Science.gov

Sample records for mountaineer commercial scale

  1. 77 FR 3459 - Cancellation of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Cancellation of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and... ] (NEPA) for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project in Mason County, WV... Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project (DOE/EIS-0445D) for public review and comment on March...

  2. Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project Topical Report: Preliminary Public Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Guy Cerimele

    2011-09-30

    This Preliminary Public Design Report consolidates for public use nonproprietary design information on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. The report is based on the preliminary design information developed during the Phase I - Project Definition Phase, spanning the time period of February 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011. The report includes descriptions and/or discussions for: (1) DOE's Clean Coal Power Initiative, overall project & Phase I objectives, and the historical evolution of DOE and American Electric Power (AEP) sponsored projects leading to the current project; (2) Alstom's Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) carbon capture retrofit technology and the carbon storage and monitoring system; (3) AEP's retrofit approach in terms of plant operational and integration philosophy; (4) The process island equipment and balance of plant systems for the CAP technology; (5) The carbon storage system, addressing injection wells, monitoring wells, system monitoring and controls logic philosophy; (6) Overall project estimate that includes the overnight cost estimate, cost escalation for future year expenditures, and major project risks that factored into the development of the risk based contingency; and (7) AEP's decision to suspend further work on the project at the end of Phase I, notwithstanding its assessment that the Alstom CAP technology is ready for commercial demonstration at the intended scale.

  3. Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

    2011-12-31

    The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.

  4. 76 FR 13396 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announces the availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project (DOE/EIS-0445D) for public review and comment, as well as the date, location and time for a public hearing. The draft environmental impact statement (EIS) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of a project......

  5. State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunis, B. C.

    1982-08-01

    The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. The period covered is July through December 1981. Background information is provided, program objectives and the technical approach used are discussed, and the benefits of the program are described. Prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are covered and findings and recommendations are summarized.

  6. Yucca Mountain drift scale test progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Apps, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Peterson,J.E.; Sonnenthal, E.; Spycher, N.; Tsang, Y.W.; Williams, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Drift Scale Test (DST) is part of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Thermal Test being conducted underground at the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of the ESF Thermal Test is to acquire a more in-depth understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes likely to be encountered in the rock mass surrounding the potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain. These processes are monitored by a multitude of sensors to measure the temperature, humidity, gas pressure, and mechanical displacement, of the rock formation in response to the heat generated by the heaters. In addition to collecting passive monitoring data, active hydrological and geophysical testing is also being carried out periodically in the DST. These active tests are intended to monitor changes in the moisture redistribution in the rock mass, to collect water and gas samples for chemical and isotopic analysis, and to detect microfiacturing due to heating. On December 3, 1998, the heaters in the DST were activated. The planned heating phase of the DST is 4 years, and the cooling phase following the power shutoff will be of similar duration. The present report summarizes interpretation and analysis of thermal, hydrological, chemical, and geophysical data for the first 6 months; it is the first of many progress reports to be prepared during the DST.

  7. MOUNTAIN-SCALE COUPLED PROCESSES (TH/THC/THM)MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Y.S. Wu

    2005-08-24

    This report documents the development and validation of the mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic (TH), thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC), and thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) models. These models provide technical support for screening of features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842], Section 2.1.1.1). The purpose and validation criteria for these models are specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Drift-Scale Abstraction) Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842]). Model results are used to support exclusion of certain FEPs from the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model on the basis of low consequence, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.342 [DIRS 173273]. Outputs from this report are not direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. All the FEPs related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ and SZ flow are discussed in Sections 6 and 7 of this report. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The mountain-scale TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH model captures mountain-scale three-dimensional flow effects, including lateral diversion and mountain-scale flow patterns. The mountain-scale THC model evaluates TH effects on water and gas

  8. Room at the Mountain: Estimated Maximum Amounts of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Capable of Disposal in a Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, John H.; Kemeny, John; King, Fraser; Ross, Alan M.; Ross, Benjamen

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an initial analysis of the maximum amount of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) that could be emplaced into a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis identifies and uses programmatic, material, and geological constraints and factors that affect this estimation of maximum amount of CSNF for disposal. The conclusion of this initial analysis is that the current legislative limit on Yucca Mountain disposal capacity, 63,000 MTHM of CSNF, is a small fraction of the available physical capacity of the Yucca Mountain system assuming the current high-temperature operating mode (HTOM) design. EPRI is confident that at least four times the legislative limit for CSNF ({approx}260,000 MTHM) can be emplaced in the Yucca Mountain system. It is possible that with additional site characterization, upwards of nine times the legislative limit ({approx}570,000 MTHM) could be emplaced. (authors)

  9. The Yucca Mountain Project drift scale test

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.E.; Blair, S.C.; Boyle, W.J.

    1998-06-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is currently evaluating the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) response of the potential repository host rock through an in situ thermal testing program. A drift scale test (DST) was constructed during 1997 and heaters were turned on in December 1997. The DST includes nine canister-sized containers with thirty operating heaters each located within the heated drift (HD) and fifty wing heaters located in boreholes in both ribs with a total power output of nominally 210kW. A total of 147 boreholes (combined length of 3.3 km) houses most of the over 3700 TMHC sensors connected with 201 km of cabling to a central data acquisition system. The DST is located in the Exploratory Studies Facility in a 5-m diameter drift approximately 50 m in length. Heating will last up to four years and cooling will last another four years. The rock mass surrounding the DST will experience a harsh thermal environment with rock surface temperatures expected to reach a maximum of about 200 C. This paper describes the process of designing the DST. The first 38 m of the 50-m long Heated Drift (HD) is dedicated to collection of data that will lead to a better understanding of the complex coupled TMHC processes in the host rock of the proposed repository. The final 12 m is dedicated to evaluating the interactions between the heated rock mass and cast-in-place (CIP) concrete ground support systems at elevated temperatures. In addition to a description of the DST design, data from site characterization, and a general description of the analyses and analysis approach used to design the test and make pretest predictions are presented. Test-scoping and pretest numerical predictions of one way thermal-hydrologic, thermal-mechanical, and thermal-chemical behaviors have been completed (TRW, 1997a). These analyses suggest that a dry-out zone will be created around the DST and a 10,000 m{sup 3} volume of rock will experience temperatures above 100 C. The HD

  10. Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes (TH/THC/THM)

    SciTech Connect

    P. Dixon

    2004-02-09

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the development of the Mountain-Scale Thermal-Hydrological (TH), Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical (THC), and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) Models and evaluate the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This Model Report was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.12.7), and was developed in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. In this Model Report, any reference to ''repository'' means the nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, and any reference to ''drifts'' means the emplacement drifts at the repository horizon. This Model Report provides the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses for analyzing mountain-scale hydrological/chemical/mechanical changes and predict flow behavior in response to heat release by radioactive decay from the nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH Model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH Model captures mountain-scale three dimensional (3-D) flow effects, including lateral diversion at the PTn/TSw interface and mountain-scale flow patterns. The Mountain-Scale THC Model evaluates TH effects on water and gas chemistry, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and the resulting impact to UZ hydrological properties, flow and transport. The THM Model addresses changes in permeability due to mechanical and thermal disturbances in

  11. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Mountain National Park. All commercial air tour operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain...

  12. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Mountain National Park. All commercial air tour operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain...

  13. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Mountain National Park. All commercial air tour operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain...

  14. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Mountain National Park. All commercial air tour operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain...

  15. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Mountain National Park. All commercial air tour operations in the airspace over the Rocky Mountain...

  16. Thermal analysis of Yucca Mountain commercial high-level waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Altenhofen, M.K.; Eslinger, P.W.

    1992-10-01

    The thermal performance of commercial high-level waste packages was evaluated on a preliminary basis for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. The purpose of this study is to provide an estimate for waste package component temperatures as a function of isolation time in tuff. Several recommendations are made concerning the additional information and modeling needed to evaluate the thermal performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system.

  17. Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Community-Scale Solar Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Jim; Knight, Tawnie

    2014-01-30

    Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.

  18. State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states. Semiannual progress report, July-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B. C.; Toth, W. J.

    1981-10-01

    The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. Background information is provided; program objectives and the technical approach that is used are discussed; and the benefits of the program are described. The summary of findings is presented. Prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are covered and findings and recommendations are summarized. The commercialization activities carried out by the respective state teams are described for the following: Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

  19. Reach-Scale Channel Geometry of a Mountain River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, E.; Kuzma, J.; Brown, N.

    2002-12-01

    N. St. Vrain Creek drains 250 km2 of the Colorado Front Range. The basin is underlain by granitic rocks, and the upper half was glaciated. We used 25 study reaches to examine controls on reach-scale channel geometry. Variables measured included channel geometry (width, depth, gradient, bedforms), grain size, and mean velocity. Drainage area at each study reach ranged from 2.2-245 km2, and gradient from 0.013-0.147 m/m. The increase in discharge with drainage area is strongly linear. Channel types included cascade, step-pool, plane-bed and pool-riffle. We examined correlations among (1) the reach-scale response variables bankfull width (w), hydraulic radius (R), mean velocity (v), Darcy-Weisbach ff, bedform wavelength (bw) and amplitude (a), grain size, relative roughness (R/D84) and shear stress (ss), and (2) potential control variables that change progressively downstream (drainage area, discharge) or that are reach-specific (bed gradient). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that response variables correlate most strongly with local gradient because of the segmented nature of mountain channels. Results from linear regression analyses indicate that most response variables(R/D84, D50, D84, ff, ss) correlate best with gradient, although w, w/d ratio, and bw correlate best with discharge. Multiple regression analyses using Mallow's Cp selection criterion produced similar results in that most response variables correlate strongly with gradient, although the specific variables differ from those selected with linear regressions: w, a, v, ff and ss correlate with gradient, whereas R, bw and v correlate with discharge. These results suggest that the hypothesis is partially supported: channel bed gradient is likely to be a good predictor for many reach-scale response variables along mountain rivers, but discharge is also a good predictor for some response variables. Thus, although subject to strong constraints imposed by changes in gradient and grain size supplied by

  20. State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states. Semiannual progress report, January-July 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B.C.; Toth, W.J.

    1982-05-01

    The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. For each state (Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North and South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming), prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are also covered, and findings and recommendations are given for each state. Some background information about the program is provided. (LEW)

  1. State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states. Semiannual progress report, July-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B.C.

    1982-08-01

    The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. The period covered is July through December 1981. Background information is provided, program objectives and the technical approach used are discussed, and the benefits of the program are described. Prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are covered and findings and recommendations are summarized.

  2. Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

  3. 76 FR 17406 - Postponement of Public Hearing on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Postponement of Public Hearing on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale... Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and...

  4. THE DRIFT SCALE HEATER TEST AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Mark T.; Boyle, William J.; Datta, Robin N.; Elkins, Ned Z.; Yasek, Robert N.; Wagner, Ralph A.; Weaver, Douglas J.

    1998-01-30

    The Drift Scale Heater Test (DST) is an integral part of the program of testing and studies being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a site of a deep geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The DST is a large-scale, in situ thermal test to be conducted over nearly a decade in the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain (Figure 1). The overall objective of the DST is to acquire a more indepth understanding of the physical processes that will occur in the rock surrounding the emplaced waste. There are four principal processes of concern: thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical. These processes will be intensified because of the decay heat from the emplaced waste and their interaction or coupling. An understanding of these coupled processes is essential for the assessment of the long-term (over thousands of years) performance of the repository.

  5. Similarity scaling in a complex mountain valley boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfyri, Eleni; Stiperski, Ivana; Rotach, Mathias W.

    2016-04-01

    Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) is evaluated in case of truly complex mountainous terrain. Two years of data, originating from 6 different sites, in terms of slope, surface roughness and orientation in the Inn Valley of Austria, are used for this purpose. Surface-layer 'ideal' similarity relations for non-dimensional standard deviations of temperature, humidity and wind components are employed as reference and compared with the best-fit curves to the data, for every site individually. It is observed that the non-dimensional temperature variance increases when approaching neutrality, as a consequence of temperature variance not going to zero when sensible heat flux does. This is not reflected in the ideal-terrain MOST relations, producing large deviations from the reference curve within the near-neutral limit. These deviations are, however, not considered to be failure due to complex terrain, but rather due to inadequate near-neutral behavior of the reference curves. In this study, therefore, the high near-neutral variance is being taken into account in both the reference and the fitted relations. Self-correlation of each studied variable, as well as the variation of the turbulent fluxes with height is examined, as background information. The results show that these mountainous sites do not follow MOST, but they seem to be in good agreement with a local scaling assumption. Significant differences are found in the non-dimensional variances between the sites. The dependence of those local similarity relations on slope will be discussed in detail.

  6. Mountain-Scale Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Processes Around the Potential Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    E. Sonnenthal; C. Haukwa; N. Spycher

    2001-06-04

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) effects on flow and geochemistry in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain at a mountain scale. The major THC processes important in the UZ are (1) mineral precipitation/dissolution affecting flow and transport to and from the potential repository, and (2) changes in the compositions of gas and liquid that may seep into drifts.

  7. Scale-up of commercial PCFB boiler plant technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lamar, T.W.

    1993-10-01

    The DMEC-1 Demonstration Project will provide an 80 MWe commercial-scale demonstration of the Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) technology. Following confirmation of the PCFB design in the 80 MWe scale, the technology with be scaled to even larger commercial units. It is anticipated that the market for commercial scale PCFB plants will exist most predominantly in the utility and independent power producer (IPP) sectors. These customers will require the best possible plant efficiency and the lowest achievable emissions at competitive cost. This paper will describe the PCFB technology and the expected performance of a nominal 400 MWe PCFB power plant Illinois No. 6 coal was used as a representative fuel for the analysis. The description of the plant performance will be followed by a discussion of the scale-up of the major PCFB components such as the PCFB boiler, the pressure vessel, the ceramic filter, the coal/sorbent handling steam, the gas turbine, the heat recovery unit and the steam turbine, demonstrating the reasonableness of scale-up from demonstration plant to a nominal 400 MWe unit.

  8. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  9. State geothermal commercialization programs in ten Rocky Mountain states. Semi-annual progress report, July-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, J.L.

    1980-08-01

    The activities and findings of the ten state teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Regional Hydrothermal Commercialization Program for the period are described. A summary of the state projects, compilation of project accomplishments, summary of findings, and a description of the major conclusions and recommendations are presented. Also included are chapters on the commercialization activities carried out by individual teams in each state: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New-Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. (MHR)

  10. Case study of a commercial sheep flock under extensive mountain grazing: Pasture derived lipid compounds in milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Valdivielso, I; Bustamante, M A; Aldezabal, A; Amores, G; Virto, M; Ruiz de Gordoa, J C; de Renobales, M; Barron, L J R

    2016-04-15

    Terpenoid, fat-soluble antioxidant and fatty acid (FA) composition of pasture as well as those of milk and cheese from a commercial sheep flock managed under extensive mountain grazing in the east region of the Cantabrian mountain (Northern Spain) was investigated. The grazing period lasted for 2 months and ewes were at late lactation stage. Plants, feces, bulk milk and cheese samples were collected on two sampling dates. The abundance of the dominating botanical families in the mountain pasture prevailed in the sheep diet of the commercial flock. Major terpenoids and tocols in the pasture appeared as major ones in milk and cheese, whereas C18 unsaturated FAs in milk and cheese were derived from the intake of C18 polyunsaturated FAs which were prevalent in the pasture. No carotene was detected in the dairy samples but retinol (free or esterified), derived from the intake of β-carotene present in pasture plants, was found in milk and cheese. PMID:26616996

  11. Approaches to recreational landscape scaling of mountain resorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaia, Nina; Slepih, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    19 Hz, gamma 19 … 25Hz by 9-17%; the increase in adaptation layer of the organism by 21% and a versatility indicator of health - by 19%; the decrease in systolic (from 145 to 131 mm of mercury) and diastolic (from 96 to 82 mm of mercury) arterial pressure, the increase in indicators of carpal dynamometry (on the right hand from 27 to 36 kg, on the left hand from 25 to 34 kg), the increase in speed of thermogenesis (from 0.0633 to 0.0944 K/s) and quality of neurovascular reactivity (from 48% to 81%). In the whole the patient`s cenesthesia has improved. We have also studied the responses of adaptive reactions with the recipients at other options of RL. But researches are still being carried out in this direction. Their results will be used as a base of RL scaling of North Caucasus mountain territories. This problem is interdisciplinary, multidimensional and deals with both medical and geophysical issues. The studies were performed by support of the Program "Basic Sciences for Medicine" and RFBR project No.10-05-01014_a.

  12. Scale effects impeding palaeoclimate reconstructions from mountain glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinz, Rainer; Nicholson, Lindsey; Mölg, Thomas; Kaser, Georg

    2016-04-01

    boundary layer dynamics are substantial and not resolved in the model. This issue might warrant further investigation given that palaeoclimate reconstructions based on mountain glacier fluctuations inherently involve these scale contrasts; yet they are rarely considered in the tools used.

  13. Commercial scale irradiation for insect disinfestation preserves peach quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Heather; McCulloch, Mary; Caporaso, Fred; Winborne, Ian; Oubichon, Michon; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

    2012-06-01

    Irradiation is approved as a generic quarantine treatment by the US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Due to the effectiveness of irradiation in controlling insects on commodities, there is a growing need to understand the effects of low dose irradiation on fruit quality. The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity of peaches (Prunus persica) to irradiation, and secondly, to determine the effect of commercial scale treatment on shelf-life, overall quality and consumer liking. Six varieties of peaches were irradiated in small batches at 0.29, 0.49, 0.69 and 0.90 kGy to observe the sensitivity of peaches at different dose levels. Changes in quality were evaluated by 8 trained panelists using descriptive analysis. Sensory characteristics (color, smoothness, aroma, touch firmness, mouth firmness, graininess, overall flavor and off-flavor) were evaluated at 2-4 day intervals and untreated samples served as control. To simulate commercial treatment, peaches were irradiated in pallet quantities at a target dose level of 0.4 kGy. The average absorbed dose was 0.66 kGy with an average dose uniformity ratio of 1.57. Commercially treated peaches were evaluated by 40-80 untrained consumers for acceptability routinely throughout the shelf life. Titratable acidity, Brix, texture and weight loss were also monitored for both commercial and small scale irradiated peaches. There was no dose effect on TA, Brix and weight loss due to irradiation. Peaches irradiated at 0.69 and 0.90 kGy were darker in flesh color, more juicy and less firm as determined by the trained panel and analytical pressure tests. Commercial scale irradiation did not adversely affect shelf life but was seen to enhance ripening. This, however, was perceived as a positive change by consumers. Overall, consumers rated the acceptability of irradiated peaches higher than untreated peaches. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed models to find determinates

  14. A saturated zone site-scale flow model for Yucca mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Eddebbarh, Al Aziz

    2008-01-01

    A saturated zone site-scale flow model (YMSZFM) was developed for licensing requirements for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository to incorporate recent data and analyses including recent stratigraphic and water-level data from Nye County wells, single-and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and recent hydrochemistry data. Analyses include use of data from the 2004 transient Death Valley Regional (ground-water) Flow System (DVRFS) model, the 2003 unsaturated zone flow model, and the latest hydrogeologic framework model (HFM). This model includes: (1) the latest understanding of SZ flow, (2) enhanced model validation and uncertainty analyses, (3) improved locations and definitions of fault zones, (4) refined grid resolution (500-to 250-m grid spacing), and (5) use of new data. The flow model was completed using the three-dimensional, Finite-Element Heat and Mass Transfer computer code (FEHM). The SZ site-scale flow model was calibrated with the commercial parameter estimation code, PEST to achieve a minimum difference between observed water levels and predicted water levels, and also between volumetric/mass flow rates along specific boundary segments as supplied by the DVRFS. A total of 161 water level and head measurements with varied weights were used for calibration. A comparison between measured water-level data and the potentiometric surface yielded an RMSE of 20.7 m (weighted RMSE of 8.8 m). The calibrated model was used to generate flow paths and specific discharge predictions. Model confidence was built by comparing: (l) calculated to observed hydraulic heads, and (2) calibrated to measured permeabilities (and therefore specific discharge). In addition, flowpaths emanating from below the repository footprint are consistent with those inferred both from gradients of measured head and from independent water-chemistry data. Uncertainties in the SZ site-scale flow model were quantified because all uncertainty contributes to inaccuracy in system

  15. A Summary of Operating Conditions Experienced by Three Military Helicopters and a Mountain-Based Commercial Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connor, Andrew B.

    1960-01-01

    The results of a survey of the flight conditions experienced by three military helicopters engaged in simulated and actual military missions, and a commercial helicopter operated in the mountainous terrain surrounding Denver, CO, are presented. The data, obtained with NASA helicopter VGHN recorders, represent 813 flights or 359 flying hours, and are compared where applicable to previous survey results. The current survey results show that none of the helicopters exceeded the maximum design airspeed. One military helicopter, used for instrument flight training, never exceeded 70 percent of its maximum design airspeed. The rates of climb and descent utilized by the IFR training helicopter and of the mountain-based helicopter were generally narrowly distributed within all the airspeed ranges. The number of landings per hour for all four of the helicopters ranged from 1.6 to 3.3. The turbine-engine helicopter experienced more frequent normal-acceleration increments above a threshold of +/-0.4g (where g is acceleration due to gravity) than the mountain-based helicopter, but the mountain-based helicopter experienced acceleration increments of greater magnitude. Limited rotor rotational speed time histories showed that all the helicopters were operated at normal rotor speeds during all flight conditions.

  16. SCALE-4 Analysis of LaSalle Unit 1 BWR Commercial Reactor Critical Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I.C.

    2000-03-01

    Five commercial reactor criticals (CRCs) for the LaSalle Unit 1 boiling-water reactor have been analyzed using KENO V.a, the Monte Carlo criticality code of the SCALE 4 code system. The irradiated fuel assembly isotopics for the criticality analyses were provided by the Waste Package Design team at the Yucca Mountain Project in the US, who performed the depletion calculations using the SAS2H sequence of SCALE 4. The reactor critical measurements involved two beginning-of-cycle and three middle-of-cycle configurations. The CRCs involved relatively low-cycle burnups, and therefore contained a relatively high gadolinium poison content in the reactor assemblies. This report summarizes the data and methods used in analyzing the critical configurations and assesses the sensitivity of the results to some of the modeling approximations used to represent the gadolinium poison distribution within the assemblies. The KENO V.a calculations, performed using the SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 ENDF/B-V cross-section library, yield predicted k{sub eff} values within about 1% {Delta}k/k relative to reactor measurements for the five CRCs using general 8-pin and 9-pin heterogeneous gadolinium poison pin assembly models.

  17. SCALE-4 Analysis of LaSalle Unit 1 BWR Commercial Reactor Critical Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I.C.

    2000-03-16

    Five commercial reactor criticals (CRCs) for the LaSalle Unit 1 boiling-water reactor have been analyzed using KENO V.a, the Monte Carlo criticality code of the SCALE 4 code system. The irradiated fuel assembly isotopics for the criticality analyses were provided by the Waste Package Design team at the Yucca Mountain Project in the United States, who performed the depletion calculations using the SAS2H sequence of SCALE 4. The reactor critical measurements involved two beginning-of-cycle and three middle-of-cycle configurations. The CRCs involved relatively low-cycle burnups, and therefore contained a relatively high gadolinium poison content in the reactor assemblies. This report summarizes the data and methods used in analyzing the critical configurations and assesses the sensitivity of the results to some of the modeling approximations used to represent the gadolinium poison distribution within the assemblies. The KENO V.a calculations, performed using the SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 ENDF/B-V cross-section library, yield predicted k{sub eff} values within about 1% {Delta}k/k relative to reactor measurements for the five CRCs using general 8-pin and 9-pin heterogeneous gadolinium poison pin assembly models.

  18. The key to commercial-scale geological CO2 sequestration: Displaced fluid management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Surdam, R.C.; Jiao, Z.; Stauffer, P.; Miller, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Wyoming State Geological Survey has completed a thorough inventory and prioritization of all Wyoming stratigraphic units and geologic sites capable of sequestering commercial quantities of CO2 (5-15 Mt CO 2/year). This multi-year study identified the Paleozoic Tensleep/Weber Sandstone and Madison Limestone (and stratigraphic equivalent units) as the leading clastic and carbonate reservoir candidates for commercial-scale geological CO2 sequestration in Wyoming. This conclusion was based on unit thickness, overlying low permeability lithofacies, reservoir storage and continuity properties, regional distribution patterns, formation fluid chemistry characteristics, and preliminary fluid-flow modeling. This study also identified the Rock Springs Uplift in southwestern Wyoming as the most promising geological CO2 sequestration site in Wyoming and probably in any Rocky Mountain basin. The results of the WSGS CO2 geological sequestration inventory led the agency and colleagues at the UW School of Energy Resources Carbon Management Institute (CMI) to collect available geologic, petrophysical, geochemical, and geophysical data on the Rock Springs Uplift, and to build a regional 3-D geologic framework model of the Uplift. From the results of these tasks and using the FutureGen protocol, the WSGS showed that on the Rock Springs Uplift, the Weber Sandstone has sufficient pore space to sequester 18 billion tons (Gt) of CO2, and the Madison Limestone has sufficient pore space to sequester 8 Gt of CO2. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Multi-Scale Statistical Properties of Rainfall for Extreme Hydrometeorological Events in Mountainous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykanen, D. K.

    2006-12-01

    Hydrometeorological events that produce heavy rainfall and catastrophic flooding in mountainous regions present a great challenge for forecasters. Accurate predictions of flooding resulting from this type of storm require high resolution rainfall data. In a forecast mode, output from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models must be used to drive the hydrologic models. Although much progress has been made in the past decade, the output from NWP models remains at a coarser resolution than what is needed for hydrologic predictions. Bridging the scale gap between precipitation forecasts from NWP models and the resolution needs of hydrologic models for streamflow prediction requires alternative methods such as statistical downscaling of the rainfall fields. This study quantifies the multi-scale statistical properties of rainfall for extreme hydrometeorological events in mountainous regions across scales of 1~20 km. The Buffalo Creek flood of 1996, Fort Collins flood of 1997, and several other extreme hydrometerological events in the Appalachian region and Front Range of the Rocky Mountains are included in the analysis. The following questions will be investigated: (1) does spatial scaling exist as a common feature in convective rainfall events in mountainous regions?, (2) at what spatial scales do meteorological and topographic controls manifest themselves in the space-time variability of the rainfall fields?, and (3) how does meteorological forcings and geographic location impact trends in topographic influences on the multi-scale statistical properties of rainfall? Focus is placed on linking changes in the multi-scale statistical properties with orographic influences on the rainfall and developing predictive relationships between multi-scale parameters and meteorological and topographic forcings. Differences in geographic region and predominant orographic controls (e.g., windward versus leeward forcing) on trends in multi-scale properties of rainfall is investigated

  20. Reach-scale channel geometry of mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen; Merritt, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The basic patterns and processes of steep channels remain poorly known relative to lower-gradient channels. In this analysis, characteristics of step-pool, plane-bed, and pool-riffle channels are examined using a data set of 335 channel reaches from the western United States, Nepal, New Zealand, and Panama. We analyzed differences among the three channel types with respect to hydraulics, channel geometry, boundary roughness, and bedforms. Step-pool channels have significantly steeper gradients, coarser substrate, higher values of shear stress and stream power for a given discharge, and larger ratios of bedform amplitude/wavelength ( H/ L). Pool-riffle channels have greater width/depth ratios and relative grain submergence ( R/ D84) than the other channel types. Plane-bed channels tend to have intermediate values for most variables examined. Relative form submergence ( R/ H) is statistically similar for step-pool and pool-riffle channels. Despite the lesser relative grain submergence and greater bedform amplitude of step-pool channels, mean values of Darcy-Weisbach friction factor do not change in response to changes in relative grain submergence. These patterns suggest that adjustments along mountain streams effectively maximize resistance to flow and minimize downstream variability in resistance among the different channel types.

