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1

State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. The period covered is July through December 1981. Background information is provided, program objectives and the technical approach used are discussed, and the benefits of the program are described. Prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are covered and findings and recommendations are summarized.

Lunis, B. C.

1982-08-01

2

14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section...commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. All commercial air...operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain National Park are prohibited...

2011-01-01

3

14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section...commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. All commercial air...operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain National Park are prohibited...

2012-01-01

4

14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section...commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. All commercial air...operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain National Park are prohibited...

2013-01-01

5

14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section...commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. All commercial air...operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain National Park are prohibited...

2014-01-01

6

Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Community-Scale Solar Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.

Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Knight, Tawnie [Ute Mountain Ute Tribe

2014-01-30

7

State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states. Semiannual progress report, July-December 1980  

SciTech Connect

The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. Background information is provided; program objectives and the technical approach that is used are discussed; and the benefits of the program are described. The summary of findings is presented. Prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are covered and findings and recommendations are summarized. The commercialization activities carried out by the respective state teams are described for the following: Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

Lunis, B. C.; Toth, W. J. [comps.

1981-10-01

8

Mountains  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

Fuller, M.

1989-01-01

9

Transient Mountain Waves and Their Interaction with Large Scales CHIH-CHIEH CHEN  

E-print Network

Transient Mountain Waves and Their Interaction with Large Scales CHIH-CHIEH CHEN National Center 2006) ABSTRACT The impact of transient mountain waves on a large-scale flow is examined through mountain. Both the global momentum budget and the spatial flow response are examined to illustrate

10

Scaling relations in mountain streams: colluvial and Quaternary controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In coastal British Columbia, Canada, the glacial palimpsest profoundly affects the geomorphic structure of mountain drainage basins. In this context, by combining remotely sensed, field- and GIS-based data, we examine the scaling behavior of bankfull width and depth with contributing area in a process-based framework. We propose a novel approach that, by detailing interactions between colluvial and fluvial processes, provides new insights on the geomorphic functioning of mountain channels. This approach evaluates the controls exerted by a parsimonious set of governing factors on channel size. Results indicate that systematic deviations from simple power-law trends in bankfull width and depth are common. Deviations are modulated by interactions between the inherited glacial and paraglacial topography (imposed slope), coarse grain-size fraction, and chiefly the rate of colluvial sediment delivery to streams. Cumulatively, departures produce distal cross-sections that are typically narrower and shallower than expected. These outcomes, while reinforcing the notion that mountain drainage basins in formerly glaciated systems are out of balance with current environmental conditions, show that cross-sectional scaling relations are useful metrics for understanding colluvial-alluvial interactions.

Brardinoni, Francesco; Hassan, Marwan; Church, Michael

2010-05-01

11

State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states. Semiannual progress report, January-July 1981  

SciTech Connect

The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. For each state (Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North and South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming), prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are also covered, and findings and recommendations are given for each state. Some background information about the program is provided. (LEW)

Lunis, B.C.; Toth, W.J. (comps.)

1982-05-01

12

Quantifying mountain block recharge by means of catchment-scale storage-discharge relationships  

E-print Network

Quantifying mountain block recharge by means of catchment-scale storage-discharge relationships the importance of mountainous catchments for providing freshwater resources, especially in semi-arid regions, little is known about key hydrological processes such as mountain block recharge (MBR). Here we implement

Troch, Peter

13

Mountain-Scale Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Processes Around the Potential Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) effects on flow and geochemistry in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain at a mountain scale. The major THC processes important in the UZ are (1) mineral precipitation/dissolution affecting flow and transport to and from the potential repository, and (2) changes in the compositions of gas and liquid that may seep into drifts.

E. Sonnenthal; C. Haukwa; N. Spycher

2001-06-04

14

Radiation Test Challenges for Scaled Commercial Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

As sub-100 nm CMOS technologies gather interest, the radiation effects performance of these technologies provide a significant challenge. In this paper, we shall discuss the radiation testing challenges as related to commercial memory devices. The focus will be on complex test and failure modes emerging in state-of-the-art flash non-volatile memories (NVMs) and synchronous dynamic random access memories (SDRAMs), which are

Kenneth A. LaBel; Ray L. Ladbury; Lewis M. Cohn; Timothy R. Oldham

2008-01-01

15

Estimating Scale Up Cost Factors for Commercial Jet Planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parametric scale-up cost factor study for commercial jets is presented. Three independent variables were used to correlate costs to the customer: maximum take-off weight, number of seats, and length of the plane. Scale-up cost factors for each of these variables are presented, based on data collected on 34 planes from the three largest manufacturers of commercial jet aircraft: Airbus,

Christopher P. Holcomb; Donald S. Remer

2004-01-01

16

Large-Scale Flow Response to the Breaking of Mountain Gravity Waves  

E-print Network

Large-Scale Flow Response to the Breaking of Mountain Gravity Waves François Lott, LMD, Ecole Normale Supérieure; flott@lmd.ens.fr 1) General: gravity waves and their impact on climate 2) Regional and synoptic impacts of mountain gravity waves breaking observations Some diagnostics tools Parameterization

Lott, Francois

17

State geothermal commercialization programs in ten Rocky Mountain states. Semi-annual progress report, July-December 1979  

SciTech Connect

The activities and findings of the ten state teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Regional Hydrothermal Commercialization Program for the period are described. A summary of the state projects, compilation of project accomplishments, summary of findings, and a description of the major conclusions and recommendations are presented. Also included are chapters on the commercialization activities carried out by individual teams in each state: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New-Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. (MHR)

Griffith, J.L. (comp.)

1980-08-01

18

Approaches to recreational landscape scaling of mountain resorts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the mountain resorts (MR) the climate and the landscape are natural medical resources which are very sensitive to anthropogenic influences [EGU2011-6740-3; EGU2012-6103]. Positive experience of the climatic and landscape treatment at the MR of the North Caucasus allowed us to establish fundamental interrelation between the quality of recreational landscapes (RL), climatic conditions and the efficiency of medical rehabilitation of people at the MR on the basis of rational use of natural medical resources. There have been registered the following bioclimatic distinctions and physiological responses with the recipients suffering from high disadaptation according to the results of the complex route medical and geophysical studies on the urban and park landscapes. We have defined hot discomfort at the open space of urban territory when the weather is extremely hot and anticyclone - the thermal balance (TB) is higher than +840 W/sq.m, extreme risk of solar erythema burn - UVI - higher than 11, the low content of natural anions - lower than 260 ion/cm3, high coefficient of ions unipolarity (CIU) - 2.16 and a high temperature of the underlying surface (asphalt) 46.40C. At the same time in the resort park of vegetable association Btula pndula (50 years) TB was significantly lower - +480 W/sq.m, there was no risk of erythema burn (UVI 4), an optimum level of natural anions was 840 ion/cm3 and the value of CIU was 0.98, grass and soil temperature was + 290C and there was a favourable background of evaporating metabolites. At such favourable bioclimatic change the patients have been registered to have the voltage reduction of the vegetative index (from 640 to 380; N-150), the increase in efficiency of neurohumoral regulation (from 0.12 to 0.34; N 0,50), the decrease in spectrum excitability of brain activity in the range of waves: delta 0 0.4Hz by 16%, the increase in work activity of the brain in the range of waves: thetra 4 8 Hz, alpha 8 13 Hz. beta 13 19 Hz, gamma 19 25Hz by 9-17%; the increase in adaptation layer of the organism by 21% and a versatility indicator of health - by 19%; the decrease in systolic (from 145 to 131 mm of mercury) and diastolic (from 96 to 82 mm of mercury) arterial pressure, the increase in indicators of carpal dynamometry (on the right hand from 27 to 36 kg, on the left hand from 25 to 34 kg), the increase in speed of thermogenesis (from 0.0633 to 0.0944 K/s) and quality of neurovascular reactivity (from 48% to 81%). In the whole the patient`s cenesthesia has improved. We have also studied the responses of adaptive reactions with the recipients at other options of RL. But researches are still being carried out in this direction. Their results will be used as a base of RL scaling of North Caucasus mountain territories. This problem is interdisciplinary, multidimensional and deals with both medical and geophysical issues. The studies were performed by support of the Program "Basic Sciences for Medicine" and RFBR project No.10-05-01014_a.

Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaia, Nina; Slepih, Vladimir

2013-04-01

19

SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION  

E-print Network

sediments in the rivers, lakes, and coastal waters of the United States are a major environmental problem1 SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION FOR THE PORT OF NEW YORK York and New Jersey. We describe here a regional contaminated sediment decontamination program

Brookhaven National Laboratory

20

COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

21

Scale-down/scale-up studies leading to improved commercial beer fermentation.  

PubMed

Scale-up/scale-down techniques are vital for successful and safe commercial-scale bioprocess design and operation. An example is given in this review of recent studies related to beer production. Work at the bench scale shows that brewing yeast is not compromised by mechanical agitation up to 4.5 W/kg; and that compared with fermentations mixed by CO(2) evolution, agitation ? 0.04 W/kg is able to reduce fermentation time by about 20%. Work at the commercial scale in cylindroconical fermenters shows that, without mechanical agitation, most of the yeast sediments into the cone for about 50% of the fermentation time, leading to poor temperature control. Stirrer mixing overcomes these problems and leads to a similar reduction in batch time as the bench-scale tests and greatly reduces its variability, but is difficult to install in extant fermenters. The mixing characteristics of a new jet mixer, a rotary jet mixer, which overcomes these difficulties, are reported, based on pilot-scale studies. This change enables the advantages of stirring to be achieved at the commercial scale without the problems. In addition, more of the fermentable sugars are converted into ethanol. This review shows the effectiveness of scale-up/scale-down studies for improving commercial operations. Suggestions for further studies are made: one concerning the impact of homogenization on the removal of vicinal diketones and the other on the location of bubble formation at the commercial scale. PMID:21744501

Nienow, Alvin W; Nordkvist, Mikkel; Boulton, Christopher A

2011-08-01

22

A saturated zone site-scale flow model for Yucca mountain  

SciTech Connect

A saturated zone site-scale flow model (YMSZFM) was developed for licensing requirements for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository to incorporate recent data and analyses including recent stratigraphic and water-level data from Nye County wells, single-and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and recent hydrochemistry data. Analyses include use of data from the 2004 transient Death Valley Regional (ground-water) Flow System (DVRFS) model, the 2003 unsaturated zone flow model, and the latest hydrogeologic framework model (HFM). This model includes: (1) the latest understanding of SZ flow, (2) enhanced model validation and uncertainty analyses, (3) improved locations and definitions of fault zones, (4) refined grid resolution (500-to 250-m grid spacing), and (5) use of new data. The flow model was completed using the three-dimensional, Finite-Element Heat and Mass Transfer computer code (FEHM). The SZ site-scale flow model was calibrated with the commercial parameter estimation code, PEST to achieve a minimum difference between observed water levels and predicted water levels, and also between volumetric/mass flow rates along specific boundary segments as supplied by the DVRFS. A total of 161 water level and head measurements with varied weights were used for calibration. A comparison between measured water-level data and the potentiometric surface yielded an RMSE of 20.7 m (weighted RMSE of 8.8 m). The calibrated model was used to generate flow paths and specific discharge predictions. Model confidence was built by comparing: (l) calculated to observed hydraulic heads, and (2) calibrated to measured permeabilities (and therefore specific discharge). In addition, flowpaths emanating from below the repository footprint are consistent with those inferred both from gradients of measured head and from independent water-chemistry data. Uncertainties in the SZ site-scale flow model were quantified because all uncertainty contributes to inaccuracy in system representation and response. Null space and solution space uncertainties were determined.

Eddebbarh, Al Aziz [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

23

Psychometric Evaluation of the Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Scale with a Kindergarten Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the psychometric properties of a group-administered early literacy measure, the Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Scale (MS-PAS), using a kindergarten sample (N = 213). The MS-PAS was compared to the "Test of Phonological Awareness-Second Edition: Plus" (TOPA-2+). Results indicated excellent internal consistency for the

Nelson, Jason M.

2008-01-01

24

USING BROAD-SCALE METRICS TO DEVELOP INDICATORS OF WATERSHED VULNERABILITY IN THE OZARK MOUNTAINS (USA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple broad-scale landscape metrics were tested as potential indicators of total phosphorus (TP) concentration, total ammonia (TA) concentration, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria count, among 244 sub-watersheds in the Ozark Mountains (USA). Indicator models were develop...

25

Commercial scale irradiation for insect disinfestation preserves peach quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation is approved as a generic quarantine treatment by the US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Due to the effectiveness of irradiation in controlling insects on commodities, there is a growing need to understand the effects of low dose irradiation on fruit quality. The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity of peaches (Prunus persica) to irradiation, and secondly, to determine the effect of commercial scale treatment on shelf-life, overall quality and consumer liking. Six varieties of peaches were irradiated in small batches at 0.29, 0.49, 0.69 and 0.90 kGy to observe the sensitivity of peaches at different dose levels. Changes in quality were evaluated by 8 trained panelists using descriptive analysis. Sensory characteristics (color, smoothness, aroma, touch firmness, mouth firmness, graininess, overall flavor and off-flavor) were evaluated at 2-4 day intervals and untreated samples served as control. To simulate commercial treatment, peaches were irradiated in pallet quantities at a target dose level of 0.4 kGy. The average absorbed dose was 0.66 kGy with an average dose uniformity ratio of 1.57. Commercially treated peaches were evaluated by 40-80 untrained consumers for acceptability routinely throughout the shelf life. Titratable acidity, Brix, texture and weight loss were also monitored for both commercial and small scale irradiated peaches. There was no dose effect on TA, Brix and weight loss due to irradiation. Peaches irradiated at 0.69 and 0.90 kGy were darker in flesh color, more juicy and less firm as determined by the trained panel and analytical pressure tests. Commercial scale irradiation did not adversely affect shelf life but was seen to enhance ripening. This, however, was perceived as a positive change by consumers. Overall, consumers rated the acceptability of irradiated peaches higher than untreated peaches. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed models to find determinates of irradiation on peaches.

McDonald, Heather; McCulloch, Mary; Caporaso, Fred; Winborne, Ian; Oubichon, Michon; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

2012-06-01

26

Work related injuries in small scale commercial fishing  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe the epidemiology of work related injury in a group of small scale, independent commercial fishers. Design: Cross sectional survey (baseline instrument of a prospective cohort study). Setting and subjects: Commercial fishers in eastern North Carolina. Results: A cohort of 219 commercial fishers was established and 215 subjects completed an injury questionnaire. The main types of fishing conducted by the cohort were finfishing (159/215) and crabbing (154/215). Of the 215 fishers, 83 reported that they had suffered an injury event in the previous 12 months, a retrospective recall incidence proportion of 38.6 per 100 workers (95% confidence interval 32.1 to 45.1). The 83 injury events resulted in 94 injuries; 47% were penetrating wounds and 24% were strains/sprains. Half of injuries were to the hand/wrist/digits and 13% were to the back. Of the penetrating wounds, 87% were to the hand/wrist/digits, 32% became infected, and 80% were caused by contact with finfish, shellfish, or other marine animal. Of the strains/sprains, 48% were to the back and 26% were to the shoulder. Seventy percent of strains/sprains were caused by moving heavy objects, mainly either while hauling in nets, pots, or lines or loading/unloading the boat. Conclusion: In this group of small scale, independent fishers, the most common reported injuries were penetrating wounds to the hand/wrist/digits from marine animals and strains/sprains to the back while moving heavy objects. PMID:15314048

Marshall, S; Kucera, K; Loomis, D; McDonald, M; Lipscomb, H

2004-01-01

27

SCALE-4 Analysis of LaSalle Unit 1 BWR Commercial Reactor Critical Configurations  

SciTech Connect

Five commercial reactor criticals (CRCs) for the LaSalle Unit 1 boiling-water reactor have been analyzed using KENO V.a, the Monte Carlo criticality code of the SCALE 4 code system. The irradiated fuel assembly isotopics for the criticality analyses were provided by the Waste Package Design team at the Yucca Mountain Project in the US, who performed the depletion calculations using the SAS2H sequence of SCALE 4. The reactor critical measurements involved two beginning-of-cycle and three middle-of-cycle configurations. The CRCs involved relatively low-cycle burnups, and therefore contained a relatively high gadolinium poison content in the reactor assemblies. This report summarizes the data and methods used in analyzing the critical configurations and assesses the sensitivity of the results to some of the modeling approximations used to represent the gadolinium poison distribution within the assemblies. The KENO V.a calculations, performed using the SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 ENDF/B-V cross-section library, yield predicted k{sub eff} values within about 1% {Delta}k/k relative to reactor measurements for the five CRCs using general 8-pin and 9-pin heterogeneous gadolinium poison pin assembly models.

Gauld, I.C.

2000-03-01

28

Multi-scale Transport Processes Observed in the Boundary Layer over a Mountainous Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over complex terrain, convection and thermally-driven circulations simultaneously occur under fair weather conditions during the day. To investigate these processes on the basis of observations, simultaneous measurements on different scales are necessary. Comprehensive measurements with the mobile observation platform KITcube were performed on the mountainous island of Corsica during the HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment (HyMeX) field campaign in late summer and autumn 2012. Using a case study, the benefit of integrated measurement systems and coordinated scan strategies was demonstrated, and experimental evidence of, and new insights into, convective and advective transport processes in a valley were obtained. Convection, thermally-driven circulations and topographic and advective venting led to the diurnal cycle of temperature, humidity and wind over complex terrain in the mountain atmospheric boundary layer (mountain ABL), which was deeper than an ABL over homogeneous terrain under equal surface forcing. Due to the combined transport processes on different scales, the mountain ABL in a valley also extended beyond the convection layer, which was characterized by surface-based, buoyancy-driven turbulent mixing. Strong subsidence, with a vertical velocity of about 1 m s, was present within the mountain ABL for several hours around noon and suppressed the convection-layer growth. Above the layer with subsidence, elevated vertical motions, consisting of alternating updrafts and downdrafts, occurred. Once the convection layer grew to the bottom of the layer with elevated vertical motions, surface-based convective cells occasionally coupled to the elevated updrafts, as a result of which the convection layer rapidly deepened.

Adler, Bianca; Kalthoff, Norbert

2014-12-01

29

Multi-scale curvature for automated identification of glaciated mountain landscapes?  

PubMed Central

Erosion by glacial and fluvial processes shapes mountain landscapes in a long-recognized and characteristic way. Upland valleys incised by fluvial processes typically have a V-shaped cross-section with uniform and moderately steep slopes, whereas glacial valleys tend to have a U-shaped profile with a changing slope gradient. We present a novel regional approach to automatically differentiate between fluvial and glacial mountain landscapes based on the relation of multi-scale curvature and drainage area. Sample catchments are delineated and multiple moving window sizes are used to calculate per-cell curvature over a variety of scales ranging from the vicinity of the flow path at the valley bottom to catchment sections fully including valley sides. Single-scale curvature can take similar values for glaciated and non-glaciated catchments but a comparison of multi-scale curvature leads to different results according to the typical cross-sectional shapes. To adapt these differences for automated classification of mountain landscapes into areas with V- and U-shaped valleys, curvature values are correlated with drainage area and a new and simple morphometric parameter, the Difference of Minimum Curvature (DMC), is developed. At three study sites in the western United States the DMC thresholds determined from catchment analysis are used to automatically identify 5נ5km quadrats of glaciated and non-glaciated landscapes and the distinctions are validated by field-based geological and geomorphological maps. Our results demonstrate that DMC is a good predictor of glacial imprint, allowing automated delineation of glacially and fluvially incised mountain landscapes. PMID:24748703

Prasicek, Gnther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Montgomery, David R.; Schrott, Lothar

2014-01-01

30

Regional-scale flows in mountainous terrain. Part 1: A numerical and observational comparison  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study uses observed data and a numerical simulation to examine the generation of thermally driven flows across the Colorado mountain barrier on meso-beta to meso-alpha scales. The observations were collected from remote surface observing systems at exposed mountaintop locations throughout the state of Colorado, over the summers of 1984-88, as part of the Rocky Mountain Peaks Experiment (ROMPEX). The data show the development of a recurrent circulation system across the Colorado mountain barrier, operating on a diurnal timescale. From the observations, the basic structure of the flow system appears as a daytime inflow toward the highest terrain, and a nocturnal outflow away from it. However, when examined in detail, the flow system exhibits more unusual behavior, especially west of the barrier crest. Here, winds in the early evening are occasionally observed to onset abruptly from an easterly direction, generally counter to the upper-level winds. Observations from ROMPEX for 26 August 1985 are used to provide comparison data for a numerical simulation with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This three-dimensional case study experiment is initialized with data from the National Meteorological Center and incorporates two-way interactive grid nesting. From the observed data and case study simulation, four distinct phases of the regional-scale circulation system have been identified. In the development phase, a deep mountain-plains solenoid is generated through terrain heating along the Front Range. This circulation system transforms in the late afternoon transition phase into a westward-propagating density current (WPDC). The third phase, called the 'density-current propagation phase,' occurs as the WPDC moves westward across the mountains, leaving in its wake strong southeasterly flow at the mountaintop level. This current appears to be the cause of the peculiar easterly component winds found in the ROMPEX mountaintop observations along the western slope. In the final late-night adjustment phase, the WPDC dissipates near the western edge of the Colorado mountains and steady southerly flow evolves over the high mountain terrain. This southerly flow is the steady response to the differential heating that develops between the low-lying plains and the intermountain region.

Bossert, James E.; Cotton, William R.

1994-01-01

31

Scaling of material properties for Yucca Mountain: literature review and numerical experiments on saturated hydraulic conductivity  

SciTech Connect

A review of pertinent literature reveals techniques which may be practical for upscaling saturated hydraulic conductivity at Yucca Mountain: geometric mean, spatial averaging, inverse numerical modeling, renormalization, and a perturbation technique. Isotropic realizations of log hydraulic conductivity exhibiting various spatial correlation lengths are scaled from the point values to five discrete scales through these techniques. For the variances in log{sub 10} saturated hydraulic conductivity examined here, geometric mean, numerical inverse and renormalization adequately reproduce point scale fluxes across the modeled domains. Fastest particle velocities and dispersion measured on the point scale are not reproduced by the upscaled fields. Additional numerical experiments examine the utility of power law averaging on a geostatistical realization of a cross-section similar to the cross-sections that will be used in the 1995 groundwater travel time calculations. A literature review on scaling techniques for thermal and mechanical properties is included. 153 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

McKenna, S.A.; Rautman, C.A.

1996-08-01

32

Mountain-Wave Momentum Flux in an Evolving Synoptic-Scale Flow CHIH-CHIEH CHEN, DALE R. DURRAN, AND GREGORY J. HAKIM  

E-print Network

Mountain-Wave Momentum Flux in an Evolving Synoptic-Scale Flow CHIH-CHIEH CHEN, DALE R. DURRAN (Manuscript received 24 September 2004, in final form 25 February 2005) ABSTRACT The evolution of mountain-evolving synoptic-scale flow over an isolated 3D mountain of height h. The dynamically consistent synoptic

33

Multi-scale field investigation of water flow pathways and residence times in mountainous catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "sky islands" of Arizona and New Mexico in the southwestern United States form a unique complex of about 27 mountain ranges whose ecosystems support many perennial and ephemeral streams in an arid climate. Among these sky islands are the Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson, AZ, with a peak elevation of 9157 ft at Mt. Lemmon. Sabino Canyon Creek is the main stream which runs on the south face of the mountain range. It usually flows from July through April with an average daily flow of approximately 0.28 m3/s (10 cfs). However, flash floods are common both during summer as a result of intense monsoon rains and during spring because of rapid snowmelt. During these events, flow increases rapidally, reaching peak flows up to 480 m3/s (16,000 cfs, July 2006). Characterizing water flow pathways and residence times in these complex catchments is important for improving flash flood warning systems, estimating mountain front recharge, managing forest and wild fires, and understanding ecosystem functions. In the summer of 2006, we set up an extensive hydrometrical and hydro-chemical monitoring network in Sabino Canyon Creek, comprising 40 tipping bucket rain gauges (two of which were equipped to automatically collect rainwater samples), 5 automatic surface water level stations (three of which were equipped with auto samplers), and 8 manual soil lysimeters. In addition, several rain and stream water grab samples were collected manually during intensive rain events. Water samples are analyzed for major ions and liquid water isotopic concentration (2H and 18O) in rain, soil, ground and surface water. The data allows for a detailed reconstruction of water flow pathways and residence times at 3 different catchment scales (2 km2, 8 km2, and 91 km2) during the recorded flow events, including the highest monsoon rainfall-runoff event ever recorded in these mountains.

Lyon, S. W.; Troch, P. A.; Desilets, S. E.

2006-12-01

34

Toward Characterizing the 4D Structure of Precipitation at the Headwater Catchment Scale in Mountainous Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classic conceptual model of orographic rainfall depicts strong stationary horizontal gradients in rainfall accumulations and landcover contrasts across topographic divides (i.e. the rainshadow) at the broad scale of mountain ranges, or isolated orographic features. Whereas this model is sufficient to fingerprint the land-modulation of precipitation at the macroscale in climate studies, and can be useful to force geological models of land evolution for example, it fails to describe the active 4D space-time gradients that are critical at the fundamental scale of mountain hydrometeorology and hydrology, that is the headwater catchment. That is, the scale at which flash-floods are generated and landslides are triggered. Our work surveying the spatial and temporal habits of clouds and rainfall for some of the world's major mountain ranges from remotely-sensed data shows a close alignment of spatial scaling behavior with landform down to the mountain fold scale, that is the ridge-valley. Likewise, we find that diurnal and seasonal cycles are organized and constrained by topography from the macro- to the meso- to the alpha-scale of individual basins varying with synoptic weather conditions. At the catchment scale, the diurnal cycle exhibits an oscillatory behavior with storm features moving up and down from the ridge crests to the valley floor and back and forth from head to mouth along the valley with strong variations in rainfall intensity and duration. Direct observations to provide quantitative estimates of precipitation at this scale are beyond the capability of satellite-based observations present and anticipated in the next 10-20 years. This limitation can be addressed by assimilating the space-time modes of variability of rainfall into satellite-observations at coarser scale using multiscale blending algorithms. The challenge is to characterize the modes of space-time variability of precipitation in a systematic, and quantitative fashion that can be generalized. It requires understanding the physical controls that govern the diurnal cycle and how these physical controls translate into spatial and temporal variability of dynamics and microphysics of precipitation in headwater catchments, and especially in the context of extreme events for natural hazards assessments. Toward this goal, we have initiated a sequence of number of intense observing period (IOP) campaigns in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park using radiosondes, tethersondes, microrain radars, and a high resolution raingauge network that for the first time monitors rainfall systematically along ridges in the Appalachians. Along with field observations, a high-resolution coupled model has been implemented to diagnose the evolution of the 4D structure of regional circulations and associated precipitation for IOP conditions and for reconstructing historical extremes associated with the interaction of tropical cyclones with the mountains. A synthesis of data analysis and model simulations will be presented.

Barros, A. P.; Prat, O. P.; Sun, X.; Shrestha, P.; Miller, D.

2009-04-01

35

Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain basin and range. Final technical report, January 1980-March 1981  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

Not Available

1981-07-01

36

Multi-Scale and Object-Oriented Analysis for Mountain Terrain Segmentation and Geomorphological Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital terrain analysis of mountain topography is widely utilized for mapping landforms, assessing the role of surface processes in landscape evolution, and estimating the spatial variation of erosion. Numerous geomorphometry techniques exist to characterize terrain surface parameters, although their utility to characterize the spatial hierarchical structure of the topography and permit an assessment of the erosion/tectonic impact on the landscape is very limited due to scale and data integration issues. To address this problem, we apply scale-dependent geomorphometric and object-oriented analyses to characterize the hierarchical spatial structure of mountain topography. Specifically, we utilized a high resolution digital elevation model to characterize complex topography in the Shimshal Valley in the Western Himalaya of Pakistan. To accomplish this, we generate terrain objects (geomorphological features and landform) including valley floors and walls, drainage basins, drainage network, ridge network, slope facets, and elemental forms based upon curvature. Object-oriented analysis was used to characterize object properties accounting for object size, shape, and morphometry. The spatial overlay and integration of terrain objects at various scales defines the nature of the hierarchical organization. Our results indicate that variations in the spatial complexity of the terrain hierarchical organization is related to the spatio-temporal influence of surface processes and landscape evolution dynamics. Terrain segmentation and the integration of multi-scale terrain information permits further assessment of process domains and erosion, tectonic impact potential, and natural hazard potential. We demonstrate this with landform mapping and geomorphological assessment examples.

Marston, B. K.; Bishop, M. P.; Shroder, J. F.

2009-12-01

37

Scaling relationships between bed load volumes, transport distances, and stream power in steep mountain channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

load transport during storm events is both an agent of geomorphic change and a significant natural hazard in mountain regions. Thus, predicting bed load transport is a central challenge in fluvial geomorphology and natural hazard risk assessment. Bed load transport during storm events depends on the width and depth of bed scour, as well as the transport distances of individual sediment grains. We traced individual gravels in two steep mountain streams, the Erlenbach (Switzerland) and Rio Cordon (Italy), using magnetic and radio frequency identification tags, and measured their bed load transport rates using calibrated geophone bed load sensors in the Erlenbach and a bed load trap in the Rio Cordon. Tracer transport distances and bed load volumes exhibited approximate power law scaling with both the peak stream power and the cumulative stream energy of individual hydrologic events. Bed load volumes scaled much more steeply with peak stream power and cumulative stream energy than tracer transport distances did, and bed load volumes scaled as roughly the third power of transport distances. These observations imply that large bed load transport events become large primarily by scouring the bed deeper and wider, and only secondarily by transporting the mobilized sediment farther. Using the sediment continuity equation, we can estimate the mean effective thickness of the actively transported layer, averaged over the entire channel width and the duration of individual flow events. This active layer thickness also followed approximate power law scaling with peak stream power and cumulative stream energy and ranged up to 0.57 m in the Erlenbach, broadly consistent with independent measurements.

Schneider, Johannes M.; Turowski, Jens M.; Rickenmann, Dieter; Hegglin, Ramon; Arrigo, Sabrina; Mao, Luca; Kirchner, James W.

2014-03-01

38

Examining the spatial variability of surface hoar at the mountain range scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface hoar, once buried, often produce a persistent weak layer that is a common instability problem in the snow pack in SW Montana and many other areas around the world. It is relatively well understood that aspect plays an important role in the location of the growth, and survival of these grain forms, due to the unequal distribution of incoming radiation. However, this alone does not completely explain the complex and often confusing pattern of these grains forms throughout the landscape at larger spatial scales. In this paper we present a unique data set including over sixty days of manual observations of surface hoar at sixteen locations on Pioneer Mountain at the Yellowstone Club in southwestern Montana. Using this wealth of observational data located on different aspects, elevations and exposures, coupled with detailed meteorological observations we examine the spatial variability of surface hoar occurrence and its dominant controls. Our results highlight that small-scale meteorological differences and local scale lapse rates can greatly influence the spatial variability of surface hoar, over and above that which aspect alone can explain. These results highlight our incomplete understanding of the processes at this scale, and are likely to have implications for both regional and local scale avalanche forecasting in environments where surface hoar cause ongoing instabilities.

Hendrikx, J.

2013-12-01

39

Commercial scale validation of a process scale-up model for lubricant blending of pharmaceutical powders.  

PubMed

An experimental study was conducted to verify that lubrication mixing in commercial-scale bin blenders can be described by a previously-reported lubrication blending process scale-up model. Specifically, the mixing of two placebo formulations (2:1 MCC:lactose, and 2:1 MCC:DCP) with 1% magnesium stearate in 100, 400, and 2000 L bin blenders at 30% and 70% blend fill levels for several extents of lubricant mixing was examined. The lubricated powder blends were assessed for bulk/tapped density and powder flow, as measured by Hausner's ratio. The blends were then compressed into tablets and evaluated for tensile strength, friability, and disintegration. It was observed that the lubrication rate constant, ?, for tablet tensile strength and for bulk specific volume were similar. Furthermore, powder flow, as measured by Hausner's ratio, improved with increased extent of lubrication. Tablet disintegration and tablet friability were both minimally affected as a result of extended lubrication for the placebos blends evaluated in this study. The results of this study confirm that the lubrication mixing model can be applied to scale-up the lubrication blending process from batches made in 30 mL bottle blenders to batches made in 2000 L bin blenders, which is a range of nearly five orders of magnitude. PMID:25152166

Kushner, Joseph; Schlack, Holger

2014-11-20

40

Deformation patterns and landscape evolution across scales: the (south-) central Alborz mountains, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highly disparate and diachronous character of tectonic deformation, sparse seismicity, and lack of empirical data pose a major challenge for a correct evaluation and the understanding of tectonic activity in the interior of continents. To overcome this dilemma, instrumental and historic records need to be integrated with millennial and long-term geological time scales. In addition, these environments require a joint evaluation of local studies and orogen-scale processes in order to compare and understand tectonic processes on different length and time scales. Located in the realm of the Eurasia-Arabia collision zone, the Alborz mountains of northern Iran are a zone of ongoing, yet spatially very disparate tectonic activity. Deformation in the orogen and adjacent regions is partitioned into left-lateral strike-slip faulting and thrusting. Earthquakes are randomly distributed in time and space and have moderate to high magnitudes. However, teleseismically recorded events show a higher record in the northern sector of the orogen. In agreement with this pattern, geomorphic proxies suggest higher rock-uplift rates, thus more pronounced tectonic activity in the north. Normalized channel steepness of major streams draining the Alborz mountains, is higher on north- than on south-draining channels. In contrast, total fault offsets are higher in the internal and southern sectors, and apatite fission-track thermochronology (Rezaeian, 2008), as well as the lithologic record of exhumation clearly reveal limited total exhumation in the northern sector. This suggests that the observed gradient in present-day rock-uplift rates is a relatively young tectonic signal and might reflect changes in orogenic boundary conditions. These observations may be reconciled by our structural and geomorphic studies in the south-central Alborz mountains, which reveal a complex tectonic history, involving changes in the regional shortening directions that may be related to changes in the tectonic stress regime. Fault kinematic analysis of major and minor faults in this area reveals early NW-oriented shortening associated with dextrally oblique thrusting, superseded by NE-oriented shortening, similar to the present-day. During this neotectonic regime, the reactivation of previously generated faults has resulted in a nascent transpressional duplex adjacent to the city of Tehran. In addition, the variable fault motions through time have left important, long-lasting imprints in the landscape, with inherited, tectonically overprinted and newly generated topographic features. Numerical fault-slip modelling using changing directions of largest horizontal stress (SHmax) shows that some faults are favorably oriented to accommodate the entire range of NW- to NE oriented directions of SHmax. The spatial coincidence of such faults with deeply exhumed areas indicates that fault-reactivation and subsequent interaction is a major cause of the observed deformation pattern in the south-central Alborz mountains. If, however, the change in the direction of SHmax temporally coincides with the shift in the focus of deformation towards northern sectors, cannot be resolved yet. Despite higher rock-uplift rates in the northern Alborz mountains, deformation is still ongoing in the southern range, attested by shortened Quaternary deposits and the historical record of destructive earthquakes on faults at the southern flank.

Landgraf, Angela; Ballato, Paolo; Strecker, Manfred R.; Friedrich, Anke M.; Zielke, Olaf; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Tabatabaei, Saeid H.; Shahpasandzadeh, Majid

2010-05-01

41

PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF ENGINEERED BARIER SYSTEMS FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes two quarter-scale experiments (1.4 m diameter) and associated numerical analyses on granular backfill engineered barrier systems in support of the Yucca Mountain Project for the potential repository. The two configurations include a sloped capillary barrier and a plain backfill. The tests involve application of dyed water as a constant line infiltration source along the top of the test set-up, monitoring water movement through the test, and measuring water exiting the experiments. A complete water balance estimate is made for each test, and observed water movement is compared with (1) detailed numerical analyses conducted using the TOUGH2 code for unsaturated flow in porous media and (2) posttest observations. The results of the testing and analyses show that for the injection rates and configuration applied, the capillary barrier design diverts a significant amount of all injected water and the TOUGH2 pretest predictions show qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data.

S.W. Webb; J.T. George; R.E. Finley

2001-02-01

42

Sub-metering to Electricity Use in Large-scale Commercial Buildings  

E-print Network

Sub-metering to Electricity Use in Large-scale Commercial Buildings Wang YuanTsinghua University2006.11 Sub-metering and statistics to electricity use in commercial buildings 2 Index #0;?#0;? Situation of Energy consumption in commercial buildings... #0;?#0;? Significanceof sub-metering and statistics #0;?#0;? Method to actualize sub-metering #0;?#0;? Practice??Project example #0;?#0;? Use of data??Analysis Software Sub-metering and statistics to electricity use in commercial buildings 3 Situation...

Yuan, W.

2006-01-01

43

Large-scale climatic patterns and area affected by mountain pine beetle in British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present evidence of high spatial synchrony in an area affected by mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) across large distances in British Columbia, Canada, in a study of a spatially explicit database of an area affected by MPB-caused tree mortality for the period 1959-2002. We further show that large-scale climatic patterns (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and, to a lesser degree, Arctic Oscillation (AO)) are strongly related to the observed MPB synchrony, and that they probably operate through controlling the frequency of extreme cold winter temperatures that affect MPB larvae survival. A smaller portion of the data's variability is linked to the onset of the two largest outbreaks in the studied period and might be attributed to dispersal from outbreak-prone areas or else to differences in microhabitat (e.g., host availability) in these regions. The onset of a warm PDO phase in 1976 favored MPB outbreaks by reducing the occurrence of extremely low winter temperatures province-wide. Likewise, the exceptionally high and persistent AO values of the late 1980s and 1990s enhanced MPB activity in the southern and northern parts of the region. Summer warmth cannot be discarded as an important agent at smaller scales.

Macias Fauria, Marc; Johnson, E. A.

2009-03-01

44

Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40-50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75-89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3-6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale.

Bright, B. C.; Hicke, J. A.; Hudak, A. T.

2012-12-01

45

14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain National Park are prohibited regardless of altitude. [Doc. No. FAA-2001-8690, 67 FR 65667, Oct. 25, 2002. Redesignated by Amdt. 136-1, 72 FR 6912, Feb. 13,...

2010-01-01

46

Mountain Hemlock Growth Responds to Climatic Variability at Annual and Decadal Time Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved understanding of tree growth responses to climate is needed to model and predict forest ecosystem responses to current and future climatic variability. We used dendroecological methods to study the effects of climatic variability on radial growth of a subalpine conifer, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana). Tree-ring chronologies were developed for 31 sites, spanning the latitudinal and elevational ranges of mountain

David W. Peterson; David L. Peterson

2001-01-01

47

77 FR 3459 - Cancellation of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy is cancelling the environmental...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The DOE's Office of Fossil Energy is cancelling the EIS for the proposed...Energy Technology Laboratory, Office of Fossil Energy. [FR Doc. 2012-1351...

2012-01-24

48

An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca Mountain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yucca Mountain site scale saturated zone transport model has been revised to incorporate the updated flow model based on a hydrogeologic framework model using the latest lithology data, increased grid resolution that better resolves the geology within the model domain, updated Kd distributions for radionuclides of interest, and updated retardation factor distributions for colloid filtration. The resulting numerical transport model is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. The transport model results are validated by comparing the model transport pathways with those derived from geochemical data, and by comparing the transit times from the repository footprint to the compliance boundary at the accessible environment with those derived from 14C-based age estimates. The transport model includes the processes of advection, dispersion, fracture flow, matrix diffusion, sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport. The transport of sorbing radionuclides in the aqueous phase is modeled as a linear, equilibrium process using the Kd model. The colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides is modeled using two approaches: the colloids with irreversibly embedded radionuclides undergo reversible filtration only, while the migration of radionuclides that reversibly sorb to colloids is modeled with modified values for sorption coefficient and matrix diffusion coefficients. Model breakthrough curves for various radionuclides at the compliance boundary are presented along with their sensitivity to various parameters.

Kelkar, S.; Viswanathan, H.; Eddebbarh, A.; Ding, M.; Reimus, P.; Robinson, B.; Arnold, B.; Meijer, A.

2006-12-01

49

Implication of mountain shading and topographic scaling on energy for snowmelt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many parts of the world, snowmelt energetics are dominated by incoming solar radiation. This is the case in the Canadian Rockies, where sunny winters result in high insolation. Solar irradiance on the snow surface is affected by the atmosphere, the slope and aspect of the immediate topography, and shading from surrounding terrain. Errors in estimating solar irradiation are cumulative over a season and can lead to large errors in snowmelt predictions. Adaptive triangular meshes, a type of unstructured triangular mesh that can adapt to fine-scale processes during model runtime, are more efficient in their use of DEM data than fixed grids when producing solar irradiance maps. An experimental design to calculate the effect of changes in DEM resolution on adaptive mesh irradiation calculations and implication for snowmelt is presented. As part of this experiment, the accuracy of these techniques is compared to measurements of mountain shadows and solar irradiance collected in Marmot Creek Research Basin, Alberta. Time-lapse digital cameras and networks of radiometers provide datasets for diagnosis of model accuracy. Further improvements in computational efficiency are achieved by taking advantage of parallel processing using graphical processing units (GPUs) is also discussed.

Marsh, C.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Spiteri, R.

