:23872356

  9. A quality assurance initiative for commercial-scale production in high-throughput cryopreservation of blue catfish sperm.

    PubMed

    Hu, E; Liao, T W; Tiersch, T R

    2013-10-01

    Cryopreservation of fish sperm has been studied for decades at a laboratory (research) scale. However, high-throughput cryopreservation of fish sperm has recently been developed to enable industrial-scale production. This study treated blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) sperm high-throughput cryopreservation as a manufacturing production line and initiated quality assurance plan development. The main objectives were to identify: (1) the main production quality characteristics; (2) the process features for quality assurance; (3) the internal quality characteristics and their specification designs; (4) the quality control and process capability evaluation methods, and (5) the directions for further improvements and applications. The essential product quality characteristics were identified as fertility-related characteristics. Specification design which established the tolerance levels according to demand and process constraints was performed based on these quality characteristics. Meanwhile, to ensure integrity throughout the process, internal quality characteristics (characteristics at each quality control point within process) that could affect fertility-related quality characteristics were defined with specifications. Due to the process feature of 100% inspection (quality inspection of every fish), a specific calculation method, use of cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts, was applied to monitor each quality characteristic. An index of overall process evaluation, process capacity, was analyzed based on in-control process and the designed specifications, which further integrates the quality assurance plan. With the established quality assurance plan, the process could operate stably and quality of products would be reliable. PMID:23872356

  10. Mountain Pine Beetles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Melissa Barker

    This lesson plan has students working in small groups to research the Mountain Pine Beetle in Colorado and other inter-mountain Western states. Students identify the factors that control pine beetle population and research how warmer winters and decreasing spring snowpack allow the population of pine beetles to expand.

  11. MARBLE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, Mary M.; Hale, William N.

    1984-01-01

    The Marble Mountain Wilderness is located in the north-central Klamath Mountains of northern California. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral investigations indicate that the wilderness has areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for placer gold, for chromite, and for marble. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

  12. Stone Mountain in Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The colored square in this grayscale image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity highlights the location of Stone Mountain, located within the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop.

  13. Quantifying Mountain Front Recharge Using Isotopic Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahi, A. K.; Ekwurzel, B.; Hogan, J. F.; Eastoe, C. J.; Baillie, M. N.

    2005-05-01

    To improve our conceptual and quantitative understanding of mountain-front/mountain-block recharge (MFR) associated with the Huachuca Mountains of the Upper San Pedro River Basin in Arizona, we employed a suite of geochemical measurements including isotopic tracers and noble gases. MFR is frequently the dominant source of recharge to alluvial basins in the semiarid Basin and Range province. It consists of mountain runoff that infiltrates at the mountain front (mountain-front recharge), and percolation through the mountain bedrock that reaches the basin via the movement of deep groundwater (mountain-block recharge). The rate of MFR can be estimated from a water balance, a Darcy's law analysis, or inverse modeling of groundwater processes. Despite the large volume of research on water resources in the basin and the critical importance of MFR to the water budget, the best estimates of MFR obtained using these methods may have errors as large as 100%. We find that geochemical tracers address mechanistic questions regarding recharge seasonality, location, and rates as well as addressing groundwater flowpaths and residence times. The gradient of stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in groundwater with elevation mirrors that of regional precipitation, providing a constraint on the location and seasonality of recharge. Stable isotopic signatures indicate that MFR is dominated by winter precipitation but has 1/3 or more contribution from monsoon precipitation. Detectable tritium and 14C values greater than 100 pMC for springs, shallow groundwater in mountain canyons, and from wells along the mountain front indicate decade-scale residence times. Away from the mountain front 14C values rapidly decrease, reaching 12.3±0.2 pMC near the river. This suggests total basin residence times greater than 10,000 years, consistent with past measurements. Ongoing analysis of noble gas concentrations will provide an indication of recharge conditions. The solubility of noble gases in water depends on temperature and pressure; thus, noble gas concentrations provide a means to distinguish water samples recharged at different elevations.

  14. Identifying erosion areas at basin scale using remote sensing data and GIS: a case study in a geologically complex mountain basin in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Beguería

    2006-01-01

    Inventory and monitoring of eroded areas at basin scale (Mm) can be very useful for environmental planning and can help to reduce land degradation and sediment yield to streams. Combined use of remote sensing images and auxiliary geocoded data has been widely used for mapping various environmental features, including surface erosion. Here an example is presented in the Yesa reservoir

  15. Mountaineering fatalities on Denali.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott E; Campbell, Aaron D; Dow, Jennifer; Grissom, Colin K

    2008-01-01

    Mount McKinley, or Denali, is the tallest mountain in North America and attracts over 1,000 climbers annually from around the world. Since Denali is located within a national park, the National Park Service (NPS) manages mountaineering activities and attempts to maintain a balance of an adventurous experience while promoting safety. We retrospectively reviewed the fatalities on Denali from 1903 to 2006 to assist the NPS, medical personnel, and mountaineers improve safety and reduce fatalities on the mountain. Historical records and the NPS climber database were reviewed. Demographics, mechanisms, and circumstances surrounding each fatality were examined. Fatality rates and odds ratios for country of origin were calculated. From 1903 through the end of the 2006 climbing season, 96 individuals died on Denali. The fatality rate is declining and is 3.08/1,000 summit attempts. Of the 96 deaths, 92% were male, 51% occurred on the West Buttress route, and 45% were due to injuries sustained from falls. Sixty-one percent occurred on the descent and the largest number of deaths in 1 year occurred in 1992. Climbers from Asia had the highest odds of dying on the mountain. Fatalities were decreased by 53% after a NPS registration system was established in 1995. Although mountaineering remains a high-risk activity, safety on Denali is improving. Certain groups have a significantly higher chance of dying. Registration systems and screening methods provide ways to target at-risk groups and improve safety on high altitude mountains such as Denali. PMID:18331224

  16. Loveliness but with an Edge: Looking at the Smoky Mountains, 1920-1945

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Slavishak

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the infrastructural and commercial changes it wrought in Tennessee and North Carolina, the development of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park encouraged efforts to manage visitors' perceptions of nature. Organizations that shaped regional tourism after 1920 devoted themselves to making mountain recreation both an aesthetic and kinesthetic experience. Visitors were expected to earn their sightseeing while driving

  17. Constraints to farmers’ adoption of direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems: A farm scale modeling approach applied to the mountainous slopes of Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Affholder; Damien Jourdain; Dang Dinh Quang; To Phuc Tuong; Marion Morize; Aymeric Ricome

    2010-01-01

    Substantial initiatives are under way in the tropical world to develop and promote direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC) in order to reduce soil erosion and improve crop nutrient and water balances. DMC have been adopted by large-scale mechanized farmers, especially in America and Australia, but seldom by resource-poor farmers in the developing world. This study was conducted in Vietnam with

  18. Reassessing regime shifts in the North Pacific: incremental climate change and commercial fishing are necessary for explaining decadal-scale biological variability.

    PubMed

    Litzow, Michael A; Mueter, Franz J; Hobday, Alistair J

    2014-01-01

    In areas of the North Pacific that are largely free of overfishing, climate regime shifts - abrupt changes in modes of low-frequency climate variability - are seen as the dominant drivers of decadal-scale ecological variability. We assessed the ability of leading modes of climate variability [Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA), North Pacific Index (NPI), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)] to explain decadal-scale (1965-2008) patterns of climatic and biological variability across two North Pacific ecosystems (Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea). Our response variables were the first principle component (PC1) of four regional climate parameters [sea surface temperature (SST), sea level pressure (SLP), freshwater input, ice cover], and PCs 1-2 of 36 biological time series [production or abundance for populations of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), groundfish, herring (Clupea pallasii), shrimp, and jellyfish]. We found that the climate modes alone could not explain ecological variability in the study region. Both linear models (for climate PC1) and generalized additive models (for biology PC1-2) invoking only the climate modes produced residuals with significant temporal trends, indicating that the models failed to capture coherent patterns of ecological variability. However, when the residual climate trend and a time series of commercial fishery catches were used as additional candidate variables, resulting models of biology PC1-2 satisfied assumptions of independent residuals and out-performed models constructed from the climate modes alone in terms of predictive power. As measured by effect size and Akaike weights, the residual climate trend was the most important variable for explaining biology PC1 variability, and commercial catch the most important variable for biology PC2. Patterns of climate sensitivity and exploitation history for taxa strongly associated with biology PC1-2 suggest plausible mechanistic explanations for these modeling results. Our findings suggest that, even in the absence of overfishing and in areas strongly influenced by internal climate variability, climate regime shift effects can only be understood in the context of other ecosystem perturbations. PMID:23996901

  19. Dynamics of Mountain Pine

    E-print Network

    Powell, James

    are the most obvious in their impact, and of these, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus pon- derosae Hopkins et al., 2001; Munson et al., 2004). A complex of bark beetles are killing ponderosa pine

  20. Smoky Mountain Field School

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of Tennessee Division of Continuing Education contains the home page for the Smoky Mountain Field School which offers supervised wilderness adventures for people of all ages and levels of experience. http://www.ce.utk.edu/Smoky/

  1. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  2. Growing Mountain Ranges and Quenched River Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, S.; Simpson, G.

    2006-12-01

    River networks result from the competing effects of tectonic uplift and erosion. Although the widely accepted paradigm in geomorphology is that large scale river networks result from climate-controlled erosion into uplifted topography, it has never been explained why the universal scaling properties of river networks (e.g. Hack's law) are independent of both tectonics and climate. Here we resolve this paradox by showing that the scaling properties of river networks are established on the lowland, alluvial margins of incipient uplifts, and are then quenched into the erosion zone as the mountain belts widen with time. The geometry of river networks is therefore independent of erosion processes, and simply reflects the downward coalescence of alluvial rivers on un-dissected surfaces outside of mountain belts.

  3. The influence of industrial-scale canning on cadmium and lead levels in sardines and anchovies from commercial fishing centres of the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Galitsopoulou, Augoustina; Georgantelis, Dimitrios; Kontominas, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The current study encompassed a survey on the levels of toxic trace elements in two highly consumed fish species in commercial fishing centres of western, central and eastern Mediterranean Sea. A Zeeman GTA-AAS graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry system was used throughout the study. Toxicological evaluation of the samples revealed a low Cd content in the raw samples, ranging between 0.003 and 0.027 mg kg?¹. Pb presented significantly higher values, from 0.037 to 0.297 mg kg?¹, occasionally reaching the limit of 0.3 mg kg?¹. Heavy metal levels were particularly higher in bones, thus raising queries about the safe consumption of fish intended to be eaten as a whole, a very common practice for small fish and canned products. The influence of industrial-scale canning showed that canning enhanced heavy metal levels by 35%-80%. The effect of canning depended on metal type and reduction of moisture loss after the steam-roasting step of the canning procedure. PMID:24779699

  4. Triclocarban, triclosan and its transformation product methyl triclosan in native earthworm species four years after a commercial-scale biosolids application.

    PubMed

    Macherius, André; Lapen, David R; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Römbke, Jörg; Topp, Edward; Coors, Anja

    2014-02-15

    Triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS) and methyl triclosan (Me-TCS) were detected in soil and the native population of earthworms of an agricultural field in Ottawa, Canada, about four years after a commercial-scale application of biosolids. In soil that received biosolids, TCC and TCS were detected at median concentrations of 13.0 and 1.5 ng/g soil (d.w.), respectively, while Me-TCS, the transformation product of triclosan, was detected at a six-fold higher median concentration than its precursor. In earthworms collected at the biosolids-amended field-plot about four years post application, Me-TCS was also detected at higher concentrations (26 to 114 ng/g tissue d.w.) than TCS (16-51 ng/g) and TCC (4-53 ng/g). These data provide evidence that not only parent compounds but also their transformation products need to be considered in faunal bioaccumulation studies. Moreover, the preliminary results for pooled earthworm samples from different ecological groups suggest that the degree of bioaccumulation of biosolids-associated contaminants may depend on the habitat and feeding behavior of the organisms. PMID:24291564

  5. Environmental and Economic Performance of Commercial-scale Solar Photovoltaic Systems: A Field Study of Complex Energy Systems at the Desert Research Institute (DRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.

    2014-12-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are being aggressively deployed at residential, commercial, and utility scales to complement power generation from conventional sources. This is motivated both by the desire to reduce carbon footprints and by policy-driven financial incentives. Although several life cycle analyses (LCA) have investigated environmental impacts and energy payback times of solar PV systems, most results are based on hypothetical systems rather than actual, deployed systems that can provide measured performance data. Over the past five years, Desert Research Institute (DRI) in Nevada has installed eight solar PV systems of scales from 3 to 1000 kW, the sum of which supply approximately 40% of the total power use at DRI's Reno and Las Vegas campuses. The goal of this work is to explore greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts and examine the economic performance of DRI's PV systems by developing and applying a comprehensive LCA and techno-economic (TEA) model. This model is built using data appropriate for each type of panel used in the DRI systems. Power output is modeled using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) model PVWatts. The performance of PVWatts is verified by the actual measurements from DRI's PV systems. Several environmental and economic metrics are quantified for the DRI systems, including life cycle GHG emissions and energy return. GHG results are compared with Nevada grid-based electricity. Initial results indicate that DRI's solar-derived electricity offers clear GHG benefits compared to conventional grid electricity. DRI's eight systems have GHG intensity values of 29-56 gCO2e/kWh, as compared to the GHG intensity of 212 gCO2e/kWh of national average grid power. The major source of impacts (82-92% of the total) is the upstream life cycle burden of manufacturing PV panels, which are made of either mono-crystalline or multi-crystalline silicon. Given the same type of PV panel, GHG intensity decreases as the scale of the system increases. Energy payback times of DRI's solar PV systems range from 0.5 to 1.5 years. The cost payback time for the DRI PV systems and the cost per ton of CO2 avoided by replacing Nevada-specific electrical power will be determined. The sensitivity of these environmental and economic impacts with respect to specific model parameters is being investigated.

  6. Effect of Commercial-Scale High-Temperature, Short-Time Pasteurization on the Viability of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in Naturally Infected Cows' Milk

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Irene R.; Hitchings, Edward I.; McCartney, Alan; Ferguson, Fiona; Rowe, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Raw cows' milk naturally infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was pasteurized with an APV HXP commercial-scale pasteurizer (capacity 2,000 liters/h) on 12 separate occasions. On each processing occasion, milk was subjected to four different pasteurization treatments, viz., 73°C for 15 s or 25 s with and without prior homogenization (2,500 lb/in2 in two stages), in an APV Manton Gaulin KF6 homogenizer. Raw and pasteurized milk samples were tested for M. paratuberculosis by immunomagnetic separation (IMS)-PCR (to detect the presence of bacteria) and culture after decontamination with 0.75% (wt/vol) cetylpyridinium chloride for 5 h (to confirm bacterial viability). On 10 of the 12 processing occasions, M. paratuberculosis was detectable by IMS-PCR, culture, or both in either raw or pasteurized milk. Overall, viable M. paratuberculosis was cultured from 4 (6.7%) of 60 raw and 10 (6.9%) of 144 pasteurized milk samples. On one processing day, in particular, M. paratuberculosis appeared to have been present in greater abundance in the source raw milk (evidenced by more culture positives and stronger PCR signals), and on this occasion, surviving M. paratuberculosis bacteria were isolated from milk processed by all four heat treatments, i.e., 73°C for 15 and 25 s with and without prior homogenization. On one other occasion, surviving M. paratuberculosis bacteria were isolated from an unhomogenized milk sample that had been heat treated at 73°C for 25 s. Results suggested that homogenization increases the lethality of subsequent heat treatment to some extent with respect to M. paratuberculosis, but the extended 25-s holding time at 73°C was found to be no more effective at killing M. paratuberculosis than the standard 15-s holding time. This study provides clear evidence that M. paratuberculosis bacteria in naturally infected milk are capable of surviving commercial high-temperature, short-time pasteurization if they are present in raw milk in sufficient numbers. PMID:11823197

  7. Effect of commercial-scale high-temperature, short-time pasteurization on the viability of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in naturally infected cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Grant, Irene R; Hitchings, Edward I; McCartney, Alan; Ferguson, Fiona; Rowe, Michael T

    2002-02-01

    Raw cows' milk naturally infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was pasteurized with an APV HXP commercial-scale pasteurizer (capacity 2,000 liters/h) on 12 separate occasions. On each processing occasion, milk was subjected to four different pasteurization treatments, viz., 73 degrees C for 15 s or 25 s with and without prior homogenization (2,500 lb/in(2) in two stages), in an APV Manton Gaulin KF6 homogenizer. Raw and pasteurized milk samples were tested for M. paratuberculosis by immunomagnetic separation (IMS)-PCR (to detect the presence of bacteria) and culture after decontamination with 0.75% (wt/vol) cetylpyridinium chloride for 5 h (to confirm bacterial viability). On 10 of the 12 processing occasions, M. paratuberculosis was detectable by IMS-PCR, culture, or both in either raw or pasteurized milk. Overall, viable M. paratuberculosis was cultured from 4 (6.7%) of 60 raw and 10 (6.9%) of 144 pasteurized milk samples. On one processing day, in particular, M. paratuberculosis appeared to have been present in greater abundance in the source raw milk (evidenced by more culture positives and stronger PCR signals), and on this occasion, surviving M. paratuberculosis bacteria were isolated from milk processed by all four heat treatments, i.e., 73 degrees C for 15 and 25 s with and without prior homogenization. On one other occasion, surviving M. paratuberculosis bacteria were isolated from an unhomogenized milk sample that had been heat treated at 73 degrees C for 25 s. Results suggested that homogenization increases the lethality of subsequent heat treatment to some extent with respect to M. paratuberculosis, but the extended 25-s holding time at 73 degrees C was found to be no more effective at killing M. paratuberculosis than the standard 15-s holding time. This study provides clear evidence that M. paratuberculosis bacteria in naturally infected milk are capable of surviving commercial high-temperature, short-time pasteurization if they are present in raw milk in sufficient numbers. PMID:11823197

  8. Predictability of an isolated mountain storm 1 Ensemble predictability of an isolated mountain

    E-print Network

    Kirshbaum, Daniel

    , RG6 6BB, UK. E-mail: k.e.hanley@reading.ac.uk Convective-scale initial-condition ensemble simulations into the boundary layer acted to feed a deeper layer of moist valley air into the convergent mountain circulation

  9. Does Nature and Persistence of Substrate at a Mesohabitat Scale Matter for Chironomidae Assemblages? a Study of Two Perennial Mountain Streams in Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Epele, Luis Beltrán; Miserendino, María Laura; Brand, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Chironomid substrate—specific associations regarding the nature (organic—inorganic) and stability (stable—unstable) of different habitats were investigated at two low order Patagonian streams, during high and low water periods. Nant y Fall and Glyn rivers were visited twice (October 2007 and March 2008) and seven different habitat types were identified. A total of 60 samples were collected using a Surber sampler (0.09 m -2 and 250 µm) and a set of 23 environmental descriptors including physicochemical parameters and different fractions of particulate organic matter were assessed. 35 Chironomidae taxa were recorded with Orthocladiinae (20), Chironominae (7), and Podonominae (4) being the most well—represented subfamilies. Paratrichocladius sp. 1, Parapsectrocladius sp. 2, Parametriocnemus sp. 1, Pseudochironomus sp., and Rheotanytarsus sp. were the most abundant taxa. According to the relative preference index, at least 14 taxa showed strong affinity for a particular substrate. The structurally complex macrophyte Myriophyllum quitense supported 11 taxa compared with only five taxa found on the less complex Isoetes savatieri. Generally, stable substrates (boulders, cobbles, and rooted plants) supported significantly higher chironomids richness, abundance, and diversity than unstable ones (gravel—sand). Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that detritus (leaves, seeds, and biomass), macrophyte biomass, and secondarily hydraulic variables had high explanatory power on chironomids species composition and structure. This work suggests that more complex substrates showing persistence in the temporal dimension supported a diverse array of chironomids, meaning that the maintenance of natural habitat heterogeneity is essential for the community. Land—use practices having significant effects on ecological stream attributes such as increased turbidity, sediment deposition, and runoff patterns will alter assemblages. Understanding environmental associations of the Chironomidae assemblage at the habitat scale is significant for conservation purposes and for the management of low order streams in Patagonia. PMID:22947060

  10. Does nature and persistence of substrate at a mesohabitat scale matter for Chironomidae assemblages? A study of two perennial mountain streams in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Epele, Luis Beltrán; Miserendino, María Laura; Brand, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Chironomid substrate-specific associations regarding the nature (organic-inorganic) and stability (stable-unstable) of different habitats were investigated at two low order Patagonian streams, during high and low water periods. Nant y Fall and Glyn rivers were visited twice (October 2007 and March 2008) and seven different habitat types were identified. A total of 60 samples were collected using a Surber sampler (0.09 m(-2) and 250 µm) and a set of 23 environmental descriptors including physicochemical parameters and different fractions of particulate organic matter were assessed. 35 Chironomidae taxa were recorded with Orthocladiinae (20), Chironominae (7), and Podonominae (4) being the most well-represented subfamilies. Paratrichocladius sp. 1, Parapsectrocladius sp. 2, Parametriocnemus sp. 1, Pseudochironomus sp., and Rheotanytarsus sp. were the most abundant taxa. According to the relative preference index, at least 14 taxa showed strong affinity for a particular substrate. The structurally complex macrophyte Myriophyllum quitense supported 11 taxa compared with only five taxa found on the less complex Isoetes savatieri. Generally, stable substrates (boulders, cobbles, and rooted plants) supported significantly higher chironomids richness, abundance, and diversity than unstable ones (gravel-sand). Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that detritus (leaves, seeds, and biomass), macrophyte biomass, and secondarily hydraulic variables had high explanatory power on chironomids species composition and structure. This work suggests that more complex substrates showing persistence in the temporal dimension supported a diverse array of chironomids, meaning that the maintenance of natural habitat heterogeneity is essential for the community. Land-use practices having significant effects on ecological stream attributes such as increased turbidity, sediment deposition, and runoff patterns will alter assemblages. Understanding environmental associations of the Chironomidae assemblage at the habitat scale is significant for conservation purposes and for the management of low order streams in Patagonia. PMID:22947060

  11. Evaluating effects of an expanding mountain goat population on native bighorn sheep: a simulation model of competition and disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E Gross

    2001-01-01

    Biological invasions create serious conservation problems at local to global scales, and decisions about their management require evaluation of the likely environmental consequences of an expanding population. An expanding population of exotic mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) occupy an area near Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA (RMNP), an area managed for preservation of natural communities and processes. If mountain goats

  12. Pacific Mountain System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web page guides the user through the Pacific Mountain System geologic province, one of the most geologically young and tectonically active in North America. The generally rugged, mountainous landscape of this province, which includes parts of Washington, Oregon, and California, provides evidence of ongoing mountain-building. One map shows the plate tectonic setting of the Pacific Mountain System which straddles the boundaries between several of Earth's moving plates. This province includes the active volcanoes of the Cascade Range and the young, steep mountains of the Pacific Border and the Sierra Nevada. The user can find out more with links to USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory, Seattle region earthquake hazards, or North Cascades National Park geology. Links are provided to a simple shaded relief map and to several other shaded relief maps including ones with National Park locations and with major and subprovince boundaries. Image gallery links are given to several national parks sites: Lassen Volcanic National Park, Yosemite National Park, and North Cascades National Park.

  13. Mountain Road with Autumn Foliage

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A mountain road and surrounding early autumn foliage photographed from a higher elevation in the Appalachian Mountains. The especially prominent orange leaves of a maple tree are in the foreground....

  14. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program as they have developed over the past 5 years; what follows will be focused on Yucca Mountain, but not restricted to it.

  15. Tourism and Commercial Recreation Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies

    E-print Network

    Brown, Gregory G.

    Tourism and Commercial Recreation Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies Green Mountain College Fall 2005 GENERAL INFORMATION Course: REC 3033, Tourism and Commercial Recreation Credits: 3 DESCRIPTION [From the catalog]. This course is a study of the dynamics of the tourism industry

  16. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MR power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full- sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, and (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MR Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  17. Mountain Man Measurement Rendezvous

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Utah LessonPlans

    2012-10-22

    In this math lesson, learners participate in several activities where they apply measurement skills. Learners explore how the Mountain Men played an important part in the history of the American frontier and more importantly, how the Mountain Men used different techniques for making measurements in their daily activities. At the various stations, learners measure their jump distances, handfuls of "gold," water-soaked sponges, "buffalo chip" throws, arm spans, "stone" throws, "arrow" tosses, foot sizes, pots of beans, and "shooting" distances. This activity works well outside.

  18. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  19. Predicting the Future at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Wilson

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes a climate-prediction model funded by the DOE for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Several articles in the open literature attest to the effects of the Global Ocean Conveyor upon paleoclimate, specifically entrance and exit from the ice age. The data shows that these millennial-scale effects are duplicated on the microscale of years to decades. This work also identifies how man may have influenced the Conveyor, affecting global cooling and warming for 2,000 years.

  20. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  1. Commercial Printreading Course Syllabus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Goodblatt, Raphael

    This document is a syllabus for a commercial print reading class taught by Raphael Goodblatt at Portland Community College. The syllabus includes a basic course outline, summary of course content and grading scale. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word Doc file format.

  2. Rocky Mountain High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes Colorado's Eagle Rock School, which offers troubled teens a fresh start by transporting them to a tuition- free campus high in the mountains. The program encourages spiritual development as well as academic growth. The atmosphere is warm, loving, structured, and nonthreatening. The article profiles several students' experiences at the…

  3. Freshness in the Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Kay Slattery; Clauss, Judith Enz

    2000-01-01

    Situated in a western mountain range, the North Carolina Center for the Advancement of Teaching is a residential facility that houses teachers seeking intellectual refreshment. The center pays all expenses, aiming to advance teaching as an art and a profession via seminars and a relaxed atmosphere. (MLH)

  4. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  5. North American mountain bromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia N Massa; Steven R Larson

    2005-01-01

    Although native grasses are often desired and used for revegetation of disturbed areas, genetic differences may exist within and among natural and cultivated germplasm sources. This phylogeographic study compares geographic origin and genealogical linkages of 25 natural and cultivated germplasm sources of mountain brome (Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn. [Poaceae]) from western North America. Significant variation among accessions (FST =

  6. Carve That Mountain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    In this activity, students further investigate major landforms (e.g., mountains, rivers, plains, hills, oceans and plateaus). They build a three-dimensional model of a landscape depicting several of these landforms. Once they have built their model, they act as civil and transportation engineers to build a road through the landscape they have created.

  7. POTENTAIL HABITAT MOUNTAIN PLOVERS

    E-print Network

    POTENTAIL HABITAT FOR MOUNTAIN PLOVERS ON COLORADO SPRINGS UTILITIES PROPERTY A Report to Colorado). To identify potential habitat on current and future Colorado Springs Utilities property, the Utility funded a habitat survey conducted by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program at Colorado State University. METHODS

  8. Wuyi mountains 3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Landa

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2001, my wife and I were invited to participate in a tea tour taking us to different regions of China famous for producing tea. When I arrived in Wuyi Shan, I was overwhelmed by the beauty of the landscape of the Wuyi Mountains, the peaks shrouded in mist and in my mind, I could see all

  9. Wuyi mountains 11

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Landa

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2001, my wife and I were invited to participate in a tea tour taking us to different regions of China famous for producing tea. When I arrived in Wuyi Shan, I was overwhelmed by the beauty of the landscape of the Wuyi Mountains, the peaks shrouded in mist and in my mind, I could see all

  10. Wuyi mountains 8

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Landa

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2001, my wife and I were invited to participate in a tea tour taking us to different regions of China famous for producing tea. When I arrived in Wuyi Shan, I was overwhelmed by the beauty of the landscape of the Wuyi Mountains, the peaks shrouded in mist and in my mind, I could see all

  11. Wuyi mountains 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Landa

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2001, my wife and I were invited to participate in a tea tour taking us to different regions of China famous for producing tea. When I arrived in Wuyi Shan, I was overwhelmed by the beauty of the landscape of the Wuyi Mountains, the peaks shrouded in mist and in my mind, I could see all

  12. Melting Mountain Glaciers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC Learn

    2010-10-07

    The world's glaciers are shrinking at alarming rates, and many scientists believe it is due to changes in climate. Dr. Lonnie Thompson of Ohio State University and Dr. Douglas Hardy of UMass-Amherst discuss glaciers and how they melt, and pay special attention to Africa's tallest mountain, Mt. Kilimanjaro. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

  13. Comparison of three rocky mountain spotted fever vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, R H; Sammons, L S; Pedersen, C E

    1975-01-01

    Growth of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) rickettsiae in duck embryo cell (DEC) cultures and chicken embryo cell (CEC) cultures was evaluated. Experimental lots of duck embryo cell- and chicken embryo cell-grown Rocky Mountain spotted fever vaccines and a commercial lot of yolk sac-grown vaccine were compared for protective efficacy in rhesus monkeys. Incidence and magnitude of antibody response, febrile response, and rickettsemia, as well as incidence of fatalities, suggested that both cell culture-derived vaccines were more immunogenic than the yolk sac-grown vaccine. PMID:810494

  14. Geological map of Bare Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Monsen, S.A.; Carr, M.D.; Reheis, M.C.; Orkild, P.P.