  1. USING BROAD-SCALE METRICS TO DEVELOP INDICATORS OF WATERSHED VULNERABILITY IN THE OZARK MOUNTAINS (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple broad-scale landscape metrics were tested as potential indicators of total phosphorus (TP) concentration, total ammonia (TA) concentration, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria count, among 244 sub-watersheds in the Ozark Mountains (USA). Indicator models were develop...

  2. Psychometric Evaluation of the Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Scale with a Kindergarten Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of a group-administered early literacy measure, the Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Scale (MS-PAS), using a kindergarten sample (N = 213). The MS-PAS was compared to the "Test of Phonological Awareness-Second Edition: Plus" (TOPA-2+). Results indicated excellent internal consistency for the…

  3. Scaling issues and spatio-temporal variability in ecohydrological modeling on mountain topography: Methods for improving the VELMA model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions between vegetation and hydrology in mountainous terrain are difficult to represent in mathematical models. There are at least three primary reasons for this difficulty. First, expanding plot-scale measurements to the watershed scale requires finding the balance...

  4. Full-Scale Schlieren Visualization of Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. D.; Settles, G. S.

    1996-11-01

    The efficient removal of cooking effluents from commercial kitchens has been identified as the most pressing energy-related issue in the food service industry. A full-scale schlieren optical system with a 2.1x2.7m field-of-view, described at previous APS/DFD meetings, images the convective airflow associated with a typical gas-fired cooking griddle and ventilation hood. Previous attempts to visualize plumes from cooking equipment by smoke and neutrally-buoyant bubbles were not sufficiently keyed to thermal convection. Here, the point where the ventilation hood fails to capture the effluent plume is clearly visible, thus determining the boundary condition for a balanced ventilation system. Further, the strong influence of turbulent entrainment is seen in the behavior of the combustion products vented by the griddle and the interference caused by a makeup-air outlet located too close to the lip of the ventilation hood. Such applications of traditional fluid dynamics techniques and principles are believed to be important to the maturing of ventilation technology. (Research supported by EPRI and IFMA, Inc.)

  5. Topographic and meteorological influences on space-time scaling of heavy convective rainfall in mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubert Godoy, A.; Nykanen, D.

    2003-04-01

    Characterizing the space-time scaling and dynamics of convective precipitation in mountainous terrain and the development of downscaling methods to transfer precipitation fields from one scale to another is the overall motivation for this research. Subtantiing a space-time statistical downscaling model for orographic convective precipitation based on the interplay between meteorological forcings and topographic influences on the scale-invariant properties of precipitation will be assessed.al progress has been made on characterizing the space-time organization of mid-western convective systems and tropical rainfall, which has lead to the development of statistical/dynamical downscaling models. Space-time analysis and downscaling of orographic precipitation has received much less attention due to the complexities of topographic influences. This study uses multi-scale statistical analysis to investigate the space-time scaling of organized thunderstorms that produced heavy rainfall and catastrophic flooding in mountainous regions. Focus is placed on the eastern and western slopes of the Appalachian region and the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Parameter estimates are analyzed over time and focus is placed on linking changes in the multi-scale parameters with meteorological forcings and orographic influences on the rainfall. Influences of geographic region (e.g., western versus eastern United States) and predominant orographic controls (e.g., windward versus leeward forcing)on trends in multi-scale properties of precipitation are investigated. Spatial resolutions from 1 km to 50 km and temporal integrations from 5 minutes to 3 hours ae considered. This range of space-time scales is needed to bridge typical scale gaps between distributed hydrologic models and numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts and attempts to address the open research problem of scaling organized thunderstorms and convection in mountainous terrain down to 1-4 km scales. The potential for

  6. Multi-scale curvature for automated identification of glaciated mountain landscapes☆

    PubMed Central

    Prasicek, Günther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Montgomery, David R.; Schrott, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    Erosion by glacial and fluvial processes shapes mountain landscapes in a long-recognized and characteristic way. Upland valleys incised by fluvial processes typically have a V-shaped cross-section with uniform and moderately steep slopes, whereas glacial valleys tend to have a U-shaped profile with a changing slope gradient. We present a novel regional approach to automatically differentiate between fluvial and glacial mountain landscapes based on the relation of multi-scale curvature and drainage area. Sample catchments are delineated and multiple moving window sizes are used to calculate per-cell curvature over a variety of scales ranging from the vicinity of the flow path at the valley bottom to catchment sections fully including valley sides. Single-scale curvature can take similar values for glaciated and non-glaciated catchments but a comparison of multi-scale curvature leads to different results according to the typical cross-sectional shapes. To adapt these differences for automated classification of mountain landscapes into areas with V- and U-shaped valleys, curvature values are correlated with drainage area and a new and simple morphometric parameter, the Difference of Minimum Curvature (DMC), is developed. At three study sites in the western United States the DMC thresholds determined from catchment analysis are used to automatically identify 5 × 5 km quadrats of glaciated and non-glaciated landscapes and the distinctions are validated by field-based geological and geomorphological maps. Our results demonstrate that DMC is a good predictor of glacial imprint, allowing automated delineation of glacially and fluvially incised mountain landscapes. PMID:24748703

  7. Multi-scale curvature for automated identification of glaciated mountain landscapes.

    PubMed

    Prasicek, Günther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Montgomery, David R; Schrott, Lothar

    2014-03-15

    Erosion by glacial and fluvial processes shapes mountain landscapes in a long-recognized and characteristic way. Upland valleys incised by fluvial processes typically have a V-shaped cross-section with uniform and moderately steep slopes, whereas glacial valleys tend to have a U-shaped profile with a changing slope gradient. We present a novel regional approach to automatically differentiate between fluvial and glacial mountain landscapes based on the relation of multi-scale curvature and drainage area. Sample catchments are delineated and multiple moving window sizes are used to calculate per-cell curvature over a variety of scales ranging from the vicinity of the flow path at the valley bottom to catchment sections fully including valley sides. Single-scale curvature can take similar values for glaciated and non-glaciated catchments but a comparison of multi-scale curvature leads to different results according to the typical cross-sectional shapes. To adapt these differences for automated classification of mountain landscapes into areas with V- and U-shaped valleys, curvature values are correlated with drainage area and a new and simple morphometric parameter, the Difference of Minimum Curvature (DMC), is developed. At three study sites in the western United States the DMC thresholds determined from catchment analysis are used to automatically identify 5 × 5 km quadrats of glaciated and non-glaciated landscapes and the distinctions are validated by field-based geological and geomorphological maps. Our results demonstrate that DMC is a good predictor of glacial imprint, allowing automated delineation of glacially and fluvially incised mountain landscapes. PMID:24748703

  8. Scaling of material properties for Yucca Mountain: literature review and numerical experiments on saturated hydraulic conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, S.A.; Rautman, C.A.

    1996-08-01

    A review of pertinent literature reveals techniques which may be practical for upscaling saturated hydraulic conductivity at Yucca Mountain: geometric mean, spatial averaging, inverse numerical modeling, renormalization, and a perturbation technique. Isotropic realizations of log hydraulic conductivity exhibiting various spatial correlation lengths are scaled from the point values to five discrete scales through these techniques. For the variances in log{sub 10} saturated hydraulic conductivity examined here, geometric mean, numerical inverse and renormalization adequately reproduce point scale fluxes across the modeled domains. Fastest particle velocities and dispersion measured on the point scale are not reproduced by the upscaled fields. Additional numerical experiments examine the utility of power law averaging on a geostatistical realization of a cross-section similar to the cross-sections that will be used in the 1995 groundwater travel time calculations. A literature review on scaling techniques for thermal and mechanical properties is included. 153 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Fine-scale radar observations of orographic precipitation features during a Wasatch Mountain winter storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Leah Suzanne

    Fine-scale spatiotemporal variations in orographic precipitation pose a major challenge for weather prediction in mountainous regions. Here we use ground-based X-band radar observations collected during IOP6 of the Storm Chasing Utah Style Study (SCHUSS) to provide an illustrative example of such variations during a cold-frontal passage over the Wasatch Mountains of northern Utah. Emphasis is placed on precipitation features in and around Little Cottonwood Canyon (LCC), which cuts orthogonally eastward into the Wasatch Mountains. This work also demonstrates the potential for improving weather analysis and forecasting of such variations in LCC using a gap-filling radar. Precipitation during the weakly stratified prefrontal storm stage of IOP6 featured a wave-like barrier-scale reflectivity maximum along the Wasatch Crest that extended weakly westward and upstream over the transverse ridges flanking LCC. These characteristics appeared to reflect a veering wind profile, which produced southwesterly flow over the ridges flanking LCC but cross-barrier westerly flow further aloft. Sublimation within dry subcloud air further diminished radar reflectivities over lower LCC. The cold front was associated with stronger reflectivities over lower LCC and at lower-to-mid elevations along the northwest-facing canyon wall, consistent with shallow, northwesterly upslope flow. Eventually, shallow precipitating cells developed in the moist-neutral postfrontal flow, with the depth, coverage and intensity of these cells increasing from over the Salt Lake Valley to upper LCC.

  10. Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain basin and range. Final technical report, January 1980-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  11. Sediment budgets of mountain catchments: Scale dependence and the influence of land-use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, Helga; Dotterweich, Markus; Wunderlich, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Long-term sediment budgets of forested mountain catchments are scarcely investigated today. This is because they are traditionally expected to show few erosion features and low sediment delivery. This opinion originates from process-based hydrological studies proving the runoff preventing properties of trees and forest soils. In addition mountain areas have been colonized later and only sporadically compared to the fruitful loess-covered lowlands. On the other hand steep hillslopes, narrow valleys and the availability of regolith cause a high erosion potential. And there is evidence that historical floods and yearly occurring storms initiate intensive but local and sporadic erosion events. Sediment budgets from zero-order catchments of the Palatinate Forest in the south-western sandstone escarpment in Rhineland-Palatinate show spatially varying intensities of land use impact and relief conditions. The budgets are based on field data and a soilscape model of an upper periglacial cover bed with a homogenous thickness. OSL- and 14C-dates of colluvial deposits allow relating erosion events to land-use changes derived from historical maps and written archives. The presented case studies from the Palatinate Forest are of special interest as the high proximity to the loess-covered and intensively cultivated Rhine Graben effected settlement and land-use intensity in the mountain catchments. Clear cuts for settlements were joined by deforestation for agriculture and stretched mainly along the Haardtrand and high order valleys. Off these areas the strength of interference in the forest ecosystem depended on transport possibilities and distance to the Rhine Graben. In the vicinity strong devastation and clear cutting occurred. With increasing distance the felling intensity decreased and some parts seem to be nearly undisturbed until the 18th century. The needs for wood were controlled by the economical development as well as political decisions on local to European scale. The

  12. The periglacial engine of mountain erosion - Part 2: Modelling large-scale landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egholm, D. L.; Andersen, J. L.; Knudsen, M. F.; Jansen, J. D.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2015-10-01

    There is growing recognition of strong periglacial control on bedrock erosion in mountain landscapes, including the shaping of low-relief surfaces at high elevations (summit flats). But, as yet, the hypothesis that frost action was crucial to the assumed Late Cenozoic rise in erosion rates remains compelling and untested. Here we present a landscape evolution model incorporating two key periglacial processes - regolith production via frost cracking and sediment transport via frost creep - which together are harnessed to variations in temperature and the evolving thickness of sediment cover. Our computational experiments time-integrate the contribution of frost action to shaping mountain topography over million-year timescales, with the primary and highly reproducible outcome being the development of flattish or gently convex summit flats. A simple scaling of temperature to marine δ18O records spanning the past 14 Myr indicates that the highest summit flats in mid- to high-latitude mountains may have formed via frost action prior to the Quaternary. We suggest that deep cooling in the Quaternary accelerated mechanical weathering globally by significantly expanding the area subject to frost. Further, the inclusion of subglacial erosion alongside periglacial processes in our computational experiments points to alpine glaciers increasing the long-term efficiency of frost-driven erosion by steepening hillslopes.

  13. First-order control of syntectonic sedimentation on crustal-scale structure of mountain belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdős, Zoltán.; Huismans, Ritske S.; Beek, Peter

    2015-07-01

    The first-order characteristics of collisional mountain belts and the potential feedback with surface processes are predicted by critical taper theory. While the feedback between erosion and mountain belt structure has been fairly extensively studied, less attention has been given to the potential role of synorogenic deposition. For thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belts, recent studies indicate a strong control of syntectonic deposition on structure, as sedimentation tends to stabilize the thin-skinned wedge. However, the factors controlling basement deformation below fold-and-thrust belts, as evident, for example, in the Zagros Mountains or in the Swiss Alps, remain largely unknown. Previous work has suggested that such variations in orogenic structure may be explained by the thermotectonic "age" of the deforming lithosphere and hence its rheology. Here we demonstrate that sediment loading of the foreland basin area provides an additional control and may explain the variable basement involvement in orogenic belts. When examining the role of sedimentation, we identify two end-members: (1) sediment-starved orogenic systems with thick-skinned basement deformation in an axial orogenic core and thin-skinned deformation in the bordering forelands and (2) sediment-loaded orogens with thick packages of synorogenic deposits, derived from the axial basement zone, deposited on the surrounding foreland fold-and-thrust belts, and characterized by basement deformation below the foreland. Using high-resolution thermomechanical models, we demonstrate a strong feedback between deposition and crustal-scale thick-skinned deformation. Our results show that the loading effects of syntectonic sediments lead to long crustal-scale thrust sheets beneath the orogenic foreland and explain the contrasting characteristics of sediment-starved and sediment-loaded orogens, showing for the first time how both thin- and thick-skinned crustal deformations are linked to sediment deposition in these

  14. Predicting Fiber Quality After Commercial Ginning Based on Fiber Obtained with Laboratory-Scale Gin Stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is often useful, especially in research, to measure properties of cotton lint ginned from small seed cotton samples with small laboratory scale gin stands and use the results to estimate properties of lint after commercial ginning, but these gin stands differ from commercial gins which brings int...

  15. A commercial-scale in-pond raceway system for ictalurid catfish production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commercial-scale, in-pond raceway system was constructed in 2007 on a commercial catfish fish farm in west Alabama. The in-pond raceway system was installed in a 2.43-ha earthen pond with an average depth of 1.67 m. A slow-rotating paddlewheel (1.17 revolutions per minute) installed in each rac...

  16. Small-scale cyclic deposition in the Frasnian (Upper Devonian) of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierek, Aleksandra

    2014-12-01

    In sections exposing Frasnian limestones at five outcrops in the Holy Cross Mountains, five lithofacies (L1 to L5) that represent upper slope to basinal environments are identified. These lithofacies are characterised by dark-coloured micritic limestones-marly shale couplets with many light-coloured intercalations of fine- to coarse-grained limestones (= event beds). This lithofacies pattern characterises mostly low-energy domains punctuated by storm episodes. In addition, these upper-slope to basinal lithofacies are arranged into small-scale, coarsening-upward beds and cycles. The cycles are locally composed of fining/thinning-upward beds. The small-scale cycles have a calculated duration of 19 to 42 kyr. The differential thickness of beds and cycles within and between sections was probably caused by differential subsidence and local tectonics. Possible evidence of tectonic activity is also related to a difference in number of cycles recorded in the time-equivalent sections. The recognised cyclicity shows sea-level fluctuations and a few deepening episodes. Some of them are correlated with the Timan global eustatic events. However, local tectonics and episodic subsidence may have played a significant role in recording brief deepening pulses. Thus, low-amplitude sea-level changes were major factors in platform generation and evolution in the Frasnian of the Holy Cross Mountains modified by local, block-related subsidence.

  17. Conceptualizing Process Heterogeneity at Multiple Spatial Scales in the Catskill Mountains, New York State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpold, A. A.; Steenhuis, T.

    2009-04-01

    A multi-evidence approach is presented to examine the influence of ‘small-scale' and ‘large-scale' spatial processes on hydrologic functioning in two nearby watersheds in the Catskill Mountains, New York State, USA. The Neversink (176.0 km2) is a steep, mountainous watershed cut by two distinct branches. In contrast, Townbrook watershed (36.8 km2) has much thicker till deposits and less topographic relief. Nested sampling techniques are used to examine changes in water chemistry, discharge, and estimated residence time (using isotope tracers) across spatial scale. In both watersheds, small-scale ‘hillslope' processes appear to have significant effects on watershed functioning below 2-3 km2. Groundwater springs are responsible for saturation patterns and hydrologic connectivity in a study sub-watershed (3.2 km2) in Townbrook. End-member mixing analysis (EMMA) indicates that saturation-excess overland flow from spring-caused saturated areas may be a significant ‘quick' runoff source (>40% of volume) during precipitation events. The EMMA also suggests that at scales below 2-3 km2 low-flow chemistry and discharge is dominated upland groundwater springs in Townbrook. However, synoptic sampling in both watersheds reveals a reduction in variability at larger scales (>3 km2) that is likely due to ‘emergent' large-scale processes dominating hydrologic response. In the Neversink, spatial patterns of alluvial deposits appear to control summer baseflow discharge and chemistry. Furthermore, the proximity and connectivity to steep, upland hillslopes may control the relative influence of small and large scale processes in Townbrook. Overall, the results suggest geomorphology and physiographic position must be accounted for in spatially structured landscapes. The study presents a novel watershed conceptualization that identifies repeatable hydrologic landscape units and captures spatial variability without the need to explicitly represent all the small-scale process

  18. Scaling relationships between bed load volumes, transport distances, and stream power in steep mountain channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Johannes M.; Turowski, Jens M.; Rickenmann, Dieter; Hegglin, Ramon; Arrigo, Sabrina; Mao, Luca; Kirchner, James W.

    2014-03-01

    Bed load transport during storm events is both an agent of geomorphic change and a significant natural hazard in mountain regions. Thus, predicting bed load transport is a central challenge in fluvial geomorphology and natural hazard risk assessment. Bed load transport during storm events depends on the width and depth of bed scour, as well as the transport distances of individual sediment grains. We traced individual gravels in two steep mountain streams, the Erlenbach (Switzerland) and Rio Cordon (Italy), using magnetic and radio frequency identification tags, and measured their bed load transport rates using calibrated geophone bed load sensors in the Erlenbach and a bed load trap in the Rio Cordon. Tracer transport distances and bed load volumes exhibited approximate power law scaling with both the peak stream power and the cumulative stream energy of individual hydrologic events. Bed load volumes scaled much more steeply with peak stream power and cumulative stream energy than tracer transport distances did, and bed load volumes scaled as roughly the third power of transport distances. These observations imply that large bed load transport events become large primarily by scouring the bed deeper and wider, and only secondarily by transporting the mobilized sediment farther. Using the sediment continuity equation, we can estimate the mean effective thickness of the actively transported layer, averaged over the entire channel width and the duration of individual flow events. This active layer thickness also followed approximate power law scaling with peak stream power and cumulative stream energy and ranged up to 0.57 m in the Erlenbach, broadly consistent with independent measurements.

  19. The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model for Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Aziz, E.; James, S. C.; Arnold, B. W.; Zyvoloski, G. A.

    2006-12-01

    This presentation provides a reinterpreted conceptual model of the Yucca Mountain site-scale flow system subject to all quality assurance procedures. The results are based on a numerical model of site-scale saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain, which is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. This effort started from the ground up with a revised and updated hydrogeologic framework model, which incorporates the latest lithology data, and increased grid resolution that better resolves the hydrogeologic framework, which was updated throughout the model domain. In addition, faults are much better represented using the 250× 250- m2 spacing (compared to the previous model's 500× 500-m2 spacing). Data collected since the previous model calibration effort have been included and they comprise all Nye County water-level data through Phase IV of their Early Warning Drilling Program. Target boundary fluxes are derived from the newest (2004) Death Valley Regional Flow System model from the US Geologic Survey. A consistent weighting scheme assigns importance to each measured water-level datum and boundary flux extracted from the regional model. The numerical model is calibrated by matching these weighted water level measurements and boundary fluxes using parameter estimation techniques, along with more informal comparisons of the model to hydrologic and geochemical information. The model software (hydrologic simulation code FEHM~v2.24 and parameter estimation software PEST~v5.5) and model setup facilitates efficient calibration of multiple conceptual models. Analyses evaluate the impact of these updates and additional data on the modeled potentiometric surface and the flowpaths emanating from below the repository. After examining the heads and permeabilities obtained from the calibrated models, we present particle pathways from the proposed repository and compare them to those from the

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic generator scaling analysis for baseload commercial powerplants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swallom, D. W.; Pian, C. C. P.

    1983-08-01

    MHD generator channel scaling analyses have been performed to definitize the effect of generator size and oxygen enrichment on channel performance. These studies have shown that MHD generator channels can be designed to operate efficiently over the range of 250 to 2135 thermal megawatts. The optimum design conditions for each of the thermal inputs were established by investigating various combinations of electrical load parameters, pressure ratios, magnetic field profiles, and channel lengths. These results provide design flexibility for the baseload combined cycle MHD/steam power plant.

  1. A Mountain-Scale Thermal Hydrologic Model for Simulating FluidFlow and Heat Transfer in Unsaturated Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson,Gudmundur S.

    2005-05-25

    A multidimensional, mountain-scale, thermal-hydrologic (TH) numerical model is presented for investigating unsaturated flow behavior in response to decay heat from the radioactive waste repository in the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone (UZ), Nevada. The model, consisting of both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) representations of the UZ repository system, is based on the current repository design, drift layout, thermal loading scenario, and estimated current and future climate conditions. This mountain-scale TH model evaluates the coupled TH processes related to mountain-scale UZ flow. It also simulates the impact of radioactive waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including heat-driven processes occurring near and far away from the emplacement tunnels or drifts. The model simulations predict thermally perturbed liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature elevations, as well as the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes and drainage between drifts. These simulations provide mountain-scale thermally perturbed flow fields for assessing the repository performance under thermal loading conditions.

  2. A mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model for simulating fluid flow and heat transfer in unsaturated fractured rock.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, G S

    2006-06-30

    A multidimensional, mountain-scale, thermal-hydrologic (TH) numerical model is presented for investigating unsaturated flow behavior in response to decay heat from the proposed radioactive waste repository in the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone (UZ), The model, consisting of both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) representations of the UZ repository system, is based on the current repository design, drift layout, thermal loading scenario, and estimated current and future climate conditions. This mountain-scale TH model evaluates the coupled TH processes related to mountain-scale UZ flow. It also simulates the impact of radioactive waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including heat-driven processes occurring near and far away from the emplacement tunnels or drifts. The model simulates predict thermally perturbed liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature elevations, as well as the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes and drainage between drifts. These simulations provide insights into mountain-scale thermally perturbed flow fields under thermal loading conditions. PMID:16624442

  3. A catchment-scale model of mountain stream channel morphologies in southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Chris; Croke, Jacky; Takken, Ingrid

    2008-03-01

    The position of mountain streams high in the channel network and their proportional dominance mean that channel modifications and adjustments within these systems will have important implications for downstream processes and linkages. This study develops an analysis framework for examining the catchment-scale distribution of reach morphologies, and the relationship among reach type, catchment lithology and flow competence in southeast Australian mountain streams. The analysis framework is applied to three catchments which have contrasting proportions of the two dominant lithologies of the region, Devonian granites and Ordovician metasediments. The model successfully delineated 68% of reach types, and the resultant spatial maps allowed the effects of stream network position and catchment specific controls on channel morphology to be evaluated. Maximum lengths of the majority of reach morphology types were in second-order streams and the maximum number of morphology types (six) was present in third-order streams, with dramatic reductions in reach type variability as the network expands. The position of catchment lithology within the channel network structure was recognized as more important than the aerial extent of a particular lithology on the distribution and abundance of reach morphologies. The model provides an important tool in the management of channel networks for the protection or restoration of ecological diversity, by identifying river segments and tributaries with high morphological diversity.

  4. Disentangling event-scale hydrologic flow partitioning in mountains of the Korean Peninsula under extreme precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, Christopher L.

    2016-07-01

    Mountainous headwaters include a variety of spatial landscape units; however, the flow contribution from different hydrologic components is complex and often unclear. In addition to complex landscape controls, temporal meteorological drivers play an important role in the distribution between surface runoff and subsurface storage changes. This spatiotemporal variability in partitioning can influence catchment-wide flow accumulation and nutrient and sediment loading. We use a multi-year, multi-method analysis of stable isotopes, geochemical indicators, and discharge distributed throughout the Haean catchment in South Korea to identify temporal variability in hydrologic flow partitioning from surface runoff, springs, shallow interflow, and groundwater under monsoonal conditions. By combining a weighted, multi-method discharge approach, high frequency, synoptic, catchment-wide isotopic and geochemical sampling, and baseflow analysis, we characterize watershed-scale spatiotemporal hydrologic flow partitioning. Meteorological drivers are spatially variable throughout the catchment and temporally between individual events. Baseflow contributions in the high elevation, forested areas are up to 50%, while the majority of the catchment is approximately 20%. Our study builds on previously reported seasonality of isotopic signatures by quantifying trends in distributed event-based partitioning of isotopic tracers. We demonstrate that high frequency flow partitioning can accurately be determined in mountainous topography with high precipitation and that there is a need for multiple method characterizations. Our results further show the benefit of spatially distributed synoptic sampling for process understanding of hydrologic partitioning throughout the watersheds.

  5. Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final report, August 1, 1978-February 28, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Marlin, J.M.; Cunniff, R.; McDevitt, P.; Nowotny, K.; O'Dea, P.

    1981-01-01

    The work accomplished from August 1978 to February 1980 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program are described. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams and special analyses in support of several federal agencies.

  6. Effect of small-scale fractures on flow and transport processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Liu, H.H.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2002-12-05

    Although many conceptual models for fracture-matrix interaction have been evaluated for Yucca Mountain site-characterization studies, the most widely used model is currently based on the dual-permeability concept. It was chosen for use in site-characterization partially because it has proved to be capable of matching many types of field observed data. Another consideration is that net infiltration rates at the site are estimated to be very low (on the order of millimeters/year), or close to saturated matrix hydraulic conductivity. Recent field studies and tests, in particular, fracture mapping data, collected along the walls of the underground tunnels reveal that there exists a significantly large variety in fracture sizes from centimeters to tens of meters. There is a considerable amount of small-scale fractures that have not been considered in the previous modeling studies. Although the majority of these small fractures may not contribute much to global flow and transport through the fracture-matrix system, they may provide large amounts of storage pore space and allow for additional connection areas for well-connected, large-scale fractures and surrounding matrix blocks, which ultimately affect fracture-matrix interactions. However, the currently used dual-permeability model is unable to include the potentially important effect of small fractures. To overcome the limitations of the dual-permeability approach, we have developed a triple-continuum conceptual model to investigate the impact of small-scale fractures on flow and transport processes in fractured rocks. This new conceptual model subdivides fractures into two types: large-scale and small-scale. Large-scale fractures are those responsible for global connections; small-scale fractures are those that provide large-fracture storage space and enhance the local connections to the matrix system without contributing to global flow or transport. Because the triple-continuum model is composed of the rock matrix

  7. Regional Operations Research Program for Commercialization of Geothermal Energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final Technical Report, January 1980--March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The scope of work is as described in New Mexico State University Proposal 80-20-207. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  8. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF ENGINEERED BARIER SYSTEMS FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    S.W. Webb; J.T. George; R.E. Finley

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes two quarter-scale experiments (1.4 m diameter) and associated numerical analyses on granular backfill engineered barrier systems in support of the Yucca Mountain Project for the potential repository. The two configurations include a sloped capillary barrier and a plain backfill. The tests involve application of dyed water as a constant line infiltration source along the top of the test set-up, monitoring water movement through the test, and measuring water exiting the experiments. A complete water balance estimate is made for each test, and observed water movement is compared with (1) detailed numerical analyses conducted using the TOUGH2 code for unsaturated flow in porous media and (2) posttest observations. The results of the testing and analyses show that for the injection rates and configuration applied, the capillary barrier design diverts a significant amount of all injected water and the TOUGH2 pretest predictions show qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data.

  9. Subrepository scale hydrothermal analysis in support of total system performance assessment at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, S.