2011-12-01

50

Seismological evidence for crustal-scale thrusting in the Zagros mountain belt (Iran)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crustal receiver functions (RFs) computed from the records of 45 temporary seismological stations installed on a 620-km-long profile across central Zagros provide the first direct evidence for crustal thickening in this mountain belt. Due to a rather short 14 km average station spacing, the migrated section computed from radial RFs displays the Moho depth variations across the belt with good spatial resolution. From the coast of the Persian Gulf to 25 km southwest of the Main Zagros Thrust (MZT), the Moho is almost horizontal with slight depth variations around 45 km. Crustal thickness then increases abruptly to a maximum of ~70 km beneath the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone, between 50 and 90 km northeast of the surface exposure of the MZT. Further northeast, the Moho depth decreases to ~42 km beneath the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage and the southern part of the Central Iranian microcontinent. The region of thickest crust is located ~75 km to the northeast of the Bouguer anomaly low at -220 mGals. Gravity modelling shows that the measured Moho depth variations can be reconciled with gravity observations by assuming that the crust of Zagros underthrusts the crust of central Iran along the MZT considered as a crustal-scale structure. This hypothesis is compatible with shortening estimates by balanced cross-sections of the Zagros folded belt, as well as with structural and petrological studies of the metamorphic Sanandaj-Sirjan zone.

Paul, Anne; Kaviani, Ayoub; Hatzfeld, Denis; Vergne, Jrme; Mokhtari, Mohammad

2006-07-01

51

Large-scale effects of timber harvesting on stream systems in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA.  

PubMed

Using Basin Area Stream Survey (BASS) data from the United States Forest Service, we evaluated how timber harvesting influenced patterns of variation in physical stream features and regional fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages. Data were collected for three years (1990-1992) from six hydrologically variable streams in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA that were paired by management regime within three drainage basins. Specifically, we used multivariate techniques to partition variability in assemblage structure (taxonomic and trophic) that could be explained by timber harvesting, drainage basin differences, year-to-year variability, and their shared variance components. Most of the variation in fish assemblages was explained by drainage basin differences, and both basin and year-of-sampling influenced macroinvertebrate assemblages. All three factors modeled, including interactions between drainage basins and timber harvesting, influenced variability in physical stream features. Interactions between timber harvesting and drainage basins indicated that differences in physical stream features were important in determining the effects of logging within a basin. The lack of a logging effect on the biota contradicts predictions for these small, hydrologically variable streams. We believe this pattern is related to the large scale of this study and the high levels of natural variability in the streams. Alternatively, there may be time-specific effects we were unable to detect with our sampling design and analyses. PMID:11740625

Williams, Lance R; Taylor, Christopher M; Warren, Melvin L; Clingenpeel, J Alan

2002-01-01

52

Large-Scale Effects of Timber Harvesting on Stream Systems in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Basin Area Stream Survey (BASS) data from the United States Forest Service, we evaluated how timber harvesting influenced patterns of variation in physical stream features and regional fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages. Data were collected for three years (1990-1992) from six hydrologically variable streams in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA that were paired by management regime within three drainage basins. Specifically, we used multivariate techniques to partition variability in assemblage structure (taxonomic and trophic) that could be explained by timber harvesting, drainage basin differences, year-to-year variability, and their shared variance components. Most of the variation in fish assemblages was explained by drainage basin differences, and both basin and year-of-sampling influenced macroinvertebrate assemblages. All three factors modeled, including interactions between drainage basins and timber harvesting, influenced variability in physical stream features. Interactions between timber harvesting and drainage basins indicated that differences in physical stream features were important in determining the effects of logging within a basin. The lack of a logging effect on the biota contradicts predictions for these small, hydrologically variable streams. We believe this pattern is related to the large scale of this study and the high levels of natural variability in the streams. Alternatively, there may be time-specific effects we were unable to detect with our sampling design and analyses.

Williams, Lance R.; Taylor, Christopher M.; Warren, Melvin L., Jr.; Clingenpeel, J. Alan

2002-01-01

53

Basin-scale availability of salmonid spawning gravel as influenced by channel type and hydraulic roughness in mountain catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general framework is presented for examining the effects of channel type and associated hydraulic roughness on salmonid spawning-gravel availability in mountain catchments. Digital elevation models are coupled with grain-size pre- dictions to provide basin-scale assessments of the potential extent and spatial pattern of spawning gravels. To demonstrate both the model and the significance of hydraulic roughness, we present a

John M. Buffington; David R. Montgomery; Harvey M. Greenberg

2004-01-01

54

Scaling up ecosystem productivity from patch to landscape: a case study of Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scaling up ecosystem processes from plots to landscapes is essential for understanding landscape structure and functioning\\u000a as well as for assessing ecological impacts of land use and climate change. This study illustrates an upscaling approach to\\u000a studying the spatiotemporal pattern of ecosystem processes in the Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve in northeastern China by\\u000a integrating simulation modeling, GIS, remote sensing data,

Na Zhang; Zhenliang Yu; Guirui Yu; Jianguo Wu

2007-01-01

55

Validation of a German version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS28) and motivation analysis in competitive mountain runners.  

PubMed

This study validated a German version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS28) and investigated the sex-specific and age-related differences in motivation of competitive mountain runners. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the SMS28 was based on translation and back-translation methodology. Acceptable validity of the German version of the SMS28 was indicated by the high correlations (.81 to .98) of scores on the seven subscales for the English and German versions completed by 15 subjects. Motivation analysis was performed with 127 competitive male and female mountain runners. The seven subscales of the German version showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient alphas .70 to .85). Findings on motivation of competitive mountain runners were a decline across age groups of Intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment for both sexes and an age-related decline of External regulation only for females. These motivational changes might well be associated with the observed diminishing numbers of older participants in mountain running competitions. PMID:21853770

Burtscher, Johannes; Furtner, Marco; Sachse, Pierre; Burtscher, Martin

2011-06-01

56

Reach-Scale Channel Adjustments to Channel Network Geometry in Mountain Bedrock Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Channel network geometry (CNG) is a critical determinant of hydrological response and may significantly affect incision processes within the Appalachian Plateau near Richwood, West Virginia. The Williams, Cherry, and Cranberry Rivers share drainage divides and their lower reaches flow atop resistant, quartz-rich sandstones. The lower two-thirds of the Cranberry and Williams Rivers display linear profiles atop the sandstones; whereas the Cherry is concave upwards atop the sandstones. Because lithologies and geological structures are similar among the watersheds, we tested whether differences in CNGs explain the profile shapes and reach-scale channel properties. Specifically, we quantified CNG by calculating reach- specific area-distance functions using DEMs. The area-distance functions were then converted into synthetic hydrographs to model hydrological responses. The Cherry River exhibits a classic dendritic drainage pattern, producing peaked hydrographs and low interval transit times. The Cranberry River displays a trellis-like drainage pattern, which produces attenuated hydrographs and high interval transit times. The upstream reaches of the Williams River have a dendritic drainage pattern, but the lower two-thirds of the watershed transitions into an elongated basin with trellis-like CNG. Reach gradients are steeper in the lower reaches of the Williams and Cranberry Rivers where hydrographs are attenuated. In contrast, peaked hydrographs within the Cherry River are associated with lower reach gradients despite resistant sandstone channel beds. Trellis-like CNG may restrict the ability of downstream reaches within the Williams and Cranberry Rivers to achieve the critical discharge needed to cause incision during floods (all other things being equal). If so, increased reach gradients may be hydraulic adjustments that compensate for comparatively low discharges. We are now applying the synthetic hydrographs to HEC-RAS flow models generated from field channel surveys in order to analyze whether stream power and shear stress are adjusted to reflect CNG at the reach- scale. These models are compared to those with discharges calculated using drainage area and precipitation totals alone. We conclude that gradients in bedrock mountain streams may reflect basin-scale hydrology (CNG) and not simply local geological or geomorphic factors. This challenges the conclusions of others who ascribe local channel adjustments to: i) lithology and structure alone, or ii) local colluvium grain sizes.

Plitzuweit, S. J.; Springer, G. S.

2008-12-01

57

Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers.  

PubMed

An important challenge in geomorphology is the reconciliation of the high fluvial incision rates observed in tectonically active mountain ranges with the long-term preservation of significant mountain-range relief in ancient, tectonically inactive orogenic belts. River bedrock erosion and sediment transport are widely recognized to be the principal controls on the lifespan of mountain ranges. But the factors controlling the rate of erosion and the reasons why they seem to vary significantly as a function of tectonic activity remain controversial. Here we use computational simulations to show that the key to understanding variations in the rate of erosion between tectonically active and inactive mountain ranges may relate to a bidirectional coupling between bedrock river incision and landslides. Whereas fluvial incision steepens surrounding hillslopes and increases landslide frequency, landsliding affects fluvial erosion rates in two fundamentally distinct ways. On the one hand, large landslides overwhelm the river transport capacity and cause upstream build up of sediment that protects the river bed from further erosion. On the other hand, in delivering abrasive agents to the streams, landslides help accelerate fluvial erosion. Our models illustrate how this coupling has fundamentally different implications for rates of fluvial incision in active and inactive mountain ranges. The coupling therefore provides a plausible physical explanation for the preservation of significant mountain-range relief in old orogenic belts, up to several hundred million years after tectonic activity has effectively ceased. PMID:23803847

Egholm, David L; Knudsen, Mads F; Sandiford, Mike

2013-06-27

58

Commercial-scale in-pond raceway system piques catfish farmers interest in west Alabama  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Construction of a commercial-scale fixed floor In-pond Raceway System (IPRS) began in December 2006 on a 430-water acre farm in Dallas County, AL. The initial IPRS was installed in a traditional 6-acre earthen pond (since the construction of this initial unit, several other farmers have built simila...

59

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities Solicitation  

E-print Network

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities biofuels production facility? A.1 An existing biofuels facility is an existing facility that, as of the application due date of PON-13-601, produces (or did produce) biofuels in California. Q.2 Must an eligible

60

Comparing denitrification rates and carbon sources in commercial scale upflow denitrification biological filters in aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic biological filtration systems employing nitrifying bacteria to remediate excess ammonia and nitrite concentrations are common components of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). However, significant water exchange may still be necessary to reduce nitrate concentrations to acceptable levels unless denitrification systems are included in the RAS design. This study evaluated the design of a full scale denitrification reactor in a commercial

H. J. Hamlin; J. T. Michaels; C. M. Beaulaton; W. F. Graham; W. Dutt; P. Steinbach; T. M. Losordo; K. K. Schrader; K. L. Main

2008-01-01

61

Development of commercial-scale photovoltaic modules using monolithic module assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Back-contact silicon solar cells enable new concepts for the module design and assembly. Monolithic module assembly refers to a process whereby the solar cell circuit and the module encapsulation are accomplished during the lamination step. This paper describes the advantages of MMA, progress in design and qualification of a commercial module based on MMA, and first results on pilot-scale production

James M. Gee; David Meakin; S. Southimath; M. Spath; I. Bennett

2009-01-01

62

Multi-scale field investigation of water flow pathways and residence times in mountainous catchments during monsoon rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "sky islands" of Arizona and New Mexico in the southwestern United States form a unique complex of about 27 mountain ranges whose ecosystems support many perennial and ephemeral streams in an arid climate. Among these sky islands are the Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson, AZ, with a peak elevation of 9157 ft at Mt. Lemmon. Sabino Canyon Creek is the main stream which runs on the south face of the mountain range. It usually flows from July through April with an average daily flow of approximately 0.28 m3/s (10 cfs). However, flash floods are common both during summer as a result of intense monsoon rains and during spring because of rapid snowmelt. During these events, flow increases drastically, reaching peak flows up to 480 m3/s (15,984 cfs, July 2006). Characterizing water flow pathways and residence times in these complex catchments is important for improving flash flood warning systems, estimating mountain front recharge, managing forest and wild fires, and understanding ecosystem functions. In the summer of 2006, we set up an extensive hydrometrical and hydro- chemical monitoring network in Sabino Canyon Creek, comprising 40 tipping bucket rain gauges (two of which were equipped to automatically collect rainwater samples), 5 automatic surface water level stations (three of which were equipped with auto samplers), and 8 manual soil lysimeters. In addition, several rain and stream water grab samples were collected manually during intensive rain events. Water samples are analyzed for major ions and liquid water isotopic concentration (2H and 18O) in rain, soil, ground and surface water. The data allows for a detailed reconstruction of water flow pathways and residence times at 3 different catchment scales (2 km2, 8 km2, and 91 km2) during the recorded flow events, including the highest monsoon rainfall-runoff event ever recorded in these mountains.

Troch, P. A.; Lyon, S. W.; Desilets, S.

2007-05-01

63

Decadal scale climate forcing of mass movement and sediment flux in Alpine mountain setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whilst the inevitability of future climate warming is now recognized, and we also know much more about the nature of climatic variability and its causes, our understanding of the effects of such variability upon landscapes at the time scale of decades is much less well known. This is for two reasons: (1) the complex, non-linear and path-dependent nature of the response of a landscape to climate forcing, and (2) the difficulty of investigating this forcing at the timescale of decades to centuries, despite this being the timescale over which significant hypotheses are raised over human impacts upon climate change and hence geomorphic systems. A unique resource to investigate the linkages between climatic variability and geomorphic response is provided by the extensive coverage of aerial imagery commonly available since the 1940s. The information contained in such imagery can be employed to produce high precision digital elevation models (DEMs) over large spatial scales using archival digital photogrammetry. Here, we reconstruct the quantitative history of mass movement and sediment flux in a high mountain Alpine system, over the timescales of decades, through the quantitative comparison of successive DEMs. Propagation of error methods are used to identify locations of significant geomorphic response and to compute volumes of significant erosion and deposition. These are coupled to extant climate data to show how the landscape responds to climate forcing and to geomorphological maps to understand how this response varies between both landscape elements and their spatial organization. The results show distinct landscape response to both warming and cooling periods but these are found to be asymmetrical because the speed of landscape response to warming is greater than the speed of response to cooling. There is a strong variability between landscape elements in their sensitivity. Whilst some elements of the system are exceptionally sensitive to warming and lead to locally high sediment flux, there is a landscape heritage in the system that can, but not always, lead to disconnection of sensitive zones from the valley bottom. This explains the counter-intuitive observation that whilst the asymmetry of landscape response to warming and cooling implies at net increase in sediment flux towards the valley bottom this is not manifest in the valley bottom itself (e.g. in an increase in alluvial fan dynamics) because this flux is commonly disconnected.

Micheletti, Natan; Lane, Stuart; Lambiel, Christophe

2014-05-01

64

Quantifying Mountain Block Recharge by Means of Catchment-Scale Storage-Discharge Relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the hydrologic significance of mountainous catchments in providing freshwater resources, especially in semi-arid regions, little is known about key hydrological processes in these systems, such as mountain block recharge (MBR). We developed an empirical approach based on the storage sensitivity function introduced by Kirchner (2009) to develop storage-discharge relationships from stream flow analysis. We investigated sensitivity of MBR estimates to uncertainty in the derivation of the catchment storage-discharge relations. We implemented this technique in a semi-arid mountainous catchment in South-east Arizona, USA (the Marshall Gulch catchment in the Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson) with two distinct rainy seasons, winter frontal storms and summer monsoon separated by prolonged dry periods. Developing storage-discharge relation based on baseflow data in the dry period allowed quantifying change in fractured bedrock storage caused by MBR. Contribution of fractured bedrock to stream flow was confirmed using stable isotope data. Our results show that 1) incorporating scalable time steps to correct for stream flow measurement errors improves the model fit; 2) the quantile method is more suitable for stream flow data binning; 3) the choice of the regression model is more critical when the stage-discharge function is used to predict changes in bedrock storage beyond the maximum observed flow in the catchment and 4) application of daily versus hourly flow did not affect the storage-discharge relationship. This methodology allowed quantifying MBR using stream flow recession analysis from within the mountain system.

Ajami, H.; Troch, P. A.; Maddock, T.; Meixner, T.; Eastoe, C. J.

2009-12-01

65

An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca Mountain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yucca Mountain site scale saturated zone transport model has been revised to incorporate the updated flow model based on a hydrogeologic framework model using the latest lithology data, increased grid resolution that better resolves the geology within the model domain, updated sorption coefficient (Kd ) distributions for radionuclides of interest, and updated retardation factor distributions. The resulting numerical transport model is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. The transport model results are validated by comparing the model transport pathways with those derived from geochemical data, and by comparing the transit times from the repository footprint to the compliance boundary at the accessible environment with those derived from 14C-based age estimates. The transport model includes the processes of advection, dispersion, fracture flow, matrix diffusion in fractured volcanic formations, sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport. The transport of sorbing radionuclides in the aqueous phase is modeled as a linear, equilibrium process using the Kd model. The colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides is modeled using two approaches: the colloids with irreversibly embedded radionuclides undergo reversible filtration only, while the migration of radionuclides that reversibly sorb to colloids is modeled with modified values for sorption coefficients and matrix diffusion coefficients. The base case results predict a transport time of 810 years for the breakthrough of half of the mass of a nonreactive radionuclide originating at a point within the footprint of the repository to the compliance boundary of the accessible environment at a distance of ~18 km downstream. The transport time is quite sensitive to the specific discharge through the model, varying between 31 to 52840 years for a range of specific discharge multiplier values between 0.1 to 8.9. Other parameters of importance include radionuclide sorption coefficients onto rock surfaces, diffusion coefficient within the volcanic matrix, sorption coefficient onto colloids and colloid retardation factors. Model breakthrough curves for various radionuclides at the compliance boundary are presented along with their sensitivity to various parameters.

Kelkar, S.; Ding, M.; Chu, S.; Robinson, B.; Arnold, B.; Meijer, A.

2007-12-01

66

Sulphonated polyether ether ketone diaphragms used in commercial scale alkaline water electrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulphonated poly-ether-ether-ketone porous diaphragms were prepared by immersion precipitation using chemically induced phase separation to obtain a tight diaphragm skin layer and underneath finger-like bulk morphology. Different variables including sulphonation degree, diaphragm thickness, precipitation temperature and the presence of an inorganic filler were analyzed in order to evaluate the performance of the resulting diaphragms in water alkaline electrolysis using a bipolar electrolyzer and a commercial scale (50kW) electrolyzer stack. Their performance was compared with a commercially available diaphragm in terms of cell voltage and oxygen purity (HTO) under normal operation conditions (10bar, 80C) and under transient operation with up to 80 shutdown cycles (a total of 20 days in operation). Long term stability and operation reliability were assured for the SPEEK diaphragms showing lower cell voltage and HTO than the ones obtained with the commercial Zirfon HTP 500 diaphragm.

Otero, Jesus; Sese, Javier; Michaus, Igor; Santa Maria, Maria; Guelbenzu, Eugenio; Irusta, Silvia; Carrilero, Isabel; Arruebo, Manuel

2014-02-01

67

Forest Ecosystem Processes at the Watershed Scale: Ecosystem services, feedback and evolution in developing mountainous catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain watersheds provide significant ecosystem services both locally and for surrounding regions, including the provision of freshwater, hydropower, carbon sequestration, habitat, forest products and recreational\\/aesthetic opportunities. The hydrologic connectivity along hillslopes in sloping terrain provides an upslope subsidy of water and nutrients to downslope ecosystem patches, producing characteristic ecosystem patterns of vegetation density and type, and soil biogeochemical cycling. Recent

Larry Band

2010-01-01

68

Design of a three-dimensional site scale model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain which is being developed. The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the east and west. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on locations of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Different maps, such as contour maps and isopachs maps, are presented for the different infiltration zones, and for the base of the Tiva Canyon, the Paintbrush, and the Topopah Spring hydrogeological units.

Wittwer, C.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chornack, M.P.; Flint, A.L.; Lewis, B.D.; Spengler, R.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Flint, L.E. [Raytheon Services Nevada, Mercury, NV (US); Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-10-01

69

Design of a three-dimensional site-scale model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed. This site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the east and west. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on location of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Different maps, such as contour maps and isopachs maps, are presented for the different infiltration zones, and for the base of the Tiva Canyon, the Paintbrush, and the Topopah Spring hydrogeological units.

Wittwer, C.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chornack, M.P.; Flint, A.L.; Lewis, B.D.; Spengler, R.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Flint, L.E. [Raytheon Services Nevada, Mercury, NV (United States); Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-01-01

70

Woody Species Diversity in Forest Plantations in a Mountainous Region of Beijing, China: Effects of Sampling Scale and Species Selection  

PubMed Central

The role of forest plantations in biodiversity conservation has gained more attention in recent years. However, most work on evaluating the diversity of forest plantations focuses only on one spatial scale; thus, we examined the effects of sampling scale on diversity in forest plantations. We designed a hierarchical sampling strategy to collect data on woody species diversity in planted pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr.), planted larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.), and natural secondary deciduous broadleaf forests in a mountainous region of Beijing, China. Additive diversity partition analysis showed that, compared to natural forests, the planted pine forests had a different woody species diversity partitioning pattern at multi-scales (except the Simpson diversity in the regeneration layer), while the larch plantations did not show multi-scale diversity partitioning patterns that were obviously different from those in the natural secondary broadleaf forest. Compare to the natural secondary broadleaf forests, the effects of planted pine forests on woody species diversity are dependent on the sampling scale and layers selected for analysis. Diversity in the planted larch forest, however, was not significantly different from that in the natural forest for all diversity components at all sampling levels. Our work demonstrated that the species selected for afforestation and the sampling scales selected for data analysis alter the conclusions on the levels of diversity supported by plantations. We suggest that a wide range of scales should be considered in the evaluation of the role of forest plantations on biodiversity conservation. PMID:25545860

Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Shuang; Ma, Keming; Fu, Bojie; Anand, Madhur

2014-01-01

71

Scaling considerations for a multi-megawatt class supercritical CO2 brayton cycle and commercialization.  

SciTech Connect

Small-scale supercritical CO2 demonstration loops are successful at identifying the important technical issues that one must face in order to scale up to larger power levels. The Sandia National Laboratories supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle test loops are identifying technical needs to scale the technology to commercial power levels such as 10 MWe. The small size of the Sandia 1 MWth loop has demonstration of the split flow loop efficiency and effectiveness of the Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHXs) leading to the design of a fully recuperated, split flow, supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle demonstration system. However, there were many problems that were encountered, such as high rotational speeds in the units. Additionally, the turbomachinery in the test loops need to identify issues concerning the bearings, seals, thermal boundaries, and motor controller problems in order to be proved a reliable power source in the 300 kWe range. Although these issues were anticipated in smaller demonstration units, commercially scaled hardware would eliminate these problems caused by high rotational speeds at small scale. The economic viability and development of the future scalable 10 MWe solely depends on the interest of DOE and private industry. The Intellectual Property collected by Sandia proves that the ~10 MWe supercritical CO2 power conversion loop to be very beneficial when coupled to a 20 MWth heat source (either solar, geothermal, fossil, or nuclear). This paper will identify a commercialization plan, as well as, a roadmap from the simple 1 MWth supercritical CO2 development loop to a power producing 10 MWe supercritical CO2 Brayton loop.

Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Conboy, Thomas M.; Pasch, James Jay; Wright, Steven Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Fuller, Robert Lynn [Barber-Nichols, Inc., Arvada, CO

2013-11-01

72

Fine-scale genetic structure analyses suggest further male than female dispersal in mountain gorillas  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular studies in social mammals rarely compare the inferences gained from genetic analyses with field information, especially in the context of dispersal. In this study, we used genetic data to elucidate sex-specific dispersal dynamics in the Virunga Massif mountain gorilla population (Gorilla beringei beringei), a primate species characterized by routine male and female dispersal from stable mixed-sex social groups. Specifically, we conducted spatial genetic structure analyses for each sex and linked our genetically-based observations with some key demographic and behavioural data from this population. Results To investigate the spatial genetic structure of mountain gorillas, we analysed the genotypes of 193 mature individuals at 11 microsatellite loci by means of isolation-by-distance and spatial autocorrelation analyses. Although not all males and females disperse, female gorillas displayed an isolation-by-distance pattern among groups and a signal of dispersal at short distances from their natal group based on spatial autocorrelation analyses. In contrast, male genotypes were not correlated with spatial distance, thus suggesting a larger mean dispersal distance for males as compared to females. Both within sex and mixed-sex pairs were on average genetically more related within groups than among groups. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for an intersexual difference in dispersal distance in the mountain gorilla. Overall, it stresses the importance of investigating spatial genetic structure patterns on a sex-specific basis to better understand the dispersal dynamics of the species under investigation. It is currently poorly understood why some male and female gorillas disperse while others remain in the natal group. Our results on average relatedness within and across groups confirm that groups often contain close relatives. While inbreeding avoidance may play a role in driving female dispersal, we note that more detailed dyadic genetic analyses are needed to shed light on the role of inbreeding avoidance as an ultimate cause of female dispersal in mountain gorillas. PMID:25001262

2014-01-01

73

Large-Scale Effects of Timber Harvesting on Stream Systems in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Basin Area Stream Survey (BASS) data from the United States Forest Service, we evaluated how timber harvesting influenced\\u000a patterns of variation in physical stream features and regional fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages. Data were collected\\u000a for three years (19901992) from six hydrologically variable streams in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA that were paired\\u000a by management regime within three drainage basins.

Lance R. Williams; Christopher M. Taylor; J. Alan Clingenpeel

2002-01-01

74

Time Series Photometry on Different Scales at the BYU West Mountain Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present multiple examples of differential time series photometry using the 0.9-meter telescope located at the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory. The observations include monitoring of a supernova and an AGN over a period of more than 100 days. An extragalactic Cepheid that was observed nightly for two months has also been included as an example in this summary. Finally, we report on target of opportunity observations secured on objects such as delta Scuti stars, eclipsing binaries, and candidate planetary transit stars. The West Mountain Observatory operates using student and faculty observers who participate in several monitoring projects that are scheduled during each observing season in addition to their own primary program. This model has given student observers an opportunity to gain useful experience on a wide variety of different monitoring projects involving carefully timed and executed photometric observations. These observations have proven especially valuable for both observatory support and student training during the May through August portion of the observing season when most regular classes are not a competing activity. Despite the use of a considerable number of different observers at many stages of training, most of the various programs undertaken at the observatory have been successfully completed over the past five years. We wish to thank the Brigham Young University College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences as well as the Department of Physics and Astronomy for their continued support of the research activities at the West Mountain Observatory.

Joner, Michael D.

2014-01-01

75

State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain States. Semi-annual progress report, January-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

The following are included: a summary of the state projects, a summary of findings, public outreach, and a description of the major conclusions and recommendations. The commercialization activities carried out by the state teams are described for Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. (MHR)

Tuttle, J.; Coe, B.A.; Gertsch, W.D.; Meyer, R.T.

1980-12-01

76

Does scale matter? The costs of HIV-prevention interventions for commercial sex workers in India.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To explore how the scale of a project affects both the total costs and average costs of HIV prevention in India. METHODS: Economic cost data and measures of scale (coverage and service volume indicators for number of cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) referred, number of STIs treated, condoms distributed and contacts made with target groups) were collected from 17 interventions run by nongovernmental organizations aimed at commercial sex workers in southern India. Nonparametric methods and regression analyses were used to look at the relationship between total costs, unit costs and scale. FINDINGS: Coverage varied from 250 to 2008 sex workers. Annual costs ranged from US$ 11 274 to US$ 52 793. The median cost per sex worker reached was US$ 19.21 (range = US$ 10.00-51.00). The scale variables explain more than 50% of the variation in unit costs for all of the unit cost measures except cost per contact. Total costs and unit costs have non-linear relationships to scale. CONCLUSION: Average costs vary with the scale of the project. Estimates of resource requirements based on a constant average cost could underestimate or overestimate total costs. The results highlight the importance of improving scale-specific cost information for planning. PMID:16283051

Guinness, Lorna; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Rajaraman, Bhuvaneswari; Sankaranarayanan, Girija; Vannela, Gangadhar; Raghupathi, P.; George, Alex

2005-01-01

77

Scale-up studies on high shear wet granulation process from mini-scale to commercial scale.  

PubMed

A newly developed mini-scale high shear granulator was used for scale-up study of wet granulation process from 0.2 to 200 L scales. Under various operation conditions and granulation bowl sizes, powder mixture composed of anhydrous caffeine, D-mannitol, dibasic calcium phosphate, pregelatinized starch and corn starch was granulated by adding water. The granules were tabletted, and disintegration time and hardness of the tablets were evaluated to seek correlations of granulation conditions and tablet properties. As the granulation proceeded, disintegration time was prolonged and hardness decreased. When granulation processes were operated under the condition that agitator tip speed was the same, similar relationship between granulation time and tablet properties, such as disintegration time and hardness, between 0.2 L and 11 L scales were observed. Likewise, between 11 L and 200 L scales similar relationship was observed when operated under the condition that the force to the granulation mass was the same. From the above results, the mini-scale high shear granulator should be useful tool to predict operation conditions of large-scale granulation from its mini-scale operation conditions, where similar tablet properties should be obtained. PMID:18827384

Aikawa, Shouhei; Fujita, Naomi; Myojo, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Takashi; Tanino, Tadatsugu

2008-10-01

78

Multi-scale observations of the variability of magmatic CO2 emissions, Mammoth Mountain, CA, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the primary indicators of volcanic unrest at Mammoth Mountain is diffuse emission of magmatic CO2, which can effectively track this unrest if its variability in space and time and relationship to near-surface meteorological and hydrologic phenomena versus those occurring at depth beneath the mountain are understood. In June-October 2013, we conducted accumulation chamber soil CO2 flux surveys and made half-hourly CO2 flux measurements with automated eddy covariance and accumulation chamber (auto-chamber) instrumentation at the largest area of diffuse CO2 degassing on Mammoth Mountain (Horseshoe Lake tree kill; HLTK). Estimated CO2 emission rates for HLTK based on 20 June, 30 July, and 24-25 October soil CO2 flux surveys were 165, 172, and 231 t d- 1, respectively. The average (June-October) CO2 emission rate estimated for this area was 123 t d- 1 based on an inversion of 4527 eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements and corresponding modeled source weight functions. Average daily eddy covariance and auto-chamber CO2 fluxes consistently declined over the four-month observation time. Wavelet analysis of auto-chamber CO2 flux and environmental parameter time series was used to evaluate the periodicity of, and local correlation between these variables in time-frequency space. Overall, CO2 emissions at HLTK were highly dynamic, displaying short-term (hourly to weekly) temporal variability related to meteorological and hydrologic changes, as well as long-term (monthly to multi-year) variations related to migration of CO2-rich magmatic fluids beneath the volcano. Accumulation chamber soil CO2 flux surveys were also conducted in the four additional areas of diffuse CO2 degassing on Mammoth Mountain in July-August 2013. Summing CO2 emission rates for all five areas yielded a total for the mountain of 311 t d- 1, which may suggest that emissions returned to 1998-2009 levels, following an increase from 2009 to 2011.

Lewicki, J. L.; Hilley, G. E.

2014-09-01

79

Quantitation of employee exposure to emission products generated by commercial-scale processing of polyethylene.  

PubMed

Although considerable research has been performed on the thermal degradation products of polyethylene, no data that can be compared to occupational exposure limits have been reported on the exposure of workers in commercial polyethylene extrusion operations. In this study, the actual airborne concentrations of previously identified analytes were measured during the commercial-scale processing of polyethylene resins. Nine polyethylene resins, spanning LDPE, LLDPE, and HDPE product slates were processed under commercial-scale conditions appropriate to their application: blown film, extrusion coating, blow molding, pipe extrusion, and rotational molding. Air samples were taken from operator breathing zones and of representative workplace air and contained air (inside film bubbles and molded parts) using recognized occupational health and safety protocols. The compounds selected for monitoring consisted of aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, butyraldehyde, crotonaldehyde, and benzaldehyde), aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylenes, and styrene), formic and acetic acids, furan and tetrahydrofuran, and acetone. Airborne particulates also were measured. Of the 450 concentration measured from workplace air and operator breathing zones, 440 were below detection limits. Nine of the remaining ten concentrations were < 10% of the established exposure limits, while one particulate measurement was < 50% of the established exposure limit. As well, 180 contained-air samples were taken. Off-gases trapped inside film bubbles and molded parts accumulated to concentrations above those measured in the ambient air. It was concluded that polyethylene extrusion presents minimal inhalation hazards in a moderately ventilated environment. PMID:7653436

Tikuisis, T; Phibbs, M R; Sonnenberg, K L

1995-08-01

80

Bench- and pilot-scale thermal desorption treatability studies on pesticide-contaminated soils from Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

Thermal desorption is being considered as a potential remediation technology for pesticide-contaminated soils at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in Denver, Colorado. From 1988 through 1992, numerous laboratory- and bench-scale indirect-heated thermal desorption (IHTD) treatability studies have been performed on various soil medium groups from the arsenal. RMA has contracted Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a pilot-scale direct-fired thermal desorption (DFTD) treatability study on pesticide-contaminated RMA soil. The purpose of this treatability study is to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the DFTD technology on contaminated RMA soils and to provide data upon which future conceptual design assumptions and cost estimates for a full-scale system can be made. The equipment used in the DFTD treatability study is of large enough scale to provide good full-scale design parameters and operating conditions. The study will also provide valuable-emissions and materials-handling data. Specifically this program will determine if DFTD can achieve reductions in soil contamination below the RMA preliminary remediation goals (PRGs), define system operating conditions for achieving the PRGs, and determine the fate of arsenic and other hazardous metals at these operating conditions. This paper intends to compare existing data from a bench-scale IHTD treatability study using equipment operated in the batch mode to new data from a pilot-scale DFTD operated in a parallel-flow continuous mode. Delays due to materials-handling problems and permit issues have delayed the start of the pilot-scale DFTD testing. The first pilot-scale test is scheduled for the flat week in January 1995. The available data will be presented March 9, 1995, at the Seventh Annual Gulf Coast Environmental Conference in Houston, Texas.

Swanstrom, C.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Besmer, M. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, CO (United States)

1995-03-09

81

Quantifying mountain block recharge by means of catchment-scale storage-discharge relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the importance of mountainous catchments for providing freshwater resources, especially in semi-arid regions, little is known about key hydrological processes such as mountain block recharge (MBR). Here we implement a data-based method informed by isotopic data to quantify MBR rates using recession flow analysis. We applied our hybrid method in a semi-arid sky island catchment in southern Arizona, United States. Sabino Creek is a 91 km2 catchment with its sources near the summit of the Santa Catalina Mountains northeast of Tucson. Southern Arizona's climate has two distinct wet seasons separated by prolonged dry periods. Winter frontal storms (November-March) provide about 50% of annual precipitation, and summers are dominated by monsoon convective storms from July to September. Isotope analyses of springs and surface water in the Sabino Creek catchment indicate that streamflow during dry periods is derived from groundwater storage in fractured bedrock. Storage-discharge relationships are derived from recession flow analysis to estimate changes in storage during wet periods. To provide reliable estimates, several corrections and improvements to classic base flow recession analysis are considered. These corrections and improvements include adaptive time stepping, data binning, and the choice of storage-discharge functions. Our analysis shows that (1) incorporating adaptive time steps to correct for streamflow measurement errors improves the coefficient of determination, (2) the quantile method is best for streamflow data binning, (3) the choice of the regression model is critical when the stage-discharge function is used to predict changes in bedrock storage beyond the maximum observed flow in the catchment, and (4) the use of daily or night-time hourly streamflow does not affect the form of the storage-discharge relationship but will impact MBR estimates because of differences in the observed range of streamflow in each series.

Ajami, Hoori; Troch, Peter A.; Maddock, Thomas, III; Meixner, Thomas; Eastoe, Chris

2011-04-01

82

Comparison of Five Small-Scale Laboratory Gins to Seven Commercial Gins Sampled Across the Cotton Belt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In research, cotton lint ginned from small seed cotton samples with laboratory scale gin stands is analyzed to estimate properties of lint after commercial ginning, but these gin stands differ from commercial gins. The objective of this experiment was to compare the fiber properties of lint from se...

83

Coupled Analysis of Change in Fracture Permeability during the Cooling Phase of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results from a coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical analysis of thermally-induced permeability changes during heating and cooling of fractured volcanic rock at the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The analysis extends the previous analysis of the four-year heating phase to include newly available data from the subsequent four year cooling phase. The new analysis of the cooling phase shows that the measured changes in fracture permeability follows that of a thermo-hydro-elastic model on average, but at several locations the measured permeability indicates (inelastic) irreversible behavior. At the end of the cooling phase, the air-permeability had decreased at some locations (to as low as 0.2 of initial), whereas it had increased at other locations (to as high as 1.8 of initial). Our analysis shows that such irreversible changes in fracture permeability are consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). These data are important for bounding model predictions of potential thermally-induced changes in rock-mass permeability at a future repository at Yucca Mountain.

Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Tsang, Y.W.; Min, K.B.; Elsworth, D.

2008-06-01

84

Analysis of Coupled Multiphase Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Mechanical Deformation at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test  

SciTech Connect

A numerical simulation of coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transfer, and mechanical deformation was carried out to study coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test (DST) and for validation of a coupled THM numerical simulator. The ability of the numerical simulator to model relevant coupled THM processes at the DST was evaluated by comparison of numerical results to in situ measurements of temperature, water saturation, displacement, and fracture permeability. Of particular relevance for coupled THM processes are thermally induced rock-mass stress and deformations, with associated changes in fracture aperture and fractured rock permeability. Thermally induced rock-mass deformation and accompanying changes in fracture permeability were reasonably well predicted using a continuum elastic model, although some individual measurements of displacement and permeability indicate inelastic mechanical responses. It is concluded that fracture closure/opening caused by a change in thermally induced normal stress across fractures is an important mechanism for changes in intrinsic fracture permeability at the DST, whereas fracture shear dilation appears to be less significant. Observed and predicted maximum permeability changes at the DST are within one order of magnitude. These data are important for bounding model predictions of potential changes in rock-mass permeability at a future repository in Yucca Mountain.

J. Rutqvist; C.F. Tsang; Y. Tsang

2005-05-17

85

Cross-Scale Analysis of the Region Effect on Vascular Plant Species Diversity in Southern and Northern European Mountain Ranges  

PubMed Central

Background The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n?=?403 in each region) to quantify four diversity components: (i) total number of species occurring in a region (total ?-diversity), (ii) number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific ?-diversity), (iii) pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot ?-diversity) and (iv) number of species present per plot (plot ?-diversity). We found strong region effects on total ?-diversity, habitat-specific ?-diversity and plot-to-plot ?-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot ?-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale) diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale) diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot ?-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity components. For instance, plot connectivity and/or selection for high dispersal ability may increase plot ?-diversity and compensate for low total ?-diversity. PMID:21203521

Lenoir, Jonathan; Ggout, Jean-Claude; Guisan, Antoine; Vittoz, Pascal; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Dullinger, Stefan; Pauli, Harald; Willner, Wolfgang; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Virtanen, Risto; Svenning, Jens-Christian

2010-01-01

86

Environmental variables interact across spatial scales to structure trichopteran assemblages in Ouachita Mountain rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important goal in aquatic ecology is to determine the interacting variables that regulate community structure; however,\\u000a complex biotic and abiotic interactions coupled with the significance of scale have confounded the interpretation of community\\u000a data. We evaluated stream and riparian habitat features in southeastern Oklahoma, USA at a range of spatial scales from local,\\u000a in-stream variables to large-scale, regional characteristics

Heather S. Galbraith; Caryn C. Vaughn; C. Kate Meier

2008-01-01

87

Regional-scale analysis of high-mountain multi-hazard and risk in the Pamir (Tajikistan) with GRASS GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model framework for the regional-scale analysis of high-mountain multi-hazard and -risk, implemented with the Open Source software package GRASS GIS. This framework is applied to a 98 300 km2 study area centred in the Pamir (Tajikistan). It includes (i) rock slides, (ii) ice avalanches, (iii) periglacial debris flows, and (iv) lake outburst floods. First, a hazard indication score is assigned to each relevant object (steep rock face, glacier or periglacial slope, lake). This score depends on the susceptibility and on the expected event magnitude. Second, the possible travel distances, impact areas and, consequently, impact hazard indication scores for all types of processes are computed using empirical relationships. These scores are finally superimposed with an exposure score derived from the type of land use, resulting in a raster map of risk indication scores finally discretized at the community level. The analysis results are presented and discussed at different spatial scales. The major outcome of the study, a set of comprehensive regional-scale hazard and risk indication maps, shall represent an objective basis for the prioritization of target communities for further research and risk mitigation measures.

Gruber, F. E.; Mergili, M.