    1992-12-31

    Bare Mountain comprises the isolated complex of mountain peaks southeast of the town of Beatty in southern Nye County, Nevada. This small mountain range lies between the alluvial basins of Crater Flat to the east and the northern Amargosa Desert to the southwest. The northern boundary of the range is less well defined, but for this report, the terrane of faulted Miocene volcanic rocks underlying Beatty Mountain and the unnamed hills to the east are considered to be the northernmost part of Bare Mountain. The southern tip of the mountain range is at Black Marble, the isolated hill at the southeast corner of the map. The main body of the range, between Fluorspar Canyon and Black Marble, is a folded and complexly faulted, but generally northward-dipping (or southward-dipping and northward-overturned), sequence of weakly to moderately metamorphosed upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic marine strata, mostly miogeoclinal (continental shelf) rocks. The geology of Bare Mountain is mapped at a scale of 1:24,000.

  15. Rockfall exposures in Montserrat mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontquerni Gorchs, Sara; Vilaplana Fernández, Joan Manuel; Guinau Sellés, Marta; Jesús Royán Cordero, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    This study shows the developed methodology to analyze the exposure level on a 1:25000 scale, and the results obtained by applying it to an important part of the Monataña de Montserrat Natural Park for vehicles with and without considering their occupants. The development of this proposal is part of an ongoing study which focuses more in-depth in the analysis of the rockfall risk exposure in different scales and in different natural and social contexts. This research project applies a methodology to evaluate the rockfall exposure level based on the product of the frequency of occurrence of the event by an exposure function of the vulnerable level on a 1:25,000 scale although the scale used for the study was 1:10,000. The proposed methodology to calculate the exposure level is based on six phases: 1- Identification, classification and inventory of every element potentially under risk. 2- Zoning of the frequency of occurrence of the event in the studied area. 3- Design of the exposure function for each studied element. 4- Obtaining the Exposure index, it can be defined as the product of the frequency of occurrence by the exposure function of the vulnerable element through SIG analysis obtained with ArcGis software (ESRI) 5- Obtaining exposure level by grouping into categories the numerical values of the exposure index. 6- Production of the exposition zoning map. The different types of vulnerable elements considered in the totality of the study are: Vehicles in motion, people in vehicles in motion, people on paths, permanent elements and people in buildings. Each defined typology contains all elements with same characteristics and an exposure function has been designed for each of them. For the exposure calculation, two groups of elements have been considered; firstly the group of elements with no people involved and afterwards same group of elements but with people involved. This is a first comprehensive and synthetic work about rockfall exposure on the Montserrat Mountain. It is important to mention that the exposure level calculation has been obtained from natural hazard data do not protected by defense works. Results of this work enable us to consider best strategies to reduce rockfalls risk in the PNMM. It is clear that, apart from the required structural defense works, some of them already made, implementation of strategies not involving structural defense is, in the medium and long term, the best policy to mitigate the risk. In the PNMM case, rethinking of mobility and traffic management on the mountain access would be definitely helpful to achieve a minimized geological risk.

  16. Incorporating Watershed-Scale Groundwater/Surface Water Interactions to Better Understand How ENSO/PDO Teleconnections Affect Streamflow Variability in Geologically Complex, Semiarid, Snow-Dominated Mountainous Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsinnajinnie, L.; Frisbee, M. D.; Wilson, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    In the Southwestern U.S., warm anomalies in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are associated with increased probability of wetter than normal winter precipitation. For semiarid, snow-dominated mountainous watersheds, teleconnections, such as ENSO, may strongly affect the magnitude and timing of snowmelt pulses in streamflow. In examining stream-gage data, an implicit assumption is made that all the streamflow generation processes operative within the watershed are captured by the stream gage. However, zones of strong groundwater discharge to the stream alternating with zones of strong recharge from the stream may emerge in geologically complex watersheds. The spatial complexity of these groundwater/surface water interactions may not be captured in the stream-gage discharge data. This may not be a problem in watersheds where streamflow is generated primarily by shallow, fast runoff processes. In that case, changes associated with ENSO can be quickly apparent in streamflow (i.e., an increase in snowpack associated with warm ENSO anomalies will quickly translate to increases in daily and peak streamflow). However, the spatial complexity of groundwater/surface water interactions creates a problem in geologically complex watersheds where interactions with deep, regional groundwater are present. In this case, we test the hypothesis that the combined effect of complex geology and deep groundwater interactions creates phase shifts between peak snowpack, onset and peak of snowmelt pulses, and teleconnection indices. Using time-series analysis, the relationships between teleconnections, and metrics for snowpack and streamflow are evaluated for selected watersheds in New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado. A phase shift (lag) is observed between the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI) and onset and peak of snowmelt pulses in streamflow in snow-dominated watersheds with complex geology across scales of 50 to 1600 km2. Additionally, strong relationships between teleconnections and streamflow are not observed at larger snow-dominated watersheds with known significant deep groundwater contributions. We conclude that the effects of complex geology and deep groundwater interactions must be considered when quantifying the effects of ENSO and other teleconnections on the timing of the onset of the snowmelt pulse.

  17. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  18. Distribution of Mycorrhizal Types among Alpine Vascular Plant Families on the Beartooth Plateau, Rocky Mountains, U.S.A., in Reference to Large-Scale Patterns in Arctic–Alpine Habitats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathy L. Cripps; Leslie H. Eddington

    2005-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbiosis is critical to plant establishment and survival, influences plant community structure and function, and could be particularly important in harsh environments such as the alpine tundra. An examination of 53 vascular plant species in 21 families from alpine areas of the Beartooth Plateau (Rocky Mountains) revealed most were mycorrhizal (68%) and four distinct types of symbioses were present.

  19. Mountain West Digital Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Formed as part of a consortium between universities, colleges, museums, and historical societies in Utah, Nevada, and Idaho, the Mountain West Digital Library contains dozens of digital collections whose content ranges far beyond that of the geographical area covered by the Mountain West region. On their homepage, visitors can learn about the "Featured Collection" and then browse all of the available collections via a list of partner institutions. All told, there are over 100 collections here, and visitors can search the entire archive for text, images, video, or audio clips. A couple of the collections should not be missed, including "Before Gaming: Las Vegas Centennial", which provides visual documentation of a (relatively) quiet Las Vegas before the emergence of gambling. Additionally, the Mormon publication "The Young Woman's Journal" provides insight into the lives of Mormon women in the early 20th century.

  20. Yucca Mountain Milestone

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Rod

    1997-06-09

    The Department of Energy project to determine if the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is suitable for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste reached a major milestone in late April when a 25-foot-diameter tunnel boring machine ``holed through'' completing a five-mile-long, horseshoe-shaped excavation through the mountain. When the cutting-head of the giant machine broke through to daylight at the tunnel's south portal, it ended a 2 1/2-year excavation through the mountain that was completed ahead of schedule and with an outstanding safety record. Video of the event was transmitted live by satellite to Washington, DC, where it was watched by Secretary of Energy Frederico Pena and other high-level DOE officials, signifying the importance of the project's mission to find a repository for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants. This critical undertaking is being performed by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The tunnel is the major feature of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which serves as an underground laboratory for engineers and scientists to help determine if Yucca Mountain is suitable to serve as a repository for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Morrison Knudsen's Environmental/Government Group is providing design and construction-management services on the project. The MK team is performing final design for the ESF and viability assessment design for the underground waste repository that will be built only if the site is found suitable for such a mission. In fact, if at anytime during the ESF phase, the site is found unsuitable, the studies will be stopped and the site restored to its natural state.

  1. Estimating snow-water equivalent (SWE) over long mountain transects with snowmobile-mounted GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, W. S.; Provart, M.; Miller, S. N.; Dogan, M.

    2014-12-01

    The hydrologic balance in most alpine watersheds is dominated by snowmelt, which provides peak spring runoff and recharges mountain aquifers, contributing to baseflow throughout the year. Measurement of snow-water equivalent (SWE) is necessary for accurate modeling of alpine hydrology but is challenging due to the variability in snow accumulation, ablation and redistribution at scales from microtopography to hillslopes to mountainsides. Here we present a method for imaging snow stratigraphy and estimating SWE over large distances from a ground-penetrating radar system mounted on a snowmobile. We mount commercial GPR systems (500 and 800 MHz) to the front of the snowmobile to provide maximum mobility and ensure that measurements are taken on pristine snow. High-quality images show detailed snow stratigraphy down to the ground surface over snow depths up to at least 8 m, enabling elucidation of snow accumulation and redistribution processes. We estimate snow density (and thus SWE, assuming no liquid water) by measuring radar velocity of the snowpack through migration focusing analysis. Results from the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming, show that estimates of snow density from GPR (0.40±0.15 gm/cm3) are in good agreement with those from coincident snow cores (0.35±0.08 gm/cm3). Using this method, snow thickness, snow density, and therefore SWE can be measured over large areas solely from rapidly acquired common-offset GPR profiles, without the need for common-midpoint acquisition or snow cores.

  2. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  3. The Evolution of Mountain Permafrost in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, C.; Delaloye, R.; Roer, I. H.; Hilbich, C.; Hoelzle, M.; Kenner, R.; Kotlarski, S.; Lambiel, C.; Marmy, A.; Müller, J.; Noetzli, J.; Phillips, M.; Rajczak, J.; Salzmann, N.; Schaepman, M. E.; Schar, C.; Staub, B.; Völksch, I.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost, defined as lithospheric material whose temperature remains below 0 °C for two or more consecutive years, occurs in many high-mountain regions of the European Alps. Mountain permafrost in the European Alps is characterised by temperatures only a few degrees below zero and is therefore particularly sensitive to projected climate changes in the 21st century. To evaluate the sensitivity of mountain permafrost to climatic changes and to assess its future evolution, not only climatic variables such as air temperature, radiation and timing and duration of snow cover have to be considered, but also subsurface characteristics such as ground temperature, ice content, porosity or hydraulic properties. In Switzerland, permafrost monitoring started only 1-2 decades ago but currently comprises a large set of meteorological, geophysical, kinematic and ground thermal parameters at a large variety of field sites. Within a large integrating national project (The evolution of mountain permafrost in Switzerland: TEMPS) these data sets are jointly analysed for the first time by combining observations with model simulations using a dynamic process-oriented soil model capable of addressing frozen terrain. In combination with results from Regional Climate Model ensembles, the project TEMPS aims to create plausible evolution scenarios of mountain permafrost at specific sites and will investigate the interactions between atmosphere and permafrost focusing on the evolution of ground temperature, ice content and related degradation and creep processes. This contribution will show first results concerning (a) new observation techniques in high-mountain permafrost, including thermal, geophysical and kinematic methods, (b) sensitivity studies with the soil model COUP regarding the impact of temperature and precipitation anomalies on different permafrost landforms and (c) strategies for downscaling and debiasing RCM output data for permafrost analysis on the station scale at high altitudes. The results illustrate the difficulties of scale mismatch between spatial models and point observations, as well as the problem of short time series in a climate context, but they highlight also the large potential of bringing together the monitoring and modelling communities, as both can provide key data for each other in the context of anticipated impacts of climate change. First results regarding the permafrost evolution in the Swiss Alps indicate several monitoring stations with permafrost temperatures close to the melting point, with corresponding phase changes observable with e.g. geophysical methods. Simulations suggest increasing air and ground temperatures until the end of the century with a corresponding reduction in snow cover, which does, however, not offset a general warming trend of permafrost temperatures in the simulation models. Nevertheless, the high variability of surface and subsurface materials in the permafrost regions of the European Alps will strongly modulate any general warming trend which might be visible within the coming decades.

  4. Spinal Column and Spinal Cord Injuries in Mountain BikersA 13Year Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily R. Dodwell; Brian K. Kwon; Barbara Hughes; David Koo; Andrea Townson; Allan Aludino; Richard K. Simons; Charles G. Fisher; Marcel F. Dvorak; Vanessa K. Noonan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Multiple studies have described in general the injuries associated with mountain biking, and detailed accounts of spine injuries sustained in hockey, gymnastics, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and paragliding have previously been published. However, no large-scale detailed assessment of mountain biking associated spinal fractures and spinal cord injuries has previously been published.Purpose: This study was undertaken to describe the patient demographics,

  5. Development of large-scale hatchery production techniques for the commercially important sea cucumber Holothuria scabra var. versicolor (Conand, 1986) in Queensland, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grisilda Ivy; Daniel Azari; Beni Giraspy

    2006-01-01

    Overexploitation is an issue affecting sea cucumber fisheries worldwide. Improved management plans for existing sea cucumber populations and\\/or aquaculture of depleted stocks are considered indispensable to maintaining wild populations and sustainable fisheries. In this context, we evaluated the potential of the commercially important sea cucumber Holothuria scabra versicolor (golden sandfish) for mass culture in a hatchery. Adult H. scabra versicolor

  6. Development and testing of a commercial scale coal-fired combustion system -- Phase 3. Final technical progress report, September 26, 1990--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.; Breault, R.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of work performed in the development and testing of a coal-fired space heating system for the commercial market sector. Although coal is the most plentiful energy resource in the US, its use since World War II has been largely restricted to utility power generation for environmental and economic reasons. Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant heating fuels for office buildings, apartment complexes, and similar structures. Generally, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program was to design, build, and test a coal-based heating system for this sector, and determine the economic viability and market potential for the system. Coal water slurry (CWS) fuel was chosen as the fuel form for this development effort. CWS eliminates the need to use dry pulverized coal with its attendant handling, metering, and dusting problems, as well as its explosive potential. A brief description of the overall system design is given in this report, as well as a discussion of the unique features of the system configuration and key components. This is followed by a summary of the testing performed, including a comparison between system performance and program goals. Finally, the results of the economic evaluation are presented, along with a commercialization plan for the technology. A key issue in the eventual commercialization of the technology is the availability of a competitively priced coal water slurry fuel. Predicted prices and availability of CWS are discussed.

  7. Mountain Waves and Downslope Winds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    Mountain waves form above and downwind of topographic barriers and frequently pose a serious hazard to mountain aviation because of strong-to-extreme turbulence. This foundation module describes the features of mountain waves and explores the conditions under which they form. Like other foundation modules in the Mesoscale Primer, this module starts with a forecast scenario and concludes with a final exam. Rich graphics, audio narration, and frequent interactions enhance the presentation.

  8. Mountain Building in Extensional Regimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Koehn; K. Aanyu; S. Haines; T. Sachau

    2006-01-01

    Mountain building processes are generally thought to take place in compressive or strike-slip dominated environments. Exceptions are uplifted rift-flanks and uplifted horst structures within rifts. An extreme example of an uplifted horst-block in an extensional environment are the Rwenzori mountains between Uganda and the democratic republic of Kongo. These 5000m high mountains lie within the western branch of the East

  9. Hydrology and the natural heritage of the Scottish mountains.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R C; Thompson, D B

    2002-07-22

    The physical natures of the Scottish mountains and their geographical position have created a montane environment, which can be considered as unique in European terms. The mountains of Scotland have been subjected to major environmental changes throughout the past centuries including climate change, deforestation, hydropower developments and more recently the expansion of plantation forestry. Mountain ecosystems have the ability to withstand large climatic variations and extreme events but it is suggested that they may not withstand some of the climatic barriers, which have recently been crossed. The greatest recent land use change in Scotland's mountains has been the expansion of plantation forests. The effects on headwater catchment hydrology are mainly in the reduction in runoff. It is suggested that plantation forestry has a more significant impact on the natural heritage through other influences such as water chemistry and river sediments. Future management of the Scottish mountains needs to consider the great natural heritage value in addition to other interests such as water resources, hydropower generation, commercial forestry and tourism. PMID:12169004

  10. Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Charles F.

    Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

  11. ACULEATA HYMENOPTERA OF SAND MOUNTAIN AND BLOW SAND MOUNTAINS, NEVADA

    E-print Network

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    ACULEATA HYMENOPTERA OF SAND MOUNTAIN AND BLOW SAND MOUNTAINS, NEVADA R. W. Rust1, L. !\\1. Hanks,l.2, and R. C. BechteJ3 ABsTRACT.- There were 198 species of aculeata Hymenoptera in 15 families on the acu leate Hymenoptera collected during the study. Over 2,000 specimens were obtained, representing 198

  12. WIDCO's program for UCG commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, R.A.

    1984-02-01

    The paper describes an underground coal gasification programme being carried out in Washington State, US. Following laboratory tests, the first full-scale field trial took place at the end of 1983; the second will be later this year. The last phase will consist of commercial-scale tests.

  13. CABINET MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Banister, D'Arcy P.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness, Montana indicate areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for copper, silver, lead, zinc, and gold. No potential for other metals or energy resources was identified in this survey. The mineral-resource potential of the area was evaluated by interpretation of geologic mapping, geochemical, geophysical, and gravity surveys, and by examination of mines and prospects, these studies were conducted from 1972 to 1974. Exploration by private industry has resulted in discovery of significant copper-silver deposits in and adjacent to the wilderness.

  14. Succession patterns on mountain pastures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Spatz; W. Germany

    1980-01-01

    Some successional patterns on mountain pastures in the Hohe Tauern mountains, Austria, are described. A close relation with former pasture management is shown. Very clear gradients in the nutritional status of the soil exist from stables towards more remote areas where no nutrients are added. Dwarf shrub or Alnus viridis woodland vegetation will develop after abandoning pastures, depending on elevation

  15. White Mountain Wilderness, New Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Segerstrom; R. B. Stotelmeyer

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey made during 1971-1973, the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. In mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in

  16. A Day on Bare Mountain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard Konicek-Moran

    2010-03-12

    Students may have the idea that all mountains are volcanoes and were formed by eruptions. The story in this chapter brings up questions about the geology of mountains and the weathering and erosion that takes place as nature breaks down the higher landsca

  17. Mountain Height Distribution and Tectonic Structural Mapping on Titan from Cassini RADAR: Implications for the Origin of Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Radebaugh, J.; Kirk, R. L.; Cassini Radar Team

    2011-12-01

    The Cassini RADAR has revealed mountainous features of relatively high topography around Titan. The origin of Titan's mountainous features has been attributed to two broad hypotheses: endogenic, formed by compressional or extensional tectonism, and exogenic, implying formation by impact cratering followed by erosion. To understand the tectonic and erosional contributions that have shaped Titan's mountains, it is important to utilize topographic data. Direct altimetric measurements have generally coarse resolution while stereo measurements from overlapping SAR swaths and SARTopo calculations have provided moderate-resolution topographic data for Titan. In addition, pixel-scale measurements of slopes and heights of mountain peaks have been obtained from the radarclinometry method. The purpose of this study is first, to study the global distribution of mountain peak heights and slopes using radarclinometry and, second, to analyze global and local structure through geomorphologic mapping and to utilize stress analysis to understand the tectonic history. Preliminary results for our studies of mountain heights from radarclinometry reveal peak heights range from 120 m to 3310 m in elevation with a mean maximum slope, or the steepest value over a pixel length for each mountain, of 29 degrees. Thus far, 200 mountains exceed 1 km in elevation, and these are dominantly found near the equator, perhaps indicating those mountains formed by a common process, where energy was concentrated. In comparison, rim heights on Ksa and Sinlap craters are 750-800 m, similar to heights of rims and central peaks on Ganymede (generally not over 1 km). This means crater rim heights are related to the formation process, which yields heights lower than those of mountain belts, and also to erosion, which has likely brought down the rim heights from their original values. Both effects mean that for Titan, with an ice lithosphere likely thinner then Ganymede's, tectonism that occurred more recently than the major impact phase is the most likely cause of higher features. Structural mapping enables us to determine mountain origins by revealing key morphologies. We mapped mountain chains with peak heights over 1 km as tectonic units. Structure maps of curvilinear mountain belts in the equatorial area highlight their general west-east orientation, with a strike of two general orientations of 80 degrees and 102 degrees. The sinuosity of the mountain belts in T61 and T8 is 1.02 to 1.34. The short wavelength structure of curved mountain chains near the equator and 200 W longitude is consistent with extension, with the average wavelength of sinuosity being on the order of 50 km, but further analysis is needed to identify if compressional or extensional tectonism caused their formation. Our mountain height distribution results and structural and stress analysis leads us to conclude the origin of most of the mountains on Titan is endogenic, from regional tectonic stresses. The tectonic structural mapping is intended to provide constraints on surficial, geological, and interior evolution and to facilitate future geophysical modeling on Titan.

  18. Meteoritic Debris from the Transantarctic Mountains: Evidence of a Regional Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folco, L.; van Ginneken, M.; Rochette, P.; Perchiazzi, N.

    2012-09-01

    The regional occurrence of meteoritc debris in the Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains supports the argument of a continental-scale distribution of meteoritc debris associated with the airburst of a large cosmic body over Antarctica ~480 ka ago.

  19. Radar studies of heavy convective rainfall in mountainous terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landel, Gregoire; Smith, James A.; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Steiner, Matthias; Ogden, Fred L.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall, topography, storm motion, and storm evolution are closely linked for four storms that produced catastrophic flooding along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains and the east slope of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Storms selected for detailed study in this paper are the Rapidan storm of June 27, 1995, the Fort Collins storm of July 28, 1997, the Buffalo Creek storm of July 12, 1996, and the Monocacy storm of June 18, 1996. The Buffalo Creek storm and the Fort Collins storm occurred in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado; the Rapidan and Monocacy storms occurred along the east slopes of the Blue Ridge of Virginia and southern Pennsylvania. The four storms caused catastrophic flooding at drainage basin scales between 1 and 1000 km2. The scale of flood response for these events imposes a need to characterize rainfall variability at very fine space scales and timescales, of the order of 1 km spatial scale and 1-5 min timescale. A fundamental issue for the hydrometeorology of extreme rainfall in mountainous terrain is whether anomalously large rainfall accumulations in orographic convection result from anomalously slow net storm motion, anomalously large rainfall rates, or both. Anomalous storm motion and processes resulting in catastrophic rainfall rates are examined for each of the four storms. Of particular importance for anomalous storm motion in orographic convection are interactions between the low-level wind field and terrain features.

  20. Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Kurz; C. C. Dymond; G. Stinson; G. J. Rampley; E. T. Neilson; A. L. Carroll; T. Ebata; L. Safranyik

    2008-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) is a native insect of the pine forests of western North America, and its populations periodically erupt into large-scale outbreaks. During outbreaks, the resulting widespread tree mortality reduces forest carbon uptake and increases future emissions from the decay of killed trees. The impacts of insects on forest carbon dynamics, however,

  1. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Löffler; O. Rössler

    2002-01-01

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where pro- cess dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosys- tem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå\\/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER WUN- DRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing

  2. ESTIMATES OF CLOUD WATER DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM SITES IN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY, Whitetop Mountain, VA, and Clingrnan's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). ...

  3. Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 2, July 1--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The project involves the construction of a 260 tons-per-day (TPD) or 80,000 gallon per day methanol demonstration unit utilizing an existing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression, liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated was developed by Air Products in a DOE sponsored program that started in 1981. Originally tested at a small, DOE-owned experimental facility in LaPorte, Texas, the LPMEOH{trademark} process offers several advantages over current methods of making methanol. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The liquid dissipates heat from the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the gas-to-methanol reaction to proceed at higher rates. The process is ideally suited to the type of gas produced by modern coal gasifiers. At the Eastman Chemical complex, the technology will be integrated with existing coal gasifiers to demonstrate the commercially important aspects of the operation of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process to produce methanol. A four-year demonstration will prove the commercial applicability of the process. An off-site product-use test program will prove the suitability of the methanol as a transportation fuel and as a fuel for stationary applications in the power industry.

  4. Glacial effects limiting mountain height.

    PubMed

    Egholm, D L; Nielsen, S B; Pedersen, V K; Lesemann, J-E

    2009-08-13

    The height of mountain ranges reflects the balance between tectonic rock uplift, crustal strength and surface denudation. Tectonic deformation and surface denudation are interdependent, however, and feedback mechanisms-in particular, the potential link to climate-are subjects of intense debate. Spatial variations in fluvial denudation rate caused by precipitation gradients are known to provide first-order controls on mountain range width, crustal deformation rates and rock uplift. Moreover, limits to crustal strength are thought to constrain the maximum elevation of large continental plateaus, such as those in Tibet and the central Andes. There are indications that the general height of mountain ranges is also directly influenced by the extent of glaciation through an efficient denudation mechanism known as the glacial buzzsaw. Here we use a global analysis of topography and show that variations in maximum mountain height correlate closely with climate-controlled gradients in snowline altitude for many high mountain ranges across orogenic ages and tectonic styles. With the aid of a numerical model, we further demonstrate how a combination of erosional destruction of topography above the snowline by glacier-sliding and commensurate isostatic landscape uplift caused by erosional unloading can explain observations of maximum mountain height by driving elevations towards an altitude window just below the snowline. The model thereby self-consistently produces the hypsometric signature of the glacial buzzsaw, and suggests that differences in the height of mountain ranges mainly reflect variations in local climate rather than tectonic forces. PMID:19675651

  5. Rocky Mountain Online Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Rocky Mountain Online Archive contains archival collections in Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico from 20 participating institutions. To view a list of these institutions, visitors should click on the "About" tab at the top of the page, then click on the link "Participating Institutions". Visitors can click on the "Browse the Archive" tab at the top of the page to browse by institutions, subcategorized by Colorado, Wyoming and New Mexico, or by subjects, which includes the subcategories of subjects, genre, and places. The genres represented are "Audio-visual", "Correspondence", "Diaries", and "Photographs". Visitors may find the abundance of oral histories available under the "Audio-visual" tab very interesting to explore. The "Inventory of the Alamo Navajo Oral History Project 1977-1984", "Inventory of Italians of Albuquerque Oral History Project, 1995-1996", and "Guide to the North Poudre Irrigation Company Oral history Collection" are just some of the many available oral histories.

  6. Quantifying Mountain Front Recharge Using Isotopic Tracers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Wahi; B. Ekwurzel; J. F. Hogan; C. J. Eastoe; M. N. Baillie

    2005-01-01

    To improve our conceptual and quantitative understanding of mountain-front\\/mountain-block recharge (MFR) associated with the Huachuca Mountains of the Upper San Pedro River Basin in Arizona, we employed a suite of geochemical measurements including isotopic tracers and noble gases. MFR is frequently the dominant source of recharge to alluvial basins in the semiarid Basin and Range province. It consists of mountain

  7. YUCCA Mountain project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Ebert; J. A. Fortner; R. J. Finch; J. L. Jerden; J. C. Cunnane

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the experimental work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during fiscal year 2004 (FY 04) under the Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) Memorandum Purchase Order (MPO), contract number B004210CM3X. Important results related to the technical bases, uncertainties, validation, and conservatism in current source term models are summarized below. An examination of specimens of commercial spent nuclear fuel

  8. The fate of glacierized mountain systems in a +4oC world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J.; Harrison, S.

    2012-12-01

    Mountain landscapes are sensitive to climate change because glaciers, alpine permafrost and mountain ecosystems exist at or near to their temperature and precipitation limits. Most records worldwide show mountain glaciers and alpine permafrost are in retreat, particularly on mid- and low-latitude mountains, and are expected to retreat dramatically in a + 4oC world. GCMs show that global warming will produce significant albedo- and ecosystem-driven changes in heat balance over glacierized mountains which will accelerate the rate of warming and associated land surface changes. Such climate amplification will facilitate glacier retreat and permafrost warming, destabilizing rock slopes, liberating loose sediments and increasing the potential for geohazards. We argue that retreat of mountain glaciers and permafrost over the next decades will lead to a directional change in the dominant geomorphic process domain, from glacial/periglacial to paraglacial. Under + 4oC warming, a significant portion of glacierized mountains worldwide will become dominated by paraglacial processes, characterized by increased meltwater production, land surface instability, and sediment yield into mountain catchments. Mountain geohazards triggered by the onset of widespread paraglacial relaxation and more variable climatic regimes will be significant geomorphic processes and of relevance to planning and adaption in mountain regions. On medium time scales (50-100 years), decreased glacier-fed water supply will become the most significant issue, affecting large agricultural regions in precipitation-limited continental interiors. The nonlinear response of land surface processes to climate forcing means that mountain geohazards and patterns of glacier-fed water supply have low predictability. This is particularly where downscaled GCMs are too coarse to provide well-constrained inputs into land surface models. As such, the fate of glacierized mountains is a modeling, geomorphic and management/adaption problem for the 21st Century and beyond.