    1994-12-31

    A coupled thermo-hydrologic model is developed to investigate the impact of emplacing high-level nuclear wastes on heat and fluid flow at the subrepository scale, and to develop abstracted results for input to the current total system performance assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain. Numerical computations are carried out in 2-D axisymmetric geometry, using a range of thermal loads, to generate spatial/temporal evolutions in temperature and saturation fields within individual emplacement panels. These results are analyzed to understand the general nature of liquid movement in the repository due to waste heat, and also to define various temperature dependent mechanistic and phenomenological coefficients for predicting waste package and geosphere performance.

  10. Scales of colluvial sediment transfer and coupling in formerly glaciated mountain drainage basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brardinoni, F.; Hassan, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    We examine basin-wide colluvial sediment dynamics through the compilation of a 70-year landslide inventory in mountain environments of coastal British Columbia. In particular, we document the colluvial sediment cascade by characterizing the dominant sediment sources, and by identifying preferential sites of colluvial delivery and storage across landscape scales. Results reveal that open-slope landslides evacuating material to ephemeral or permanent streams and fluvial terraces are the preferential source-to-sink pathways. This pattern suggests high instability of the headmost channel network and its ongoing re-organization after generalized sediment recharge occurred during the last glacial maximum. In the study period, the colluvial sediment budget calculated across geomorphic process domains indicates net volume loss on planar slopes and source colluvial channels, whereas unchannelled valleys, sink colluvial channels and fluvially-dominated channels have been aggrading. In this context, we propose a novel approach to represent colluvial sediment yield as a function of drainage area. This scaling relation appears to be controlled by the spatial organization of geomorphic process domains, as imposed by the morphometry of the glacial palimpsest. It follows that colluvial yield is highest in unchannelled topography, decreases at the scale of channel initiation, and remains constant for drainage areas where source colluvial and hanging fluvial domains overlap. Colluvial sediment injections start declining consistently beyond areas larger than 0.6 km2, where fluvial environments are still partially coupled. Evaluation of the colluvial scaling trend in conjunction with British Columbia fluvial sediment yield, allows us to identify landscape scales of sediment aggradation and degradation, hence to infer preferential scales of contemporary sediment storage.

  11. Operational experience of a commercial scale plant of electron beam purification of flue gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Konno, Yoshihide

    2000-03-01

    A commercial scale plant using electron beam irradiation was constructed to clean the flue gas from a coal fired thermal power plant at Chengdu in China. Operations began in September 1997 and the plant achieved its design performance with the satisfactory recovery of by-product fertilizer for agricultural use. Another commercial plant is now under construction at Nagoya, Japan and the operation will be started in November, 1999.

  12. Forest Ecosystem Processes at the Watershed Scale: Ecosystem services, feedback and evolution in developing mountainous catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, Larry

    2010-05-01

    Mountain watersheds provide significant ecosystem services both locally and for surrounding regions, including the provision of freshwater, hydropower, carbon sequestration, habitat, forest products and recreational/aesthetic opportunities. The hydrologic connectivity along hillslopes in sloping terrain provides an upslope subsidy of water and nutrients to downslope ecosystem patches, producing characteristic ecosystem patterns of vegetation density and type, and soil biogeochemical cycling. Recent work suggests that optimal patterns of forest cover evolve along these flowpaths which maximize net primary productivity and carbon sequestration at the hillslope to catchment scale. These watersheds are under significant pressure from potential climate change, changes in forest management, increasing population and development, and increasing demand for water export. As water balance and flowpaths are altered by shifting weather patterns and new development, the spatial distribution and coupling of water, carbon and nutrient cycling will spur the evolution of different ecosystem patterns. These issues have both theoretical and practical implications for the coupling of water, carbon and nutrient cycling at the landscape level, and the potential to manage watersheds for bundled ecosystem services. If the spatial structure of the ecosystem spontaneously adjusts to maximize landscape level use of limiting resources, there may be trade-offs in the level of services provided. The well known carbon-for-water tradeoff reflects the growth of forests to maximize carbon uptake, but also transpiration which limits freshwater availability in many biomes. We provide examples of the response of bundled ecosystem services to climate and land use change in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of the United States. These mountains have very high net primary productivity, biodiversity and water yields, and provide significant freshwater resources to surrounding regions. There has been a

  13. Carbon Dioxide and CO2 Isotopes at Three Spatial Scales Over the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, D. R.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Miller, J. B.; Stephens, B. B.

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies highlight the importance of western mountain regions to the North American carbon sink, suggesting 25 to 50 percent of the U.S. sink can be attributed to montane ecosystems. Isotopes of CO2 provide insight into ecosystem carbon cycling, plant physiological processes, and atmospheric boundary-layer dynamics, and are useful in integration of processes over multiple scales. CO2 isotopes have played a central role in our understanding of the magnitude and inter-annual dynamics of the terrestrial carbon sink at a variety of spatial and temporal scales, and will be crucial to understanding the carbon balance and carbon accounting of the North American continent. In 2005, we began a long-term study examining biosphere- atmosphere exchange of CO2 and its stable isotopes over the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. Measurements are made at 3 sites representing 3 different spatial scales. These include a subalpine forest site (3050 m elevation, the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site), a tundra site 3 km away (3520 m, representing the overlying forest air), and an aircraft site 125 km to the northeast over the plains (vertical profiles from ground level at 1740 m to 8000 m, representing the regional convective boundary layer and the free troposphere). The tundra (NWR) and aircraft (CAR) sites have been part of NOAA/CCGG Cooperative Air Sampling Network for many years. Observed CO2 and δ13C showed seasonal variation (> 10 ppm and >0.5 permil) and strong local variation at all sites (>100 ppm and >5 permil at the forest site). The forest exerted a strong respiratory influence on the overlying air during the fall and winter. Measurements 10m above the top of the forest canopy in winter were always higher in CO2 (~ 3 ppm) and more negative in δ13C of CO2 ~ 0.3 permil) than those at the tundra site. Summer data are still being analyzed, but we expect this to shift in the other direction during the growing season. Substantial synoptic variation in CO2 and δ13C was observed at

  14. Thermohydrologic Modeling of the Drift Scale Test in Partially Saturated Fractured Tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. H.; Buscheck, T. A.; Sun, Y.; Glascoe, L. G.; Gansemer, J.

    2003-12-01

    Results of thermohydrologic modeling of the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain show good agreement with field temperatures and liquid phase saturation during the heating as well as the cooling phases of the test. The DST is an ongoing large-scale thermal field test conducted by the US Department of Energy as part of the characterization of Yucca Mountain as a potential site of a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. The test location is 250 m below the ground surface, in fractured nonlithophysal Topopah Spring tuff, which is one of the host-rock units for the potential repository. The DST is one of a series of field-scale thermohydrologic tests designed to help investigators better understand the coupled thermohydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes that would occur in the host rock in response to the radioactive heat of decay from emplaced waste packages. The tests also provide data for the calibration and validation of numerical models used to analyze the thermohydrologic response of the near-field host rock and Engineered Barrier System (EBS). The rock was heated by nine floor heaters, placed along a 47.5-meter long heated drift, and arrays of wing heaters installed in horizontal boreholes on either side of the drift. A bulkhead separates the HD from the unheated section of the drift. Peak heater power during the heating phase was about 52 kW for the floor heaters and 135 kW for the wing heaters. The rock was heated for 4.1 years before all heaters were turned off on January 14, 2002. Monitoring of the cool-down phase is expected to last for at least four years. Using the NUFT code and the dual-permeability approach to representing fracture-matrix interaction, we utilize a half-symmetry model to simulate the thermohydrologic response of the rock to a heating and cooling cycle. The primary goals of the analysis were to study the heat-flow mechanisms and water redistribution patterns in the boiling and sub-boiling zones, and to compare model

  15. 75 FR 32171 - American Electric Power Service Corporation's Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... Floodplain and Wetlands Involvement AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Intent and Notice of Potential Floodplain and Wetlands Involvement. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department... project may involve potential impacts to floodplains and wetlands. DOE does not have...

  16. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, B. C.; Hicke, J. A.; Hudak, A. T.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40-50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75-89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3-6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale.

  17. Large-scale climatic patterns and area affected by mountain pine beetle in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias Fauria, Marc; Johnson, E. A.

    2009-03-01

    We present evidence of high spatial synchrony in an area affected by mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) across large distances in British Columbia, Canada, in a study of a spatially explicit database of an area affected by MPB-caused tree mortality for the period 1959-2002. We further show that large-scale climatic patterns (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and, to a lesser degree, Arctic Oscillation (AO)) are strongly related to the observed MPB synchrony, and that they probably operate through controlling the frequency of extreme cold winter temperatures that affect MPB larvae survival. A smaller portion of the data's variability is linked to the onset of the two largest outbreaks in the studied period and might be attributed to dispersal from outbreak-prone areas or else to differences in microhabitat (e.g., host availability) in these regions. The onset of a warm PDO phase in 1976 favored MPB outbreaks by reducing the occurrence of extremely low winter temperatures province-wide. Likewise, the exceptionally high and persistent AO values of the late 1980s and 1990s enhanced MPB activity in the southern and northern parts of the region. Summer warmth cannot be discarded as an important agent at smaller scales.

  18. Commercial-scale in-pond raceway system piques catfish farmers interest in west Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Construction of a commercial-scale fixed floor In-pond Raceway System (IPRS) began in December 2006 on a 430-water acre farm in Dallas County, AL. The initial IPRS was installed in a traditional 6-acre earthen pond (since the construction of this initial unit, several other farmers have built simila...

  19. The use of TOUGH2 for the LBL/USGS 3-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.; Chen, G.; Haukwa, C.; Kwicklis, E.

    1995-12-31

    The three-dimensional site-scale numerical model o the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is under continuous development and calibration through a collaborative effort between Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major fault zones to the west (Solitario Canyon Fault), east (Bow Ridge Fault) and perhaps to the north by an unconfirmed fault (Yucca Wash Fault). The model consists of about 5,000 grid blocks (elements) with nearly 20,000 connections between them; the grid was designed to represent the most prevalent geological and hydro-geological features of the site including major faults, and layering and bedding of the hydro-geological units. Submodels are used to investigate specific hypotheses and their importance before incorporation into the three-dimensional site-scale model. The primary objectives of the three-dimensional site-scale model are to: (1) quantify moisture, gas and heat flows in the ambient conditions at Yucca Mountain, (2) help in guiding the site-characterization effort (primarily by USGS) in terms of additional data needs and to identify regions of the mountain where sufficient data have been collected, and (3) provide a reliable model of Yucca Mountain that is validated by repeated predictions of conditions in new boreboles and the ESF and has therefore the confidence of the public and scientific community. The computer code TOUGH2 developed by K. Pruess at LBL was used along with the three-dimensional site-scale model to generate these results. In this paper, we also describe the three-dimensional site-scale model emphasizing the numerical grid development, and then show some results in terms of moisture, gas and heat flow.

  20. Implication of mountain shading and topographic scaling on energy for snowmelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, C.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Spiteri, R.

    2011-12-01

    In many parts of the world, snowmelt energetics are dominated by incoming solar radiation. This is the case in the Canadian Rockies, where sunny winters result in high insolation. Solar irradiance on the snow surface is affected by the atmosphere, the slope and aspect of the immediate topography, and shading from surrounding terrain. Errors in estimating solar irradiation are cumulative over a season and can lead to large errors in snowmelt predictions. Adaptive triangular meshes, a type of unstructured triangular mesh that can adapt to fine-scale processes during model runtime, are more efficient in their use of DEM data than fixed grids when producing solar irradiance maps. An experimental design to calculate the effect of changes in DEM resolution on adaptive mesh irradiation calculations and implication for snowmelt is presented. As part of this experiment, the accuracy of these techniques is compared to measurements of mountain shadows and solar irradiance collected in Marmot Creek Research Basin, Alberta. Time-lapse digital cameras and networks of radiometers provide datasets for diagnosis of model accuracy. Further improvements in computational efficiency are achieved by taking advantage of parallel processing using graphical processing units (GPUs) is also discussed.

  1. Large-Scale Effects of Timber Harvesting on Stream Systems in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Lance R.; Taylor, Christopher M.; Warren, Melvin L., Jr.; Clingenpeel, J. Alan

    2002-01-01

    Using Basin Area Stream Survey (BASS) data from the United States Forest Service, we evaluated how timber harvesting influenced patterns of variation in physical stream features and regional fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages. Data were collected for three years (1990-1992) from six hydrologically variable streams in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA that were paired by management regime within three drainage basins. Specifically, we used multivariate techniques to partition variability in assemblage structure (taxonomic and trophic) that could be explained by timber harvesting, drainage basin differences, year-to-year variability, and their shared variance components. Most of the variation in fish assemblages was explained by drainage basin differences, and both basin and year-of-sampling influenced macroinvertebrate assemblages. All three factors modeled, including interactions between drainage basins and timber harvesting, influenced variability in physical stream features. Interactions between timber harvesting and drainage basins indicated that differences in physical stream features were important in determining the effects of logging within a basin. The lack of a logging effect on the biota contradicts predictions for these small, hydrologically variable streams. We believe this pattern is related to the large scale of this study and the high levels of natural variability in the streams. Alternatively, there may be time-specific effects we were unable to detect with our sampling design and analyses.

  2. Coupled THM Simulations of the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, S C; Carlson, S R; Lee, K; Wagoner, J L

    2002-03-08

    This paper presents a coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) analysis of the Drift Scale Test (DST) conducted at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The DST is a large-scale, long-term thermal test designed to investigate coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical behavior in a fractured, welded tuff rock mass in support of nuclear waste isolation efforts. The model used for this analysis utilizes temperature distributions predicted by a thermal-hydrological code as input to a distinct element thermal mechanical code. This paper presents a brief discussion of the test and the coupled model, followed by comparison of predicted and measured displacements. Results show that the model predicts the trend and magnitude of the displacements observed in a cross section monitored in the test through four years of heating. Maximum principal stress levels of 60 MPa are predicted in the crown and floor of the heated drift (HD) after 4 years of heating. Comparison of predicted and observed displacements shows that the model closely predicts vertical displacement above the HD and provides a good estimate of horizontal displacement perpendicular to the HD. These results indicate that a thermal expansion coefficient of 9e-6/{Lambda}C is generally appropriate for the rockmass forming this test. Normal displacements on joints in the cross section examined here show opening of up to 2mm on subvertical fractures in regions above and below the HD after 4 years of heating. These fractures do not close upon cooldown, indicating that some permanent enhancement of vertical fracture permeability may occur.

  3. Quantifying catchment scale soil variability in Marshall Gulch, Santa Catalina Mountains Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holleran, M.; Rasmussen, C.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying regolith variation, both chemical and physical yields insights to the evolution of the subsurface. In this study we aim to quantify soil variability within a forested catchment, Marshall Gulch, AZ. Marshall Gulch (MG) lies within the Coronado National Forest, part of the Jemez River Basin-Santa Catalina Mountains Critical Zone Observatory (CZO). MG is 5-hectare, mixed-conifer forested catchment situated on granitic parent material, with a mean elevation of 2400m, mean annual temperature of 8°C and mean annual precipitation of 75 cm. To ensure samples sites capture landscape variability, principal component analysis (PCA) were run on NAIP imagery and additional ancillary data from the study area. The PCA determined input layers of soil depth, slope, soil wetness index, NDVI and NAIP bands 3/2 as the variables needed to capture the landscape variability of MG. A conditioned Latin Hyper Cube (cLHC) model was then utilized to randomly determine 20 sample locations within the catchment to equally represent the six input layers, as determined from the PCA. Regolith profiles were described and sampled at all 20 locations. At each sample site a soil pit was dug to refusal (paralithic contact) and sampled according to genetic horizon. Each sample was then analyzed using methods of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), particle size, color, pH, EC, C/N isotopes, and loss on ignition (LOI) to characterize chemical and physical soil properties. By quantifying chemical denudation and mineralogical variability of the collected soils, we establish a proxy for regolith weathering both on the profile scale (1m2) as well as the catchment scale (50k m2). GIS spatial techniques enable us to produce maps depicting the variability of soil properties. We confidently extrapolate our findings (pH, depth to paralithic contact, color, mineralogy etc.) throughout the entirety of the MG field site, generating a high-resolution understanding of the processes shaping

  4. Sediment fining processes in a mountain stream at multiple time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bouteiller, Caroline; Mathys, Nicolle; Klotz, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    Downstream fining of sediment is observed in most gravel bed rivers, and is attributed to two mechanisms. The first one is an apparent fining that results from a collective effect called selective sorting: smaller grains travel further downstream while larger grains deposit preferentially upstream. The second one is generally referred to as abrasion and encompasses all the fining processes that affect each grain during its travel along the stream. The latter type of processes is dominant in the mountainous streams of the Draix observatory and is the focus of this study. Draix catchments are characterized by hard climatic conditions with winter frost and storm-induced floods, and a very erodible lithology (marl). During the floods, at the time scale of a few minutes, sediment size is reduced by surface abrasion and fragmentation due to the collisions between grains. In between the floods, at the time scale of a few weeks to months, sediments that remain exposed on bars at low flow are affected by weathering due to frost/thaw and wetting/drying alternations, which also reduces their size. Using field measurements, we measured the global sediment fining rate that results from both short-term (flood) and long-term (low flow) processes. The very high value obtained (51%/km) reflects the combination of the soft lithology with hard climatic conditions. We then combined various field and laboratory experiments to quantify the efficiency of each fining process (surface abrasion and fragmentation during a flood, frost/thaw weathering and wetting/drying weathering). Results indicate that short-term and long-term processes are equally efficient and that both are needed to explain the in-situ global fining rates. We finally propose a simplified model to describe the observed fining patterns, which we use to predict the system response to changes in the hydrological or climatic regime.

  5. An experimental study of potential residential and commercial applications of small-scale hybrid power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Michael Anthony

    The research presented in this thesis provides an understanding of small-scale hybrid power systems. Experiments were conducted to identify potential applications of renewable energy in residential and commercial applications in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Solar and wind energy converted into electric energy was stored in batteries and inverted to power common household and commercial appliances. Several small to medium size hybrid power systems were setup and utilized to conduct numerous tests to study renewable energy prospects and feasibility for various applications. The experimental results obtained indicate that carefully constructed solar power systems can provide people living in isolated communities with sufficient energy to consistently meet their basic power needs.

  6. Time-scale dependent sediment flux in the Tajik Pamir Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Eric; Gloaguen, Richard; Andermann, Christoff; Fuchs, Margret C.

    2014-05-01

    The Pamir Mountains (Pamirs) offer the unique possibility to observe landscape shaping processes in a complex climatic environment. While the Westerlies provide most of the moisture as snow in winter, the Indian summer monsoon can also contribute quite significantly to the water budget in summer. Water from snow and ice melt induced by temperature and rainfall mobilizes sediments from hillslopes, debris fans, and moraine remnants. These sediments are transported, re-deposited, and eventually carried out of the orogene. Different approaches are available to assess and quantify the erosion processes at different time-scales. Recent studies applying cosmogenic nuclide (CN) dating suggest erosion rates of approximately 0.65mm/yr for the last 1000 years. In this contribution we want to present modern erosion rates derived from historical archive suspended sediment yield (SSY) data and very recent in situ sampling data, including high-resolution turbidimeter measurements. 10-day averaged SSY data recorded in the past show less erosion by a factor of 2 to 10 compared to CN-derived erosion rates for different catchments. The 10-day SSY data are based on measurements that have been conducted in the morning and evening, thus not accounting for the entire diurnal variation. We installed a turbidimeter with a measuring interval of 10 minutes to better resolve these diurnal variations. We calibrate turbidity with in situ measurements carried out on a daily basis for 9 months to see whether the differences between CN and SSY measurements are really owed to diurnal variations or if rare high magnitude events. e.g. mudflows, landslides, or avalanches disclose this discrepancy. We present single high magnitude SSY events, uncover periodic diurnal sediment variations that systematically lag diurnal temperature variations and relate the sediment amount of such high magnitude events to the smoothed annual cycle. We use the obtained results to discuss whether past changes in climate

  7. Reach-Scale Channel Adjustments to Channel Network Geometry in Mountain Bedrock Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plitzuweit, S. J.; Springer, G. S.

    2008-12-01

    surveys in order to analyze whether stream power and shear stress are adjusted to reflect CNG at the reach- scale. These models are compared to those with discharges calculated using drainage area and precipitation totals alone. We conclude that gradients in bedrock mountain streams may reflect basin-scale hydrology (CNG) and not simply local geological or geomorphic factors. This challenges the conclusions of others who ascribe local channel adjustments to: i) lithology and structure alone, or ii) local colluvium grain sizes.

  8. Validation of a German version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS28) and motivation analysis in competitive mountain runners.

    PubMed

    Burtscher, Johannes; Furtner, Marco; Sachse, Pierre; Burtscher, Martin

    2011-06-01

    This study validated a German version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS28) and investigated the sex-specific and age-related differences in motivation of competitive mountain runners. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the SMS28 was based on translation and back-translation methodology. Acceptable validity of the German version of the SMS28 was indicated by the high correlations (.81 to .98) of scores on the seven subscales for the English and German versions completed by 15 subjects. Motivation analysis was performed with 127 competitive male and female mountain runners. The seven subscales of the German version showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient alphas .70 to .85). Findings on motivation of competitive mountain runners were a decline across age groups of Intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment for both sexes and an age-related decline of External regulation only for females. These motivational changes might well be associated with the observed diminishing numbers of older participants in mountain running competitions. PMID:21853770

  9. Commercial-scale process design for thin-film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, T. W. F.; Baron, B. N.; Rocheleau, R. E.

    Process and manufacturing costs for commercial-scale production of thin-film solar cells are examined from the viewpoint of the chemical process industry, with emphasis on CdS/Cu2S cells. The cells comprise opaque contact, collector/converter, absorber/generator, transparent contact, and encapsulation/antireflective coating layers. Each layer is deposited as a separate unit operation, through either continuous or batch processing methods. The scale-up of laboratory-verified cell manufacturing steps to commercial processing is detailed from the choice of a Zn-plated copper foil substrate to the bonding of a 1/16 in. tempered glass protective layer with polyvinyl butyral. The total product cost is calculated as a sum of raw materials, utilities, labor, and capital investment costs, using a cost/W for a 1 GW plant. Continuous processing results in a $0.50/W cell with raw materials accounting for 38% of the total product cost.

  10. Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers.

    PubMed

    Egholm, David L; Knudsen, Mads F; Sandiford, Mike

    2013-06-27

    An important challenge in geomorphology is the reconciliation of the high fluvial incision rates observed in tectonically active mountain ranges with the long-term preservation of significant mountain-range relief in ancient, tectonically inactive orogenic belts. River bedrock erosion and sediment transport are widely recognized to be the principal controls on the lifespan of mountain ranges. But the factors controlling the rate of erosion and the reasons why they seem to vary significantly as a function of tectonic activity remain controversial. Here we use computational simulations to show that the key to understanding variations in the rate of erosion between tectonically active and inactive mountain ranges may relate to a bidirectional coupling between bedrock river incision and landslides. Whereas fluvial incision steepens surrounding hillslopes and increases landslide frequency, landsliding affects fluvial erosion rates in two fundamentally distinct ways. On the one hand, large landslides overwhelm the river transport capacity and cause upstream build up of sediment that protects the river bed from further erosion. On the other hand, in delivering abrasive agents to the streams, landslides help accelerate fluvial erosion. Our models illustrate how this coupling has fundamentally different implications for rates of fluvial incision in active and inactive mountain ranges. The coupling therefore provides a plausible physical explanation for the preservation of significant mountain-range relief in old orogenic belts, up to several hundred million years after tectonic activity has effectively ceased. PMID:23803847

  11. Large-scale road detection in forested mountainous areas using airborne topographic lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz, António; Mallet, Clément; Chehata, Nesrine

    2016-02-01

    In forested mountainous areas, the road location and characterization are invaluable inputs for various purposes such as forest management, wood harvesting industry, wildfire protection and fighting. Airborne topographic lidar has become an established technique to characterize the Earth surface. Lidar provides 3D point clouds allowing for fine reconstruction of ground topography while preserving high frequencies of the relief: fine Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) is the key product. This paper addresses the problem of road detection and characterization in forested environments over large scales (>1000 km2). For that purpose, an efficient pipeline is proposed, which assumes that main forest roads can be modeled as planar elongated features in the road direction with relief variation in orthogonal direction. DTMs are the only input and no complex 3D point cloud processing methods are involved. First, a restricted but carefully designed set of morphological features is defined as input for a supervised Random Forest classification of potential road patches. Then, a graph is built over these candidate regions: vertices are selected using stochastic geometry tools and edges are created in order to fill gaps in the DTM created by vegetation occlusion. The graph is pruned using morphological criteria derived from the input road model. Finally, once the road is located in 2D, its width and slope are retrieved using an object-based image analysis. We demonstrate that our road model is valid for most forest roads and that roads are correctly retrieved (>80%) with few erroneously detected pathways (10-15%) using fully automatic methods. The full pipeline takes less than 2 min per km2 and higher planimetric accuracy than 2D existing topographic databases are achieved. Compared to these databases, additional roads can be detected with the ability of lidar sensors to penetrate the understory. In case of very dense vegetation and insufficient relief in the DTM, gaps may exist in

  12. Investigating decadal-scale geomorphic dynamics in an alpine mountain setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletti, Natan; Lambiel, Christophe; Lane, Stuart N.

    2015-10-01

    We know little about the effect of recent climate variability upon landscapes at the timescale of decades because of (1) the complex, nonlinear, and path-dependent nature of the response of a landscape to climate forcing and (2) the difficulty of quantifying spatially distributed impacts at the timescale of decades to centuries, despite this being the timescale over which significant hypotheses have been raised over human impacts upon climate change and hence geomorphic systems. A unique resource to investigate the linkages between climatic variability and geomorphic response is provided by the extensive coverage of aerial imagery commonly available since the 1950s. Here we use archival digital photogrammetry to produce high-precision digital elevation models over large spatial scales, and so to reconstruct the quantitative history of surface downwasting and sediment flux in a high mountain alpine system, over the timescales of decades. Propagation of error methods is used to identify locations of significant landscape response and to compute volumes of significant surface change. Orthorectified aerial images are used in an image correlation framework to detect horizontal and vertical displacements of components of the landscape. Results are coupled to extant climate data and modeled snow cover to show how the landscape responds to climate forcing and to geomorphological maps to understand how this response varies between landscape elements. The results show distinct landscape response to both warming and cooling periods and a tendency for the acceleration of surface displacement under warming conditions. Precipitation and snow cover are critical in controlling glacier dynamics and rock glacier displacement velocities. However, while some landforms might lead to locally high sediment flux, landscape heritage can disconnect zones of high change rates from the valley bottom. Hence, the landscape response to climate forcing is not necessarily reflected in valley

  13. Scaling Issues and Spatio-Temporal Variability in Ecohydrological Modeling on Mountain Topography: Methods and Future of the VELMA Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, K.; Bond, B. J.; McKane, R.; Abdelnour, A. G.; Stieglitz, M.