2013-04-01

88

Performance evaluation of a pilot-scale permeable reactive barrier at former Naval Air Station Moffett Field, Mountain View, California: Volume 1. Final report, April 1996November 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot scale permeable reactive barrier (PRB) or treatment wall demonstration project was initiated by the US Navy EFA West at the former Naval Air Station Moffett Field site in Mountain View, California about 3 years ago. Performance evaluations and cost-benefit analyses were performed by the US Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and were sponsored by the Department of

C. Reeter; A. Gavaskar; B. Sass; N. Gupta; J. Hicks

1998-01-01

89

Coarse-scale population structure of pathogenic Armillaria species in a mixed-conifer forest in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coarse-scale population structure of pathogenic Armillaria (Fr.) Staude species was determined on ap- proximately 16 100 ha of relatively dry, mixed-conifer forest in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon. Sampling of recently dead or live, symptomatic conifers produced 112 isolates of Armillaria from six tree species. Armillaria spe- cies identifications done by using a polymerase chain reaction based diagnostic

B. A. Ferguson; T. A. Dreisbach; C. G. Parks; G. M. Filip; C. L. Schmitt

2003-01-01

90

Estimating Snow Water Equivalent in the Swedish mountains by scaling snow depth measurements based on in situ data and local topography using passive and active remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the snow water equivalent (SWE) of the seasonal snow pack in the Swedish mountains is key information for the prediction of spring flood rates and the contribution to water reservoirs in Hydro-power production. The snow pack properties determining the SWE (snow depth and snow density) show spatial variations caused by synoptic scale weather patterns (air temperature gradients, wind and precipitation patterns) topography and vegetation. By establishing the relationship between accumulation patterns and physical parameters in the landscape a model of the spatial organization of the snow pack and its change over the season can be determined. By identifying the frequency and amplitude of topography in the Swedish mountain regions and by measuring snow accumulation in these regions we can increase the accuracy of the estimation of SWE. By using multiple parameters sampled in the snow pack from four sites in the Swedish mountains we quantify the local variability of SWE. This information will then be up-scaled to local coverage based on interpolation weighted on topography and vegetation. By validation of satellite imagery and existing snow cover products the information can be up-scaled from high-resolution field data to regional scale covering the Swedish mountain range in order to derive new satellite algorithms.

Ingvander, Susanne; Johansson, Cecilia; Brandel, Malin; Brown, Ian

2014-05-01

91

Total System Performance Assessment - Analyses for Disposal of Commercial and DOE Waste Inventories at Yucca Mountain - Input to Final Environmental Impact Statement and Site Suitability Evaluation, Rev. 00  

SciTech Connect

This Letter Report presents the results of calculations to assess long-term performance of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and Greater Than Class C (GTCC) radioactive waste and DOE Special Performance Assessment Required (SPAR) radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in Nye County Nevada with respect to the 10,000-year performance period specified in 40 CFR Part 197.30 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32134) with regard to radiation-protection standards. The EPA Final Rule 40 CFR Part 197 has three separate standards, individual-protection, human-intrusion, and groundwater-protection standards, all with a compliance timeframe of 10,000 years. These calculations evaluate the dose to receptors for each of these standards. Further, this Letter Report includes the results of simulations to the 1,000,000-year performance period described in 40 CFR Part 197.35 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32135) which calls for the calculation of the peak dose to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) that would occur after 10,000 years and within the period of geological stability. In accordance with TSPA-SR the ''period of geologic stability'' is from zero to 1,000,000 years after repository closure. The calculations also present the 5th and 95th percentiles, and the mean and median of the set of probabilistic simulations used to evaluate various disposal scenarios.

NA

2001-09-17

92

Large Scale Application of Vibration Sensors for Fan Monitoring at Commercial Layer Hen Houses  

PubMed Central

Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable. PMID:22163544

Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A.; Heber, Albert J.; Bogan, Bill W.; Chai, Li-Long

2010-01-01

93

Constraints on bed scale fracture chronology with a FEM mechanical model of folding: The case of Split Mountain (Utah, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique is presented for improving the structural analysis of natural fractures development in large scale fold structures. A 3D restoration of a fold provides the external displacement loading conditions to solve, by the finite element method, the forward mechanical problem of an idealized rock material with a stress-strain relationship based on the activation of pervasive fracture sets. In this elasto-plasticity constitutive law, any activated fracture set contributes to the total plastic strain by either an opening or a sliding mode of rock failure. Inherited versus syn-folding fracture sets development can be studied using this mechanical model. The workflow of this methodology was applied to the Weber sandstone formation deformed by forced folding at Split Mountain Anticline, Utah for which the different fracture sets were created and developed successively during the Sevier and the syn-folding Laramide orogenic phases. The field observations at the top stratigraphic surface of the Weber sandstone lead to classify the fracture sets into a pre-fold WNW-ESE fracture set, and a NE-SW fracture set post-dating the former. The development and relative chronology of the fracture sets are discussed based on the geomechanical modeling results. Starting with a 3D restoration of the Split Mountain Anticline, three fold-fracture development models were generated, alternately assuming that the WNW-ESE fracture set is either present or absent prior to folding process. Depending on the initial fracture configuration, the calculated fracture patterns are markedly different, showing that assuming a WNW-ESE joint set to predate the fold best correlates with field observations. This study is a first step addressing the complex problem of identification of fold-related fracturing events using an elementary concept of rock mechanics. When tight to complementary field observations, including petrography, diagenesis and burial history, the approach can be used to better constrain fractured reservoir characterization.

Sassi, W.; Guiton, M. L. E.; Leroy, Y. M.; Daniel, J.-M.; Callot, J.-P.

2012-11-01

94

Is there a meaningful dioxin: Chlorine link in commercial scale system flue gases?  

SciTech Connect

An extensive database including more than 1,900 PCDD/F test runs at different types of waste combustors was assembled and analyzed. A series f increasingly sophisticated statistical techniques found that for the vast majority of the data sets, the effect of feed chlorine content on PCDD/F emissions cannot be differentiated from normal variability. The small number of data sets that showed an effect displayed conflicting results. The quantity of PCDD/F increased in some cases and decreased in others. Whatever effect chlorine feed rate has on PCDD/F in the products of combustion, it is not discernible against the background. Consequently, mandatory chlorine reduction programs are unlikely to produce any measurable reduction in the quality or quantity of PCDD/F emissions from commercial scale waste combustors.

Rigo, H.G. [Rigo and Rigo Associates, Inc., Berea, OH (United States); Chandler, A.J. [A.J. Chandler and Associates Ltd., Willowdale, Ontario (Canada); Lanier, W.S. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Durham, NC (United States)

1996-09-01

95

Mountaineers heel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountaineers are at risk of skin lesions caused by constant boot friction. This is the case of a 35 year old mountaineer who presented with large and deeply ulcerated lesions over the medial aspects of both heels after a two and a half day climb using crampons. A number of factors such as the length of the climb in cold

R M Strauss

2004-01-01

96

Landscape-Scale Factors Affecting Feral Horse Habitat Use During Summer Within The Rocky Mountain Foothills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public lands occupied by feral horses in North America are frequently managed for multiple uses with land use conflict occurring among feral horses, livestock, wildlife, and native grassland conservation. The factors affecting habitat use by horses is critical to understand where conflict may be greatest. We related horse presence and abundance to landscape attributes in a GIS to examine habitat preferences using 98 field plots sampled within a portion of the Rocky Mountain Forest Reserve of SW Alberta, Canada. Horse abundance was greatest in grassland and cut block habitats, and lowest in conifer and mixedwood forest. Resource selection probability functions and count models of faecal abundance indicated that horses preferred areas closer to water, with reduced topographic ruggedness, situated farther from forests, and located farther away from primary roads and trails frequented by recreationalists, but closer to small linear features (i.e. cut lines) that may be used as beneficial travel corridors. Horse presence and abundance were closely related to cattle presence during summer, suggesting that both herbivores utilise the same habitats. Estimates of forage biomass removal (44 %) by mid-July were near maximum acceptable levels. In contrast to horse-cattle associations, horses were negatively associated with wild ungulate abundance, although the mechanism behind this remains unclear and warrants further investigation. Our results indicate that feral horses in SW Alberta exhibit complex habitat selection patterns during spring and summer, including overlap in use with livestock. This finding highlights the need to assess and manage herbivore populations consistent with rangeland carrying capacity and the maintenance of range health.

Girard, Tisa L.; Bork, Edward W.; Neilsen, Scott E.; Alexander, Mike J.

2013-02-01

97

Radionuclide transport simulation and uncertainty analyses with the saturated-zone site-scale model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.  

PubMed

Evaluation of radionuclide transport in the saturated zone (SZ) to the accessible environment is an important component of performance assessment for the proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Simulations of radionuclide migration in the SZ have been performed using the calibrated three-dimensional (3-D) SZ site-scale flow and transport model. An innovative particle-tracking method was used to simulate transport that includes the processes of advection, dispersion, matrix diffusion, and sorption. The uncertainties in groundwater flow and radionuclide transport were quantitatively evaluated to develop uncertainty distributions for key model parameters, and multiple realizations of the SZ system were simulated using the SZ site-scale model. The results of multiple realizations of radionuclide transport indicate significant aggregate uncertainty in transport times through the SZ. The simulated radionuclide mass breakthrough curves in the SZ have been coupled with other components of the repository system in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses and constitute the means by which uncertainty in the SZ is incorporated into regulatory analyses. Regression analysis has been used to determine the sensitivity of radionuclide transport simulation results to the uncertainty of individual model input parameters. Results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that median radionuclide transport times were dominantly controlled by uncertainty in the specific discharge in the SZ, with sorption and retardation in the alluvium playing important roles for some radionuclides. PMID:12714302

Arnold, B W; Kuzio, S P; Robinson, B A

2003-01-01

98

Scale Dependencies of Vegetation and Topography in a Mountainous Environment of Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the effects of spatial scale on estimating the relationship between vegetation biomass and topography within a portion of Glacier National Park, Montana. The Reflectance\\/Absorptance vegetation index, developed from processed Landsat Thematic Mapper digital data, is related to three topographic variables obtained through processed Digital Elevation Models: elevation, slope angle, and slope aspect. R values between the vegetation

Ling Bian; Stephen J. Walsh

1993-01-01

99

Mesoscale Mountains and the Larger-scale Atmospheric Dynamics A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION REGIME DIAGRAM FOR FLOW PAST TOPOGRAPHY Balanced Solutions Wake Formation and Transition into the Dissipative Regime Flow Regimes for Major Topographic Obstacles INTERACTIONS WITH THE BALANCED LARGER-SCALE DYNAMICS Surface Potential Temperature Anomalies Potential Vorticity Anomalies NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF ALPINE WAKES OUTLOOK REFERNCES

Schr, C.

100

Modeling Watershed-Scale Surface Water - Groundwater Interactions in Mountain Meadows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow processes in mountain meadows are being investigated using a coupled surface water - groundwater flow model of a Sierra Nevada watershed. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model GSFLOW (Markstrom et al., 2008), an integration of the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW), is being utilized for this effort. This model facilitates representation of complex surface-water flow processes important for understanding meadow hydrology, such as snow-melt and soil-water dynamics, as well as groundwater flow processes. The Sagehen Creek watershed, located on the east slope of the northern Sierra Nevada near Truckee, California, USA, has been selected as the basis for the model configuration. Considerable watershed information is available from studies conducted at the Sagehen Creek Field Station and Experimental Forest, and an existing GSFLOW model for the area (Markstrom et al., 2008). The domain of the previously constructed Sagehen GSFLOW model was extended 4 km downstream increasing the modeled watershed area from 27 km2 to 37 km2. This moved the simulated watershed outlet well below the meadows of interest, allowing for assessment of upstream and downstream effects of meadow restoration on streamflow. Model discretization was decreased from 90 m to 30 m to allow for increased spatial resolution in the meadows. Layer discretization was increased from 2 to 5 layers to facilitate representation of meadow stratigraphy. The increased vertical discretization resulted in considerable drying and rewetting of model cells requiring the use of the recently developed Newton formulation for MODFLOW-2005 (Niswonger et al., 2011). The model is being used to analyze the potential effects of geomorphic channel restoration on meadow groundwater discharge to streams under varying hydrologic conditions. Of specific interest is the role of low-permeability meadow strata in regulating discharge to streams, and the effects of erosional breaching and restoration of these layers. Markstrom et al., 2008, U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-D1, 240 p. Niswonger et al., 2011, U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A37, 44 p.

Essaid, H.; Hill, B. R.

2011-12-01

101

Design and Fabrication of the First Commercial-Scale Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHT) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert synthesis gas (syngas), primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, to methanol. Because of its superior heat management the process can utilize directly the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks. The LPMEOHM Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P., a partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Eastman Chemical Company, to produce methanol from coal-derived syngas. Construction of the LPMEOH~ Process Demonstration Plant at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport was completed in January 1997. Following commissioning and shakedown activities, the fwst production of methanol from the facility occurred on April 2, 1997. Nameplate capacity of 260 short tons per day (TPD) was achieved on April 6, 1997, and production rates have exceeded 300 TPD of methanol at times. This report describes the design, fabrication, and installation of the Kingsport LPMEOEFM reactor, which is the first commercial-scale LPMEOEPM reaetor ever built. The vessel is 7.5 feet in diameter and 70 feet tall with design conditions of 1000 psig at 600 `F. These dimensions represent a significant scale-up from prior experience at the DOE-owned Alternative Fuels Development Unit in LaPorte, Texas, where 18-inch and 22-inch diameter reactors have been tested successfidly over thousands of hours. The biggest obstacles discovered during the scale- up, however, were encountered during fabrication of the vessel. The lessons learned during this process must be considered in tailoring the design for future sites, where the reactor dimensions may grow by yet another factor of two.

None

1998-12-21

102

Iceberg calving as a primary source of regional?scale glacier?generated seismicity in the St. Elias Mountains, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since the installation of the Alaska Regional Seismic Network in the 1970s, data analysts have noted nontectonic seismic events thought to be related to glacier dynamics. While loose associations with the glaciers of the St. Elias Mountains have been made, no detailed study of the source locations has been undertaken. We performed a two-step investigation surrounding these events, beginning with manual locations that guided an automated detection and event sifting routine. Results from the manual investigation highlight characteristics of the seismic waveforms including single-peaked (narrowband) spectra, emergent onsets, lack of distinct phase arrivals, and a predominant cluster of locations near the calving termini of several neighboring tidewater glaciers. Through these locations, comparison with previous work, analyses of waveform characteristics, frequency-magnitude statistics and temporal patterns in seismicity, we suggest calving as a source for the seismicity. Statistical properties and time series analysis of the event catalog suggest a scale-invariant process that has no single or simple forcing. These results support the idea that calving is often a response to short-lived or localized stress perturbations. Our results demonstrate the utility of passive seismic instrumentation to monitor relative changes in the rate and magnitude of iceberg calving at tidewater glaciers that may be volatile or susceptible to ensuing rapid retreat, especially when existing seismic infrastructure can be used.

O'Neel, Shad R.; Larsen, Christopher F.; Rupert, Natalia; Hansen, Roger

2010-01-01

103

A Conceptual and Numerical Model for Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Processes in the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model was developed to predict the coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes accompanying the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The DST has been closely monitored through the collection of gas, water, and mineral samples as well as thermal, hydrological, and mechanical measurements. A two-dimensional dual permeability model was developed to evaluate multiphase, multicomponent, reaction-transport processes in the fractured tuff. Comparisons between results using the TOUGHREACT code and measured water (e.g., pH, SiO2(aq), Na+, K+) and gas (CO2) compositions show that the model captures the chemical evolution in the DST. Non-reactive aqueous species (e.g., Cl) show strong dilution in fracture waters, indicating little fracture-matrix interaction. Silica concentrations are higher than in the initial pore water and show a trend of increasing reaction with fracture-lining silicates at higher temperatures. The narrow precipitation zone of predominantly amorphous silica observed above the heaters was also captured.

Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Spycher, Nicolas F.; Conrad, Mark; Apps, John

2003-07-01

104

Preliminary development of the LBL/USGS three-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

A 3-D model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed at LBL in cooperation with USGS. This site-scale model covers an area of about 34 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the north, east, and west. The relatively coarse-grid model includes about 300 horizontal grid-blocks and 17 layers. Contour maps and isopach maps are presented defining different types of infiltration zones, and the spatial distribution of Tiva Canyon, Paintbrush, and Topopah Spring hydrogeological units. Matrix flow is approximated using the van Genuchten model, and the equivalent continuum approximation is used to account for fracture flow in the welded units. One-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations are conducted using the TOUGH2 computer program. Steady-state simulations are performed with various uniform and nonuniform infiltration rates; results are interpreted in terms of effect of fault characteristics on moisture flow distribution, and on the location and formation of preferential pathways.

Wittwer, C. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France). Dept. Geothermie et Hydroenergie; Chen, G.; Bodvarsson, G.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chornack, M.; Flint, A.; Flint, L.; Kwicklis, E.; Spengler, R. [US Geologic Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center

1995-06-01

105

On the relationship between ecosystem-scale hyperspectral reflectance and CO2 exchange in European mountain grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we explore the use of hyperspectral reflectance measurements and vegetation indices (VIs) derived therefrom in estimating carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes (net ecosystem exchange - NEE; gross primary production - GPP), and some key ecophysiological variables related to NEE and GPP (light use efficiency - ?; initial quantum yield - ?; and GPP at saturating light - GPPmax) for grasslands. Hyperspectral reflectance data (400-1000 nm), CO2 fluxes and biophysical parameters were measured at three grassland sites located in European mountain regions. The relationships between CO2 fluxes, ecophysiological variables and VIs derived using all two-band combinations of wavelengths available from the whole hyperspectral data space were analysed. We found that hyperspectral VIs generally explained a large fraction of the variability in the investigated dependent variables and that they generally exhibited more skill in estimating midday and daily average GPP and NEE, as well as GPPmax, than ? and ?. Relationships between VIs and CO2 fluxes and ecophysiological parameters were site-specific, likely due to differences in soils, vegetation parameters and environmental conditions. Chlorophyll and water content related VIs (e.g. CI, NPCI, WI), reflecting seasonal changes in biophysical parameters controlling the photosynthesis process, explained the largest fraction of variability in most of the dependent variables. A limitation of the hyperspectral sensors is that their cost is still high and the use laborious. At the eddy covariance with a limited budget and without technical support, we suggest to use at least dual or four channels low cost sensors in the the following spectral regions: 400-420 nm; 500-530 nm; 750-770 nm; 780-800 nm and 880-900 nm. In addition, our findings have major implications for up-scaling terrestrial CO2 fluxes to larger regions and for remote and proximal sensing sampling and analysis strategies and call for more cross-site synthesis studies linking ground-based spectral reflectance with ecosystem-scale CO2 fluxes.

Balzarolo, M.; Vescovo, L.; Hammerle, A.; Gianelle, D.; Papale, D.; Wohlfahrt, G.

2014-07-01

106

Pre-site characterization risk analysis for commercial-scale carbon sequestration.  

PubMed

This study develops a probability framework to evaluate subsurface risks associated with commercial-scale carbon sequestration in the Kevin Dome, Montana. Limited knowledge of the spatial distribution of physical attributes of the storage reservoir and the confining rocks in the area requires using regional data to estimate project risks during the pre-site characterization analysis. A set of integrated Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess four risk proxies: the CO2 injectivity, area of review (AoR), migration rate into confining rocks, and a monitoring strategy prior to detailed site characterization. Results show a reasonable likelihood of reaching the project goal of injecting 1 Mt in 4 years with a single injection well (>58%), increasing to >70% if the project is allowed to run for 5 years. The mean radius of the AoR, based on a 0.1 MPa pressure change, is around 4.8 km. No leakage of CO2 through the confining units is seen in any simulations. The computed CO2 detection probability suggests that the monitoring wells should be located at less than 1.2 km away from the injection well so that CO2 is likely to be detected within the time frame of the project. The scientific results of this study will be used to inform the detailed site characterization process and to provide more insight for understanding operational and technical risks before injecting CO2. PMID:24625081

Dai, Zhenxue; Stauffer, Philip H; Carey, J William; Middleton, Richard S; Lu, Zhiming; Jacobs, John F; Hnottavange-Telleen, Ken; Spangler, Lee H

2014-04-01

107

A numerical study of barotropic vortex motion near a large-scale mountain range with application to the motion of tropical cyclones approaching the Sierra Madre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The motion of an idealized vortex near a large-scale mountain range is examined by numerically integrating the single-layer shallow-water equations on an equatorial beta plane. Modification of the asymmetric circulation by divergent vorticity generation as the air is forced across the ridge greatly affects the motion of the vortex. Attention is focused on the role of the vortex structure,

J. A. Zehnder; M. J. Reeder

1997-01-01

108

Multidimensionality and scale in a landscape ethnoecological partitioning of a mountainous landscape (Gyimes, Eastern Carpathians, Romania)  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional habitat knowledge is an understudied part of traditional knowledge. Though the number of studies increased world-wide in the last decade, this knowledge is still rarely studied in Europe. We document the habitat vocabulary used by Csng people, and determine features they used to name and describe these categories. Study area and methods Csng people live in Gyimes (Carpathians, Romania). The area is dominated by coniferous forests, hay meadows and pastures. Animal husbandry is the main source of living. Data on the knowledge of habitat preference of 135 salient wild plant species were collected (2908 records, 44 interviewees). Data collected indoors were counterchecked during outdoor interviews and participatory field work. Results Csngs used a rich and sophisticated vocabulary to name and describe habitat categories. They distinguished altogether at least 142148 habitat types, and named them by 242 habitat terms. We argue that the method applied and the questions asked (what kind of place does species X like?) helped the often implicit knowledge of habitats to be verbalized more efficiently than usual in an interview. Habitat names were highly lexicalized and most of them were widely shared. The main features were biotic or abiotic, like land-use, dominant plant species, vegetation structure, successional stage, disturbance, soil characteristics, hydrological, and geomorphological features. Csngs often used indicator species (28, mainly herbaceous taxa) in describing habitats of species. To prevent reduction in the quantity and/or quality of hay, unnecessary disturbance of grasslands was avoided by the Csngs. This could explain the high number of habitats (35) distinguished dominantly by the type and severity of disturbance. Based on the spatial scale and topological inclusiveness of habitat categories we distinguished macro-, meso-, and microhabitats. Conclusions Csng habitat categories were not organized into a single hierarchy, and the partitioning was multidimensional. Multidimensional description of habitats, made the nuanced characterization of plant species habitats possible by providing innumerable possibilities to combine the most salient habitat features. We conclude that multidimensionality of landscape partitioning and the number of dimensions applied in a landscape seem to depend on the number of key habitat gradients in the given landscape. PMID:23388111

2013-01-01

109

Disturbance Ecology and Vegetation Dynamics at Varying Spatial and Temporal Scales in Southern Rocky Mountain Engelmann Spruce Forests.  

E-print Network

??High-severity disturbances are the primary drivers of Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir ecosystems in the southern Rocky Mountain. Recently, an unprecedented, landscape-wide (at least 250 km2) spruce (more)

DeRose, R. Justin

2009-01-01

110

Correcting basin-scale snowfall in a mountainous basin using a distributed snowmelt model and remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adequate estimation of the spatial distribution of snowfall is critical in hydrologic modeling. However, this is a well-known problem in estimating basin-scale snowfall, especially in mountainous basins with data scarcity. This study focuses on correction and estimation of this spatial distribution, which considers topographic effects within the basin. A method is proposed that optimizes an altitude-based snowfall correction factor (Cfsnow). This is done through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed, multilayer energy and water balance-based snowmelt model (WEB-DHM-S) with observed discharge and remotely sensed snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Shuffled Complex Evolution - University of Arizona automatic search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal value of Cfsnow for minimum cumulative error in discharge and snow cover simulations. Discharge error is quantified by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and relative volume deviation, and snow cover error was estimated by pixel-by-pixel analysis. The study region is the heavily snow-fed Yagisawa Basin of the Upper Tone River in northeast Japan. First, the system was applied to one snow season (2002-2003), obtaining an optimized Cfsnow of 0.0007 m-1. For validation purposes, the optimized Cfsnow was implemented to correct snowfall in 2004, 2002 and 2001. Overall, the system was effective, implying improvements in correlation of simulated vs. observed discharge and snow cover. The 4 yr mean of basin-average snowfall for the corrected spatial snowfall distribution was 1160 mm (780 mm before correction). Execution of sensitivity runs against other model input and parameters indicated that Cfsnow could be affected by uncertainty in shortwave radiation and setting of the threshold air temperature parameter. Our approach is suitable to correct snowfall and estimate its distribution in poorly-gauged basins, where elevation dependence of snowfall amount is strong.

Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

2013-09-01

111

Preliminary development of the LBL/USGS three-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This site-scale model covers and area of about 34 km2 and is bounded by major faults to the north, east and west. The model geometry is defined (1) to represent the variations of hydrogeological units between the ground surface and the water table; (2) to be able to reproduce the effect of abrupt changes in hydrogeological parameters at the boundaries between hyrdogeological units; and (3) to include the influence of major faults. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on the locations of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Contour maps and isopatch maps are presented defining different types of infiltration zones, and the spatial distribution of Tiva Canyon, Paintbrush, and Topopah Spring hydrogeological units. The grid geometry consists of seventeen non-uniform layers which represent the lithological variations within the four main welded and non-welded hydrogeological units. Matrix flow is approximated using the van Genuchten model, and the equivalent continuum approximation is used to account for fracture flow in the welded units. The fault zones are explicitly modeled as porous medium using various assumptions regarding their permeabilities and characteristic curves. One-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations are conducted using the TOUGH2 computer program. Steady-state simulations are performed with various uniform and non-uniform infiltration rates. The results are interpreted in terms of the effect of fault characteristics on the moisture flow distribution, and on location and formation of preferential pathways.

1995-01-01

112

Thermoregulation and microhabitat use in mountain butterflies of the genus Erebia: importance of fine-scale habitat heterogeneity.  

PubMed

Mountain butterflies have evolved efficient thermoregulation strategies enabling their survival in marginal conditions with short flight season and unstable weather. Understanding the importance of their behavioural thermoregulation by habitat use can provide novel information for predicting the fate of alpine Lepidoptera and other insects under ongoing climate change. We studied the link between microhabitat use and thermoregulation in adults of seven species of a butterfly genus Erebia co-occurring in the Austrian Alps. We captured individuals in the field and measured their body temperature in relation to microhabitat and air temperature. We asked whether closely related species regulate their body temperature differently, and if so, what is the effect of behaviour, species traits and individual traits on body to air and body to microhabitat temperature differences. Co-occurring species differed in mean body temperature. These differences were driven by active microhabitat selection by individuals and also by species-specific habitat preferences. Species inhabiting grasslands and rocks utilised warmer microclimates to maintain higher body temperature than woodland species. Under low air temperatures, species of rocky habitats heated up more effectively than species of grasslands and woodlands which allowed them to stay active in colder weather. Species morphology and individual traits play rather minor roles in the thermoregulatory differences; although large species and young individuals maintained higher body temperature. We conclude that diverse microhabitat conditions at small spatial scales probably contribute to sympatric occurrence of closely related species with different thermal demands and that preserving heterogeneous conditions in alpine landscapes might mitigate detrimental consequences of predicted climate change. PMID:24679972

Kleckova, Irena; Konvicka, Martin; Klecka, Jan

2014-04-01

113

Evaluation of microbial stability, bioactive compounds, physicochemical properties, and consumer acceptance of pomegranate juice processed in a commercial scale pulsed electric field system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper investigated the feasibility for pasteurizing raw pomegranate juice in a commercial scale pulsed electric field (PEF) system. The juice was processed in a commercial scale PEF processing system at 35 and 38 kV/cm for 281 s at 55 degree C with a flow rate of 100 L/h. Effect of PEF process...

114

Using 10Be to quantify rates of landscape change in 'dead' orogens - millennial scale rates of bedrock and basin-scale erosion in the southern and central Appalachian Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Appalachian Mountain chain stretches north-south along the eastern margin of North America, in places rising a thousand meters and more above the adjacent piedmont. Here, Davis built his paradigm of landscape evolution, seeing landscape rejuvenation and dissected peneplains, a transient landscape. Hack saw the Appalachians as a dynamic system where topography was adjusted to rock strength, a steady-state landscape. Neither had quantitative data by which to test their theories. Today, we approach landscapes of the Appalachian Mountains quite differently. Over the past decade, we and others have measured in situ-produced 10Be in more than 300 samples of quartz isolated from Appalachian drainage basin sediments and in more than 100 samples from exposed Appalachian bedrock outcrops, most of which are on ridgelines. Samples have been collected from the Susquehanna, Potomac, and Shenandoah drainage basins as well as from the area around the Great Smoky Mountain National Park and the Blue Ridge escarpment, and from rivers draining from the Appalachians across the southeastern United States Piedmont. Most areas of the Appalachian Mountains are eroding only slowly; the average for all drainage basin samples analyzed to date is ~18 m/My (n=328). The highest basin-scale erosion rates, 25-70 m/My are found in the Appalachian Plateau and in the Great Smoky Mountains. Lower rates, on the order on 10-20 m/My, characterize the Shenandoah, Potomac, and Blue Ridge escarpment areas. There is a significant, positive relationship between basin-scale erosion rates and average basin slope. Steeper basins are in general eroding more rapidly than less steep basins. On the whole, the erosion rates of bedrock outcrops are either lower than or similar to those measured at a basin scale. The average erosion rate for samples of outcropping bedrock collected from the Appalachians is ~15 m/My (n=101). In the Potomac River Basin and the Great Smoky Mountains, bedrock and basin-scale erosion rates are similar implying long-term steady erosion consistent with dynamic steady state as advocated by Hack. However, in the Susquehanna drainage, basin scale erosion rates are significantly higher than those measured from outcrops suggesting that over time, relief is increasing. The Susquehanna River basin appears to be responding to a transient perturbation, ala Davis.

Bierman, P. R.; Reusser, L.; Portenga, E.

2011-12-01

115

Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences; Shevenell, L., Garside, L. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

1995-12-01

116

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOTH) Process  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOI-P Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman coal-to-chemicals complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, initial planning and procurement work continued on the seven project sites which have been accepted for participation in the off-site, product-use test program. Approximately 12,000 gallons of fuel-grade methanol (98+ wt% methanol, 4 wt% water) produced during operation on carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas at the LPMEOW Demonstration Unit was loaded into trailers and shipped off-site for Mure product-use testing. At one of the projects, three buses have been tested on chemical-grade methanol and on fhel-grade methanol from the LPMEOW Demonstration Project. During the reporting period, planning for a proof-of-concept test run of the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME~ Process at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, TX continued. The commercial catalyst manufacturer (Calsicat) has prepared the first batch of dehydration catalyst in large-scale equipment. Air Products will test a sample of this material in the laboratory autoclave. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laborato~ autoclave), was monitored for the initial extended operation at the lower initial reactor operating temperature of 235oC. At this condition, the decrease in catalyst activity with time from the period 20 December 1997 through 27 January 1998 occurred at a rate of 1.0% per day, which represented a significant improvement over the 3.4Yi per day decline measured during the initial six weeks of operation in April and May of 1997. The deactivation rate also improved from the longer-term rate of 1.6% per day calculated throughout the summer and autumn of 1997.

None

1998-12-21

117

Generating local scale land use/cover change scenarios: case studies of high-risk mountain areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between land use/cover changes and consequences to human well-being is well acknowledged and has led to higher interest of both researchers and decision makers in driving forces and consequences of such changes. For example, removal of natural vegetation cover or urban expansion resulting in new elements at risk can increase hydro-meteorological risk. This is why it is necessary to study how the land use/cover could evolve in the future. Emphasis should especially be given to areas experiencing, or expecting, high rates of socio-economic change. A suitable approach to address these changes is scenario development; it offers exploring possible futures and the corresponding environmental consequences, and aids decision-making, as it enables to analyse possible options. Scenarios provide a creative methodology to depict possible futures, resulting from existing decisions, based on different assumptions of future socio-economic development. They have been used in various disciplines and on various scales, such as flood risk and soil erosion. Several studies have simulated future scenarios of land use/cover changes at a very high success rate, however usually these approaches are tailor made for specific case study areas and fit to available data. This study presents a multi-step scenario generation framework, which can be transferable to other local scale case study areas, taking into account the case study specific consequences of land use/cover changes. Through the use of experts' and decision-makers' knowledge, we aimed to develop a framework with the following characteristics: (1) it enables development of scenarios that are plausible, (2) it can overcome data inaccessibility, (3) it can address intangible and external driving forces of land use/cover change, and (4) it ensures transferability to other local scale case study areas with different land use/cover change processes and consequences. To achieve this, a set of different methods is applied including: qualitative methods such as interviews, group discussions and fuzzy cognitive mapping to identify land use/cover change processes, their driving forces and possible consequences, and final scenario generation; and geospatial methods such as GIS, geostatistics and environmental modeling in an environment for geoprocessing objects (Dinamica EGO) for spatial allocation of these scenarios. The methods were applied in the Italian Alps and the Romanian Carpathians. Both are mountainous areas, however they differ in terms of past and most likely future socio-economic development, and therefore consequent land use/cover changes. Whereas we focused on urban expansion due to tourism development in the Alps, we focused on possible deforestation trajectories in the Carpathians. In both areas, the recognized most significant driving forces were either not covered by accessible data, or were characterized as intangible. With the proposed framework we were able to generate futures scenarios despite these shortcomings, and enabling the transferability of the method.

Malek, iga; Glade, Thomas; Boerboom, Luc

2014-05-01

118

Changes in Stream Water Quality Related to Land Use and Watershed Scale in the Catskill Mountains of New York State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New York City`s West-of-Hudson reservoir system supplies about 85% of the city`s water supply. Land use management in this region has strong implications for water quality because it is the water supply for 9 million people. The city needs information on the effects of current and future land use on water quality. To address these needs the U.S. Geological Survey operates 34 stream gaging stations within the West-of-Hudson reservoir system in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. Water quality and stream flow data are collected at 12 of these sites, grab samples are collected bi-weekly and storm samples are collected using automated samplers. The gages are arranged in a nested watershed design with one or more forested ``upper-nodes`` and a ``lower node`` located at some distance downstream. The watersheds range in size from 2.0 to 177.7 km2 and data for this study were collected from 2000 to 2004. The two principal land uses within the region are forest and agriculture. Residential and commercial land use account for less than 1% of the area in the watersheds included in the study. Watersheds with agricultural land use greater than 2% had the highest median concentration of total phosphorus (TP) and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) in stream water, but there was no relation between the percentage of agricultural land use and TP or TDP concentration. The watershed with the highest percentage of agricultural land use (38%) had TP and TDP concentrations similar to another watershed with 3% agricultural land use. The highest TP and TDP stream water concentrations were measured in a watershed that had 20% agricultural land use, but was the smallest of the lower node watersheds (37 km2). Likewise there was no relation between land use and median nitrate concentration, indeed the highest median nitrate concentration was measured in a watershed that was 99% forested. Water quality from forested watersheds had lower nutrient concentrations than that from agricultural watersheds, although not all agricultural watersheds had high nutrient concentrations. Since agriculture in this region typically consists of small, family-operated dairy farms, their influence on water quality is small. Base cations increased from upper nodes to lower nodes as did pH and acid neutralizing capacity, but these increases were not related to land use. Neither changes in flow nor change in basin size was correlated with the change in water chemistry from upper nodes to lower nodes. These results underscore the difficulty in trying to generalize the effect of land use on stream water quality in areas where there are not large variations in land use or when land use does not profoundly affect the landscape. Analysis of individual storms that occurred in all of the watersheds may provide additional insight into watershed responses during high flow.

McHale, M.

2005-12-01

119

A multi-scale analysis of streamflow response to changes in evapotranspiration and soil hydrology in the Blue Ridge Mountains  

EPA Science Inventory

A large amount of research exploring the relationship between watershed forest cover and streamflow quantity has been conducted in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, particularly in association with the USFS Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and the Coweeta LTER. However, a clear ans...

120

Calculating the azimuth of mountain waves, using the eect of tilted ne-scale stable layers on VHF radar echoes  

E-print Network

radar echoes Richard M. Worthington Department of Physics, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Dyfed, SY23 between four o-vertical radar beams, caused by mountain waves, can be used to calculate the orientation of the wavevector), is given by the vector WPE ? PWY WPN ? PS; PN, PS, PE, PW are radar echo powers, measured in d

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

121

Mountain Biking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announcing a new WWW page for Mountain Biking enthusiasts. This page focuses on mountain biking in the San Francisco Bay area (including descriptions of several local trails), but also contains links to descriptions of mountain biking in other areas, including Pittsburgh, Colorado, Utah and New Zealand.

122

Occurrence of Eimeria species parasites on small-scale commercial chicken farms in Africa and indication of economic profitability.  

PubMed

Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa. PMID:24391923

Fornace, Kimberly M; Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P; Rushton, Jonathan

2013-01-01

123

Occurrence of Eimeria Species Parasites on Small-Scale Commercial Chicken Farms in Africa and Indication of Economic Profitability  

PubMed Central

Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa. PMID:24391923

Fornace, Kimberly M.; Clark, Emily L.; Macdonald, Sarah E.; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A.; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P.; Rushton, Jonathan

2013-01-01

124

Decades-Scale Degradation of Commercial, Side-Chain, Fluorotelomer-based Polymers in Soils & Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs) are a primary product of the jluorotelomer industry, yet the role of commercial FTPs in degrading to form perjluorocarboxylic acids (P FCAs), including perjluorooctanoic acid, and P FCA precursors, remains ill-defined. Here we report on a 376-d...

125

Evaluating treatment efficacy in commercial food facilities: Insights gained from small-scale simulated warehouse experiments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although critical to a successful IPM program, it is challenging to evaluate treatment efficacy in commercial food facilities because of the inability to obtain absolute estimates of insect population levels. These populations are spatial fragmented and occupy cryptic habitats such as equipment, pa...

126

Radiation Tests of Highly Scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories - Update 2010  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories with NAND architecture are now available from several manufacturers. This report examines SEE effects and TID response in single-level cell (SLC) and multi-level cell (MLC) NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology.

Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.

2010-01-01

127

Radiation Tests of Highly scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories--Update 2011  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories with NAND architecture are now available from several manufacturers. This report examines SEE effects and TID response in single-level cell (SLC) 32Gb and multi-level cell (MLC) 64Gb NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology.

Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.

2011-01-01

128

Northern Rocky Mountain Wildfires and Debris Flows: Millennial-Scale Interactions among Climate, Fire, Vegetation, and Geomorphic Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As summer droughts and rising temperatures in the Western U.S. continue to fuel large wildfires, understanding the role of fire in mountain ecosystems becomes increasingly relevant. Past relationships among fire, climate, and vegetation change may help place recent fires within a historic context. In addition, post-fire floods and debris flows contribute large amounts of sediment to rivers and streams. Quantifying fire-related sediment inputs is important for disciplines ranging from stream ecology to landscape evolution. We examine evidence of fires and related hillslope erosion through 14C dating of alluvial charcoal fragments preserved in Holocene fire-related deposits in alluvial fans and stream sediments throughout a range of ecosystems in Idaho, USA. In addition, we measure sediment yields from recent fire-related debris flows and extrapolate the contribution of fire-related sediment inputs to streams over millennial timescales. Over Holocene timescales, independent records of forest-fires and fire-related erosion from ecosystems ranging from sagebrush steppe, pinion-juniper, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine and mixed conifer forests indicate that sedimentation rates and processes on alluvial fans vary temporally with Holocene climate, and spatially with vegetation type. Despite variations in ecosystem type and associated fire regimes, many sites show similar broad-scale patterns. During the Pleistocene-Holocene transition large fires burned across many ecosystems. The mid-Holocene (~4-8 ka) is characterized by few fire-related deposits; however, this relatively fire-free interval is punctuated by fire peaks and associated sheetflooding ~7-6 ka. Since regional paleoclimatic reconstructions indicate the mid-Holocene was generally warm and dry the lack of fire is somewhat counterintuitive; however, decreased fuel loads, combined with perhaps a more stable climate may reduce fire and storm intensity and frequency. The late Holocene (last ~3 ka) cooler, wetter and more variable climates are characterized by an increase in fire activity at all sites, and a general increase in large debris flows. Medieval droughts correspond with major fire and debris flow peaks ~1000-800 cal yr BP; decadal to annual droughts during the generally cooler and wetter LIA also promote fire peaks ~500-300 cal yr BP. The last ~ 3 ka also corresponds with the arrival of fire-prone pine species at several of the study areas. In the Middle Fork Salmon River of central Idaho, > 40% of the watershed has burned in the last 30 years and erosion from severely burned hillslopes produced many large fire-related debris flows. Fire-related deposits compose 74 25% of total alluvial fan thickness in upper wetter ecosystems versus 41 33% recorded in lower drier basins. Recent (1997-2008) moderate to high-severity fires produced debris flows in tributary basins underlain by easily erodible Idaho Batholith granites. Sediment yields from these debris flow range from ~1,450-34,550 Mg/km2. Over the last 6 ka, we estimate fire-related debris flows have contributed ~30-100 Mg/km2/ yr of sediment to the Middle Fork Salmon River.

Pierce, J. L.; Riley, K. E.; Weppner, K.

2012-12-01

129

Preliminary 3-D site-scale studies of radioactive colloid transortin the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The U.S: Department of Energy is actively investigating the technical feasibility of permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this study we investigate, by means of numerical simulation, the transport of radioactive colloids under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table. The site hydrology and the effects of the spatial distribution of hydraulic and transport properties in the Yucca Mountain subsurface are considered. The study of migration and retardation of colloids accounts for the complex processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, and includes advection, diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion, kinetic colloid filtration, colloid straining, and radioactive decay. The results of the study indicate that the most important factors affecting colloid transport are the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The transport of colloids is strongly influenced by their size (as it affects diffusion into the matrix, straining at hydrogeologic unit interfaces, and transport velocity) and by the parameters of the kinetic-filtration model used for the simulations. Arrival times at the water table decrease with an increasing colloid size because of smaller diffusion, increased straining, and higher transport velocities. The importance of diffusion as a retardation mechanism increases with a decreasing colloid size, but appears to be minimal in large colloids.