  9. Bald Mountain, Washington Plantation, Maine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This guide provides information on the geology of Bald Mountain, an outstanding example of an unvegetated mountain summit in western Maine. Topics include the petrology of the metamorphic rocks exposed on the mountain (layered quartzite and schist), which preserve evidence of their sedimentary origin (graded bedding, cross-bedding). There is also information on the glacial history of the area, as indicated by the presence of glacial striations and erratics. For visitors, there is information on permission and access, directions, sampling information, and activities. References are included.

  10. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase 3. Technical progress report, January 1992--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  11. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3. Technical progress report, October 1990--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  12. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  13. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images PMID:16593655

  14. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat.

    PubMed

    Mead, J I; Martin, P S; Euler, R C; Long, A; Jull, A J; Toolin, L J; Donahue, D J; Linick, T W

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. PMID:16593655

  15. Weather observations on Whistler Mountain during five storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thériault, Julie M.; Rasmussen, Kristen L.; Fisico, Teresa; Stewart, Ronald E.; Joe, Paul; Gultepe, Ismail; Clément, Marilys; Isaac, George A.

    2014-01-01

    A greater understanding of precipitation formation processes over complex terrain near the west coast of British Colombia will contribute to many relevant applications, such as climate studies, local hydrology, transportation, and winter sport competition. The phase of precipitation is difficult to determine because of the warm and moist weather conditions experienced during the wintertime in coastal mountain ranges. The goal of this study is to investigate the wide range of meteorological conditions that generated precipitation on Whistler Mountain from 4-12 March 2010 during the SNOW-V10 field campaign. During this time period, five different storms were documented in detail and were associated with noticeably different meteorological conditions in the vicinity of Whistler Mountain. New measurement techniques, along with the SNOW-V10 instrumentation, were used to obtain in situ observations during precipitation events along the Whistler mountainside. The results demonstrate a high variability of weather conditions ranging from the synoptic-scale to the macro-scale. These weather events were associated with a variation of precipitation along the mountainside, such as events associated with snow, snow pellets, and rain. Only two events associated with a rain-snow transition along the mountainside were observed, even though above-freezing temperatures along the mountainside were recorded 90 % of the time. On a smaller scale, these events were also associated with a high variability of snowflake types that were observed simultaneously near the top of Whistler Mountain. Overall, these detailed observations demonstrate the importance of understanding small-scale processes to improve observational techniques, short-term weather prediction, and longer-term climate projections over mountainous regions.

  16. Managing Small-Scale Commercial Fisheries for Adaptive Capacity: Insights from Dynamic Social-Ecological Drivers of Change in Monterey Bay

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Stacy E.; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C.; Carr, Mark H.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Crowder, Larry B.; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C.; Kittinger, John N.; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M.; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience. PMID:25790464

  17. Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 11, January 1--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-06-11

    During this quarter, the third draft of the Topical Report on Process Economics Studies was issued for review. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing on the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) was made. A liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed, and a decision to proceed with a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) is pending the release of a memo from Air Products on the catalyst targets and corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst. The off-site product-use test plan is to be updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Air Products and Acurex Environmental Corporation continued developing the listing of product-use test participants who are involved in fuel cell, transportation, and stationary power plant applications. Start-up activities (Task 3.1) began during the reporting period, and coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was introduced to the demonstration unit. The recycle compressor was tested successfully on syngas at line pressure of 700 psig, and the reactor loop reached 220 C for carbonyl burnout. Iron carbonyl in the balanced gas feed remained below the 10 ppbv detection limit for all samples but one. Within the reactor loop, iron carbonyl levels peaked out near 200 ppbv after about 40 hours on-stream, before decreasing to between 10--20 ppbv at 160 hours on -stream. Nickel carbonyl measurements reached a peak of about 60 ppbv, and decreased at all sampling locations to below the 10 ppbv detection limit by 70 hours on-stream. Catalyst activation of the nine 2,250 lb batches required for the initial catalyst charge began and concluded. All batches met or slightly exceeded the theoretical maximum uptake of 2.82 SCF of reducing gas/lb catalyst.

  18. Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report No. 1, October 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products). This document describes major accomplishments in project development for Fiscal Year 1993. The preliminary process hazards review, project safety plan, schedule, and cost management report are included as appendices. The demonstration is sited at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. Air Products and Eastman are working on a partnership agreement which will form the Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. As a limited partner in the venture, Eastman will own and operate the demonstration unit. The project involves the construction of a 260 tons-per-day (TPD) or 80,000 gallon per day methanol demonstration unit utilizing an existing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression, liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated was developed by Air Products in a DOE sponsored program that started in 1981. Originally tested at a small, DOE-owned experimental facility in LaPorte, Texas, the LPMEOH{trademark} process offers several advantages over current methods of making methanol. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The liquid dissipates heat from the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the gas-to-methanol reaction to proceed at higher rates. The process is ideally suited to the type of gas produced by modem coal gasifiers. At the Eastman Chemical complex, the technology will be integrated with existing coal gasifiers to demonstrate the commercially important aspects of the operation of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process to produce methanol.

  19. Spatial distribution of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and other bacterial populations in commercial and laboratory-scale sprouting mung bean beds.

    PubMed

    Hora, R; Kumar, M; Garcia, L; Schumacher, B; Odumeru, J; Warriner, K

    2005-12-01

    The reliability of testing spent irrigation water to assess the microbiological status of sprouting mung bean beds has been investigated. In commercial trials, the distribution of opportunistic contaminants within 32 bean sprout beds (25 kg of mung beans per bin) was assessed 48 h after germination. The prevalence of generic Escherichia coli, thermotolerant coliforms, and Aeromonas in sprouts (n = 288) was 5, 11, and 39%, respectively, and 57, 70, and 79% in the corresponding spent irrigation water samples (n = 96). Contamination was heterogeneously distributed within the seedbed. In laboratory trials, beans inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of either Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 (10(3) to 10(4) CFU/g) were introduced (1 g/500 g of noninoculated seeds) at defined locations (top, middle, or base), and the beans were then sprouted for 48 h. When seeds inoculated with pathogens were introduced at the base or top of the seedbed, the pathogens were typically restricted to these sites and resulted in 44% of the spent irrigation water samples returning false-negative results. Introducing inoculated beans into the middle or at the presoak stage enhanced the distribution of both pathogens within the subsequent sprout bed and resulted in comparable levels recovered in spent irrigation water. The study demonstrated that even though screening a single sample of spent irrigation water is more reliable than testing sprouts directly, it does not provide an accurate assessment of the microbiological status of sprouting mung bean beds. Such limitations may be addressed by ensuring that bean batches are mixed prior to use and by taking spent irrigation water samples from multiple sites at the latter stages of the sprouting process. PMID:16355820

  20. Elevation dependency of mountain snow depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, T.; Bühler, Y.; Lehning, M.

    2014-12-01

    Elevation strongly affects quantity and distribution patterns of precipitation and snow. Positive elevation gradients were identified by many studies, usually based on data from sparse precipitation stations or snow depth measurements. We present a systematic evaluation of the elevation-snow depth relationship. We analyse areal snow depth data obtained by remote sensing for seven mountain sites near to the time of the maximum seasonal snow accumulation. Snow depths were averaged to 100 m elevation bands and then related to their respective elevation level. The assessment was performed at three scales: (i) the complete data sets (10 km scale), (ii) sub-catchments (km scale) and (iii) slope transects (100 m scale). We show that most elevation-snow depth curves at all scales are characterised through a single shape. Mean snow depths increase with elevation up to a certain level where they have a distinct peak followed by a decrease at the highest elevations. We explain this typical shape with a generally positive elevation gradient of snow fall that is modified by the interaction of snow cover and topography. These processes are preferential deposition of precipitation and redistribution of snow by wind, sloughing and avalanching. Furthermore, we show that the elevation level of the peak of mean snow depth correlates with the dominant elevation level of rocks (if present).

  1. Drainage flows: A mountain-plains interface numerical case study

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.; Bossert, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    In January/February, 1991 an intensive set of measurements was taken around Rocky Flats near Denver, CO, USA under the auspices of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program. This region of the country is known as the Front Range, and is characterized by a transition from the relatively flat terrain of the Great Plains to the highly varied terrain of the Rocky Mountains. The mountains are oriented north-south and rise from 1800m above mean sea level (MSL) to 3600m MSL at the Continental Divide. Numerous east-west oriented valleys begin in the mountains and end at the plains interface. This terrain makes the Front Range a challenging region to model. One of the more important flows created by this severe terrain are the highly-varying drainage flows found during stagnant, wintertime conditions. These flows can interact with larger-scale mountain and synoptic winds. One goal of the ASCOT 1991 program was to gain insight into multi-scale meteorological interaction by observing wintertime drainage conditions at the mountain-valley-plains interface. ASCOT data included surface and upper air measurements on approximately a 50km{sup 2} scale. Simultaneously, an SF{sub 6} tracer release study was being conducted around Rocky Flats, a nuclear materials production facility. Detailed surface concentration measurements were completed for the SF{sub 6} plume. This combination of meteorological and tracer concentration data provided a unique data set for comparisons of mesoscale and dispersion modeling results with observations and for evaluating our capability to predict pollutant transport. Our approach is to use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model to simulate atmospheric conditions and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) to model the dispersion of the SF{sub 6}.

  2. Drainage flows: A mountain-plains interface numerical case study

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.; Bossert, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In January/February, 1991 an intensive set of measurements was taken around Rocky Flats near Denver, CO, USA under the auspices of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program. This region of the country is known as the Front Range, and is characterized by a transition from the relatively flat terrain of the Great Plains to the highly varied terrain of the Rocky Mountains. The mountains are oriented north-south and rise from 1800m above mean sea level (MSL) to 3600m MSL at the Continental Divide. Numerous east-west oriented valleys begin in the mountains and end at the plains interface. This terrain makes the Front Range a challenging region to model. One of the more important flows created by this severe terrain are the highly-varying drainage flows found during stagnant, wintertime conditions. These flows can interact with larger-scale mountain and synoptic winds. One goal of the ASCOT 1991 program was to gain insight into multi-scale meteorological interaction by observing wintertime drainage conditions at the mountain-valley-plains interface. ASCOT data included surface and upper air measurements on approximately a 50km{sup 2} scale. Simultaneously, an SF{sub 6} tracer release study was being conducted around Rocky Flats, a nuclear materials production facility. Detailed surface concentration measurements were completed for the SF{sub 6} plume. This combination of meteorological and tracer concentration data provided a unique data set for comparisons of mesoscale and dispersion modeling results with observations and for evaluating our capability to predict pollutant transport. Our approach is to use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model to simulate atmospheric conditions and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) to model the dispersion of the SF{sub 6}.

  3. YUCCA Mountain project.

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W. L.; Fortner, J. A.; Finch, R. J.; Jerden, J. L.; Cunnane, J. C.

    2005-03-28

    This report describes the experimental work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during fiscal year 2004 (FY 04) under the Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) Memorandum Purchase Order (MPO), contract number B004210CM3X. Important results related to the technical bases, uncertainties, validation, and conservatism in current source term models are summarized below. An examination of specimens of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) that had been subjected to corrosion testing for up to 10 years under hydrologically unsaturated conditions was undertaken to elucidate radionuclide release pathways and mechanisms.

  4. Temporally and spatially uniform rates of erosion in the southern Appalachian Great Smoky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matmon, A.; Bierman, P.R.; Larsen, J.; Southworth, S.; Pavich, M.; Caffee, M.

    2003-01-01

    We measured 10Be in fluvial sediment samples (n = 27) from eight Great Smoky Mountain drainages (1-330 km2). Results suggest spatially homogeneous sediment generation (on the 104-105 yr time scale and > 100 km2 spatial scale) at 73 ?? 11 t km-2 yr-1, equivalent to 27 ?? 4 m/m.y. of bedrock erosion. This rate is consistent with rates derived from fission-track, long-term sediment budget, and sediment yield data, all of which indicate that the Great Smoky Mountains and the southern Appalachians eroded during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic at ???30 m/m.y. In contrast, unroofing rates during the Paleozoic orogenic events that formed the Appalachian Mountains were higher (???102 m/m.y.). Erosion rates decreased after termination of tectonically driven uplift, enabling the survival of this ancient mountain belt with its deep crustal root as an isostatically maintained feature in the contemporary landscape.

  5. Mountain hydrology of the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, R.C.; Molotch, N.P.; Painter, T.H.; Dettinger, M.D.; Rice, R.; Dozier, J.

    2006-01-01

    Climate change and climate variability, population growth, and land use change drive the need for new hydrologic knowledge and understanding. In the mountainous West and other similar areas worldwide, three pressing hydrologic needs stand out: first, to better understand the processes controlling the partitioning of energy and water fluxes within and out from these systems; second, to better understand feedbacks between hydrological fluxes and biogeochemical and ecological processes; and, third, to enhance our physical and empirical understanding with integrated measurement strategies and information systems. We envision an integrative approach to monitoring, modeling, and sensing the mountain environment that will improve understanding and prediction of hydrologic fluxes and processes. Here extensive monitoring of energy fluxes and hydrologic states are needed to supplement existing measurements, which are largely limited to streamflow and snow water equivalent. Ground-based observing systems must be explicitly designed for integration with remotely sensed data and for scaling up to basins and whole ranges. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Data envelopment analysis of space and terrestrially-based large scale commercial power systems for earth: A prototype analysis of their relative economic advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Criswell, D.R.; Thompson, R.G. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)] [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Society must develop a large new source of electric power to adequately meet human needs in the 21st Century. The Lunar Solar Power system (LSP) is a new option that is independent of the biosphere. LSP captures sunlight on the moon, converts the solar power to microwaves, and beams the power to receivers on Earth that output electricity. The collimated microwave beams are low in intensity (< 20% of sunlight), safe, and environmentally benign. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) enables the detailed quantitative comparison of alternative economic systems. We use DEA methodology to compare the technical efficiency of the large-scale power systems needed to meet the growing energy needs of terrestrial society. This comparison suggests the efficiencies to be gained from LSP are large indeed. Such gains remain even if the resources needed for LSP are 10-fold greater than estimated from United States government studies. In terms of benefits versus costs, normalized to the range of 0-1, DEA reveals that LSP is much more efficient than conventional terrestrial solar-thermal and photovoltaic, fossil, and nuclear systems. LSP is also environmentally benign compared to the conventional systems.. 1 ref., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  7. Understanding Mountain Range Spatial Variability of Surface Hoar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrikx, J.

    2014-12-01

    Surface hoar, once buried often produce a persistent weak layer that is a common instability problem in the snow pack in SW Montana and many other areas around the world. Surface hoar is a common weak layer type in avalanche accidents in a continental and intermountain snowpack. It is however relatively well understood that aspect plays an important role in the spatial location of the growth, and survival of these grain forms, due to the unequal distribution of incoming radiation. However this factor alone does not explain the complex and often confusing spatial pattern of these grains forms throughout the landscape at larger, mountain range spatial scales. In this paper we present a unique data set including over one hundred days of manual observations of surface hoar at sixteen locations on Pioneer Mountain at the Yellowstone Club in southwestern Montana. Using this wealth of observational data located on different aspects, elevations and exposures, coupled with detailed meteorological observations, detailed site scale observations (e.g. Sky view plots) we examine the spatial variability of surface hoar at this scale, and examine the factors that control its spatial distribution. Our results further supports our preliminary work, which shows that small-scale meteorological differences, site scale differences, and local scale lapse rates can greatly influence the spatial variability of surface hoar, over and above that which aspect alone can explain. These results highlight our incomplete understanding of the processes at this large, mountain range scale, and are likely to have implications for both regional and local scale avalanche forecasting in environments where surface hoar cause ongoing instabilities.

  8. Mountains and Lowlands: Enemies or Partners?

    E-print Network

    Stoffel, Markus

    Mountains and Lowlands: Enemies or Partners? Example of the High Atlas, Morocco #12;Contact Address of the High Atlas, Morocco Preface Sahara and Sahel Observatory (OSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The High Atlas Mountains ­ the backbone of Morocco

  9. The Influence of Previous Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Activity on the 1988

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yellowstone Fires; Heather J. Lynch; Roy A. Renkin; Robert L. Crabtree; Paul R. Moorcroft

    ABSTRACT We examined the historical record of mountain,with the burn pattern, whereas the more recent pine,beetle,(Dendroctonus,ponderosae,Hopkins),one (1980–83) was not. Although regional drought activity within Yellowstone National Park, and high winds were responsible for the large scale Wyoming, for the 25-years period leading up to the of this event, the analysis indicates that mountain 1988 Yellowstone fires (1963–86) to determine,pine beetle

  10. BLOOD MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koeppen, Robert P.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Blood Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia, indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources. Natural gas may be present at great depth, perhaps 5 mi down and below the overthrust sheets of the Blue Ridge Mountains, but presently available information is not adequate to evaluate the resource potential of this commodity. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

  11. White Mountain Wilderness, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Segerstrom, K.; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey made during 1971-1973, the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. In mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significantly, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  12. Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides data on plants and fungi from the Hengduan Mountains and adjacent areas of south-central China, including the Gaoligong Mountains and Tibetan Himalaya. The data were derived from georeferenced collections made on recent expeditions (1984-present) to the region, and include specimens with DNA tissue. Users can browse specimens by name; search by taxon, collector number, or date; or browse collecting localities in the database using Google Earth (TM). There is also information on expeditions and personnel, the Biodiversity of the Eastern Himalaya project, an image gallery, a multilingual gazetteer and thesaurus, and a map showing the historic Tibetan provinces of the region.

  13. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213 Section...TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 9.213 Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. ...chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...Approved maps. The two United States Geological...

  14. First aid knowledge of alpine mountaineers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Kuepper; D. Wermelskirchen; Th. Beeker; O. Reisten; R. Waanders

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The study evaluates the knowledge of first aid in mountaineerers who climb routes of moderate difficulty in the western Alps. Additionally the mountaineer's ability to assess their own knowledge was investigated. An analysis of the mountain accidents in the same area showed the real need for knowledge. Design: An investigation of a cohort of mountaineers who reached Margherita Hut

  15. MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE INFESTATION: HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE INFESTATION: HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS by EDI ENVIRONMENTAL DYNAMICS INC. for Ministry of Environment Mountain Pine Beetle Action Team March 2008 #12;This document was produced under contract to the ministry of environment mountain pine beetle action team (MPBAT) by EDI Environmental

  16. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

  17. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

  18. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

  19. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

  20. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

  1. Quantifying the time scale of elevated geomorphic response following wildfires using multi-temporal LiDAR data: An example from the Las Conchas fire, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orem, Caitlin A.; Pelletier, Jon D.

    2015-03-01

    Sediment yields commonly increase following wildfires in mountainous landscapes. Quantifying the magnitude and duration of elevated sediment yields following wildfires is important for quantifying the relative importance of wildfire-affected versus non-wildfire-affected erosion in the long-term evolution of landscapes and for understanding the processes of post-wildfire erosion. In this study we use bi-annual terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) surveys conducted over a 2-yr period together with repeat airborne laser scanning (ALS) surveys conducted over a 1-yr period to estimate the dependence of sediment yield on time following the high-severity Las Conchas fire of 2011 within two small (approximately 1.3 km2) watersheds. The dependence of sediment yield on time since the wildfire was quantified using DEMs of Difference (DoDs) of the upland watersheds (to measure erosion) and of the adjacent piedmonts (to measure the deposition of eroded sediment). Over the 2-yr study period, sediment volume decreased linearly with time and sediment yield decreased exponentially with time in one watershed, while the other watershed showed a more complex relationship with time influenced by the specific sequence of rainstorms that impacted that watershed. Both watersheds had a recovery time of approximately 1 yr, suggesting that vegetation regrowth and the stabilization of incised valley bottoms were primarily responsible for the decline in sediment yield versus time following the wildfire. Multi-temporal DoDs of the piedmonts show how they responded to the delivery of elevated sediment yields from the upland watersheds, i.e. by (1) incision of the proximal portion of the piedmont, triggering distal deposition, (2) infilling of the incised channel and avulsion, and (3) incision of the distal portion, creating an incised channel connecting the proximal and distal ends of the piedmont. The dynamic nature of incision/aggradation and channel shifting on piedmonts following wildfires has important implications for post-wildfire flood-hazard assessments.

  2. Rocky Mountain Bio Lab: Wildflowers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Geographic

    This video explores the work of environmentalist John Hart, a Professor of Environmental Science at U.C. Berkley. In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, Dr. Hart has established an experimental laboratory in which he has artificially created and maintained a 3-degree increase in surface temperature of a plot of land, and documented the impact on plant species occupying the plot.

  3. Plate Borders and Mountain Building

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schlumberger Excellence in Educational Development, Inc.

    This page features animations of four different types of plate boundaries, including one animation of the collision of two pieces of continental crust, forming steep mountain ranges. The animations are all presented in flash, and the plate convergence offers a useful, generic view of orogeny.

  4. The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

  5. Mountainous Star Coral (Montastraea faveolata)

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This colony of Mountainous Star Coral (Montastraea faveolata) is so large (about 3 feet across) that it must have been growing before the severe bleaching and disease episode in 2005/2006 that caused so much coral mortality on St. John's reefs....

  6. ROCKY MOUNTAIN JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICS

    E-print Network

    Saff, E. B.

    OF POLYNOMIALS A. ISERLES,S.P.N0RSETT AND E.B. SAFF ABSTRACT. We survey certain transformations of the set 7rn of E.B. Saff was supported, in part, by the National Science Foundation under grant DMS-862 Mountain Mathematics Consortium 331 #12;A. ISERLES,S.P.N0RSETT AND E.B. SAFF known and appreciated

  7. Gearing Up for Mountain Biking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Examines the gear system of a mountain bike to discover any redundancy in the many gear settings available to the cyclist. Suggests a best strategy for changing up through the gears on a typical 21-gear system and an adjustment to the available gears that would result in a smoother change. (Author/ASK)

  8. Artifical Mountains: A Synthetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipiera, Paul P.; Aumann, John A.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a secondary science unit which uses an urban environment to develop a comparison between naturally formed mountains and man-constructed skyscrapers. The unit is one in a series of fifty laboratory activities designed to stimulate students of earth science by interrelating scientific principles and procedures to a familiar environment.…

  9. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  10. Physiology of ski mountaineering racing.

    PubMed

    Duc, S; Cassirame, J; Durand, F

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify and describe the exercise intensity of ski mountaineering racing, and to identify the best physiological predictors of ski mountaineering racing. Before participating in the race in which heart rate (HR) and speed were continuously recorded, 10 trained ski-mountaineers performed a field maximal test to determine the first ventilatory threshold (VT1) and the respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) in order to establish 3 exercise intensity zones (Z1: below VT1, Z2: between VT1 and RCT, and Z3: above RCT). Energy cost (EC) of each subject was estimated on the HR/ V?O2 relationship obtained during the field maximal test. VT1 and RCT threshold were equal to 84.2±3.0 and 94.5±1.7% of HR (max). Race time was significantly correlated with V?O2max (r = -0.87), VT1 (r = -0.82) and RCT (r = -0.85) expressed for body mass unit. The mean race time and the mean HR were 101±11?min and 93.4±1.8% of HR (max). The % race time spent in Z1, Z2 and Z3, were 7.0±4.8, 51.3±4.7 and 42.0±6.5%, respectively. The mean value of EC during the two uphill of the race was 14.3±2.6 J x kg(-1) x m(-1). HR and speed decreased significantly during the second uphill whereas EC increased significantly by ?15%. Data obtained in the present study represent the first qualitative description of physiology demand of ski mountaineering racing. The long period of time spent just below and above RCT suggest that ski-mountaineering can be viewed as one of the most strenuous endurance sports like cross-country skiing, running and off-road biking. In addition to high aerobic capacities, body mass seems to appear as a key factor given that performance in ski mountaineering is strongly correlated to relative common physiological variables. The changes of HR, speed and EC during the second uphill, which indicate the prevalence of fatigue, confirm the exhaustive character of ski mountaineering. PMID:22012642

  11. Dependence of snowmelt simulations on scaling of the forcing processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spatial organization and scaling relationships of snow distribution in mountain environs is ultimately dependent on the controlling processes. These processes include interactions between weather, topography, vegetation, snow state, and seasonally-dependent radiation inputs. In large scale snow...

  12. Elevation dependency of mountain snow depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, T.; Bühler, Y.; Lehning, M.

    2014-07-01

    Elevation strongly affects quantity and distribution of precipitation and snow. Positive elevation gradients were identified by many studies, usually based on data from sparse precipitation stations or snow depth measurements. We present a systematic evaluation of the elevation - snow depth relationship. We analyse areal snow depth data obtained by remote sensing for seven mountain sites. Snow depths were averaged to 100 m elevation bands and then related to their respective elevation level. The assessment was performed at three scales ranging from the complete data sets by km-scale sub-catchments to slope transects. We show that most elevation - snow depth curves at all scales are characterised through a single shape. Mean snow depths increase with elevation up to a certain level where they have a distinct peak followed by a decrease at the highest elevations. We explain this typical shape with a generally positive elevation gradient of snow fall that is modified by the interaction of snow cover and topography. These processes are preferential deposition of precipitation and redistribution of snow by wind, sloughing and avalanching. Furthermore we show that the elevation level of the peak of mean snow depth correlates with the dominant elevation level of rocks.

  13. Commercially Hosted Resilient Communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Brown; Doug Schroeder

    2011-01-01

    Intelsat General Corporation (IGC) presents a paper for the (AT&L)\\/SIO sponsored session on “Protected Communications Over Commercial Satellites” at MILCOM 2011 entitled “Commercially Hosted Resilient Communications” to describe the evolution of commercially provided satellite communications serving challenged and contested environments. This paper explores avenues for “Resilient SATCOM” technologies to be included aboard commercial missions as readily as Unprotected and Wideband

  14. POND MOUNTAIN AND POND MOUNTAIN ADDITION ROADLESS AREAS, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, W.R.; Bitar, Richard

    1984-01-01

    As a result of a mineral study of the Pond Mountain Roadless Areas, Tennessee, a probable potential for the occurrence of tin, niobium, and tungsten resource with associated beryllium, molybdenum, zinc, and fluorite was identified in rocks of Precambrian age particularly in the southeastern part of the area. Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical sampling of the soils and rocks in the area of Precambrian rocks is recommended to identify and delimit the areas of potential resources of tin, niobium, and tungsten.

  15. Effects of mountain beaver management and thinning on 15-year-old Douglas fir growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Dan L; Engeman, Richard M; Farley, James P

    2015-07-01

    We examined 4-year growth of 15-year-old damaged and undamaged Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzesii) after integrating temporary population reductions of mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) with thinning in a pre-commercial hand-planted plantation in western Washington. Five treatment combinations were considered: (1) trapping mountain beavers in an unthinned area, (2) trapping before thinning to 65 trees/ha (160 trees/ac), (3) no trapping and thinning to 65 trees/ha, (4) no trapping and thinning to 146 trees/ha (360 trees/ac), and (5) no trapping and no thinning. Removal of ?90 % of mountain beavers temporarily reduced mountain beaver activity whether the stand was unthinned or thinned. Diameter growth at breast height (dbh) was greater for undamaged trees than for damaged trees in thinned areas. Tree height growth was greatest in trapped areas whether thinned or not. No differences were detected in 4-year survival between trees damaged aboveground and those without aboveground damage, which may be related to undetected root damage to trees without aboveground damage. Basal diameter growth and dbh growth were greatest for areas thinned to 65 trees/ha. Seventy-eight percent of stomachs from mountain beaver trapped in winter contained Douglas fir root or stem materials. Overall, short-term removal of mountain beavers integrated with pre-commercial thinning promoted growth of crop trees. PMID:25772877

  16. Humps and hollows: basalt weathering in low-latitude mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Jasper; Grab, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Physical, chemical and biological weathering processes are significant contributors to landscape development in mountain blocks worldwide, and over long time scales, but the interplay between different weathering processes is uncertain. Jurassic-age basalt lava flows underlie the Drakensberg mountain range of eastern Lesotho, southern Africa (summits 3200-3400 m asl), and weathered bedrock is commonly exposed on flat plateau surfaces. Subaerial weathering throughout the Quaternary and Holocene has resulted in a range of weathering forms, some of which exploit pre-existing cooling fractures within the basalts, and some of which are independent of geological control. These forms include pseudokarst-style potholes, karren and other microforms. The geometry, chemistry of water contained within the potholes, seasonal presence of ice, sediment and organic residues all suggest that physical, chemical and biological weathering processes are significant at different times and in different ways in subaerial weathering. Moreover, it is also likely that these process-types show pronounced seasonal variability that means that the interplay between different processes is subtle. Aggregated rates of land surface denudation or geomorphic development of single landforms therefore hide this subtle interplay between different processes. Changes in mountain summit soil depth (through soil erosion), ecosystems and climate will change this balance between different processes, and will operate over different spatial and temporal scales.