    2010-12-01

    The interactions between vegetation and hydrology in mountainous terrain are difficult to represent in mathematical models. There are at least three primary reasons for this difficulty. First, expanding plot-scale measurements to the watershed scale requires finding the balance between computational intensity and physical significance. Second, parameters that affect soil, plant and hydrologic processes are distributed heterogeneously across mountain landscapes, and these patterns and processes may be spatially connected. Third, temporal variation in water availability (particularly in seasonal rainfall climates) may involve a “topographical memory” that may be expressed as “lags” between biological and hydrological processes. A unique opportunity for examining the implications of scaling and spatio-temporal variability on ecohydrological models exists at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA) in Blue River, Oregon. HJA is a National Science Foundation Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site, and has been monitoring climate, stream, and vegetation characteristics of small watersheds for more than 50 years. A recent LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) reconnaissance has produced watershed scale estimations of vegetation and soil surface parameters at a very high spatial resolution, allowing spatially-explicit expansion of long-term data. An ecohydrological model, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessments (VELMA) developed by the Stieglitz lab at Georgia Tech in collaboration with EPA has also been calibrated specifically for watershed topographies in HJA. VELMA is a coupled ecohydrological model that simulates the cycling and transport of water and nutrients in three dimensions by specific parameterization of hydrological and biogeochemical functions. It contains submodels for plant, soil, and water processes including surface and sub-surface flow on a daily time step. We are using the VELMA model to explore three sequential and fundamental

  14. Decadal scale climate forcing of mass movement and sediment flux in Alpine mountain setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletti, Natan; Lane, Stuart; Lambiel, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Whilst the inevitability of future climate warming is now recognized, and we also know much more about the nature of climatic variability and its causes, our understanding of the effects of such variability upon landscapes at the time scale of decades is much less well known. This is for two reasons: (1) the complex, non-linear and path-dependent nature of the response of a landscape to climate forcing, and (2) the difficulty of investigating this forcing at the timescale of decades to centuries, despite this being the timescale over which significant hypotheses are raised over human impacts upon climate change and hence geomorphic systems. A unique resource to investigate the linkages between climatic variability and geomorphic response is provided by the extensive coverage of aerial imagery commonly available since the 1940s. The information contained in such imagery can be employed to produce high precision digital elevation models (DEMs) over large spatial scales using archival digital photogrammetry. Here, we reconstruct the quantitative history of mass movement and sediment flux in a high mountain Alpine system, over the timescales of decades, through the quantitative comparison of successive DEMs. Propagation of error methods are used to identify locations of significant geomorphic response and to compute volumes of significant erosion and deposition. These are coupled to extant climate data to show how the landscape responds to climate forcing and to geomorphological maps to understand how this response varies between both landscape elements and their spatial organization. The results show distinct landscape response to both warming and cooling periods but these are found to be asymmetrical because the speed of landscape response to warming is greater than the speed of response to cooling. There is a strong variability between landscape elements in their sensitivity. Whilst some elements of the system are exceptionally sensitive to warming and lead to

  15. Scale-up studies on high shear wet granulation process from mini-scale to commercial scale.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Shouhei; Fujita, Naomi; Myojo, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Takashi; Tanino, Tadatsugu

    2008-10-01

    A newly developed mini-scale high shear granulator was used for scale-up study of wet granulation process from 0.2 to 200 L scales. Under various operation conditions and granulation bowl sizes, powder mixture composed of anhydrous caffeine, D-mannitol, dibasic calcium phosphate, pregelatinized starch and corn starch was granulated by adding water. The granules were tabletted, and disintegration time and hardness of the tablets were evaluated to seek correlations of granulation conditions and tablet properties. As the granulation proceeded, disintegration time was prolonged and hardness decreased. When granulation processes were operated under the condition that agitator tip speed was the same, similar relationship between granulation time and tablet properties, such as disintegration time and hardness, between 0.2 L and 11 L scales were observed. Likewise, between 11 L and 200 L scales similar relationship was observed when operated under the condition that the force to the granulation mass was the same. From the above results, the mini-scale high shear granulator should be useful tool to predict operation conditions of large-scale granulation from its mini-scale operation conditions, where similar tablet properties should be obtained. PMID:18827384

  16. Scaling considerations for a multi-megawatt class supercritical CO2 brayton cycle and commercialization.

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Conboy, Thomas M.; Pasch, James Jay; Wright, Steven Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Fuller, Robert Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Small-scale supercritical CO2 demonstration loops are successful at identifying the important technical issues that one must face in order to scale up to larger power levels. The Sandia National Laboratories supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle test loops are identifying technical needs to scale the technology to commercial power levels such as 10 MWe. The small size of the Sandia 1 MWth loop has demonstration of the split flow loop efficiency and effectiveness of the Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHXs) leading to the design of a fully recuperated, split flow, supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle demonstration system. However, there were many problems that were encountered, such as high rotational speeds in the units. Additionally, the turbomachinery in the test loops need to identify issues concerning the bearings, seals, thermal boundaries, and motor controller problems in order to be proved a reliable power source in the 300 kWe range. Although these issues were anticipated in smaller demonstration units, commercially scaled hardware would eliminate these problems caused by high rotational speeds at small scale. The economic viability and development of the future scalable 10 MWe solely depends on the interest of DOE and private industry. The Intellectual Property collected by Sandia proves that the ~10 MWe supercritical CO2 power conversion loop to be very beneficial when coupled to a 20 MWth heat source (either solar, geothermal, fossil, or nuclear). This paper will identify a commercialization plan, as well as, a roadmap from the simple 1 MWth supercritical CO2 development loop to a power producing 10 MWe supercritical CO2 Brayton loop.

  17. State Enabling Legislation for Commercial-Scale Wind Power Siting and the Local Government Role

    SciTech Connect

    McElfish, J.M.; Gersen, S.

    2011-05-31

    Siting of commercial-scale wind facilities (>5MW) is determined primarily by state laws. State laws either leave siting regulation to local governments, prescribe and constrain the role for local governments, establish state standards, or preempt local governance by having state institutions govern siting. Siting regulation is extremely important to the advancement of wind generation in the United States. Major siting decisions lie ahead for state and local governments as the nation diversifies its energy portfolio. An increase in the number of new wind facilities, siting in more locations and in more heavily populated areas, will require attention to the laws and regulations that govern siting. Local governments exercise some authority over commercial-scale wind facility siting in 48 of the 50 states. In 34 states, local governments have substantial autonomy to regulate the siting of most or all commercial-scale wind facilities. A few states authorize local governments to regulate wind facility siting, but make the scope of local regulation subject to limitations defined by state law. Eleven states set size thresholds for state regulatory involvement with local governments in these states regulating smaller facilities and state boards regulating larger ones (either exclusively or concurrently with local governments). In just under a third of the states, siting of most or all commercial-scale wind facilities requires approval by both state and local government bodies. Only a few states reserve the regulation of siting of all or virtually all commercial-scale wind facilities to state boards and commissions. The content of the applicable regulations is more important, in general, than the level of government responsible for the decision. Several states that assign siting responsibilities to local governments have specified some of the content and the limits of local regulation. About 1/5 of the states have directed boards and commissions to develop statewide

  18. Scaling Retro-Commissioning to Small Commercial Buildings: A Turnkey Automated Hardware-Software Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Guanjing; Granderson, J.; Brambley, Michael R.

    2015-07-01

    In the United States, small commercial buildings represent 51% of total floor space of all commercial buildings and consume nearly 3 quadrillion Btu (3.2 quintillion joule) of site energy annually, presenting an enormous opportunity for energy savings. Retro-commissioning (RCx), the process through which professional energy service providers identify and correct operational problems, has proven to be a cost-effective means to achieve median energy savings of 16%. However, retro-commissioning is not typically conducted at scale throughout the commercial stock. Very few small commercial buildings are retro-commissioned because utility expenses are relatively modest, margins are tighter, and capital for improvements is limited. In addition, small buildings do not have in-house staff with the expertise to identify improvement opportunities. In response, a turnkey hardware-software solution was developed to enable cost-effective, monitoring-based RCx of small commercial buildings. This highly tailored solution enables non-commissioning providers to identify energy and comfort problems, as well as associated cost impacts and remedies. It also facilitates scale by offering energy service providers the means to streamline their existing processes and reduce costs by more than half. The turnkey RCx sensor suitcase consists of two primary components: a suitcase of sensors for short-term building data collection that guides users through the process of deploying and retrieving their data and a software application that automates analysis of sensor data, identifies problems and generates recommendations. This paper presents the design and testing of prototype models, including descriptions of the hardware design, analysis algorithms, performance testing, and plans for dissemination.

  19. Effects of changes in vegetation on precipitation in the northern Tianshan Mountains evaluated using multiple time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qinming; Liu, Tong; Han, Zhiquan; Wu, Yongping; Li, Bai-Lian

    2016-04-01

    This study used a combination of the wavelet cross-correlation technique and numerical analysis of vegetative feedback to study the role of climate-vegetation feedback from 1981 to 2009 in the northern Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang Province, China. The study area included the Irtysh River, the Bortala and Ili River valleys, the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains, and the western Junggar Basin. The feedback effects of changes in vegetation on precipitation appeared to vary in these five regions when different time scales are used to examine them. The most useful time scale was generally found to be 4-6 months. Time lag was another characteristic of this process, and the optimal time lag was 3-4 months. Nevertheless, optimal time scale and time lag did not differ significantly in these five regions. In this way, the correct time scale of the effects of variations in vegetation on precipitation in this cold, arid area was found. This time scale and time lag can be assessed through wavelet cross-correlation analysis. Then numerical analysis can be used to improve the accuracy of the analysis.

  20. Scale-Free Networks and Commercial Air Carrier Transportation in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila R.

    2004-01-01

    Network science, or the art of describing system structure, may be useful for the analysis and control of large, complex systems. For example, networks exhibiting scale-free structure have been found to be particularly well suited to deal with environmental uncertainty and large demand growth. The National Airspace System may be, at least in part, a scalable network. In fact, the hub-and-spoke structure of the commercial segment of the NAS is an often-cited example of an existing scale-free network After reviewing the nature and attributes of scale-free networks, this assertion is put to the test: is commercial air carrier transportation in the United States well explained by this model? If so, are the positive attributes of these networks, e.g. those of efficiency, flexibility and robustness, fully realized, or could we effect substantial improvement? This paper first outlines attributes of various network types, then looks more closely at the common carrier air transportation network from perspectives of the traveler, the airlines, and Air Traffic Control (ATC). Network models are applied within each paradigm, including discussion of implied strengths and weaknesses of each model. Finally, known limitations of scalable networks are discussed. With an eye towards NAS operations, utilizing the strengths and avoiding the weaknesses of scale-free networks are addressed.

  1. Does scale matter? The costs of HIV-prevention interventions for commercial sex workers in India.

    PubMed Central

    Guinness, Lorna; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Rajaraman, Bhuvaneswari; Sankaranarayanan, Girija; Vannela, Gangadhar; Raghupathi, P.; George, Alex

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore how the scale of a project affects both the total costs and average costs of HIV prevention in India. METHODS: Economic cost data and measures of scale (coverage and service volume indicators for number of cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) referred, number of STIs treated, condoms distributed and contacts made with target groups) were collected from 17 interventions run by nongovernmental organizations aimed at commercial sex workers in southern India. Nonparametric methods and regression analyses were used to look at the relationship between total costs, unit costs and scale. FINDINGS: Coverage varied from 250 to 2008 sex workers. Annual costs ranged from US$ 11 274 to US$ 52 793. The median cost per sex worker reached was US$ 19.21 (range = US$ 10.00-51.00). The scale variables explain more than 50% of the variation in unit costs for all of the unit cost measures except cost per contact. Total costs and unit costs have non-linear relationships to scale. CONCLUSION: Average costs vary with the scale of the project. Estimates of resource requirements based on a constant average cost could underestimate or overestimate total costs. The results highlight the importance of improving scale-specific cost information for planning. PMID:16283051

  2. Modeling solute transport through saturated zone ground water at 10 km scale: Example from the Yucca Mountain license application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, Sharad; Ding, Mei; Chu, Shaoping; Robinson, Bruce A.; Arnold, Bill; Meijer, Arend; Eddebbarh, Al-Aziz

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a study of solute transport through ground water in the saturated zone and the resulting breakthrough curves (BTCs), using a field-scale numerical model that incorporates the processes of advection, dispersion, matrix diffusion in fractured volcanic formations, sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport. Such BTCs at compliance boundaries are often used as performance measures for a site. The example considered here is that of the saturated zone study prepared for the Yucca Mountain license application. The saturated zone at this site occurs partly in volcanic, fractured rock formations and partly in alluvial formations. This paper presents a description of the site and the ground water flow model, the development of the conceptual model of transport, model uncertainties, model validation, and the influence of uncertainty in input parameters on the downstream BTCs at the Yucca Mountain site.

  3. Millennial-scale Denudation Rates of the Santa Lucia Mountains, CA: Implications for Landscape Thresholds from a Steep, High Relief, Coastal Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, H.; Hilley, G. E.; Kiefer, K.; Blisniuk, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new, 10-Be-derived denudation rates measured from river sands in basins of the Santa Lucia Range, central California. The Santa Lucia Mountains of the California Coast Range are an asymmetrical northwest-southeast trending range bounded by the San Gregorio-Hosgri (SG-HFZ ) and Rinconada-Reliz faults. This area provides an additional opportunity to analyze the relationships between topographic form, denudation rates, and mapped underlying geologic substrate in an actively deforming landscape. Analysis of in situ-produced 10-Be from alluvial sand samples collected in the Santa Lucia Mountains has yielded measurements of spatially varying basin-scale denudation rates. Despite the impressive relief of the Santa Lucia's, denudation rates within catchments draining the coastal side of the range are uniformly low, generally varying between ~90 m/Myr and ~350 m/Myr, with one basin eroding at ~500 m/Myr. Preliminary data suggest the lowest erosion rates are located within the northern interior of the range in sedimentary and granitic lithologies, while higher rates are located directly along the coast in metasedimentary bedrock. This overall trend is punctuated by a single high denudation rate, which is hosted by a watershed whose geometry suggests that it previously has, and continues to experience divide migration as it captures the adjacent watershed's area. Spatial distribution of basins with higher denudation rates is inferred to indicate a zone of uplift adjacent to the SG-HFZ. We compare erosion rates to basin mean channel steepness index, extracted from a 10 m digital elevation model. Denudation rate generally increases with channel steepness index until ~250 m/Myr, at which point the relationship becomes invariant, suggesting a non-linear erosion model may best characterize this region. These hypotheses will be tested further as additional denudation rate results are analyzed.

  4. Ambient Facile Synthesis of Gram-Scale Copper Selenide Nanostructures from Commercial Copper and Selenium Powder.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin Qi; Li, Zhen; Dou, Shi Xue

    2015-06-24

    Grams of copper selenides (Cu(2-x)Se) were prepared from commercial copper and selenium powders in the presence of thiol ligands by a one-pot reaction at room temperature. The resultant copper selenides are a mixture of nanoparticles and their assembled nanosheets, and the thickness of nanosheets assembled is strongly dependent on the ratio of thiol ligand to selenium powder. The resultant Cu(2-x)Se nanostructures were treated with hydrazine solution to remove the surface ligands and then explored as a potential thermoelectric candidate in comparison with commercial copper selenide powders. The research provides a novel ambient approach for preparation of Cu(2-x)Se nanocrystallines on a large scale for various applications. PMID:26020682

  5. Mountain hemlock growth responds to climatic variability at annual and decadal time scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.W.; Peterson, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Improved understanding of tree growth responses to climate is needed to model and predict forest ecosystem responses to current and future climatic variability. We used dendroecological methods to study the effects of climatic variability on radial growth of a subalpine conifer, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana). Tree-ring chronologies were developed for 31 sites, spanning the latitudinal and elevational ranges of mountain hemlock in the Pacific Northwest. Factor analysis was used to identify common patterns of inter-annual growth variability among the chronologies, and correlation and regression analyses were used to identify climatic factors associated with that variability. Factor analysis identified three common growth patterns, representing groups of sites with different climate-growth relationships. At high-elevation and midrange sites in Washington and northern Oregon, growth was negatively correlated with spring snowpack depth, and positively correlated with growth-year summer temperature and the winter Pacific Decadal Oscillation index (PDO). In southern Oregon, growth was negatively correlated with spring snowpack depth and previous summer temperature, and positively correlated with previous summer precipitation. At the low-elevation sites, growth was mostly insensitive to annual climatic variability but displayed sensitivity to decadal variability in the PDO opposite to that found at high-elevation sites. Mountain hemlock growth appears to be limited by late snowmelt, short growing seasons, and cool summer temperatures throughout much of its range in the Pacific Northwest. Earlier snowmelt, higher summer temperatures, and lower summer precipitation in southern Oregon produce conditions under which growth is limited by summer temperature and/or soil water availability. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations could produce warmer temperatures and reduced snowpack depths in the next century. Such changes would likely increase mountain hemlock growth

  6. Design of a three-dimensional site-scale model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, C.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Chornack, M.P.; Flint, A.L.; Lewis, B.D.; Spengler, R.W.; Flint, L.E.; Rautman, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed. This site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the east and west. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on location of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Different maps, such as contour maps and isopachs maps, are presented for the different infiltration zones, and for the base of the Tiva Canyon, the Paintbrush, and the Topopah Spring hydrogeological units.

  7. Design of a three-dimensional site scale model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, C.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Chornack, M.P.; Flint, A.L.; Lewis, B.D.; Spengler, R.W.; Flint, L.E.; Rautman, C.A.

    1992-10-01

    This paper discusses a three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain which is being developed. The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the east and west. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on locations of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Different maps, such as contour maps and isopachs maps, are presented for the different infiltration zones, and for the base of the Tiva Canyon, the Paintbrush, and the Topopah Spring hydrogeological units.

  8. Estimation of host rock thermal conductivities using thetemperature data from the drift-scale test at Yucca Mountain,Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumitra; Tsang, Y.W.

    2003-11-25

    A large volume of temperature data has been collected from a very large, underground heater test, the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The DST was designed to obtain thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical (THMC) data in the unsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain. Sophisticated numerical models have been developed to analyze the collected THMC data. In these analyses, thermal conductivities measured from core samples have been used as input parameters to the model. However, it was not known whether these core measurements represented the true field-scale thermal conductivity of the host rock. Realizing these difficulties, elaborate, computationally intensive geostatistical simulations have also been performed to obtain field-scale thermal conductivity of the host rock from the core measurements. In this paper, we use the temperature data from the DST as the input (instead of the measured core-scale thermal conductivity values) to develop an estimate of the field-scale thermal conductivity values. Assuming a conductive thermal regime, we develop an analytical solution for the temperature rise in the host rock of the DST; and using a nonlinear fitting routine, we obtain a best-fit estimate of field-scale thermal conductivity for the DST host rock. The temperature data collected from the DST shows clear evidence of two distinct thermal regimes: a zone below boiling (wet) and a zone above boiling (dry). We obtain estimates of thermal conductivity for both the wet and dry zones. We also analyze the sensitivity of these estimates to the input heating power of the DST.

  9. State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain States. Semi-annual progress report, January-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, J.; Coe, B.A.; Gertsch, W.D.; Meyer, R.T.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: a summary of the state projects, a summary of findings, public outreach, and a description of the major conclusions and recommendations. The commercialization activities carried out by the state teams are described for Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. (MHR)

  10. Woody species diversity in forest plantations in a mountainous region of Beijing, China: effects of sampling scale and species selection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Shuang; Ma, Keming; Fu, Bojie; Anand, Madhur

    2014-01-01

    The role of forest plantations in biodiversity conservation has gained more attention in recent years. However, most work on evaluating the diversity of forest plantations focuses only on one spatial scale; thus, we examined the effects of sampling scale on diversity in forest plantations. We designed a hierarchical sampling strategy to collect data on woody species diversity in planted pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr.), planted larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.), and natural secondary deciduous broadleaf forests in a mountainous region of Beijing, China. Additive diversity partition analysis showed that, compared to natural forests, the planted pine forests had a different woody species diversity partitioning pattern at multi-scales (except the Simpson diversity in the regeneration layer), while the larch plantations did not show multi-scale diversity partitioning patterns that were obviously different from those in the natural secondary broadleaf forest. Compare to the natural secondary broadleaf forests, the effects of planted pine forests on woody species diversity are dependent on the sampling scale and layers selected for analysis. Diversity in the planted larch forest, however, was not significantly different from that in the natural forest for all diversity components at all sampling levels. Our work demonstrated that the species selected for afforestation and the sampling scales selected for data analysis alter the conclusions on the levels of diversity supported by plantations. We suggest that a wide range of scales should be considered in the evaluation of the role of forest plantations on biodiversity conservation. PMID:25545860

  11. Woody Species Diversity in Forest Plantations in a Mountainous Region of Beijing, China: Effects of Sampling Scale and Species Selection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Shuang; Ma, Keming; Fu, Bojie; Anand, Madhur

    2014-01-01

    The role of forest plantations in biodiversity conservation has gained more attention in recent years. However, most work on evaluating the diversity of forest plantations focuses only on one spatial scale; thus, we examined the effects of sampling scale on diversity in forest plantations. We designed a hierarchical sampling strategy to collect data on woody species diversity in planted pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr.), planted larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.), and natural secondary deciduous broadleaf forests in a mountainous region of Beijing, China. Additive diversity partition analysis showed that, compared to natural forests, the planted pine forests had a different woody species diversity partitioning pattern at multi-scales (except the Simpson diversity in the regeneration layer), while the larch plantations did not show multi-scale diversity partitioning patterns that were obviously different from those in the natural secondary broadleaf forest. Compare to the natural secondary broadleaf forests, the effects of planted pine forests on woody species diversity are dependent on the sampling scale and layers selected for analysis. Diversity in the planted larch forest, however, was not significantly different from that in the natural forest for all diversity components at all sampling levels. Our work demonstrated that the species selected for afforestation and the sampling scales selected for data analysis alter the conclusions on the levels of diversity supported by plantations. We suggest that a wide range of scales should be considered in the evaluation of the role of forest plantations on biodiversity conservation. PMID:25545860

  12. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs. PMID:26512798

  13. Fine-scale genetic structure analyses suggest further male than female dispersal in mountain gorillas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular studies in social mammals rarely compare the inferences gained from genetic analyses with field information, especially in the context of dispersal. In this study, we used genetic data to elucidate sex-specific dispersal dynamics in the Virunga Massif mountain gorilla population (Gorilla beringei beringei), a primate species characterized by routine male and female dispersal from stable mixed-sex social groups. Specifically, we conducted spatial genetic structure analyses for each sex and linked our genetically-based observations with some key demographic and behavioural data from this population. Results To investigate the spatial genetic structure of mountain gorillas, we analysed the genotypes of 193 mature individuals at 11 microsatellite loci by means of isolation-by-distance and spatial autocorrelation analyses. Although not all males and females disperse, female gorillas displayed an isolation-by-distance pattern among groups and a signal of dispersal at short distances from their natal group based on spatial autocorrelation analyses. In contrast, male genotypes were not correlated with spatial distance, thus suggesting a larger mean dispersal distance for males as compared to females. Both within sex and mixed-sex pairs were on average genetically more related within groups than among groups. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for an intersexual difference in dispersal distance in the mountain gorilla. Overall, it stresses the importance of investigating spatial genetic structure patterns on a sex-specific basis to better understand the dispersal dynamics of the species under investigation. It is currently poorly understood why some male and female gorillas disperse while others remain in the natal group. Our results on average relatedness within and across groups confirm that groups often contain close relatives. While inbreeding avoidance may play a role in driving female dispersal, we note that more detailed dyadic genetic

  14. Digital structural interpretation of mountain-scale photogrammetric 3D models (Kamnik Alps, Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolžan, Erazem; Vrabec, Marko

    2015-04-01

    From the earliest days of geological science, mountainous terrains with their extreme topographic relief and sparse to non-existent vegetation were utilized to a great advantage for gaining 3D insight into geological structure. But whereas Alpine vistas may offer perfect panoramic views of geology, the steep mountain slopes and vertical cliffs make it very time-consuming and difficult (if not impossible) to acquire quantitative mapping data such as precisely georeferenced traces of geological boundaries and attitudes of structural planes. We faced this problem in mapping the central Kamnik Alps of northern Slovenia, which are built up from Mid to Late Triassic succession of carbonate rocks. Polyphase brittle tectonic evolution, monotonous lithology and the presence of temporally and spatially irregular facies boundary between bedded platform carbonates and massive reef limestones considerably complicate the structural interpretation of otherwise perfectly exposed, but hardly accessible massif. We used Agisoft Photoscan Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric software to process a series of overlapping high-resolution (~0.25 m ground resolution) vertical aerial photographs originally acquired by the Geodetic Authority of the Republic of Slovenia for surveying purposes, to derive very detailed 3D triangular mesh models of terrain and associated photographic textures. Phototextures are crucial for geological interpretation of the models as they provide additional levels of detail and lithological information which is not resolvable from geometrical mesh models alone. We then exported the models to Paradigm Gocad software to refine and optimize the meshing. Structural interpretation of the models, including mapping of traces and surfaces of faults and stratigraphic boundaries and determining dips of structural planes, was performed in MVE Move suite which offers a range of useful tools for digital mapping and interpretation. Photogrammetric model was complemented by

  15. Bench- and pilot-scale thermal desorption treatability studies on pesticide-contaminated soils from Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Swanstrom, C.P.; Besmer, M.

    1995-03-09

    Thermal desorption is being considered as a potential remediation technology for pesticide-contaminated soils at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in Denver, Colorado. From 1988 through 1992, numerous laboratory- and bench-scale indirect-heated thermal desorption (IHTD) treatability studies have been performed on various soil medium groups from the arsenal. RMA has contracted Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a pilot-scale direct-fired thermal desorption (DFTD) treatability study on pesticide-contaminated RMA soil. The purpose of this treatability study is to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the DFTD technology on contaminated RMA soils and to provide data upon which future conceptual design assumptions and cost estimates for a full-scale system can be made. The equipment used in the DFTD treatability study is of large enough scale to provide good full-scale design parameters and operating conditions. The study will also provide valuable-emissions and materials-handling data. Specifically this program will determine if DFTD can achieve reductions in soil contamination below the RMA preliminary remediation goals (PRGs), define system operating conditions for achieving the PRGs, and determine the fate of arsenic and other hazardous metals at these operating conditions. This paper intends to compare existing data from a bench-scale IHTD treatability study using equipment operated in the batch mode to new data from a pilot-scale DFTD operated in a parallel-flow continuous mode. Delays due to materials-handling problems and permit issues have delayed the start of the pilot-scale DFTD testing. The first pilot-scale test is scheduled for the flat week in January 1995. The available data will be presented March 9, 1995, at the Seventh Annual Gulf Coast Environmental Conference in Houston, Texas.

  16. Large Scale Monte Carlo Simulation of Neutrino Interactions Using the Open Science Grid and Commercial Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, A.; Boyd, J.; Davies, G.; Flumerfelt, E.; Herner, K.; Mayer, N.; Mhashilhar, P.; Tamsett, M.; Timm, S.

    2015-12-01

    Modern long baseline neutrino experiments like the NOvA experiment at Fermilab, require large scale, compute intensive simulations of their neutrino beam fluxes and backgrounds induced by cosmic rays. The amount of simulation required to keep the systematic uncertainties in the simulation from dominating the final physics results is often 10x to 100x that of the actual detector exposure. For the first physics results from NOvA this has meant the simulation of more than 2 billion cosmic ray events in the far detector and more than 200 million NuMI beam spill simulations. Performing these high statistics levels of simulation have been made possible for NOvA through the use of the Open Science Grid and through large scale runs on commercial clouds like Amazon EC2. We details the challenges in performing large scale simulation in these environments and how the computing infrastructure for the NOvA experiment has been adapted to seamlessly support the running of different simulation and data processing tasks on these resources.

  17. Commercial-scale biotherapeutics manufacturing facility for plant-made pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Barry R; Berquist, Brian R; Bennett, Lindsay D; Kommineni, Vally J M; Munigunti, Ranjith K; White, Earl L; Wilkerson, Don C; Wong, Kah-Yat I; Ly, Lan H; Marcel, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    Rapid, large-scale manufacture of medical countermeasures can be uniquely met by the plant-made-pharmaceutical platform technology. As a participant in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Blue Angel project, the Caliber Biotherapeutics facility was designed, constructed, commissioned and released a therapeutic target (H1N1 influenza subunit vaccine) in <18 months from groundbreaking. As of 2015, this facility was one of the world's largest plant-based manufacturing facilities, with the capacity to process over 3500 kg of plant biomass per week in an automated multilevel growing environment using proprietary LED lighting. The facility can commission additional plant grow rooms that are already built to double this capacity. In addition to the commercial-scale manufacturing facility, a pilot production facility was designed based on the large-scale manufacturing specifications as a way to integrate product development and technology transfer. The primary research, development and manufacturing system employs vacuum-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana plants grown in a fully contained, hydroponic system for transient expression of recombinant proteins. This expression platform has been linked to a downstream process system, analytical characterization, and assessment of biological activity. This integrated approach has demonstrated rapid, high-quality production of therapeutic monoclonal antibody targets, including a panel of rituximab biosimilar/biobetter molecules and antiviral antibodies against influenza and dengue fever. PMID:26387511

  18. CVD scaled up for commercial production of bulk SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    A recent development at Morton International's Advanced Materials group is having a revolutionary impact on the materials world. The firm has successfully scaled production of bulk, cubic ([beta]), chemically vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) to support commercial requirements. To date, they have produced free standing CVD SiC substrates in sheets up to 60 in. across and over one inch thick. The material can also be grown as smaller near-net-shape parts in many different popular geometries. The parts produced by the process are monolithic. Commercially known as CVD SILICON CARBIDE, the material is single phase, theoretically dense, and 99.999% pure, [beta]-SiC. These characteristics lead to superior product attributes such as high values of hardness, flexural strength, and thermal conductivity. Additionally, the product has demonstrated superior oxidation resistance, and polishability. Several markets have shown an interest in the material including: optics, wear parts, information storage, and electronic packaging. Other applications for the material are emerging on what seems like a daily basis.