Moridis, G.J.; Hu, Q.; Wu, Y.-S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

2001-09-01

130

Externality effects of small-scale hazardous waste sites: evidence from urban commercial property markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have found that severely contaminated properties, such as those on the U.S. EPA's National Priority List (NPL), reduce the value of nearby single-family homes. However, the vast majority of hazardous waste sites (HWS) are not so severely contaminated as those on the NPL. We also know little about HWS effects on other land-uses such as commercial and industrial properties,

Keith R. Ihlanfeldt; Laura O. Taylor

2004-01-01

131

Single-Event Upset and Scaling Trends in New Generation of the Commercial SOI PowerPC Microprocessors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SEU from heavy-ions is measured for SOI PowerPC microprocessors. Results for 0.13 micron PowerPC with 1.1V core voltages increases over 1.3V versions. This suggests that improvement in SEU for scaled devices may be reversed. In recent years there has been interest in the possible use of unhardened commercial microprocessors in space because of their superior performance compared to hardened processors. However, unhardened devices are susceptible to upset from radiation space. More information is needed on how they respond to radiation before they can be used in space. Only a limited number of advanced microprocessors have been subjected to radiation tests, which are designed with lower clock frequencies and higher internal core voltage voltages than recent devices [1-6]. However the trend for commercial Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessors is to reduce feature size and internal core voltage and increase the clock frequency. Commercial microprocessors with the PowerPC architecture are now available that use partially depleted SOI processes with feature size of 90 nm and internal core voltage as low as 1.0 V and clock frequency in the GHz range. Previously, we reported SEU measurements for SOI commercial PowerPCs with feature size of 0.18 and 0.13 m [7, 8]. The results showed an order of magnitude reduction in saturated cross section compared to CMOS bulk counterparts. This paper examines SEUs in advanced commercial SOI microprocessors, focusing on SEU sensitivity of D-Cache and hangs with feature size and internal core voltage. Results are presented for the Motorola SOI processor with feature sizes of 0.13 microns and internal core voltages of 1.3 and 1.1 V. These results are compared with results for the Motorola SOI processors with feature size of 0.18 microns and internal core voltage of 1.6 and 1.3 V.

Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; Kouba, Coy K.

2006-01-01

132

Decadal-scale variability of diffuse CO2 emissions and seismicity revealed from long-term monitoring (1995-2013) at Mammoth Mountain, California, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mammoth Mountain, California, is a dacitic volcano that has experienced several periods of unrest since 1989. The onset of diffuse soil CO2 emissions at numerous locations on the flanks of the volcano began in 1989-1990 following an 11-month period of heightened seismicity. CO2 emission rates were measured yearly from 1995 to 2013 at Horseshoe Lake (HSL), the largest tree kill area on Mammoth Mountain, and measured intermittently at four smaller degassing areas around Mammoth from 2006 to 2013. The long-term record at HSL shows decadal-scale variations in CO2 emissions with two peaks in 2000-2001 and 2011-2012, both of which follow peaks in seismicity by 2-3 years. Between 2000 and 2004 emissions gradually declined during a seismically quiet period, and from 2004 to 2009 were steady at ~ 100 metric tonnes per day (t d- 1). CO2 emissions at the four smaller tree-kill areas also increased by factors of 2-3 between 2006 and 2011-2012, demonstrating a mountain-wide increase in degassing. Delays between the peaks in seismicity and degassing have been observed at other volcanic and hydrothermal areas worldwide, and are thought to result from an injection of deep CO2-rich fluid into shallow subsurface reservoirs causing a pressurization event with a delayed transport to the surface. Such processes are consistent with previous studies at Mammoth, and here we highlight (1) the mountain-wide response, (2) the characteristic delay of 2-3 years, and (3) the roughly decadal reoccurrence interval for such behavior. Our best estimate of total CO2 degassing from Mammoth Mountain was 416 t d- 1 in 2011 during the peak of emissions, over half of which was emitted from HSL. The cumulative release of CO2 between 1995 and 2013 from diffuse emissions is estimated to be ~ 2-3 Mt, and extrapolation back to 1989 gives ~ 4.8 Mt. This amount of CO2 release is similar to that produced by the mid-sized (VEI 3) 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano in Alaska (~ 2.3 Mt over 11 months), and significantly lower than long-term emissions from hydrothermal areas such as Solfatara in Campi Flegrei, Italy (16 Mt over 28 years).

Werner, Cynthia; Bergfeld, Deborah; Farrar, Christopher D.; Doukas, Michael P.; Kelly, Peter J.; Kern, Christoph

2014-12-01

133

SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION FOR THE PORT OF NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination and beneficial use of dredged material is a component of a comprehensive Dredged Material Management Plan for the Port of New York and New Jersey. The authors describe here a regional contaminated sediment decontamination program that is being implemented to meet the needs of the Port. The components of the train include: (1) dredging and preliminary physical processing (materials handling), (2) decontamination treatment, (3) beneficial use, and (4) public outreach. Several types of treatment technologies suitable for use with varying levels of sediment contamination have been selected based on the results of bench- and pilot-scale tests. This work is being conducted under the auspices of the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA). The use of sediment washing is suitable for sediments with low to moderate contamination levels, typical of industrialized waterways. BioGenesis Enterprises and Roy F. Weston, Inc. performed the first phase of an incremental decontamination demonstration with the goal of decontaminating 700 cubic yards (cy) (pilot-scale) for engineering design and cost economics information for commercial scale operations. This pilot test was completed in March, 1999. The next phase will scale-up to operation of a commercial facility capable of treating 40 cy/hr. It is anticipated that this will be completed by January 2000 (250,000 cy/yr). Manufactured topsoil is one beneficial use product from this process. Tests of two high-temperature treatment technologies are also in progress. They are well suited to produce almost complete destruction of organic compounds in moderate to highly contaminated dredged materials and for production of high-value beneficial reuse products. The Institute of Gas Technology is demonstrating a natural gas-fired thermochemical manufacturing process with an initial treatment capacity of 30,000 cy/yr into operation by the fall of 1999. Design and construction of a 100,000 cy/yr facility will be based on the operational results obtained from the demonstration facility. The decontaminated dredged material will be converted to a construction-grade cement. Prior bench- and pilot-scale tests showed that this treatment removes 99.99% of the organic contaminants and immobilizes the metals. The Westinghouse Science and Technology Center has demonstrated use of a high-temperature plasma to achieve 99.99% removal efficiencies for organic contaminants while immobilizing metals in a glass matrix. It was shown that a glass product such as tiles or fibers can be produced and that it can be used for manufacturing high quality glass tiles on a commercial scale.

JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

1999-07-01

134

THE TESTING OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ENGINEERING AND PLANT SCALE ANNULAR CENTRIFUGAL CONTACTORS FOR THE PROCESSING OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL  

SciTech Connect

Annular centrifugal contactors are being evaluated for process scale solvent extraction operations in support of United State Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative goals. These contactors have the potential for high stage efficiency if properly employed and optimized for the application. Commercially available centrifugal contactors are being tested at the Idaho National Laboratory to support this program. Hydraulic performance and mass transfer efficiency have been measured for portions of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle using 5-cm diameter annular centrifugal contactors. Advanced features, including low mix sleeves and clean-in-place rotors, have also been evaluated in 5-cm and 12.5-cm contactors.

Jack D. Law; David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Nick Mann; Scott Herbst

2006-10-01

135

Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

NONE

1996-03-01

136

Viable Commercial Ventures Involving Laser Chemistry Production: Two Medium-Scale Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration of viable commercial ventures involving laser chemistry must take into account not only the cost structure of the laser production step but must also consider all other steps in the venture through to provisions of goods or services to clients. Recent work on the two-stage infrared laser isotope separation of carbon-13 and the selective wavelength synthesis of vitamin-D is reviewed. The processes, which may be viewed as surrogates for direct carbon dioxide and excimer laser driven synthetic schemes, are discussed in terms of their technical description and the business opportunity they present.

Hackett, P. A.; Willis, C.; Gauthier, M.; Alcock, A. J.

1984-05-01

137

Scaling between reanalyses and high-resolution land-surface modelling in mountainous areas - enabling better application and testing of reanalyses in heterogeneous environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mountainous topography, the difference in scale between atmospheric reanalyses (typically tens of kilometres) and relevant processes and phenomena near the Earth surface, such as permafrost or snow cover (meters to tens of meters) is most obvious. This contrast of scales is one of the major obstacles to using reanalysis data for the simulation of surface phenomena and to confronting reanalyses with independent observation. At the example of modelling permafrost in mountain areas (but simple to generalise to other phenomena and heterogeneous environments), we present and test methods against measurements for (A) scaling atmospheric data from the reanalysis to the ground level and (B) smart sampling of the heterogeneous landscape in order to set up a lumped model simulation that represents the high-resolution land surface. TopoSCALE (Part A, see http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/gmdd-6-3381-2013) is a scheme, which scales coarse-grid climate fields to fine-grid topography using pressure level data. In addition, it applies necessary topographic corrections e.g. those variables required for computation of radiation fields. This provides the necessary driving fields to the LSM. Tested against independent ground data, this scheme has been shown to improve the scaling and distribution of meteorological parameters in complex terrain, as compared to conventional methods, e.g. lapse rate based approaches. TopoSUB (Part B, see http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/gmd-5-1245-2012) is a surface pre-processor designed to sample a fine-grid domain (defined by a digital elevation model) along important topographical (or other) dimensions through a clustering scheme. This allows constructing a lumped model representing the main sources of fine-grid variability and applying a 1D LSM efficiently over large areas. Results can processed to derive (i) summary statistics at coarse-scale re-analysis grid resolution, (ii) high-resolution data fields spatialized to e.g., the fine-scale digital elevation model grid, or (iii) validation products for locations at which measurements exist, only. The ability of TopoSUB to approximate results simulated by a 2D distributed numerical LSM at a factor of ~10,000 less computations is demonstrated by comparison of 2D and lumped simulations. Successful application of the combined scheme in the European Alps is reported and based on its results, open issues for future research are outlined.

Gruber, S.; Fiddes, J.

2013-12-01

138

The site-scale saturated zone flow model for Yucca Mountain: Calibration of different conceptual models and their impact on flow paths  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents several different conceptual models of the Large Hydraulic Gradient (LHG) region north of Yucca Mountain and describes the impact of those models on groundwater flow near the potential high-level repository site. The results are based on a numerical model of site-scale saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain. This model is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. The numerical model is calibrated by matching available water level measurements using parameter estimation techniques, along with more informal comparisons of the model to hydrologic and geochemical information. The model software (hydrologic simulation code FEHM and parameter estimation software PEST) and model setup allows for efficient calibration of multiple conceptual models. Until now, the Large Hydraulic Gradient has been simulated using a low-permeability, east-west oriented feature, even though direct evidence for this feature is lacking. In addition to this model, we investigate and calibrate three additional conceptual models of the Large Hydraulic Gradient, all of which are based on a presumed zone of hydrothermal chemical alteration north of Yucca Mountain. After examining the heads and permeabilities obtained from the calibrated models, we present particle pathways from the potential repository that record differences in the predicted groundwater flow regime. The results show that Large Hydraulic Gradient can be represented with the alternate conceptual models that include the hydrothermally altered zone. The predicted pathways are mildly sensitive to the choice of the conceptual model and more sensitive to the quality of calibration in the vicinity on the repository. These differences are most likely due to different degrees of fit of model to data, and do not represent important differences in hydrologic conditions for the different conceptual models. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Zyvoloski, G.; Kwicklis, E.; Eddebbarh, A.-A.; Arnold, B.; Faunt, C.; Robinson, B.A.

2003-01-01

139

Mountain research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The newly incorporated International Mountain Society (IMS) will in May begin publication of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, Mountain Research and Development. The quarterly will be copublished with the United National University; additional support will come from UNESCO.A primary objective of IMS is to help solve mountain land-use problems by developing a foundation of scientific and technical knowledge on which to base management decisions, according to Jack D. Ives, president of the Boulder-based organization. The Society is strongly committed to the belief that a rational worldwide approach to mountain problems must involve a wide range of disciplines in the natural and human sciences, medicine, architecture, engineering, and technology.

140

System Evaluation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a Commercial-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant  

SciTech Connect

Results of a system evaluation and lifecycle cost analysis are presented for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) central hydrogen production plant. The plant design relies on grid electricity to power the electrolysis process and system components, and industrial natural gas to provide process heat. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate the reference central plant design capable of producing 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen. The HYSYS software performs mass and energy balances across all components to allow optimization of the design using a detailed process flow sheet and realistic operating conditions specified by the analyst. The lifecycle cost analysis was performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes Microsoft Excel spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. The results of the lifecycle analyses indicate that for a 10% internal rate of return, a large central commercial-scale hydrogen production plant can produce 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen at an average cost of $2.68/kg. When the cost of carbon sequestration is taken into account, the average cost of hydrogen production increases by $0.40/kg to $3.08/kg.

Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

2012-11-01

141

Decision Envelopment Analysis of space and terrestrially-based large scale commercial power systems for earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision Envelopment Analysis (DEA), the detailed quantitative comparison of alternative economic systems, is used to compare the technical efficiency of the large-scale power systems needed to meet the growing energy needs of terrestrial society. The Lunar Power System (LPS) captures sunlight on the moon, converts it to microwaves and beams the power to receivers on earth that output electricity. In

David R. Criswell; Russell G. Thompson

1992-01-01

142

Radiation Tests of Highly Scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories - Update 2012  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space radiation environment poses a certain risk to all electronic components on Earth-orbiting and planetary mission spacecraft. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of high-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories in space because of ever-increasing data volumes and strict power requirements. They are used in a wide variety of spacecraft subsystems. At one end of the spectrum, flash memories are used to store small amounts of mission-critical data such as boot code or configuration files and, at the other end, they are used to construct multi-gigabyte data recorders that record mission science data. This report examines single-event effect (SEE) and total ionizing dose (TID) response in single-level cell (SLC) 32-Gb, multi-level cell (MLC) 64-Gb, and Triple-level (TLC) 64-Gb NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology with feature size of 25 nm.

Irom, Farokh; Allen, Gregory R.

2012-01-01

143

Circulating regeneration and resource recovery of flue gas desulfurization residuals using a membrane electroreactor: from lab concept to commercial scale.  

PubMed

Desulfurization residuals (using NaOH sorbent) were regenerated electrochemically, and at the same time sulfur in the flue gas was recovered as H(2)SO(4) and H(2) was produced as a clean energy. Since industrialization should always be the final goal to pursue for lab technologies and the evolution of pilot- and full-scale commercial reactors has taken place relatively slowly, this paper is aimed to develop an electroreactor on a sufficiently large scale to evaluate the application potential of the proposed regeneration process. The following key design parameters are discussed: (1) voltage distributions over electrode, membrane, and electrolyte; and (2) scaling up correlation based on lab-scale reactor operation parameters. Thereafter, in the developed reactor, the desulfurization residuals using NaOH sorbent from a semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) facility of a power plant in Shandong Province were regenerated and it is significant to note that the electrochemical efficiency of the designed reactor is comparable to that of the chlor-alkali industry, showing that the technology is environmentally friendly and economically feasible. If this technology is to be employed for FGD, the facility could be a profit-generating manufacturing part instead of a currently money-consuming burden for the plants. PMID:22974141

Yang, Chenglei; Hu, Ying; Cao, Limei; Yang, Ji

2012-10-16

144

Novel technique for scaling up of micropropagated Ruta graveolens shoots using liquid culture systems: a step towards commercialization.  

PubMed

Wide applications of Ruta graveolens L. in pharmaceutical industry has led to increased interest in large-scale plant production, with emphasis on use of in vitro cultures. Earlier reports describe use of in vitro germinated seedlings for raising shoot cultures and not regeneration. There is only a single regeneration protocol of R. graveolens; however, it employs conventional labour intensive techniques deterring automation. The aim of present investigation was to establish a cost effective protocol for large-scale plant production. We report for the first time a one-step protocol with improved regeneration efficiency for multiple shoots induction employing liquid culture systems. Effect of polyamines (putrescine and spermine) on growth and furanocoumarin was studied. Addition of spermine enhanced the number of multiple shoots formed (2.5-fold) and reduced the time taken by half. Spermine addition resulted in 1.47-fold in furanocoumarin production. The selected shoot line, RS2 was successfully scaled up to 5L in culture vessels, with 1.53-fold increase in biomass without affecting the productivity of these cultures. This proves to be a commercially feasible alternative to bioreactors for large-scale biomass and furanocoumarin production. PMID:18504023

Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

2008-06-01

145

Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD): Hosted Payload Accommodation on a Commercial Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global-Scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission will perform unprecedented imaging of the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere (TI) system from geostationary (GEO) orbit. Flying as a hosted payload on a commercial communications satellite, GOLD takes advantage of the resource margins available in the early years of the commercial mission's planned 15-year life. This hosted payload approach is a pathfinder for cost-effective NASA science missions. The affordable ride to GEO makes it possible for an Explorer-class Mission of Opportunity to perform Far UltraViolet (FUV) imaging of nearly a complete hemisphere on a 30-minute cadence. This global-scale, high cadence imaging will enable GOLD to distinguish between spatial and temporal variations in the TI system caused by geomagnetic storms, variations in solar EUV, and forcing from the lower atmosphere. The most significant difference between developing instrumentation for a NASA-owned mission and accomplishing the same task for a commercial satellite is that communications satellites are procured on a faster schedule - 24 to 36 months from satellite contract to launch - than the instrument development. GOLD has partnered with SES Government Solutions (SES-GS), the comsat mission owner-operator, to define instrument interfaces and requirements that will be included in the eventual Request for Proposal to candidate spacecraft vendors. SES-GS launches 3 to 4 missions per year, which allows the GOLD-SES-GS partnership to match the instrument's launch readiness date with a suitable mission. In addition to making geostationary orbit accessible to a science instrument at relatively low cost, commercial communications satellites provides a host platform with very high reliability and long life, easy access to continuous high-speed data downlink and near-real-time data delivery, and stable pointing. SES-GS operates their satellite from established Telemetry, Tracking and Control (TT&C) centers. The GOLD Science Operations Center at the University of Colorado Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) will produce instrument command loads for uplink by the TT&C, receive data from the ground station, monitor instrument state of health, and perform quick-look data processing. The GOLD Science Data Center at the University of Central Florida will produce, distribute and archive science data products.

Lankton, M.; Eastes, R.; McClintock, W. E.; Pang, R.; Caffrey, R.; Krywonos, A.

2013-12-01

146

Mountain Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you've ever wanted to turn your hiking skills into helpful information, the Mountain Watch section of the Appalachian Mountain Club website may be of great interest. The site is designed to turn hikers into "citizen scientists" who can "aid in the collection of data that measures the ecological health of our mountains." The site contains four areas (including "Mountain Plants" and "Mountain Weather") where visitors can submit their own recent findings and observations. First-time visitors will need to fill out the volunteer data section, and this takes just a few minutes. After this, visitors will receive a password which will allow them to report on alpine flowers, air quality, and related subjects. Visitors can also read the observations of others, and read up on their "Naturalist Blog".

147

Comparing current and desired ecological conditions at a landscape scale in the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains, USA.  

SciTech Connect

We applied a landscape conservation approach that quantifies current and desired ecological conditions for 10680 km2 of diverse forests in the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains of Tennessee and Kentucky. In this case study, forest cover was classified using Landsat TM imagery and evaluated with forest inventory data. Landform forest associations were characterized by combining forest cover, physiographic descriptions of remnant and historical forests, and forest structure and composition from the inventory data. These landform forest associations estimate current forest conditions and, in comparison with a projection of potential natural forest conditions, indicated that upland deciduous forests in the Plateau have the greatest reduction in cover, particularly in small private ownerships. Although of similar composition, upland deciduous forests in the Plateau also possessed younger stands with smaller trees than observed from potential old-growth conditions. These results provide scientific guidance for transitioning these forests toward desired ecological conditions through regional conservation initiatives.

Druckenbrod, Dr. Daniel L. [Longwood University; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Olsen, Lisa M [ORNL

2007-01-01

148

Scaling the Problem: How Commercial Interests Have Influenced the U.S. Dialogue on Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, corporations and their affiliates have played an increasing role in the national conversation on climate change, with companies weighing in not only on policy debates but also participating in discussions around climate science. A few of these companies in particular have been tremendously influential in dictating how the public understands, or misunderstands, climate science and how the national discourse on climate policy has progressed, or not progressed. To better understand this corporate involvement, we explored the roles that major corporate actors have played during a key time period in 2009 and 2010 when several important climate change policy proposals were being actively debated in the United States. Analyzing multiple venues in which companies engaged in discussion of climate change with different audiencesincluding the government, shareholders, and the publicwe assess the degree to which commercial interests have helped or hindered a science-based public discourse on climate policy in the past decade. Discussion will focus especially on corporations' use of third party organizations, including industry trade groups, think tanks, and others, to exert influence on climate-related policy without accountability.

Goldman, G. T.; Rogerson, P.

2012-12-01

149

Single-event upset in highly scaled commercial silicon-on-insulator PowerPc microprocessors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single event upset effects from heavy ions are measured for Motorola and IBM silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessors with different feature sizes, and core voltages. The results are compared with results for similar devices with build substrates. The cross sections of the SOI processors are lower than their bulk counterparts, but the threshold is about the same, even though the charge collections depth is more than an order of magnitude smaller in the SOI devices. The scaling of the cross section with reduction of feature size and core voltage dependence for SOI microprocessors discussed.

Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad H.

2004-01-01

150

Field-scale mobility and persistence of commercial and stargh-encapusulated atrazine and alachlor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent laboratory studies have shown that starch-encapsulation (SE) may reduce leachate losses of certain pesticides. This study compares field-scale mobility and persistence of SE-atrazine [2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine] and alachlor [2-chloro-N(2,6 diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl)acetamide] to that of a commerciall formulation (CF) of atrazine and alachlor. The research site consisted of four (0.25 ha) fields. Two fields were under no-tillage management (NT) and two were under

T. J. Gish; A. Shirmohammadi; B. J. Wienhold

1994-01-01

151

A Basin-Averaged Water Balance Approach to Estimate Catchment-Scale Groundwater Flow in a Semi-arid Mountainous Catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of the contribution of groundwater flow from highland areas of mountainous watersheds to semi-arid and arid valley bottom unconsolidated aquifers is increasingly needed for the assessment of water resources in many populated areas. In mountainous environments, however, data for Darcy equation parameters are limited, leading to uncertainty in estimates of groundwater flow of up to two or more orders of magnitude. An alternative method for estimating regional groundwater flow from highland to valley bottom areas was developed for the semi-arid Okanagan Basin, British Columbia, Canada. The method involved a basin-averaged water balance approach, using mean annual surface water run-off (RO) data for 9 gauged tributaries with spatially distributed estimates of mean annual precipitation (P) and actual evapotranspiration (AET), to develop basin-averaged relationships for prediction of recharge-driven groundwater flow through the bedrock highland areas. Groundwater flow from highland bedrock areas to unconsolidated valley bottom aquifers was subsequently accounted for through a calibration exercise using a spreadsheet tool developed for the project. Average annual AET was the most difficult parameter to quantify at the tributary catchment scale. Spatially distributed AET estimates were developed using temperature and precipitation data, with consideration of expected AET ranges established based on available data for the region. Results for the bedrock areas in the Okanagan Basin indicated basin-averaged partitioning of mean annual precipitation as 68% AET, 19% to surface water run-off (in streams), and 13% to net recharge (groundwater flow). The influence of AET and surface water run-off parameter uncertainty on regional bedrock groundwater flow calculations was a factor of 2 (AET range of 60-70% catchment precipitation) and 1.2 (RO range of 14 to 26%), respectively. This approach allows for preliminary estimates of water budget constrained recharge- driven groundwater flow at the catchment or basin scale.

Neilson-Welch, L. A.; Allard, R.; Geller, D.; Allen, D. M.

2008-12-01

152

Scaling and Optimization of Magnetic Refrigeration for Commercial Building HVAC Systems Greater than 175 kW in Capacity  

SciTech Connect

Heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVACR) account for approximately one- third of building energy consumption. Magnetic refrigeration presents an opportunity for significant energy savings and emissions reduction for serving the building heating, cooling, and refrigeration loads. In this paper, we have examined the magnet and MCE material requirements for scaling magnetic refrigeration systems for commercial building cooling applications. Scaling relationships governing the resources required for magnetic refrigeration systems have been developed. As system refrigeration capacity increases, the use of superconducting magnet systems becomes more applicable, and a comparison is presented of system requirements for permanent and superconducting (SC) magnetization systems. Included in this analysis is an investigation of the ability of superconducting magnet based systems to overcome the parasitic power penalty of the cryocooler used to keep SC windings at cryogenic temperatures. Scaling relationships were used to develop the initial specification for a SC magnet-based active magnetic regeneration (AMR) system. An optimized superconducting magnet was designed to support this system. In this analysis, we show that the SC magnet system consisting of two 0.38 m3 regenerators is capable of producing 285 kW of cooling power with a T of 28 K. A system COP of 4.02 including cryocooler and fan losses which illustrates that an SC magnet-based system can operate with efficiency comparable to traditional systems and deliver large cooling powers of 285.4 kW (81.2 Tons).

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; West, David L [ORNL] [ORNL; Mallow, Anne M [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01

153

Landscape-scale geospatial research utilizing low elevation aerial photography generated with commercial unmanned aerial systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the ability to generate on demand high-resolution imagery across landscapes, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are increasingly become the tools of choice for geospatial researchers. At CSULB, we have implemented a number of aerial systems in order to conduct archaeological, vegetation and terrain analyses. The platforms include the commercially available X100 by Gatewing, a hobby based aircraft, kites, and tethered blimps. From our experience, each platform has advantages and disadvantages n applicability int eh field and derived imagery. The X100, though comparatively more costly, produces images with excellent coverage of areas of interest and can fly in a wide range of weather conditions. The hobby plane solutions are low-cost and flexible in their configuration but their relative lightweight makes them difficult to fly in windy conditions and the sets of images produced can widely vary. The tethered blimp has a large payload and can fly under many conditions but its ability to systematically cover large areas is very limited. Kites are extremely low-cost but have similar limitations to blimps for area coverage and limited payload capabilities. Overall, we have found the greatest return for our investment from the Gatewing X100, despite its relatively higher cost, due to the quality of the images produced. Developments in autopilots, however, may improve the hobby aircraft solution and allow X100 like products to be produced in the near future. Results of imagery and derived products from these UAS missions will be presented and evaluated. Assessment of the viability of these UAS-products will inform the research community of their applicability to a range of applications, and if viable, could provide a lower cost alternative to other image acquisition methods.

Lipo, C. P.; Lee, C.; Wechsler, S.

2012-12-01

154

Implementing high-temperature short-time media treatment in commercial-scale cell culture manufacturing processes.  

PubMed

The production of therapeutic proteins by mammalian cell culture is complex and sets high requirements for process, facility, and equipment design, as well as rigorous regulatory and quality standards. One particular point of concern and significant risk to supply chain is the susceptibility to contamination such as bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, and viruses. Several technologies have been developed to create barriers for these agents to enter the process, e.g. filtration, UV inactivation, and temperature inactivation. However, if not implemented during development of the manufacturing process, these types of process changes can have significant impact on process performance if not managed appropriately. This article describes the implementation of the high-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment of cell culture media as an additional safety barrier against adventitious agents during the transfer of a large-scale commercial cell culture manufacturing process. The necessary steps and experiments, as well as subsequent results during qualification runs and routine manufacturing, are shown. PMID:24362912

Pohlscheidt, Michael; Charaniya, Salim; Kulenovic, Fikret; Corrales, Mahalia; Shiratori, Masaru; Bourret, Justin; Meier, Steven; Fallon, Eric; Kiss, Robert

2014-04-01

155

Regional-scale analysis of high-mountain multi-hazard and risk indicators in the Pamir (Tajikistan) with GRASS GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model framework for the regional-scale analysis of high-mountain multi-hazard and -risk indicators, implemented with the open-source software package GRASS GIS. This framework is applied to a 98 300 km2 study area centred in the Pamir (Tajikistan). It includes (i) rock slides, (ii) ice avalanches, (iii) periglacial debris flows and (iv) lake outburst floods. First, a hazard indicator is assigned to each relevant object (steep rock face, glacier or periglacial slope, lake). This indicator depends on the susceptibility and on the possible event magnitude. Second, the possible travel distances, impact areas and, consequently, impact hazard indicators for all types of processes are computed using empirical relationships. The impact hazard indicators are finally superimposed with an exposure indicator derived from the type of land use, resulting in a raster map of risk indicators finally discretized at the community level. The analysis results are presented and discussed at different spatial scales. The major outcome of the study, a set of comprehensive regional-scale hazard and risk indication maps, shall represent an objective basis for the prioritization of target communities for further research and risk mitigation measures.

Gruber, F. E.; Mergili, M.

2013-11-01

156

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

157

Mountain Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain Watch is a group of ongoing trail-side citizen science programs that track reproductive (flower/fruit development) plant phenology of a small set of alpine and forest plants in the U.S.'s Eastern Appalachian mountains and other northeast areas. The program encourages hikers, families, school groups and conservationists to help scientists make observations along the trails on the timing of plant flower and fruit development for inclusion in a long-term study to understand how shifts in climate trends may impact mountain flora. Resources to help teachers get started are available at the website.

Club, Appalachian M.

158

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHTM) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOIYM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, comments from the DOE on the Topical Report "Economic Analysis - LPMEOHTM Process as an Add-on to IGCC for Coproduction" were received. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing for the coproduction of dimethyl ether (DIME) and methanol was made. DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed. A recommendation document summarizing catalyst targets, experimental results, and the corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst was issued on 30 June 1997. The off-site, product-use test plan was updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Acurex Environmental Corporation and Air Products screened proposals for this task by the likelihood of the projects to proceed and the timing for the initial methanol requirement. Eight sites from the list have met these criteria. The formal submission of the eight projects for review and concurrence by the DOE will be made during the next reporting period. The site paving and final painting were completed in May of 1997. Start-up activities were completed during the reporting period, and the initial methanol production from the demonstration unit occurred on 02 April 1997. The first extended stable operation at the nameplate capacity of 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day) took place on 06 April 1997. Pressure drop and resistance coefficient across the gas sparger at the bottom of the reactor increased over this initial operating period. The demonstration unit was shut down from 08 May -17 June 1997 as part of a scheduled complex outage for the Kingsport site. During this outage, the gas sparger was removed, cleaned, and reinstalled. After completion of other maintenance activities, the demonstration unit was restarted, and maintained stable operation through the remainder of the reporting period. Again, the gas sparger showed an increase in pressure drop and resistance since the restart, although not as rapidly as during the April-May operation. Fresh oil was introduced online for the first time to a new flush connection on the gas inlet line to the reactov the flush lowered the pressure drop by 1 psi. However, the effects were temporary, and the sparger resistance coefficient continued to increase. Additional flushing with both fresh oil and entrained slurry recovered in the cyclone and secondary oil knock-out drum will be attempted in order to stabilize the sparger resistance coefficient.

None

1997-06-30

159

Seasonal snowpack characteristics influence soil temperature and water content at multiple scales in interior western U.S. mountain ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

snowpacks directly and indirectly influence soil temperature (Tsoil) and soil water content (?). Vegetation, soil organisms, and associated biogeochemical processes certainly respond to snowpack-related variability in the soil biophysical environment, but there is currently a poor understanding of how snow-soil interactions vary in time and across the mountain landscape. Using data from a network of automated snowpack monitoring stations in the interior western U.S., we quantified seasonal and landscape patterns in Tsoil and ?, and their dependence on snowpack characteristics over an eleven year period. Elevation gradients in Tsoil were absent beneath winter snowpacks, despite large gradients in air temperature (Tair). Winter Tsoil was warmer and less variable than Tair, but interannual and across-site variations in Tsoil were likely large enough to impact biogeochemical processes. Winter ? varied between years and across sites, but during a given winter at a site it changed little between the start of snowpack accumulation and the initiation of spring snowmelt. Winter Tsoil and ? were both higher when early winter snow accumulation was greater. Summer ? was lower when summer Tair was high. Depending on the site and the year examined, summer ? was higher when there was greater summer precipitation, a larger snowpack, later snowpack melt, or a combination of these factors. We found that snowpack-related variability in the soil environment was of sufficient magnitude to influence biogeochemical processes in snow-dominated ecosystems.

Maurer, Gregory E.; Bowling, David R.

2014-06-01

160

Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed  

SciTech Connect

Electrochromic glazings promise to be the next major advance in energy-efficient window technology, helping to transform windows and skylights from an energy liability to an energy source for the nation's building stock. Monitored results from a full-scale demonstration of large-area electrochromic windows are given. The test consisted of two side-by-side, 3.7x4.6-m, office-like rooms. In each room, five 62x173-cm lower electrochromic windows and five 62x43-cm upper electrochromic windows formed a large window wall. The window-to-exterior-wall ratio (WWR) was 0.40. The southeast-facing electrochromic windows had an overall visible transmittance (Tv) range of Tv=0.11-0.38 and were integrated with a dimmable electric lighting system to provide constant work plane illuminance and to control direct sun. Daily lighting use from the automated electrochromic window system decreased by 6 to 24% compared to energy use with static, low-transmission (Tv =0.11), unshaded windows in overcast to cle ar sky winter conditions in Oakland, California. Daily lighting energy use increased as much as 13% compared to lighting energy use with static windows that had Tv=0.38. Even when lighting energy savings were not obtainable, the visual environment produced by the electrochromic windows, indicated by well-controlled window and room luminance levels, was significantly improved for computer-type tasks throughout the day compared to the visual environment with unshaded 38%-glazing. Cooling loads were not measured, but previous building energy simulations indicate that additional savings could be achieved. To ensure visual and thermal comfort, electrochromics require occasional use of interior or exterior shading systems when direct sun is present. Other recommendations to improve electrochromic materials and controls are noted along with some architectural constraints.

Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

2000-04-01

161

Field-scale mobility and persistence of commercial and stargh-encapusulated atrazine and alachlor  

SciTech Connect

Recent laboratory studies have shown that starch-encapsulation (SE) may reduce leachate losses of certain pesticides. This study compares field-scale mobility and persistence of SE-atrazine [2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine] and alachlor [2-chloro-N(2,6 diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl)acetamide] to that of a commerciall formulation (CF) of atrazine and alachlor. The research site consisted of four (0.25 ha) fields. Two fields were under no-tillage management (NT) and two were under conventional tillage (CT). One field in each tillage system received SE-formulated atritzine and alachlor, while the others received CF-atrazine and alachlor. Chemical movement and persistence was determined by analysis of surface samples ({approximately}3 cm) taken immediately after application and 1.1-m soil cores collected seven times over 2 yr. No significant difference in herbicide residue levels was observed between NT and CT, but there was a herbicide formulation effect. Soil residue analysis suggests that SE-atrazine was more persistent and less mobile than CF-atrazine. Starch- encapsulated-alachlor was slightly more persistent than CF-alachlor, but no differences in mobility between formulations was observed. The differential field behavior between SE-herbicides is attributed to the faster release of alachlor from the starch granules. Increased atrazine persistence was attributed to the reduction of leachate losses. The reduction in atrazine leaching is likely due to the slow release from the starch granules and subsequent diffusion into the son matrix where it is less subject to preferential flow processes. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Gish, T.J.; Shirmohammadi, A.; Wienhold, B.J. [USDA-ARS Hydrology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States)

1994-03-01

162

Mountain Gorillas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module focuses on the population of mountain gorillas living in the central highland area of Africa. The module looks at human activity around the gorilla habitat and how that activity is threatening the survival of the remaining gorillas.

163

Aqueous geochemical data from the analysis of stream water samples collected in August 2004--Taylor Mountains 1:250,000 scale Quadrangle, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000 quadrangle. Samples were collected as part of the multi-year U.S. Geological Survey's project -- Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development. Data presented here are from water samples collected primarily in the northeastern part of the Taylor Mountains quadrangle. The data include samples taken from the Taylor Mountains C1, C2, D1, D2, and D4 1:63,360 scale quadrangles. The data are being released at this time with minimal interpretation. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first and second order drainages. Water sampling site selection was based on landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and the cursory field review of the mineralogy from the pan concentrates. Stream water in the Taylor Mountians quadrangle is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), though in a few samples more than 50% of the anionic charge can be attibuted to sulfate ( SO42-). The major-cation chemistry range from Ca/Mg dominated to a mix of Ca/Mg/Na+K. Good agreement was found between the major cation and anions in the duplicate samples. Many trace elements were at or near the method detection limit in these samples but good agreement was found between duplicate samples for elements with detectable concentrations. Major ion concentrations were below detection in all field blanks and the trace elements concentrations generally were below detection. However, Ta (range 0.9 -.1 ug/L) and Zn (1 to 3.5 ug/L) were detected in all blanks and Ba ( 0.24 ug/L) and Th (0.2 ug/L) were detected in one blank. There was good agreement between dupilicate total- and methyl- mercury and DOC samples; however, total mercury, methyl-mercury and dissolve organic carbon (DOC) were detected in the blank at 2.35 ng/L, 0.07 ng/L and 0.57 mg/L, respectively.

Wang, Bronwen; Mueller, Seth; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

2006-01-01

164

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive resource students slide a bar across the screen and view the steps in the water cycle as a water-laden air mass hits a mountain range. They see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the mountain, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air.

165

Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers several sets of questions for students to answer about where mountain ranges are located and why they are where they are. Many of the questions have links to more information and/or images. Questions address the role of plate tectonics in the process of mountain building. A computer isn't necessary to answer the questions, but is highly recommended so that the students can use the links provided. These questions require some prior knowledge of the content.

166

Mountain Mash  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners model the processes that formed some of Earth's largest mountain ranges: the Himalayas, the Andes, and the Alps. Using layers of clay to represent continental plates, learners push the clay together to see model mountains form. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

American Association for the Advancement of Science

2009-01-01

167

Catchment-scale variation in the nitrate concentrations of groundwater seeps in the Catskill Mountains, New York, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forested headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains of New York show significant among-catchment variability in mean annual nitrate (NO3-) concentrations. Large contributions from deep groundwater with high NO3- concentrations have been invoked to explain high NO3- concentrations in stream water during the growing season. To determine whether variable contributions of groundwater could explain among-catchment differences in streamwater, we measured NO3- concentrations in 58 groundwater seeps distributed across six catchments known to have different annual average streamwater concentrations. Seeps were identified based on release from bedrock fractures and bedding planes and had consistently lower temperatures than adjacent streamwaters. Nitrate concentrations in seeps ranged from near detection limits (0.005 mg NO3--N/L) to 0.75 mg NO3--N/L. Within individual catchments, groundwater residence time does not seem to strongly affect NO3- concentrations because in three out of four catchments there were non-significant correlations between seep silica (SiO2) concentrations, a proxy for residence time, and seep NO3- concentrations. Across catchments, there was a significant but weak negative relationship between NO3- and SiO2 concentrations. The large range in NO3- concentrations of seeps across catchments suggests: 1) the principal process generating among-catchment differences in streamwater NO3- concentrations must influence water before it enters the groundwater flow system and 2) this process must act at large spatial scales because among-catchment variability is much greater than intra-catchment variability. Differences in the quantity of groundwater contribution to stream baseflow are not sufficient to account for differences in streamwater NO3- concentrations among catchments in the Catskill Mountains.

West, A.J.; Findlay, S.E.G.; Burns, D.A.; Weathers, K.C.; Lovett, G.M.

2001-01-01

168

Polyphase exhumation in the western Qinling Mountains, China: Rapid Early Cretaceous cooling along a lithospheric-scale tear fault and pulsed Cenozoic uplift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western sector of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt plays a key role in both Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous "Yanshanian" intracontinental tectonics and Cenozoic lateral escape triggered by India-Asia collision. The Taibai granite in the northern Qinling Mountains is located at the westernmost tip of a Yanshanian granite belt. It consists of multiple intrusions, constrained by new Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages (156 3 Ma and 124 1 Ma). Applying various geochronometers (40Ar/39Ar on hornblende, biotite and K-feldspar, apatite fission-track, apatite [U-Th-Sm]/He) along a vertical profile of the Taibai Mountain refines the cooling and exhumation history. The new age constraints record the prolonged pre-Cenozoic intracontinental deformation as well as the cooling history mostly related to India-Asia collision. We detected rapid cooling for the Taibai granite from ca. 800 to 100 C during Early Cretaceous (ca. 123 to 100 Ma) followed by a period of slow cooling from ca. 100 Ma to ca. 25 Ma, and pulsed exhumation of the low-relief Cretaceous peneplain during Cenozoic times. We interpret the Early Cretaceous rapid cooling and exhumation as a result from activity along the southern sinistral lithospheric scale tear fault of the recently postulated intracontinental subduction of the Archean/Palaeoproterozoic North China Block beneath the Alashan Block. A Late Oligocene to Early Miocene cooling phase might be triggered either by the lateral motion during India-Asia collision and/or the Pacific subduction zone. Late Miocene intensified cooling is ascribed to uplift of the Tibetan Plateau.

Heberer, Bianca; Anzenbacher, Thomas; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Dong, Yunpeng; Dunkl, Istvn

2014-03-01

169

Forecasting distributional responses of limber pine to climate change at management-relevant scales in Rocky Mountain National Park.  