  17. Infiltration on mountain slopes: a comparison of three environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, Carol P.; Scruggs, P. Delmas

    2003-09-01

    Water is well established as a major driver of the geomorphic change that eventually reduces mountains to lower relief landscapes. Nonetheless, within the altitudinal limits of continuous vegetation in humid climates, water is also an essential factor in slope stability. In this paper, we present results from field experiments to determine infiltration rates at forested sites in the Andes Mountains (Ecuador), the southern Appalachian Mountains (USA), and the Luquillo Mountains (Puerto Rico). Using a portable rainfall simulator-infiltrometer (all three areas), and a single ring infiltrometer (Andes), we determined infiltration rates, even on steep slopes. Based on these results, we examine the spatial variability of infiltration, the relationship of rainfall runoff and infiltration to landscape position, the influence of vegetation on infiltration rates on slopes, and the implications of this research for better understanding erosional processes and landscape change. Infiltration rates ranged from 6 to 206 mm/h on lower slopes of the Andes, 16 to 117 mm/h in the southern Appalachians, and 0 to 106 mm/h in the Luquillo Mountains. These rates exceed those of most natural rain events, confirming that surface runoff is rare in montane forests with deep soil/regolith mantles. On well-drained forested slopes and ridges, apparent steady-state infiltration may be controlled by the near-surface downslope movement of infiltrated water rather than by characteristics of the full vertical soil profile. With only two exceptions, the local variability of infiltration rates at the scale of 10° m overpowered other expected spatial relationships between infiltration, vegetation type, slope position, and soil factors. One exception was the significant difference between infiltration rates on alluvial versus upland soils in the Andean study area. The other exception was the significant difference between infiltration rates in topographic coves compared to other slope positions in the tabonuco forest of one watershed in the Luquillo Mountains. Our research provides additional evidence of the ability of forests and forest soils to preserve geomorphic features from denudation by surface erosion, documents the importance of subsurface flow in mountain forests, and supports the need for caution in extrapolating infiltration rates.

  18. Comparative analysis of the characteristics of extreme temperature changes between cities and mountains in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Shengwei; Wu, Zhengfang; Xu, Jiawei; Du, Haibo; Meng, Xiangjun; Wang, Lei

    2015-02-01

    More than half of the world's population is living in towns and cities according to the United Nations Population Fund (http://www.unfpa.org/pds/urbanization.htm). The rapid urbanization, especially in China, has significantly influenced the climate at least at a local scale. The increasing extreme temperature (ET) occurrence in urban areas prompts us to examine the historical and current situation of ET occurrence in cities by comparing them with that in mountains which provide a relatively natural record of the earth's climate because they are far away from cities and it is not influenced by urbanization effects. The ET occurrence was determined by multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA), a well-accepted method aiming at finding the ET thresholds according to the characteristics of the data themselves. Warming trends in the city and mountain sites and the frequencies, intensities, and severities of ET occurrence were compared using climatic data between 1959 and 2011. The results show that the warming amplitude of the cities is not higher than that of the mountain regions, even with urbanization effect. The extremely low temperatures (ELT) in the cities occurred significantly lower in frequency and severity compared with that in the mountain sites. However, the intensity of ELT is generally higher than that in the mountains. Only the cities at low latitudes in China have experienced more frequent and severe extremely high temperature (EHT) occurrence than the mountain sites in recent decades. But the intensity was not as high as that in the mountain sites. We conclude that the current situation of ET occurrence in the cities is not very serious if we consider the ET occurrence of the mountains as the "new norm." However, it is highly possible that the frequency of ET, especially the EHT, in the cities would increase and will be even more than that of the mountains. Moreover, the changes of ET occurrences before and after 1980 are distinguishable, which could be attributed to urbanization.

  19. Spatiotemporal patterns of mountain pine beetle activity in the southern Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Teresa B; Veblen, Thomas T; Schoennagel, Tania

    2012-10-01

    The current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in the southern Rocky Mountains has impacted approximately 750 000 ha of forest. Weather and habitat heterogeneity influence forest insect population dynamics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Comparison of forest insect population dynamics in two principal host species may elucidate the relative contribution of weather and landscape factors in initiating and driving extensive outbreaks. To investigate potential drivers of the current MPB outbreak, we compared broadscale spatiotemporal patterns of MPB activity in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from 1996 to 2010 in Colorado and southern Wyoming with regional weather fluctuations, and then tracked the annual meso-scale progression of the epidemic in lodgepole pine with respect to weather, topographic, previous MPB activity, and forest stand attributes. MPB activity in lodgepole pine compared to ponderosa pine showed higher magnitude and extent of spatial synchrony. Warm temperatures and low annual precipitation favorable to beetle populations showed high regional synchrony across areas of both pine species, suggesting that habitat interacts with weather in synchronizing MPB populations. Cluster analysis of time series patterns identified multiple, disjunct locations of incipient MPB activity (epicenters) in lodgepole pine, which overlapped an earlier 1980s MPB outbreak, and suggests a regional trigger (drought) across this homogenous forest type. Negative departures from mean annual precipitation played a key role in subsequent spread of MPB outbreak. Development of the outbreak was also associated with lower elevations, greater dominance by lodgepole pine, stands of larger tree size, and stands with higher percentage canopy cover. After epidemic levels of MPB activity were attained, MPB activity was less strongly associated with stand and weather variables. These results emphasize the importance of considering differences in patterns of MPB dynamics for different host pine species even under similar regional-scale weather variation and the nonstationarity of outbreak dynamics over time. PMID:23185879

  20. Improved baseflow characterization in mountainous catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoelzle, Michael; Stahl, Kerstin; Schuetz, Tobias; Weiler, Markus; Seibert, Jan; Tallaksen, Lena M.

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the baseflow regime is crucial for managing river ecosystems during low flow periods. Then aquatic conditions, water supply or streamflow forecast highly depend on the sustainability, magnitude, timing or rate of change of the groundwater contribution to streamflow, especially in areas of water shortage or with high water demand. This study aims to improve the understanding of the interplay between quick- and baseflow components by revising a widely used baseflow separation method (WMO or IH-UK method). Baseflow Index (BFI) and quickflow-baseflow-regimes were analyzed for 50 meso-scale catchments in southwestern Germany and Switzerland along a pronounced altitudinal gradient from 200 to 3200 m asl. Since the graphical separation of the baseflow signal depends on the chosen method, we evaluated the separation procedure by analyzing the relation between the seasonal variability of the stable water isotope signal in streamflow and the contribution of the quickflow component. We found that the snowmelt signal in high-elevation catchments is mostly accounted as baseflow suggesting that the used method is only valid for catchment with pluvial regimes. The large variability of BFI values found between the low-elevation, rainfall-driven catchments indicates that here catchment controls such as hydrogeological characteristics determine the baseflow contribution to streamflow. Relationships between several physiographic characteristics and the BFI values differed systematically for rainfall- and snowmelt-driven catchments suggesting that besides quick- and baseflow another delayed storage contributes to streamflow in mountainous catchments. By adjusting the separation procedure (variation of filter parameters) we were able to separate more delayed contributions of snowmelt from the faster groundwater signal. Thus, variable filter parameters are helpful to identify delayed streamflow contributions from different sources (e.g. snow and groundwater). The study's results have implications for water management in mountainous catchments where regime shifts and wide-ranging water redistributions are expected in the future.

  1. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed. Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Information Sources: Beauchamp, W., Barazangi, M., Demnati, A., and El Alji, M., 1996, Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour Basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 80, No. 9, p. 1459-1482. Burkhard, Martin, 2001, Tectonics of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco -- Thin-skin/thick-skin relationships in an atypical foreland fold belt. University of Neuchatel, Switzerland: http://www-geol.unine.ch/Structural/Antiatlas.html (accessed 1/29/02). STS108-711-25 was taken in December, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  2. Geology of Stone Mountain, Georgia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela Gore

    This virtual field trip to Stone Mountain Georgia includes both a narrative and photographs of such features as flow banding, tourmaline pods, and several types of xenoliths. Intrusive granite and diabase dikes are shown at both the east quarry and old route 78 locations where products of weathering such as saprolite, kaolinite, halloysite, and gibbsite reside. Photographs of an area of the east quarry taken six years apart show the progress of exfoliation. The site also has a list of references.

  3. Plate T-11: Appalachian Mountains

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Appalachian Mountain landforms clearly demonstrate the relation of plate tectonics and structure to geomorphology. The folded rocks record the convergence of two continental plates in Pennsylvanian/Permian time. This page uses text, maps, and remotely sensed imagery to explain the relationship between plate tectonics, geologic structures, and the resulting landforms. It is part of an out-of-print NASA publication entitled 'Geomorphology from Space'. Links to the rest of the book are provided.

  4. How the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) breached the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Janes, Jasmine K; Li, Yisu; Keeling, Christopher I; Yuen, Macaire M S; Boone, Celia K; Cooke, Janice E K; Bohlmann, Joerg; Huber, Dezene P W; Murray, Brent W; Coltman, David W; Sperling, Felix A H

    2014-07-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), a major pine forest pest native to western North America, has extended its range north and eastward during an ongoing outbreak. Determining how the MPB has expanded its range to breach putative barriers, whether physical (nonforested prairie and high elevation of the Rocky Mountains) or climatic (extreme continental climate where temperatures can be below -40 °C), may contribute to our general understanding of range changes as well as management of the current epidemic. Here, we use a panel of 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess population genetic structure, connectivity, and signals of selection within this MPB range expansion. Biallelic SNPs in MPB from southwestern Canada revealed higher genetic differentiation and lower genetic connectivity than in the northern part of its range. A total of 208 unique SNPs were identified using different outlier detection tests, of which 32 returned annotations for products with putative functions in cholesterol synthesis, actin filament contraction, and membrane transport. We suggest that MPB has been able to spread beyond its previous range by adjusting its cellular and metabolic functions, with genome scale differentiation enabling populations to better withstand cooler climates and facilitate longer dispersal distances. Our study is the first to assess landscape-wide selective adaptation in an insect. We have shown that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this forest pest species. PMID:24803641

  5. How the Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Breached the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Jasmine K.; Li, Yisu; Keeling, Christopher I.; Yuen, Macaire M.S.; Boone, Celia K.; Cooke, Janice E.K.; Bohlmann, Joerg; Huber, Dezene P.W.; Murray, Brent W.; Coltman, David W.; Sperling, Felix A.H.

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), a major pine forest pest native to western North America, has extended its range north and eastward during an ongoing outbreak. Determining how the MPB has expanded its range to breach putative barriers, whether physical (nonforested prairie and high elevation of the Rocky Mountains) or climatic (extreme continental climate where temperatures can be below ?40 °C), may contribute to our general understanding of range changes as well as management of the current epidemic. Here, we use a panel of 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess population genetic structure, connectivity, and signals of selection within this MPB range expansion. Biallelic SNPs in MPB from southwestern Canada revealed higher genetic differentiation and lower genetic connectivity than in the northern part of its range. A total of 208 unique SNPs were identified using different outlier detection tests, of which 32 returned annotations for products with putative functions in cholesterol synthesis, actin filament contraction, and membrane transport. We suggest that MPB has been able to spread beyond its previous range by adjusting its cellular and metabolic functions, with genome scale differentiation enabling populations to better withstand cooler climates and facilitate longer dispersal distances. Our study is the first to assess landscape-wide selective adaptation in an insect. We have shown that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this forest pest species. PMID:24803641

  6. Micrometeorites from the Transantarctic Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Rochette, P.; Folco, L.; Suavet, C.; van Ginneken, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Perchiazzi, N.; Braucher, R.; Harvey, R. P.

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of large accumulations of micrometeorites on the Myr-old, glacially eroded granitic summits of several isolated nunataks in the Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains. The number (>3,500) of large (>400 ?m and up to 2 mm in size) melted and unmelted particles is orders of magnitudes greater than other Antarctic collections. Flux estimates, bedrock exposure ages and the presence of ?0.8-Myr-old microtektites suggest that extraterrestrial dust collection occurred over the last 1 Myr, taking up to 500 kyr to accumulate based on 2 investigated find sites. The size distribution and frequency by type of cosmic spherules in the >200-?m size fraction collected at Frontier Mountain (investigated in detail in this report) are similar to those of the most representative known micrometeorite populations (e.g., South Pole Water Well). This and the identification of unusual types in terms of composition (i.e., chondritic micrometeorites and spherulitic aggregates similar to the ?480-kyr-old ones recently found in Antarctic ice cores) and size suggest that the Transantarctic Mountain micrometeorites constitute a unique and essentially unbiased collection that greatly extends the micrometeorite inventory and provides material for studies on micrometeorite fluxes over the recent (?1 Myr) geological past. PMID:19011091

  7. Hydrology of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Fabryka-Martin, June M.

    2001-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, located in southern Nevada in the Mojave Desert, is being considered as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Although the site is arid, previous studies indicate net infiltration rates of 5-10 mm yr-1 under current climate conditions. Unsaturated flow of water through the mountain generally is vertical and rapid through the fractures of the welded tuffs and slow through the matrix of the nonwelded tuffs. The vitric-zeolitic boundary of the nonwelded tuffs below the potential repository, where it exists, causes perching and substantial lateral flow that eventually flows through faults near the eastern edge of the potential repository and recharges the underlying groundwater system. Fast pathways are located where water flows relatively quickly through the unsaturated zone to the water table. For the bulk of the water a large part of the travel time from land surface to the potential repository horizon (˜300 m below land surface) is through the interlayered, low fracture density, nonwelded tuff where flow is predominately through the matrix. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being modeled using a three-dimensional, dual-continuum numerical model to predict the results of measurements and observations in new boreholes and excavations. The interaction between experimentalists and modelers is providing confidence in the conceptual model and the numerical model and is providing researchers with the ability to plan further testing and to evaluate the usefulness or necessity of further data collection.

  8. Micrometeorites from the transantarctic mountains.

    PubMed

    Rochette, P; Folco, L; Suavet, C; van Ginneken, M; Gattacceca, J; Perchiazzi, N; Braucher, R; Harvey, R P

    2008-11-25

    We report the discovery of large accumulations of micrometeorites on the Myr-old, glacially eroded granitic summits of several isolated nunataks in the Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains. The number (>3,500) of large (>400 mum and up to 2 mm in size) melted and unmelted particles is orders of magnitudes greater than other Antarctic collections. Flux estimates, bedrock exposure ages and the presence of approximately 0.8-Myr-old microtektites suggest that extraterrestrial dust collection occurred over the last 1 Myr, taking up to 500 kyr to accumulate based on 2 investigated find sites. The size distribution and frequency by type of cosmic spherules in the >200-mum size fraction collected at Frontier Mountain (investigated in detail in this report) are similar to those of the most representative known micrometeorite populations (e.g., South Pole Water Well). This and the identification of unusual types in terms of composition (i.e., chondritic micrometeorites and spherulitic aggregates similar to the approximately 480-kyr-old ones recently found in Antarctic ice cores) and size suggest that the Transantarctic Mountain micrometeorites constitute a unique and essentially unbiased collection that greatly extends the micrometeorite inventory and provides material for studies on micrometeorite fluxes over the recent ( approximately 1 Myr) geological past. PMID:19011091

  9. The hydrology of Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Fabryka-Martin, J.M.

    2000-12-04

    Yucca Mountain, located in southern Nevada in the Mojave Desert, is being considered as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Although the site is arid, previous studies indicate net infiltration rates of 5-10 mm yr(-1) under current climate conditions. Unsaturated flow of water through the mountain generally is vertical and rapid through the fractures of the welded tuffs and slow through the matrix of the nonwelded tuffs. The vitric-zeolitic boundary of the nonwelded tuffs below the potential repository, where it exists, causes perching and substantial lateral flow that eventually flows through faults near the eastern edge of the potential repository and recharges the underlying groundwater system. Fast pathways are located where water flows relatively quickly through the unsaturated zone to the water table. For the bulk of the water a large part of the travel time from land surface to the potential repository horizon (similar to 300 m below land surface) is through the interlayered, low fracture density, nonwelded tuff where flow is predominantly through the matrix. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being modeled using a three-dimensional, dual-continuum numerical model to predict the results of measurements and observations in new boreholes and excavations. The interaction between experimentalists and modelers is providing confidence in the conceptual model and the numerical model and is providing researchers with the ability to plan further testing and to evaluate the usefulness or necessity of further data collection.

  10. Timescales of orogeny: Jurassic construction of the Klamath Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Bradley R.; Donato, Mary M.; Barnes, Calvin G.; McWilliams, M. O.; Ernst, W. G.

    1995-06-01

    An electronic supplement of this material may be obtained on a diskette or Anonymous FTP from KOSMOS.AGU.ORG (LOGIN to AGU's FTP account using ANONYMOUS as the username and GUEST as the password. Go to the right directory by typing CD APEND. Type LS to see what files are available. Type GET and the name of the file to get it. Finally, type EXIT to leave the system.) (Paper 94YCJ2454, Timescales of orogeny: Jurassic construction of the Klamath Mountains, B.R. Hacker, M.M. Donato, C.G. Barnes, M.O. McWilliams, and W.G. Ernst). Diskette may be ordered from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009; $15.00. Payment must accompany order. Classical interpretations of orogeny were based on relatively imprecise biostratigraphic and isotopic age determinations that necessitated grouping apparently related features that may in reality have been greatly diachronous. Isotopic age techniques now have the precision required to resolve the timing of orogenic events on a scale much smaller than that of entire mountain belts. Forty-five new 40Ar/39Ar ages from the Klamath Mountains illuminate the deformation, metamorphism, magmatism, and sedimentation involved in the Jurassic construction of that orogen, leading to a new level of understanding regarding how preserved orogenic features relate to ancient plate tectonic processes. The new geochronologic relationships show that many Jurassic units of the Klamath Mountains had 200 Ma or older volcanoplutonic basement. Subsequent formation of a large ˜170 Ma arc was followed by contractional collapse of the arc. Collision with a spreading ridge may have led to large-scale NW-SE extension in the central and northern Klamaths from 167 to ˜155 Ma, coincident with the crystallization of voluminous plutonic and volcanic suites. Marked cooling of a large region of the central Klamath Mountains to below ˜350°C at ˜150 Ma may have occurred as the igneous belt was extinguished by subduction of colder material at deeper structural levels. These data demonstrate that the Klamath Mountains—and perhaps other similar orogens—were constructed during areally and temporally variant episodes of contraction, extension, and magmatism that do not fit classical definitions of orogeny.

  11. Mountaineering adventure tourists: a conceptual framework for research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gill Pomfret

    2006-01-01

    Mountaineering has emerged as a popular form of adventure tourism, yet there is scant research that develops an understanding of its participants. This paper contributes to a theoretical understanding of mountaineer adventure tourists by evaluating previous work on mountaineering, mountaineers, adventure, recreation and tourism. It uses this to develop a conceptual framework to examine mountaineer adventure tourists, the key influences

  12. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  13. Commercialization of microwave vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Golden, J.; Morgan, R.D. [Clean Earth Technologies, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1996-03-01

    A new company, Clean Earth Technologies, L.L.C. (CET), is being formed as a spin-off of Berkeley Research Associates, Inc. with the goal of commercializing microwave vitrification as the industrial partner with the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Based on the Department of Energy`s development program at Rocky Flats, microwave vitrification has been shown to be effective and economical method of treatment for several types of wastes. CET will begin operation of a pilot-scale plant (50 kg/hr) for treatment formulation studies during Winter, 1996. It is expected that systems with comparable production rate will be offered for delivery during in Summer, 1996. Scaling of microwave vitrification systems to the 200-500 kg/hr level is underway, and CET plans to manufacture portable, standalone, 200-500 kg/hr systems. These systems will be complete, integrated front-to-back systems including waste pre-treatment, off-gas and waste water treatment, and automated monitoring and operation. A field demonstration is being planned for early 1997.

  14. Evolution of an ophiolitic tectonic melange, Marble Mountains, northern California Klamath Mountains ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes multiply deformed amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks of the Marble Mountain and western Hayfork terranes in the western Paleozoic and Triassic belt of the northern Klamath Mountains, California.-from Author

  15. Marketing the Mountains: An Environmental History of Tourism in Rocky Mountain National Park

    E-print Network

    Frank, Jerritt

    2008-09-05

    Marketing the Mountains explores the impact of tourism upon the natural world of Rocky Mountain National Park. Moving beyond culutral analysis of the development of tourism in the American West, this dissertation seeks to ...

  16. Letter to President Obama Concerning Yucca Mountain and the Re evaluation of U.S. Radioactive Waste Policy and Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    We welcome your decision to curtail activity at the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste site and endorse your plan to evaluate the nation's high-level radioactive waste and commercial irradiated fuel programs and policies. We want to be involved in this process and we hope it will be earnest, open, and transparent. In that spirit, we urge you to ask all

  17. Effect of the Arakan Mountains in the northwestern Indochina Peninsula on the late May Asian monsoon transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chi-Hua; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Chou, Ming-Dah

    2014-09-01

    By simulations using a global climate model with and without the Arakan Mountains in the northwest of Myanmar, we demonstrated that this mesoscale meridionally elongated mountain range has a substantial effect on anchoring and enhancing precipitation in the region during the Bay of Bengal (BoB) monsoon onset in late May. In this period, the presence of the Arakan Mountains in the model significantly improves the simulation of the thermal and dynamical atmospheric structure of the monsoon, by substantially enhancing precipitation, deepening the midtropospheric trough and the southwesterly flow over the BoB and strengthening the upper tropospheric anticyclone atop the trough. These mountain-induced changes essentially improve the simulation of the late May Asian summer monsoon transition. Prior to the BoB monsoon onset, the blocking and deflecting effects of the Arakan Mountains on the low-level flow are marked, which enhance the moisture convergence and also probably influence the oceanic forcing over the BoB. As well as the mountain effect on the moisture convergence, inclusion of the Arakan Mountains apparently initiates an upstream troughing effect, which in turn enhances the synoptic and large-scale circulation during the monsoon transition. Furthermore, the presence of the Arakan Mountains induces a large-scale wavelike perturbation, which likely leads to an improvement of Meiyu/Baiu simulation. This study reveals that a narrow mountain like the Arakan Mountains likely contributes markedly to the characteristics of the Asian summer monsoon during its early seasonal march. Such effects need to be reasonably resolved in the models.

  18. Integrating Climate and Ecosystem-Response Sciences in Temperate Western North American Mountains: The CIRMOUNT Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, C. I.; Fagre, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    Mountain regions are uniquely sensitive to changes in climate, vulnerable to climate effects on biotic and physical factors of intense social concern, and serve as critical early-warning systems of climate impacts. Escalating demands on western North American (WNA) mountain ecosystems increasingly stress both natural resources and rural community capacities; changes in mountain systems cascade to issues of national concern. Although WNA has long been a focus for climate- and climate-related environmental research, these efforts remain disciplinary and poorly integrated, hindering interpretation into policy and management. Knowledge is further hampered by lack of standardized climate monitoring stations at high-elevations in WNA. An initiative is emerging as the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT) whose primary goal is to improve knowledge of high-elevation climate systems and to better integrate physical, ecological, and social sciences relevant to climate change, ecosystem response, and natural-resource policy in WNA. CIRMOUNT seeks to focus research on climate variability and ecosystem response (progress in understanding synoptic scale processes) that improves interpretation of linkages between ecosystem functions and human processing (progress in understanding human-environment integration), which in turn would yield applicable information and understanding on key societal issues such as mountains as water towers, biodiversity, carbon forest sinks, and wildland hazards such as fire and forest dieback (progress in understanding ecosystem services and key thresholds). Achieving such integration depends first on implementing a network of high-elevation climate-monitoring stations, and linking these with integrated ecosystem-response studies. Achievements since 2003 include convening the 2004 Mountain Climate Sciences Symposium (1, 2) and several special sessions at technical conferences; initiating a biennial mountain climate research symposium (MTNCLIM), the first to be held in spring 2005; developing a strategy for climate-monitoring in WNA; installing and networking high-elevation (>3000m) climate-monitoring stations; and completing three target regions (Glacier National Park, MT; Sierra Nevada and White Mountains, CA) of the international GLORIA (Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) plant-monitoring project, the first in WNA. CIRMOUNT emphasizes integration at the regional scale in WNA, collaborating with and complementing projects such as the Western Mountain Initiative, whose mandate is more targeted than CIRMOUNT's, and global programs such as GLORIA and the international Mountain Research Initiative. Achievement of continuing success in WNA hinges on the capacity to secure long-term funding and institutional investment. (1) See associated URL for paper and poster pdfs (2) Discussing the future of western U.S. mountains, climate change, and ecosystems. EOS 31 August 2004, 85(35), p. 329

  19. Geographic Information Science and Mountain Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scuderi, Louis A.

    Mountain areas are among the most threatened environments worldwide.These sensitive systems suffer from human encroachment, resource extraction, and subsequent environmental degradation. Mountain ecosystems are also extremely sensitive to climate variability with impacts on snow and ice cover, hydrologic response, and sediment yield. From this perspective, mountain environments can be viewed as one of the “canaries in the coal mine” for the entire global environmental system.

  20. Landscape, Mountain Worship and Astronomy in Socaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyano, Ricardo

    The spatiotemporal analysis of mountain worship in the indigenous community of Socaire, Atacama, northern Chile, relates to cultural, geographical, climatic, psychological, and astronomical information gathered from ethno archaeological studies. We identify a system of offerings to the mountains that incorporates concepts such as ceque (straight line), mayllku (mountain lord or ancestor), and pacha (space and time). Here, the mountains on the visible horizon (Tumisa, Lausa, Chiliques, Ipira, and Miñiques) feature as the fingers on the left hand (PAH Triad). This structure regulates annual activities and rituals and sets the basis for the Socaireños' worldview raised on a humanized landscape.

  1. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the different altitudinal belts. The local differences of temperature dynamics are illustrated in a map as an example of the low alpine altitudinal belt showing a 4-dimensional characterization (in space and time) of high mountain ecosystem functioning. Hydrological aspects derived from those results are presented showing the large- scaled hydrological dynamics of high mountain catchment basins in central Norway. The results of the process analysis of hydrological dynamics in the central Norwegian high mountains are discussed within the frame of investigations on altitudinal changes of mountain ecosystem structure and functioning (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM [in print]). The poster illustrates the theoretical and methodological conception, methods and techniques, examples from complex data material as well as general outcomes of the project (RÖßLER [in prep.]. JUNG, G., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Untersuchungen zur Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Forschungsansatz. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium 3: 4-36. Oldenburg. KÖHLER, B., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1994): Probleme der kleinräumigen Geoökovarianz im mittelnorwegischen Gebirge. Norsk geogr. Tidsskr. 48: 99- 111. LÖFFLER, J. (1997): Großmaßstäbige geoökologische Kartierungen in den Höhenstufen des mittelnorwegischen Gebirges. NORDEN 12: 205-228. Bremen. LÖFFLER, J. (1998): Geoökologische Untersuchungen zur Struktur mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Oldenburger Geoökologische Studien 1. Oldenburg. LÖFFLER, J., O.-D. FINCH, J. NAUJOK &R. PAPE (2001): Möglichkeiten der Integration zoologischer Aspekte in die landschaftsökologische Untersuchung von Hochgebirgen. Methodendiskussion am Beispiel ökologischer Prozesssysteme und Biozönosen. Naturschutz u. Landschaftsplanung 33 (11): 351-357. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Klimatische Phänomene in mittelnorwegischen Hochgebirgslandschaften und ihre ökosystemare Bedeutung. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium 3: 37-86. Oldenburg. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (1999): Klei

  2. entomology & pathology Phoretic Symbionts of the Mountain Pine Beetle

    E-print Network

    entomology & pathology Phoretic Symbionts of the Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae life cycle, the tree-killing mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins interacts T he mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is a natural disturbance agent

  3. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

  4. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

  5. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

  6. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

  7. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

  8. Algae Biodiesel: Commercialization

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    Algae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Algae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Center conservation and biomonitoring · Algae biodiesel is largest CEHMM project #12;Project Overview: The Missing replace petroleum #12;Project Overview: Local Resources for Algae Biodiesel Project Overview: Local

  9. Interpretive geophysical fault map across the central block of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Geophysical data collected along 29 traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada reveal anomalies associated with known fault sand indicate a number of possible concealed faults beneath the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain. Geophysical interpretations indicate that Midway Valley is characterized by several known and previously unknown faults, that the existence of the Yucca Wash fault is equivocal, and that the central part of the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain is characterized by numerous low-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect numerous small-scale faults. Gravity and magnetic data also reveal several large-amplitude anomalies that reflect larger-scale faulting along the margins of the central block.