  19. Field Experience with and Potential for Multi-time Scale Grid Transactions from Responsive Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Ghatikar, Girish

    2014-08-01

    The need for and concepts behind demand response are evolving. As the electric system changes with more intermittent renewable electric supply systems, there is a need to allow buildings to provide more flexible demand. This paper presents results from field studies and pilots, as well as engineering estimates of the potential capabilities of fast load responsiveness in commercial buildings. We present a sector wide analysis of flexible loads in commercial buildings, which was conducted to improve resource planning and determine which loads to evaluate in future demonstrations. These systems provide important capabilities for future transactional systems. The field analysis is based on results from California, plus projects in the northwest and east coast. End-uses considered include heating, ventilation, air conditioning and lighting. The timescales of control include day-ahead, as well as day-of, 10-minute ahead and even faster response. This technology can provide DR signals on different times scales to interact with responsive building loads. We describe the latency of the control systems in the building and the round trip communications with the wholesale grid operators.

  20. Large Scale Application of Vibration Sensors for Fan Monitoring at Commercial Layer Hen Houses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A.; Heber, Albert J.; Bogan, Bill W.; Chai, Li-Long

    2010-01-01

    Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable. PMID:22163544

  1. Characterization of syngas produced from MSW gasification at commercial-scale ENERGOS Plants.

    PubMed

    del Alamo, G; Hart, A; Grimshaw, A; Lundstrøm, P

    2012-10-01

    Characterization of the syngas produced in the gasification process has been performed at commercial-scale Energy-from-Waste plants under various conditions of lambda value and syngas temperature. The lambda value from the gasification process is here defined as the ratio of the gasification air to the total stoichiometric air for complete combustion of the fuel input. Evaluation of the syngas calorific value has been performed by three different methods, i.e., estimation of the syngas calorific value from continuous in-line process measurements by mass and energy conservation equations, measurement of the syngas composition based on gas chromatography and calculation of the Gross Calorific Value from the measured composition, and direct continuous measurement of the calorific value using based on gas calorimeter. PMID:22704001

  2. Analysis of Coupled Multiphase Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Mechanical Deformation at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rutqvist; C.F. Tsang; Y. Tsang

    2005-05-17

    A numerical simulation of coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transfer, and mechanical deformation was carried out to study coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test (DST) and for validation of a coupled THM numerical simulator. The ability of the numerical simulator to model relevant coupled THM processes at the DST was evaluated by comparison of numerical results to in situ measurements of temperature, water saturation, displacement, and fracture permeability. Of particular relevance for coupled THM processes are thermally induced rock-mass stress and deformations, with associated changes in fracture aperture and fractured rock permeability. Thermally induced rock-mass deformation and accompanying changes in fracture permeability were reasonably well predicted using a continuum elastic model, although some individual measurements of displacement and permeability indicate inelastic mechanical responses. It is concluded that fracture closure/opening caused by a change in thermally induced normal stress across fractures is an important mechanism for changes in intrinsic fracture permeability at the DST, whereas fracture shear dilation appears to be less significant. Observed and predicted maximum permeability changes at the DST are within one order of magnitude. These data are important for bounding model predictions of potential changes in rock-mass permeability at a future repository in Yucca Mountain.

  3. Coupled Analysis of Change in Fracture Permeability during the Cooling Phase of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Tsang, Y.W.; Min, K.B.; Elsworth, D.

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents results from a coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical analysis of thermally-induced permeability changes during heating and cooling of fractured volcanic rock at the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The analysis extends the previous analysis of the four-year heating phase to include newly available data from the subsequent four year cooling phase. The new analysis of the cooling phase shows that the measured changes in fracture permeability follows that of a thermo-hydro-elastic model on average, but at several locations the measured permeability indicates (inelastic) irreversible behavior. At the end of the cooling phase, the air-permeability had decreased at some locations (to as low as 0.2 of initial), whereas it had increased at other locations (to as high as 1.8 of initial). Our analysis shows that such irreversible changes in fracture permeability are consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). These data are important for bounding model predictions of potential thermally-induced changes in rock-mass permeability at a future repository at Yucca Mountain.

  4. Cross-Scale Analysis of the Region Effect on Vascular Plant Species Diversity in Southern and Northern European Mountain Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Guisan, Antoine; Vittoz, Pascal; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Dullinger, Stefan; Pauli, Harald; Willner, Wolfgang; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Virtanen, Risto; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region) to quantify four diversity components: (i) total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity), (ii) number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity), (iii) pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity) and (iv) number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity). We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale) diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale) diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity components. For

  5. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Ak Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOITM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this reporting period, DOE accepted the recommendation to continue with dimethyl ether (DME) design verification testing (DVT). DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stzibility is being developed. Planning for a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) was recommended. DOE issued a letter dated 31 July 1997 accepting the recommendation to continue design verification testing. In order to allow for scale-up of the manufacturing technique for the dehydration catalyst from the pilot plant to the commercial scale, the time required to produce the catalyst to the AFDU has slipped. The new estimated delivery date is 01 June 1998.

  6. Design and Fabrication of the First Commercial-Scale Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-21

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHT) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert synthesis gas (syngas), primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, to methanol. Because of its superior heat management the process can utilize directly the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks. The LPMEOHM Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P., a partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Eastman Chemical Company, to produce methanol from coal-derived syngas. Construction of the LPMEOH~ Process Demonstration Plant at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport was completed in January 1997. Following commissioning and shakedown activities, the fwst production of methanol from the facility occurred on April 2, 1997. Nameplate capacity of 260 short tons per day (TPD) was achieved on April 6, 1997, and production rates have exceeded 300 TPD of methanol at times. This report describes the design, fabrication, and installation of the Kingsport LPMEOEFM reactor, which is the first commercial-scale LPMEOEPM reaetor ever built. The vessel is 7.5 feet in diameter and 70 feet tall with design conditions of 1000 psig at 600 `F. These dimensions represent a significant scale-up from prior experience at the DOE-owned Alternative Fuels Development Unit in LaPorte, Texas, where 18-inch and 22-inch diameter reactors have been tested successfidly over thousands of hours. The biggest obstacles discovered during the scale- up, however, were encountered during fabrication of the vessel. The lessons learned during this process must be considered in tailoring the design for future sites, where the reactor dimensions may grow by yet another factor of two.

  7. Total System Performance Assessment - Analyses for Disposal of Commercial and DOE Waste Inventories at Yucca Mountain - Input to Final Environmental Impact Statement and Site Suitability Evaluation, Rev. 00

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2001-09-17

    This Letter Report presents the results of calculations to assess long-term performance of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and Greater Than Class C (GTCC) radioactive waste and DOE Special Performance Assessment Required (SPAR) radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in Nye County Nevada with respect to the 10,000-year performance period specified in 40 CFR Part 197.30 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32134) with regard to radiation-protection standards. The EPA Final Rule 40 CFR Part 197 has three separate standards, individual-protection, human-intrusion, and groundwater-protection standards, all with a compliance timeframe of 10,000 years. These calculations evaluate the dose to receptors for each of these standards. Further, this Letter Report includes the results of simulations to the 1,000,000-year performance period described in 40 CFR Part 197.35 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32135) which calls for the calculation of the peak dose to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) that would occur after 10,000 years and within the period of geological stability. In accordance with TSPA-SR the ''period of geologic stability'' is from zero to 1,000,000 years after repository closure. The calculations also present the 5th and 95th percentiles, and the mean and median of the set of probabilistic simulations used to evaluate various disposal scenarios.

  8. U.S. Photovoltaic Prices and Cost Breakdowns. Q1 2015 Benchmarks for Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Donald; Davidson, Carolyn; Fu, Ran; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has continued to decline across all major market sectors. This report provides a Q1 2015 update regarding the prices of residential, commercial, and utility scale PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variations in business models, labor rates, and system architecture choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.09/W for residential scale rooftop systems, $2.15/W for commercial scale rooftop systems, $1.77/W for utility scale systems with fixed mounting structures, and $1.91/W for utility scale systems using single-axis trackers. All systems are modeled assuming standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon PV modules, and further assume installation within the United States.

  9. Regional-scale analysis of high-mountain multi-hazard and risk in the Pamir (Tajikistan) with GRASS GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, F. E.; Mergili, M.

    2013-04-01

    We present a model framework for the regional-scale analysis of high-mountain multi-hazard and -risk, implemented with the Open Source software package GRASS GIS. This framework is applied to a 98 300 km2 study area centred in the Pamir (Tajikistan). It includes (i) rock slides, (ii) ice avalanches, (iii) periglacial debris flows, and (iv) lake outburst floods. First, a hazard indication score is assigned to each relevant object (steep rock face, glacier or periglacial slope, lake). This score depends on the susceptibility and on the expected event magnitude. Second, the possible travel distances, impact areas and, consequently, impact hazard indication scores for all types of processes are computed using empirical relationships. These scores are finally superimposed with an exposure score derived from the type of land use, resulting in a raster map of risk indication scores finally discretized at the community level. The analysis results are presented and discussed at different spatial scales. The major outcome of the study, a set of comprehensive regional-scale hazard and risk indication maps, shall represent an objective basis for the prioritization of target communities for further research and risk mitigation measures.

  10. Comparison of reach-scale morphologic adjustment in confined and unconfined alluvial mountain rivers, Olympic Peninsula, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletty, P. D.; Goode, J.; Pierce, J. L.; Buffington, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Over human time scales (10-1 - 102 yr), alluvial mountain rivers respond to changes in sediment input and discharge through adjustments in reach-scale morphology (width, depth, grain size, and, to some degree, slope). Channel confinement (valley-width relative to the bankfull channel width) in these systems can strongly influence the magnitude of channel response. We compared channel responsiveness to flood events (50-100 yr) within the last 5 years in unconfined and confined valley segments on the Olympic Peninsula, western Washington. Field measurements of cross-sectional averaged width and depth in 20 confined and 20 unconfined valleys are compared to the bankfull dimensions predicted from established downstream hydraulic geometry relationships for the region. We expect that measured bankfull geometry of confined reaches will be significantly greater than the predicted bankfull dimensions, which would suggest that the morphology of confined channels is more responsive to flood events. In unconfined channels floodplains are large enough to disperse over-bank flows, which can limit the effect of peak discharges on channel morphology, whereas confined channels are forced to disperse the extra energy exerted by peak flows into increased shear stress along their bed and banks. Results from this study can aid modeling efforts to predict future changes in channel geometry and aquatic habitat in response to climate change or land use at the basin scale.

  11. A Novel Treatment Protects Chlorella at Commercial Scale from the Predatory Bacterium Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus.

    PubMed

    Ganuza, Eneko; Sellers, Charles E; Bennett, Braden W; Lyons, Eric M; Carney, Laura T

    2016-01-01

    The predatory bacterium, Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, can destroy a Chlorella culture in just a few days, rendering an otherwise robust algal crop into a discolored suspension of empty cell walls. Chlorella is used as a benchmark for open pond cultivation due to its fast growth. In nature, V. chlorellavorus plays an ecological role by controlling this widespread terrestrial and freshwater microalga, but it can have a devastating effect when it attacks large commercial ponds. We discovered that V. chlorellavorus was associated with the collapse of four pilot commercial-scale (130,000 L volume) open-pond reactors. Routine microscopy revealed the distinctive pattern of V. chlorellavorus attachment to the algal cells, followed by algal cell clumping, culture discoloration and ultimately, growth decline. The "crash" of the algal culture coincided with increasing proportions of 16s rRNA sequencing reads assigned to V. chlorellavorus. We designed a qPCR assay to predict an impending culture crash and developed a novel treatment to control the bacterium. We found that (1) Chlorella growth was not affected by a 15 min exposure to pH 3.5 in the presence of 0.5 g/L acetate, when titrated with hydrochloric acid and (2) this treatment had a bactericidal effect on the culture (2-log decrease in aerobic counts). Therefore, when qPCR results indicated a rise in V. chlorellavorus amplicons, we found that the pH-shock treatment prevented the culture crash and doubled the productive longevity of the culture. Furthermore, the treatment could be repeatedly applied to the same culture, at the beginning of at least two sequential batch cycles. In this case, the treatment was applied preventively, further increasing the longevity of the open pond culture. In summary, the treatment reversed the infection of V. chlorellavorus as confirmed by observations of bacterial attachment to Chlorella cells and by detection of V. chlorellavorus by 16s rRNA sequencing and qPCR assay. The p

  12. CFD modeling of commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of an advanced coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle system requires an accurate numerical prediction of gasifier performance. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to model the turbulent multiphase reacting flow inside commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers. Due to the complexity of the physical and chemical processes involved, the accuracy of sub-models requires further improvement. Built upon a previously developed CFD model for entrained-flow gasification, the advanced physical and chemical sub-models presented in this paper include a moisture vaporization model with consideration of high mass transfer rate and a coal devolatilization model with more species to represent coal volatiles and the heating rate effect on volatile yield. The global gas phase reaction kinetics is also carefully selected. To predict a reasonable peak temperature of the coal/O{sub 2} flame inside an entrained-flow gasifier, the reserve reaction of H{sub 2} oxidation is included in the gas phase reaction model. The enhanced CFD model is applied to simulate two typical commercial-scale oxygen-blown entrained-flow configurations including a single-stage down-fired gasifier and a two-stage up-fired gasifier. The CFD results are reasonable in terms of predicted carbon conversion, syngas exit temperature, and syngas exit composition. The predicted profiles of velocity, temperature, and species mole fractions inside the entrained-flow gasifier models show trends similar to those observed in a diffusion-type flame. The predicted distributions of mole fractions of major species inside both gasifiers can be explained by the heterogeneous combustion and gasification reactions and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. It was also found that the syngas compositions at the CFD model exits are not in chemical equilibrium, indicating the kinetics for both heterogeneous and gas phase homogeneous reactions are important. Overall, the results achieved here

  13. A Novel Treatment Protects Chlorella at Commercial Scale from the Predatory Bacterium Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus

    PubMed Central

    Ganuza, Eneko; Sellers, Charles E.; Bennett, Braden W.; Lyons, Eric M.; Carney, Laura T.

    2016-01-01

    The predatory bacterium, Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, can destroy a Chlorella culture in just a few days, rendering an otherwise robust algal crop into a discolored suspension of empty cell walls. Chlorella is used as a benchmark for open pond cultivation due to its fast growth. In nature, V. chlorellavorus plays an ecological role by controlling this widespread terrestrial and freshwater microalga, but it can have a devastating effect when it attacks large commercial ponds. We discovered that V. chlorellavorus was associated with the collapse of four pilot commercial-scale (130,000 L volume) open-pond reactors. Routine microscopy revealed the distinctive pattern of V. chlorellavorus attachment to the algal cells, followed by algal cell clumping, culture discoloration and ultimately, growth decline. The “crash” of the algal culture coincided with increasing proportions of 16s rRNA sequencing reads assigned to V. chlorellavorus. We designed a qPCR assay to predict an impending culture crash and developed a novel treatment to control the bacterium. We found that (1) Chlorella growth was not affected by a 15 min exposure to pH 3.5 in the presence of 0.5 g/L acetate, when titrated with hydrochloric acid and (2) this treatment had a bactericidal effect on the culture (2-log decrease in aerobic counts). Therefore, when qPCR results indicated a rise in V. chlorellavorus amplicons, we found that the pH-shock treatment prevented the culture crash and doubled the productive longevity of the culture. Furthermore, the treatment could be repeatedly applied to the same culture, at the beginning of at least two sequential batch cycles. In this case, the treatment was applied preventively, further increasing the longevity of the open pond culture. In summary, the treatment reversed the infection of V. chlorellavorus as confirmed by observations of bacterial attachment to Chlorella cells and by detection of V. chlorellavorus by 16s rRNA sequencing and qPCR assay. The p

  14. Estimating Snow Water Equivalent in the Swedish mountains by scaling snow depth measurements based on in situ data and local topography using passive and active remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingvander, Susanne; Johansson, Cecilia; Brandel, Malin; Brown, Ian

    2014-05-01

    Estimating the snow water equivalent (SWE) of the seasonal snow pack in the Swedish mountains is key information for the prediction of spring flood rates and the contribution to water reservoirs in Hydro-power production. The snow pack properties determining the SWE (snow depth and snow density) show spatial variations caused by synoptic scale weather patterns (air temperature gradients, wind and precipitation patterns) topography and vegetation. By establishing the relationship between accumulation patterns and physical parameters in the landscape a model of the spatial organization of the snow pack and its change over the season can be determined. By identifying the frequency and amplitude of topography in the Swedish mountain regions and by measuring snow accumulation in these regions we can increase the accuracy of the estimation of SWE. By using multiple parameters sampled in the snow pack from four sites in the Swedish mountains we quantify the local variability of SWE. This information will then be up-scaled to local coverage based on interpolation weighted on topography and vegetation. By validation of satellite imagery and existing snow cover products the information can be up-scaled from high-resolution field data to regional scale covering the Swedish mountain range in order to derive new satellite algorithms.

  15. Pre-site characterization risk analysis for commercial-scale carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhenxue; Stauffer, Philip H; Carey, J William; Middleton, Richard S; Lu, Zhiming; Jacobs, John F; Hnottavange-Telleen, Ken; Spangler, Lee H

    2014-04-01

    This study develops a probability framework to evaluate subsurface risks associated with commercial-scale carbon sequestration in the Kevin Dome, Montana. Limited knowledge of the spatial distribution of physical attributes of the storage reservoir and the confining rocks in the area requires using regional data to estimate project risks during the pre-site characterization analysis. A set of integrated Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess four risk proxies: the CO2 injectivity, area of review (AoR), migration rate into confining rocks, and a monitoring strategy prior to detailed site characterization. Results show a reasonable likelihood of reaching the project goal of injecting 1 Mt in 4 years with a single injection well (>58%), increasing to >70% if the project is allowed to run for 5 years. The mean radius of the AoR, based on a 0.1 MPa pressure change, is around 4.8 km. No leakage of CO2 through the confining units is seen in any simulations. The computed CO2 detection probability suggests that the monitoring wells should be located at less than 1.2 km away from the injection well so that CO2 is likely to be detected within the time frame of the project. The scientific results of this study will be used to inform the detailed site characterization process and to provide more insight for understanding operational and technical risks before injecting CO2. PMID:24625081

  16. Landscape-scale factors affecting feral horse habitat use during summer within the rocky mountain foothills.

    PubMed

    Girard, Tisa L; Bork, Edward W; Nielsen, Scott E; Neilsen, Scott E; Alexander, Mike J

    2013-02-01

    Public lands occupied by feral horses in North America are frequently managed for multiple uses with land use conflict occurring among feral horses, livestock, wildlife, and native grassland conservation. The factors affecting habitat use by horses is critical to understand where conflict may be greatest. We related horse presence and abundance to landscape attributes in a GIS to examine habitat preferences using 98 field plots sampled within a portion of the Rocky Mountain Forest Reserve of SW Alberta, Canada. Horse abundance was greatest in grassland and cut block habitats, and lowest in conifer and mixedwood forest. Resource selection probability functions and count models of faecal abundance indicated that horses preferred areas closer to water, with reduced topographic ruggedness, situated farther from forests, and located farther away from primary roads and trails frequented by recreationalists, but closer to small linear features (i.e. cut lines) that may be used as beneficial travel corridors. Horse presence and abundance were closely related to cattle presence during summer, suggesting that both herbivores utilise the same habitats. Estimates of forage biomass removal (44 %) by mid-July were near maximum acceptable levels. In contrast to horse-cattle associations, horses were negatively associated with wild ungulate abundance, although the mechanism behind this remains unclear and warrants further investigation. Our results indicate that feral horses in SW Alberta exhibit complex habitat selection patterns during spring and summer, including overlap in use with livestock. This finding highlights the need to assess and manage herbivore populations consistent with rangeland carrying capacity and the maintenance of range health. PMID:23183796

  17. Stream Ammonium Uptake Across Scales in Headwater Catchments of a Tropical Rainforest, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brereton, R. L.; McDowell, W. H.; Wymore, A.

    2015-12-01

    Many tropical forest streams export high amounts of nitrogen relative to streams draining undisturbed watersheds of other biomes. With their low DOC concentrations and high rates of respiration, headwater streams in the Luquillo Mountains have been previously characterized as energy-limited, suggesting that NH4+ uptake is dominated not by N demand but by energy demand. In the Rio Icacos watershed, high concentrations of NH4+ (>1 mg N/L) are found in groundwater adjacent to the streams, making high inputs of NH4+ to the stream channel via groundwater seepage likely. Stream nutrient spiraling metrics can be used to quantify uptake and retention rates of specific nutrients, and can be measured by solute additions. Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC) is a recently developed method (Covino et al. 2010) for quantifying nutrient uptake with a single slug addition of nutrient and conservative tracer. Here we present NH4+ uptake metrics from TASCC additions in three Luquillo streams of different sizes, ranging from 2nd to 4th order: the Rio Icacos, a larger, 3rd order tributary and a smaller 2nd order tributary. Background NH4+ concentrations vary by up to an order of magnitude, with highest concentrations (27 μg N/L) found in the smaller tributary. Background DOC concentrations are uniformly low and show no difference between the three streams (500-600 μg C/L). The smaller tributary has the shortest uptake length (155 m) and highest uptake velocity (2.9 mm/min) of the three streams. Unexpectedly, the Rio Icacos has a higher uptake velocity (1.7 mm/min) than the larger tributary (1.0 mm/min), despite having an uptake length more than double (1400 m) that of the larger tributary (596 m). Overall, NH4+ uptake is substantial in all three streams and varies with background concentrations, not stream size.

  18. Landscape-Scale Factors Affecting Feral Horse Habitat Use During Summer Within The Rocky Mountain Foothills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Tisa L.; Bork, Edward W.; Neilsen, Scott E.; Alexander, Mike J.

    2013-02-01

    Public lands occupied by feral horses in North America are frequently managed for multiple uses with land use conflict occurring among feral horses, livestock, wildlife, and native grassland conservation. The factors affecting habitat use by horses is critical to understand where conflict may be greatest. We related horse presence and abundance to landscape attributes in a GIS to examine habitat preferences using 98 field plots sampled within a portion of the Rocky Mountain Forest Reserve of SW Alberta, Canada. Horse abundance was greatest in grassland and cut block habitats, and lowest in conifer and mixedwood forest. Resource selection probability functions and count models of faecal abundance indicated that horses preferred areas closer to water, with reduced topographic ruggedness, situated farther from forests, and located farther away from primary roads and trails frequented by recreationalists, but closer to small linear features (i.e. cut lines) that may be used as beneficial travel corridors. Horse presence and abundance were closely related to cattle presence during summer, suggesting that both herbivores utilise the same habitats. Estimates of forage biomass removal (44 %) by mid-July were near maximum acceptable levels. In contrast to horse-cattle associations, horses were negatively associated with wild ungulate abundance, although the mechanism behind this remains unclear and warrants further investigation. Our results indicate that feral horses in SW Alberta exhibit complex habitat selection patterns during spring and summer, including overlap in use with livestock. This finding highlights the need to assess and manage herbivore populations consistent with rangeland carrying capacity and the maintenance of range health.

  19. Spatial modelling of the variability of the soil moisture regime at the landscape scale in the southern Qilian Mountains, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.-Y.; Qi, P.-C.; Feng, Z.-D.

    2009-10-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of the soil moisture status gives an important base for the assessment of ecological (for restoration) and economic (for agriculture) conditions at micro- and meso-scales. It is also an essential input into many hydrological processes models. However, there has been a lack of effective methods for its estimation in the study area. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the soil moisture status and precipitation and topographic factors. First, this study compared a linear regression model with interpolating models for estimating monthly mean precipitation and selected the linear regression model to simulate the temporal-spatial variability of precipitation in the southern Qilian Mountainous areas of the Heihe River Basin. Combining topographic index with the distribution of precipitation, we calculated the soil moisture regime in the Pailugou catchment, one representative comprehensive research catchment. The modeled results were tested by the observed soil water content for different times. The correlation coefficient between the modeled soil moisture status and the observed soil water content is quite high (e.g. R2=0.76 in June), assuring our confidence in the spatially-modeled results of the soil moisture status. The method was applied to the southern Qilian Mountainous regions. The results showed that the modelled distribution of the soil moisture status reflected the interplay of the local and landscape climate processes. The driest sites occur on some ridges in northern part and western part of the study area, which are very small catchment areas and of low precipitation rates; the wettest are registered in the low river valley of the Heihe River and its major tributaries are in the eastern part due to large accumulating flow areas and higher precipitation rates. Temporally, the bigger variation of the soil moisture status in the study occurs in July and smaller difference appears in May.

  20. Constraints on bed scale fracture chronology with a FEM mechanical model of folding: The case of Split Mountain (Utah, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, W.; Guiton, M. L. E.; Leroy, Y. M.; Daniel, J.-M.; Callot, J.-P.

    2012-11-01

    A technique is presented for improving the structural analysis of natural fractures development in large scale fold structures. A 3D restoration of a fold provides the external displacement loading conditions to solve, by the finite element method, the forward mechanical problem of an idealized rock material with a stress-strain relationship based on the activation of pervasive fracture sets. In this elasto-plasticity constitutive law, any activated fracture set contributes to the total plastic strain by either an opening or a sliding mode of rock failure. Inherited versus syn-folding fracture sets development can be studied using this mechanical model. The workflow of this methodology was applied to the Weber sandstone formation deformed by forced folding at Split Mountain Anticline, Utah for which the different fracture sets were created and developed successively during the Sevier and the syn-folding Laramide orogenic phases. The field observations at the top stratigraphic surface of the Weber sandstone lead to classify the fracture sets into a pre-fold WNW-ESE fracture set, and a NE-SW fracture set post-dating the former. The development and relative chronology of the fracture sets are discussed based on the geomechanical modeling results. Starting with a 3D restoration of the Split Mountain Anticline, three fold-fracture development models were generated, alternately assuming that the WNW-ESE fracture set is either present or absent prior to folding process. Depending on the initial fracture configuration, the calculated fracture patterns are markedly different, showing that assuming a WNW-ESE joint set to predate the fold best correlates with field observations. This study is a first step addressing the complex problem of identification of fold-related fracturing events using an elementary concept of rock mechanics. When tight to complementary field observations, including petrography, diagenesis and burial history, the approach can be used to better

  1. Observatory Design in the Mountain West: Scaling Measurements and Modeling in the San Joaquin Valley and Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, M.; Bales, R.; Boyer, E.; Cayan, D.; Dozier, J.; Fogg, G.; Harmon, T.; Kirchner, J.; Miller, N.; Molotch, N.; Redmond, K.

    2006-12-01

    This project represents a key step toward developing an environmental observatory in the semiarid mountain- valley landscape of the far western United States. Two specific aims of this project are: (i) to formulate basin- scale measurement and modeling strategies to meet priority research issues, through analysis of existing operational and research data, and (ii) to assess different instrument cluster designs to provide the ground- based measurements needed for hydrologic process research. Achieving these aims will both help to establish a "virtual" observatory, and provide direction for building new infrastructure in an actual observatory. The observatory design concept involves establishing intensive measurements at ground-based instrument clusters, integrated with broad coverage offered by satellite remote sensing, plus operational networks. The main science challenge is that of scaling between the instrument clusters. Basing an observatory design on instrument clusters at representative points across the landscape recognizes that it is logistically infeasible to measure everything, everywhere, all the time. Instrument clusters co-locate key measurements, in order to illuminate linkages among processes within each cluster's relatively small footprint. Design challenges include configuring instrument clusters to maximize the scientific payoff for a given investment of resources; and determining how well the data from these clusters represent the landscape that surrounds them, beyond the footprint of the measurements themselves.