PubMed

Resource managers at parks and other protected areas are increasingly expected to factor climate change explicitly into their decision making frameworks. However, most protected areas are small relative to the geographic ranges of species being managed, so forecasts need to consider local adaptation and community dynamics that are correlated with climate and affect distributions inside protected area boundaries. Additionally, niche theory suggests that species' physiological capacities to respond to climate change may be underestimated when forecasts fail to consider the full breadth of climates occupied by the species rangewide. Here, using correlative species distribution models that contrast estimates of climatic sensitivity inferred from the two spatial extents, we quantify the response of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) to climate change in Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado, USA). Models are trained locally within the park where limber pine is the community dominant tree species, a distinct structural-compositional vegetation class of interest to managers, and also rangewide, as suggested by niche theory. Model forecasts through 2100 under two representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5 W/m(2)) show that the distribution of limber pine in the park is expected to move upslope in elevation, but changes in total and core patch area remain highly uncertain. Most of this uncertainty is biological, as magnitudes of projected change are considerably more variable between the two spatial extents used in model training than they are between RCPs, and novel future climates only affect local model predictions associated with RCP 8.5 after 2091. Combined, these results illustrate the importance of accounting for unknowns in species' climatic sensitivities when forecasting distributional scenarios that are used to inform management decisions. We discuss how our results for limber pine may be interpreted in the context of climate change vulnerability and used to help guide adaptive management. PMID:24391742

Monahan, William B; Cook, Tammy; Melton, Forrest; Connor, Jeff; Bobowski, Ben

2013-01-01

170

Coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical analyses of the YuccaMountain Drift Scale Test - Comparison of field measurements topredictions of four different numerical models  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test (DST) is a multiyear, large-scale underground heater test designed to study coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical behavior in unsaturated fractured and welded tuff. As part of the international cooperative code-comparison project DECOVALEX, four research teams used four different numerical models to simulate and predict coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes at the DST. The simulated processes included above-boiling temperature changes, liquid and vapor water movements, rock-mass stress and displacement, and THM-induced changes in fracture permeability. Model predictions were evaluated by comparison to measurements of temperature, water saturation,displacement, and air permeability. The generally good agreement between simulated and measured THM data shows that adopted continuum model approaches are adequate for simulating relevant coupled THM processes at the DST. Moreover, TM-induced rock-mass deformations were reasonably well predicted using elastic models, although some individual displacements appeared to be better captured using an elasto-plastic model. It is concluded that fracture closure/opening caused by change in normal stress across fractures is the dominant mechanism for TM-induced changes in intrinsic fracture permeability at the DST, whereas fracture shear dilation appears to be less significant. This indicates that TM-induced changes in intrinsic permeability at the DST, which are within one order of magnitude, tend to be reversible.

Rutqvist, J.; Barr, D.; Datta, R.; Gens, A.; Millard, A.; Olivella, S.; Tsang, C.-F.; Tsang, Y.

2004-08-30

171

Spatial analysis of precipitation in a high-mountain region: exploring methods with multi-scale topographic predictors and circulation types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical models of the relationship between precipitation and topography are key elements for the spatial interpolation of rain-gauge measurements in high-mountain regions. This study investigates several extensions of the classical precipitation-height model in a direct comparison and within two popular interpolation frameworks, namely linear regression and kriging with external drift. The models studied include predictors of topographic height and slope at several spatial scales, a stratification by types of a circulation classification, and a predictor for wind-aligned topographic gradients. The benefit of the modeling components is investigated for the interpolation of seasonal mean and daily precipitation using leave-one-out cross-validation. The study domain is a north-south cross section of the European Alps (154 km 187 km) that is inclined towards dense rain-gauge measurements (approx. 440 stations, 1971-2008). The significance of the topographic predictors was found to strongly depend on the interpolation framework. In linear regression, predictors of slope and at multiple scales reduce interpolation errors substantially. But with as many as nine predictors, the resulting interpolation still poorly replicates the across-ridge variation of climatological mean precipitation. Kriging with external drift (KED) leads to much smaller interpolation errors than linear regression, but this is achieved with a single predictor (local topographic height), whereas the incorporation of more extended predictor sets brings only marginal further improvement. Furthermore, the stratification by circulation types and the wind-aligned gradient predictor do not improve over the single predictor KED model. As for daily precipitation, interpolation accuracy improves considerably with KED and the use of a single predictor field (the distribution of seasonal mean precipitation) as compared to ordinary kriging (i.e., without any predictor). Nonetheless, information from circulation types did not improve interpolation accuracy. Our results confirm that the consideration of topography effects is important for spatial interpolation of precipitation in high-mountain regions. But a single predictor may be sufficient and taking appropriate account of the spatial autocorrelation (by kriging) can be more effective than the development of elaborate predictor sets within a regression model. Our results also question a popular practice of using linear regression for predictor selection in spatial interpolation; however they support the common practice of using a climatological mean field as a background in the interpolation of daily precipitation.

Masson, D.; Frei, C.

2014-11-01

172

Multi-scale responses of vegetation to removal of horse grazing from Great Basin (USA) mountain ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although free-roaming equids occur on all of the worlds continents except Antarctica, very few studies (and none in the Great\\u000a Basin, USA) have either investigated their grazing effects on vegetation at more than one spatial scale or compared characteristics\\u000a of areas from which grazing has been removed to those of currently grazed areas. We compared characteristics of vegetation\\u000a at 19

Erik A. Beever; Robin J. Tausch; Wayne E. Thogmartin

2008-01-01

173

Quantifying the effects of mountain pine beetle infestation on water and biogeochemical cycles at multiple spatial and temporal scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unprecedented levels of bark beetle infestation over the last decade have radically altered forest structure across millions of hectares of Western U.S. montane environments. The widespread extent of this disturbance presents a major challenge for governments and resource managers who lack a predictive understanding of how water and biogeochemical cycles will respond to this disturbance over various temporal and spatial scales. There is a widespread perception, largely based on hydrological responses to fire or logging, that a reduction in both transpiration and interception following tree death will increase soil water availability and catchment water yield. However, few studies have directly addressed the effects of insect-induced forest decline on water and biogeochemical cycling. We address this knowledge gap using observations and modeling at scales from 100 to 109 m2 across study sites in CO and WY that vary in the intensity and timing of beetle infestation and tree death. Our focus on multiple sites with different levels of impact allows us to address two broad, organizing questions: How do changes in vegetation structure associated with MPB alter the partitioning of energy and water? And How do these changes in energy and water availability affect local to regional scale water and biogeochemical cycles? This presentation will focus primarily on energy balance and water partitioning, providing context for ongoing biogeochemical work. During the growing season, stand-scale transpiration declines rapidly and soil moisture increases following infestation, consistent with streamflow data from regional catchments that shows an increase in baseflow following widespread attack. During the winter and spring, stand scale snow surveys and continuous snow depth sensors suggested that the variability in snow cover decreased as the severity of beetle impact increases, but there were no significant stand-scale differences in snow depth among levels of impact. This is due both to an increase in snow under the canopies of dead trees and a decrease in snow cover in canopy gaps. For example, mean snow depth under the canopy was 86cm (CV 0.02) in unimpacted sites and 95cm (CV 0.05) in heavily impacted sites. In canopy gaps however, mean snow depth was 117cm (CV 0.11) in unimpacted sites but only 93cm (CV 0.07) in heavily impacted sites. At the watershed scale, bark beetle infestation was more likely to decrease the amount of both snowmelt and annual runoff, suggesting that the opening of the canopy increases sublimation and evaporation of the snow cover. These data suggest that the disturbance due to bark beetle infestation is both quantitatively and qualitatively different than either fire or logging. Using these observations, we develop a conceptual model for evaluating how biotic and abiotic processes couple water and biogeochemical cycles in forest ecosystems.

Brooks, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; Somor, A. J.; Troch, P. A.; Gochis, D. J.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Biederman, J. A.; Reed, D.; Barnard, H. R.; Whitehouse, F.; Aston, T.; Borkhuu, B.

2010-12-01

174

Commercial-Scale Performance Predictions for High-Temperature Electrolysis Plants Coupled to Three Advanced Reactor Types  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of system analyses that have been developed to assess the hydrogen production performance of commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plants driven by three different advanced reactor power-cycle combinations: a high-temperature helium cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle, a supercritical CO2-cooled reactor coupled to a direct recompression cycle, and a sodium-cooled fast reactor coupled to a Rankine cycle. The system analyses were performed using UniSim software. The work described in this report represents a refinement of previous analyses in that the process flow diagrams include realistic representations of the three advanced reactors directly coupled to the power cycles and integrated with the high-temperature electrolysis process loops. In addition, this report includes parametric studies in which the performance of each HTE concept is determined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the study indicate that overall thermal-to- hydrogen production efficiencies (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) in the 45 - 50% range can be achieved at reasonable production rates with the high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept, 42 - 44% with the supercritical CO2-cooled reactor and about 33 - 34% with the sodium-cooled reactor.

M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

2007-09-01

175

Spatial analysis of precipitation in a high-mountain region: exploring methods with multi-scale topographic predictors and circulation types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical models of the relationship between precipitation and topography are key elements for the spatial interpolation of rain-gauge measurements in high-mountain regions. This study investigates several extensions of the classical precipitation-height model in a direct comparison and within two popular interpolation frameworks, namely linear regression and kriging with external drift. The models studied include predictors of topographic height and slope, eventually at several spatial scales, a stratification by types of a circulation classification, and a predictor for wind-aligned topographic gradients. The benefit of the modeling components is investigated for the interpolation of seasonal mean and daily precipitation using leave-one-out crossvalidation. The study domain is a north-south cross-section of the European Alps (154 km 187 km), which disposes of dense rain-gauge measurements (approx. 440 stations, 1971-2008). The significance of the topographic predictors was found to strongly depend on the interpolation framework. In linear regression predictors of slope and at multiple scales reduce interpolation errors substantially. But with as many as nine predictors the resulting interpolation still poorly replicates the across-ridge variation. Kriging with external drift (KED) leads to much smaller interpolation errors than linear regression. But this is achieved with a single predictor of local height already, and the extended predictor sets bring only marginal further improvement. Again, the stratification by circulation types and the wind-aligned gradient predictor do not improve over the single predictor KED model. Similarly for daily precipitation, information from circulation types is not improving interpolation accuracy. The results confirm that topographic predictors are essential for reducing interpolation errors, but exploiting the spatial autocorrelation in the data may be as effective as developing elaborate predictor sets. Our results also question a popular practice of using linear regression for predictor selection and they support the common practice of using climatological background fields in the interpolation of daily precipitation.

Masson, D.; Frei, C.

2014-05-01

176

Schneefernerhaus as a mountain research station for clouds and turbulence - Part 1: Flow conditions and large-scale turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud measurements are usually carried out with airborne campaigns, which are expensive and are limited by temporal duration and weather conditions. Ground based measurements at high-altitude research stations therefore play a complementary role in cloud study. Using the meteorological data (wind speed, direction, temperature, humidity, visibility, etc.) collected by the German Weather Service (DWD) from 2000 to 2012 and turbulence measurements recorded by multiple ultrasonic sensors (sampled at 10 Hz) in 2010, we show that the Umweltforschungsstation Schneefernerhaus (UFS) located just below the peak of Zugspitze in the German Alps, at a height of 2650 m, is a well-suited station for cloud-turbulence research. The wind at UFS is dominantly in the east-west direction and nearly horizontal. During the summer time (July and August) the UFS is immersed in warm clouds about 25% of the time. The clouds are either from convection originating in the valley in the east, or associated with synoptic-scale weather systems typically advected from the west. Air turbulence, as measured from the second and third order velocity structure functions that exhibit well-developed inertial ranges, possesses Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers up to 104, with the most probable value at ~ 3000. In spite of the complex topography, the turbulence appears to be nearly as isotropic as many laboratory flows when evaluated on the so called "Lumley-triangle".

Risius, S.; Xu, H.; Di Lorenzo, F.; Xi, H.; Siebert, H.; Shaw, R. A.; Bodenschatz, E.

2015-01-01

177

Commercial scale demonstration: enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Annual report, October 1980-September 1981  

SciTech Connect

This commercial scale test, known as the M-1 Project, is located in Crawford County, Illinois. It encompasses 407 acres of Robinson sand reservoir and covers portions of several waterflood projects that were approaching economic limit. The project includes 248 acres developed on a 2.5-acre five-spot pattern and 159 acres developed on a 5.0-acre five-spot pattern. Development work commenced in late 1974 and has previously been reported. Micellar solution (slug) injection was initiated on February 10, 1977, and is now completed. After 10% of a pore volume of micellar slug was injected, injection of 11% pore volume of Dow 700 Pusher polymer was conducted at a concentration of 1156 ppM. At the end of this reporting period, 625 ppM polymer was being injected into the 2.5-acre pattern and 800 ppM polymer was being injected into the 5.0-acre pattern. The oil cut of the 2.5-acre pattern has decreased from 11.0% in September 1980, to 7.9% in September 1981. The 2.5-acre pattern had been on a plateau since May 1980, and as of May 1981 appears to be on a decline. The oil cut of the 5.0-acre pattern has increased from 5.9% in September 1980, to 10.9% in September 1981. The 5.0-acre pattern experienced a sharp increase in oil cut after 34% of a pore volume of total fluid had been injected and appears to be continuing its incline. This fifth annual report is organized under the following three work breakdown structures: fluid injection; production; and performance monitoring.

Howell, J.C.

1982-05-01

178

Scale-up of Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch  

SciTech Connect

The project started in September, 2012 with the goal of scaling up from the existing laboratory scale process for producing carbon fiber (CF) from polyolefin (PO) based precursor fiber using a Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization process. The award was used to develop a process that was capable of producing market development quantities of CF from PO precursor fiber at a rate of 4 kg/h of CF. The CF would target properties that met or exceeded the Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicles Technology [1] standard; i.e., 172 GPa modulus and 1.72 GPa strength at greater than or equal to 1% strain. The Dow proprietary process was capable of meeting and exceeding these targets properties. Project DE-EE0005760 resulted from a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Dow and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with support from the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) and DOE. In the first budget period, the main goal was to design a sulfonation-desulfonation market development plant capable of stabilizing PO precursor fiber at a rate of 5 kg/h using a sulfonation solution. The detailed design, location, and cost estimate were determined as scheduled in the Project Management Plan (PMP). In parallel with this DOE award project was a fundamentals and economic evaluation funded by The Dow Chemical Company (Dow). The goal of the Dow sponsored project was to finalize the mass balances, energy balances, and levelized cost to produce CF using the Dow process. A Go-No-Go decision was scheduled in June, 2013 based on the findings of the DOE sponsored scale up project and the Dow sponsored project. In June, 2013, Dow made the No-Go decision to halt and abandon the Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation process for stabilizing PO precursor fibers for the manufacturing of CF. This No-Go decision was identified in the original proposal and at the start of this project, and the decision was made as scheduled. The decision was based on the high levelized economic cost of the process relative to the manufacture of CF from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor fibers. The capital required to sulfonate the fibers adds a significant cost to the process due to the need for investment in a sulfuric acid recovery plant. This high additional capital over the capital for a PAN based CF plant, reduces the levelized economic cost to slightly advantaged over PAN based CF. The sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization route failed to meet the Dows return on investment criterion and the cost advantage target set forth for the DOE project. The DOE and Dow decided to halt spending on the project until a new PO fiber stabilization process could be identified that met the DOE physical properties standard and the levelized economic cost constraints of Dow. When the new technology was developed, then award DE-EE0005760 would be re-started with the same goals of the development of a market development plant capable of producing CF at 4 kg/h with the properties that met or exceed those set forth by the Department of Energy Vehicles Technology standard. Progress on the development of the new process has been slow and thus has delayed the scale up project. Dows efforts to date have not progressed to the point of demonstrating a commercially-viable process for production of low cost CF from PO precursors for Dows rigorous economic constraints. After extensive discussions within Dow and consultation with DOEs Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams, Dow has decided to proceed with the formal recommendation to terminate subject project. DOEs AMO Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams agreed with the termination of the project.

Spalding, Mark A [The Dow Chemical Company

2014-08-27

179

Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of a series of lessons in a continuing study of change. It is designed to give students hands-on experience manipulating and controlling the variables involved in the process of soil erosion. They will be able to identify variables that influence rates of change and use group consensus to design and build what they believe to be the strongest mountain possible.

1998-01-01

180

Analysis of Thermally Induced Changes in Fractured Rock Permeability during Eight Years of Heating and Cooling at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed a data set of thermally induced changes in fractured rock permeability during a four-year heating (up to 200 C) and subsequent four-year cooling of a large volume, partially saturated and highly fractured volcanic tuff at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test, in Nevada, USA. Permeability estimates were derived from about 700 pneumatic (air-injection) tests, taken periodically at 44 packed-off borehole intervals during the heating and cooling cycle from November 1997 through November 2005. We analyzed air-permeability data by numerical modeling of thermally induced stress and moisture movements and their impact on air permeability within the highly fractured rock. Our analysis shows that changes in air permeability during the initial four-year heating period, which were limited to about one order of magnitude, were caused by the combined effects of thermal-mechanically-induced stress on fracture aperture and thermal-hydrologically-induced changes in fracture moisture content. At the end of the subsequent four-year cooling period, air-permeability decreases (to as low as 0.2 of initial) and increases (to as high as 1.8 of initial) were observed. By comparison to the calculated thermo-hydro-elastic model results, we identified these remaining increases or decreases in air permeability as irreversible changes in intrinsic fracture permeability, consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). In this paper, we discuss the possibility that such fracture asperity shortening and associated decrease in fracture permeability might be enhanced by dissolution of highly stressed surface asperities over years of elevated stress and temperature.

Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Min, K.-B.; Elsworth, D.; Tsang, Y.

2008-06-01

181

Aqueous Geochemical Data From the Analysis of Stream-Water Samples Collected in June and July 2005--Taylor Mountains 1:250,000 Scale Quadrangle, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle. Parameters for which data are reported include pH, conductivity, water temperature, major cation and anion concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and dissolved organic-carbon concentrations. Samples were collected as part of a multiyear U.S. Geological Survey project 'Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development.' Data presented here are from samples collected in June and July of 2005. The data are being released at this time with minimal interpretation. This is the second release of aqueous geochemical data from this project; 2004 aqueous geochemical data were published previously (Wang and others, 2006). The data in this report augment but do not duplicate or supersede the previous data release. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first- and second-order drainages. Water sample site selection was based on landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and a cursory field review of mineralogy from pan concentrates. Stream water in the Taylor Mountians quadrangle is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), though in a few samples more than 50 percent of the anionic charge can be attributed to sulfate (SO42-). The major-cation chemistry ranges from Ca2+/Mg2+ dominated to a mix of Ca2+/Mg2+/Na++K+. In general, good agreement was found between the major cations and anions in the duplicate samples. Many trace elements in these samples were at or near the analytical method detection limit, but good agreement was found between duplicate samples for elements with detectable concentrations. With the exception of a total mercury concentration of 0.33 ng/L detected in a field blank, field blank major-ion and trace-elements concentrations were below detection.

Wang, Bronwen; Mueller, Seth; Stetson, Sarah; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

2006-01-01

182

Mountains: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the lessons from "Mountain: A Global Resource" that were developed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and The Mountain Institute for use by NCSS members and their students. Provides an overview that introduces the mountains, mountain cultures, historical perceptions, and the geographical importance of mountains. (CMK)

Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

1999-01-01

183

Coupled soil respiration and transpiration dynamics from tree-scale to catchment scale in dry Rocky Mountain pine forests and the role of snowpack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current ecohydrological challenge is quantifying the exact nature of carbon (C) and water couplings across landscapes. An emerging framework of understanding places plant physiological processes as a central control over soil respiration, the largest source of CO2 to the atmosphere. In dry montane forests, spatial and temporal variability in forest physiological processes are governed by hydrological patterns. Critical feedbacks involving respiration, moisture supply and tree physiology are poorly understood and must be quantified at the landscape level to better predict carbon cycle implications of regional drought under future climate change. We present data from an experiment designed to capture landscape variability in key coupled hydrological and C processes in forests of Colorado's Front Range. Sites encompass three catchments within the Boulder Creek watershed, range from 1480 m to 3021 m above sea level and are co-located with the DOE Niwot Ridge Ameriflux site and the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory. Key hydrological measurements (soil moisture, transpiration) are coupled with soil respiration measurements within each catchment at different landscape positions. This three-dimensional study design also allows for the examination of the role of water subsidies from uplands to lowlands in controlling respiration. Initial findings from 2012 reveal a moisture threshold response of the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature. This threshold may derive from tree physiological responses to variation in moisture availability, which in turn is controlled by the persistence of snowpack. Using data collected in 2013, first, we determine whether respiration moisture thresholds represent triggers for transpiration at the individual tree level. Next, using stable isotope ratios of soil respiration and xylem and soil water, we compare the depths of respiration to depths of water uptake to assign tree vs. understory sources of respiration. This will help determine whether tree root-zone respiration exhibits a similar moisture threshold. Lastly, we examine whether moisture thresholds to temperature sensitivity are consistent across a range of snowpack persistence. Findings are compared to data collected from sites in Arizona and New Mexico to better establish the role of winter precipitation in governing growing season respiration rates. The outcome of this study will contribute to a better understanding of linkages among water, tree physiology, and soil respiration with the ultimate goal of scaling plot-level respiration fluxes to entire catchments.

Berryman, E.; Barnard, H. R.; Brooks, P. D.; Adams, H.; Burns, M. A.; Wilson, W.; Stielstra, C. M.

2013-12-01

184

Development and scale-up of a commercial fed batch refolding process for an anti-CD22 two chain immunotoxin  

PubMed Central

We describe the development and scale-up of a novel two chain immunotoxin refolding process. This work provides a case study comparing a clinical manufacturing process and the commercial process developed to replace it. While the clinical process produced high quality material, it suffered from low yield and high yield variability. A systematic approach to process development and understanding led to a number of improvements that were implemented in the commercial process. These include a shorter inclusion body recovery process, limiting the formation of an undesired deamidated species and the implementation of fed batch dilution refolding for increased refold titers. The use of a combination of urea, arginine and DTT for capture column cleaning restored the binding capacity of the capture step column and resulted in consistent capture step yields compared to the clinical process. Scalability is shown with data from 250 L and 950 L scale refolding processes. Compared to the clinical process it replaces, the commercial process demonstrated a greater than fivefold improvement in volumetric productivity at the 950 L refolding scale. 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:13801389, 2014 PMID:25139260

Linke, Thomas; Aspelund, Matthew T; Thompson, Christopher; Xi, Guoling; Fulton, Andrew; Wendeler, Michaela; Pabst, Timothy M; Wang, Xiangyang; Wang, William K; Ram, Kripa; Hunter, Alan K

2014-01-01

185

Spatio-temporal variability of soil water content on the local scale in a Mediterranean mountain area (Vallcebre, North Eastern Spain). How different spatio-temporal scales reflect mean soil water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of complex human-land interactions and topographic variability, many Mediterranean mountain catchments are covered by agricultural terraces that have locally modified the soil water content dynamic. Understanding these local-scale dynamics helps us grasp better how hydrology behaves on the catchment scale. Thus, this study examined soil water content variability in the upper 30 cm of the soil on a Mediterranean abandoned terrace in north-east Spain. Using a dataset of high spatial (regular grid of 128 automatic TDR probes at 2.5 m intervals) and temporal (20-min time step) resolution, gathered throughout a 84-day period, the spatio-temporal variability of soil water content at the local scale and the way that different spatio-temporal scales reflect the mean soil water content were investigated. Soil water content spatial variability and its relation to wetness conditions were examined, along with the spatial structuring of the soil water content within the terrace. Then, the ability of single probes and of different combinations of spatial measurements (transects and grids) to provide a good estimate of mean soil water content on the terrace scale was explored by means of temporal stability analyses. Finally, the effect of monitoring frequency on the magnitude of detectable daily soil water content variations was studied. Results showed that soil water content spatial variability followed a bimodal pattern of increasing absolute variability with increasing soil water content. In addition, a linear trend of decreasing soil water content as the distance from the inner part of the terrace increased was identified. Once this trend was subtracted, resulting semi-variograms suggested that the spatial resolution examined was too high to appreciate spatial structuring in the data. Thus, the spatial pattern should be considered as random. Of all the spatial designs tested, the 10 10 m mesh grid (9 probes) was considered the most suitable option for a good, time-stable estimate of mean soil water content, as no improvement was obtained with the 5 5 m mesh grid (30 probes). Finally, the results of temporal aggregation showed that decreasing the monitoring frequency down to 8 h during wetting-up periods and to 1 day during drying-down ones did not result in a loss of information on daily soil water content variations.

Molina, Antonio J.; Latron, Jrme; Rubio, Carles M.; Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar

2014-08-01

186

Cadillac Mountain Summit Panorama  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A panorama of the summit of Cadillac Mountain. At 1,528 feet in elevation, Cadillac Mountain is the highest point in Acadia National Park, and is composed of a unique granite, the Cadillac Mountain granite unit....

187

Cadillac Mountain Summit  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An image of the summit of Cadillac Mountain. At 1,528 feet in elevation, Cadillac Mountain is the highest point in Acadia National Park, and is composed of a unique granite, the Cadillac Mountain granite unit....

188

Mountain Stage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain Stage, a famous Charleston, West Virginia, venue where folk musicians play, is broadcast on National Public Radio, and can be heard on the NPR website, simply by clicking on "Listen", next to the artist's picture and brief bio. Visitors wishing to read more about the artist's musical history can click on the name of the artist next to their picture. Included in the history is their set list for the broadcast show. Visitors can comment on each artist's show, or recommend it to other visitors, by clicking on the icons at the bottom of each brief bio on the homepage.

189

2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

190

Rapid large scale purification of ellagitannins from pomegranate husk, a by-product of the commercial juice industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed fresh and in processed forms as juice, jams and wine. Pomegranate fruit husk\\/peel is a rich source of hydrolyzable tannins called ellagitannins (ETs). In the commercial pomegranate juice (PJ) industry, these ETs are extracted from the husk in significant quantities into the juice due to their hydrophilic properties. Pomegranate husk, a by-product

N. Seeram; R. Lee; M. Hardy; D. Heber

2005-01-01

191

A Study to Develop an Industrial-Scale, Computer-Controlled High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) System to Assist in Commercializing the Novel, Enabling HMFP Manufacturing Technology  

SciTech Connect

As the original magnet designer and manufacturer of ORNL s 9T, 5-inch ID bore magnet, American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) has collaborated with ORNL s Materials Processing Group s and this partnership has been instrumental in the development of our unique thermo-magnetic facilities and expertise. Consequently, AMI and ORNL have realized that the commercial implementation of the High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) technology will require the evolution of robust, automated superconducting (SC) magnet systems that will be cost-effective and easy to operate in an industrial environment. The goal of this project and CRADA is to significantly expedite the timeline for implementing this revolutionary and pervasive cross-cutting technology for future US produced industrial components. The successful completion of this project is anticipated to significantly assist in the timely commercialization and licensing of our HMFP intellectual property for a broad spectrum of industries; and to open up a new market for AMI. One notable outcome of this project is that the ThermoMagnetic Processing Technology WON a prestigious 2009 R&D 100 Awards. This award acknowledges and recognizes our TMP Technology as one of the top 100 innovative US technologies in 2009. By successfully establishing the design requirements for a commercial scale magnetic processing system, this project effort has accomplished a key first step in facilitating the building and demonstration of a superconducting magnetic processing coil, enabling the transition of the High Magnetic Field Processing Technology beyond a laboratory novelty into a commercially viable and industrially scalable Manufacturing Technology.

Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Chourey, Aashish [American Magnetics Inc.

2010-08-01

192

Rainfall interception by a Pinus sylvestris forest patch overgrown in a Mediterranean mountainous abandoned area I. Monitoring design and results down to the event scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring (in 5 min steps) of precipitation, throughfall, stemflow and bulk canopy wetness, and also weather conditions and soil moisture, was carried out from July 1993 to December 1995, in a Pinus sylvestris forest patch located in a Mediterranean mountainous former agricultural basin subject to spontaneous change from pasture to forest. Throughfall collectors were designed to obtain hydrologically representative data

Pilar Llorens; Ramon Poch; Jrme Latron; Francesc Gallart

1997-01-01

193

BIODIVERSITY AND RESOURCE APPLICATIONS: APPLICATION OF THE FIRE REGIME CONDITION CLASS PROCESS TO COLLABORATIVE MULTI-SCALE LAND MANAGEMENT PLANNING IN THE BOSTON MOUNTAINS, ARKANSAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative fire management planning dep ends on landscape managers finding common ground in their understanding of ecosystem structure and function a nd in estimates of desired future landscape conditions. The Boston Mountains, Arkansas landscape is dominated by oak-hickory and o ak-pine ecosystems that have b een altered in composition and structure as a result of past timber management and fire

Ayn J. Shlisky

194

Verification of the simplified hydrodynamic scaling parameters for commercial pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Part 2: Circulating fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect

In a companion paper (Glicksman, et al., 1995--referred to as Part 1), the simplified set of scaling parameters developed by Glicksman et al. (1993) were used to construct a quarter scale model of American Electric Power`s (AEP) Tidd 70 MWe pressurized bubbling bed combustor. Comparisons between the probability density functions of the pressure fluctuations and the average solid fraction profiles showed excellent agreement. In this study, the simplified scaling parameters were applied to circulating fluidized beds pressurized to 14 bar. A 1/2 scale model of the hot pressurized circulating fluidized bed constructed and operated by Foster Wheeler Development Corp. in Livingston, NJ has been constructed. Recently completed validation tests included comparisons of the vertical solids distribution along with the probability density functions and power spectral densities of the pressure fluctuations within the beds. The data suggest good agreement when the simplified scaling parameters are held constant between the hot combustor and cold model.

Glicksman, L.R.; Hyre, M.R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Torpey, M. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Wheeldon, J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

195

Efficacy of a commercial live attenuated Lawsonia intracellularis vaccine in a large scale field trial in Korea  

PubMed Central

Purpose Porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) is known as one of the most important risk factors causing economic losses in swine industry worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial oral attenuated Lawsonia intracellularis vaccine (Enterisol Ileitis) against PPE under a commercial pig farm condition in Korea. Materials and Methods Thirty two-day-old 672 piglets were randomly allocated into vaccinated and control groups. All piglets in the vaccinated group were inoculated with a commercial attenuated L. intracellularis vaccine as following the manufacturer's instruction. Body weights of all pigs in both groups were measured on the vaccination day and 6, 14, and 20 weeks post vaccination and an average daily weight gain (ADWG) was calculated. Health status was observed biweekly during the whole trial. Results The vaccinated group showed significantly higher body weight (p<0.05) and ADWG (p<0.05) than those of the control group. The vaccinated group had significantly reduced impairments in activity, growth, defecation frequency, and stool hardness (p<0.05). Additional health benefits and improved weight gain by the vaccination produced a 4.2:1 return of investment, and the higher gross margin was $4.80 per pig. Conclusion Our finding suggests that the L. intracellularis vaccine program has effects on the substantial health and economic benefits in the Korean swine industry. PMID:23858405

Park, Sangshin; Lee, Joong-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Oh, Yu-Sik; Kim, Man-Ok; Oh, Yu-Ri; Hwang, Min-A; Lee, Jung-Ah

2013-01-01

196

Protection of the Mountain Ridgelines Utilizing GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Korean peninsula is characterized by numerous hills and mountains. The longest mountain ridgeline starting from Mt. Baekdusan to Mt. Jirisan is called Baekdudaegan which is similar to the continental divide or topographical watershed. In this study, GIS data, such as remotesensing images, national digital map, and watershed map, are used to analyze Korean mountain ridgelines structure and one Baekdudaegan data and nine Ridgelines are extracted. When extracted Baekdudaegan and other Ridgelines are overlaid on geologic maps, granite and gneiss are main components on the mountain ridgelines. The main mountain ridgelines are considered as the spiritual heritage overlapped in the land in Korea. As the environmental state is relatively better than those of other region in Korea, so many mountain ridgelines are legally protected by national legislation. The mountain ridgelines has hierarchical system; Baekdudaegan, Jeongmaek, Gimaek and Jimaek etc. according to their scale and total lengths of ridgelines. As only part of mountain ridgelines are currently protected by law or managed in environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedure, we think that most part of them should be under protection. Considering the environmental state of the ridgelines, we think that some protective measures should be set up nearby 1 km on both sides of them. If there goes a development plan or project near the main mountain ridgelines, topographical change index (TCI) and topographical scale index (TSI) etc. are to be applied in EIA. This study intends: firstly, to analyze the topological characteristics of the Korean mountain ridgelines using GIS, secondly, to analyze the geological characteristics of nearby mountain ridgelines, and lastly, to find a way to utilize the results on EIA.

Lee, S.; Lee, M.

2013-12-01

197

APPLICATION OF THE FIRE REGIME CONDITION CLASS PROCESS TO COLLABORATIVE MULTI-SCALE LAND MANAGEMENT PLANNING IN THE BOSTON MOUNTAINS ARKANSAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Collaborative fire,management planning dep ends on landscape,managers finding,common,ground,in their understanding of ecosystem,structure and function a nd in estimates of desired future landscape conditions. The Boston Mountains, Arkansas landscape is dominated by oak-hickory and o ak-pine ecosystems that have b een altered in composition and structure as a result of past timber management and,fire e xclusion activities. The Ozark-St. Francis

Ayn J. Shlisky; Douglas Zollner; John Andre; Scott Simon

198

Small scale heterogeneity of Phanerozoic lower crust: evidence from isotopic and geochemical systematics of mid-Cretaceous granulite gneisses, San Gabriel Mountains, southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elongate belt of mid-Cretaceous, compositionally banded gneisses and granulites is exposed in Cucamonga terrane, in the southeastern foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. Banded gneisses include mafic granulites of two geochemical types: type 1 rocks are similar to high Al arc basalts and andesites but have higher HFSE (high-field-strength-element) abundances and extremely variable LILE (largeion-lithophile-element) abundances,

Andrew P. Barth; J. L. Wooden; D. J. May

1992-01-01

199

Verification of the simplified hydrodynamic scaling parameters for commercial pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Part 1: Bubbling fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect

A recent study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), on atmospheric circulating beds, demonstrated that it was possible to relax some of the scaling relationships, producing a simplified set of scaling laws which allows the model to be much smaller than the combustor. In the present study, the simplified scaling laws are applied to pressurized bubbling fluidized beds. A quarter-scale cold model of American Electric Power`s (AEP) Tidd 70 MW{sub e} pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) has been constructed. The scale model has been used to establish the validity of the simplified scaling laws for pressurized bubbling beds. Scaling verifications include comparisons of the probability density functions (PDF) of the pressure fluctuations in the Tidd PFBC and the cold model. A comparison of the average solid-fraction profiles is also presented. These comparisons indicate that the hydrodynamics of the cold model are similar to those of the Tidd PFBC. The power spectral densities of the Tidd differential pressure fluctuations, for measurements taken both within the bed and in the freeboard region, contain unexpected peaks at distinct frequencies. A simple analysis was done which compared the peak frequencies in the power spectrum with those of the natural frequencies of a fixed-end beam. This analysis suggested that, possibly, the peaks could be due to an excitation of the natural frequencies of the tube bank. Tidd has not experienced excessive erosion or mechanical failure rates which suggests that any vibration is structurally insignificant. This is corroborated by the excellent agreement obtained in the PDF and solid fraction profile comparisons--the source of the frequency peaks does not appear to have had any significant effect on the bed hydrodynamics.

Glicksman, L.R.; Farrell, P.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31

200

A Study to Develop an Industrial-Scale, Computer-Controlled High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) System to Assist in Commercializing the Novel, Enabling HMFP Manufacturing Technology  

SciTech Connect

As the original magnet designer and manufacturer of ORNLs 9T, 5-inch ID bore magnet, American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) has collaborated with ORNLs Materials Processing Groups and this partnership has been instrumental in the development of our unique thermo-magnetic facilities and expertise. Consequently, AMI and ORNL have realized that the commercial implementation of the High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) technology will require the evolution of robust, automated superconducting (SC) magnet systems that will be cost-effective and easy to operate in an industrial environment. The goal of this project and CRADA is to significantly expedite the timeline for implementing this revolutionary and pervasive cross-cutting technology for future US produced industrial components. The successful completion of this project is anticipated to significantly assist in the timely commercialization and licensing of our HMFP intellectual property for a broad spectrum of industries; and to open up a new market for AMI. One notable outcome of this project is that the ThermoMagnetic Processing Technology WON a prestigious 2009 R&D 100 Awards. This award acknowledges and recognizes our TMP Technology as one of the top 100 innovative US technologies in 2009. By successfully establishing the design requirements for a commercial scale magnetic processing system, this project effort has accomplished a key first step in facilitating the building and demonstration of a superconducting magnetic processing coil, enabling the transition of the High Magnetic Field Processing Technology beyond a laboratory novelty into a commercially viable and industrially scalable Manufacturing Technology.

Lutdka, G. M.; Chourey, A. (American Magnetics, Inc.)

2010-05-12

201

Mountains and Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Completed in 2013, this portal for digital collections pertaining to mountains and mountaineering brings together thousands of images from the University of Washington Libraries. Visitors should read the narrative introduction on the homepage and then move around through the various Topics, which include The Mountaineers Activities and Early Climbing and Tourism at Mt. Rainier. This last area offers a piquant look through the history of the massive peak known simply as "the Mountain" by locals. Visitors can explore the records of the adventurous spirits who have climbed the mountain over the years, along with the papers of Dee Molenaar, a celebrated geologist and local climber. The site also includes a Resources area that includes links to mountain climbing groups and such.

2013-01-01

202

SP mountain data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

1981-01-01

203

A practical overview and comparison of certain commercial forensic software tools for processing large-scale digital investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to show the usefulness of modern forensic software tools for processing large-scale digital investigations. In particular, we focus on the new version of Nuix 4.2 and compare it with AccessData FTK 4.2, X-Ways Forensics 16.9 and Guidance Encase Forensic 7 regarding its performance, functionality, usability and capability. We will show how these software tools work with large forensic images and how capable they are in examining complex and big data scenarios.

Krger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2013-05-01

204

Single-Event Upset and Scaling Trends in New Generation of the Commercial SOI PowerPC Microprocessors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single-event upset effects from heavy ions are measured for Motorola silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessor with 90 nm feature sizes. The results are compared with previous results for SOI microprocessors with feature sizes of 130 and 180 nm. The cross section of the 90 nm SOI processors is smaller than results for 130 and 180 nm counterparts, but the threshold is about the same. The scaling of the cross section with reduction of feature size and core voltage for SOI microprocessors is discussed.

Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; Kouba, Coy K.

2006-01-01

205

Mammoth Mountain Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By watching this National Geographic video, you will learn about the seismic activity of Mammoth Mountain. Located in the eastern Sierra Mountains, everyday earthquakes shake the region and there are signs of an imminent volcanic eruption.

2010-01-01

206

Rocky Mountain spotted fever  

MedlinePLUS

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a type of bacteria carried by ticks. ... Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. The ...

207

A Quality Assurance Initiative for Commercial-Scale Production in High-Throughput Cryopreservation of Blue Catfish Sperm  

PubMed Central

Cryopreservation of fish sperm has been studied for decades at a laboratory (research) scale. However, high-throughput cryopreservation of fish sperm has recently been developed to enable industrial-scale production. This study treated blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) sperm high-throughput cryopreservation as a manufacturing production line and initiated quality assurance plan development. The main objectives were to identify: 1) the main production quality characteristics; 2) the process features for quality assurance; 3) the internal quality characteristics and their specification designs; 4) the quality control and process capability evaluation methods, and 5) the directions for further improvements and applications. The essential product quality characteristics were identified as fertility-related characteristics. Specification design which established the tolerance levels according to demand and process constraints was performed based on these quality characteristics. Meanwhile, to ensure integrity throughout the process, internal quality characteristics (characteristics at each quality control point within process) that could affect fertility-related quality characteristics were defined with specifications. Due to the process feature of 100% inspection (quality inspection of every fish), a specific calculation method, use of cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts, was applied to monitor each quality characteristic. An index of overall process evaluation, process capacity, was analyzed based on in-control process and the designed specifications, which further integrates the quality assurance plan. With the established quality assurance plan, the process could operate stably and quality of products would be reliable. PMID:23872356

Hu, E; Liao, T. W.; Tiersch, T. R.

2013-01-01

208

Geologic Sequestration of CO2 in Deep, Unmineable Coalbeds: An Integrated Researdh and Commercial-Scale Field Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative consortium with the objective of advancing industry's understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. This will allow primary recovery, enhanced recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration operations to be commercially enhanced and/or economically deployed. The project was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coalseams. The initial project accomplished a number of important objectives, which mainly revolved around performing baseline experimental studies, documenting and analyzing existing field projects, and establishing a global network for technology exchange. The results from that Phase have been documented in a series of reports which are publicly available. An important outcome of the initial phase was that serious limitations were uncovered in our knowledge of reservoir behavior when CO{sub 2} is injected into coal. To address these limitations, the project was extended in 2005 as a government-industry collaborative consortium. Selected accomplishments from this phase have included the identification and/or development of new models for multi-component sorption and diffusion, laboratory studies of coal geomechanical and permeability behavior with CO{sub 2} injection, additional field validation studies, and continued global technology exchange. Further continuation of the consortium is currently being considered. Some of the topics that have been identified for investigation include further model development/refinement related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins, the extension of the work to gas shale reservoirs, and continued global technology exchange.