  10. The Coming Commercial Passenger Space Transportation Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Collins

    \\u000a This paper discusses the future of commercial passenger space transportation from multiple viewpoints — technical, financial,\\u000a organisational and political — as well as economic policy, legal and social considerations. It argues that passenger space\\u000a travel offers the opportunity for launch services to grow into a profitable commercial industry, with potential to grow to\\u000a a very large scale, like passenger air

  11. PROGRESS COMMERCIALIZING SOLAR-ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond Dracker; Pascal De Laquil III

    1996-01-01

    Abstract The commercial status of the principal solar electric technologies-photovoltaic and solar thermal-is reviewed. Current and near-term market niches are identified, and projected longer-term markets are explored along with the key strategies for achieving them, including technological breakthroughs, manufacturing developments, economies of scale and mass production, and market creation. Market barriers and public policy impacts on commercialization are discussed.

  12. Commercial energy audits: headache or opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Hanneman, J.C.; Crandall, G.C.

    1984-04-12

    A summary of Michigan's 1982 commercial energy audit pilot program illustrates that utilities, shareholders, ratepayers, and private businesses can all benefit from large-scale audit services. Specific benefits to the utilities include market preservation, enhanced community and customer relations, and access to important customer demographic information. The federal Commercial and Apartment Conservation Service (CACS) rules can be more useful than burdensome because they confirm the right and duty of energy utilities to offer energy audits to nonresidential customers. 5 footnotes and references.

  13. CHAPTER FIVE COMMERCIAL PROGRAMS

    E-print Network

    of Space, NASA established the Office of Commercial Programs (OCP). This office encouraged the private sector to become more involved in using space for commercial purposes and increased NASA's efforts, funding for commercial- ization activities was located in the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications

  14. Commercialization of space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Rose; B. A. Stone

    1988-01-01

    Space-commercialization activities are grouped into five categories: private sector development from existing technology for private sector use; pure privatization; private sector development for US government use; private sector development from novel technology for private sector use; and, finally, full commercialization. The authors define the commercialization of space categories and highlight the key issues in each. A description of key NASA

  15. Doctor on a mountaineering expedition.

    PubMed Central

    A'Court, C. H.; Stables, R. H.; Travis, S.

    1995-01-01

    Doctors are welcome members on mountaineering expeditions to remote areas, but practical advice on how to prepare and what kit to take can be difficult to find. This article is a ragbag of useful advice on diverse topics. It explains the necessary preparation, provides tips for a healthy expedition, and summarises the common disorders encountered at high altitude. The comprehensive drug and equipment lists and first aid kit for climbers were used for the 1992 Everest in winter expedition. They are there to be sacrificed to personal preference and the experience and size of individual expeditions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7767198

  16. Preliminary Analysis of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains Morphology from AGAP Airborne Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolovick, M.; Frearson, N.; Block, A. E.; Bell, R. E.; Studinger, M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Braaten, D. A.; Damaske, D.

    2009-12-01

    Numerical models of ice sheet development (Deconto and Pollard, 2003) predict that the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains were the major nucleation site for the East Antarctic ice sheet, however, little is known about the tectonic origin of these mountains and the paleo-landscape during the Eocene. During the International Polar Year (IPY) program the team of AGAP scientists from 7 nations conducted a major aerogeophysical survey over the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in East Antarctica using two instrumented aircraft producing over 120,000km of ice penetrating radar data. Preliminary analysis of the 600-800 km long regional ice penetrating radar profiles provides insights into the morphology of the Gamburtsev Mountains, the history of glaciation and the origin of the subglacial mountain range. The mountains have an average elevation of 2000m below the ice surface (1500-2000m above sea level), rising 1000-1500m above the surrounding terrain. Topographic variation is approximately 3000m, similar to the Pyrenees, or roughly three times greater than variation in the surrounding terrain. Along these regional lines, the highest point is roughly 1000m below the ice surface (3000m above sea level). We observed flat-bottomed valleys with bright basal reflectors suggestive of sub-glacial water, as well as ‘V’-shaped valleys suggestive of fluvial erosion. The highest peaks of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains exhibit an asymmetric morphology suggesting an eastward dip of approximately 5°. The airborne gravity data indicate these ridges have a predominantly north-northeast strike. The major V shaped valleys exhibit a linear morphology both parallel and perpendicular to the strike of the ridges. Well-defined internal layers particularly those in the depth range of 1800-2500m below the ice surface within the ice sheet are traceable over length scales of hundreds of kilometers. The valley trends are interpreted to represent one or more fault systems associated with the tectonic origin of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains.

  17. Worldwide acceleration of mountain erosion under a cooling climate.

    PubMed

    Herman, Frédéric; Seward, Diane; Valla, Pierre G; Carter, Andrew; Kohn, Barry; Willett, Sean D; Ehlers, Todd A

    2013-12-19

    Climate influences the erosion processes acting at the Earth's surface. However, the effect of cooling during the Late Cenozoic era, including the onset of Pliocene-Pleistocene Northern Hemisphere glaciation (about two to three million years ago), on global erosion rates remains unclear. The uncertainty arises mainly from a lack of consensus on the use of the sedimentary record as a proxy for erosion and the difficulty of isolating the respective contributions of tectonics and climate to erosion. Here we compile 18,000 bedrock thermochronometric ages from around the world and use a formal inversion procedure to estimate temporal and spatial variations in erosion rates. This allows for the quantification of erosion for the source areas that ultimately produce the sediment record on a timescale of millions of years. We find that mountain erosion rates have increased since about six million years ago and most rapidly since two million years ago. The increase of erosion rates is observed at all latitudes, but is most pronounced in glaciated mountain ranges, indicating that glacial processes played an important part. Because mountains represent a considerable fraction of the global production of sediments, our results imply an increase in sediment flux at a global scale that coincides closely with enhanced cooling during the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs. PMID:24352288

  18. Piecewise delamination of Moroccan lithosphere from beneath the Atlas Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezada, M. J.; Humphreys, E. D.; Davila, J. M.; Carbonell, R.; Harnafi, M.; Palomeras, I.; Levander, A.

    2014-04-01

    elevation of the intracontinental Atlas Mountains of Morocco and surrounding regions requires a mantle component of buoyancy, and there is consensus that this buoyancy results from an abnormally thin lithosphere. Lithospheric delamination under the Atlas Mountains and thermal erosion caused by upwelling mantle have each been suggested as thinning mechanisms. We use seismic tomography to image the upper mantle of Morocco. Our imaging resolves the location and shape of lithospheric cavities and of delaminated lithosphere ˜400 km beneath the Middle Atlas. We propose discontinuous delamination of an intrinsically unstable Atlas lithosphere, enabled by the presence of anomalously hot mantle, as a mechanism for producing the imaged structures. The Atlas lithosphere was made unstable by a combination of tectonic shortening and eclogite loading during Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic magmatism. The presence of hot mantle sourced from regional upwellings in northern Africa or the Canary Islands enhanced the instability of this lithosphere. Flow around the retreating Alboran slab focused upwelling mantle under the Middle Atlas, which we infer to be the site of the most recent delamination. The Atlas Mountains of Morocco stand as an example of large-scale lithospheric loss in a mildly contractional orogen.

  19. Cirque-driven erosion of the Scandinavian mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, John D.; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Egholm, David L.; Knudsen, Mads F.; Korup, Oliver; Stroeven, Arjen; Goodfellow, Bradley; Andersen, Jane L.; Ugelvig, Sofie V.; Klein, Josefin

    2015-04-01

    Climatic versus tectonic explanations for Scandinavian topography have sustained a century-long dispute. Here, at high-latitudes, the more recent question of whether Late-Cenozoic cooling has influenced mountain erosion rates is especially apt because glaciations commenced earlier: >10 Myr and possibly ~34 Myr according to marine palaeorecords. Although selective glacial incision along valley troughs is well recognised in Scandinavia, the legacy of glacial cirque erosion has yet to be fully investigated. We examine the topographic legacy of mountain glaciation in seven massifs of the Caledonian Scandes (western Scandinavia ~61-70° N): Lyngen, Kebnekaise, Sarek, Saltfjellet, Dovrefjell, Jostedalsbreen, and Jotunheimen. Glacial cirques are the product of discrete alpine glaciers and so the elevation of ice-free cirques provides a guide to past fluctuations in regional equilibrium line altitude (ELA). The Scandes currently hosts >3400 mountain glaciers and the distribution of >10,000 ice-free cirques indicates that glaciers have extended much lower and farther in the past. Previous workers argue that alpine glaciations focus erosion selectively at and above a zone of cirques, which approximates the long-term average 'palaeo-ELA'. First, we set out to examine the topographic relationships between mountain peak elevation, ELA, cirque-floor elevations, and the distribution of low-slope (<10°) terrain. To estimate the regional ELA for each massif, inclined planar trend-surfaces (first-order polynomial) were fitted to median elevations of existing glaciers. A total of ~4000 ice-free cirques were mapped and plotted relative to the ELA surfaces. For all seven massifs, cirque-floors cluster within a discrete elevational range: 240-490 m (25-75th percentiles) below ELA, suggesting a well-defined 'palaeo-ELA'. Hypsometric analyses show that this 'palaeo-ELA' closely matches the maximum frequency of low-slope terrain. Consistent with studies elsewhere, terrain surface area declines exponentially above modern ELA (4-13% in total) and peaks protrude <800 m. Second, topographic analysis was conducted via 50 km-wide latitudinal swaths spanning the entire mountain belt. Maximum peak elevations and mean elevations both dip northward at 0.48 m/km and 0.34 m/km, respectively. These compare with the overall ELA northward dip at 0.55 m/km, and the maximum frequency of low-slope (<10°) terrain also dipping northward at 0.57 m/km -- all suggesting a zonal control on topography that is compatible with a climate-driven origin. These results confirm conclusions from other studies suggesting that alpine glaciation can exert first-order control on topography at mountain belt-scale. We reflect upon the possible genetic links between widespread mountain plateaux, the elevation of cirque floors, and mountain peaks; namely, the erosional processes involved in generating a cold-climate topographic signature in postorogenic mountains.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of hydrological parameters in modeling flow and transport in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keni Zhang; Yu-Shu Wu; James E. Houseworth

    2006-01-01

    The unsaturated fractured volcanic deposits at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, USA, have been intensively investigated as a possible repository site for storing high-level radioactive waste. Field studies at the site have revealed that there exist large variabilities in hydrological parameters over the spatial domain of the mountain. Systematic analyses of hydrological parameters using a site-scale three-dimensional unsaturated zone (UZ) flow

  1. Mountain-Plains Curriculum Package. Teacher Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Robert G.

    Designed to give the teacher a capsule explanation of how the system works, this guide introduces the Mountain-Plains instructor to specific curriculum materials and provides examples of the basic instruments used in the Mountain-Plains program, a residential, family-based education program developed to improve the economic potential and lifestyle…

  2. 78 FR 29366 - Green Mountain Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ...Commission [Docket No. TS04-277-002] Green Mountain Power Corporation Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 2, 2013, Green Mountain Power Corporation filed additional...and 214 of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure (18 CFR 385.211,...

  3. Fault reactivation in intraplate domain and driving mechanisms associated to mountain range.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genti, M.; Chery, J.; Vernant, P.

    2014-12-01

    Using thermo-mechanical numeric modelling at lithospheric scale, we test in this study the impact of 3 different processes on the mountain strain pattern and fault reactivation, without convergence. The processes are the following: 1) unloading and loading of the lithosphere 2) isostatic disequilibrium, and 3) thermic anomaly. Loading and unloading corresponds to sedimentation/erosion and glacial cycles. They generate isostatic rebound inducing elastic upper crust flexural answer and changing stress and strain distribution at regional scale. The generated strain pattern is similar to gravitational collapse with normal faulting in mountain and reverse faulting in the foreland. We test several mountain mean elevations to further understand the mechanism, and then compare it to the data of 21 mountain ranges. The disequilibrium between Moho and topography induces non-steady state strain and high slip rates difference for fault planes located in and out of the mountain range due to asymmetric, mainly vertical, displacements. A high temperature anomaly weakens the lithosphere and reduces fault slip rates due to a shallower elastic-viscous transition. We also pay a specific attention to fault reactivation, for intra-mountain faults, and for far field inherited faults by quantifying and comparing slip rate on pre-defined fault planes in the model. Results show that these 3 processes can produce displacements on faults away from the mountain range area. Finally we discuss each mechanism influence and compare our results with region that are defined as "stable" with geodetic strain rates below the measurements uncertainties, but with moderate seismicity (M<=5).

  4. NASA's commercial space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Richard H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will review the goals, status and progress of NASA's commercial space development program administered by the Office of Commercial Programs (OCP). The technologies and flight programs underway by NASA's Centers for Commercial Development (CCDS), NASA's field centers, and the NASA/Industry Joint Endeavor Programs will be summarized. A summary of completed and upcoming commercial payload activities on Shuttle, suborbital rockets, and orbital ELV's will be provided. The new commercial infrastructure and transportation initiatives will be discussed including the Wake Shield Facility, Consort and Joust suborbital rocket programs, the COMET orbital and recovery program, and the Commercial Middeck Accommodation Module Program with Spacehab Inc. Finally, the Commercial Space Station Freedom Program planned by OCP will be reviewed.

  5. Bedrock geologic Map of the Central Block Area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    W.C. Day; C. Potter; D. Sweetkind; R.P. Dickerson; C.A. San Juan

    1998-09-29

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As such, this map focuses on the central block at Yucca Mountain, which contains the potential repository site. The central block is a structural block of Tertiary volcanic rocks bound on the west by the Solitario Canyon Fault, on the east by the Bow Ridge Fault, to the north by the northwest-striking Drill Hole Wash Fault, and on the south by Abandoned Wash. Earlier reconnaissance mapping by Lipman and McKay (1965) provided an overview of the structural setting of Yucca Mountain and formed the foundation for selecting Yucca Mountain as a site for further investigation. They delineated the main block-bounding faults and some of the intrablock faults and outlined the zoned compositional nature of the tuff units that underlie Yucca Mountain. Scott and Bonk (1984) provided a detailed reconnaissance geologic map of favorable area at Yucca Mountain in which to conduct further site-characterization studies. Of their many contributions, they presented a detailed stratigraphy for the volcanic units, defined several other block-bounding faults, and outlined numerous intrablock faults. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bonk (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the vicinity of the potential repository. In addition to structural considerations, ongoing subsurface excavation and geologic mapping within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), development of a three-dimensional-framework geologic model, and borehole investigations required use of a consistent stratigraphic system to facilitate surface to underground comparisons. The map units depicted in this report correspond as closely as possible to the proposed stratigraphic nomenclature by Buesch and others (1996), as described.

  6. Bedrock geologic map of the central block area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A. [Pacific Western Technologies Ltd., Denver, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This study was funded by the US Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bon, (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the vicinity of the potential repository. In addition to structural considerations, ongoing subsurface excavation and geologic mapping within the exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), development of a three-dimensional-framework geologic model, and borehole investigations required use of a constituent stratigraphic system to facilitate surface to underground comparisons. The map units depicted in this report correspond as closely as possible to the proposed stratigraphic nomenclature by Buesch and others (1996), as described here.

  7. Mountaineering fatalities on Aconcagua: 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Westensee, Jeffrey; Rogé, Ignacio; Van Roo, Jon D; Pesce, Carlos; Batzli, Sam; Courtney, D Mark; Lazio, Matthew P

    2013-09-01

    High altitude mountaineering is a dangerous endeavor due to the hypoxic hypobaric environment, extreme weather, and technical skills required. One of the seven summits, Aconcagua (6962 m) is the highest mountain outside of Asia. Its most popular route is nontechnical, attracting >3000 mountaineers annually. Utilizing data from the Servicio Médico Aconcagua (park medical service), we performed a retrospective descriptive analysis with the primary objective of deriving a fatality rate on Aconcagua from 2001 to 2012. The fatality rate on Aconcagua was then compared to other popular mountains. For climbers who died, we report all available demographic data, mechanisms of death, and circumstances surrounding the death. Between 2001 and 2012, 42,731 mountaineers attempted to summit Aconcagua. There were 33 fatalities. The fatality rate was 0.77 per 1000, or 0.077%. The fatality rate on Aconcagua is lower than that on Everest or Denali but higher than that on Rainier. PMID:24028641

  8. Hydrologic and topographic variability modulate channel change in mountain rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Rocko A.; Pasternack, Gregory B.

    2014-03-01

    The relationships between flow hydrology, topography, and channel change in mountain rivers is important to understanding landscape evolution, the structure and persistence of aquatic habitat, and also the physiochemical cycling of upstream derived organic and inorganic materials. There is a paucity of detailed studies that analyze the joint roles of hydrology and topography in controlling multiple mechanisms of channel change in mountain rivers. In this study, gravel and cobble channel change in a bedrock river canyon were analyzed in light of a controlled yet natural experiment where 4491 metric tonnes of rounded gravel and cobble was augmented below a sediment-barrier dam in a 1200 m long mountain river reach that had no prior sources of rounded gravel or cobble and still experiences floods above the bankfull discharge. The overall study goal was to investigate how flow hydrology can modulate multiple channel change processes depending on the topographic features engaged by the flow. Channel change was assessed via differencing of high resolution repeat topographic and bathymetric surveys, along with cm-scale aerial photography post injection. Statistical tests used to implicate topographic feature-specific mechanisms of channel change that vary with discharge included analyzing geomorphic covariance structures of flow dependent width, bed elevation, and channel change as well as autocorrelation of flow width spatial series. Stage dependent topographic steering was inferred from associations of erosion and deposition with changes in 2D model derived flow directions at multiple discharges. A variety of mechanisms of channel change were qualitatively and quantitatively confirmed including particle hiding, topographic steering, eddying, and flow convergence. No single mechanism explained the observed patterns of channel change but rather it is thought that process-blending occurs, as modulated by the interactions of flow hydrology with complex topography. Results from this study suggest that both existing channel boundary variability and input hydrologic variability work together to create hydrodynamic spatial patterns that control the fate and transport of sediments in mountain rivers and ultimately their spatial structure.

  9. Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

  10. The Investigation of Problem Solving Skill of the Mountaineers in Terms of Demographic Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gürer, Burak

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate problem solving skills of the individuals involved in mountaineering. 315 volunteers participated in the study. The research data were collected by problem solving scale developed by Heppner and Peterson and the Turkish version of which was conducted by Sahin et al. There are totally 35 items and only 3…

  11. The Geological Structure of the Tanzawa Mountains from Consideration of the Benthonic Large Foraminifera Fossils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshifumi MISAWA

    The Tanzawa group of the Miocene age is distributed in the Tanzawa mountains.There is plutonic mass on a large scale at the center of geological tectonic unit and the mass exhibits a typical dome structure.It is partly decided on the basis of larger foraminiferas fossil and calcareous microfossil that the age of the Oyama Subgroup in the center of the

  12. Modeling Studies of Climate Impacts and Extreme Events in California Mountain Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Shupe; C. Potter; M. Kramer; V. Genovese; P. Gross

    2005-01-01

    This study describes research using the CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford) ecosystem model with HYDRA surface hydrologic model for the state of California to understand the effects of potential land cover and climate events on mountain ecosystems and regional water resources. The models are run at 1-km resolution to capture localized topographic effects at the regional scale. To assess HYDRA's ability to estimate

  13. Geomorphic and Geochemical Characteristics of Five Alpine Fens in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado 

    E-print Network

    McClenning, Bree Kathleen 1985-

    2012-11-26

    and geochemistry of fens. The first study involved a complex investigation of the geomorphology of five fen sites in the San Juan Mountains near Silverton, Colorado. Geomorphic maps were constructed for each fen site at a scale of ~1:3,000. A geomorphic...

  14. Morphological and sedimentological responses of streams to human impact in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katie Price; David S. Leigh

    2006-01-01

    Morphological and sedimentological responses of streams to basin-scale impact have been well documented for intensively agricultural or urban areas. Sensitivity thresholds of streams to modest levels of disturbance, however, are not well understood. This study addresses the influence of forest conversion on streams of the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, a region that has received little attention with respect to human

  15. A sightability model for mountain goats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  16. Meteorological studies in a mountainous watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, P.J. [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Johnson, G.L.; Hanson, C.L. [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Boise, ID (United States); Wang, D. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A research study has been initiated to analyze and model the variability of precipitation and snow distribution in a mountainous watershed. The study is complementing an existing, long-term record of snow hydrology on western rangelands. It is providing a dynamic treatment of the snow transport process and a better understanding of the interaction of wind and topography in distributing the snow. The study is integrating the capabilities of a state-of-the-art quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) model with the capabilities of a geographic information system (GIS) for snow transport and accumulation processes over space and time. The unique combination of a well-instrumented watershed, GIS techniques, and a state-of-the-art QPF modeling system are expected to provide a more accurate understanding of land surface hydrology over a range of scales. A goal of the research, supported by the NOAA Office of Global Programs, is to assess regional impacts of global climate change on land surface hydrology.

  17. The chemical agent experience at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Mohrman, G. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) was constructed and commissioned in 1942 for the production of sulfur mustard and other chemical munitions for possible use in World War II. RMA also became a production site for Lewisite and Sarin, including synthesis and munition filling. Other chemical agents such as Phosgene were routinely handled, filled into munitions and demilitarized. During the 1970`s and the early 1980`s, RMA served as a primary demilitarization facility for the destruction of chemical agents. Throughout its chemical weapons history, RMA generated waste materials from production, neutralization, decontamination and testing. These operations led to the possibility of chemical agent contamination in soils, process equipment and structures that have required special attention as part of the overall Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) environmental cleanup operations being conducted by the Program Manager Rocky Mountain Arsenal (PMRMA). Adjusting normal sampling operations associated with CERCLA-type activities for the special Army regulations covering chemical agents has been a difficult task. This presentation will describe the evolution of chemical agent related efforts and operations as they pertain to RMA environmental cleanup activities, to include field sampling requirements, analytical methods, commercial laboratory use and the role of the on-site PMRMA laboratory.

  18. A Mountain-Scale Monitoring Network for Yucca Mountain Performance Confirmation

    E-print Network

    Freifeld, Barry; Tsang, Yvonne

    2006-01-01

    years. Because a fiber-optic cable can be removed, tested,life expectancies of fiber- optic communications cables, thecable length. Using the data inversion procedure established by Von Herzen and Maxwell, a fiber-optic

  19. Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks into Cyberinfrastructure for Monitoring Hawaiian “Mountain-to-Sea” Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H. Kido; Carsten W. Mundt; Kevin N. Montgomery; Adam Asquith; David W. Goodale; Kenneth Y. Kaneshiro

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the complex environmental relationships and feedbacks of ecosystems on catchment (or mountain)-to-sea scales is\\u000a essential for social systems to effectively deal with the escalating impacts of expanding human populations globally on watersheds.\\u000a However, synthesis of emerging technologies into a robust observing platform for the monitoring of coupled human-natural environments\\u000a on extended spatial scales has been slow to develop. For

  20. Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks into Cyberinfrastructure for Monitoring Hawaiian ``Mountain-to-Sea'' Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H. Kido; Carsten W. Mundt; Kevin N. Montgomery; Adam Asquith; David W. Goodale; Kenneth Y. Kaneshiro

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the complex environmental relationships and feedbacks of ecosystems on catchment (or mountain)-to-sea scales is essential for social systems to effectively deal with the escalating impacts of expanding human populations globally on watersheds. However, synthesis of emerging technologies into a robust observing platform for the monitoring of coupled human-natural environments on extended spatial scales has been slow to develop. For

  1. Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region (RMCCS)

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-30

    The primary objective of the “Characterization of Most Promising Carbon Capture and Sequestration Formations in the Central Rocky Mountain Region” project, or RMCCS project, is to characterize the storage potential of the most promising geologic sequestration formations within the southwestern U.S. and the Central Rocky Mountain region in particular. The approach included an analysis of geologic sequestration formations under the Craig Power Station in northwestern Colorado, and application or extrapolation of those local-scale results to the broader region. A ten-step protocol for geologic carbon storage site characterization was a primary outcome of this project.

  2. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    Lighting is a major consumer of electricity in commercial buildings and a target for energy savings through use of energy-efficient light sources along with other advanced lighting technologies. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) collects information on types of lighting equipment, the amount of floorspace that is lit, and the percentage of floorspace lit by each type. In addition, CBECS data are used to model end-use consumption, including energy consumed for lighting in commercial buildings.

  3. Karstic mountain almost conquered. [Guatemala

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-10

    International design and construction teams building a 300-Mw hydroelectric system high in central Guatemala's rugged mountains since 1977 have persevered through karstic-limestone nightmares, logistical bottlenecks and political upheaval to bring the $700-million Rio Chixoy project close to completion. The costly power push, requiring the largest construction effort in Guatemala's modern history, plays a critical role for the future. When all five Pelton-wheel turbines are spinning late next year, their output will more than double electricity production in Central America's poorest, most populous country. Despite numerous delays, design changes and cost increases above the original $240-million bid package, work has progressed to the final stages on a 360-ft-high rockfill dam, 16-mile power tunnel and aboveground powerhouse.

  4. P wave velocity structure in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leiph Preston; Ken Smith; David von Seggern

    2007-01-01

    We have performed a crustal tomographic inversion using over 250,000 P arrival times from local earthquake sources and surface explosions in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, region. Within the shallowest 2–3 km, topographic features tend to dominate the structure with high velocities imaged under Bare Mountain, the Funeral Mountains, and higher terrain to the east of Yucca Mountain and low velocities

  5. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Yucca Mountain Project

    E-print Network

    Maerz, Norbert H.

    1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Yucca Mountain Project The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada has been designated as United States choice for nuclear waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in a remote dry area, on federal has been made to characterize the nature of the discontinuities of the Yucca Mountain proposed nuclear

  6. A Precipitation Climatology of the Snowy Mountains, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish; Speirs, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    The precipitation that falls in the Snowy Mountains region of southeastern Australia provides critical water resources for hydroelectric power generation. Water storages in this region are also a major source of agricultural irrigation, environmental flows, and offer a degree of flood protection for some of the major river systems in Australia. Despite this importance, there remains a knowledge gap regarding the long-term, historic variability of the synoptic weather systems that deliver precipitation to the region. This research aims to increase the understanding of long-term variations in precipitation-bearing weather systems resulting in runoff into the Snowy Mountains catchments and reservoirs, and the way in which these are influenced by large-scale climate drivers. Here we present initial results on the development of a climatology of precipitation-bearing synoptic weather systems (synoptic typology), spanning a period of over 100 years. The synoptic typology is developed from the numerical weather model re-analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), in conjunction with regional precipitation and temperature data from a network of private gauges. Given the importance of surface, mid- and upper-air patterns on seasonal precipitation, the synoptic typing will be based on a range of meteorological variables throughout the depth of the troposphere, highlighting the importance of different atmospheric levels on the development and steering of synoptic precipitation bearing systems. The temporal and spatial variability of these synoptic systems, their response to teleconnection forcings and their contribution to inflow generation in the headwater catchments of the Snowy Mountains will be investigated. The resulting climatology will provide new understanding of the drivers of regional-scale precipitation variability at inter- and intra-annual timescales. It will enable greater understanding of how variability in synoptic scale atmospheric circulation affects the hydroclimate of alpine environments in southeast Australia - allowing recently observed precipitation declines to be placed in the context of a long-term record spanning at least 100 years. This information will provide further insight into the impacts of predicted anthropogenic climate change and will ultimately lead to more informed water resource management in the Snowy Mountains.

  7. Commercial communications satellite survivability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, F. E.; Porter, R. L.

    The Government is considering the use of commercial communications satellite systems to support its national security and emergency preparedness needs. However, the vulnerabilities to hostile action inherent in commercial satellite systems could dramatically reduce their ability to provide essential services in emergency situations. Consequently, concern for the survivability of satellite, as well as other commercial telecommunications systems, has led to the establishment of the National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC). Working in concert with the Government, the NSTAC, a Presidential Advisory Committee, has recommended a program to enhance the survivability of commercial communications satellite systems.