  2. Classification of local- and landscape-scale ecological types in the Southern Appalachian mountains

    SciTech Connect

    McNab, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    Five local ecological types based on vegetative communities and two landscape types based on groups of communities, were identified by integrating landform, soil, and vegetation components using multivariate techniques. Evaluation and several topographic and soil variables were highly correlated with types of both scales. Landscape ecological types based only on landform and soil variables without vegetation did not correspond with types developed using vegetation.

  3. Modeling Watershed-Scale Surface Water - Groundwater Interactions in Mountain Meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essaid, H.; Hill, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    Flow processes in mountain meadows are being investigated using a coupled surface water - groundwater flow model of a Sierra Nevada watershed. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model GSFLOW (Markstrom et al., 2008), an integration of the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW), is being utilized for this effort. This model facilitates representation of complex surface-water flow processes important for understanding meadow hydrology, such as snow-melt and soil-water dynamics, as well as groundwater flow processes. The Sagehen Creek watershed, located on the east slope of the northern Sierra Nevada near Truckee, California, USA, has been selected as the basis for the model configuration. Considerable watershed information is available from studies conducted at the Sagehen Creek Field Station and Experimental Forest, and an existing GSFLOW model for the area (Markstrom et al., 2008). The domain of the previously constructed Sagehen GSFLOW model was extended 4 km downstream increasing the modeled watershed area from 27 km2 to 37 km2. This moved the simulated watershed outlet well below the meadows of interest, allowing for assessment of upstream and downstream effects of meadow restoration on streamflow. Model discretization was decreased from 90 m to 30 m to allow for increased spatial resolution in the meadows. Layer discretization was increased from 2 to 5 layers to facilitate representation of meadow stratigraphy. The increased vertical discretization resulted in considerable drying and rewetting of model cells requiring the use of the recently developed Newton formulation for MODFLOW-2005 (Niswonger et al., 2011). The model is being used to analyze the potential effects of geomorphic channel restoration on meadow groundwater discharge to streams under varying hydrologic conditions. Of specific interest is the role of low-permeability meadow strata in regulating discharge to streams, and the effects of

  4. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase methanol (LPMEOH) Process A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-10-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program seeks to offer the energy marketplace more efficient and environmentally benign coal utilization technology options by demonstrating them in industrial settings. This document is a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of one of the projects selected in Round III of the CCT Program, the commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process, initially described in a Report to Congress by DOE in 1992. Methanol is an important, large-volume chemical with many uses. The desire to demonstrate a new process for the production of methanol from coal, prompted Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to submit a proposal to DOE. In October 1992, DOE awarded a cooperative agreement to Air Products to conduct this project. In March 1995, this cooperative agreement was transferred to Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership), a partnership between Air Products and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman). DOE provided 43 percent of the total project funding of $213.7 million. Operation of the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit, which is sited at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee, commenced in April 1997. Although operation of the CCT project was completed in December 2002, Eastman continues to operate the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit for the production of methanol. The independent evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from Volume 2 of the project's Final Report (Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Co., L.P. 2003), as well as other references cited.

  5. Synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions associated with flash flooding in watersheds of the Catskill Mountains, New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teale, N. G.; Quiring, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding flash flooding is important in unfiltered watersheds, such as portions of the New York City water supply system (NYCWSS), as water quality is degraded by turbidity associated with flooding. To further understand flash flooding in watersheds of the NYCWSS, synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions most frequently associated with flash flooding between 1987 and 2013 were examined. Flash floods were identified during this time period using USGS 15-minute discharge data at the Esopus Creek near Allaben, NY and Neversink River at Claryville, NY gauges. Overall, 25 flash floods were detected, occurring over 17 separate flash flood days. These flash flood days were compared to the days on which flash flood warnings encompassing the study area was issued by the National Weather Service. The success rate for which the flash flood warnings for Ulster County coincided with flash flood in the study watershed was 0.09, demonstrating the highly localized nature of flash flooding in the Catskill Mountain region. The synoptic-scale atmospheric patterns influencing the study area were characterized by a principal component analysis and k-means clustering of NCEP/NCAR 500 mb geopotential height reanalysis data. This procedure was executed in Spatial Synoptic Typer Tools 4.0. While 17 unique synoptic patterns were identified, only 3 types were strongly associated with flash flooding events. A strong southwesterly flow suggesting advection of moisture from the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico is shown in composites of these 3 types. This multiscalar study thereby links flash flooding in the NYCWSS with synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation.Understanding flash flooding is important in unfiltered watersheds, such as portions of the New York City water supply system (NYCWSS), as water quality is degraded by turbidity associated with flooding. To further understand flash flooding in watersheds of the NYCWSS, synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions most frequently associated with

  6. Large-Scale Landslides in Rapidly Uplifted and Extremely Snowy Mountains in the Northern Japanese Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariya, Y.; Sato, G.; Arai, M.

    2006-12-01

    Mount Shirouma-dake (2932 m ASL, 36.75°N, 137.75°E) and its surrounding mountains have experienced rapid uplift and snowy climate over the late Quaternary period. The geology of this area, which comprises Paleozoic to Mesozoic ultramafic/sedimentary/metamorphic rocks and Neogene to Quaternary volcanic rocks, is very complicated. In addition, glaciers existed during MIS4 and 2 (no glaciers currently exist). Moreover, the active faults in the piedmont area are significant. This is because according to trenching studies, they have produced large earthquakes with a 1100-2400 y interval in the Holocene epoch. Therefore, it is recognized that the environment of this area is conducive to the occurrence of a landslide. Although the landforms in this area have been well described from glacial/periglacial geomorphological viewpoints, few details are available on landslides. The local sustainable tourism with geohazard mitigation requires more information on landslides because this area provides a spectacular landscape and attracts many visitors. Since the 1970s, many lodging and tourism facilities have been developed for such visitors. This area has also hosted the 1998 Winter Olympics because of its snowy climate. We performed geomorphological/geological analysis of the landslides and found that landslides and their precursors (uphill-facing scarps etc.) are common in most altitudinal zones. Many different types of landslides are observed in the bedrock slopes. Slumping is a typical mode. Mass rock creep (sagging), shallow failure, toppling, and landslide complexes are also observed. However, debris avalanche is restricted to the area in which volcanic rocks are distributed. Sometimes, the collapse of unconsolidated debris such as tills, colluvium, and alluvium occurs. In most cases, it is difficult to determine the depths of deformed zones without drilling results; however, it is assumed that a few landslides have a slip surface with a depth of 100 m. In some cases, the

  7. Scaling the Pseudo-Spectral Mountain: Spherical Anelasticity at 10,000 Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Featherstone, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    The last decade has witnessed a blossoming in the use of numerical simulations to examine global-scale dynamo processes operating in stellar convection zones. Increasing availability of computational resources has allowed many insights into these phenomena to be gained through the wide application of the Anelastic Spherical Harmonic (ASH) code in particular. ASH has been applied extensively to the study of solar-like stars; most notably to the various dynamo states attainable within such stars and to the processes that drive and maintain the solar differential rotation. Its application has also provided a window into the inner workings of convection zones with a decidedly less shellular geometry, such as the fully convective, low-mass M stars, or the convective cores of high-mass A- and B-type stars. ASH solves the anelastic MHD equations within a pseudo-spectral framework, employing a spherical harmonic decomposition on spherical shells and either a Chebyshev polynomial or finite-difference formulation in the radial direction. The spectral transforms associated with the pseudo-spectral treatment, and the inherent Poisson solve arising from the anelastic formulation, imply that ASH suffers from the same communication drawbacks associated with many other pseudo-spectral methods. Historically, the efficient application of this code has been limited to the use of roughly 2000 cores for problems with 10243 gridpoints, but recently, a thorough restructuring of ASH has allowed for strong scaling of 10243 class problems out to 17,000 cores. These improvements in scalability arise primarily from a careful load balancing of the Poisson solve and its associated communication pathways, as well as from aggregation of the spectral transform communication. I will discuss in detail the current implementation of ASH, accomplished entirely with MPI, and then touch on why an OpenMP hybridization (recently successful in some pseudo-spectral applications) seems unlikely to yield

  8. A Conceptual and Numerical Model for Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Processes in the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Spycher, Nicolas F.; Conrad, Mark; Apps, John

    2003-07-01

    A numerical model was developed to predict the coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes accompanying the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The DST has been closely monitored through the collection of gas, water, and mineral samples as well as thermal, hydrological, and mechanical measurements. A two-dimensional dual permeability model was developed to evaluate multiphase, multicomponent, reaction-transport processes in the fractured tuff. Comparisons between results using the TOUGHREACT code and measured water (e.g., pH, SiO2(aq), Na+, K+) and gas (CO2) compositions show that the model captures the chemical evolution in the DST. Non-reactive aqueous species (e.g., Cl) show strong dilution in fracture waters, indicating little fracture-matrix interaction. Silica concentrations are higher than in the initial pore water and show a trend of increasing reaction with fracture-lining silicates at higher temperatures. The narrow precipitation zone of predominantly amorphous silica observed above the heaters was also captured.

  9. On the relationship between ecosystem-scale hyperspectral reflectance and CO2 exchange in European mountain grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzarolo, M.; Vescovo, L.; Hammerle, A.; Gianelle, D.; Papale, D.; Tomelleri, E.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we explore the skill of hyperspectral reflectance measurements and vegetation indices (VIs) derived from these in estimating carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes of grasslands. Hyperspectral reflectance data, CO2 fluxes and biophysical parameters were measured at three grassland sites located in European mountain regions using standardized protocols. The relationships between CO2 fluxes, ecophysiological variables, traditional VIs and VIs derived using all two-band combinations of wavelengths available from the whole hyperspectral data space were analysed. We found that VIs derived from hyperspectral data generally explained a large fraction of the variability in the investigated dependent variables but differed in their ability to estimate midday and daily average CO2 fluxes and various derived ecophysiological parameters. Relationships between VIs and CO2 fluxes and ecophysiological parameters were site-specific, likely due to differences in soils, vegetation parameters and environmental conditions. Chlorophyll and water-content-related VIs explained the largest fraction of variability in most of the dependent variables. Band selection based on a combination of a genetic algorithm with random forests (GA-rF) confirmed that it is difficult to select a universal band region suitable across the investigated ecosystems. Our findings have major implications for upscaling terrestrial CO2 fluxes to larger regions and for remote- and proximal-sensing sampling and analysis strategies and call for more cross-site synthesis studies linking ground-based spectral reflectance with ecosystem-scale CO2 fluxes.

  10. Iceberg calving as a primary source of regional‐scale glacier‐generated seismicity in the St. Elias Mountains, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neel, Shad; Larsen, Christopher F.; Rupert, Natalia; Hansen, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Since the installation of the Alaska Regional Seismic Network in the 1970s, data analysts have noted nontectonic seismic events thought to be related to glacier dynamics. While loose associations with the glaciers of the St. Elias Mountains have been made, no detailed study of the source locations has been undertaken. We performed a two-step investigation surrounding these events, beginning with manual locations that guided an automated detection and event sifting routine. Results from the manual investigation highlight characteristics of the seismic waveforms including single-peaked (narrowband) spectra, emergent onsets, lack of distinct phase arrivals, and a predominant cluster of locations near the calving termini of several neighboring tidewater glaciers. Through these locations, comparison with previous work, analyses of waveform characteristics, frequency-magnitude statistics and temporal patterns in seismicity, we suggest calving as a source for the seismicity. Statistical properties and time series analysis of the event catalog suggest a scale-invariant process that has no single or simple forcing. These results support the idea that calving is often a response to short-lived or localized stress perturbations. Our results demonstrate the utility of passive seismic instrumentation to monitor relative changes in the rate and magnitude of iceberg calving at tidewater glaciers that may be volatile or susceptible to ensuing rapid retreat, especially when existing seismic infrastructure can be used.

  11. Preliminary development of the LBL/USGS three-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, C.; Chen, G.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Chornack, M.; Flint, A.; Flint, L.; Kwicklis, E.; Spengler, R.

    1995-06-01

    A 3-D model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed at LBL in cooperation with USGS. This site-scale model covers an area of about 34 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the north, east, and west. The relatively coarse-grid model includes about 300 horizontal grid-blocks and 17 layers. Contour maps and isopach maps are presented defining different types of infiltration zones, and the spatial distribution of Tiva Canyon, Paintbrush, and Topopah Spring hydrogeological units. Matrix flow is approximated using the van Genuchten model, and the equivalent continuum approximation is used to account for fracture flow in the welded units. One-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations are conducted using the TOUGH2 computer program. Steady-state simulations are performed with various uniform and nonuniform infiltration rates; results are interpreted in terms of effect of fault characteristics on moisture flow distribution, and on the location and formation of preferential pathways.

  12. On the relationship between ecosystem-scale hyperspectral reflectance and CO2 exchange in European mountain grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzarolo, M.; Vescovo, L.; Hammerle, A.; Gianelle, D.; Papale, D.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we explore the use of hyperspectral reflectance measurements and vegetation indices (VIs) derived therefrom in estimating carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes (net ecosystem exchange - NEE; gross primary production - GPP), and some key ecophysiological variables related to NEE and GPP (light use efficiency - ɛ; initial quantum yield - α; and GPP at saturating light - GPPmax) for grasslands. Hyperspectral reflectance data (400-1000 nm), CO2 fluxes and biophysical parameters were measured at three grassland sites located in European mountain regions. The relationships between CO2 fluxes, ecophysiological variables and VIs derived using all two-band combinations of wavelengths available from the whole hyperspectral data space were analysed. We found that hyperspectral VIs generally explained a large fraction of the variability in the investigated dependent variables and that they generally exhibited more skill in estimating midday and daily average GPP and NEE, as well as GPPmax, than α and ɛ. Relationships between VIs and CO2 fluxes and ecophysiological parameters were site-specific, likely due to differences in soils, vegetation parameters and environmental conditions. Chlorophyll and water content related VIs (e.g. CI, NPCI, WI), reflecting seasonal changes in biophysical parameters controlling the photosynthesis process, explained the largest fraction of variability in most of the dependent variables. A limitation of the hyperspectral sensors is that their cost is still high and the use laborious. At the eddy covariance with a limited budget and without technical support, we suggest to use at least dual or four channels low cost sensors in the the following spectral regions: 400-420 nm; 500-530 nm; 750-770 nm; 780-800 nm and 880-900 nm. In addition, our findings have major implications for up-scaling terrestrial CO2 fluxes to larger regions and for remote and proximal sensing sampling and analysis strategies and call for more cross-site synthesis studies

  13. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOTH) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-21

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOI-P Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman coal-to-chemicals complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, initial planning and procurement work continued on the seven project sites which have been accepted for participation in the off-site, product-use test program. Approximately 12,000 gallons of fuel-grade methanol (98+ wt% methanol, 4 wt% water) produced during operation on carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas at the LPMEOW Demonstration Unit was loaded into trailers and shipped off-site for Mure product-use testing. At one of the projects, three buses have been tested on chemical-grade methanol and on fhel-grade methanol from the LPMEOW Demonstration Project. During the reporting period, planning for a proof-of-concept test run of the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME~ Process at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, TX continued. The commercial catalyst manufacturer (Calsicat) has prepared the first batch of dehydration catalyst in large-scale equipment. Air Products will test a sample of this material in the laboratory autoclave. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laborato~ autoclave), was monitored for the initial extended operation at the lower initial reactor operating temperature of 235oC. At this condition, the decrease in catalyst activity with time from the period 20 December 1997 through 27 January 1998 occurred at a rate of 1.0% per

  14. Simulation of commercial scale CO2 injection into a fracture reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Li, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic Carbon Sequestration is a proposed means to reduce atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2). At Teapot Dome, Wyoming, CO2 will be injected into the Tensleep Formation, a depleted oil reservoir characterized with significant heterogeneity including facies, faults, and fractures. We've collected geological and engineering characterization data of the entire Teapot Dome field, including core data, well logs, seismic data, and production records. All data were screened for accuracy, before subsets of the data are used to build a geologic reservoir model. A formation structural model is created first by interpreting faults and stratigraphy from 3D seismic data. Formation MicroImager logs are analyzed for fracture characteristics to generate in-situ fracture intensity at wells, which is subsequently interpolated throughout the model with kriging. Based on the intensity and a set of geometric fracture parameters (constrained by outcrop and core measurements), a 3D stochastic Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) is created. One realization of the DFN is upscaled to a dual-porosity simulation model using a variant of the Oda's method. This method upscales the fracture network to an effective grid-block fracture permeability. To account for fluid transfer from matrix to fracture, a sigma factor is computed using average fracture spacings within the grid block. Matrix porosity is populated in the model by kriging interpolation of well-log-derived values. With the dual-porosity model, CO2 is injected near the crest of the dome (the proposed location) at a rate of 2.6 Mt/year for 50 years, with an injection bottomhole pressure set at 160% hydrostatic pressure. Boundary of the model is open except along one bounding fault assumed sealed. Results of the simulation suggest that provided that fluid pressure buildup is not an issue (simulated pressure buildup near the fault is minor), the Tensleep Formation at Teapot Dome can sustain commercial-scale injection over time

  15. COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF THE LIQUID PHASE METHANOL (LPMEOH) PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    E.C. Heydorn; B.W. Diamond; R.D. Lilly

    2003-06-01

    This project, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate the production of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas), has completed the 69-month operating phase of the program. The purpose of this Final Report for the ''Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process'' is to provide the public with details on the performance and economics of the technology. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project was a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the DOE and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The DOE's cost share was $92,708,370 with the remaining funds coming from the Partnership. The LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit is located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The technology was the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} Process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern coal gasifiers. Originally tested at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU), a small, DOE-owned process development facility in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project accomplished the objectives set out in the Cooperative Agreement with DOE for this Clean Coal Technology project

  16. Multi-scale responses of vegetation to removal of horse grazing from Great Basin (USA) mountain ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, E.A.; Tausch, R.J.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Although free-roaming equids occur on all of the world's continents except Antarctica, very few studies (and none in the Great Basin, USA) have either investigated their grazing effects on vegetation at more than one spatial scale or compared characteristics of areas from which grazing has been removed to those of currently grazed areas. We compared characteristics of vegetation at 19 sites in nine mountain ranges of the western Great Basin; sites were either grazed by feral horses (Equus caballus) or had had horses removed for the last 10-14 years. We selected horse-occupied and horse-removed sites with similar aspect, slope, fire history, grazing pressure by cattle (minimal to none), and dominant vegetation (Artemisia tridentata). During 1997 and 1998, line-intercept transects randomly located within sites revealed that horse-removed sites exhibited 1.1-1.9 times greater shrub cover, 1.2-1.5 times greater total plant cover, 2-12 species greater plant species richness, and 1.9-2.9 times greater cover and 1.1-2.4 times greater frequency of native grasses than did horse-occupied sites. In contrast, sites with horses tended to have more grazing-resistant forbs and exotic plants. Direction and magnitude of landscape-scale results were corroborated by smaller-scale comparisons within horse-occupied sites of horse-trail transects and (randomly located) transects that characterized overall site conditions. Information-theoretic analyses that incorporated various subsets of abiotic variables suggested that presence of horses was generally a strong determinant of those vegetation-related variables that differed significantly between treatments, especially frequency and cover of grasses, but also species richness and shrub cover and frequency. In contrast, abiotic variables such as precipitation, site elevation, and soil erodibility best predicted characteristics such as forb cover, shrub frequency, and continuity of the shrub canopy. We found species richness of plants

  17. Evaluation of microbial stability, bioactive compounds, physicochemical properties, and consumer acceptance of pomegranate juice processed in a commercial scale pulsed electric field system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper investigated the feasibility for pasteurizing raw pomegranate juice in a commercial scale pulsed electric field (PEF) system. The juice was processed in a commercial scale PEF processing system at 35 and 38 kV/cm for 281 µs at 55 degree C with a flow rate of 100 L/h. Effect of PEF process...

  18. Multidimensionality and scale in a landscape ethnoecological partitioning of a mountainous landscape (Gyimes, Eastern Carpathians, Romania)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional habitat knowledge is an understudied part of traditional knowledge. Though the number of studies increased world-wide in the last decade, this knowledge is still rarely studied in Europe. We document the habitat vocabulary used by Csángó people, and determine features they used to name and describe these categories. Study area and methods Csángó people live in Gyimes (Carpathians, Romania). The area is dominated by coniferous forests, hay meadows and pastures. Animal husbandry is the main source of living. Data on the knowledge of habitat preference of 135 salient wild plant species were collected (2908 records, 44 interviewees). Data collected indoors were counterchecked during outdoor interviews and participatory field work. Results Csángós used a rich and sophisticated vocabulary to name and describe habitat categories. They distinguished altogether at least 142–148 habitat types, and named them by 242 habitat terms. We argue that the method applied and the questions asked (‘what kind of place does species X like?’) helped the often implicit knowledge of habitats to be verbalized more efficiently than usual in an interview. Habitat names were highly lexicalized and most of them were widely shared. The main features were biotic or abiotic, like land-use, dominant plant species, vegetation structure, successional stage, disturbance, soil characteristics, hydrological, and geomorphological features. Csángós often used indicator species (28, mainly herbaceous taxa) in describing habitats of species. To prevent reduction in the quantity and/or quality of hay, unnecessary disturbance of grasslands was avoided by the Csángós. This could explain the high number of habitats (35) distinguished dominantly by the type and severity of disturbance. Based on the spatial scale and topological inclusiveness of habitat categories we distinguished macro-, meso-, and microhabitats. Conclusions Csángó habitat categories were not organized

  19. Sediment reservoirs and sediment fluxes in high mountain environments: how does sediment move through the system at the decadal scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletti, Natan; Lambiel, Christophe; Lane, Stuart N.

    2016-04-01

    Faced with rapid climate warming over recent decades, high mountain systems are likely to respond dramatically because of: (1) the vulnerability of permafrost, glacial and nival processes to temperature and precipitation changes; (2) the ample availability of unconsolidated, potentially mobile sediments left after deglaciation; and (3) steep slopes, that potentially aid sediment mobilization. We no surprisingly know little about these processes over the decadal scale because the geomorphic response is often complex, spatially and temporally, and there is little history of decadal scale measurement of these systems. In this paper, we focus upon a number of basins in the Southern Swiss Alps, with a wide range of primary sediment transfer mechanisms and altitude ranges up to 1,800 to 3,600 m asl. We are able to combine a set of unique data on: (1) erosion/deposition processes (derived from combined geomorphological maps and photogrammetrically-derived Digital Elevation Models); (2) sediment flux based upon tracking sediment using image correlation; (3) sediment connection quantified using a new approach to handle DEM noise; (4) changing stream sediment transport capacity derived from hydrodynamic modeling applied to long time series of river flow; and (5) sediment export measured at intakes flushed periodically as part of hydropower management. Results suggest a distinct landscape response to climatic forcing. A progressive acceleration of surface displacements for different landforms is observed throughout the last five decades. We observed that, with the beginning of a warmer period in the 1980s, glacier retreat and enhanced snowmelt caused water yield to increase considerably for various watersheds. This translates into enhancement of sediment transport capacities, which in combination with the intensification of landscape dynamics (greater erosion rates) explains the increase flushing frequency and hence sediment export registered in the basins. However, whilst

  20. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Capacity and Associated Aspects of the Most Promising Geologic Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region: Local-Scale Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Scott, Phyllis; Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Esser, Richard; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-07-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of individual local-­scale CCS site characterization studies conducted in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. These site-­ specific characterization analyses were performed as part of the “Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region” (RMCCS) project. The primary objective of these local-­scale analyses is to provide a basis for regional-­scale characterization efforts within each state. Specifically, limits on time and funding will typically inhibit CCS projects from conducting high-­ resolution characterization of a state-­sized region, but smaller (< 10,000 km{sup 2}) site analyses are usually possible, and such can provide insight regarding limiting factors for the regional-­scale geology. For the RMCCS project, the outcomes of these local-­scale studies provide a starting point for future local-­scale site characterization efforts in the Rocky Mountain region.

  1. Evaluating treatment efficacy in commercial food facilities: Insights gained from small-scale simulated warehouse experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although critical to a successful IPM program, it is challenging to evaluate treatment efficacy in commercial food facilities because of the inability to obtain absolute estimates of insect population levels. These populations are spatial fragmented and occupy cryptic habitats such as equipment, pa...

  2. Evaluating Treatment Efficacy in Commercial Food Facilities: Insights Gained from Small-Scale Simulated Warehouse Experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although critical to a successful IPM program, it is challenging to evaluate treatment efficacy in commercial food facilities because of the inability to obtain absolute estimates of insect population levels. These populations are spatially fragmented and occupy cryptic habitats, such as equipment,...

  3. Radiation Tests of Highly Scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories - Update 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.

    2010-01-01

    High-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories with NAND architecture are now available from several manufacturers. This report examines SEE effects and TID response in single-level cell (SLC) and multi-level cell (MLC) NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology.

  4. Radiation Tests of Highly scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories--Update 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.

    2011-01-01

    High-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories with NAND architecture are now available from several manufacturers. This report examines SEE effects and TID response in single-level cell (SLC) 32Gb and multi-level cell (MLC) 64Gb NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology.

  5. The Developmental Rating Scale: A Teacher-Friendly Alternative to Commercial Assessment Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quay, Lorene C.; And Others

    Both concurrent and predictive validity of two developmental instruments, each purporting to measure the same five developmental dimensions, were compared. The Developmental Profile II (DPII), a commercial test, was administered to the same children when they were in prekindergarten and first grade. The initial samples were 91 and 267…

  6. Uncertainties in coupled thermal-hydrological processes associated with the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Tsang, Y W

    2003-01-01

    Understanding thermally driven coupled hydrological, mechanical, and chemical processes in unsaturated fractured tuff is essential for evaluating the performance of the potential radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Drift Scale Test (DST), intended for acquiring such an understanding of these processes, has generated a huge volume of temperature and moisture redistribution data. Sophisticated thermal-hydrological (TH) conceptual models have yielded a good fit between simulation results and those measured data. However, some uncertainties in understanding the TH processes associated with the DST still exist. This paper evaluates these uncertainties and provides quantitative estimates of the range of these uncertainties. Of particular interest for the DST are the uncertainties resulting from the unmonitored loss of vapor through an open bulkhead of the test. There was concern that the outcome from the test might have been significantly altered by these losses. Using alternative conceptual models, we illustrate that predicted mean temperatures from the DST are within 1 degrees C of the measured mean temperatures through the first 2 years of heating. The simulated spatial and temporal evolution of drying and condensation fronts is found to be qualitatively consistent with measured saturation data. Energy and mass balance computation shows that no more than 13% of the input energy is lost because of vapor leaving the test domain through the bulkhead. The change in average saturation in fractures is also relatively small. For a hypothetical situation in which no vapor is allowed to exit through the bulkhead, the simulated average fracture saturation is not qualitatively different enough to be discerned by measured moisture redistribution data. This leads us to conclude that the DST, despite the uncertainties associated with open field testing, has provided an excellent understanding of the TH processes. PMID:12714312

  7. Correcting basin-scale snowfall in a mountainous basin using a distributed snowmelt model and remote-sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Adequate estimation of the spatial distribution of snowfall is critical in hydrologic modelling. However, this is a well-known problem in estimating basin-scale snowfall, especially in mountainous basins with data scarcity. This study focuses on correction and estimation of this spatial distribution, which considers topographic effects within the basin. A method is proposed that optimises an altitude-based snowfall correction factor (Cfsnow). This is done through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed, multilayer energy and water balance-based snowmelt model (WEB-DHM-S) with observed discharge and remotely sensed snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Shuffled Complex Evolution-University of Arizona (SCE-UA) automatic search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal value of Cfsnow for minimum cumulative error in discharge and snow cover simulations. Discharge error is quantified by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and relative volume deviation, and snow cover error was estimated by pixel-by-pixel analysis. The study region is the heavily snow-fed Yagisawa Basin of the Upper Tone River in northeast Japan. First, the system was applied to one snow season (2002-2003), obtaining an optimised Cfsnow of 0.0007 m-1. For validation purposes, the optimised Cfsnow was implemented to correct snowfall in 2004, 2002 and 2001. Overall, the system was effective, implying improvements in correlation of simulated versus observed discharge and snow cover. The 4 yr mean of basin-average snowfall for the corrected spatial snowfall distribution was 1160 mm (780 mm before correction). Execution of sensitivity runs against other model input and parameters indicated that Cfsnow could be affected by uncertainty in shortwave radiation and setting of the threshold air temperature parameter. Our approach is suitable to correct snowfall and estimate its distribution in poorly gauged basins, where elevation dependence of snowfall amount is

  8. Correcting basin-scale snowfall in a mountainous basin using a distributed snowmelt model and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Adequate estimation of the spatial distribution of snowfall is critical in hydrologic modeling. However, this is a well-known problem in estimating basin-scale snowfall, especially in mountainous basins with data scarcity. This study focuses on correction and estimation of this spatial distribution, which considers topographic effects within the basin. A method is proposed that optimizes an altitude-based snowfall correction factor (Cfsnow). This is done through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed, multilayer energy and water balance-based snowmelt model (WEB-DHM-S) with observed discharge and remotely sensed snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Shuffled Complex Evolution - University of Arizona automatic search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal value of Cfsnow for minimum cumulative error in discharge and snow cover simulations. Discharge error is quantified by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and relative volume deviation, and snow cover error was estimated by pixel-by-pixel analysis. The study region is the heavily snow-fed Yagisawa Basin of the Upper Tone River in northeast Japan. First, the system was applied to one snow season (2002-2003), obtaining an optimized Cfsnow of 0.0007 m-1. For validation purposes, the optimized Cfsnow was implemented to correct snowfall in 2004, 2002 and 2001. Overall, the system was effective, implying improvements in correlation of simulated vs. observed discharge and snow cover. The 4 yr mean of basin-average snowfall for the corrected spatial snowfall distribution was 1160 mm (780 mm before correction). Execution of sensitivity runs against other model input and parameters indicated that Cfsnow could be affected by uncertainty in shortwave radiation and setting of the threshold air temperature parameter. Our approach is suitable to correct snowfall and estimate its distribution in poorly-gauged basins, where elevation dependence of snowfall amount is strong.