Scott Reeves; George Koperna

2008-09-30

209

Efficacy of commercial produce sanitizers against nontoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 during processing of iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale leafy green processing line.  

PubMed

Chemical sanitizers are routinely used during commercial flume washing of fresh-cut leafy greens to minimize cross-contamination from the water. This study assessed the efficacy of five commercial sanitizer treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce, in wash water, and on equipment during simulated commercial production in a pilot-scale processing line. Iceberg lettuce (5.4 kg) was inoculated to contain 10(6) CFU/g of a four-strain cocktail of nontoxigenic, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 and processed after 1 h of draining at ~22 C. Lettuce was shredded using a commercial slicer, step-conveyed to a flume tank, washed for 90 s using six different treatments (water alone, 50 ppm of peroxyacetic acid, 50 ppm of mixed peracid, or 50 ppm of available chlorine either alone or acidified to pH 6.5 with citric acid [CA] or T-128), and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Various product (25-g) and water (50-ml) samples collected during processing along with equipment surface samples (100 cm(2)) from the flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer were homogenized in neutralizing buffer and plated on tryptic soy agar. During and after iceberg lettuce processing, none of the sanitizers were significantly more effective (P ? 0.05) than water alone at reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations on lettuce, with reductions ranging from 0.75 to 1.4 log CFU/g. Regardless of the sanitizer treatment used, the centrifugal dryer surfaces yielded E. coli O157:H7 populations of 3.49 to 4.98 log CFU/100 cm(2). Chlorine, chlorine plus CA, and chlorine plus T-128 were generally more effective (P ? 0.05) than the other treatments, with reductions of 3.79, 5.47, and 5.37 log CFU/ml after 90 s of processing, respectively. This indicates that chlorine-based sanitizers will likely prevent wash water containing low organic loads from becoming a vehicle for cross-contamination. PMID:24215685

Davidson, Gordon R; Buchholz, Annemarie L; Ryser, Elliot T

2013-11-01

210

A comparative study of the seroprevalence of brucellosis in commercial and small-scale mixed dairy-beef cattle enterprises of Lusaka province and Chibombo district, Zambia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2007 and February 2008 to estimate seroprevalence of brucellosis and identify risk factors associated with Brucella infections in commercial cattle in three districts of Lusaka province (Chongwe, Luangwa, and Kafue; n = 849) and in one rural district from the Central province (n = 48). A total of 897 serum samples were randomly collected from 55 farms along with animal-level data such as sex, age, and parity. Sera were screened for presence of anti-Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test, and positive samples were confirmed using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At the animal level, seroprevalence was estimated at 7.9% (95% CI = 4.4-11.4%) in the Lusaka province and 18.7% (95% CI = 7.5-29.9%) for Chibombo district. Brucellosis seroprevalence varied according to district, with Chongwe district recording the highest compared to other districts. Seroprevalence also varied according to sex with bulls (n = 96) having higher seroprevalence (12.5%; 95% CI = 3.8-21.1%) compared to females (8.1%; 95% CI = 4.6-11.6). Similarly, seroprevalence varied according to age groups, with the age category 1-4 years recording the highest (10.7%). The study recorded relatively low Brucella seroprevalence in commercial farms in Lusaka, compared to the traditional small-scale farms. We suggest that testing and stamping out of infected animals is likely to improve the situation and significantly reduce the public health risk associated with Brucella infections in animals. PMID:20517646

Chimana, Henry M; Muma, John Bwalya; Samui, Kenny L; Hangombe, Benard M; Munyeme, Musso; Matope, Gift; Phiri, Andrew M; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein; Tryland, Morten

2010-10-01

211

Mountain Building Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module was designed to be used with a college course in physical geography. Subject matter covered includes these four categories: folded mountains, volcanic mountains, fault block mountains, and granitic batholiths. It also covers complex mountain chains formed at convergent plate boundaries, where they are folded and faulted and intruded by volcanic features. Complex mountains include Andean-type (ocean-continent) plate boundaries and Himalayan-type (continent-continent) plate boundaries. Mountains such as the Coast Ranges of California are believed to have formed by the accretion (addition) of crustal blocks called foreign terranes. This module also covers the process called isostatic adjustment. It contains a study guide and outline notes, study questions about California geomorphic provinces, place names of landforms handout, and practice quizzes. A feature of the module is a web exploration section with links to fifteen outside sites that augment the instruction.

Haberlin, Rita

212

Analysis of the relationships between hydrogeological characteristics of mountain basins and low flow discharge: regional-scale prediction of hydrological indexes in ungauged basins of the northern Apennines (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade the north of Italy suffered a marked hydrologic deficit as a consequence of decreasing mean annual precipitation and increasing demand from industry and agriculture. Rivers that outflow from the northern Apennines display a highly variable discharge rate, mainly because of inherited hydro-geological factors such as the extensive presence of low permeability sedimentary rocks with low storage coefficient in the mountain catchments. The growing interest for a proper management of water courses, that has led to directives regulating the amount of minimum water that must permanently flow downstream from points of water diversions and yield, makes the prediction of hydrological indexes in ungauged basins located in the mountain areas of relevant practical importance, since it can support a sustainable planning of surface water management along the entire water course. The research has being aimed at developing a spatial analysis tool for regional-scale prediction of hydro-geological indexes in ungauged basins, that still represent the majority of cases in the upper catchment areas of the northern Apennines. This has been dealt with by linking statistical indexes of discharge calculated for gauged basins (Q95, Q355,Q347), obtained with five years of continuous daily data, to the results of spatial analysis methods (such as Weight of Evidence, Logistic Regression, Neural Networks), that allow the storage coefficient of different bedrock types to be relatively ranked using the spatial distribution of permanent groundwater springs as main supporting evidence. The paper summarises the main results obtained that were validated in three basis within the whole study area.

Cervi, F.; Borgatti, L.; Corsini, A.; Ronchetti, F.; Bloschl, G.

2009-04-01

213

Geophysical expression of the Ghost Dance fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Antler and Live Yucca Ridges, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, reveal small-scale faulting associated with the Ghost Dance and possibly other faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.

1995-01-01

214

The influence of industrial-scale canning on cadmium and lead levels in sardines and anchovies from commercial fishing centres of the Mediterranean Sea.  

PubMed

The current study encompassed a survey on the levels of toxic trace elements in two highly consumed fish species in commercial fishing centres of western, central and eastern Mediterranean Sea. A Zeeman GTA-AAS graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry system was used throughout the study. Toxicological evaluation of the samples revealed a low Cd content in the raw samples, ranging between 0.003 and 0.027 mg kg(-1). Pb presented significantly higher values, from 0.037 to 0.297 mg kg(-1), occasionally reaching the limit of 0.3 mg kg(-1). Heavy metal levels were particularly higher in bones, thus raising queries about the safe consumption of fish intended to be eaten as a whole, a very common practice for small fish and canned products. The influence of industrial-scale canning showed that canning enhanced heavy metal levels by 35%-80%. The effect of canning depended on metal type and reduction of moisture loss after the steam-roasting step of the canning procedure. PMID:24779699

Galitsopoulou, Augoustina; Georgantelis, Dimitrios; Kontominas, Michael

2012-01-01

215

Galileo's Moon Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Galileo's Moon Mountain Model illustrates the method used by Galileo to measure the height of a mountain on the Moon. Using his improved telescope design, Galileo was able to see spots of light in the otherwise dark potion of the Moon. He interpreted these spots as mountain peaks which caught the rays of the sun even though the sun did not illuminate the Moon's surface at the base of the mountain. He measured the distance of the bright spot from the terminator (the line separating the lit and unlit portions of the Moon) as a fraction of the Moon's radius. Then he was able to use a geometrical argument to determine the height of the mountain as a fraction of the Moon's radius. Galileo knew that the Moon's radius was approximately 1600 km (he didn't use those units, of course), which allowed him to determine the absolute height of the mountain. (Note that the modern value for the Moon's radius is about 1740 km.) One window shows the view from above the North pole of the Moon. The mountain appears near the bottom of this window. A ray of sunlight which just grazes the Moon's surface at the terminator is shown. Controls allow the user to adjust the angle of sunlight (thus altering the Moon's phase) and the height of the mountain. The other window shows the view from Earth. When sunlight strikes the top of the mountain a bright spot becomes visible in the dark area of the Moon. Likewise, when the mountain is in the bright region it casts a shadow. The distance across the Moon's face from terminator to mountain in shown.

Timberlake, Todd

2011-05-18

216

METEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGY 280280280280 Intro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain Meteorology  

E-print Network

1 METEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGY 280280280280 Intro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain Meteorology Course Description This course will introduce the student to meteorological phenomena associated with mountain environments

Clements, Craig

217

Vegetation of the greater Maya Mountains, Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new vegetation classification for the Greater Maya Mountains of Belize, focusing primarily on the Chiquibul Forest Reserve. Extensive use is made of GIS, remote sensing, botanical collections and field visits to provide a macro? and meso?scale overview of the vegetation of this region. A total of 32 vegetation classes have been defined, both geographically and structurally,

Malcolm G. Penn; David A. Sutton; Alex Monro

2004-01-01

218

Mountain Promise page 1 Mountain Promise  

E-print Network

health care for WV communities page 15 #12;Mountain Promise page 2 duction and use of ozone of leisure time, as most people would, as a negative. GDP counts expenditures for defensive activities defensive expenditures made to prevent the erosion of quality of life as a negative. The GDP accounts

Baltisberger, Jay H.

219

Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail

Schaffhauser, Dian

2009-01-01

220

Effect of Limited-scale Improvement Works on the Maintenance of Food for Japanese Crested Ibis in Hilly and Mountainous Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines whether the adequate population of loaches, one of the main food resources of Japanese Crested Ibis (Toki), can be maintained by the implementation of limited-scale improvement works of the habitat. As a result of the monitoring survey with the mark-recapture method, it was confirmed that the number of loaches was estimated to be 1.5 per m2 in the study paddy field, and 5.2 per m2 in the study canal, which in turn, exceeded the necessary amount for feeding Japanese Crested Ibis reported by Japan Wildlife Research Center. The major factors leading to this favorable outcome are considered to be the existence of the intercepting drain in the paddy field, the canal fishway, the paddy field fishway, and environment-conscious canal. It is also supposed that the loaches' range of activity is quite limited in comparison with the spatial extent of improvement works. These outcomes leads to a conclusion that the limited-scale improvement works are effective for the maintenance of loach population.

Sato, Takenobu; Misawa, Shinichi; Yoshikawa, Natsuki; Takahara, Eiji

221

ERC commercialization activities  

SciTech Connect

The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MR power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full- sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, and (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MR Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

Maru, H.C.

1995-12-01

222

Mountains of Fractals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Mountains of Fractals" article in the Math DL develops algorithms to produce coastlines and mountains in two dimensions by adapting mathematical ideas related to the construction of such fractals as Koch's curve. EJS is used to create a hands-on activity that allows a reader to create a coastline with a rubberband, six-sided die, and thumb tacks. Java applications allow for exploration of these algorithms and the influence of their associated parameters. After discussing 2D fractal mountains, this article extends the 2D algorithm to produce 3D mountains. Finally, mathematical issues in random number generation are discussed. More specifically, linear congruential generators are considered and shown to be suitable as a random number generator for the 3D fractal landscape algorithm. The use of fractal landscapes in movies is also discussed.

Chartier, Tim

2009-09-11

223

The Strongest Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After learning about weathering and erosion, fifth-grade students worked in cooperative groups to create a "mountain" that could resist the effects of water erosion and demonstrate their understanding of the subject.

Colleen Monnes

2004-10-01

224

Cadell's Mountain Building Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These animations show reconstructions of Cadell's famous experiments in mountain building, performed at an open day of the British Geological Survey at Murchison House, Edinburgh. Various versions at different resolutions are available.

225

Smoky Mountain Field School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Tennessee Division of Continuing Education contains the home page for the Smoky Mountain Field School which offers supervised wilderness adventures for people of all ages and levels of experience. http://www.ce.utk.edu/Smoky/

226

Scales  

SciTech Connect

Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

Murray Gibson

2007-04-27

227

Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs  

SciTech Connect

A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests, and potentially large-scale lab. demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well-quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs.

Ozdemir, L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1991-12-31

228

Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs  

SciTech Connect

A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests and potentially large-scale laboratory demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

Ozdemir, L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (USA); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)

1991-01-01

229

Pennsylvania's dead mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most first-time visitors to Blue Mountain are never quite prepared for it. They don't expect to see 2000 acres of dead mountain-especially land looking like that. The defoliation started in 1898 when New Jersey Zinc Company opened the first of two plants to process zinc silicate (and later zinc sulfide) from nearby New Jersey. While the acid rain worked on

Lalo

2009-01-01

230

Tall tower or mountain top measurements?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolving the regional transport and distribution of greenhouse gases in the troposphere is a key topic that challenges both modelers and experimentalists. A dense network of measurement stations would be required, in particular including measurements at high elevation to better represent the entire lower troposphere, and not only small-scale local conditions in the near-surface atmosphere. While this can be achieved by tall towers, also mountain top stations (e.g. Schauinsland, Brocken) and other stations at high elevation (e.g., Mouna Loa, Jungfraujoch) are often appropriate, due to their extended concentration footprint. However, especially over complex, mountainous terrain, the transport of atmospheric gases and their spatio-temporal distribution is difficult to predict due to the development of thermally induced local wind patterns and boundary layer processes. Therefore, the main goal of our study is to test to what extend boundary layer processes at the surface and local wind patterns close to the ground at a mountain top site influence the ambient greenhouse gas patterns compared to measurements taken at a similar altitude but at a tall tower site. To this end we use measurements from the Zugerberg mountain top station, located at a pre-Alpine mountain ridge (987 m a.s.l., 4 m above ground) exposed to the prevailing synoptic winds in Switzerland, and compare these measurements with a neighboring tall tower site (Beromnster radio broadcast tower with its top at 1014 m a.s.l., 217 m above local ground level, and ?500 m above the Swiss Plateau). The Beromnster tall tower is located at a distance of only 30 km from the mountain top station as the bird flies, and hence a direct comparison minimizes confounding factors that are not related to the tall tower vs. mountain top position of the measurements. Both stations are part of the CarboCount CH greenhouse gas observation network (http://www.carbocount.ch) initiated for long-term monitoring and modeling of greenhouse gas fluxes at a regional scale in order to achieve a better understanding about CO2 and CH4 fluxes and their response to climate. We will present first direct comparisons of measurements obtained from continuously calibrated laser absorption spectrometers to quantify the atmospheric concentrations of carbon-dioxide and methane, but also from meteorological sensors and turbulence measurements. Data from the sensors at the two stations will be used to address the following question: can a mountain top station provide similar quality of data and spatial representativeness as a tall tower for the investigation of atmospheric patterns of greenhouse gases at diurnal to seasonal scale?

Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Leuenberger, Markus; Schanda, Rdiger; Henne, Stephan; Buchmann, Nina

2014-05-01

231

Space Commercialization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

Martin, Gary L.

2011-01-01

232

Tourism and Commercial Recreation Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies  

E-print Network

Tourism and Commercial Recreation Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies Green Mountain College Fall 2005 GENERAL INFORMATION Course: REC 3033, Tourism and Commercial Recreation Credits: 3 DESCRIPTION [From the catalog]. This course is a study of the dynamics of the tourism industry

Brown, Gregory G.

233

The Mountaineers Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With an eye towards conservation and documentation, The Mountaineers outdoor club has been in existence since 1906. Since that time, the group has been actively engaged in and around the Pacific Northwestâs many wilderness areas in a variety of capacities. Recently, the University of Washington Librariesâ Digital Collections project saw fit to digitize some of their extensive photographic collections. The result is this fine online archive which contains delightful documentation of some of their early expeditions, such as a 1912 trek to Mount Rainier and a 1951 sojourn to Mount Olympus in the Olympic Mountain range. The site also includes a detailed map of their 1920 outing to Mount Olympus and an introductory essay about the history of the organization. Finally, the site also contains 28 bulletins from the organizationâs history that document some of their outings and mountaineering accomplishments.

234

Great Smoky Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Tennessee at Knoxville has created this excellent resource on the culture, history, and geography of the Great Smoky Mountains. The resource was created as part of a collaboration with the Great Smoky Mountains Regional Project, and it includes digital collections, a regional bibliography, and a comprehensive listing of organizations in the region. The Digital Collections area includes six different photograph collections. Perhaps the most interesting one here is the William Cox Cochran collection, which includes 89 images of East Tennessee taken during August 1886. Moving on, the Colloquy area includes copies of the biannual newsletter for the Great Smoky Mountains Regional Project dating back to 2000. Finally, the Organizations area features an annotated list of organizations that work in the region, including the Friends of the Smokies and the Foothills Land Conservancy.

2012-08-10

235

Effect of an Increase in Codend Mesh Size on Discarding in the Loligo Squid-Directed Fishery: A Commercial-Scale Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discard reduction of juvenile fish and other unwanted bycatch species has been identified as a primary tool in achieving rebuilding and mortality objectives of current fishery management plans. Management of the offshore Loligo pealei squid fishery is particularly challenging because the legal codend mesh size is smaller than other regulated commercial fisheries. Co-occurrence of adult Loligo with juveniles and other

Sarah E. King; Eric N. Powell; Eleanor A. Bochenek

2009-01-01

236

Development and testing of a commercial scale coal-fired combustion system -- Phase 3. Final technical progress report, September 26, 1990--August 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of work performed in the development and testing of a coal-fired space heating system for the commercial market sector. Although coal is the most plentiful energy resource in the US, its use since World War II has been largely restricted to utility power generation for environmental and economic reasons. Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant heating fuels for office buildings, apartment complexes, and similar structures. Generally, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program was to design, build, and test a coal-based heating system for this sector, and determine the economic viability and market potential for the system. Coal water slurry (CWS) fuel was chosen as the fuel form for this development effort. CWS eliminates the need to use dry pulverized coal with its attendant handling, metering, and dusting problems, as well as its explosive potential. A brief description of the overall system design is given in this report, as well as a discussion of the unique features of the system configuration and key components. This is followed by a summary of the testing performed, including a comparison between system performance and program goals. Finally, the results of the economic evaluation are presented, along with a commercialization plan for the technology. A key issue in the eventual commercialization of the technology is the availability of a competitively priced coal water slurry fuel. Predicted prices and availability of CWS are discussed.

Litka, A.; Breault, R.

1994-10-01

237

Evaluating effects of an expanding mountain goat population on native bighorn sheep: a simulation model of competition and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological invasions create serious conservation problems at local to global scales, and decisions about their management require evaluation of the likely environmental consequences of an expanding population. An expanding population of exotic mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) occupy an area near Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA (RMNP), an area managed for preservation of natural communities and processes. If mountain goats

J. E Gross

2001-01-01

238

Mountain Road with Autumn Foliage  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A mountain road and surrounding early autumn foliage photographed from a higher elevation in the Appalachian Mountains. The especially prominent orange leaves of a maple tree are in the foreground....

239

Sean Hewitt Wild Mountain Thyme  

E-print Network

Se´an Hewitt Wild Mountain Thyme Christmas day. We're all at my gran's house, The full, Catholic notes to Wild Mountain Thyme, And our voices warm And swell around The sunken armchair left Empty since

Robertson, Stephen

240

Mountain Home Well - Photos  

DOE Data Explorer

The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

Shervais, John

241

STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

1984-01-01

242

Pinnacle Mountain Field Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in teams and on their own to determine the most likely origin of block fields on Pinnacle Mountain, central AR. Teams of two or three students collect and analyze field data on grain size, roughness, and orientation of boulders on Pinnacle Mountain. On their own, students research possible origins of block fields and interpret their results in a written report. This activity provides students with practice using field skills (including GPS/PDA experience), interpreting data, reading the literature, developing hypotheses, working in teams, and report writing. Designed for a geomorphology course

Margaret McMillan

243

Mountain Man Measurement Rendezvous  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners participate in several activities where they apply measurement skills. Learners explore how the Mountain Men played an important part in the history of the American frontier and more importantly, how the Mountain Men used different techniques for making measurements in their daily activities. At the various stations, learners measure their jump distances, handfuls of "gold," water-soaked sponges, "buffalo chip" throws, arm spans, "stone" throws, "arrow" tosses, foot sizes, pots of beans, and "shooting" distances. This activity works well outside.

Lessonplans, Utah

2012-10-22

244

Mountain Home Well - Photos  

SciTech Connect

The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

Shervais, John

2012-01-11

245

Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very lowexcept for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository lifetime). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program as they have developed over the past 5 years; what follows will be focused on Yucca Mountain, but not restricted to it.

Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

2013-01-01

246

Moving Beyond the Yucca Mountain  

E-print Network

Moving Beyond the Yucca Mountain Viability Assessment U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as the sole location to be studied for possi- ble development of the Yucca Mountain site. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently published Viability As- sessment

247

Commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on commercial applications of fuzzy logic in Japan are presented. Topics covered include: suitable application area of fuzzy theory; characteristics of fuzzy control; fuzzy closed-loop controller; Mitsubishi heavy air conditioner; predictive fuzzy control; the Sendai subway system; automatic transmission; fuzzy logic-based command system for antilock braking system; fuzzy feed-forward controller; and fuzzy auto-tuning system.

Togai, Masaki

1990-01-01

248

Rainfall characteristics along mountainous transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment is an experiment framework that aims at improving our understanding and quantification of processes related to the hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean region at different scales (from the individual event scale to seasonal and inter-annual variability). During the Special Observation Period (SOP-1) conducted from September 5th to November 6th 2012, an important and complementary remote sensing network (operational radars, X band research radars, Micro Rain Radars, disdrometers, and a dense network of rain gauges) has been deployed in the Cvennes-Vivarais region (South of France). This network was specifically designed to investigate the structure and the heterogeneity of precipitations as well as, in particular, the impact of orography on this structure and it has provided us with high resolution data (time and space) along strong topographic gradients (small hills, foothills and mountain). Hence, these data will support our research to precisely describe the precipitation systems and their structures over a complex terrain. In this work, we will describe the characteristics of rainfall along two topographic gradients based on the major events observed during the fall 2012 campaign period. A classification according to the type of precipitation (convective, stratiform and orographic) which can affect the region has been made to investigate orographic impact under different rainfall regimes. We will also examine the influence of the relief on the vertical and horizontal structure of precipitation. In particular, we will illustrate the modification of the drop size distribution toward smaller droplets as we go from the small hills to the mountains.

Zwiebel, Jimmy; Van Baelen, Jol; Anquetin, Sandrine; Pointin, Yves; Boudevillain, Brice

2014-05-01

249

A comparative study of the seroprevalence of brucellosis in commercial and small-scale mixed dairybeef cattle enterprises of Lusaka province and Chibombo district, Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2007 and February 2008 to estimate seroprevalence of brucellosis and\\u000a identify risk factors associated with Brucella infections in commercial cattle in three districts of Lusaka province (Chongwe, Luangwa, and Kafue; n?=?849) and in one rural district from the Central province (n?=?48). A total of 897 serum samples were randomly collected from 55 farms

Henry M. Chimana; John Bwalya Muma; Kenny L. Samui; Benard M. Hangombe; Musso Munyeme; Gift Matope; Andrew M. Phiri; Jacques Godfroid; Eystein Skjerve; Morten Tryland

2010-01-01

250

DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An

Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

251

The Strongest Mountain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop

Monnes, Colleen

2004-01-01

252

The Mountaineer Minority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no

Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

1974-01-01

253

POTENTAIL HABITAT MOUNTAIN PLOVERS  

E-print Network

POTENTAIL HABITAT FOR MOUNTAIN PLOVERS ON COLORADO SPRINGS UTILITIES PROPERTY A Report to Colorado). To identify potential habitat on current and future Colorado Springs Utilities property, the Utility funded a habitat survey conducted by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program at Colorado State University. METHODS

254

Carve That Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students further investigate major landforms (e.g., mountains, rivers, plains, hills, oceans and plateaus). They build a three-dimensional model of a landscape depicting several of these landforms. Once they have built their model, they act as civil and transportation engineers to build a road through the landscape they have created.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

255

Aqueous geochemical data from the analysis of stream-water samples collected in June and August 2008Taylor Mountains 1:250,000- and Dillingham D-4 1:63,360-scale quadrangles, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000- and Dillingham D-4 1:63,360-scale quadrangles, Alaska. Reported parameters include pH, conductivity, water temperature, major cation and anion concentrations, and trace-element concentrations. We collected the samples as part of a multiyear U.S. Geological Survey project entitled "Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development." Data presented here are from samples collected in June and August 2008. Minimal interpretation accompanies this data release. This is the fourth release of aqueous geochemical data from this project; data from samples collected in 2004, 2005, and 2006 were published previously. The data in this report augment but do not duplicate or supersede the previous data releases. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first- and second-order drainages. Water sample sites were selected on the basis of landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and a cursory field review of mineralogy from pan concentrates. Stream water in the study area is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), although in a few samples more than 50 percent of the anionic charge can be attributed to sulfate (SO42-). The major-cation chemistry of these samples ranges from Ca2+-Mg2+ dominated to a mix of Ca2+-Mg2+-Na++K2+. In most cases, analysis of duplicate samples showed good agreement for the major cation and major anions with the exception of the duplicate samples at site 08TA565. At site 08TA565, Ca, Mg, Cl, and CaCO3 exceeded 25 percent and the concentrations of trace elements As, Fe and Mn also exceeded 25 percent in this duplicate pair. Chloride concentration varied by more than 25 percent in 5 of the 11 duplicated samples. Trace-element concentrations in these samples generally were at or near the detection limit for the method used and, except for Co at site 08TA565, generally good agreement was determined between duplicate samples for elements with detectable concentrations. Major-ion concentrations were below detection limits in all field blanks, and the trace-element concentrations also were generally below detection limits; however, Co, Mn, Na, Zn, Cl, and Hg were detected in one or more field blank samples.

Wang, Bronwen; Owens, Victoria; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

2011-01-01

256

Distribution of Mycorrhizal Types among Alpine Vascular Plant Families on the Beartooth Plateau, Rocky Mountains, U.S.A., in Reference to Large-Scale Patterns in ArcticAlpine Habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycorrhizal symbiosis is critical to plant establishment and survival, influences plant community structure and function, and could be particularly important in harsh environments such as the alpine tundra. An examination of 53 vascular plant species in 21 families from alpine areas of the Beartooth Plateau (Rocky Mountains) revealed most were mycorrhizal (68%) and four distinct types of symbioses were present.

Cathy L. Cripps; Leslie H. Eddington

2005-01-01

257

Commercial Norms, Commercial Codes, and International Commercial Arbitration  

E-print Network

The article defends the incorporation of commercial norms into commercial codes, through provisions such as statute 1-205 of the Uniform Commercial Code. It finds significant reliance on trade usages in international ...

Drahozal, Christopher R.

2000-01-01

258

Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and

Frazer, Charles F.

259

Selling Out Kids. Commercialism in Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commercialism in schools takes many forms, ranging from the overt sale of advertising space to the presence of corporate logos. There are risks to in-school commercialism that parents must understand and deal with. Includes sidebars on PTA positions and a rating scale of in-school commercialism. (SM)

Herzog, Susan

1997-01-01

260

Land use/cover changes in European mountain areas: identifying links between global driving forces and local consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minor land use/cover changes in mountain areas can aggravate the consequences of hydro-meteorological hazards such as landslides, avalanches, rockfall and flash floods. What is more, they change the provisioning of ecosystem services; also as their recovery after anthropogenic induced changes in mountains are slower or not occurring at all due to harsh climate and soil conditions. Examples of these changes are urbanization in high risk areas or deforestation on slopes. To understand the driving forces behind land use/cover changes in European mountain areas, the focus is on the two case study areas: The Val Canale valley in the Italian Alps and the Buzau valley in the Romanian Carpathians. Land use/cover changes were analyzed in the recent decades applying various remote sensing techniques, such as satellite imagery classification and visual interpretation, as well as integration of various databases (e.g. forestry, spatial planning and cadaster plans). Instead of identifying the statistical significance of particular variables (e.g. population change), the links between different driving forces of global change (e.g. political and policy changes, infrastructural plans) and local socio-economic variables were investigated further through interviewing local and regional stakeholders. The results show how both areas differ in the consequences of global changes in terms of land use/cover change. The Italian area witnessed a trajectory from a commercially active and competitive area, to an area with a large portion of abandoned commercial, customs, industrial and mining zones. These processes were accompanied by the expansion of settlements comprised mostly of secondary housing on areas with high risk, resulting in catastrophic consequences in recent flash floods and debris flows events. The Romanian site also witnessed a breakdown of local commercial and industrial activities. Together with land ownership reforms, this has resulted in the emergence of subsistence farming and illegal logging. This intensification of activities has mostly affected land on slopes in an area where over 40 % of the area is subject to landslides. Relatively, the prevailing land use/cover change process in both areas, as usually in most European mountain areas, is reforestation. Small-scale changes however were most important in terms of negative consequences. Therefore we think it is necessary to focus on the local scale when identifying possible future negative consequences of land use/cover change. Acknowledgement This work is a part of the CHANGES project (Changing hydro-meteorological risks - as Analysed by a New Generation of European Scientists), a Marie Curie Initial Training Network, funded by the European Community's 7'th Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under Grant Agreement No. 263953.

Malek, iga; Schrter, Dagmar; Glade, Thomas

2013-04-01

261

Computation of spatial significance of mountain objects extracted from multiscale digital elevation models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The derivation of spatial significance is an important aspect of geospatial analysis and hence, various methods have been proposed to compute the spatial significance of entities based on spatial distances with other entities within the cluster. This paper is aimed at studying the spatial significance of mountain objects extracted from multiscale digital elevation models (DEMs). At each scale, the value of spatial significance index SSI of a mountain object is the minimum number of morphological dilation iterations required to occupy all the other mountain objects in the terrain. The mountain object with the lowest value of SSI is the spatially most significant mountain object, indicating that it has the shortest distance to the other mountain objects. It is observed that as the area of the mountain objects reduce with increasing scale, the distances between the mountain objects increase, resulting in increasing values of SSI. The results obtained indicate that the strategic location of a mountain object at the centre of the terrain is more important than its size in determining its reach to other mountain objects and thus, its spatial significance.

Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh

2014-06-01

262

EASTERN PIONEER MOUNTAINS, MONTANA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight mining districts and numerous individual mines ring the eastern Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana, and are within 4 mi of the boundary of the eastern Pioneer area. Mineralized ground peripheral to these districts extends into the area at several places. Three of 12 molybdenum prospects in the Pioneer Mountains are within the eastern Pioneer area. Several areas of Paleozoic carbonate rocks are mineralized or favorably situated with respect to the Pioneer batholith. All such areas have probable resource potential. Detailed studies of structural and stratigraphic controls of ore deposition and its association with intrusive rocks of particular types and ages may be useful in providing the basis for a more precise resource assessment.

Pearson, Robert C.

1984-01-01

263

Yucca Mountain Milestone  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy project to determine if the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is suitable for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste reached a major milestone in late April when a 25-foot-diameter tunnel boring machine ``holed through'' completing a five-mile-long, horseshoe-shaped excavation through the mountain. When the cutting-head of the giant machine broke through to daylight at the tunnel's south portal, it ended a 2 1/2-year excavation through the mountain that was completed ahead of schedule and with an outstanding safety record. Video of the event was transmitted live by satellite to Washington, DC, where it was watched by Secretary of Energy Frederico Pena and other high-level DOE officials, signifying the importance of the project's mission to find a repository for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants. This critical undertaking is being performed by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The tunnel is the major feature of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which serves as an underground laboratory for engineers and scientists to help determine if Yucca Mountain is suitable to serve as a repository for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Morrison Knudsen's Environmental/Government Group is providing design and construction-management services on the project. The MK team is performing final design for the ESF and viability assessment design for the underground waste repository that will be built only if the site is found suitable for such a mission. In fact, if at anytime during the ESF phase, the site is found unsuitable, the studies will be stopped and the site restored to its natural state.

Hunt, Rod

1997-06-09

264

Mountain treelines: A roadmap for research orientation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For over 100 years, mountain treelines have been the subject of varied research endeavors and remain a strong area of investigation. The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of the epistemology of mountain treeline research-that is, to investigate how knowledge on treelines has been acquired and the changes in knowledge acquisition over time, through a review of fundamental questions and approaches. The questions treeline researchers have raised and continue to raise have undoubtedly directed the current state of knowledge. A continuing, fundamental emphasis has centered on seeking the general cause of mountain treelines, thus seeking an answer to the question, "What causes treeline?" with a primary emphasis on searching for ecophysiological mechanisms of low-temperature limitation for tree growth and regeneration. However, treeline research today also includes a rich literature that seeks local, landscape-scale causes of treelines and reasons why treelines vary so widely in three-dimensional patterns from one location to the next, and this approach and some of its consequences are elaborated here. In recent years, both lines of research have been motivated greatly by global climate change. Given the current state of knowledge, we propose that future research directions focused on a spatial approach should specifically address cross-scale hypotheses using statistics and simulations designed for nested hierarchies; these analyses will benefit from geographic extension of treeline research.

Malanson, George P.; Resler, Lynn M.; Bader, Maaike Y.; Holtmeier, Fredrich-Karl; Butler, David R.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Daniels, Lori D.; Fagre, Daniel B.

2011-01-01

265

Status of the Mussel Fauna of the Poteau River and Implications for Commercial Harvest  

E-print Network

be retained and further commercial harvest of mussels should be avoided. INTRODUCTION The Ouachita Mountains as it flows through the Ouachita Mountains. Below Lake Wister the river makes an abrupt transition to low the Ouachita Uplands of eastern Oklahoma and western Arkansas. The river has been harvested for mussels

Vaughn, Caryn

266

The Evolution of Mountain Permafrost in Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permafrost, defined as lithospheric material whose temperature remains below 0 C for two or more consecutive years, occurs in many high-mountain regions of the European Alps. Mountain permafrost in the European Alps is characterised by temperatures only a few degrees below zero and is therefore particularly sensitive to projected climate changes in the 21st century. To evaluate the sensitivity of mountain permafrost to climatic changes and to assess its future evolution, not only climatic variables such as air temperature, radiation and timing and duration of snow cover have to be considered, but also subsurface characteristics such as ground temperature, ice content, porosity or hydraulic properties. In Switzerland, permafrost monitoring started only 1-2 decades ago but currently comprises a large set of meteorological, geophysical, kinematic and ground thermal parameters at a large variety of field sites. Within a large integrating national project (The evolution of mountain permafrost in Switzerland: TEMPS) these data sets are jointly analysed for the first time by combining observations with model simulations using a dynamic process-oriented soil model capable of addressing frozen terrain. In combination with results from Regional Climate Model ensembles, the project TEMPS aims to create plausible evolution scenarios of mountain permafrost at specific sites and will investigate the interactions between atmosphere and permafrost focusing on the evolution of ground temperature, ice content and related degradation and creep processes. This contribution will show first results concerning (a) new observation techniques in high-mountain permafrost, including thermal, geophysical and kinematic methods, (b) sensitivity studies with the soil model COUP regarding the impact of temperature and precipitation anomalies on different permafrost landforms and (c) strategies for downscaling and debiasing RCM output data for permafrost analysis on the station scale at high altitudes. The results illustrate the difficulties of scale mismatch between spatial models and point observations, as well as the problem of short time series in a climate context, but they highlight also the large potential of bringing together the monitoring and modelling communities, as both can provide key data for each other in the context of anticipated impacts of climate change. First results regarding the permafrost evolution in the Swiss Alps indicate several monitoring stations with permafrost temperatures close to the melting point, with corresponding phase changes observable with e.g. geophysical methods. Simulations suggest increasing air and ground temperatures until the end of the century with a corresponding reduction in snow cover, which does, however, not offset a general warming trend of permafrost temperatures in the simulation models. Nevertheless, the high variability of surface and subsurface materials in the permafrost regions of the European Alps will strongly modulate any general warming trend which might be visible within the coming decades.

Hauck, C.; Delaloye, R.; Roer, I. H.; Hilbich, C.; Hoelzle, M.; Kenner, R.; Kotlarski, S.; Lambiel, C.; Marmy, A.; Mller, J.; Noetzli, J.; Phillips, M.; Rajczak, J.; Salzmann, N.; Schaepman, M. E.; Schar, C.; Staub, B.; Vlksch, I.

2013-12-01

267

Mountain Waves and Downslope Winds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain waves form above and downwind of topographic barriers and frequently pose a serious hazard to mountain aviation because of strong-to-extreme turbulence. This foundation module describes the features of mountain waves and explores the conditions under which they form. Like other foundation modules in the Mesoscale Primer, this module starts with a forecast scenario and concludes with a final exam. Rich graphics, audio narration, and frequent interactions enhance the presentation.

Comet

2004-01-07

268

Mountain-Block Hydrology and Mountain-Front Recharge* John L. Wilson and Huade Guan  

E-print Network

Mountain-Block Hydrology and Mountain-Front Recharge* John L. Wilson and Huade Guan New Mexico of recharge to basin aquifers oc- curs along the mountain front. Traditionally called "mountain-front recharge, mountain-front recharge estimates are based on the general pre- cipitation characteristics of the mountain

Texas at San Antonio, University of

269

Rocks and Rain: orographic precipitation and the form of mountain ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mountainous landscapes patterns of erosion reflect patterns of precipitation that are, in turn, controlled by the orography. Ultimately therefore, the feedbacks between orography and the climate it creates are responsible for the sculpting of mountain ranges. Key questions concerning these interactions are: 1) how robust are patterns of precipitation on geologic time scales? and 2) how do those patterns

G. H. Roe; A. M. Anders; D. R. Durran; D. R. Montgomery; B. Hallet

2005-01-01

270

Cascading effects of fire exclusion in Rocky Mountain ecosystems: a literature review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The health of many Rocky Mountain ecosystems is in decline because of the policy of excluding fire in the management of these ecosystems. Fire exclusion has actually made it more difficult to fight fires, and this poses greater risks to the people who fight fires and for those who live in and around Rocky Mountain forests and rangelands. This paper discusses the extent of fire exclusion in the Rocky Mountains, then details the diverse and cascading effects of suppressing fires in the Rocky Mountain landscape by spatial scale, ecosystem characteristic, and vegetation type. Also discussed are the varied effects of fire exclusion on some important, keystone ecosystems and human concerns.

Keane, R.E.; Ryan, K.C.; Veblen, T.T.; Allen, C.D.; Logan, J.; Hawkes, B.

2002-01-01

271

What Is Scale?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scale is one of the big ideas that cross the science domains. Whether one is talking about the weight of a blue whale, the size of a galaxy or a molecule, or the age of a mountain range, scale is an essential tool in understanding the universe in a scient

Taylor, Amy R.; Jones, M. G.; Falvo, Michael R.

2009-09-01

272

Mountain-eering University of Trento Spin off  

E-print Network

. Date of incorporation:· September 17, 2008. Equity:· 30.000 euros. Management Team:· Matteo Dall:· environmental engineering and green technology solutions for the hydrological analysis of the territory and simulations for the specific need. Mountain-eering provides software solutions for the hydrological analysis

273

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part...

2013-10-01

274

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part...

2012-10-01

275

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part...

2011-10-01

276

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part...

2010-10-01

277

Landform Interpretation: Table Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working collaboratively, groups of students [3-4]develop hypotheses addressing the paleotopography of a Miocene river channel [Table Mountain Latite] and processes that have resulted in its current topographic expression. Students use observations/data gained from topographic maps [Sonora, Keystone, Melones Dam and Knight's Ferry 7.5 minute quadrangles], San Francisco-San Jose Regional Geological Map, aerial photos, and Google Earth [120 39 01W; 37 48 15N to 120 26 17W; 37 57 36N]. Using PowerPoint, students present and defend their hypotheses and plans for further research during the final week of the semester. Designed for a geomorphology course

Gene Pearson

278

Defining Hydrogeological Boundaries for Mountain Front Recharge (MFR) Predictions in Multi-Catchment Mountainous Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross-catchment groundwater flow in mountainous watersheds results from the development of local, intermediate, and regional groundwater flow pathways in multi-catchment systems. As such, hydrogeological analysis (e.g. water balance calculations and numerical modelling) to assess contributions of groundwater to mountain front recharge (MFR) must consider the choice of boundaries based on hydrological divides. Numerical 3-dimensional hydrogeological modelling was completed using FeFlow (DHI-WASY), for conceptual regional-scale multi-catchment systems; extending from a watershed boundary to a mountain front. The modelled systems were designed to represent major ridge and valley configurations observed in mountainous watersheds including: nested, adjacent, disconnected, non-parallel, and parallel catchments. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity scenarios were simulated; with the heterogeneous scenario including a shallow zone of higher hydraulic conductivity bedrock overlying less permeable bedrock. The influence of cross-catchment flow in the development of groundwater flow pathways contributing to MFR was examined. The results provide a basis for identifying topographic scenarios where contributions to MFR may originate outside hydrological divides. This understanding will contribute to improving MFR predictions using both the numerical modelling approach and the water balance approach.

Neilson-Welch, L. A.; Allen, D. M.

2010-12-01

279

Performance of two commercial rapid methods for sampling and detection of Listeria in small-scale cheese producing and salmon processing environments.  