  8. Commercialization of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, James T.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1988-01-01

    Space-commercialization activities are grouped into five categories: private sector development from existing technology for private sector use; pure privatization; private sector development for U.S. government use; private sector development from novel technology for private sector use; and, finally, full commercialization. The commercialization of space categories is defined, and the key issues in each are highlighted. A description of key NASA actions is included for each category. It is concluded that NASA and other government agency involvement is a common thread across the spectrum of space commercialization activities.

  9. Clustering Billions of Images with Large Scale Nearest Neighbor Search

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    Clustering Billions of Images with Large Scale Nearest Neighbor Search Ting Liu tingliu@google.com Charles Rosenberg chuck@google.com Google Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA Henry A. Rowley har@google.com

  10. Simulating the Thermal History of the Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    B.D. Marshal; J.F. Whelan

    2001-07-23

    Heat transfer within Earth's upper crust is primarily by conduction, and conductive thermal models adequately explain the cooling history of deep, batholith-scale intrusions and surrounding wall rocks, as confirmed by numerous thermochronometric studies. However, caldera magmatic systems require consideration of the small and localized component of hydrothermal convection and numerical models to simulate additional boundary conditions, irregular magma chamber shapes, and complex intrusive histories. At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository, simulating the detailed thermal history at any location in the unsaturated zone requires knowledge of the shape of the magma chamber and its proximity to Yucca Mountain (the southern margin of the Timber Mountain caldera complex is approximately 8 km north of the potential repository site), the temporal and spatial extent of hydrothermal convection, the erosional history of the area, and past levels of the water table.

  11. COMMERCIAL MONITORING OF AVOCADO SUNBLOTCH VIROID

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LISE KORSTEN; M BAR-JOSEPH; A D BOTHA; L S HAYCOCK; J M KOTZÉ

    SUMMARY A technique for the detection of the avocado sunblotch viroid in nursery trees in South Africa is currently being tested for the first time on a large commercial scale. Out of the various techniques available, the dot blot hybridisation technique has been found to be the most effective for monitoring purposes. Results obtained thus far, indicate that 3% of

  12. DOE's clean coal technology program: commercial successes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. U. Watts; T. A. Sarkus; S. K. Marchant

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOEs) clean coal technology (CCT) program is comprised of 43 demonstration scale projects in a variety of coal utilization areas. The program is now well under way, and several demonstrations have been completed. Further, several commercial sales have already accrued to these technologies, with additional sales pending

  13. Commercialization of space activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanneke L. van Traa-Engelman

    1996-01-01

    Commercialization of space activities requires a legal framework for private investors and entrepreneurs in order to promote and develop this sector of industry into a fully-fledged commercial enterprise. Apart from the already existing international public legal framework of space law, rules should be created to provide a level playing field for all interested parties. These rules should point to transparency

  14. Commercial applications of ferrofluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Raj; R. Moskowitz

    1990-01-01

    Ferrofluids have been in the commercial arena for over two decades. In this paper, the most advanced, successful commercial applications of ferrofluids are discussed. These applications center around the tribological characteristics of ferrofluids, e.g., sealing, damping and hydrodynamic bearings. Also, an account of some lesser known applications is presented.

  15. Commercial Real Estate Returns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Miles; Tom McCue

    1984-01-01

    In the commercial real estate market, which is perceived to be relatively inefficient, investors have comparative advantages; hence there are significant costs to diversification. This paper presents for the first time a series of market (or quasi-market) returns for a large data base. This data base is believed to be the most complete commercial real estate data base yet constructed.

  16. Nanotechnology Commercialization in Oregon

    E-print Network

    Moeck, Peter

    Nanotechnology Commercialization in Oregon February 27, 2012 Portland State University Physics Seminar Robert D. "Skip" Rung President and Executive Director #12;2 Nanotechnology Commercialization on "green" nanotechnology and gap fund portfolio company examples #12;3 Goals of the National Nanotechnology

  17. ARIEL 65 WOMEN'S BACKPACK Backpacking/Mountaineering

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    ARIEL 65 WOMEN'S BACKPACK Backpacking/Mountaineering Lightweight and comfortable women's specific. Volumes and Weights US and International weight and volume specifications Size cu. in. liter lbs/oz kg. XS

  18. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley...

  19. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley...

  20. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley...

  1. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley...

  2. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley...

  3. Black Box Theatres: Cheyenne Mountain High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the academic arts building at Cheyenne Mountain High School in Colorado Springs, Colorado, including its black box theater, art classroom, computer graphics lab, gallery, video production area, and chorus classroom. (EV)

  4. ConcepTest: Linear Mountain Range

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In exploring a new planet, you discover a long, linear mountain range crossing a broad low-lying area that is interpreted to represent an ancient basin. Predict what type of plate tectonic feature this represents. ...

  5. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  6. Mineralogic variation in drill core UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Chipera, S.J.; Vaniman, D.T.; Carlos, B.A.; Bish, D.L.

    1995-02-01

    Quantitative X-ray powder diffraction methods have been used to analyze 108 samples from drill core UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This drill hole, located within the imbricate fault zone east of the potential Yucca Mountain repository site, confirms the authors` previous knowledge of gross-scale mineral distributions at Yucca Mountain and provides insight into possible shallow pathways for hydrologic recharge into the potential host rock. Analyses of samples from UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 have shown that the distribution of major zeolitized horizons, of silica phases, and of glassy tuffs are similar to those noted in nearby drill cores. However, the continuous core and closer sample spacing in UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 provide a more exact determination of mineral stratigraphy, particularly in hydrologically important units such as the Paintbrush bedded tuffs above the Topopah Spring Tuff and in the upper vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Tuff. The discovery of matrix zeolitization in the devitrified Topopah Spring Tuff of UE25 UZ{number_sign}16 shows that some unexpected mineralogic features can still be encountered in the exploration of Yucca Mountain and emphasizes the importance of obtaining a more complete three-dimensional model of Yucca Mountain mineralogy.

  7. Acoustic and Temporal Partitioning of Cicada Assemblages in City and Mountain Environments

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Bao-Sen; Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chiu, Yuh-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Comparing adaptations to noisy city environments with those to natural mountain environments on the community level can provide significant insights that allow an understanding of the impact of anthropogenic noise on invertebrates that employ loud calling songs for mate attraction, especially when each species has its distinct song, as in the case of cicadas. In this study, we investigated the partitioning strategy of cicada assemblages in city and mountain environments by comparing the acoustic features and calling activity patterns of each species, recorded using automated digital recording systems. Our comparison of activity patterns of seasonal and diel calling revealed that there was no significant temporal partitioning of cicada assemblages in either environment. In addition, there was no correlation between the acoustic distance based on spectral features and temporal segregation. Heterospecific spectral overlap was low in both city and mountain environments, although city and mountain cicada assemblages were subject to significantly different levels of anthropogenic or interspecific noise. Furthermore, for the common species found in both environments, the calling activity patterns at both seasonal and diel time scales were significantly consistent across sites and across environments. We suggest that the temporal calling activity is constrained by endogenous factors for each species and is less flexible in response to external factors, such as anthropogenic noise. As a result, cicada assemblages in city environments with low species diversity do not demonstrate a more significant temporal partitioning than those in mountain environments with high species diversity. PMID:25590620

  8. Back-thrusting along the western flank of the Bighorn Mountain, Bighorn County,Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Noggle, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    Field evidence of westward back-thrusting, compartmentalized faulting, and tectonically-thinned fault wedges supports a thrust-generated model of uplift for the Bighorn Mountains. Encompassed within the Leavitt Reservoir Quadrangle are structures suggestive of westward basement-involved thrusting antithetic to the main eastward thrust direction of the Bighorn uplift. The mountain-flank region in this area is characterized by reverse-faulted blocks of Precambrian basement which are draped by a deformed Paleozoic cover. A reentrant along the mountain front coincides with an east-west compartmental boundary separating two distinct areas of structural discordance. North of this fault boundary, compression appears to have been accommodated by folding of the hanging wall block. To the south, Precambrian rocks exposed at the mountain-front overlie, and are in fault-contact with a tectonically-thinned, overturned wedge of Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. Structures i the basinal portion of the Leavitt Reservoir Quadrangle include small-scale folds and a thrust-faulted anticline paralleling the NW-SE trend of the larger mountain-flank structures. Decollement may have occurred parallel to bedding planes within multiple stratigraphic horizons. This deformation probably represents concomitant basinward ramping of the sedimentary sequence in response to westward back-thrusting of Precambrian blocks during the Laramide Orogeny.

  9. EFFECTS OF FAULTED STRATIGRAPHY ON SATURATED ZONE FLOW BENEATH YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREW J.B. COHEN AND CURTIS M. OLDENBURG

    1999-07-29

    The S{sup 4}Z Model (''sub-site-scale saturated zone'') is a 3-D TOUGH2 model that was developed to study the saturated zone (SZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to aid in the design and analysis of hydrologic tests. Yucca Mountain is the proposed site for a nuclear waste repository for the United States. The model covers an area of approximately 100 km{sup 2} around Yucca Mountain, as shown in Figure 1. The proposed repository is located in the unsaturated zone, immediately above the area of equidimensional gridblocks east of Solitario Canyon fault, which defines the crest of Yucca Mountain. The finely discretized region near the center of the domain corresponds to the area near a cluster of boreholes used for hydraulic and tracer testing. This discretization facilitates simulation of tests conducted there. The hydrogeologic structure beneath the mountain is comprised of dipping geologic units of variable thickness which are offset by faults. One of the primary objectives of the S{sup 4}Z modeling effort is to study the potential effects of the faulted structure on flow. Therefore, replication of the geologic structure in the model mesh is necessary. This paper summarizes (1) the mesh discretization used to capture the faulted geologic structure, and (2) a model simulation that illustrates the significance of the geologic structure on SZ flow and the resulting macrodispersion.

  10. Social dominance in adult female mountain goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Fournier; Marco Festa-Bianchet

    1995-01-01

    The social behaviour of adult female mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, was studied for 2 years in an unhunted population in west-central Alberta, Canada. Compared with other female ungulates, mountain goat females interacted aggressively much more frequently and their dominance ranks were less stable in time and less age-related. Goats were organized in a non-linear but non-random dominance hierarchy, with many

  11. Integrated Ediacaran chronostratigraphy, Wernecke Mountains, northwestern Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leanne J. Pyle; Guy M. Narbonnea; Noel P. James; Robert W. Dalrymple; Alan J. Kaufman

    2004-01-01

    Terminal Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran, ca. 600-543 Ma) strata of the upper part of the Windermere Supergroup are well-exposed in the Mackenzie Mountains and the Wernecke Mountains of northwestern Canada. Windermere strata in the Mackenzie Moun- tains contain an exceptional Ediacaran biostratigraphic and isotopic (C and Sr) record, while the sequence stratigraphic record is subtle throughout this predominantly deep-water succession. Coeval strata

  12. Proterozoic Farwell Mountain Lester Mountain suture zone, northern Colorado: Subduction flip and progressive assembly of arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, A. R.; Morozova, E. A.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Dueker, K. R. Chamberlain S. B. Smithson K. G.; Foster, C. T.

    2002-10-01

    This paper considers the amalgamation of arc and oceanic terranes to be the main mechanism of ca. 1.8 1.6 Ga continental crustal growth in southwestern Laurentia. On the basis of geologic and seismic reflection data and teleseismic images, we propose the Farwell Mountain Lester Mountain suture zone as the northernmost Paleoproterozoic arc-arc suture. North-dipping (Farwell Mountain) seismic reflections project from 18 km depths to the surface and are interpreted to represent conjugate thrusting as the 1.79 1.77 Ga Green Mountain arc was partially underthrust beneath the Archean craton. We speculate that a north-dipping high-velocity mantle “slab” in the teleseismic image is a continuation of this thrust zone. South-dipping (Lester Mountain) reflections project from 22 km depths to the surface and are interpreted to be a thrust zone between the Green Mountain arc and the 1.76 1.72 Ga Rawah block. Surface features of the Farwell Mountain Lester Mountain suture zone are (1) marble, chert, rock with sillimanite pods, ultramafic rocks, sulfide deposits, and pillow basalts, which we interpret to be a dismembered accretionary complex; (2) an axial-planar fabric to north-verging isoclinal folds (F2), which we interpret to be part of a north-vergent fold-and-thrust system; and (3) a metamorphic break between ˜500 °C rocks to the north and ˜610 °C rocks to the south, which we attribute to reactivation of the zone. Movement on the Farwell Mountain backthrust is inferred to relate to Cheyenne belt suturing at 1.78 1.75 Ga. We correlate suturing in the Farwell Mountain Lester Mountain suture zone to S1/D1 (1.746 1.74 Ga) in the Soda Creek Fish Creek shear zone. We attribute the complexity of this broad suture zone to initial conjugate thrusting, plus overprinting and steepening of accretionary structures by subsequent tectonism.

  13. Commercial Fertilizers and Commercial Poisonous Insecticides.

    E-print Network

    Harrington, H. H. (Henry Hill)

    1903-01-01

    reg- ulating the sale of commercial fertilizers, the particular brand herein named, Stern's Amrnoniated 'Razo Bone Szbperfosfate, has the following composition : Total phosphoric acid. .................... .9.6 r per cent. Water sol... in sulphate of ammonia. The source of phosphoric acid is acid phos- phate, or as it is somztimes called, superphosphate, or bone llleal and steamed bones. Acid phosphate or superphosphate means an insolu- ble phosphate-whether a rock phosphate. a bone...

  14. Mountains and Plateaus on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These two views of Io were acquired by NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its seventh orbit (G7) of Jupiter. The images were designed to view large features on Io at low sun angles when the lighting conditions emphasize the topography or relief of the volcanic satellite. Sun angles are low near the terminator which is the day-night boundary near the left side of the images. These images reveal that the topography is very flat near the active volcanic centers such as Loki Patera (the large dark horseshoe-shaped feature near the terminator in the left-hand image) and that a variety of mountains and plateaus exist elsewhere.

    North is to the top of the picture. The resolution is about 6 kilometers per picture element (6.1 for the left hand image and 5.7 for the right). The images were taken on April 4th, 1997 at a ranges of 600,000 kilometers (left image) and 563,000 kilometers (right image) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  15. Mountain Waves Launched By Convective Activity Within The Boundary Layer Above Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Worthington

    2002-01-01

    Mountain waves are observed in the free atmosphere, even when the mountainboundary layer (the source region of these waves) is neutral or convectivelyunstable, and filled with convective rolls, revealed by cloud streets. This paperinvestigates if mountain waves are caused not simply by air flow over mountainridges, but also by flow over boundary-layer convective activity, similar toconvection waves above plains and

  16. 146 USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-34. 2004. Abstract--Limber pine and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine are currently threat-

    E-print Network

    , the focus expanded to impacts of the disease to the non-commercial whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm to sustain these ecosystems for future generations. Introduction Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and Rocky Mountain bristlecone (Pinus aristata Engelm.) are white pines (subgenus Strobus) yet limber pine

  17. Morphotectonic architecture of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank between the Royal Society Range and the Churchill Mountains based on geomorphic analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demyanick, Elizabeth; Wilson, Terry J.

    2007-01-01

    Extensional forces within the Antarctic Plate have produced the Transantarctic Mountains rift-flank uplift along the West Antarctic rift margin. Large-scale linear morphologic features within the mountains are controlled by bedrock structure and can be recognized and mapped from satellite imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs). This study employed the Antarctic Digital Database DEM to obtain slope steepness and aspect maps of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) between the Royal Society Range and the Churchill Mountains, allowing definition of the position and orientation of the morphological axis of the rift-flank. The TAM axis, interpreted as a fault-controlled escarpment formed by coast-parallel retreat, provides a marker for the orientation of the faulted boundary between the TAM and the rift system. Changes in position and orientation of the TAM axis suggests the rift flank is segmented into tectonic blocks bounded by relay ramps and transverse accommodation zones. The transverse boundaries coincide with major outlet glaciers, supporting interpretation of rift structures between them. The pronounced morphological change across Byrd Glacier points to control by structures inherited from the Ross orogen.

  18. CORROSION RELIABILITY PREDICTION: LONG TERM NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE IN YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    SciTech Connect

    G.S. Frankel; E. Tada; B. Maier

    2005-08-18

    The US. Department of Energy has proposed the disposal of high level nuclear waste from commercial and defense reactors in a mined geologic repository under Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The waste will be stored in metallic canisters. The barrier against corrosion will be an Alloy 22 canister and a Ti Grade 7 drip shield. Both of these materials are extremely corrosion resistant. The environment inside Yucca Mountain is relatively benign, but the long time period over which these materials must resist penetration makes corrosion a concern. This paper presents a background of the corrosion issues and shows some recent results regarding measurements of localized corrosion under thin aqueous layers and layers that simulate wet dust deposits.

  19. On Using CO2 Concentration Measurements at Mountain top and Valley Locations in Regional Flux Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wekker, S. F.; Song, G.; Stephens, B. B.

    2007-12-01

    Data from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON) are used to investigate atmospheric controls on temporal and spatial variability of CO2 in mountainous terrain and the usefulness of mountain top and valley measurement for the estimation of regional CO2 fluxes. Rocky RACCOON consists of four sites installed in fall of 2005 and spring of 2006: Niwot Ridge, near Ward, Colorado; Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, Colorado; Fraser Experimental Forest, near Fraser Colorado; and Hidden Peak, near Snowbird, Utah. The network uses the NCAR-developed Autonomous Inexpensive Robust CO2 Analyzer. These units measure CO2 concentrations at three levels on a tower, producing individual measurements every 2.5 minutes precise to 0.1 ppm CO2 and closely tied to the WMO CO2 scale. Three of the sites are located on a mountain top while one site is located in a valley. Initial analyses show interesting relationships between CO2 concentration and atmospheric parameters, such as wind speed and direction, temperature, and incoming solar radiation. The nature of these relationships is further investigated with an atmospheric mesoscale model. Idealized and realistic simulations are able to capture the observed behavior of spatial and temporal CO2 variability and reveal the responsible physical processes. The implications of the results and the value of the measurements for providing information on local to regional scale respiration and photosynthesis rates in the Rockies are discussed.

  20. Formation of Ice Eddies in Mountain Valleys of East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, C. R.; Creyts, T. T.; Rice, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Observations show complex structures deep in ice sheets. Folds and accretion ice have been reported for both Greenland and Antarctica. Mismatched stratigraphy in the nearby GRIP and GISP2 cores in Greenland as well as overturning in the NEEM ice core suggest variable behavior within the ice sheet. Furthermore, ice penetrating radar data taken across both ice sheets shows folding at scales up to half the ice thickness. Because individual strata can be traced through the folds, it is clear that ice flow dynamics play an important role. Here we consider the possible formation of recirculation eddies in subglacial mountain valleys. Modeling the ice as a creeping homogeneous power-law shear-thinning viscous fluid, recirculation eddies are shown to form in valleys when the angle of the wall is steep enough that fluid inside the valley cannot return to the main flow. This is analogous to Moffatt eddies for a Newtonian viscous fluid. Using a no-slip boundary condition at the valley wall, ice can recirculate in these valleys indefinitely. We examine eddies in the basal ice using theory and simulations based on topography of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in central East Antarctica. The Gamburtsevs are a large mountain range (~750km×250km) with steep relief typical of an alpine glacier system. Analytic results point to a necessary critical angle, and for a power-law shear-thinning fluid such as ice, these eddies occur at lower angles than in a Newtonian viscous fluid. We further develop metrics for determining valleys that are likely to contain eddies based on flow velocity and the total relief of the valley. Our simulations show that in some valleys eddies of order one hundred meters form. We then compare our simulations to radar observations to show potential for near-bed stratigraphic disturbances.

  1. Bryozoa of the Murdock Mountain formation (Wordian, Permian), Leach Mountains, northeastern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmour, E.H.; McColloch, M.E.; Wardlaw, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    A thin limestone tongue in the upper part of the Murdock Mountain Formation of northeastern Nevada contains abundant bryozoans of earliest Wordian age. This bryozoan fauna is close to the Kungurian-Kazanian boundary in Russia. These bryozoans are younger than those found in the Kaibab Formation of southern Nevada and slightly older than those in the Gerster Limestone of northern Nevada. This limestone tongue, herein referred to as the Stenodiscus beds, lies below the Thamnosia beds described by Wardlaw in the Murdock Mountain section of the Leach Mountains. This bryozoan-rich limestone tongue serves as a marker unit for mapping the Murdock Formation in the Leach Mountains. Nine new species of bryozoans occur in the Stenodiscus beds of the Murdock Mountain Formation: Hinganella felderi, Neoeridotrypella schilti, Stenopora parvaexozona, Stenodiscus murdockensis, Dyscritella acanthostylia, Pseudobatostomella irregularis. Streblotrypa (Streblotrypa) elongata, Morozoviella praecurriensis, and Thamniscus erraticus, Hinganella felderi, Neoeridotrypella schilti, Dyscritella acanthostylia, and Streblotrypa (Streblotrypa) elongata are very similar to species described from Russia.

  2. Aerogel commercialization pilot project. Final program report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-13

    Aerogels are extremely light weight, high surface area, very insulative materials that offer many potential improvements to commercial products. Aerogels have been the subject of extensive research at Department of Energy Laboratories and have been considered one of the technology most ready for commercialization. However, commercialization of the technology had been difficult for the National Laboratories since end users were not interested in the high temperature and high pressure chemical processes involved in manufacturing the raw material. Whereas, Aerojet as a supplier of rocket fuels, specialty chemicals and materials had the manufacturing facilities and experience to commercially produce aerogel-type products. Hence the TRP provided a link between the technology source (National Laboratories), the manufacturing (Aerojet) and the potential end users (other TRP partners). The program successfully produced approximately 500 ft{sup 2} of organic aerogel but failed to make significant quantities of silica aerogel. It is significant that this production represents both the largest volume and biggest pieces of organic aerogel ever produced. Aerogels, available from this program, when tested in several prototype commercial products were expected to improve the products performance, but higher than expected projected production costs for large scale manufacture of aerogels has limited continued commercial interest from these partners. Aerogels do, however, offer potential as a specialty material for some high value technology and defense products.

  3. Comparing Commercial WWW Browsers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1995-01-01

    Four commercial World Wide Web browsers are evaluated for features such as handling of WWW protocols and different URLs: FTP, Telnet, Gopher and WAIS, and e-mail and news; bookmark capabilities; navigation features; file management; and security support. (JKP)

  4. Rocky Mountain snowpack chemistry network; history, methods, and the importance of monitoring mountain ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, George P.; Turk, John T.; Mast, M. Alisa; Clow, David W.; Campbell, Donald H.; Bailey, Zelda C.

    2002-01-01

    Because regional-scale atmospheric deposition data in the Rocky Mountains are sparse, a program was designed by the U.S. Geological Survey to more thoroughly determine the quality of precipitation and to identify sources of atmospherically deposited pollution in a network of high-elevation sites. Depth-integrated samples of seasonal snowpacks at 52 sampling sites, in a network from New Mexico to Montana, were collected and analyzed each year since 1993. The results of the first 5 years (1993?97) of the program are discussed in this report. Spatial patterns in regional data have emerged from the geographically distributed chemical concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate that clearly indicate that concentrations of these acid precursors in less developed areas of the region are lower than concentrations in the heavily developed areas. Snowpacks in northern Colorado that lie adjacent to both the highly developed Denver metropolitan area to the east and coal-fired powerplants to the west had the highest overall concentrations of nitrate and sulfate in the network. Ammonium concentrations were highest in northwestern Wyoming and southern Montana.

  5. Commercial Actors Stage Strike

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Missner, Emily D.

    On May 1, 2000, 75,000 members of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists staged a walk-out in protest of advertisers's proposed changes to the ways in which actors get paid for work in commercials. According to the current pay scheme, principle on-screen actors appearing in network commercials earn $479 in base pay as well as a residual payment ranging from $47 to $123. Over a standard thirteen-week run, actors earn an average of $13,000 per commercial. However, actors in cable commercials make a flat fee of $479 to $1,014 for the same thirteen-week run. SAG and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists are demanding a fourteen percent pay raise for both types of commercials. However, the advertisers would like to pay the actors only $2,575 for an unlimited thirteen-week network run. While this amount may seem like a lot of money, the average income for members of the SAG members is only $7000 a year, reflecting the possibility that actors may only appear in one or two commercials a year. This is the first major strike in the entertainment industry since 1988.

  6. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.

    Size: 28.7 x 29.4 km (17.8 x 18.2 miles) Location: 29.4 deg. North lat., 8.9 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 4,6 and 8. Original Data Resolution: 30 m Date Acquired: June 13, 2001

  7. Estimating recharge at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, A.; Flint, L.; Kwicklis, E.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2001-05-13

    Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for arid environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 mm/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than 1 to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface.

  8. Estimating recharge at yucca mountain, nevada, usa: comparison of methods

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Kwicklis, E. M.; Fabryka-Martin, J. T.; Bodvarsson, G. S.

    2001-11-01

    Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for and environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 nun/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than I to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface. [References: 57

  9. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional economy are quite scarce. There is, therefore, a real need to fill the gap of empirical data on the social-economical impacts of geotourism, and on the relationship between the geotourist products developed by the scientific community and the expectations of the public and the tourist sector. The collaboration with social scientists (economists, sociologists) will help to fulfill this objective. - Environmental education: During the last years, a lot of work has been done on the assessment of geoheritage and the selection of sites worthy of promotion and/or protection but few attempts have addressed the question of using geoheritage to communicate on more general issues such as the dynamics and sensitivity of mountain environments or the impacts of climate change on mountain areas. It is, therefore, necessary to develop communication and learning methods - in particular by using new communication technologies - to improve environmental education based on geoheritage site promotion for several kinds of publics, in particular tourists (to improve their awareness of the sensitivity of mountain environments) and scholars. These three research objectives will be fulfilled by the development of common research, in particular cross-border case studies, and by the elaboration of specific courses for Ph.D. and master students. Collaboration with existing mountain networks (scientific, nature parks, etc.) is expected.

  10. Precipitation interpolation in mountainous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolberg, Sjur

    2015-04-01

    Different precipitation interpolation techniques as well as external drift covariates are tested and compared in a 26000 km2 mountainous area in Norway, using daily data from 60 stations. The main method of assessment is cross-validation. Annual precipitation in the area varies from below 500 mm to more than 2000 mm. The data were corrected for wind-driven undercatch according to operational standards. While temporal evaluation produce seemingly acceptable at-station correlation values (on average around 0.6), the average daily spatial correlation is less than 0.1. Penalising also bias, Nash-Sutcliffe R2 values are negative for spatial correspondence, and around 0.15 for temporal. Despite largely violated assumptions, plain Kriging produces better results than simple inverse distance weighting. More surprisingly, the presumably 'worst-case' benchmark of no interpolation at all, simply averaging all 60 stations for each day, actually outperformed the standard interpolation techniques. For logistic reasons, high altitudes are under-represented in the gauge network. The possible effect of this was investigated by a) fitting a precipitation lapse rate as an external drift, and b) applying a linear model of orographic enhancement (Smith and Barstad, 2004). These techniques improved the results only marginally. The gauge density in the region is one for each 433 km2; higher than the overall density of the Norwegian national network. Admittedly the cross-validation technique reduces the gauge density, still the results suggest that we are far from able to provide hydrological models with adequate data for the main driving force.

  11. BVOC fluxes above mountain grassland

    PubMed Central

    Bamberger, I.; Hortnagl, L.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Graus, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Muller, M.; Dunkl, J.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Hansel, A.