  9. Jumpstarting commercial-scale CO2 capture and storage with ethylene production and enhanced oil recovery in the US Gulf

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Middleton, Richard S.; Levine, Jonathan S.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Carey, J. William; Stauffer, Philip H.

    2015-04-27

    CO2 capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technology has yet to be widely deployed at a commercial scale despite multiple high-profile demonstration projects. We suggest that developing a large-scale, visible, and financially viable CCUS network could potentially overcome many barriers to deployment and jumpstart commercial-scale CCUS. To date, substantial effort has focused on technology development to reduce the costs of CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. Here, we propose that near-term investment could focus on implementing CO2 capture on facilities that produce high-value chemicals/products. These facilities can absorb the expected impact of the marginal increase in the cost of production onmore » the price of their product, due to the addition of CO2 capture, more than coal-fired power plants. A financially viable demonstration of a large-scale CCUS network requires offsetting the costs of CO2 capture by using the CO2 as an input to the production of market-viable products. As a result, we demonstrate this alternative development path with the example of an integrated CCUS system where CO2 is captured from ethylene producers and used for enhanced oil recovery in the U.S. Gulf Coast region.« less

  10. Occurrence of Eimeria species parasites on small-scale commercial chicken farms in Africa and indication of economic profitability.

    PubMed

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P; Rushton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa. PMID:24391923

  11. Occurrence of Eimeria Species Parasites on Small-Scale Commercial Chicken Farms in Africa and Indication of Economic Profitability

    PubMed Central

    Fornace, Kimberly M.; Clark, Emily L.; Macdonald, Sarah E.; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A.; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P.; Rushton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa. PMID:24391923

  12. High-throughput cryopreservation of spermatozoa of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus): Establishment of an approach for commercial-scale processing.

    PubMed

    Hu, E; Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2011-02-01

    Hybrid catfish created by crossing of female channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and male blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are being used increasingly in foodfish aquaculture because of their fast growth and efficient food conversion. However, the availability of blue catfish males is limited, and their peak spawning is at a different time than that of the channel catfish. As such, cryopreservation of sperm of blue catfish could improve production of hybrid catfish, and has been studied in the laboratory and tested for feasibility in a commercial dairy bull cryopreservation facility. However, an approach for commercially relevant production of cryopreserved blue catfish sperm is still needed. The goal of this study was to develop practical approaches for commercial-scale sperm cryopreservation of blue catfish by use of an automated high-throughput system (MAPI, CryoBioSystem Co.). The objectives were to: (1) refine cooling rate and cryoprotectant concentration, and evaluate their interactions; (2) evaluate the effect of sperm concentration on cryopreservation; (3) refine cryoprotectant concentration based on the highest effective sperm concentration; (4) compare the effect of thawing samples at 20 or 40°C; (5) evaluate the fertility of thawed sperm at a research scale by fertilizing with channel catfish eggs; (6) test the post-thaw motility and fertility of sperm from individual males in a commercial setting, and (7) test for correlation of cryopreservation results with biological indices used for male evaluation. The optimal cooling rate was 5°C/min (Micro Digitcool, IMV) for high-throughput cryopreservation using CBS high-biosecurity 0.5-ml straws with 10% methanol, and a concentration of 1×10(9)sperm/ml. There was no difference in post-thaw motility when samples were thawed at 20°C for 40s or 40°C for 20s. After fertilization, the percentage of neurulation (Stage V embryos) was 80±21%, and percentage of embryonic mobility (Stage VI embryo) was 51±22

  13. High-throughput cryopreservation of spermatozoa of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus): establishment of an approach for commercial-scale processing

    PubMed Central

    Hu, E; Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid catfish created by crossing of female channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and male blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are being used increasingly in foodfish aquaculture because of their fast growth and efficient food conversion. However, the availability of blue catfish males is limited, and their peak spawning is at a different time than that of the channel catfish. As such, cryopreservation of sperm of blue catfish could improve production of hybrid catfish, and has been studied in the laboratory and tested for feasibility in a commercial dairy bull cryopreservation facility. However, an approach for commercially relevant production of cryopreserved blue catfish sperm is still needed. The goal of this study was to develop practical approaches for commercial-scale sperm cryopreservation of blue catfish by use of an automated high-throughput system (MAPI, CryoBioSystem Co.). The objectives were to: 1) refine cooling rate and cryoprotectant concentration, and evaluate their interactions; 2) evaluate the effect of sperm concentration on cryopreservation; 3) refine cryoprotectant concentration based on the highest effective sperm concentration; 4) compare the effect of thawing samples at 20 °C or 40 °C; 5) evaluate the fertility of thawed sperm at a research scale by fertilizing with channel catfish eggs; 6) test the post-thaw motility and fertility of sperm from individual males in a commercial setting, and 7) test for correlation of cryopreservation results with biological indices used for male evaluation. The optimal cooling rate was 5 °C/min (Micro Digitcool, IMV) for high-throughput cryopreservation using CBS high-biosecurity 0.5-ml straws with 10% methanol, and a concentration of 1 × 109 sperm/ml. There was no difference in post-thaw motility when samples were thawed at 20 °C for 40 s or 40 °C for 20 s. After fertilization, the percentage of neurulation (Stage V embryos) was 80 ± 21%, and percentage of embryonic mobility (Stage VI embryo) was 51

  14. Case Study: Commercialization of sweet sorghum juice clarification for large-scale syrup manufacture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The precipitation and burning of insoluble granules of starch from sweet sorghum juice on heating coils prevented the large scale manufacture of syrup at a new industrial plant in Missouri, USA. To remove insoluble starch granules, a series of small and large-scale experiments were conducted at the...

  15. Using 10Be to quantify rates of landscape change in 'dead' orogens - millennial scale rates of bedrock and basin-scale erosion in the southern and central Appalachian Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierman, P. R.; Reusser, L.; Portenga, E.

    2011-12-01

    The Appalachian Mountain chain stretches north-south along the eastern margin of North America, in places rising a thousand meters and more above the adjacent piedmont. Here, Davis built his paradigm of landscape evolution, seeing landscape rejuvenation and dissected peneplains, a transient landscape. Hack saw the Appalachians as a dynamic system where topography was adjusted to rock strength, a steady-state landscape. Neither had quantitative data by which to test their theories. Today, we approach landscapes of the Appalachian Mountains quite differently. Over the past decade, we and others have measured in situ-produced 10Be in more than 300 samples of quartz isolated from Appalachian drainage basin sediments and in more than 100 samples from exposed Appalachian bedrock outcrops, most of which are on ridgelines. Samples have been collected from the Susquehanna, Potomac, and Shenandoah drainage basins as well as from the area around the Great Smoky Mountain National Park and the Blue Ridge escarpment, and from rivers draining from the Appalachians across the southeastern United States Piedmont. Most areas of the Appalachian Mountains are eroding only slowly; the average for all drainage basin samples analyzed to date is ~18 m/My (n=328). The highest basin-scale erosion rates, 25-70 m/My are found in the Appalachian Plateau and in the Great Smoky Mountains. Lower rates, on the order on 10-20 m/My, characterize the Shenandoah, Potomac, and Blue Ridge escarpment areas. There is a significant, positive relationship between basin-scale erosion rates and average basin slope. Steeper basins are in general eroding more rapidly than less steep basins. On the whole, the erosion rates of bedrock outcrops are either lower than or similar to those measured at a basin scale. The average erosion rate for samples of outcropping bedrock collected from the Appalachians is ~15 m/My (n=101). In the Potomac River Basin and the Great Smoky Mountains, bedrock and basin-scale erosion

  16. Single-Event Upset and Scaling Trends in New Generation of the Commercial SOI PowerPC Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; Kouba, Coy K.

    2006-01-01

    SEU from heavy-ions is measured for SOI PowerPC microprocessors. Results for 0.13 micron PowerPC with 1.1V core voltages increases over 1.3V versions. This suggests that improvement in SEU for scaled devices may be reversed. In recent years there has been interest in the possible use of unhardened commercial microprocessors in space because of their superior performance compared to hardened processors. However, unhardened devices are susceptible to upset from radiation space. More information is needed on how they respond to radiation before they can be used in space. Only a limited number of advanced microprocessors have been subjected to radiation tests, which are designed with lower clock frequencies and higher internal core voltage voltages than recent devices [1-6]. However the trend for commercial Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessors is to reduce feature size and internal core voltage and increase the clock frequency. Commercial microprocessors with the PowerPC architecture are now available that use partially depleted SOI processes with feature size of 90 nm and internal core voltage as low as 1.0 V and clock frequency in the GHz range. Previously, we reported SEU measurements for SOI commercial PowerPCs with feature size of 0.18 and 0.13 m [7, 8]. The results showed an order of magnitude reduction in saturated cross section compared to CMOS bulk counterparts. This paper examines SEUs in advanced commercial SOI microprocessors, focusing on SEU sensitivity of D-Cache and hangs with feature size and internal core voltage. Results are presented for the Motorola SOI processor with feature sizes of 0.13 microns and internal core voltages of 1.3 and 1.1 V. These results are compared with results for the Motorola SOI processors with feature size of 0.18 microns and internal core voltage of 1.6 and 1.3 V.

  17. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  18. Commercial-scale out-of-season cryopreservation of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) sperm and its application for fertilization.

    PubMed

    Bernáth, G; Bokor, Z; Żarski, D; Várkonyi, L; Hegyi, Á; Staszny, Á; Urbányi, B; Radóczi Ifj, J; Horváth, Á

    2016-07-01

    The quality and fertilizing capacity of perch (Perca fluviatilis) sperm collected outside of the spawning season (off-season) and cryopreserved at a commercial scale, were tested. Basic parameters (equilibration time, dilution ratio, sperm concentration, post-thaw motility duration) which can have a significant effect on cryopreservation success were systematically investigated for effects on sperm quality using computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA). No significant decrease in progressive motility (pMOT) and straightness (STR) of fresh-diluted sperm was recorded among groups equilibrated for 0, 30 or 60min in an extender with cryoprotectants. Curvilinear velocity (VCL) was reduced significantly after 30min (30min: 146±15μm/s, 60min: 124±18μm/s) of equilibration compared to the control (174±9μm/s). After thawing, no decrease in pMOT or VCL was observed at different equilibration times in any of the analyzed groups. No correlation was observed among progressive motility, dilution ratios (p=0.7) and cell concentrations (p=0.1). The use of different activating solutions resulted in similar pMOT and VCL in the first 120s post-thaw. Nevertheless, post-thaw sperm motility was reduced after 30s using all activators. Motility parameters with low variation were recorded after thawing of 57 straws (pMOT: 37±7%, VCL: 92±10μm/s, STR: 89±3%). Ten randomly selected straws from commercial-scale cryopreservation resulted in a high fertilization rate (cryopreserved sperm: 72±14%, fresh control: 94±2%). An optimized commercial-scale cryopreservation protocol was successfully developed for Eurasian perch. The applicability of the off-season collected perch sperm for cryopreservation and fertilization was demonstrated. PMID:27236377

  19. Generating local scale land use/cover change scenarios: case studies of high-risk mountain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas; Boerboom, Luc

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between land use/cover changes and consequences to human well-being is well acknowledged and has led to higher interest of both researchers and decision makers in driving forces and consequences of such changes. For example, removal of natural vegetation cover or urban expansion resulting in new elements at risk can increase hydro-meteorological risk. This is why it is necessary to study how the land use/cover could evolve in the future. Emphasis should especially be given to areas experiencing, or expecting, high rates of socio-economic change. A suitable approach to address these changes is scenario development; it offers exploring possible futures and the corresponding environmental consequences, and aids decision-making, as it enables to analyse possible options. Scenarios provide a creative methodology to depict possible futures, resulting from existing decisions, based on different assumptions of future socio-economic development. They have been used in various disciplines and on various scales, such as flood risk and soil erosion. Several studies have simulated future scenarios of land use/cover changes at a very high success rate, however usually these approaches are tailor made for specific case study areas and fit to available data. This study presents a multi-step scenario generation framework, which can be transferable to other local scale case study areas, taking into account the case study specific consequences of land use/cover changes. Through the use of experts' and decision-makers' knowledge, we aimed to develop a framework with the following characteristics: (1) it enables development of scenarios that are plausible, (2) it can overcome data inaccessibility, (3) it can address intangible and external driving forces of land use/cover change, and (4) it ensures transferability to other local scale case study areas with different land use/cover change processes and consequences. To achieve this, a set of different methods is applied

  20. Erosion measurements at various scales in a semi arid mountainous catchment - case of the Rheraya watershed, High Atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheggour, A.; Simonneaux, V.; Roose, E.

    2009-04-01

    Erosion is a critical phenomenon in North Africa, under the combined effects of aggressive rainfall and soil fragility, increased by the grazing pressure on rangelands. However measurements of actual erosion rates are rare, especially in mountainous areas. Siltation of dams is estimated at more than 60 million m3 annually in Morocco, which corresponds to a decrease of 0.5% of the storage capacity. The Rheraya watershed (225 km2) is located in a semi-arid climat, in the High Atlas of Morocco. In order to assess erosion processes at various scales, three types of measurements were achieved on this area, namely rainfall simulation tests one square meter, erosion plots on 150 m2, and catchment's discharge and associated sediments measurements. Rainfall simulation experiments were achieved on 27 sites, measuring runoff and sediment charge. The turbidity was correctly measured thanks to the development of a new runoff collector which doesn't disturb the soil. In the scope of spatial extrapolation, we searched for indicators obtained from ground description variables and/or by laboratory tests on soil samples, which were well correlated with infiltration and turbidity of the simulations. For the various soils present in the study area, the results show a large variability of infiltration (from 1 to 70 mm h-1) and turbidity (from 3 to 325 g.l-1). Analysis showed that infiltration is correlated mainly with texture and soil surface opening, and that turbidity is related to the surface of bare soil exposed to runoff. Six erosion plots of about 150 m2, located on various soil and land cover conditions, were measured during four years. The observations showed very rare runoff events in the main part of the watershed, producing a low sediment load (between 0.015 and 2.5 t.ha1.year1). Conversely, runoff was much more frequent on silty badlands, producing about 95% of the watershed sediment (350 t.ha-1.year-1) despite their area was only 1% of the watershed. There was a

  1. SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION FOR THE PORT OF NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

    1999-07-01

    Decontamination and beneficial use of dredged material is a component of a comprehensive Dredged Material Management Plan for the Port of New York and New Jersey. The authors describe here a regional contaminated sediment decontamination program that is being implemented to meet the needs of the Port. The components of the train include: (1) dredging and preliminary physical processing (materials handling), (2) decontamination treatment, (3) beneficial use, and (4) public outreach. Several types of treatment technologies suitable for use with varying levels of sediment contamination have been selected based on the results of bench- and pilot-scale tests. This work is being conducted under the auspices of the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA). The use of sediment washing is suitable for sediments with low to moderate contamination levels, typical of industrialized waterways. BioGenesis Enterprises and Roy F. Weston, Inc. performed the first phase of an incremental decontamination demonstration with the goal of decontaminating 700 cubic yards (cy) (pilot-scale) for engineering design and cost economics information for commercial scale operations. This pilot test was completed in March, 1999. The next phase will scale-up to operation of a commercial facility capable of treating 40 cy/hr. It is anticipated that this will be completed by January 2000 (250,000 cy/yr). Manufactured topsoil is one beneficial use product from this process. Tests of two high-temperature treatment technologies are also in progress. They are well suited to produce almost complete destruction of organic compounds in moderate to highly contaminated dredged materials and for production of high-value beneficial reuse products. The Institute of Gas Technology is demonstrating a natural gas-fired thermochemical manufacturing process with an initial treatment capacity of 30,000 cy/yr into operation by the fall of 1999. Design and construction of a 100,000 cy/yr facility will be based on the

  2. THE TESTING OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ENGINEERING AND PLANT SCALE ANNULAR CENTRIFUGAL CONTACTORS FOR THE PROCESSING OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Nick Mann; Scott Herbst

    2006-10-01

    Annular centrifugal contactors are being evaluated for process scale solvent extraction operations in support of United State Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative goals. These contactors have the potential for high stage efficiency if properly employed and optimized for the application. Commercially available centrifugal contactors are being tested at the Idaho National Laboratory to support this program. Hydraulic performance and mass transfer efficiency have been measured for portions of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle using 5-cm diameter annular centrifugal contactors. Advanced features, including low mix sleeves and clean-in-place rotors, have also been evaluated in 5-cm and 12.5-cm contactors.

  3. Changes in Stream Water Quality Related to Land Use and Watershed Scale in the Catskill Mountains of New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHale, M.

    2005-12-01

    New York City`s West-of-Hudson reservoir system supplies about 85% of the city`s water supply. Land use management in this region has strong implications for water quality because it is the water supply for 9 million people. The city needs information on the effects of current and future land use on water quality. To address these needs the U.S. Geological Survey operates 34 stream gaging stations within the West-of-Hudson reservoir system in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. Water quality and stream flow data are collected at 12 of these sites, grab samples are collected bi-weekly and storm samples are collected using automated samplers. The gages are arranged in a nested watershed design with one or more forested ``upper-nodes`` and a ``lower node`` located at some distance downstream. The watersheds range in size from 2.0 to 177.7 km2 and data for this study were collected from 2000 to 2004. The two principal land uses within the region are forest and agriculture. Residential and commercial land use account for less than 1% of the area in the watersheds included in the study. Watersheds with agricultural land use greater than 2% had the highest median concentration of total phosphorus (TP) and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) in stream water, but there was no relation between the percentage of agricultural land use and TP or TDP concentration. The watershed with the highest percentage of agricultural land use (38%) had TP and TDP concentrations similar to another watershed with 3% agricultural land use. The highest TP and TDP stream water concentrations were measured in a watershed that had 20% agricultural land use, but was the smallest of the lower node watersheds (37 km2). Likewise there was no relation between land use and median nitrate concentration, indeed the highest median nitrate concentration was measured in a watershed that was 99% forested. Water quality from forested watersheds had lower nutrient concentrations than that from agricultural

  4. Is rock slope instability in high-mountain systems driven by topo-climatic, paraglacial or rock mechanical factors? - A question of scale!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messenzehl, Karoline; Dikau, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Due to the emergent and (often non-linear) complex nature of mountain systems the key small-scale system properties responsible for rock slope instability contrast to those being dominant at larger spatial scales. This geomorphic system behaviour has major epistemological consequences for the study of rockfalls and associated form-process-relationships. As each scale requires its own scientific explanation, we cannot simply upscale bedrock-scale findings and, in turn, we cannot downscale the valley-scale knowledge to smaller phenomena. Here, we present a multi-scale study from the Turtmann Valley (Swiss Alps), that addresses rock slope properties at three different geomorphic levels: (i) regional valley scale, (ii) the hillslope scale and (iii) the bedrock scale. Using this hierarchical approach, we aim to understand the key properties of high-mountain systems responsible for rockfall initiation with respect to the resulting form-process-relationship at each scale. (i) At the valley scale (110 km2) rock slope instability was evaluated using a GIS-based modelling approach. Topo-climatic parameters, i.e. the permafrost distribution and the time since deglaciation after LGM were found to be the key variables causative for the regional-scale bedrock erosion and the storage of 62.3 - 65.3 x 106 m3 rockfall sediments in the hanging valleys (Messenzehl et al. 2015). (ii) At the hillslope scale (0.03 km2) geotechnical scanline surveys of 16 rock slopes and one-year rock temperature data of 25 ibuttons reveal that the local rockfall activity and the resulting deposition of individual talus slope landforms is mainly controlled by the specific rock mass strength with respect to the slope aspect, than being a paraglacial reaction. Permafrost might be only of secondary importance for the present-day rock mechanical state as geophysical surveys disprove the existence of frozen bedrock below 2600 m asl. (Messenzehl & Draebing 2015). (iii) At the bedrock scale (0.01 mm - 10 m) the

  5. Intergrated snow, soil and water-balance measurement strategy for multi-scale environmental observations in mountain areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The building of multiscale environmental observatory networks is a critical step in addressing the woefully inadequate observational infrastructure and understanding of mountain water balances. These networks will support science questions that need estimates of water reservoirs and fluxes at the po...

  6. A multi-scale analysis of streamflow response to changes in evapotranspiration and soil hydrology in the Blue Ridge Mountains

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large amount of research exploring the relationship between watershed forest cover and streamflow quantity has been conducted in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, particularly in association with the USFS Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and the Coweeta LTER. However, a clear ans...

  7. Large scale, synchronous variability of marine fish populations driven by commercial exploitation.

    PubMed

    Frank, Kenneth T; Petrie, Brian; Leggett, William C; Boyce, Daniel G

    2016-07-19

    Synchronous variations in the abundance of geographically distinct marine fish populations are known to occur across spatial scales on the order of 1,000 km and greater. The prevailing assumption is that this large-scale coherent variability is a response to coupled atmosphere-ocean dynamics, commonly represented by climate indexes, such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation. On the other hand, it has been suggested that exploitation might contribute to this coherent variability. This possibility has been generally ignored or dismissed on the grounds that exploitation is unlikely to operate synchronously at such large spatial scales. Our analysis of adult fishing mortality and spawning stock biomass of 22 North Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks revealed that both the temporal and spatial scales in fishing mortality and spawning stock biomass were equivalent to those of the climate drivers. From these results, we conclude that greater consideration must be given to the potential of exploitation as a driving force behind broad, coherent variability of heavily exploited fish species. PMID:27382163

  8. Barriers to commercialization of large-scale solar electricity: Lessions learned from the LUZ experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lotker, M. , Westlake Village, CA )

    1991-11-01

    This report discusses the economic and policy factors leading to the initial successful introduction of Luz International Limited's Solar Electric Generating Systems (SEGS). It then addresses the wide range of barriers to continued SEGS commercialization, including state and federal tax policy, avoided cost energy pricing, artificial size limitations under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), the loss of effectiveness of PURPA itself, the lack of incentives available to utilities as owners of solar electric plants, and the limited ways in which the environmental benefits of this technology have been recognized. The way in which each of these barriers contributed to the suspension of new LUZ projects is highlighted. In addition, mitigation approaches to each of these barriers are suggested.

  9. Barriers to commercialization of large-scale solar electricity: Lessions learned from the LUZ experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lotker, M.

    1991-11-01

    This report discusses the economic and policy factors leading to the initial successful introduction of Luz International Limited`s Solar Electric Generating Systems (SEGS). It then addresses the wide range of barriers to continued SEGS commercialization, including state and federal tax policy, avoided cost energy pricing, artificial size limitations under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), the loss of effectiveness of PURPA itself, the lack of incentives available to utilities as owners of solar electric plants, and the limited ways in which the environmental benefits of this technology have been recognized. The way in which each of these barriers contributed to the suspension of new LUZ projects is highlighted. In addition, mitigation approaches to each of these barriers are suggested.

  10. Radiation Tests of Highly Scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories - Update 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Allen, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    The space radiation environment poses a certain risk to all electronic components on Earth-orbiting and planetary mission spacecraft. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of high-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories in space because of ever-increasing data volumes and strict power requirements. They are used in a wide variety of spacecraft subsystems. At one end of the spectrum, flash memories are used to store small amounts of mission-critical data such as boot code or configuration files and, at the other end, they are used to construct multi-gigabyte data recorders that record mission science data. This report examines single-event effect (SEE) and total ionizing dose (TID) response in single-level cell (SLC) 32-Gb, multi-level cell (MLC) 64-Gb, and Triple-level (TLC) 64-Gb NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology with feature size of 25 nm.

  11. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  12. System Evaluation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a Commercial-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-11-01

    Results of a system evaluation and lifecycle cost analysis are presented for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) central hydrogen production plant. The plant design relies on grid electricity to power the electrolysis process and system components, and industrial natural gas to provide process heat. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate the reference central plant design capable of producing 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen. The HYSYS software performs mass and energy balances across all components to allow optimization of the design using a detailed process flow sheet and realistic operating conditions specified by the analyst. The lifecycle cost analysis was performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes Microsoft Excel spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. The results of the lifecycle analyses indicate that for a 10% internal rate of return, a large central commercial-scale hydrogen production plant can produce 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen at an average cost of $2.68/kg. When the cost of carbon sequestration is taken into account, the average cost of hydrogen production increases by $0.40/kg to $3.08/kg.

  13. Large-scale commercial combustion systems for producing energy from municipal solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-02-01

    The large scale combustion systems available on the US market today that use MSW only as fuel are reviewed. Its purpose is to provide waste to energy project participants with basic technical information to facilitate an understanding of the operation and performance of the technologies employed. General technical descriptions of the two types of large scale systems, mass burning and refuel derived fuel burning, are presented. Performance characteristics of each system, based on material and energy balances, are discussed. A description of the typical energy product options (steam only, cogeneration of steam and electricity, or ejectricity only) that may be considered for both types of systems depending on the available market(s) for energy is included. The sources and types of emissions from these systems (air, water, ash and other residue, noise, and odor) are discussed.

  14. Field and temperature scaling of the critical current density in commercial REBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senatore, Carmine; Barth, Christian; Bonura, Marco; Kulich, Miloslav; Mondonico, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Scaling relations describing the electromagnetic behaviour of coated conductors (CCs) greatly simplify the design of REBCO-based devices. The performance of REBCO CCs is strongly influenced by fabrication route, conductor architecture and materials, and these parameters vary from one manufacturer another. In the present work we have examined the critical surface for the current density, J c(T, B, θ), of coated conductors from six different manufacturers: American Superconductor Co. (US), Bruker HTS GmbH (Germany), Fujikura Ltd (Japan), SuNAM Co. Ltd (Korea), SuperOx ZAO (Russia) and SuperPower Inc. (US). Electrical transport and magnetic measurements were performed at temperatures between 4.2 K and 77 K and in magnetic fields of up to 19 T. Experiments were conducted at three different orientations of the field with respect to the crystallographic c-axis of the REBCO layer, θ = 0°, 45° and 90°, in order to probe the angular anisotropy of J c. In spite of the large variability of the CCs’ performance, we show here that field and temperature dependences of J c at a given angle can be reproduced over wide ranges using a scaling relation based only on three parameters. Furthermore, we present and validate a new approach combining magnetic and transport measurements for the determination of the scaling parameters with minimal experimental effort.