PubMed

Two commercially available all-in-one swab rapid detection systems for Listeria spp. (InSite Listeria Test and Path-Chek hygiene Listeria) were tested for performance in cheese production environments and salmon processing facilities. Sampling was conducted both on clean surfaces and during production. A total of 338 samples were taken using the swabs (175 in cheese environments, 163 in salmon environments). Conventional sampling using sterile cloths and standardized qualitative detection of Listeria spp. according to NMKL method no. 136 was performed in parallel from 64 sampling sites in the salmon processing facilities and 40 sampling sites in the cheese production facilities. Results showed that both rapid swab tests detected Listeria spp.; however, they returned significant amounts of false positives. Presence of Listeria spp. was indicated in 47% and 41% of all swabs in the cheese and salmon environments, respectively. Enrichment followed by selective plating and Listeria specific PCR confirmed none of the 82 presumptive positive swabs from the cheese environment and 16 of 67 presumptive positive swabs from the salmon environments, respectively. Further analysis showed that several other bacteria, including Enterococcus spp. and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, were the source of false positive swab results. From salmon processing facilities, using cloth sampling and standard analyses, 22% Listeria positive sampling sites were confirmed compared to 9% and 11% positives obtained using InSite or Path-Chek detection systems. From the cheese production environments, no Listeria positive sites were confirmed using either swab or cloth sampling. In conclusion, the use of these rapid detection methods was not suited in the selected environments due to large numbers of false positives, caused by the background flora. PMID:22960690

Schirmer, Bjrn C T; Langsrud, Solveig; Mretr, Trond; Hagtvedt, Therese; Heir, Even

2012-11-01

280

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 11, January 1--March 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter, the third draft of the Topical Report on Process Economics Studies was issued for review. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing on the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) was made. A liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed, and a decision to proceed with a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) is pending the release of a memo from Air Products on the catalyst targets and corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst. The off-site product-use test plan is to be updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Air Products and Acurex Environmental Corporation continued developing the listing of product-use test participants who are involved in fuel cell, transportation, and stationary power plant applications. Start-up activities (Task 3.1) began during the reporting period, and coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was introduced to the demonstration unit. The recycle compressor was tested successfully on syngas at line pressure of 700 psig, and the reactor loop reached 220 C for carbonyl burnout. Iron carbonyl in the balanced gas feed remained below the 10 ppbv detection limit for all samples but one. Within the reactor loop, iron carbonyl levels peaked out near 200 ppbv after about 40 hours on-stream, before decreasing to between 10--20 ppbv at 160 hours on -stream. Nickel carbonyl measurements reached a peak of about 60 ppbv, and decreased at all sampling locations to below the 10 ppbv detection limit by 70 hours on-stream. Catalyst activation of the nine 2,250 lb batches required for the initial catalyst charge began and concluded. All batches met or slightly exceeded the theoretical maximum uptake of 2.82 SCF of reducing gas/lb catalyst.

NONE

1997-06-11

281

Commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

282

Succession patterns on mountain pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some successional patterns on mountain pastures in the Hohe Tauern mountains, Austria, are described. A close relation with former pasture management is shown. Very clear gradients in the nutritional status of the soil exist from stables towards more remote areas where no nutrients are added. Dwarf shrub or Alnus viridis woodland vegetation will develop after abandoning pastures, depending on elevation

G. Spatz; W. Germany

1980-01-01

283

Origami DNA model Mountain fold  

E-print Network

Origami DNA model Mountain fold Solid lines are "mountains" and are to be folded away from you solid lines. Valley folds along dashed lines. Making your DNA model Folds for your DNA model 1 Adapted from Yen, T., 1995, Make your own DNA. Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 20: 94. #12;At this point

Csürös, Miklós

284

Extinction of Harrington's Mountain Goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at

Jim I. Mead; Paul S. Martin; Robert C. Euler; Austin Long; A. J. T. Jull; Laurence J. Toolin; Douglas J. Donahue; T. W. Linick

1986-01-01

285

Characterizing the Severe Turbulence Environments Associated with Commercial Aviation Accidents. Part 2; Hydrostatic Mesobeta Scale Numerical Simulations of Supergradient Wind Flow and Streamwise Ageostrophic Frontogenesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation experiments reveal key processes that organize a hydrostatic environment conducive to severe turbulence. The paradigm requires juxtaposition of the entrance region of a curved jet stream, which is highly subgeostrophic, with the entrance region of a straight jet stream, which is highly supergeostrophic. The wind and mass fields become misphased as the entrance regions converge resulting in the significant spatial variation of inertial forcing, centripetal forcing, and along- and cross-stream pressure gradient forcing over a mesobeta scale region. This results in frontogenesis and the along-stream divergence of cyclonic and convergence of cyclonic ageostrophic vertical vorticity. The centripetally forced mesoscale front becomes the locus of large gradients of ageostrophic vertical vorticity along an overturning isentrope. This region becomes favorable for streamwise vorticity gradient formation enhancing the environment for organization of horizontal vortex tubes in the presence of buoyant forcing.

Kaplan, Michael L.; Huffman, Allan W.; Lux, Kevin M.; Cetola, Jeffrey D.; Charney, Joseph J.; Riordan, Allen J.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Waight, Kenneth T., III; Proctor, Fred (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

286

YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --  

SciTech Connect

This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

NA

2003-08-05

287

Nature and continuity of the Sundance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the detailed geologic mapping (1:2,400 scale) that was performed in the northern part of the potential nuclear waste repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine the nature and extent of the Sundance Fault zone and to evaluate structural relations between the Sundance and other faults.

Potter, Christopher J.; Dickerson, Robert P.; Day, Warren C.

2000-01-12

288

Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) is a native insect of the pine forests of western North America, and its populations periodically erupt into large-scale outbreaks. During outbreaks, the resulting widespread tree mortality reduces forest carbon uptake and increases future emissions from the decay of killed trees. The impacts of insects on forest carbon dynamics, however,

W. A. Kurz; C. C. Dymond; G. Stinson; G. J. Rampley; E. T. Neilson; A. L. Carroll; T. Ebata; L. Safranyik

2008-01-01

289

Landsliding and the evolution of normal-fault-bounded mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the tectonic and climatic history in high-relief regions, such as the mountains of the western U.S. Basin and Range province, is contained in the mort?holo  of hillslopes, drainage networks, and other landforms that range in scale from 10-' to 10  km. To understand how these landforms evolve, we have developed a numerical landscape evolution model that

Alexander L. Densmore; Michael A. Ellis; Robert S. Anderson

1998-01-01

290

Review of Yucca Mountain Disposal Criticality Studies  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, submitted a license application for construction authorization of a deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in June of 2008. The license application is currently under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However,on March 3, 2010 the DOE filed a motion requesting withdrawal of the license application. With the withdrawal request and the development of the Blue Ribbon Commission to seek alternative strategies for disposing of spent fuel, the status of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is uncertain. What is certain is that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will continue to be generated and some long-lived components of the SNF will eventually need a disposition path(s). Strategies for the back end of the fuel cycle will continue to be developed and need to include the insights from the experience gained during the development of the Yucca Mountain license application. Detailed studies were performed and considerable progress was made in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues regarding geologic disposal of SNF. This paper reviews selected technical studies performed in support of the disposal criticality analysis licensing basis and the use of burnup credit. Topics include assembly misload analysis, isotopic and criticality validation, commercial reactor critical analyses, loading curves, alternative waste package and criticality control studies, radial burnup data and effects, and implementation of a conservative application model in the criticality probabilistic evaluation as well as other information that is applicable to operations regarding spent fuel outside the reactor. This paper summarizes the work and significant accomplishments in these areas and provides a resource for future, related activities.

Scaglione, John M [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

291

Commercial-scale demonstration of the liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report No. 4, 1 April--30 June 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L. P.(the Partnership). A facility producing 260 TPD of methanol will be designed and constructed at a site located at the Eastman Chemical complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration facility operational period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to ``demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH{trademark} process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.`` The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low sulfur dioxide, low nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research shows promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the operations phase. During this last quarter the project transitioned to the design phase. the project requires review under the National environmental Policy Act to move to the construction phase, which is scheduled to begin in August of 1995. DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment, and a Finding of No Significant Impact was issued during this quarter. The facility is scheduled to be mechanically complete in November of 1996.

NONE

1995-12-31

292

Blue Mountain Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at Princeton University, the Blue Mountain Project encompasses the work of scholars, librarians, curators, and digital humanities researchers whose "mission is to create a freely available digital repository of important, rare, and fragile texts that both chronicle and embody the emergence of cultural modernity in the West." The materials here are contained within 5 sections, including The Archive, The Journals, and Our Partners. Within The Journals area, visitors can make their way through over 35 selected works, including "Dada," "Broom: An International Magazine of the Arts," and "Bruno's Weekly." Moving along, The Archive provides a brief overview of the digital guidelines for creating and maintaing the project's collection. Users can learn more about its recent work via their blog or by signing up for the project's newsletter.

293

Rocky Mountain Online Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rocky Mountain Online Archive contains archival collections in Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico from 20 participating institutions. To view a list of these institutions, visitors should click on the "About" tab at the top of the page, then click on the link "Participating Institutions". Visitors can click on the "Browse the Archive" tab at the top of the page to browse by institutions, subcategorized by Colorado, Wyoming and New Mexico, or by subjects, which includes the subcategories of subjects, genre, and places. The genres represented are "Audio-visual", "Correspondence", "Diaries", and "Photographs". Visitors may find the abundance of oral histories available under the "Audio-visual" tab very interesting to explore. The "Inventory of the Alamo Navajo Oral History Project 1977-1984", "Inventory of Italians of Albuquerque Oral History Project, 1995-1996", and "Guide to the North Poudre Irrigation Company Oral history Collection" are just some of the many available oral histories.

294

Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results  

SciTech Connect

Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

Gail Heath

2012-07-01

295

[Can medicine move mountains?].  

PubMed

For the author involvement with Paracelsus demands consideration of both, socio-cultural as well as historico-cultural aspects. Each generation has obtained a different picture of this famous physician from Einsiedeln. Around 1941 the progress initiated by Paracelsus has been emphasized, such as the assumed foundation of chemistry, chemotherapy, and the renewal of surgery, occupational medicine, balneology and many more. For the year 1941 (= 400th anniversary of Paracelsus death) a nationalistic perception of Paracelsus was typical. For National-Socialistic Germany, Paracelsus was the founder of a "German medicine" as a contrast to medicine oriented towards France and Jewish-Arabia. Paracelsus also was seen as a pioneer of the experiment and as opponent of medical dilettantism in a popular direction. The perception of Paracelsus of 1993 is completely different. Today Theophrastus from Hohenheim is seen in a post-modern perspective, not as the man of progress, but as one, who opposed to the medicine of his age a partial ancient natural medicine, including the arts of gypsies, witches and midwives. The magic and psychosomatic informations of Paracelsus are seen as precious compensation for losses that we had to accept in the progress of modern medicine. As a psychiatrist Paracelsus was involved with diseases that originated from a "misuse of credo". He reports about collective psychoses, for example those appearing in the group of anabaptists in St. Gallen. Misuse of credo derives from intended provocation of martyrium. To move mountains with one's faith is another pathologic imagination. A therapy should aim at the restitution of such a "mountain" moved by the ill patient. Paracelsus demands the greatest mercy in dealing with mentally ill patients. This disease is also a challenge for theology: "What gives harm to the body destroys the house of the eternal".(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8191181

Meier, P

1993-12-21

296

Bald Mountain, Washington Plantation, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides information on the geology of Bald Mountain, an outstanding example of an unvegetated mountain summit in western Maine. Topics include the petrology of the metamorphic rocks exposed on the mountain (layered quartzite and schist), which preserve evidence of their sedimentary origin (graded bedding, cross-bedding). There is also information on the glacial history of the area, as indicated by the presence of glacial striations and erratics. For visitors, there is information on permission and access, directions, sampling information, and activities. References are included.

297

Landscape Morphology of the Canadian Rocky Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers and rivers can significantly modify the shape of mountain landscapes. Following deformation and glaciation, bedrock river form and incision patterns are primarily controlled by variations in geologic structure, the glacial preconditioning of the landscape, and climate. However, the extent to which these factors integrate to affect Holocene patterns and rates of fluvial processes is poorly understood. Fluvial processes dominate the morphology of the Canadian Rocky Mountains today, though the inherited imprint of glaciers remains substantial. This study of fluvial geomorphology in the Athabasca River watershed in Jasper National Park, Alberta, addresses two primary ideas: (1) the fluvial response to deglaciation in alpine environments, and (2) the role of thrust belt geology affecting differential erosion in shaping post-orogenic topography. We use the 0.75 arc-second GeoBase Digital Elevation Model (~18m resolution) to analyze patterns of river concavity (?) and normalized steepness index (ksn), estimate rock erodibility with field-based proxy measurements, and determine basin-averaged erosion rates using existing river gauge data. We find that bedrock geology and glacial preconditioning exhibit different yet recognizable morphological signatures and that they appear to be related to basin erosion rate. The principal differences we observe include the shape and scale of knickzones, magnitude of channel steepness values, channel concavity patterns, and relationship to bedrock geology. We find that lithologically controlled channel steepness patterns are contained to local spatial scales (<500m) and feature sharp increases in channel steepness at or near contacts between lithologies with differences in measured erodibility. By contrast, glacially controlled steepness patterns are expansive in spatial extent (1-10km), are insensitive to bedrock geology, and have higher overall channel steepness values than areas of lithologically controlled channel steepness. Our findings provide insight into the long-term physiographic evolution of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and other orogenic landscapes.

Quinlan, K. T.; Barnes, J. B.; Pavelsky, T.

2013-12-01

298

Rocky Mountain Research Station 20142017 Strategic Framework  

E-print Network

Rocky Mountain Research Station 2014­2017 Strategic Framework #12;Rocky Mountain Research Station 240 West Prospect Fort Collins, CO 80526 (970) 498-1100 www.fs.fed.us/rmrs High mountain lake at GLEES (Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site) #12;1ROCKY MOUNTAIN RESEARCH STATION -- 2014­2017 STRATEg

299

KV04: Baxter Mountain This route visits  

E-print Network

11 KV04: Baxter Mountain General This route visits Baxter Mountain which is a short hike that has between Hurricane and Green Mountains. The hike is relatively short although there is a good elevation Description The trail begins on Rt9N directly across from Hurricane Mountain Road. From Keene Valley, go north

Reiter, Clifford A.

300

Santa Monica Mountain Steelhead Assessment Santa Monica Mountains Steelhead Habitat Assessment  

E-print Network

Santa Monica Mountain Steelhead Assessment 1 Santa Monica Mountains Steelhead Habitat Assessment identify which basins in the Santa Monica Mountains (SMM) are most capable of supporting steelhead trout watersheds within the SMM. Field Setting Geology of the Santa Monica Mountains The Santa Monica Mountains

Keller, Ed

301

Associate Program, Commercial Banking Commercial Banking  

E-print Network

Associate Program, Commercial Banking Commercial Banking Job Code 0203 ­ Level 6 CIBC is a leading Banking, Wealth Management and Wholesale Banking ­ we provide a full range of financial products Group of Companies please visit CIBC.com. Job Overview The Commercial Banking Associate Program provides

Northern British Columbia, University of

302

COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GASDESULFURIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the commercial development of the advancedsilicate (ADVACATE) process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This commercialization follows several years of bench-scale sorbentdevelopment, pilot plant process optimization, and field pilotevaluation. esults are pr...

303

Model-based exploration of the drivers of mountain cold-trapping in soil.  

PubMed

A pollutant is said to undergo mountain cold-trapping if it is found at higher concentrations in a surface medium (soil, snow, foliage) high on a mountain, where it is colder, than in the same medium lower on the mountain. The processes that lead to mountain cold-trapping in soil were explored for a set of hypothetical Perfectly Persistent Pollutants (PPPs) by varying several environmental parameters in a fugacity based fate and transport box model. These parameters were: the spatial scale of the mountain; the rate and location of rain; the amount of particles in the atmosphere; the presence and magnitude of the upslope temperature gradient. The relative potential of each hypothetical PPP to exhibit mountain cold-trapping was expressed in terms of its Mountaintop Contamination Potential (MCP). The PPPs with the highest MCPs were those that neither were deposited from the atmosphere to the surface in the lower zones in the model nor left the model domain without being deposited at all. The simulations revealed that under most conditions wet-gaseous deposition is the biggest driver of mountain cold-trapping in soils, and its effects are greatly enhanced by large negative temperature gradients and increased precipitation upslope. Dry-gaseous and wet-and-dry-particle deposition processes cause similar PPPs to exhibit mountain cold-trapping, and the contributions to MCP by the dry processes are of the same magnitude as wet-particle deposition. Dry gaseous deposition alone is insufficient to cause mountain cold-trapping in soils under any conditions modelled here. Those measuring organic contaminants in mountains should expect to find that mountains with different climates cold-trap different pollutants, and that some mountains may not exhibit upslope enrichment of any species. PMID:24132144

Westgate, John N; Wania, Frank

2013-12-01

304

Unstable dynamics and population limitation in mountain hares.  

PubMed

The regular large-scale population fluctuations that characterize many species of northern vertebrates have fascinated ecologists since the time of Charles Elton. There is still, however, no clear consensus on what drives these fluctuations. Throughout their circumpolar distribution, mountain hares Lepus timidus show regular and at times dramatic changes in density. There are distinct differences in the nature, amplitude and periodicity of these fluctuations between regions and the reasons for these population fluctuations and the geographic differences remain largely unknown. In this review we synthesize knowledge on the factors that limit or regulate mountain hare populations across their range in an attempt to identify the drivers of unstable dynamics. Current knowledge of mountain hare population dynamics indicates that trophic interactions--either predator-prey or host-parasite--appear to be the major factor limiting populations and these interactions may contribute to the observed unstable dynamics. There is correlative and experimental evidence that some mountain hare populations in Fennoscandia are limited by predation and that predation may link hare and grouse cycles to microtine cycles. Predation is unlikely to be important in mountain hare populations in Scotland as most hares occur on sporting estates where predators are controlled, but this hypothesis remains to be experimentally tested. There is, however, emerging experimental evidence that some Scottish mountain hare populations are limited by parasites and that host-parasite interactions contribute to unstable dynamics. By contrast, there is little evidence from Fennoscandia that parasitism is of any importance to mountain hare population dynamics, although disease may cause periodic declines. Although severe weather and food limitation may interact to cause periodic high winter mortality there is little evidence that food availability limits mountain hare populations. There is a paucity of information concerning the factors limiting or regulating mountain hare populations in the Alps of Central Europe or in the tundra and taiga belts of Russia. Future research on mountain hare population dynamics should focus on the interactions between predation, parasitism and nutrition with stochastic factors such as climate and anthropogenic management including harvesting. PMID:17944616

Newey, Scott; Dahl, Fredrik; Willebrand, Tomas; Thirgood, Simon

2007-11-01

305

Snowslip Mountain Weather Station, MT  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Physical Scientist Erich Peitzsch sets up a weather station on Snowslip Mountain in Glacier National Park. It provides meteorological data for avalanche forecasting and research, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, and net radiation measurements....

306

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat  

SciTech Connect

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

1986-02-01

307

The Dilemma of Mountain Roads  

EPA Science Inventory

Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources....

308

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat  

PubMed Central

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images PMID:16593655

Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

1986-01-01

309

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat.  

PubMed

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. PMID:16593655

Mead, J I; Martin, P S; Euler, R C; Long, A; Jull, A J; Toolin, L J; Donahue, D J; Linick, T W

1986-02-01

310

The impact of Glaciation on mountain topography and erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate through erosion affected the shape and dynamics of mountain belts during the Cenozoic. However, in spite of many studies, whether the Plio-Pleistocene Glaciation, which is marked by warm interludes between dominant ice ages, has influenced denudation rates in mountain ranges by continuously switching the mode of erosion between fluvial and glacial processes remains unclear. This is, first, because previous inferences heavily relied on an apparent increase in sediment accumulation rates, which has been questioned to reflect an observational bias in the sedimentary record, and, second, because it is difficult to isolate the respective roles of tectonics and climate on setting erosion rates. Here we quantify exhumation rates at a global scale during the late Cenozoic, including the recent Plio-Pleistocene Glaciation, using low temperature thermochronology of the sediment source rocks. To this end, we compiled about 20,000 published bedrock fission-track and (U-Th)/He ages in apatite and zircon around the globe and use a novel formal inversion procedure to quantify how exhumation rates have varied both in space and time. Our results confirm exhumation rates to be highest in tectonically active mountain ranges. This leads us to conclude that tectonics has a strong control on mountain erosion, only under suitable climatic conditions, whereas climate has strong control mountain shape and height. Furthermore, and more importantly, we observe a robust increase of exhumation rate that is related to the onset of Plio-Pleistocene Glaciation in several glaciated mountain ranges around the globe. These findings are important because they suggest that total flux of sediments delivered from mountain ranges to the oceans has increased during the Plio-Quaternary.

Herman, Frdric; Seward, Diane; Carter, Andrew; Kohn, Barry; Ehlers, Todd

2013-04-01

311

Yucca Mountain Project public interactions  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to keeping the citizens of Nevada informed about activities that relate to the high-level nuclear waste repository program. This paper presents an overview of the Yucca Mountain Project`s public interaction philosophy, objectives, activities and experiences during the two years since Congress directed the DOE to conduct site characterization activities only for the Yucca Mountain site.

Reilly, B.E.

1990-04-01

312

Prediction of mountain stream morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a large and diverse data set from mountain streams around the world to explore relationships between reach-scale channel morphology and control variables. The data set includes 177 step-pool reaches, 44 plane-bed reaches, and 114 pool-riffle reaches from the western United States, Panama, and New Zealand. We performed several iterations of stepwise discriminant analysis on these data. A three-variable discriminant function using slope (S), D84, and channel width (w) produced an error rate of 24% for the entire data set. Seventy percent of plane-bed reaches were correctly classified (16% incorrectly classified as pool-riffle and 14% incorrectly classified as step-pool). Sixty-seven percent of pool-riffle channels were correctly classified (31% incorrectly classified as plane-bed and 2% as step-pool). Eighty-nine percent of step-pool reaches were correctly classified (9% incorrectly classified as plane-bed and 2% as pool-riffle). The partial R2 values and F tests indicate that S is by far the most significant single explanatory variable. Comparison of the eight discriminant functions developed using different data sets indicates that no single variable is present in all functions, suggesting that the discriminant functions are sensitive to the specific stream reaches being analyzed. However, the three-variable discriminant function developed from the entire data set correctly classified 69% of the 159 channels included in an independent validation data set. The ability to accurately classify channel type in other regions using the three-variable discriminant function developed from the entire data set has important implications for water resources management, such as facilitating prediction of channel morphology using regional S-w-D84 relations calibrated with minimal field work.

Wohl, Ellen; Merritt, David

2005-08-01

313

The interaction of katabatic winds and mountain waves  

SciTech Connect

The variation in the oft-observed, thermally-forced, nocturnal katabatic winds along the east side of the Rocky Mountains can be explained by either internal variability or interactions with various other forcings. Though generally katabatic flows have been studied as an entity protected from external forcing by strong thermal stratification, this work investigates how drainage winds along the Colorado Front Range interact with, in particular, topographically forced mountain waves. Previous work has shown, based on measurements taken during the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain 1993 field program, that the actual dispersion in katabatic flows is often greater than reflected in models of dispersion. The interaction of these phenomena is complicated and non-linear since the amplitude, wavelength and vertical structure of mountain waves developed by flow over the Rocky Mountain barrier are themselves partly determined by the evolving atmospheric stability in which the drainage flows develop. Perturbations to katabatic flow by mountain waves, relative to their more steady form in quiescent conditions, are found to be caused by both turbulence and dynamic pressure effects. The effect of turbulent interaction is to create changes to katabatic now depth, katabatic flow speed, katabatic jet height and, vertical thermal stratification. The pressure effect is found to primarily influence the variability of a given katabatic now through the evolution of integrated column wave forcing on surface pressure. Variability is found to occur on two scales, on the mesoscale due to meso-gamma scale mountain wave evolution, and on the microscale, due to wave breaking. Since existing parameterizations for the statically stable case are predominantly based on nearly flat terrain atmospheric measurements under idealized or nearly quiescent conditions, it is no surprise that these parameterizations often contribute to errors in prediction, particularly in complex terrain.

Poulos, G.S.

1997-01-01

314

Elevation dependency of mountain snow depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevation strongly affects quantity and distribution patterns of precipitation and snow. Positive elevation gradients were identified by many studies, usually based on data from sparse precipitation stations or snow depth measurements. We present a systematic evaluation of the elevation-snow depth relationship. We analyse areal snow depth data obtained by remote sensing for seven mountain sites near to the time of the maximum seasonal snow accumulation. Snow depths were averaged to 100 m elevation bands and then related to their respective elevation level. The assessment was performed at three scales: (i) the complete data sets (10 km scale), (ii) sub-catchments (km scale) and (iii) slope transects (100 m scale). We show that most elevation-snow depth curves at all scales are characterised through a single shape. Mean snow depths increase with elevation up to a certain level where they have a distinct peak followed by a decrease at the highest elevations. We explain this typical shape with a generally positive elevation gradient of snow fall that is modified by the interaction of snow cover and topography. These processes are preferential deposition of precipitation and redistribution of snow by wind, sloughing and avalanching. Furthermore, we show that the elevation level of the peak of mean snow depth correlates with the dominant elevation level of rocks (if present).

Grnewald, T.; Bhler, Y.; Lehning, M.

2014-12-01

315

Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

Whipple, Kelin X.

2004-01-01

316

Building for the Future by Expatiating the Past: High Drama from the Summit of China's Learning Mountain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a large-scale learning initiative, the Chinese Communist Party has declared Lushan to be a "learning mountain". There have been people learning at Lushan Mountain for 2000 years. In 1959 there was a Central Committee meeting at Lushan, where Mao Zedong purged his widely respected comrade Peng Dehuai for daring to say people were

Boshier, Roger; Huang, Yan

2006-01-01

317

75 FR 29686 - Proposed Establishment of the Pine Mountain-Mayacmas Viticultural Area  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...currently has 230 acres of commercial vineyards, the petition states, with another...petition notes that Pine Mountain-Mayacmas vineyards generally are small, 5- to 20-acre...terrain, which contrast with the larger vineyards found on the valley floor. We...

2010-05-27

318

Analysis of the rock mechanics properties of volcanic tuff units from Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over two hundred fifty mechanical experiments have been run on samples of tuff from Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site. Cores from the Topopah Spring, Calico Hills, Bullfrog and Tram tuff units were deformed to collect data for an initial evaluation of mechanical (elastic and strength) properties of the potential horizons for emplacement of commercial nuclear wastes. The experimental conditions ranged

1983-01-01

319

Modeling heterogeneous unsaturated porous media flow at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Geologic systems are inherently heterogeneous and this heterogeneity can have a significant impact on unsaturated flow through porous media. Most previous efforts to model groundwater flow through Yucca Mountain have used stratigraphic units with homogeneous properties. However, modeling heterogeneous porous and fractured tuff in a more realistic manner requires numerical methods for generating heterogeneous simulations of the media, scaling of material properties from core scale to computational scale, and flow modeling that allows channeling. The Yucca Mountain test case of the INTRAVAL project is used to test the numerical approaches. Geostatistics is used to generate more realistic representations of the stratigraphic units and heterogeneity within units is generated using sampling from property distributions. Scaling problems are reduced using an adaptive grid that minimizes heterogeneity within each flow element. A flow code based on the dual mixed-finite-element method that allows for heterogeneity and channeling is employed. In the Yucca Mountain test case, the simulated volumetric water contents matched the measured values at drill hole USW UZ-16 except in the nonwelded portion of Prow Pass.

Robey, T.H. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-03-01

320

10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE AUXILIARY STRUCTURES. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

321

Native Plants of Montara Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is always inspiring to find websites that have been created by a committed individual who is passionate about the site's subject. Developed by naturalist Chuck Kozak, Native Plants of Montara Mountain is just that type of website. Mr. Kozak has assembled a nice online field guide of plants native to Montara Mountain, a northern spur of California's Santa Cruz Mountains. The guide organizes plants by Family and Scientific name, Common name, or Color and Type. Site visitors can also find plants by using the alphabetically organized Master Index. The numerous plant entries include clear photos and brief descriptions. Although the website focuses on the flora of a specific area, many of these plants can be found in other geographic regions as well. This site is also reviewed in the September 3, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

322

Magnetic investigations along selected high-resolution seismic traverses in the central block of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Ground magnetic data collected along several traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are interpreted. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Magnetic data and models along traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain reveal anomalies associated with known faults and indicate a number of possible concealed faults beneath the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain. The central part of the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain is characterized by numerous small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting. Magnetic modeling of the terrain along the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain indicates that terrain induced magnetic anomalies of about 100 to 150 nT are present along some profiles where steep terrain exists above the magnetometer.

Ponce, D.A.; Sikora, R.F.; Roberts, C.W.; Morin, R.L.; Halvorson, P.F.

1995-12-31

323

Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station  

SciTech Connect

A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

Lyles Brad,McCurdy Greg,Chapman Jenny,Miller Julianne

2012-01-01

324

Aeromagnetic surveys across Crater Flat and parts of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

As part of a study to characterize a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, aeromagnetic surveys were conducted in April 1993 along the trace of a planned seismic profile across Crater Flat and parts of Yucca Mountain. This report includes a presentation and preliminary interpretation of the data. The profiles are at scales of 1:100,000. Also included are a gridded color contour map of the newly acquired data and a discussion of the likely applicability of very-low-frequency (VLF) electromagnetic surveys to Yucca Mountain investigations.

Sikora, R.F.; Campbell, D.L.; Kucks, R.P.

1995-12-31

325

Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

Not Available

1994-04-29

326

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...topographic maps used to determine the boundary of the Snipes Mountain viticultural area are titled: (1) Sunnyside, Wash., 1965, photo revised 1978; and (2) Granger, Wash., 1965. (c) Boundary. The Snipes Mountain viticultural area is...

2011-04-01

327

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...topographic maps used to determine the boundary of the Snipes Mountain viticultural area are titled: (1) Sunnyside, Wash., 1965, photo revised 1978; and (2) Granger, Wash., 1965. (c) Boundary. The Snipes Mountain viticultural area is...

2013-04-01

328

BLOOD MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-resource survey of the Blood Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia, indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources. Natural gas may be present at great depth, perhaps 5 mi down and below the overthrust sheets of the Blue Ridge Mountains, but presently available information is not adequate to evaluate the resource potential of this commodity. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

Koeppen, Robert P.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

1984-01-01

329

Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides data on plants and fungi from the Hengduan Mountains and adjacent areas of south-central China, including the Gaoligong Mountains and Tibetan Himalaya. The data were derived from georeferenced collections made on recent expeditions (1984-present) to the region, and include specimens with DNA tissue. Users can browse specimens by name; search by taxon, collector number, or date; or browse collecting localities in the database using Google Earth (TM). There is also information on expeditions and personnel, the Biodiversity of the Eastern Himalaya project, an image gallery, a multilingual gazetteer and thesaurus, and a map showing the historic Tibetan provinces of the region.

330

RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project  

E-print Network

RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project Continuing a pumped storage project to generate electricity during peak demand. The proposed Red Mountain Bar Pumped for irrigation water storage, flood control, power production and recreation, the Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage

Laughlin, Robert B.

331

A comparison of two potential repositories: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Two repositories in the same country, yet Congress and the DOE manage them differently. While Congress encumbers WIPP with unanticipated oversight and inappropriate regulations, Congress streamlines the commercial repository program and promises improved regulations for Yucca Mountain. While DOE encouraged science at the expense of the WIPP infrastructure, DOE postponed its scientific investigations at Yucca Mountain and constructed an infrastructure, large enough to support an ambitious program that was never realized. Somewhere between WIPP and Yucca Mountain lies an ideal repository program. A program where consistent national policy promotes progress; where lucid regulations inspire confidence; where science and infrastructure are balanced; and where oversight groups do not become the tail that wags the dog. Neither WIPP nor Yucca Mountain are ideal programs, but each has its advantages that approach the ideal. Consistent national policy would steer the ideal repository program in a predictable direction. Here Yucca Mountain has the advantage. Successive legislation has streamlined the siting process and promises better regulations. From the beginning, the ideal program would know its regulators and regulations. Again, Yucca Mountain has the advantage. More familiar with regulators and regulations, the Yucca Mountain program had the foresight not to declare HLW to be hazardous and subject to dual regulations. The ideal program would equitably balance its science and infrastructure. Here neither program has the advantage and could possibly represent extremes. The WIPP`s emphasis on scientific investigations left it with little or no infrastructure to deal with regulations and oversight. A regulatory infrastructure, for example, could have forewarned WIPP that its in situ tests were not relevant to the regulations. On the opposite extreme, the Yucca Mountain`s emphasis on infrastructure left it with less money for scientific investigations.

Pflum, C.G.

1994-07-11

332

Mountain Goat Software, LLC Una Introduccin a  

E-print Network

Mountain Goat Software, LLC Una Introducción a Scrum Mike Cohen Traducido: Ernesto Grafeuille Revisado y modificado: Pedro Cabalar Noviembre 2013 #12;Mountain Goat Software, LLC Estamos perdiendo la hacia atrás -pueden servir mejor a los actuales requisitos competitivos". #12;Mountain Goat Software

Cabalar, Pedro

333

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is Red Mountain. (b) Approved maps....

2013-04-01

334

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is Red Mountain. (b) Approved maps....

2012-04-01

335

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is Red Mountain. (b) Approved maps....

2011-04-01

336

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is Red Mountain. (b) Approved maps....

2014-04-01

337

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is Red Mountain. (b) Approved maps....

2010-04-01

338

27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108 Section 9.108 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.108 Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Ozark Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The...

2011-04-01

339

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Bell Mountain. (b) Approved map. The...

2010-04-01

340

27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80 Section 9.80 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.80 York Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is York Mountain. (b) Approved map. The...

2014-04-01

341

27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80 Section 9.80 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.80 York Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is York Mountain. (b) Approved map. The...

2013-04-01

342

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Sonoma Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The...

2013-04-01

343

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Sonoma Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The...

2011-04-01

344

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213 Section 9.213 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.213 Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Snipes Mountain. For purposes of part 4 of this...

2010-04-01

345

27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108 Section 9.108 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.108 Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Ozark Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The...

2014-04-01

346

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213 Section 9.213 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.213 Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Snipes Mountain. For purposes of part 4 of this...

2014-04-01

347

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Howell Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The...

2012-04-01

348

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Sonoma Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The...

2014-04-01

349

27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80 Section 9.80 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.80 York Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is York Mountain. (b) Approved map. The...

2010-04-01

350

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Bell Mountain. (b) Approved map. The...

2014-04-01

351

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Howell Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The...

2013-04-01

352

3, 58315873, 2003 Mountain wave PSC  

E-print Network

ACPD 3, 5831­5873, 2003 Mountain wave PSC dynamics and microphysics J. Reichardt et al. Title Page.atmos-chem-phys.org/acpd/3/5831/ © European Geosciences Union 2003 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Mountain (jens.reichardt@dwd.de) 5831 #12;ACPD 3, 5831­5873, 2003 Mountain wave PSC dynamics and microphysics J

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

353

5, 95479580, 2005 Mountain wave PSCs  

E-print Network

ACPD 5, 9547­9580, 2005 Mountain wave PSCs D. Lowe et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction particle composition and heterogeneous reactions in a mountain wave Polar Stratospheric Cloud D. Lowe 1 , A Commons License. 9547 #12;ACPD 5, 9547­9580, 2005 Mountain wave PSCs D. Lowe et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Sonoma Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The...

2012-04-01

355

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Howell Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The...

2014-04-01

356

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Bell Mountain. (b) Approved map. The...

2011-04-01

357

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Bell Mountain. (b) Approved map. The...

2012-04-01

358

27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80 Section 9.80 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.80 York Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is York Mountain. (b) Approved map. The...

2011-04-01

359

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Howell Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The...

2010-04-01

360

27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80 Section 9.80 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.80 York Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is York Mountain. (b) Approved map. The...

2012-04-01

361

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Sonoma Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The...

2010-04-01

362

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213 Section 9.213 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.213 Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Snipes Mountain. For purposes of part 4 of this...

2012-04-01

363

27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108 Section 9.108 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.108 Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Ozark Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The...

2013-04-01

364

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Howell Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The...

2011-04-01

365

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Bell Mountain. (b) Approved map. The...

2013-04-01

366

27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108 Section 9.108 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas 9.108 Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is Ozark Mountain. (b) Approved maps. The...

2012-04-01

367

C HAPTE R 9 Klamath Mountains Bioregion  

E-print Network

reporting sta- tions are located above 1,000 m (3,280 ft). Although most precipitation falls between October precipitation. Generally, less precipitation falls in valleys and canyons than in the sur- rounding uplands Mountain Marble Mountains S Sawyers Bar outh China Mountain TrinityR. T

Taylor, Alan

368

MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE INFESTATION: HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS  

E-print Network

MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE INFESTATION: HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS by EDI ENVIRONMENTAL DYNAMICS INC. for Ministry of Environment Mountain Pine Beetle Action Team March 2008 #12;This document was produced under contract to the ministry of environment mountain pine beetle action team (MPBAT) by EDI Environmental

Northern British Columbia, University of

369

THINKING MOUNTAINS STEERING COMMITTEE Zac Robinson  

E-print Network

of Alberta, "Wearing Mountain Goat's Robe: Attending to Proper Relations with the Land in a Coast Salish#12;THINKING MOUNTAINS STEERING COMMITTEE Andy Bush David Hik Julie Rak Zac Robinson Heather Young-Leslie THINKING MOUNTAINS ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Dianne Chisholm Karen Fox Elizabeth Halpenny John Heath Eric Higgs

MacMillan, Andrew

370

Mountain Belts and the New Global Tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the sedimentary, volcanic, structural, and metamorphic chronology in mountain belts, and consideration of the implications of the new global tectonics (plate tectonics), strongly indicate that mountain belts are a consequence of plate evolution. It is proposed that mountain belts develop by the deformation and metamorphism of the sedimentary and volcanic assemblages of Atlantic-type continental margins. These assemblages result

John F. Dewey; John M. Bird

1970-01-01

371

Structural analysis of the Sheep Mountain anticline, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

E-print Network

. Observation and measurement of deformation mechanisms at all scales in the fold provides evidence for interpretation of subsurface structure and fold mechanisms at depth. The structural setting at Sheep Mountain anticline is characteristic of folds exposed..., and minor structures throughout the study area, At least five bedding measurements were taken to enhance accuracy at each station. Well log data provided the only source of subsurface data available for use in the study. Oriented samples of carbonates...

Hennier, Jeffrey Hugh

1984-01-01

372

Structural profiles of Ouachita Mountains, western Arkansas  

SciTech Connect

The Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma and Arkansas are the largest exposure of the Pennsylvania-age orogen rimming the southern margin of North America. The exposure consists of a thick Carboniferous flysch sequence overlying a thin early Paleozoic deep-water sequence and is generally interpreted to have been deformed in a south-dipping subduction zone. Two balanced cross sections (/approximately/ 40 km apart) of the Ouachita Mountains in western Arkansas are presented here, illustrating the regional structural style. Major features of the cross sections include (from north to south) (1) triangle zones along the northern border of the frontal thrust zone produced by imbrication at depth, (2) large-scale (/approximately/ 10-km wavelength) fault-propagation folds in the frontal thrust zone, formed primarily above normal faults that offset the basement and act as buttresses at depth, (3) a late-stage basement uplift along the reactivated Johns Valley normal fault system, resulting in the antiformal structure of the Benton uplift and backthrusts in the northern Benton uplift, and (4) small-scale (1-3 km) heavily faulted folds in the early paleozoic deepwater rocks exposed in the Benton uplift. Greenschist metamorphism in these rocks is attributed to the estimated 13 km of Carboniferous overburden, which was later eroded. Reconstructions of the late Paleozoic continental margin are made from the two cross sections. The reconstructed shelf-to-slope transition is interpreted to underlie the southern flank of the Benton uplift. Using modern analogs for the across-strike width of the shelf-to-slope transition, a minimum regional shortening estimate of 30-50% (110-155 km) is obtained for deep-water rocks currently exposed in the Benton uplift. 6 figures.

Blythe, A.E.; Sugar, A.; Phipps, S.P.

1988-07-01

373

Preliminary Geologic Map of the Cook Inlet Region, Alaska-Including Parts of the Talkeetna, Talkeetna Mountains, Tyonek, Anchorage, Lake Clark, Kenai, Seward, Iliamna, Seldovia, Mount Katmai, and Afognak 1:250,000-scale Quadrangles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. The files named __geol contain geologic polygons and line (contact) attributes; files named __fold contain fold axes; files named __lin contain lineaments; and files named __dike contain dikes as lines. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

Geologic map compiled by Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Schmoll, Henry R.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Yehle, Lynn A.; Digital files prepared by Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora

2009-01-01

374

Anatomy of a Mountain Range.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land

Chew, Berkeley

1993-01-01

375

Plate Borders and Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features animations of four different types of plate boundaries, including one animation of the collision of two pieces of continental crust, forming steep mountain ranges. The animations are all presented in flash, and the plate convergence offers a useful, generic view of orogeny.

Schlumberger Excellence in Educational Development, Inc.

376

Mountainous Star Coral (Montastraea faveolata)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This colony of Mountainous Star Coral (Montastraea faveolata) is so large (about 3 feet across) that it must have been growing before the severe bleaching and disease episode in 2005/2006 that caused so much coral mortality on St. John's reefs....