    2013-01-01

    Grasslands comprise natural tropical savannah over managed temperate fields to tundra and cover one quarter of the Earth’s land surface. Plant growth, maintenance and decay result in volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions to the atmosphere. Furthermore, biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) are emitted as a consequence of various environmental stresses including cutting and drying during harvesting. Fluxes of BVOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS) over temperate mountain grassland in Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria) over one growing season (2008). VOC fluxes were calculated from the disjunct PTR-MS data using the virtual disjunct eddy covariance method and the gap filling method. Methanol fluxes obtained with the two independent flux calculation methods were highly correlated (y = 0.95×?0.12, R2 = 0.92). Methanol showed strong daytime emissions throughout the growing season – with maximal values of 9.7 nmol m?2 s?1, methanol fluxes from the growing grassland were considerably higher at the beginning of the growing season in June compared to those measured during October (2.5 nmol m?2 s?1). Methanol was the only component that exhibited consistent fluxes during the entire growing periods of the grass. The cutting and drying of the grass increased the emissions of methanol to up to 78.4 nmol m?2 s?1. In addition, emissions of acetaldehyde (up to 11.0 nmol m?2 s?1), and hexenal (leaf aldehyde, up to 8.6 nmol m?2 s?1) were detected during/after harvesting. PMID:24339833

  12. Mountains on Titan observed by Cassini Radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radebaugh, J.; Lorenz, R.D.; Kirk, R.L.; Lunine, J.I.; Stofan, E.R.; Lopes, R.M.C.; Wall, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar mapper has observed elevated blocks and ridge-forming block chains on Saturn's moon Titan demonstrating high topography we term "mountains." Summit flanks measured from the T3 (February 2005) and T8 (October 2005) flybys have a mean maximum slope of 37?? and total elevations up to 1930 m as derived from a shape-from-shading model corrected for the probable effects of image resolution. Mountain peak morphologies and surrounding, diffuse blankets give evidence that erosion has acted upon these features, perhaps in the form of fluvial runoff. Possible formation mechanisms for these mountains include crustal compressional tectonism and upthrusting of blocks, extensional tectonism and formation of horst-and-graben, deposition as blocks of impact ejecta, or dissection and erosion of a preexisting layer of material. All above processes may be at work, given the diversity of geology evident across Titan's surface. Comparisons of mountain and blanket volumes and erosion rate estimates for Titan provide a typical mountain age as young as 20-100 million years. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mountains on Titan observed by Cassini Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radebaugh, Jani; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Stofan, Ellen R.; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Wall, Stephen D.; the Cassini Radar Team

    2007-12-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar mapper has observed elevated blocks and ridge-forming block chains on Saturn's moon Titan demonstrating high topography we term "mountains." Summit flanks measured from the T3 (February 2005) and T8 (October 2005) flybys have a mean maximum slope of 37° and total elevations up to 1930 m as derived from a shape-from-shading model corrected for the probable effects of image resolution. Mountain peak morphologies and surrounding, diffuse blankets give evidence that erosion has acted upon these features, perhaps in the form of fluvial runoff. Possible formation mechanisms for these mountains include crustal compressional tectonism and upthrusting of blocks, extensional tectonism and formation of horst-and-graben, deposition as blocks of impact ejecta, or dissection and erosion of a preexisting layer of material. All above processes may be at work, given the diversity of geology evident across Titan's surface. Comparisons of mountain and blanket volumes and erosion rate estimates for Titan provide a typical mountain age as young as 20-100 million years.

  14. Atmospheric deposition maps for the Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nanus, L.; Campbell, D.H.; Ingersoll, G.P.; Clow, D.W.; Mast, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Variability in atmospheric deposition across the Rocky Mountains is influenced by elevation, slope, aspect, and precipitation amount and by regional and local sources of air pollution. To improve estimates of deposition in mountainous regions, maps of average annual atmospheric deposition loadings of nitrate, sulfate, and acidity were developed for the Rocky Mountains by using spatial statistics. A parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) was incorporated to account for variations in precipitation amount over mountainous regions. Chemical data were obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and from annual snowpack surveys conducted by the US Geological Survey and National Park Service, in cooperation with other Federal, State and local agencies. Surface concentration maps were created by ordinary kriging in a geographic information system, using a local trend and mathematical model to estimate the spatial variance. Atmospheric-deposition maps were constructed at 1-km resolution by multiplying surface concentrations from the kriged grid and estimates of precipitation amount from the PRISM model. Maps indicate an increasing spatial trend in concentration and deposition of the modeled constituents, particularly nitrate and sulfate, from north to south throughout the Rocky Mountains and identify hot-spots of atmospheric deposition that result from combined local and regional sources of air pollution. Highest nitrate (2.5-3.0kg/ha N) and sulfate (10.0-12.0kg/ha SO4) deposition is found in northern Colorado.

  15. Mountain chickadees from different elevations sing different songs: acoustic adaptation, temporal drift or signal of local adaptation?

    PubMed

    Branch, Carrie L; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2015-04-01

    Song in songbirds is widely thought to function in mate choice and male-male competition. Song is also phenotypically plastic and typically learned from local adults; therefore, it varies across geographical space and can serve as a cue for an individual's location of origin, with females commonly preferring males from their respective location. Geographical variation in song dialect may reflect acoustic adaptation to different environments and/or serve as a signal of local adaptation. In montane environments, environmental differences can occur over an elevation gradient, favouring local adaptations across small spatial scales. We tested whether food caching mountain chickadees, known to exhibit elevation-related differences in food caching intensity, spatial memory and the hippocampus, also sing different dialects despite continuous distribution and close proximity. Male songs were collected from high and low elevations at two different mountains (separated by 35 km) to test whether song differs between elevations and/or between adjacent populations at each mountain. Song structure varied significantly between high and low elevation adjacent populations from the same mountain and between populations from different mountains at the same elevations, despite a continuous distribution across each mountain slope. These results suggest that elevation-related differences in song structure in chickadees might serve as a signal for local adaptation. PMID:26064641

  16. Mountain chickadees from different elevations sing different songs: acoustic adaptation, temporal drift or signal of local adaptation?

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Carrie L.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

    2015-01-01

    Song in songbirds is widely thought to function in mate choice and male–male competition. Song is also phenotypically plastic and typically learned from local adults; therefore, it varies across geographical space and can serve as a cue for an individual's location of origin, with females commonly preferring males from their respective location. Geographical variation in song dialect may reflect acoustic adaptation to different environments and/or serve as a signal of local adaptation. In montane environments, environmental differences can occur over an elevation gradient, favouring local adaptations across small spatial scales. We tested whether food caching mountain chickadees, known to exhibit elevation-related differences in food caching intensity, spatial memory and the hippocampus, also sing different dialects despite continuous distribution and close proximity. Male songs were collected from high and low elevations at two different mountains (separated by 35 km) to test whether song differs between elevations and/or between adjacent populations at each mountain. Song structure varied significantly between high and low elevation adjacent populations from the same mountain and between populations from different mountains at the same elevations, despite a continuous distribution across each mountain slope. These results suggest that elevation-related differences in song structure in chickadees might serve as a signal for local adaptation.

  17. Sea level rise Contribution from High Mountain Asia by 20150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liyun; Moore, John; Ding, Ran

    2015-04-01

    We estimate individual area and volume change by 2050 of all 83,460 glaciers of high mountain Asia (HMA), with a total area of 118,263 km2, delineated in the Randolph Glacier Inventory version 4.0 which separates glacier complexes in its previous version into individual glaciers. We used the 25 km resolution regional climate model RegCM 3.0 temperature and precipitation change projections forced by the IPCC A1B scenario. Glacier simulations were based on a novel surface mass balance-altitude parameterization fitted to observational data, and various volume-area scaling approaches using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission surface topography of each individual glacier. We generate mass balance-altitude relations for all the glaciers by region using nearest available glacier measurements. Two method are used to model the Equilibrium line altitude (ELA) variation. One is to use ELA sensitivities to temperature and precipitation change vary by region based on the relative importance of sublimation and melting processes. The other is solved ELA implicitly for every year using the temperature at ELA and Degree Day model. We project total glacier area loss in high mountain Asia in 2050 to be 22% of their extent in 2000, and they will contribute 5-8 mm to global sea level rise.

  18. LES simulation of synoptic, mechanic-forcing, and thermally-driven flow interaction of Granite Mountain, UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Knievel, J. C.; Pace, J.; Zajic, D.; De Wekker, S.

    2013-12-01

    The NCAR-ATEC (National Center for Atmospheric Research and Army test and Evaluation Command) RTFDDA-LES (real-time four-dimensional data assimilation and LES simulation) model was employed to study multi-scale flow interactions at Granite Mountain and its surrounding areas. Granite Mountain is a locally erected mountain peak with an area of ~6x10 km2 located in the US Army Dugway Providing Ground, UT. The mountain sits in the midwest inter-mountains, but is surrounded by relatively flat terrain nearby. The Granite Peak is about 700m above the surrounding flat terrain. It significantly affects the flows in the DPG test area and often greatly impacts on the DPG test activities. The area has been selected by mountain terrain atmospheric modeling and observations (MATERHORN) program as a test bed for improving Meteorological Modeling in Mountain Terrain. In this paper, RTFDDA-LES was employed to study the multiple-scale flow interaction of synoptic, mechanic forcing, and thermally driven flows of Granite Mountain. Six nested-grid domains with grid sizes of 8100, 2700, 900, 300, 100, and 33m, respectively, were configured and a 48h simulation was carried out simultaneously on the six nested grids for a two-day period during Spring 2012. The data assimilation of RTFDDA was turned on for the mesoscale domains (1, 2 and 3), while the LES domains (4, 5 and 6) were run with 'free forecasting'. The mesoscale data assimilation on the coarse meshes provide realistic mesoscale forcing for the LES simulation, so that the model outputs of the LES domains can be reasonably verified using high-resolution (every 1 - 5 minutes) measurements of DPG surface stations and multi-level met-tower in the vicinity of Granite Mountain. The model successfully simulates the overall flow evolutions during the two-day period and also many features of microscale flows for different time periods of the day (with different thermally-forcing and boundary layer stability) and under varying larger-scale driven weather (with different wind speed, direction, and vertical shear). The encouraging verification results show that RTFDDA-LES model is capable for future microscale NWP operation. A real time RTFDDA-VLES modeling system has been implemented at DPG for assessment and experimental operational use. Comparison of the model results on different domains apparently indicates the advantage and greater value of the simulation on the intermediate domains (Dom 4 and 5, at very large eddy simulation (VLES) scales) over the coarse-resolution domains (1, 2 and 3).

  19. Mapping Ground Temperature and Radiant Hydrothermal Heat Flux on Mammoth Mountain, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, A. J.; Lewicki, J. L.; Hilley, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal variability of ground temperatures and hydrothermal heat fluxes in volcanic and geothermal systems is important for monitoring volcanic activity, monitoring the impacts of geothermal development, and assessing resources. We used ground based thermal infrared (TIR) imaging combined with Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry to produce high-resolution (cm scale) DEMs over which images of ground temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux were draped. We apply this methodology to two hydrothermal areas (Mammoth Mountain and South Side fumaroles) on Mammoth Mountain, CA, allowing us to image the detailed topography, map the thermal features at each area and assess the spatial relationships between the two efficiently and at high resolution. Mammoth Mountain is a lava-dome complex located on the southwestern rim of Long Valley caldera, CA. Unrest at Mammoth Mountain is currently manifested by seismic swarms, ground deformation, elevated 3He/4He ratios in gases at the Mammoth Mountain fumarole, and large changes in diffuse magmatic CO2 emissions from the five tree kill areas on the volcano flanks. We augment the extensive dataset collected at this site over the previous decades by quantifying ground temperatures and hydrothermal heat fluxes at the Mammoth Mountain and South Side fumarole sites. This was accomplished using a hand-held FLIR T650sc camera that simultaneously acquires visible and TIR images of the study site. Daytime and nighttime co-located visible and TIR images were acquired over each study area, and image processing was used to orthorectify and mosaic visible and TIR images, calculate radiant hydrothermal heat fluxes, construct 3D imagery of ground surface, overlay maps of ground temperatures and heat fluxes, and establish spatial relationships between topography and heat flow.

  20. Characterization of Differently Managed Mountainous Ecosystems in Complex Terrains Using Stable C, O and N Isotopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegwolf, R. T.; Eugster, W.; Bahn, M.; Saurer, M.; Buchmann, N.

    2008-12-01

    Mountain regions are recognized for their sensitivity with respect to land use, climate change and air pollution. The Alpine regions in Europe are not only covered with a vulnerable vegetation cover (forests and agricultural grasslands) but provide a living for a minor but considerable part of the European population. Besides important transit routes between the North and South of Europe the central alpine mountainous regions are the source of more than 90% of Europe's fresh water. On-going socio-economic changes have particular effects on land use in mountain areas. The consequences of the abandonment of mountainous agriculture range from re-invasions of forest growths to near irreversible soil erosions, which can only be stopped with labor intensive and large financial investments. Besides studying the effects of land use change the ongoing climate change represent another challenge. To understand the ecological implications of the rapidly changing and heterogeneous ecosystem numerous research activities on the structure and functioning were and are still carried out. The alterations of the magnitudes of the sources, sinks and carbon fluxes in differently managed mountainous grassland and forest ecosystems are assessed. Based on results of past and ongoing studies in mountain ecosystems on different scales various approaches to assess water and carbon relations are discussed (from Eddy flux to chamber measurements). Stable isotopes are used to analyze the different fluxes of the essential ecosystem compartments. Starting with the characterization of soil efflux measurements in pulse labeling experiments the application of isotopes for the estimation of the partial fluxes of the Net Ecosystem Exchange is evaluated. The integrative features of C and O isotopes in organic material are shown in characterizing the differences in grasslands, subject to various land use changes. As land use changes alter the micro-climate of the grasslands this is reflected in the C and O isotopic signature of the plants. The potential for the characterization of the ecosystem changes from this stored information is demonstrated.

  1. Supporting Commercial Space Development Supporting Commercial Space Development

    E-print Network

    Supporting Commercial Space Development Part 1 Supporting Commercial Space Development Part 1 Commercial Space Development Part 1: Support Alternatives versus Investor Risk Perceptions & Tolerances Administration or the United States Government. 1 of 228 #12;Supporting Commercial Space Development Part 1 "When

  2. Dynamic processes in the mountain catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonova, Tatiana; Arakelian, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    The process of the river cftchment foundation and the mechanisms being in the basis of its development are not clear at present. Principal phenomena determining the dynamics of formation of the river catchment are under our study in this paper for the case of the mountain basin as an example. The methodology of this monitoring includes the space image recognition and computer data processing of the images for the Maliy Caucasus Mountains. Mountain river catchment formation on the slope of the ridge can be considered as a self-organizing staged process of its evolution passing through several non-equilibrium but steady-state conditions. We consider a system of tributaries in the mountain river catchment as a system of cracks, which are formed on the slope of the mountain massif. In other words, the formation of river networks should be the result of development of several processes, among of which the mechanisms of crack development should play a dominant role. The principal results, discussed in the present report, can be formulated as follow. (1) The mountain catchment (litho-watershed) formation takes place under conditions of the confined states of a mountain massif: on the one hand it is bounded by the surface of the slope; but on the other hand, - by a primary cracks density occurrence (as a spatial distribution 3D-crack net). (2) The development in time of the river catchment takes place by several stages. Each stage specifies a definite energetic state of the system in the mountain massif. (3) The overhead river streams arise not only due to surface water, but and namely due to rising of water from underground water horizons over the watercourse cracks penetrating deeply into the underground. (4) The 3D-river catchment structure results in concept in behavior of the unit as an open nonlinear dynamic system with a spatially distributed feedback. The energetic (endogen) processes of formation, rising and bifurcation for cracks are the consequence of relaxation of tension accumulating into of the mountain materials, and result in specific geometrical image of the river stream system. Exogenic processes of depression have a secondary meaning and take part in organization of the relief picture inside of the basin. Geological peculiarities, concrete physic-chemical properties of the mountain massive and different external factors are overlapped on indicated primary processes, and such complicated picture establishes the morphology of the catchment in general. The conclusion is, the mountain river catchment is the vertical geosystem with the predominantly descending fluxes of substances . Its development in time results in interrelated processes of mountainous massif destruction and, as to direction of the river's channel fracturing growth, the process is going up over the slope. The water balance in such a 3D -system should take into account both surface water and groundwater.

  3. 8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SHAFT AND PUMP IN COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT PUMPHOUSES. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. 10. ELECTRICAL SWITCHING STATION FOR IRON MOUNTAIN BRINGS ELECTRICITY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. ELECTRICAL SWITCHING STATION FOR IRON MOUNTAIN BRINGS ELECTRICITY FROM HOOVER DAM COMPLEX. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. Overprinting Deformations in Mantle Rocks, Dun Mountain, New Zealand 

    E-print Network

    Donnelly, Sara

    2014-04-25

    Dun Mountain is the northern-most ultramafic massif of the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt, South Island, New Zealand, and is the type-locale of dunite. The dunites that are preserved at this location provide an opportunity ...

  6. 6. VIEW OF ROCKLINED SPILLWAY, LOOKING WEST High Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF ROCK-LINED SPILLWAY, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Drift Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  7. 4. VIEW SHOWING ROCKLINED SPILLWAY, LOOKING NORTHWEST High Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING ROCK-LINED SPILLWAY, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upaco Unit, Superior Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 12.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  8. 7. VIEW OF SPILLWAY CHANNEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST High Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF SPILLWAY CHANNEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Milk Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 9.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  9. MOUNTAIN WEATHER PREDICTION: PHENOMENOLOGICAL CHALLENGES AND FORECAST METHODOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Steenburgh, Jim

    MOUNTAIN WEATHER PREDICTION: PHENOMENOLOGICAL CHALLENGES AND FORECAST METHODOLOGY Michael P. Meyers NOAA/National Weather Service, Grand Junction, Colorado and W. James Steenburgh Department of the American Meteorological Society Mountain Weather and Forecasting Monograph Draft from Friday, May 21, 2010

  10. Global Measurements of Stratospheric Mountain Waves from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckermann, Stephen D.; Preusse, Peter; Jackman, Charles H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Temperatures acquired by the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) during shuttle mission STS-66 have provided measurements of stratospheric mountain waves from space. Large-amplitude, long-wavelength mountain waves at heights of 15 to 30 kilometers above the southern Andes Mountains were observed and characterized, with vigorous wave breaking inferred above 30 kilometers. Mountain waves also occurred throughout the stratosphere (15 to 45 kilometers) over a broad mountainous region of central Eurasia. The global distribution of mountain wave activity accords well with predictions from a mountain wave model. The findings demonstrate that satellites can provide the global data needed to improve mountain wave parameterizations and hence global climate and forecast models.

  11. 192. View of the Richland Balsam Mountain Overlook. This is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    192. View of the Richland Balsam Mountain Overlook. This is the highest elevation, 6,047, on the Blue Ridge Parkway. Looking west-northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  12. 8. VIEW OF SPILLWAY CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST High Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SPILLWAY CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Bluebell Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.2 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  13. SNOWSHOE HARE (LEPUS AMERICANUS) AND MOUNTAIN COTTONTAIL (SYLVILAGUS NUTTALLII) BIOGEOGRAPHY

    E-print Network

    SNOWSHOE HARE (LEPUS AMERICANUS) AND MOUNTAIN COTTONTAIL (SYLVILAGUS NUTTALLII) BIOGEOGRAPHY, USA (JLM) We surveyed snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) and mountain cottontail (Sylvilagus nuttallii, snowshoe hare, Sylvilagus nuttallii The snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) has the largest geographic range

  14. 14. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with single tree. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with single tree. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. 18. View of fields, mountains and mist in Cades Cove ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of fields, mountains and mist in Cades Cove looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  17. 13. Cades Cove Road, with barbed wire fence and mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Cades Cove Road, with barbed wire fence and mountain view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX FAIRFIELD WORKS (TOP LEFT) WITH WENONAH SINTERING PLANT (BOTTOM CENTER) AND WENONAH COMMUNITY (CENTER RIGHT). - High Line Railroad, From Red Mountain to Fairfield Works, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. Coupled In-Rock and In-Drift Hydrothermal Model Stuudy For Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    G. Danko; J. Birkholzer; D. Bahrami

    2006-12-18

    A thermal-hydrologic-natural-ventilation model is configured for simulating temperature, humidity, and condensate distributions in the coupled domains of the in-drift airspace and the near-field rockmass in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. The multi-physics problem is solved with MULTIFLUX in which a lumped-parameter computational fluid dynamics model is iterated with TOUGH2. The solution includes natural convection, conduction, and radiation for heat as well as moisture convection and diffusion for moisture transport with half waste package scale details in the drift, and mountain-scale heat and moisture transport in the porous and fractured rock-mass. The method provides fast convergence on a personal computer computational platform. Numerical examples and comparison with a TOUGH2 based, integrated model are presented.

  20. The oldest known Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunstein, F.C.; Yamaguchi, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines >1600 yr old, including four that are >2100 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the S Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 BC. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr. -from Authors

  1. A Mountain Clustering Based on Improved PSO Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-yuan Shen; Xiao-qi Peng; Jun-nian Wang; Zhi-kun Hu

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a In order to find most centre of the density of the sample set this paper combines MCA and PSO, and presents a mountain clustering\\u000a based on improved PSO (MCBIPSO) algorithm. A mountain clustering method constructs a mountain function according to the density\\u000a of the sample, but it is not easy to find all peaks of the mountain function. The improved

  2. Nuclear waste disposal: Gambling on Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, S.

    1995-05-01

    This document describes the historical aspects of nuclear energy ,nuclear weapons usage, and development of the nuclear bureaucracy in the United States, and discusses the selection and siting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a federal nuclear waste repository. Litigation regarding the site selection and resulting battles in the political arena and in the Nevada State Legislature are also presented. Alternative radioactive waste disposal options, risk assessments of the Yucca Mountain site, and logistics regarding the transportation and storage of nuclear waste are also presented. This document also contains an extensive bibliography.

  3. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  4. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John

    2012-11-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  5. Fission track age of Transantarctic Mountain microtektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folco, L.; Bigazzi, G.; D'Orazio, M.; Balestrieri, M. L.

    2011-05-01

    We determined the fission track age of Transantarctic Mountain microtektites. The plateau method yielded a formation age of 0.85 ± 0.17 Ma. This age overlaps within error with that of the catastrophic impact that produced the Australasian tektite-microtektite strewn field ca. 0.8 Ma ago. This provides further evidence that Transantarctic Mountain microtektites belong to the Australasian tektite-microtektite strewn field, as previously suggested on the basis of geochemical evidence, Sr-Nd isotope systematics and poorly resolved radiometric data.

  6. Mechanical anisotropy of the Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boyd, P.J.; Martin, R.J.; Haupt, R.W.; Noel, J.S. [New England Research Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Three series of measurements were performed on oriented cores of several Yucca Mountain tuffs to determine the importance of mechanical anisotropy in the intact rock. Outcrop and drillhole samples were tested for acoustic velocities, linear compressibilities, and strengths in different orientations. The present data sets are preliminary, but suggest the tuffs are transversely anisotropic for these mechanical properties. The planar fabric that produces the anisotropy is believed to be predominantly the result of the preferred orientation of shards and pumice fragments. The potential of significant anisotropy has direct relevance to the formulation of constitutive formulation and the analyses of an underground opening within the Yucca Mountain.

  7. Commercial Space Activities at Goddard

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Commercial Space Activities at Goddard Space Flight Center Chris Scolese Director, Goddard Space Flight Center #12;Commercial Space at Goddard · Goddard has been involved in Commercial Space for over 30, or the launch vehicle. ­ Rapid Spacecraft Development Office ­ Commercial Utilization of Integration & Test

  8. Space Station Freedom commercial infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barquinero, Kevin; Cassidy, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    NASA policy concerning the commercial infrastructure of the Space Station is examined. Plans for receiving and evaluating unsolicited proposals to provide commercial infrastructure are outlined. The guidelines for development of the commercial infrastructure and examples of opportunities for industry are listed. Also, a program for industry feedback concerning the commercial infrastructure policy is discussed.

  9. Run-off regime of the small rivers in mountain landscapes (on an example of the mountain "Mongun-taiga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryahina, G.; Zelepukina, E.; Guzel, N.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrological characteristics calculations of the small mountain rivers in the basins with glaciers frequently cause complexity in connection with absence of standard hydrological supervision within remote mountain territories. The unique way of the actual information reception on a water mode of such rivers is field work. The rivers of the mountain Mongun-taiga located on a joint of Altai and Sayan mountains became hydrological researches objects of Russian geographical society complex expeditions in 2010-2011. The Mongun-taiga cluster of international biosphere reserve "Ubsunurskaya hollow" causes heightened interest of researchers — geographers for many years. The original landscape map in scale 1:100000 has been made, hydrological supervision on the rivers East Mugur and ugur, belonging inland basin of Internal Asia are lead. Supervision over the river drain East Mugur runoff were spent in profile of glacier tongue (the freezing area - 22 % (3.2 km2) from the reception basin) and in the closing alignment of the river located on distance of 3,4 km below tongue of glacier. During researches following results have been received. During the ablation period diurnal fluctuations with a strongly shown maximum and minimum of water discharges are typically for the small rivers with considerable share of a glacial food. The run-off maximum from the glacier takes place from 2 to 7 p.m., the run-off minimum is observed early in the morning. High speed of thawed snow running-off from glacier tongue and rather small volume of dynamic stocks water on an ice surface lead to growth of water discharge. In the bottom profile the time of maximum and minimum of water discharge is displaced on the average 2 hours, it depends of the water travel time. Maximum glacial run-off discharge (1.12 m3/s) in the upper profile was registered on July 16 (it was not rain). Volumes of daily runoff in the upper and bottom profiles were 60700-67600 m3 that day. The run-off from nonglacial part of the basin is formed by underground waters and melting snowfields, during the absence of rainfall period the part of one amounted to 10% of the run-off in the lower profile. We suggest that this water discharge corresponds to base flow value in the lower profile because the area of snowfields of the basin was < 0.1 km2 that year. Run-off monitoring has showed that rivers with a small glacial food are characterized by absence of diurnal balance of runoff. During rainfall the water content of river has being increased due to substantial derivation of basin and, as a result, fast flowing rain water into bed of river. The sharp decrease in water content of river during periods of rainfall absence indicates low inventory of soil and groundwater and the low rate of glacial. Thus, glaciers and character of the relief influence the formation of run-off small mountain rivers. Results of researches will be used for mathematical modeling mountain rivers run-off.

  10. Noble gas isotopes and mineral assemblages of Antarctic micrometeorites collected at the meteorite ice field around the Yamato mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahito Osawa; Tomoki Nakamura; Keisuke Nagao

    2003-01-01

    From November 1998 to January 1999, the 39th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) conducted a large-scale micrometeorite collection at 3 areas in the meteorite ice field around the Yamato Mountains, Antarctica. The Antarctic micrometeorites (AMMs) collected were ancient cosmic dust particles. This is in contrast with the Dome Fuji AMMs, which were collected previously from fresh snows in 1996 and

  11. Age structure of Juniperus communis L. in the Iberian peninsula: Conservation of remnant populations in Mediterranean mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Garcia; Regino Zamora

    We examined the demographic structure of Juniperus communis L. populations in the Mediterranean high mountains of southern Spain in order to analyse its population viability. For this, we compared the age structure of these Mediterranean populations with those of northern Spain (Atlantic), and, on a local scale, the populations of diÄerent habitats within the Sierra Nevada. The populations from northern

  12. Age structure of Juniperus communis L. in the Iberian peninsula: Conservation of remnant populations in Mediterranean mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Garc??a; Regino Zamora; José A Hódar; José M Gómez

    1999-01-01

    We examined the demographic structure of Juniperus communis L. populations in the Mediterranean high mountains of southern Spain in order to analyse its population viability. For this, we compared the age structure of these Mediterranean populations with those of northern Spain (Atlantic), and, on a local scale, the populations of different habitats within the Sierra Nevada. The populations from northern

  13. The parable of Green Mountain: Ascension Island, ecosystem construction

    E-print Network

    Brown, Richard

    it rain, it alone supports a rich vegetation and is known as Green Mountain. The rest, which vary much century, the vegetation of Green Mountain had undergone major changes leading to the `rich vegetation The cloud forest on Green Mountain is a man-made system that has produced a tropical forest without any

  14. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Dickerson; R. M. II Drake

    1998-01-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and

  15. Biogeographical and evolutionary importance of the European high mountain systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Schmitt

    2009-01-01

    Europe is characterised by several high mountain systems dominating major parts of its area, and these structures have strongly influenced the evolution of taxa. For species now restricted to these high mountain systems, characteristic biogeographical patterns of differentiation exist. (i) Many local endemics are found in most of the European high mountain systems especially in the Alps and the more

  16. Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

    1977-04-01

    Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly. PMID:559107

  17. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. 9.220...American Viticultural Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name...viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For...

  18. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. 9.220...American Viticultural Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name...viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For...

  19. A STRUCTURED THRESHOLD MODEL FOR MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE OUTBREAK

    E-print Network

    Linder, Tamás

    A STRUCTURED THRESHOLD MODEL FOR MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE OUTBREAK MARK A. LEWIS1, WILLIAM NELSON2 AND CAILIN XU2 Abstract. A vigor-structured model for mountain pine beetle outbreak dy- namics within for dynamics of beetle aggregation. This involves a stochastic formulation. 1. Introduction Mountain pine

  20. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. 9.220...American Viticultural Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name...viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For...

  1. Threatened and stressed mountain lakes of Europe: Assessment and progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Battarbee; Martin Kernan; Neil Rose

    2009-01-01

    Mountain regions are cold environments that are hostile to human occupation and widely regarded as places where the air is clean, water is pure and ecosystems are pristine. Yet many mountain regions, especially in Europe, are far from pristine. In the 1980s, research showed that mountain lakes were especially vulnerable to acid deposition and sediment core studies at many sites

  2. Hydrologic characteristics of faults at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-04-29

    Yucca Mountain is under study as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste, with the principle goal being the safe isolation of the waste from the accessible environment. This paper addresses the hydrogeologic characteristics of the fault zones at Yucca Mountain, focusing primarily on the central part of the mountain where the potential repository block is located.

  3. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District. 9.166 Section...American Viticultural Areas § 9.166 Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The...viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b)...

  4. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District. 9.166 Section...American Viticultural Areas § 9.166 Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The...viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b)...

  5. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ALONG RED MOUNTAIN TOWARD THE BIRMINGHAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ALONG RED MOUNTAIN TOWARD THE BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER WITH U.S. HIGHWAY 280 (BOTTOM LEFT TO CENTER) AND THE HIGHWAY CUT (CENTER RIGHT). - Red Mountain Cut National Natural Landmark, U.S. 280 at Red Mountain, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. Randomness and changes of heart rate and respiratory frequency during high altitude mountain ascent without acclimatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesfreid, Eva; Billat, Véronique

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to detect and compare the changes in the time-frequency and fractal scaling behaviors of heart rate (HR) and respiratory frequency (Rf), recorded simultaneously during a high altitude mountain ascent. The time-frequency analysis was performed using the local cosine4 orthonormal bases of Coifman, Malvar and Meyer, whose spectrum is not redundant as those computed with the short Fourier transform. The fractal scaling behavior was obtained using the detrended fluctuation (DFA) and the wavelet leaders (WL) analysis. Results showed that the high altitude mountain ascent differently affected HR and Rf variability. Rf average values increased (p=0.0003) while HR average values did not change. The scaling variability of HR was altered during the mountain ascent, which was detected by the increasing HR short range DFA exponents with altitude (p<0.03). Rf scaling variability remained unchanged. These differences between HR and Rf alterations were also observed for the local cosine4 power law behavior since power law exponents, in absolute values, increased for HR (p<0.003) while those of Rf did not change. Furthermore, the ratio of low over the whole local spectrum energy of Rf decreased with altitude (p=0.04) in contrast to HR. In most of these HR and Rf analyses, one of the two time series was significantly modified but not both. Moreover, the Rf local cosine4 spectrum had higher entropy compared to HR (p<0.01), the difference between the Rf and the HR entropy increased (p=0.04) during the mountain ascent. In consequence, Rf had more randomness than HR and altitude increased this difference.

  7. Nuclear interactions of super high energy cosmic-rays observed in mountain emulsion chambers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Bayburina; A. S. Borisov; K. V. Cherdyntseva; Z. M. Guseva; V. G. Denisova; A. M. Dunaevskii; E. A. Kanevskaya; V. M. Maximenko; S. V. Pashkov; V. S. Puchkov; S. B. Shaulov; S. A. Slavatinsky; M. D. Smirnova; Yu. A. Smorodin; A. V. Urysson; N. G. Zelevinskaya; G. B. Zhdanov; L. G. Afanasjeva; L. T. Baradzei; E. I. Gorochova; I. P. Ivanenko; N. P. Iljina; G. B. Khristiansen; T. V. Lazareva; A. K. Managadze; E. A. Murzina; I. V. Rakobolskaya; T. M. Roganova; N. G. Ryabova; G. T. Zatsepin; R. A. Mukhamedshin; S. D. Cananov; L. A. Khisanishvili; N. N. Roinishvili; M. S. Svanidge; J. A. Tecliashvili; T. V. Varsimashvili; Z. A. Azimov; I. B. Bodojanov; N. E. Gubar; Yu. A. Gulov; F. Normuradov; Kh. Shobaronov; N. A. Dobrotin; Yu. A. Emeljanov; Yu. T. Lukin; B. F. Shorin; E. G. Zaitseva; S. A. Azimov; A. R. Dzhuraev; E. G. Mulladjanov; Kh. Nutritdinov; D. A. Talipov; I. Shamansurov; T. S. Juldashbaev; Z. Buja; E. Gladysz; J. Mazurkiewicz; S. Mikocki; M. Szarska; L. Zawiejski; H. Bielawska; R. Juskiewicz; J. L. Kacperski; A. Krys; J. Malinowski; K. Milczarek; J. Sroka; A. Tomaszewski; J. A. Wrotniak; K. Maluszynska; Z. Wlodarczyk; M. Akashi; M. Amenomori; E. Konishi; H. Nanjo; Z. Watanabe; K. Mizutani; K. Kasahara; S. Torii; T. Yuda; T. Shirai; N. Tateyama; T. Taira; I. Mito; M. Shibata; H. Sugimoto; K. Taira; N. Hotta; M. Ballester; C. Santos; J. Bellandi Filho; J. A. Chinellato; C. Dobrigkeit; C. M. G. Lattes; A. Marques; M. J. Menon; C. E. Navia O; K. Sawayanagi; E. Silva; E. H. Shibuya; A. Turtelli; N. M. Amato; F. M. Oliveira Castro; R. H. C. Maldonado; H. Aoki; Y. Fuyimoto; S. Hasegawa; H. Kumano; H. Semba; T. Tabuki; M. Tamada; K. Tanaka; S. Yamashita; N. Arata; T. Shibata; K. Yokoi; A. Ohsawa

    1981-01-01

    Here we present a summary of joint discussions on the results of three mountain experiments with large-scale emulsion chambers, at Pamir, Mt. Fuji and Chacaltaya. Observations cover gamma quanta, hadrons and their clusters (called ``families''). The following topics are covered, concerning the characteristics of nuclear interactions the energy region 1014-1016 eV: (i) rapid dissipation seen in atmospheric diffusion of high-energy

  8. Visualization experiment to investigate capillary barrier performance in the context of a Yucca Mountain emplacement drift

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent C Tidwell; Robert J Glass; Connie Chocas; Glenn Barker; Lee Orear

    2003-01-01

    The use of capillary barriers as engineered backfill systems to divert water away from radioactive waste potentially stored in a Yucca Mountain emplacement drift is investigated. We designed and conducted a flow visualization experiment to investigate capillary barrier performance in this context. A two-dimensional, thin slab, test system replicated the physical emplacement drift to one-quarter scale (1.4-m diameter) and included

  9. Drivers of mountain landscape change during the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olav Slaymaker

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Twenty-first century mountain landscapes are evolving under the globally scaled controls of hydroclimate and the spatially\\u000a and temporally discontinuous impacts of human activity and tectonic plate movements. Attention is drawn to the difficulty\\u000a of comparing the effectiveness of the three drivers of change (tectonics, using relief as a surrogate, hydroclimate, and human\\u000a activity) because of their differing temporal rhythms. The

  10. Influence of precipitation phase on the form of mountain ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Alison M.; Roe, Gerard H.; Montgomery, David R.; Hallet, Bernard

    2008-06-01

    Observations of precipitation fall speeds and precipitationpatterns suggest that precipitation phase (rain versus snow)is a significant control on the relationship between precipitationpatterns and topography, due to the potential for increaseddownwind advection of snow relative to rain. A coupled modelof orographic precipitation and surface erosion shows that fora range of climate variables, steady-state precipitation patternsvary from nearly uniform and maximizing over the highest topography,to highly spatially variable, closely coupled to topographyand reaching a maximum on low slopes. Precipitation patternsare a first-order control on modeled range scale and ridge-valleyscale relief, channel concavity, and the position of the drainagedivide. An association between cool climates, spatially uniformprecipitation, and efficient erosion of high topography is indicated.The importance of precipitation phase to the evolution of precipitationpatterns and topography further demonstrates the fundamentalimportance of the coupled climate, erosion, and tectonic systemin the evolution of mountain topography.

  11. Evolution of the unsaturated zone testing at Yucca Mountain.

    PubMed

    Wang, J S Y; Bodvarsson, G S

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site has evolved from intensive surface-based investigations in the early 1980s to current focus on testing in underground drifts. Different periods of site characterization activities and prominent issues concerning the unsaturated zone (UZ) are summarized. Data collection activities have evolved from mapping of faults and fractures to estimation of percolation through tuff layers, and to quantification of seepage into drifts. Evaluation of discrete flow paths in drifts has led to fracture-matrix interaction and matrix diffusion tests over different scales. The effects of tuff interfaces and local faults are evaluated in fractured-welded and porous-nonwelded units. Mobilization of matrix water and redistribution of moisture are measured in thermal tests. Lessons learned from underground tests are used to focus on processes needed for additional quantification. Migration through the drift shadow zone and liquid flow through faults are two important issues that have evolved from current knowledge. PMID:12714299

  12. After the ‘Organic Industrial Complex’: An ontological expedition through commercial organic agriculture in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh Campbell; Christopher Rosin

    This article uses the evolving understandings of commercial organic agriculture within two research programmes in New Zealand to address three problematic claims and associated framings that have underpinned analysis of the political economy of commercial organic agriculture. These three framings are: 1) that recent commercial developments in organic agriculture have become organised around a grand binary of large-scale, corporate, industrialised

  13. Climatic Teleconnections Recorded By Tropical Mountain Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. G.; Permana, D.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Davis, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Information from ice cores from the world's highest mountains in the Tropics demonstrates both local climate variability and a high degree of teleconnectivity across the Pacific basin. Here we examine recently recovered ice core records from glaciers near Puncak Jaya in Papua, Indonesia, which lie on the highest peak between the Himalayas and the South American Andes. These glaciers are located on the western side of the Tropical Pacific warm pool, which is the "center of action" for interannual climate variability dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). ENSO either directly or indirectly affects most regions of Earth and their populations. In 2010, two ice cores measuring 32.13 m and 31.25 m were recovered to bedrock from the East Northwall Firn ice field. Both have been analyzed in high resolution (~3 cm sample length, 1156 and 1606 samples, respectively) for stable isotopes, dust, major ions and tritium concentrations. To better understand the controls on the oxygen isotopic (?18 O) signal for this region, daily rainfall samples were collected between January 2013 and February 2014 at five weather stations over a distance of ~90 km ranging from 9 meters above sea level (masl) on the southern coast up to 3945 masl. The calculated isotopic lapse rate for this region is 0.24 ‰/100m. Papua, Indonesian ice core records are compared to ice core records from Dasuopu Glacier in the central Himalayas and from Quelccaya, Huascarán, Hualcán and Coropuna ice fields in the tropical Andes of Peru on the eastern side of the Pacific Ocean. The composite of the annual isotopic time series from these cores is significantly (R2 =0.53) related to tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs), reflecting the strong linkage between tropical Pacific SSTs associated with ENSO and tropospheric temperatures in the low latitudes. New data on the already well-documented concomitant loss of ice on Quelccaya, Kilimanjaro in eastern Africa and the ice fields near Puncak Jaya reinforce the hypothesis that large-scale tropical processes dominate recent tropical glacier retreat. The observed widespread melting of glaciers is consistent with model predictions of a vertical amplification of temperature, which is documented by increasing isotopic enrichment in ice cores from high elevation glaciers throughout the Tropics.

  14. Commercial Implementation of Model-Based Manufacturing of Nanostructured Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, Terry C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-24

    Computational modeling is an essential tool for commercial production of nanostructured metals. Strength is limited by imperfections at the high strength levels that are achievable in nanostructured metals. Processing to achieve homogeneity at the micro- and nano-scales is critical. Manufacturing of nanostructured metals is intrinsically a multi-scale problem. Manufacturing of nanostructured metal products requires computer control, monitoring and modeling. Large scale manufacturing of bulk nanostructured metals by Severe Plastic Deformation is a multi-scale problem. Computational modeling at all scales is essential. Multiple scales of modeling must be integrated to predict and control nanostructural, microstructural, macrostructural product characteristics and production processes.

  15. 20th-century variations in area of cirque glaciers and glacierets, Rocky Mountain National Park, Rocky Mountains,

    E-print Network

    Fountain, Andrew G.

    Mountain National Park in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, indicates modest change during the 2020th-century variations in area of cirque glaciers and glacierets, Rocky Mountain National Park and Losleben, 2002). This discrepancy between mountain and regional climate trends makes the Front Range

  16. Observed changes and future trends in vulnerability to natural hazards for mountain communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puissant, A.; Gazo, A.; Débonnaire, N.; Moravek, A.; Aguejdad, R.; -P., Malet J.; B., Martin

    2015-04-01

    Since 50 years, mountain areas are affected by important landcover and landuse changes characterized by the decrease of pastoral activities, reforestation or urbanization with the development of tourism activities and infrastructures. These natural and anthropogenic transformations have an impact on the socio-economic activities but also on the exposure of the communities to natural hazards. In the context of the ANR Project SAMCO which aims at enhancing the overall resilience of societies on the impacts of mountain risks, the objective of this research was to analyse landcover/use changes and to model future changes to assess the impacts of such change and to analyse trajectory of the vulnerability of mountain communities. For this research, an experiment is performed for two mountain areas of the French Alps (Barcelonnette Basin, Vars Basin). Changes in landcover and landuse are characterized over the period 1956-2010 for the two communities at two spatial scales (catchment, municipality). Four scenarios of landcover and landuse development (based on the Prelude European Project) are proposed for the period 2050 and 2100. Based on these scenarios, the evolution of vulnerability is estimated by using the Potential Damage Index method proposed by Puissant et al. (2013).

  17. Erosional response of an actively uplifting mountain belt to cyclic rainfall variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J.; Voisin, C.; Gourlan, A. T.; Chauvel, C.

    2015-01-01

    We present an approximate analytical solution to the stream power equation describing the erosion of bedrock in an actively uplifting mountain range subject to periodic variations in precipitation rate. It predicts a time lag between the climate forcing and the erosional response of the system that increases with the forcing period. The predicted variations in the sedimentary flux coming out of the mountain are also scaled with respect to the imposed rainfall variations in a direct proportion to the discharge exponent, m, in the stream power law expression. These findings are confirmed by 1-D and 2-D numerical solutions. We also show that the response of a river channel is independent of its length and thus the size of its catchment area, implying that all actively eroding streams in a mountain belt will constructively contribute to the integrated signal in the sedimentary record. We show that rainfall variability at Milankovitch periods should affect the erosional response of fast uplifting mountain belts such as the Himalayas, Taiwan or the South Island, New Zealand, and predict 1000 to 10 000-year offsets between forcing and response. We suggest that this theoretical prediction could be used to independently constrain the value of the poorly defined stream power law exponents, and provide an example of how this could be done, using geochemical proxy signals from an ODP borehole in the Bengal Fan.

  18. Morphological variation and zoogeography of racers (Coluber constrictor) in the central Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Bury, R. Bruce

    1986-01-01

    We examined 63 specimens of Coluber constrictor from Colorado and Utah using eight external morphological characters that have been used to distinguish C. c. mormon from C. c. flaviventris. We grouped the snakes into three Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU's) in a transect across the Rocky Mountains: the eastern Front Range foothills in Colorado; the inter-mountain region (western slope of Colorado and northeastern Utah); and the western foothills of the Wasatch Mountains in Utah. Statistically significant variation among the OTU's was discovered for ration of tail length to total length, number of central and subcaudal scales, and number of dentary teeth. However, variation is clinal with nearly complete overlap from one end f the transect to the other for each character, suggesting a wide zone of intergradiation in the inter-mountain region. We do not believe reported differences in reproductive parameters between Great Plains and Great Basin racers are sufficient grounds for recognition of species, because clutch size is both geographically variable and dependent on the environment. The distribution of C. constrictor is similar to that of other reptiles with transmontane distributions in the western United States, and we suggest two possible routes of dispersal across the Continental Divide in southwestern Wyoming. Thus, elevation of C. c. mormon to species status is not supported by morphological, reproductive, or zoogeographic evidence.

  19. Strong effect of climate on ectomycorrhizal fungal composition: evidence from range overlap between two mountains.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yumiko; Sakai, Atsushi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2015-08-01

    Separating the effects of environmental factors and spatial distance on microbial composition is difficult when these factors covary. We examined the composition of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi along elevation gradients on geographically distant mountains to clarify the effect of climate at the regional scale. Soil cores were collected from various forest types along an elevation gradient in southwestern Japan. Fungal species were identified by the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA using direct sequencing. The occurrence of fungal species in this study was compared with a previous study conducted on a mountain separated by ?550?km. In total, we recorded 454 EM fungi from 330 of 350 soil cores. Forty-seven fungal species (?20% of the total excluding singletons) were shared between two mountains, mostly between similar forest types on both mountains. Variation partitioning in redundancy analysis revealed that climate explained the largest variance in EM fungal composition. The similarity of forest tree composition, which is usually determined by climatic conditions, was positively correlated with the similarity of the EM fungal composition. However, the lack of large host effects implied that communities of forest trees and EM fungi may be determined independently by climate. Our data provide important insights that host plants and mutualistic fungi may respond to climate change idiosyncratically, potentially altering carbon and nutrient cycles in relation to the plant-fungus associations. PMID:25647348

  20. Microallopatry Caused Strong Diversification in Buthus scorpions (Scorpiones: Buthidae) in the Atlas Mountains (NW Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Habel, Jan C.; Husemann, Martin; Schmitt, Thomas; Zachos, Frank E.; Honnen, Ann-Christin; Petersen, Britt; Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Stathi, Iasmi

    2012-01-01

    The immense biodiversity of the Atlas Mountains in North Africa might be the result of high rates of microallopatry caused by mountain barriers surpassing 4000 meters leading to patchy habitat distributions. We test the influence of geographic structures on the phylogenetic patterns among Buthus scorpions using mtDNA sequences. We sampled 91 individuals of the genus Buthus from 51 locations scattered around the Atlas Mountains (Antiatlas, High Atlas, Middle Atlas and Jebel Sahro). We sequenced 452 bp of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene which proved to be highly variable within and among Buthus species. Our phylogenetic analysis yielded 12 distinct genetic groups one of which comprised three subgroups mostly in accordance with the orographic structure of the mountain systems. Main clades overlap with each other, while subclades are distributed parapatrically. Geographic structures likely acted as long-term barriers among populations causing restriction of gene flow and allowing for strong genetic differentiation. Thus, genetic structure and geographical distribution of genetic (sub)clusters follow the classical theory of allopatric differentiation where distinct groups evolve without range overlap until reproductive isolation and ecological differentiation has built up. Philopatry and low dispersal ability of Buthus scorpions are the likely causes for the observed strong genetic differentiation at this small geographic scale. PMID:22383951

  1. Moving to the Mountains: Amenity Migration in the Sierra and Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diedra Case; Drake Fowler; Heather Morgan; Sue Schwellenbach; Kurt Culbertson

    Two of the rural regions currently undergoing dramatic landscape change are the Sierra Nevadas, John Muir’s “Range of Light,”\\u000a and the Blue Ridge Mountains, described by John Denver in his song “Take Me Home, Country Roads.” These are mythical landscapes,\\u000a the Sierras of television’s “Bonanza” and the Blue Ridge Mountains of Mount Airy, North Carolina, television’s “Mayberry.”\\u000a These are landscapes

  2. Sultan Mountain mine, western San Juan Mountains, Colorado: A fluid inclusion and stable isotope study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Musgrave; T. B. Thompson

    1991-01-01

    The Sultan Mountain (SM) mine, in the western San Juan Mountains of Colorado, has produced Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag-Au ores from the mid-1870s until the 1950s. Production was from veins filling faults and fissures along the southern margin of the Silverton caldera. The principal host rock to the veins is a quartz monzonite stock. Five periods of hypogene mineralization have been recognized: (1)

  3. Scanning electron microscopy of earth mined and eaten by mountain gorillas in the Virunga Mountains, Rwanda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Mahaney

    1993-01-01

    The sand fractions of weathered regolith (subsoil) sediments from the flanks of Visoke Volcano in the Virunga Mountains, mined,\\u000a pulverized, and eaten by mountain gorillas, were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-despersive spectrometry\\u000a (EDS) to determine the stimulus of geophagic behavior. The samples show a mix of weathered and volcanic minerals consisting\\u000a primarily of quartz, apatite, analbite, sanidine,

  4. ROCKY MOUNTAIN FOOTHILL LIMBER PINE - JUNIPER WOODLAND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUNIPERUS SCOPULORUM

    Overview: This ecological system occurs in foothill and lower montane zones in the Rocky Mountains from northern Montana south to central Colorado and on escarpments across Wyoming extending out into the western Great Plains. In Colorado, this system is limited to High Plains escarpment in the Ogallala formation of northeastern Colorado and adjacent southeastern Wyoming, where stands are believed to

  5. CITY OF MOUNTAIN VIEW April 12, 2011 .

    E-print Network

    .regardlogthls subm1Ual pte.R - -me ...OOD .. pos.lble. TbankYou . . . . City ofMountain View 650-903-6313· Recycled Program Director Global Green USA 2218 Main Street, 2nd Floor Santa Monica, CA 90405 (310) 581-2700 x103 standards before the statewide Standards effective date; require additional energy conservation measures

  6. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. Krier

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report, ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', is to present information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a repository at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report provides information to four other reports: ''Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion'', (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170001]); ''Atmospheric Dispersal and Deposition of Tephra from Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170026]); ''Dike/Drift Interactions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170028]); ''Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027], Section 6.5). This report is organized into seven major sections. This section addresses the purpose of this document. Section 2 addresses quality assurance, Section 3 the use of software, Section 4 identifies the requirements that constrain this work, and Section 5 lists assumptions and their rationale. Section 6 presents the details of the scientific analysis and Section 7 summarizes the conclusions reached.

  7. RESULTS FROM THE MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro) was initiated in 1993 as part of the research necessary to support the objectives of the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), which was created to address the. requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The main ob...

  8. Irrigation enhances precipitation at the mountains downwind

    E-print Network

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Irrigation enhances precipitation at the mountains downwind Consejo Superior de Investigaciones the different elements of the water cycle. #12;Motivation Atmospheric circulation models predict an irrigation) #12;Motivation Spatial distribution of the water vapour flux from irrigation (kg·m­2 ·year­1). White

  9. Permian depositional history, Leach Mountains, northeastern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Martindale, S.G. (County of Orange, Santa Ana, CA (United States). EMA/Construction Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 4,000 m thick Permian sequence in the Leach Mountains consists of carbonate rock, chert, terrigenous clastic rock and phosphatic rock. These rocks, in ascending order, comprise the Third Fork Fm., Badger Gulch Fm., Trapper Creek Fm., Grandeur Fm., Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Tongue of the Phosphoria Fm., Murdock Mountain Fm. and Gerster Limestone. This sequence disconformably overlain by Triassic strata. Initial Permian deposition, represented by the late Wolfcampian to early Leonardian Third Fork Fm., was on a slope, at a water depth of about 50 m. Subsequently, a shallowing trend occurred during the early Leonardian to late Leonardian with deposition of the Badger Gulch, Trapper Creek and Grandeur Fms. The Trapper Creek and Grandeur Fms. were deposited on the shelf, in very shallow subtidal to supratidal environments. The shelf persisted through the remainder of the Permian. In the late leonardian, the Meade Peak Tongue was deposited in very shallow subtidal and intertidal environments. A supratidal environment was re-established in latest Leonardian( ) to early Guadalupian with deposition of the lower Murdock Mountain Fm. The upper Murdock Mountain Fm. was deposited in very shallow subtidal to supratidal environments. Later during the early Guadalupian, intertidal to shallow subtidal deposition of the Gerster Limestone occurred. Angular phosphatic pebbles that were derived from phosphatic strata at the top of the Gerster Limestone are contained in the Triassic basal conglomerate. These pebbles indicate that the last Permian event was probably emergence and erosion of the top of the Gerster Limestone.

  10. Alluvial Fan, Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Alluvial Fan is a fan-shaped area of disturbance in Rocky Mountain National Park. It was created on July 15, 1982, when the earthen Lawn Lake Dam above the area gave way, flooding the Park and nearby town of Estes Park with more than 200 million gallons of water. Enormous boulders were displaced...

  11. Optical turbulence measurements at a mountain ridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank D. Eaton; Judith E. Miller; Sheldon D. Stokes; Kenneth H. Underwood

    2000-01-01

    The optical turbulence conditions at a mountain ridge (North Oscura Peak, White Sands Missile Range, NM) were determined from observations of fine wire sensors and a sodar (sonic detection and ranging). Both instruments provided the temperature structure parameter (C2T) from which the refractive index structure parameter (C2n) was calculated using local measurements of temperature and pressure. The fine wire measurements

  12. Population Dynamics and Harvest Potential of Mountain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SANDRA HAMEL; STEEVE D. COTE; MARCO FESTA-BIANCHET

    The understanding of population dynamics is a central issue for managing large mammals. Modeling has allowed population ecologists to increase their knowledge about complex systems and better predict population responses to diverse perturbations. Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) appear sensitive to harvest, but the relative influence of survival and reproductive rates on their population dynamics are not well understood. Using longitudinal

  13. Technical Editor's Checklist Rocky Mountain Research Station

    E-print Network

    Technical Editor's Checklist Rocky Mountain Research Station General: Peer, biometrics, and potential-audience reviews are adequate. Author is consulted regarding audience and goals of the document Office Style Manual (2000). Scientific names follow common names of species; the use or nonuse

  14. Mountain Biking with Groups: A "Safe" Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Terry

    2001-01-01

    A survey mailed to 200 British mountain bike leaders found that rates of cycling accidents and injuries were greater in forests and woodlands than on terrain where a license is required to lead groups of young cyclists. Excessive speed was mentioned in most accidents, coupled with poor use of breaks in many cases. (SV)

  15. DRAINAGE DEVELOPMENT, SOUTHERN SACRAMENTO MOUNTAINS, NEW MEXICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT L. BATES

    Field mapping some years ago in the Surveyors Canyon area of the southern Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico, revealed an unusually well-developed set of barbed tributaries. Later visits to adjoining areas, and a study of topographic maps and air photographs, have disclosed many other evidences of stream capture and diversion. Several of these features are described in this paper, and sugges-

  16. THE BATS OF THE OUACHITA MOUNTAINS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GARY A. HEIDT

    A survey was conducted from June, 1982 through January, 1989 to determine the occurrence of bat species in the Ouachita Mountain region of west-central Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma, with emphasis on censusing lands managed by the USDA Forest Service, Ouachita National Forest. Seven genera and 13 species of bats in the families Vespertilionidae and Molossidae were captured. Species represented included:

  17. YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    G. Housley; C. Shelton-davis; K. Skinner

    2005-08-26

    The method selected for dealing with spent nuclear fuel in the US is to seal the fuel in waste packages and then to place them in an underground repository at the Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. This article describes the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) currently being designed for sealing the waste packages.

  18. Yucca Mountain reviews a waste of time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wamsted

    1994-01-01

    The author of this article contends that two proposed reviews of Yucca Mountain are a waste of time. Further reviews will not eliminate opposition. What is needed is real action on the issue, such as studying the safety and suitability of the proposed waste site.

  19. YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Housley; C. Shelton-davis; K. Skinner

    2005-01-01

    The method selected for dealing with spent nuclear fuel in the US is to seal the fuel in waste packages and then to place them in an underground repository at the Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. This article describes the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) currently being designed for sealing the waste packages.

  20. Deformational stress fields of Casper Mountain, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Burfod, A.E.; Gable, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Casper Mountain is an east-west-trending Laramide feature located immediately west of the north termination of the Laramie Mountains in central Wyoming. Precambrian rocks are exposed as its core; off-dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata characterize the flanks and ends. The north side is abruptly downthrown along a major east-west fault or faults. A complex of stress fields of Precambrian and younger ages is indicated by high-angle shears and shear zones, steep-dip foliations, and multiple joint systems. One or more of the indicated Precambrian stress fields may be equivalent to that of the Cheyenne belt of the southern Laramie Mountains. In addition, at least two well-developed Laramide stress fields were active during the formation of the mountain structure. The principal maximum compressive stress of each was oriented north-south; the mean compressive axis of one was vertical whereas in the other the minimum compressive axis was vertical. Some structural features of Precambrian age, faulting in particular, appear to have influenced structures of younger ages. Prominent east-northeast-trending, high-angle faults lie approximately parallel to the Precambrian structural grain; they offset structural features of Laramide age and may be of late Laramide and/or post-Laramide age.