377

Soil quality and productivity responses to watershed restoration in the Ouachita mountains of Arkansas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The Ouachita Mountains Ecosystem Management Research Project (OEMP) is a 'large interdisciplinary research project designed to provide the scientific foundation for landscape management at the scale of watersheds. The OEMP has progressed through three phases: developing natural regeneration alternatives to clearcutting and planting; testing of these alternatives at the stand scale; and the present Phase III which compares the

John A. Stantutf; Daniel A. Marion; Martin Spetich; Kenneth Luckow; M. Guldin; Calvin E. Meier

378

Environmental Impacts of Transportation to the Potential Repository at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada analyzes a Proposed Action to construct, operate, monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. As part of the Proposed Action, the EIS analyzes the potential impacts of transporting commercial and DOE spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to Yucca Mountain from 77 sites across the United States. The analysis includes information on the comparative impacts of transporting these materials by truck and rail and discusses the impacts of building a rail line or using heavy-haul trucks to move rail casks from a mainline railroad in Nevada to the site. This paper provides an overview of the analyses and the potential impacts of these transportation activities. The potential transportation impacts were looked at from two perspectives: transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste by legal-weight truck or by rail on a national scale and impacts specific to Nevada from the transportation of these materials from the State borders to the Yucca Mountain site. In order to address the range of impacts that could result from the most likely modes, legal-weight truck and rail, the EIS employed two analytical scenarios--mostly legal-weight truck and mostly rail. Estimated national transportation impacts were based on 24 years of transportation activities. Approximately 8 fatalities could occur from all causes in the nationwide general population from incident-free transportation activities of the mostly legal-weight truck scenario and about 4 from the mostly rail scenario. The analysis examined the radiological consequences under the maximum foreseeable accident scenario and also overall accident risk. The overall accident risk over the 24 year period would be about 0.0002 latent cancer fatality for the mostly legal-weight truck scenario and about 0.0005 latent cancer fatality for the mostly rail scenario. The maximum reasonably foreseeable accident scenario resulted in 0.55 latent cancer fatality for the legal-weight truck case and 5 latent cancer fatalities in the case of mostly rail. The EIS also analyzed the impacts associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the State of Nevada. This included: constructing a branch rail line and using it to ship waste to the repository; upgrading highways in Nevada for use by heavy-haul trucks; constructing and operating an intermodal transfer station; and transporting personnel and materials to support construction and operation of the repository.

R.L. Sweeney; R. Best; P. Bolton; P. Adams

2002-01-03

379

MOUNTAIN-VALLEY AND KATABATIC FLOW IN BOULDER Find mountain valley circulation patterns that indicate mountain-valley flow, e.g.,  

E-print Network

MOUNTAIN-VALLEY AND KATABATIC FLOW IN BOULDER TASK: Find mountain valley circulation patterns that indicate mountain-valley flow, e.g., in the Boulder Canyon or katabatic flow between the mountain ranges and the lower terrains around Denver and Colorado. MOTIVATION: Mountain-valley flow is a common well understood

380

Watershed morphology of highland and mountain ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fluvial system represents a nested hierarchy that reflects the relationship among different spatial and temporal scales. Within the hierarchy, larger scale variables influence the characteristics of the next lower nested scale. Ecoregions represent one of the largest scales in the fluvial hierarchy and are defined by recurring patterns of geology, climate, land use, soils, and potential natural vegetation. Watersheds, the next largest scale, are often nested into a single ecoregion and therefore have properties that are indicative of a given ecoregion. Differences in watershed morphology (relief, drainage density, circularity ratio, relief ratio, and ruggedness number) were evaluated among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma: Ozark Highlands, Boston Mountains, and Ouachita Mountains. These ecoregions were selected because of their high-quality stream resources and diverse aquatic communities and are of special management interest to the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation. One hundred thirty-four watersheds in first-through fourth-order streams were compared. Using a nonparametric, two-factor analysis of variance (?? = 0.05) we concluded that the relief, drainage density, relief ratio, and ruggedness number all changed among ecoregion and stream order, whereas circularity ratio only changed with stream order. Our study shows that ecoregions can be used as a broad-scale framework for watershed management. ?? 2011 by Association of American Geographers.

Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.

2011-01-01

381

POND MOUNTAIN AND POND MOUNTAIN ADDITION ROADLESS AREAS, TENNESSEE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a result of a mineral study of the Pond Mountain Roadless Areas, Tennessee, a probable potential for the occurrence of tin, niobium, and tungsten resource with associated beryllium, molybdenum, zinc, and fluorite was identified in rocks of Precambrian age particularly in the southeastern part of the area. Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical sampling of the soils and rocks in the area of Precambrian rocks is recommended to identify and delimit the areas of potential resources of tin, niobium, and tungsten.

Griffitts, W.R.; Bitar, Richard

1984-01-01

382

PROGRESS COMMERCIALIZING SOLAR-ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The commercial status of the principal solar electric technologies-photovoltaic and solar thermal-is reviewed. Current and near-term market niches are identified, and projected longer-term markets are explored along with the key strategies for achieving them, including technological breakthroughs, manufacturing developments, economies of scale and mass production, and market creation. Market barriers and public policy impacts on commercialization are discussed.

Raymond Dracker; Pascal De Laquil III

1996-01-01

383

Ecology of Streams and Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides an introduction to the ecology of streams and mountains. It discusses how trees falling into a mountain stream can provide habitat by creating logjams, even going so far as to float to the sea during spring floods, where they provide cover for ocean fish. There is also a description of alpine ecosystems, those which exist above the tree line, and the animals that live or visit there, and a discussion of the idea of structure and function as it pertains to organisms as diverse as elephants and fungi. A section on soil ecology describes the relationship between mushrooms, the soil, and other organisms such as trees. A quiz and glossary are also provided.

384

Spatiotemporal patterns of mountain pine beetle activity in the southern Rocky Mountains.  

PubMed

The current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in the southern Rocky Mountains has impacted approximately 750 000 ha of forest. Weather and habitat heterogeneity influence forest insect population dynamics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Comparison of forest insect population dynamics in two principal host species may elucidate the relative contribution of weather and landscape factors in initiating and driving extensive outbreaks. To investigate potential drivers of the current MPB outbreak, we compared broadscale spatiotemporal patterns of MPB activity in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from 1996 to 2010 in Colorado and southern Wyoming with regional weather fluctuations, and then tracked the annual meso-scale progression of the epidemic in lodgepole pine with respect to weather, topographic, previous MPB activity, and forest stand attributes. MPB activity in lodgepole pine compared to ponderosa pine showed higher magnitude and extent of spatial synchrony. Warm temperatures and low annual precipitation favorable to beetle populations showed high regional synchrony across areas of both pine species, suggesting that habitat interacts with weather in synchronizing MPB populations. Cluster analysis of time series patterns identified multiple, disjunct locations of incipient MPB activity (epicenters) in lodgepole pine, which overlapped an earlier 1980s MPB outbreak, and suggests a regional trigger (drought) across this homogenous forest type. Negative departures from mean annual precipitation played a key role in subsequent spread of MPB outbreak. Development of the outbreak was also associated with lower elevations, greater dominance by lodgepole pine, stands of larger tree size, and stands with higher percentage canopy cover. After epidemic levels of MPB activity were attained, MPB activity was less strongly associated with stand and weather variables. These results emphasize the importance of considering differences in patterns of MPB dynamics for different host pine species even under similar regional-scale weather variation and the nonstationarity of outbreak dynamics over time. PMID:23185879

Chapman, Teresa B; Veblen, Thomas T; Schoennagel, Tania

2012-10-01

385

Tectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range mountain front: Evidence from the Atigun Gorge region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atigun Gorge, at the northern front of the eastern Endicott Mountains, contains well-exposed rocks of the upper part of the Endicott Mountains allochthon and rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. These allochthons contain rocks as young as Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and are separated by a nearly vertical fault zone that contains exotic blocks of Triassic and Jurassic chert and silicified mudstone. Siliceous rocks of this type are not present in the Endicott Mountains allochthon but are characteristic of the Picnic Creek, Ipnavik River, and some of the other allochthons that structurally overlie the Endicott Mountains allochthon in the central and western Brooks Range. These exotic blocks, therefore indicate that structurally higher rocks of either the Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous and are preserved along the northern flank of the eastern Endicott Mountains. The deformed thickness of this higher allochthon in the subsurface north of the mountains is unknown but probably exceeds 2 kilometers. Similar relations are mapped east of Atigun Gorge in an area of structural transition from the eastern Endicott Mountains into the northern Philip Smith Mountains, which are formed by the parautochthonous North Slope stratigraphic assemblage. The allochthonous rocks at the mountain front are regionally unconformably overlain by proximal Lower Cretaceous (Albian) foredeep conglomerate at the southern flank of the Colville basin, but at Atigun Gorge, the base of these deposits is interpreted as a possible back thrust at a triangle zone. Conglomerate clasts in the foredeep deposits are dominantly chert, mafic igneous rock, and other lithologies characteristic of the Picnic Creek and Ipnavik River allochthons and scattered clasts from the Endicott Mountains allochthon. The conglomerates show that the chert-rich allochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains allochthon were emplaced in the north-central Brooks Range by large-scale crustal shortening (>300 km) between the Valanginian and Albian (??135 to ??112 Ma). This orogenic event significantly postdates early stages of Brooks Range orogeny but predates later stages of orogeny documented by stratigraphic and apatite fission-track data. These relations reduce the magnitude of shortening inferred at the triangle zone at the Brooks Range mountain front. The outcrop data suggest that some of the strata preserved at a structurally low level north of the mountain front and visible in the seismic data of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) may consist of clastic sedimentary rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

Mull, C.G.; Glenn, R.K.; Adams, K.E.

1997-01-01

386

Geology of Stone Mountain, Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual field trip to Stone Mountain Georgia includes both a narrative and photographs of such features as flow banding, tourmaline pods, and several types of xenoliths. Intrusive granite and diabase dikes are shown at both the east quarry and old route 78 locations where products of weathering such as saprolite, kaolinite, halloysite, and gibbsite reside. Photographs of an area of the east quarry taken six years apart show the progress of exfoliation. The site also has a list of references.

Pamela Gore

387

Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed. Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Information Sources: Beauchamp, W., Barazangi, M., Demnati, A., and El Alji, M., 1996, Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour Basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 80, No. 9, p. 1459-1482. Burkhard, Martin, 2001, Tectonics of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco -- Thin-skin/thick-skin relationships in an atypical foreland fold belt. University of Neuchatel, Switzerland: http://www-geol.unine.ch/Structural/Antiatlas.html (accessed 1/29/02). STS108-711-25 was taken in December, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

388

Plate T-11: Appalachian Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Appalachian Mountain landforms clearly demonstrate the relation of plate tectonics and structure to geomorphology. The folded rocks record the convergence of two continental plates in Pennsylvanian/Permian time. This page uses text, maps, and remotely sensed imagery to explain the relationship between plate tectonics, geologic structures, and the resulting landforms. It is part of an out-of-print NASA publication entitled 'Geomorphology from Space'. Links to the rest of the book are provided.

389

Gravity and magnetic investigations of the Ghost Dance and Solitario Canyon faults, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Ground magnetic and gravity data collected along traverses across the Ghost Dance and Solitario Canyon faults on the eastern and western flanks, respectively, of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are interpreted. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Gravity and magnetic data and models along traverses across the Ghost Dance and Solitario Canyon faults show prominent anomalies associated with known faults and reveal a number of possible concealed faults beneath the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain. The central part of the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain is characterized by several small amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small scale faulting.

Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.

1995-12-31

390

Optimum gradient of mountain paths.  

PubMed

By combining the experiment results of R. Margaria (Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Memorie 7: 299-368, 1938), regarding the metabolic cost of gradient locomotion, together with recent insights on gait biomechanics, a prediction about the most economical gradient of mountain paths (approximately 25%) is obtained and interpreted. The pendulum-like mechanism of walking produces a waste of mechanical work against gravity within the gradient range of up to 15% (the overall efficiency is dominated by the low transmission efficiency), whereas for steeper values only the muscular efficiency is responsible for the (slight) metabolic change (per meter of vertical displacement) with respect to gradient. The speeds at the optimum gradient turned out to be approximately 0.65 m/s (+0.16 m/s vertical) and 1.50 m/s (-0.36 m/s vertical), for uphill and downhill walking, respectively, and the ascensional energy expenditure was 0.4 and 2.0 ml O2.kg body mass-1.vertical m-1 climbed or descended. When the metabolic power becomes a burden, as in high-altitude mountaineering, the optimum gradient should be reduced. A sample of real mountain path gradients, experimentally measured, mimics the obtained predictions. PMID:8594031

Minetti, A E

1995-11-01

391

The hydrology of Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, located in southern Nevada in the Mojave Desert, is being considered as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Although the site is arid, previous studies indicate net infiltration rates of 5-10 mm yr(-1) under current climate conditions. Unsaturated flow of water through the mountain generally is vertical and rapid through the fractures of the welded tuffs and slow through the matrix of the nonwelded tuffs. The vitric-zeolitic boundary of the nonwelded tuffs below the potential repository, where it exists, causes perching and substantial lateral flow that eventually flows through faults near the eastern edge of the potential repository and recharges the underlying groundwater system. Fast pathways are located where water flows relatively quickly through the unsaturated zone to the water table. For the bulk of the water a large part of the travel time from land surface to the potential repository horizon (similar to 300 m below land surface) is through the interlayered, low fracture density, nonwelded tuff where flow is predominantly through the matrix. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being modeled using a three-dimensional, dual-continuum numerical model to predict the results of measurements and observations in new boreholes and excavations. The interaction between experimentalists and modelers is providing confidence in the conceptual model and the numerical model and is providing researchers with the ability to plan further testing and to evaluate the usefulness or necessity of further data collection.

Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Fabryka-Martin, J.M.

2000-12-04

392

Micrometeorites from the Transantarctic Mountains  

PubMed Central

We report the discovery of large accumulations of micrometeorites on the Myr-old, glacially eroded granitic summits of several isolated nunataks in the Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains. The number (>3,500) of large (>400 ?m and up to 2 mm in size) melted and unmelted particles is orders of magnitudes greater than other Antarctic collections. Flux estimates, bedrock exposure ages and the presence of ?0.8-Myr-old microtektites suggest that extraterrestrial dust collection occurred over the last 1 Myr, taking up to 500 kyr to accumulate based on 2 investigated find sites. The size distribution and frequency by type of cosmic spherules in the >200-?m size fraction collected at Frontier Mountain (investigated in detail in this report) are similar to those of the most representative known micrometeorite populations (e.g., South Pole Water Well). This and the identification of unusual types in terms of composition (i.e., chondritic micrometeorites and spherulitic aggregates similar to the ?480-kyr-old ones recently found in Antarctic ice cores) and size suggest that the Transantarctic Mountain micrometeorites constitute a unique and essentially unbiased collection that greatly extends the micrometeorite inventory and provides material for studies on micrometeorite fluxes over the recent (?1 Myr) geological past. PMID:19011091

Rochette, P.; Folco, L.; Suavet, C.; van Ginneken, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Perchiazzi, N.; Braucher, R.; Harvey, R. P.

2008-01-01

393

How the Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Breached the Canadian Rocky Mountains  

PubMed Central

The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), a major pine forest pest native to western North America, has extended its range north and eastward during an ongoing outbreak. Determining how the MPB has expanded its range to breach putative barriers, whether physical (nonforested prairie and high elevation of the Rocky Mountains) or climatic (extreme continental climate where temperatures can be below ?40 C), may contribute to our general understanding of range changes as well as management of the current epidemic. Here, we use a panel of 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess population genetic structure, connectivity, and signals of selection within this MPB range expansion. Biallelic SNPs in MPB from southwestern Canada revealed higher genetic differentiation and lower genetic connectivity than in the northern part of its range. A total of 208 unique SNPs were identified using different outlier detection tests, of which 32 returned annotations for products with putative functions in cholesterol synthesis, actin filament contraction, and membrane transport. We suggest that MPB has been able to spread beyond its previous range by adjusting its cellular and metabolic functions, with genome scale differentiation enabling populations to better withstand cooler climates and facilitate longer dispersal distances. Our study is the first to assess landscape-wide selective adaptation in an insect. We have shown that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this forest pest species. PMID:24803641

Janes, Jasmine K.; Li, Yisu; Keeling, Christopher I.; Yuen, Macaire M.S.; Boone, Celia K.; Cooke, Janice E.K.; Bohlmann, Joerg; Huber, Dezene P.W.; Murray, Brent W.; Coltman, David W.; Sperling, Felix A.H.

2014-01-01

394

The Mountains of Io: Global and Geological Perspectives from Voyager and Galileo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To search for local and global scale geologic associations that may be related to the internal dynamics of Io, we have completed a global catalog of all mountains and volcanic centers. We have identified 115 mountain structures (covering approx. 3% of the surface) and 541 volcanic centers, including paterae (calderas and dark spots) and shield volcanoes. The average length of an Ionian mountain is 157 km, with the longest being 570 km. The mean height of Ionian mountains is 6.3 km, and the highest known mountain is Boosaule Montes (17.5 +/- 3 km). Five basic morphologic types of mountains have been identified; mesa, plateau peak, ridge, and massif. Very few mountains bear any physical similarity. to classic volcanic landforms, but many resemble flatiron mountains on Earth and are interpreted as tilted crustal blocks. This would be consistent with the hypothesis that most mountains are thrust blocks formed as a result of compressive stresses built up in the lower crust due to the global subsidence of volcanic layers as they are buried over time. More than one mechanism may be responsible for all Ionian mountains, however. The proximity of some mountains to paterae may indicate a direct link between some mountains and volcanism, although it is not always clear which came first. In contrast to earlier studies, a pronounced bimodal pattern is observed in the global distribution of both mountains and volcanic centers. The regions of highest areal densities of volcanic centers are near the sub- and anti-Jovian regions, but are offset roughly 90deg in longitude from the two, regions of greatest concentration of mountains. This anticorrelation may indicate the overprinting of a second stress field on the global compressive stresses due to subsidence. The bimodal distribution of volcanic centers and mountains is consistent with models of asthenospheric tidal heating and internal convection developed by Tackley et al.Over regions of mantle upwelling, compressive stresses in the lower crust induced by global subsidence might be reduced, encouraging volcanism and discouraging mountain building. In regions of mantle downwelling, these compressive stresses in the lower crust might be increased, discouraging volcanism and encouraging mountain building. Alternatively, the global pattern may be related to possible (but undocumented) nonsynchronous rotation of lo, which would produce two regions each of compression and extension in the crust. Evidence of layering and of mass wasting, including landslides, block sliding, debris aprons and downslope creep, on Ionian mountains suggests that the crust of Io is essentially a layered stack of partially consolidated volcanic lavas and plume deposits, becoming more consolidated with depth. The lower crust especially may also be ductily deformed, punctuated by volcanic intrusions and faulting at paterae, and broken into blocks, some of which have been uplifted to form mountains.

Schenk, Paul; Hargitai, Henrik; Wilson, Ronda; McEwen, Alfred; Thomas, Peter; Bredekamp, Joe (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

395

Preferential retention of POPs on the northern aspect of mountains.  

PubMed

Soils are the main reservoirs of POPs in mountain ecosystems, but the great variability of the concentrations, also at small scale, leaves some uncertainties in the evaluation of environmental burdens and exposure. The role of the aspect of the mountain side and the seasonal variation in the contamination levels was analysed by means of several soil samples taken from central Italian Alps. A greater contamination content was present in northern soils with a mean ratio between the north vs. south normalised concentration of around a factor of 2 (North-South Enrichment Factor). Experimental factors agreed with theoretical calculations based on temperature-specific calculated K(sa) values. From May to November consistent differences in normalised concentrations up to 5-fold were observed. A dynamic picture of the POP contamination in high altitudinal soils is derived from the data in this work, with spring-summer half-lives between 60 and 120 days for most of the compounds. PMID:19535187

Tremolada, Paolo; Parolini, Marco; Binelli, Andrea; Ballabio, Cristiano; Comolli, Roberto; Provini, Alfredo

2009-12-01

396

Lighting in Commercial Buildings  

EIA Publications

Lighting is a major consumer of electricity in commercial buildings and a target for energy savings through use of energy-efficient light sources along with other advanced lighting technologies. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) collects information on types of lighting equipment, the amount of floorspace that is lit, and the percentage of floorspace lit by each type. In addition, CBECS data are used to model end-use consumption, including energy consumed for lighting in commercial buildings.

2009-01-01

397

Lunar Commercialization Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

Martin, Gary L.

2008-01-01

398

Massanutten Mountain, Virginia, USA (Anaglyph)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Massanutten Mountain lies in the Shenandoah Valley of northern Virginia. Rock layers in the mountain are folded downward in an overall 'U' shape (called a syncline) which accounts for its peculiar double ridge shape with a highly elongated valley between. The ridges have formed because they are capped with a sandstone layer which is resistant to weathering and erosion. Limestones and shales are less resistant and form the lowlands and valleys. The north and south forks of the Shenandoah River flank Massanutten Mountain and display unusually pronounced meander patterns. Other layered sedimentary rocks form other ridgeline patterns in the Allegheny Mountains, to the upper left. But the igneous and metamorphic (crystalline) rocks of the Blue Ridge Mountains erode into a very different topographic pattern to the southeast. This small area provides an excellent example rock type, geologic structure, and fluvial (stream) processes all influencing landform development.

This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary elevation model from data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 49 x 37 kilometers (30 x 23 miles) Location: 38.8 deg. North lat., 78.5 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Anaglyph of SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2003-01-01

399

Marketing the Mountains: An Environmental History of Tourism in Rocky Mountain National Park  

E-print Network

Marketing the Mountains explores the impact of tourism upon the natural world of Rocky Mountain National Park. Moving beyond culutral analysis of the development of tourism in the American West, this dissertation seeks to ...

Frank, Jerritt

2008-09-05

400

COMMERCIAL SPACE ACCOMPLISHMENTS Commercial Cargo Space Accomplishments  

E-print Network

to the International Space Station (ISS), bringing this important work back to the United States where it belongs requirements for transporting NASA's crew to the International Space Station. Unfunded Space Act Agreements by the extension of International Space Station operations to 2020, enabling expanded commercial and research

Waliser, Duane E.

401

CITY OF MOUNTAIN VIEW April 12, 2011 .  

E-print Network

by the City'of Mountain View in Accordance with Section 10-106 of the California Code of Regulations, Title 24CITY OF MOUNTAIN VIEW April 12, 2011 . CaUfomia Energy Commission Attn: Joe Loyer 1516 Ninth.regardlogthls subm1Ual pte.R - -me ...OOD .. pos.lble. TbankYou . . . . City ofMountain View 650-903-6313· Recycled

402

Landscape, Mountain Worship and Astronomy in Socaire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatiotemporal analysis of mountain worship in the indigenous community of Socaire, Atacama, northern Chile, relates to cultural, geographical, climatic, psychological, and astronomical information gathered from ethno archaeological studies. We identify a system of offerings to the mountains that incorporates concepts such as ceque (straight line), mayllku (mountain lord or ancestor), and pacha (space and time). Here, the mountains on the visible horizon (Tumisa, Lausa, Chiliques, Ipira, and Miiques) feature as the fingers on the left hand (PAH Triad). This structure regulates annual activities and rituals and sets the basis for the Socaireos' worldview raised on a humanized landscape.

Moyano, Ricardo

403

First mercury determination in snow and firn from high-mountain glaciers in the Siberian Altai by CV-ICP-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-altitude mountain glaciers are well suited as palcoarchives of natural and anthropogenic emission both on a global and on local scale. Ice core records from Altai will permit to assess the present air pollution level in the Central Eurasia and to reconstmct its historical development. The Altai mountain region is especially interesting for Hg study, since it's located close to

S. Eyrikh; M. Schwikowski; H. W. Gggeler; L. Tobler; T. Papina

2003-01-01

404

The mountain chain topography as evidence of the linkage between deep and surface earth processes: the case of central Apennines (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the scale of a mountain chain, the surface topography results from the interaction of dynamic mantle processes, crustal tectonics and surface processes. Through DEM-based topographic analysis, we examined the regional tectonic geomorphology of the Apennines, a growing mountain chain contemporary affected by extension on the Tyrrhenian side and by shortening on the Adriatic side. Beginning in the Early Pleistocene,

P. Molin; F. J. Pazzaglia; F. Dramis

2009-01-01

405

Integrating Climate and Ecosystem-Response Sciences in Temperate Western North American Mountains: The CIRMOUNT Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain regions are uniquely sensitive to changes in climate, vulnerable to climate effects on biotic and physical factors of intense social concern, and serve as critical early-warning systems of climate impacts. Escalating demands on western North American (WNA) mountain ecosystems increasingly stress both natural resources and rural community capacities; changes in mountain systems cascade to issues of national concern. Although WNA has long been a focus for climate- and climate-related environmental research, these efforts remain disciplinary and poorly integrated, hindering interpretation into policy and management. Knowledge is further hampered by lack of standardized climate monitoring stations at high-elevations in WNA. An initiative is emerging as the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT) whose primary goal is to improve knowledge of high-elevation climate systems and to better integrate physical, ecological, and social sciences relevant to climate change, ecosystem response, and natural-resource policy in WNA. CIRMOUNT seeks to focus research on climate variability and ecosystem response (progress in understanding synoptic scale processes) that improves interpretation of linkages between ecosystem functions and human processing (progress in understanding human-environment integration), which in turn would yield applicable information and understanding on key societal issues such as mountains as water towers, biodiversity, carbon forest sinks, and wildland hazards such as fire and forest dieback (progress in understanding ecosystem services and key thresholds). Achieving such integration depends first on implementing a network of high-elevation climate-monitoring stations, and linking these with integrated ecosystem-response studies. Achievements since 2003 include convening the 2004 Mountain Climate Sciences Symposium (1, 2) and several special sessions at technical conferences; initiating a biennial mountain climate research symposium (MTNCLIM), the first to be held in spring 2005; developing a strategy for climate-monitoring in WNA; installing and networking high-elevation (>3000m) climate-monitoring stations; and completing three target regions (Glacier National Park, MT; Sierra Nevada and White Mountains, CA) of the international GLORIA (Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) plant-monitoring project, the first in WNA. CIRMOUNT emphasizes integration at the regional scale in WNA, collaborating with and complementing projects such as the Western Mountain Initiative, whose mandate is more targeted than CIRMOUNT's, and global programs such as GLORIA and the international Mountain Research Initiative. Achievement of continuing success in WNA hinges on the capacity to secure long-term funding and institutional investment. (1) See associated URL for paper and poster pdfs (2) Discussing the future of western U.S. mountains, climate change, and ecosystems. EOS 31 August 2004, 85(35), p. 329

Millar, C. I.; Fagre, D. B.

2004-12-01

406

Algae Biodiesel: Commercialization  

E-print Network

Algae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Algae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Center conservation and biomonitoring · Algae biodiesel is largest CEHMM project #12;Project Overview: The Missing replace petroleum #12;Project Overview: Local Resources for Algae Biodiesel Project Overview: Local

Tullos, Desiree

407

Commercial Real Estate Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the commercial real estate market, which is perceived to be relatively inefficient, investors have comparative advantages; hence there are significant costs to diversification. This paper presents for the first time a series of market (or quasi-market) returns for a large data base. This data base is believed to be the most complete commercial real estate data base yet constructed.

Mike Miles; Tom McCue

1984-01-01

408

Commercialism@Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Center for the Analysis of Commercialism in Schools found that the number of press citations from 1990 to 2000 discussing seven types of commercializing activities (program sponsorship, exclusive agreements, incentive programs, appropriation of space, sponsored educational materials, electronic marketing, privatization, and fund raising)

Molnar, Alex; Morales, Jennifer

2000-01-01

409

Commercial imagery archive product development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lockheed Martin (LM) team had garnered over a decade of operational experience in digital imagery management and analysis for the US Government at numerous worldwide sites. Recently, it set out to create a new commercial product to serve the needs of large-scale imagery archiving and analysis markets worldwide. LM decided to provide a turnkey commercial solution to receive, store, retrieve, process, analyze and disseminate in 'push' or 'pull' modes components and adapted and developed its own algorithms to provide added functionality not commercially available elsewhere. The resultant product, Intelligent Library System, satisfies requirements for (a) a potentially unbounded, data archive automated workflow management for increased user productivity; (c) automatic tracking and management of files stored on shelves; (d) ability to ingest, process and disseminate data involves with bandwidths ranging up to multi-gigabit per second; (e) access through a thin client- to-server network environment; (f) multiple interactive users needing retrieval of filters in seconds from both archived images or in real time, and (g) scalability that maintains information throughput performance as the size of the digital library grows.

Sakkas, Alysa

1999-12-01

410

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2012-01-01

411

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2013-01-01

412

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2011-01-01

413

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2014-01-01

414

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2010-01-01

415

77 FR 66478 - Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...13XL1109AF; HAG13-0011] Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Meetings AGENCY...Land Management (BLM), the Steens Mountain Advisory Council (SMAC) will meet as...August 14, 2001, pursuant to the Steens Mountain Cooperative Management and...

2012-11-05

416

75 FR 12163 - Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...09-ASW-36] Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation...proposes to amend Class E airspace at Mountain View, AR. Decommissioning of the...non-directional beacon (NDB) at Mountain View Wilcox Memorial Field...

2010-03-15

417

27 CFR 9.231 - Moon Mountain District Sonoma County.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. 9...American Viticultural Areas 9.231 Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. (a...viticultural area described in this section is Moon Mountain District Sonoma County....

2014-04-01

418

Getting Beyond Yucca Mountain - 12305  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has terminated the Yucca Mountain repository project. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has indefinitely suspended the Yucca Mountain licensing proceeding. The presidentially-appointed Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future is preparing a report, due in January 2012, to the Secretary of Energy on recommendations for a new national nuclear waste management and disposal program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). However, the BRC Draft Report fails to provide detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. The comments submitted to the BRC by the State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects provide useful details on how the US national nuclear waste program can get beyond the failed Yucca Mountain repository project. A detailed siting process, consisting of legislative elements, procedural elements, and 'rules' for volunteer sites, could meet the objectives of the BRC and the Western Governors Association (WGA), while promoting and protecting the interests of potential host states. The recent termination of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository provides both an opportunity and a need to re-examine the United States' nuclear waste management program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for SNF and HLW. It is anticipated that the BRC Final report in January 2012 will recommend a new general course of action, but there will likely continue to be a need for detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. Getting the nation's nuclear waste program back on track requires, among other things, new principles for siting-principles based on partnership between the federal implementing agency and prospective host states. These principles apply to the task of developing an integrated waste management strategy, to interactions between the federal government and prospective host states for consolidated storage and disposal facilities, and to the logistically and politically complicated task of transportation system design. Lessons from the past 25 years, in combination with fundamental parameters of the nuclear waste management task in the US, suggest new principles for partnership outlined in this paper. These principles will work better if well-grounded and firm guidelines are set out beforehand and if the challenge of maintaining competence, transparency and integrity in the new organization is treated as a problem to be addressed rather than a result to be expected. (authors)

Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects, Carson City, NV 89706 (United States); Williams, James M. [Western Interstate Energy Board, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

2012-07-01

419

DRAGOON MOUNTAINS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mineral and hydrocarbon resource potential of the Dragoon Mountains Roadless Area was assessed and six areas of probable mineral-resource potential were identified. The area may contain metamorphic skarn-type mineralization of copper, lead, molybdenum, and zinc, and some of these may contain silver and gold. More remotely, the area could also contain stockwork molybdenum mineralization and replacement or vein-type mineralization of beryllium, fluorite, thorium, tin, and tungsten. Rock products exist within the area and are discussed due to the proximity of a railroad, but similar materials occur outside the area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

Drewes, Harald; Kreidler, T.J.

1984-01-01

420

Doctor on a mountaineering expedition.  

PubMed Central

Doctors are welcome members on mountaineering expeditions to remote areas, but practical advice on how to prepare and what kit to take can be difficult to find. This article is a ragbag of useful advice on diverse topics. It explains the necessary preparation, provides tips for a healthy expedition, and summarises the common disorders encountered at high altitude. The comprehensive drug and equipment lists and first aid kit for climbers were used for the 1992 Everest in winter expedition. They are there to be sacrificed to personal preference and the experience and size of individual expeditions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7767198

A'Court, C. H.; Stables, R. H.; Travis, S.

1995-01-01

421

SANDIA MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic and mineral-resource investigations in the Sandia Mountains in New Mexico indicate that a small part of the area has a probable mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineral occurrences are small barite-fluorite veins that occur along faults on the eastern slope of the range. The barite veins in the Landsend area and in the Tunnel Spring area are classed as having a probable mineral-resource potential. Fluorite veins which occur at the La Luz mine contain silver-bearing galeana and the area near this mine is regarded as having a probable resource potential for silver. No energy resources were identified in this study.

Hedlund, D.C.; Kness, R.F.

1984-01-01

422

Interpretive geophysical fault map across the central block of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical data collected along 29 traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada reveal anomalies associated with known fault sand indicate a number of possible concealed faults beneath the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain. Geophysical interpretations indicate that Midway Valley is characterized by several known and previously unknown faults, that the existence of the Yucca Wash fault is equivocal, and that the central part of the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain is characterized by numerous low-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect numerous small-scale faults. Gravity and magnetic data also reveal several large-amplitude anomalies that reflect larger-scale faulting along the margins of the central block.

Ponce, D.A.

1996-12-31

423

Foundational Forces & Hidden Variables in Technology Commercialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The science of physics seems vastly different from the process of technology commercialization. Physics strives to understand our world through the experimental deduction of immutable laws and dependent variables and the resulting macro-scale phenomenon. In comparison, the goal of business is to make a profit by addressing the needs, preferences, and whims of individuals in a market. It may seem

Brandon Barnett

2011-01-01

424

DOE's clean coal technology program: commercial successes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy's (DOEs) clean coal technology (CCT) program is comprised of 43 demonstration scale projects in a variety of coal utilization areas. The program is now well under way, and several demonstrations have been completed. Further, several commercial sales have already accrued to these technologies, with additional sales pending

J. U. Watts; T. A. Sarkus; S. K. Marchant

1996-01-01

425

Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN {number_sign}85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper.

Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R. [Foothill Engineering, Inc., Mercury, NV (United States); Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)

1994-12-31

426

Worldwide acceleration of mountain erosion under a cooling climate.  

PubMed

Climate influences the erosion processes acting at the Earth's surface. However, the effect of cooling during the Late Cenozoic era, including the onset of Pliocene-Pleistocene Northern Hemisphere glaciation (about two to three million years ago), on global erosion rates remains unclear. The uncertainty arises mainly from a lack of consensus on the use of the sedimentary record as a proxy for erosion and the difficulty of isolating the respective contributions of tectonics and climate to erosion. Here we compile 18,000 bedrock thermochronometric ages from around the world and use a formal inversion procedure to estimate temporal and spatial variations in erosion rates. This allows for the quantification of erosion for the source areas that ultimately produce the sediment record on a timescale of millions of years. We find that mountain erosion rates have increased since about six million years ago and most rapidly since two million years ago. The increase of erosion rates is observed at all latitudes, but is most pronounced in glaciated mountain ranges, indicating that glacial processes played an important part. Because mountains represent a considerable fraction of the global production of sediments, our results imply an increase in sediment flux at a global scale that coincides closely with enhanced cooling during the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs. PMID:24352288

Herman, Frdric; Seward, Diane; Valla, Pierre G; Carter, Andrew; Kohn, Barry; Willett, Sean D; Ehlers, Todd A

2013-12-19

427

Physical Sciences MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITYBOZEMAN MOUNTAINS & MINDS  

E-print Network

Physical Sciences MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITYBOZEMAN MOUNTAINS & MINDS Chemistry The Department is in surficial geology/physical geography, along with a traditional strength in snow science. The Mountain of industrial and agricultural chemicals, fundamental work in materials science, and the biochemistry portion

Dyer, Bill

428

Cultural Ecology: Arts of the Mountain Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes a schoolwide unit, organized around the ballad of John Henry, that integrated visual art, music, dance, and drama with ecological issues, Mountain Cultural heritage, and labor history. Gives background information on the Mountain Culture and the story of John Henry, while also discussing the students' reactions and interpretations

Morris, Christine Ballengee

1998-01-01

429

Effect sizes of mountains and molehills.  

PubMed

Decisions about environmental aesthetics require valid, understandable measurements of visual impacts. This study reports well known scientific measurements (standardized mean contrasts) for well known images (mountains and molehills). The scientific measurements of visual preferences for mountains and molehills were 1.17 and -0.05, respectively. PMID:9656286

Stamps, A E

1998-06-01

430

2550 Garcia Avenue Mountain View, CA 94043  

E-print Network

. 2550 Garcia Avenue, Mountain View, California 94043­1100 U.S.A. All rights reserved. This product2550 Garcia Avenue Mountain View, CA 94043 U.S.A. EarlyAccessEdition(May1994); pthreads System Laboratories, Inc. and the University of California, respectively. Third­party font software

Liblit, Ben

431

Arkansas' Ozark Mountain Blacks: An Introduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces research which attempted to determine if black Arkansas hill people could reasonably be referred to as hillbillies in the sense that isolated rural white mountain dwellers are so referred, finding that the few black mountaineers left are not hillbillies in the sense indicated of whites. (Author/JM)

Morgan, Gordon D.; Kunkel, Peter

1973-01-01

432

Determining Learning Styles of the Professional Mountaineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to explore learning styles of the professional mountaineers. The research was carried out according to the survey model. The research group composed of 61 professional mountaineers (n[subscript (men)] = 45, n[subscript (women)] = 16) who attended Advanced Snow Ice Education Camp in Rize on September 1-7, 2012, the last camp of

Bektas, Fatih

2013-01-01

433

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2012-07-01

434

Geology Fieldnotes: Catoctin Mountain Park, Maryland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains Catoctin Mountain Park information, a park map, and visitor information. A general cultural history of the park is given, from the first human inhabitants to its development into a park. Also mentioned are recreational attractions and Cunningham Falls State Park, located next to Catoctin. This park lies in the Appalachian Mountain chain.

435

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2014-07-01

436

Approximate clustering via the mountain method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a simple and effective approach for approximate estimation of the cluster centers on the basis of the concept of a mountain function. We call the procedure the mountain method. It can be useful for obtaining the initial values of the clusters that are required by more complex cluster algorithms. It also can be used as a stand alone

R. R. Yager; D. P. Filev

1994-01-01

437

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2011-07-01

438

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2010-07-01

439

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2013-07-01

440

Mountains and Arid Climates of Middle Latitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations from a global climate model with and without orography have been used to investigate the role of mountains in maintaining extensive arid climates in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Dry climates similar to those observed were simulated over central Asia and western interior North America in the experiment with mountains, whereas relatively moist climates were simulated in these

S. Manabe; A. J. Broccoli

1990-01-01

441

Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

2011-01-01

442

Great Smoky Mountains Regional Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With project headquarters at the University of Tennessee Libraries, the Great Smoky Mountains Regional Project is designed to serve as both a physical and digital collection of resources for researchers studying the Smokies and their surrounding communities. From the homepage, visitors can view a selection of finding aids (if they are planning to conduct research), browse through the Project's newsletters dating back to 2002, and look through a list of other organizations (with hyperlinks to their respective homepages, where available). Currently, there are two nice digital collections available here, both of which are worth more than just a glance. The first is a digitized collection of 898 photographs taken by the late Albert "Dutch" Roth. Roth was an amateur photographer who spent six decades photographing the Great Smoky Mountains' Greenbrier and Mount Le Conte sections. Here visitors can peruse these images by subject heading and a variety of other fields; in doing so, visitors will get a real feel for the landscape of the region. The second digital collection is of the flora of Tennessee, and allows visitors to search through images of native and introduced flora throughout the state by plant name, family and genus.

443

Mountaineering and Climbing on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initial human missions to Mars will be a precious commodity wherein a maximum amount of information is gathered by each crew. As was the case during innumerable terrestrial missions of exploration, the Martian terrain that visiting crews must traverse in order to gain an understanding will often be difficult. This is accentuated by the fact that Mars is a world of geology - one whose surface area is equal to dry surface on Earth. Human crews will be called upon to use a variety of skills and tools to traverse the Martian surface - including those often associated with hiking, mountaineering and technical climbing. While rovers and other mechanical devices will be employed, it should be assumed that skills commonly associated with rock climbing, caving, and mountaineering on Earth will also be required. This paper looks at the human factors associated with such activity on Mars: space suit design requirements, life support, tools and procedures, traverse planning, logistics issues and navigation. Implications for adaptation of terrestrial gear will be examined as will implications raised by planetary protection. Lessons learned during sorties conducted on the lunar surface during the Apollo program are discussed.

Cowing, K. L.

444

Smoke in the Bitterroot Mountains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By late August 2000, severe forest fires had been burning in Montana and Idaho for more than a month. As of Aug. 29, a total of 57 fires were burning in both states. The smoke from these fires is considered a health risk, especially for the very young and very old, and health advisory has been issued for those with respiratory problems who live in the area. This image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows smoke in the Bitterroot Mountains on the morning of August 21, 2000. Even though forest fires normally taper off overnight, these blazes are burning so fiercely that opaque pillars of smoke are rising into the morning air. More smoke fills the low-lying valleys, with the mountains rising out of the smoke into clear air. In the full size image, note the irrigated fields and ancient basalt lava flows that line the Snake River Plain to the south of the fires. Image by Reto Stockli and the MODIS science team