  15. Large scale commercial pretreatment facility treats nonhazardous wastewaters at former municipal WWTP

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, N.A.; Bogel, T.A.

    1996-11-01

    Numerous small to medium sized industries and commercial businesses generate nondomestic, nonhazardous water-based waste streams. These waste streams are normally contained temporarily, then hauled off site for pretreatment prior to allowable release into public disposal systems. Industrial Water Recycling, Inc. (IWR) purchased a 4.5 million gallon per day (MGD) former municipal wastewater treatment plant and converted it into a nonhazardous treatment facility which pretreats waters hauled in by truck or drum. The facility uses physical, chemical and biological systems to process leachate, holding tank waters, grease trap wastes, coolant waters, oily wastes and waters with heavy metals. The unit processes are discussed in this paper and the plant`s sequential biological reactor (SBR) treatment system is described. The plant uses air stripping prior to the activated sludge process and treatment of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a biosoil filter. A high level of removal efficiency has been achieved in meeting IWR`s pretreatment discharge permit as shown in the plant operating data presented. Each load received is manifested in and is screened in accordance with IWR`s strict compliance plan. All loads are sampled and may be checked for pH, flash point, oil content, solids content, heavy metals, VOCs or other constituents to verify that it is nonhazardous and meets the manifest specifications.

  16. Effect of site on growth of hybrid poplar clones planted on a commercial scale

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Two-, four-, and five-year height growth of Populus hybrids were measured over a full range of USDA Soil Conservation Service natural and altered soil drainage and texture classes on fields planted by Packaging Corporation of America using intensive culture. Five clonal trials with 40 clones each were examined for 4-year height growth and were analyzed for effects of site, clone and site by clone interaction. Substantial soil variability became an important factor on the previously-planted sites and had to be considered in the statistical analysis. Ten clones with the best 4-year height growth were identified. Four- and five-year height growth of several of the most promising clones from the clonal trials were then examined over a range of soil/site conditions in commercial-size plantations using a tillage plus herbicide management system. Two-year growth was evaluated using a no-till system. Height growth under both management systems significantly decreased on sites other than those with the most optimum conditions for agricultural crops. Using the results from the clonal trials and the two tillage system studies, soil/site factors which affected establishment and early growth of hybrid popular plantings were summarized and outlined in detail, and a practical field guide was formulated for evaluating the potential of agricultural fields for the intensive culture of hybrid poplars.

  17. Scaling the Problem: How Commercial Interests Have Influenced the U.S. Dialogue on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, G. T.; Rogerson, P.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, corporations and their affiliates have played an increasing role in the national conversation on climate change, with companies weighing in not only on policy debates but also participating in discussions around climate science. A few of these companies in particular have been tremendously influential in dictating how the public understands, or misunderstands, climate science and how the national discourse on climate policy has progressed, or not progressed. To better understand this corporate involvement, we explored the roles that major corporate actors have played during a key time period in 2009 and 2010 when several important climate change policy proposals were being actively debated in the United States. Analyzing multiple venues in which companies engaged in discussion of climate change with different audiences—including the government, shareholders, and the public—we assess the degree to which commercial interests have helped or hindered a science-based public discourse on climate policy in the past decade. Discussion will focus especially on corporations' use of third party organizations, including industry trade groups, think tanks, and others, to exert influence on climate-related policy without accountability.

  18. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D.; Shevenell, L., Garside, L.

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

  19. Full-Scale Structural and NDI Validation Tests of Bonded Composite Doublers for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

    1999-02-01

    Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. Most of the concerns surrounding composite doubler technology pertain to long-term survivability, especially in the presence of non-optimum installations, and the validation of appropriate inspection procedures. This report focuses on a series of full-scale structural and nondestructive inspection (NDI) tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Full-scale tests were conducted on fuselage panels cut from retired aircraft. These full-scale tests studied stress reductions, crack mitigation, and load transfer capabilities of composite doublers using simulated flight conditions of cabin pressure and axial stress. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of aircraft structure repairs were subjected to extreme tension, shear and bending loads to examine the composite laminate's resistance to disbond and delamination flaws. Several of the structures were loaded to failure in order to determine doubler design margins. Nondestructive inspections were conducted throughout the test series in order to validate appropriate techniques on actual aircraft structure. The test results showed that a properly designed and installed composite doubler is able to enhance fatigue life, transfer load away from damaged structure, and avoid the introduction of new stress risers (i.e. eliminate global reduction in the fatigue life of the structure). Comparisons with test data obtained prior to the doubler installation revealed that stresses in the parent material can be reduced 30%--60% through the use of the composite doubler. Tests to failure demonstrated that the bondline is able to transfer plastic strains into the doubler and that the

  20. Landscape-scale geospatial research utilizing low elevation aerial photography generated with commercial unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipo, C. P.; Lee, C.; Wechsler, S.

    2012-12-01

    With the ability to generate on demand high-resolution imagery across landscapes, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are increasingly become the tools of choice for geospatial researchers. At CSULB, we have implemented a number of aerial systems in order to conduct archaeological, vegetation and terrain analyses. The platforms include the commercially available X100 by Gatewing, a hobby based aircraft, kites, and tethered blimps. From our experience, each platform has advantages and disadvantages n applicability int eh field and derived imagery. The X100, though comparatively more costly, produces images with excellent coverage of areas of interest and can fly in a wide range of weather conditions. The hobby plane solutions are low-cost and flexible in their configuration but their relative lightweight makes them difficult to fly in windy conditions and the sets of images produced can widely vary. The tethered blimp has a large payload and can fly under many conditions but its ability to systematically cover large areas is very limited. Kites are extremely low-cost but have similar limitations to blimps for area coverage and limited payload capabilities. Overall, we have found the greatest return for our investment from the Gatewing X100, despite its relatively higher cost, due to the quality of the images produced. Developments in autopilots, however, may improve the hobby aircraft solution and allow X100 like products to be produced in the near future. Results of imagery and derived products from these UAS missions will be presented and evaluated. Assessment of the viability of these UAS-products will inform the research community of their applicability to a range of applications, and if viable, could provide a lower cost alternative to other image acquisition methods.

  1. Northern Rocky Mountain Wildfires and Debris Flows: Millennial-Scale Interactions among Climate, Fire, Vegetation, and Geomorphic Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, J. L.; Riley, K. E.; Weppner, K.

    2012-12-01

    As summer droughts and rising temperatures in the Western U.S. continue to fuel large wildfires, understanding the role of fire in mountain ecosystems becomes increasingly relevant. Past relationships among fire, climate, and vegetation change may help place recent fires within a historic context. In addition, post-fire floods and debris flows contribute large amounts of sediment to rivers and streams. Quantifying fire-related sediment inputs is important for disciplines ranging from stream ecology to landscape evolution. We examine evidence of fires and related hillslope erosion through 14C dating of alluvial charcoal fragments preserved in Holocene fire-related deposits in alluvial fans and stream sediments throughout a range of ecosystems in Idaho, USA. In addition, we measure sediment yields from recent fire-related debris flows and extrapolate the contribution of fire-related sediment inputs to streams over millennial timescales. Over Holocene timescales, independent records of forest-fires and fire-related erosion from ecosystems ranging from sagebrush steppe, pinion-juniper, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine and mixed conifer forests indicate that sedimentation rates and processes on alluvial fans vary temporally with Holocene climate, and spatially with vegetation type. Despite variations in ecosystem type and associated fire regimes, many sites show similar broad-scale patterns. During the Pleistocene-Holocene transition large fires burned across many ecosystems. The mid-Holocene (~4-8 ka) is characterized by few fire-related deposits; however, this relatively fire-free interval is punctuated by fire peaks and associated sheetflooding ~7-6 ka. Since regional paleoclimatic reconstructions indicate the mid-Holocene was generally warm and dry the lack of fire is somewhat counterintuitive; however, decreased fuel loads, combined with perhaps a more stable climate may reduce fire and storm intensity and frequency. The late Holocene (last ~3 ka) cooler, wetter and

  2. Recent hydrological variability and extreme precipitation events in Moroccan Middle-Atlas mountains: micro-scale analyses of lacustrine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouve, Guillaume; Vidal, Laurence; Adallal, Rachid; Bard, Edouard; Benkaddour, Abdel; Chapron, Emmanuel; Courp, Thierry; Dezileau, Laurent; Hébert, Bertil; Rhoujjati, Ali; Simonneau, Anaelle; Sonzogni, Corinne; Sylvestre, Florence; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; Viry, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1990s, the Mediterranean basin undergoes an increase in precipitation events and extreme droughts likely to intensify in the XXI century, and whose origin is attributable to human activities since 1850 (IPCC, 2013). Regional climate models indicate a strengthening of flood episodes at the end of the XXI century in Morocco (Tramblay et al, 2012). To understand recent hydrological and paleohydrological variability in North Africa, our study focuses on the macro- and micro-scale analysis of sedimentary sequences from Lake Azigza (Moroccan Middle Atlas Mountains) covering the last few centuries. This lake is relevant since local site monitoring revealed that lake water table levels were correlated with precipitation regime (Adallal R., PhD Thesis in progress). The aim of our study is to distinguish sedimentary facies characteristic of low and high lake levels, in order to reconstruct past dry and wet periods during the last two hundred years. Here, we present results from sedimentological (lithology, grain size, microstructures under thin sections), geochemical (XRF) and physical (radiography) analyses on short sedimentary cores (64 cm long) taken into the deep basin of Lake Azigza (30 meters water depth). Cores have been dated (radionuclides 210Pb, 137Cs, and 14C dating). Two main facies were distinguished: one organic-rich facies composed of wood fragments, several reworked layers and characterized by Mn peaks; and a second facies composed of terrigenous clastic sediments, without wood nor reworked layers, and characterized by Fe, Ti, Si and K peaks. The first facies is interpreted as a high lake level stand. Indeed, the highest paleoshoreline is close to the vegetation, and steeper banks can increase the current velocity, allowing the transport of wood fragments in case of extreme precipitation events. Mn peaks are interpreted as Mn oxides precipitations under well-oxygenated deep waters after runoff events. The second facies is linked to periods of

  3. Time scales of pulsatory magmatic construction and solidification in Miocene subvolcanic magma systems, Eldorado Mountains, Nevada (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. S.; Miller, C. F.; Cates, N. L.; Wooden, J. L.; Means, M. A.; Ericksen, S.

    2004-05-01

    Recent advances in high-resolution geochronology applied to volcanic rocks have illuminated residence times of magma in subvolcanic magma chambers, and thereby provided valuable constraints on the evolution of upper crustal magmatic systems. Subvolcanic plutons record an important complementary physical and temporal record of magma processing and solidification of shallowly emplaced magma bodies. Our detailed field, geochemical, and isotopic investigations of the Miocene Aztec Wash and Searchlight plutons (Eldorado Mountains, Nevada) have shown that both systems experienced mafic and felsic input, both solidified primarily by vertical accumulation of solidified products, and both were vented during their life spans. However, the final captured records are different in that Searchlight is dominated by relatively homogeneous felsic cumulates, whereas Aztec Wash records repeated input and mingling of mafic and felsic magmas. New in situ ion microprobe U/Pb dating (Stanford/USGS SHRIMP-RG) of zircon (partially corroborated by U/Pb TIMS), combined with our earlier and ongoing field and isotopic studies, now reveal clear differences in the magmatic life spans and lifecycles of the two systems. U/Pb ion probe ages of 123 zircon spots from 5 samples from Aztec Wash document 200 ky of construction. Three samples from the lower middle part of the pluton are all 15.8 Ma (1σ ) errors for individual samples ~0.15 Ma; MSWD's ~1.0), and a single sample at the top is 15.6±0.2 Ma (MSWD 0.3); a late dike is 15.5±0.1 Ma (MSWD 1.0). Ages from 136 spots from 6 samples from the Searchlight pluton record 2 million years of construction (all age errors are 1σ )). The oldest dated unit is a mafic pod from lower Searchlight pluton that yielded a 206Pb/238U age of 17.7±0.3 Ma (MSWD 0.6). A granite from a thick felsic sheet in the interior of Searchlight pluton, interpreted to be the last material to crystallize, yielded a 206Pb/238U age of 16.2±0.2 (MSWD 3.5), but has a distinct 15

  4. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD): Hosted Payload Accommodation on a Commercial Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankton, M.; Eastes, R.; McClintock, W. E.; Pang, R.; Caffrey, R.; Krywonos, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Global-Scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission will perform unprecedented imaging of the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere (TI) system from geostationary (GEO) orbit. Flying as a hosted payload on a commercial communications satellite, GOLD takes advantage of the resource margins available in the early years of the commercial mission's planned 15-year life. This hosted payload approach is a pathfinder for cost-effective NASA science missions. The affordable ride to GEO makes it possible for an Explorer-class Mission of Opportunity to perform Far UltraViolet (FUV) imaging of nearly a complete hemisphere on a 30-minute cadence. This global-scale, high cadence imaging will enable GOLD to distinguish between spatial and temporal variations in the TI system caused by geomagnetic storms, variations in solar EUV, and forcing from the lower atmosphere. The most significant difference between developing instrumentation for a NASA-owned mission and accomplishing the same task for a commercial satellite is that communications satellites are procured on a faster schedule - 24 to 36 months from satellite contract to launch - than the instrument development. GOLD has partnered with SES Government Solutions (SES-GS), the comsat mission owner-operator, to define instrument interfaces and requirements that will be included in the eventual Request for Proposal to candidate spacecraft vendors. SES-GS launches 3 to 4 missions per year, which allows the GOLD-SES-GS partnership to match the instrument's launch readiness date with a suitable mission. In addition to making geostationary orbit accessible to a science instrument at relatively low cost, commercial communications satellites provides a host platform with very high reliability and long life, easy access to continuous high-speed data downlink and near-real-time data delivery, and stable pointing. SES-GS operates their satellite from established Telemetry, Tracking and Control (TT&C) centers. The GOLD Science

  5. Preliminary 3-D site-scale studies of radioactive colloid transortin the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, G.J.; Hu, Q.; Wu, Y.-S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S: Department of Energy is actively investigating the technical feasibility of permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this study we investigate, by means of numerical simulation, the transport of radioactive colloids under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table. The site hydrology and the effects of the spatial distribution of hydraulic and transport properties in the Yucca Mountain subsurface are considered. The study of migration and retardation of colloids accounts for the complex processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, and includes advection, diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion, kinetic colloid filtration, colloid straining, and radioactive decay. The results of the study indicate that the most important factors affecting colloid transport are the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The transport of colloids is strongly influenced by their size (as it affects diffusion into the matrix, straining at hydrogeologic unit interfaces, and transport velocity) and by the parameters of the kinetic-filtration model used for the simulations. Arrival times at the water table decrease with an increasing colloid size because of smaller diffusion, increased straining, and higher transport velocities. The importance of diffusion as a retardation mechanism increases with a decreasing colloid size, but appears to be minimal in large colloids.

  6. Preliminary 3-D site-scale studies of radioactive colloid transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Moridis, G J; Hu, Q; Wu, Y-S; Bodvarsson, G S

    2003-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is actively investigating the technical feasibility of permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. In this study we investigate, by means of numerical simulation, the transport of radioactive colloids under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table. The site hydrology and the effects of the spatial distribution of hydraulic and transport properties in the Yucca Mountain subsurface are considered. The study of migration and retardation of colloids accounts for the complex processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, and includes advection, diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion, kinetic colloid filtration, colloid straining, and radioactive decay. The results of the study indicate that the most important factors affecting colloid transport are the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The transport of colloids is strongly influenced by their size (as it affects diffusion into the matrix, straining at hydrogeologic unit interfaces, and transport velocity) and by the parameters of the kinetic-filtration model used for the simulations. Arrival times at the water table decrease with an increasing colloid size because of smaller diffusion, increased straining, and higher transport velocities. The importance of diffusion as a retardation mechanism increases with a decreasing colloid size, but appears to be minimal in large colloids. PMID:12504362

  7. Christmas Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Christmas Mountains     View Larger Image ... New Brunswick. Located above image center are the Christmas Mountains, a region of old-growth forest nestled in a remote wilderness. Within ...

  8. Lysimeter study of commercial reactor waste forms: waste form acquisition characterization and full-scale leaching

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    This report describes work conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) as part of a joint program with Savannah River Laboratory. Typical full-scale (55-gallon drum size) waste forms were acquired by BNL from a boiling water reactor (BWR) and a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Liquid waste stream activity concentrations were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. This information was used to determine the waste from activity inventory, providing the necessary source term for lysimeter and leaching experiments. Predominant radionuclides of interest include /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, and /sup 54/Mn. A full-scale leaching experiment was initiated by BNL encompassing four representative waste stream-solidification agent combinations. Waste streams tested include PWR evaporator concentrate (boric acid waste), BWR evaporator concentrate (sodium sulfate waste) and BWR evaporator concentrate plus ion exchange resins. Solidification agents include masonry cement, portland type III cement, and vinyl ester-styrene (Dow polymer). Analyses of leachates indicate measurable leach rates of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, and /sup 60/Co from both BWR and PWR cement waste forms. The leach rates for both cesium isotopes in cement are at least two orders of magnitude greater than those for cobalt. Leachates from the BWR Dow polymer waste form include the same isotopes present in cement leachates, with the addition of /sup 54/Mn. Cesium leach rates from the Dow polymer waste form are approximately one order of magnitude lower than from an equivalent cement waste form. The /sup 60/Co cumulative fraction release, however, is approximately three times greater for the Dow polymer waste form.

  9. Decadal-scale variability of diffuse CO2 emissions and seismicity revealed from long-term monitoring (1995-2013) at Mammoth Mountain, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Cynthia; Bergfeld, Deborah; Farrar, Christopher D.; Doukas, Michael P.; Kelly, Peter J.; Kern, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    Mammoth Mountain, California, is a dacitic volcano that has experienced several periods of unrest since 1989. The onset of diffuse soil CO2 emissions at numerous locations on the flanks of the volcano began in 1989-1990 following an 11-month period of heightened seismicity. CO2 emission rates were measured yearly from 1995 to 2013 at Horseshoe Lake (HSL), the largest tree kill area on Mammoth Mountain, and measured intermittently at four smaller degassing areas around Mammoth from 2006 to 2013. The long-term record at HSL shows decadal-scale variations in CO2 emissions with two peaks in 2000-2001 and 2011-2012, both of which follow peaks in seismicity by 2-3 years. Between 2000 and 2004 emissions gradually declined during a seismically quiet period, and from 2004 to 2009 were steady at ~ 100 metric tonnes per day (t d- 1). CO2 emissions at the four smaller tree-kill areas also increased by factors of 2-3 between 2006 and 2011-2012, demonstrating a mountain-wide increase in degassing. Delays between the peaks in seismicity and degassing have been observed at other volcanic and hydrothermal areas worldwide, and are thought to result from an injection of deep CO2-rich fluid into shallow subsurface reservoirs causing a pressurization event with a delayed transport to the surface. Such processes are consistent with previous studies at Mammoth, and here we highlight (1) the mountain-wide response, (2) the characteristic delay of 2-3 years, and (3) the roughly decadal reoccurrence interval for such behavior. Our best estimate of total CO2 degassing from Mammoth Mountain was 416 t d- 1 in 2011 during the peak of emissions, over half of which was emitted from HSL. The cumulative release of CO2 between 1995 and 2013 from diffuse emissions is estimated to be ~ 2-3 Mt, and extrapolation back to 1989 gives ~ 4.8 Mt. This amount of CO2 release is similar to that produced by the mid-sized (VEI 3) 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano in Alaska (~ 2.3 Mt over 11 months), and

  10. Modulation of the early pre- and post-nucleation stages of scale forming minerals by a commercial copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, Cristina; Putnis, Christine; Ibañez-Velasco, Aurelia; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnación; Putnis, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Mineral precipitation is a substantial hazard for multiple technological applications, leading frequently to the formation of thick scale deposits that can completely block fluid circulation in different industrial processes. Polymeric scale inhibitors are commonly used to mitigate or retard these unwanted mineral precipitation reactions. Here we study the mechanisms by which a commercial copolymer of maleic acid/allyl sulfonic acid with phosphonate groups (MASP), commonly used in the oil recovery industry, modulate the precipitation of two common scale forming minerals, calcite and barite. We found that MASP does not significantly affect the equilibrium of pre-nucleation aggregates in both systems, while it seems to prevent the aggregation of prenucleation associates by incomplete stabilization, thereby inhibiting (at least temporarily) the nucleation of a solid phase. Moreover, it influences polymorph selection in the CaCO3, as in the presence of this additive nucleation occurs at high supersaturation via amorphous calcium carbonate that later transform into calcite, while in control runs (i.e. no MASP present) the direct formation of vaterite is observed.

  11. Scaling and Optimization of Magnetic Refrigeration for Commercial Building HVAC Systems Greater than 175 kW in Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; West, David L; Mallow, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVACR) account for approximately one- third of building energy consumption. Magnetic refrigeration presents an opportunity for significant energy savings and emissions reduction for serving the building heating, cooling, and refrigeration loads. In this paper, we have examined the magnet and MCE material requirements for scaling magnetic refrigeration systems for commercial building cooling applications. Scaling relationships governing the resources required for magnetic refrigeration systems have been developed. As system refrigeration capacity increases, the use of superconducting magnet systems becomes more applicable, and a comparison is presented of system requirements for permanent and superconducting (SC) magnetization systems. Included in this analysis is an investigation of the ability of superconducting magnet based systems to overcome the parasitic power penalty of the cryocooler used to keep SC windings at cryogenic temperatures. Scaling relationships were used to develop the initial specification for a SC magnet-based active magnetic regeneration (AMR) system. An optimized superconducting magnet was designed to support this system. In this analysis, we show that the SC magnet system consisting of two 0.38 m3 regenerators is capable of producing 285 kW of cooling power with a T of 28 K. A system COP of 4.02 including cryocooler and fan losses which illustrates that an SC magnet-based system can operate with efficiency comparable to traditional systems and deliver large cooling powers of 285.4 kW (81.2 Tons).

  12. Appalachian Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Appalachian Mountains     View Larger Image Multi-angle views of the Appalachian Mountains, March 6, 2000 . The true-color image at left is a ... from Lake Ontario to northern Georgia, and spanning the Appalachian Mountains. The three images to the right are also in true-color, ...

  13. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-30

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHTM) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOIYM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, comments from the DOE on the Topical Report "Economic Analysis - LPMEOHTM Process as an Add-on to IGCC for Coproduction" were received. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing for the coproduction of dimethyl ether (DIME) and methanol was made. DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed. A recommendation document summarizing catalyst targets, experimental results, and the corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst was issued on 30 June 1997. The off-site, product-use test plan was updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Acurex Environmental Corporation and Air Products screened proposals for this task by the likelihood of the projects to proceed and the timing for the initial methanol requirement. Eight sites from the list have met these criteria. The formal submission of the eight projects for review and concurrence by the DOE will be made during the next reporting period. The site paving and final painting were completed in May of 1997. Start-up activities were completed during the reporting period, and the initial methanol production from the demonstration unit occurred on 02 April 1997. The first extended stable operation at the nameplate capacity of 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons

  14. Measures for minimizing radiation hazardous to the environment in the advent of large-scale space commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, S. Nataraja

    The nature of hazardous effects from radio-frequency (RF), light, infrared, and nuclear radiation on human and other biological species in the advent of large-scale space commercialization is considered. Attention is focused on RF/microwave radiation from earth antennas and domestic picture phone communication links, exposure to microwave radiation from space solar-power satellites, and the continuous transmission of information from spacecraft as well as laser radiation from space. Measures for preventing and/or reducing these effects are suggested, including the use of interlocks for cutting off radiation toward ground, off-pointing microwave energy beams in cases of altitude failure, limiting the satellite off-axis gain data-rate product, the use of reflective materials on buildings and in personnel clothing to protect from space-borne lasers, and underwater colonies in cases of high-power lasers. For nuclear-power satellites, deposition in stable points in the solar system is proposed.

  15. Patient-centred mountain medicine.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Piotr; Hillebrandt, David

    2016-08-01

    Venturing into the mountains, doctors have accompanied expeditions to provide routine care to the teams, undertake research and occasionally take on a rescue role. The role of doctors practicing mountain medicine is evolving. Public health issues involving concepts of health and safety have become necessary with the coming of commercial and youth expeditions. Increasingly individuals with a disability or a medical diagnosis choose to ascend to high altitudes. Doctors become involved in assessment of risk and providing advice for such individuals. The field of mountain medicine is perhaps unique in that acceptance of risk is part of the ethos of climbing and adventure. The pursuit of mountaineering goals may represent the ultimate conquest of a disability. Knowledge of mountain environment is essential in facilitating mountain ascents for those who choose to undertake them, in spite of a disability or medical condition. PMID:27234206

  16. Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2000-04-01

    Electrochromic glazings promise to be the next major advance in energy-efficient window technology, helping to transform windows and skylights from an energy liability to an energy source for the nation's building stock. Monitored results from a full-scale demonstration of large-area electrochromic windows are given. The test consisted of two side-by-side, 3.7x4.6-m, office-like rooms. In each room, five 62x173-cm lower electrochromic windows and five 62x43-cm upper electrochromic windows formed a large window wall. The window-to-exterior-wall ratio (WWR) was 0.40. The southeast-facing electrochromic windows had an overall visible transmittance (Tv) range of Tv=0.11-0.38 and were integrated with a dimmable electric lighting system to provide constant work plane illuminance and to control direct sun. Daily lighting use from the automated electrochromic window system decreased by 6 to 24% compared to energy use with static, low-transmission (Tv =0.11), unshaded windows in overcast to cle ar sky winter conditions in Oakland, California. Daily lighting energy use increased as much as 13% compared to lighting energy use with static windows that had Tv=0.38. Even when lighting energy savings were not obtainable, the visual environment produced by the electrochromic windows, indicated by well-controlled window and room luminance levels, was significantly improved for computer-type tasks throughout the day compared to the visual environment with unshaded 38%-glazing. Cooling loads were not measured, but previous building energy simulations indicate that additional savings could be achieved. To ensure visual and thermal comfort, electrochromics require occasional use of interior or exterior shading systems when direct sun is present. Other recommendations to improve electrochromic materials and controls are noted along with some architectural constraints.

  17. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHT") demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L. P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day) of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was designed, constructed, and is operating at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to "demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOWM Process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility." The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fiel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four-year demonstration period. The LPMEOITM process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfdly piloted at a 10 tons-per- day (TPD) rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products' LaPorte, Texas, site. This demonstration project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.

  18. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LOMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million effort being conducted under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day (TPD)) of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was designed, constructed, and began a four-year operational period in April of 1997 at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to "demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH?M Process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility." The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fiel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four-year demonstration period. The LPMEOJYM process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfidly piloted at a 10-TPD rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products' LaPorte, Texas, site. This Demonstration Project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.

  19. Field-scale mobility and persistence of commercial and stargh-encapusulated atrazine and alachlor

    SciTech Connect

    Gish, T.J.; Shirmohammadi, A.; Wienhold, B.J.

    1994-03-01

    Recent laboratory studies have shown that starch-encapsulation (SE) may reduce leachate losses of certain pesticides. This study compares field-scale mobility and persistence of SE-atrazine [2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine] and alachlor [2-chloro-N(2,6 diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl)acetamide] to that of a commerciall formulation (CF) of atrazine and alachlor. The research site consisted of four (0.25 ha) fields. Two fields were under no-tillage management (NT) and two were under conventional tillage (CT). One field in each tillage system received SE-formulated atritzine and alachlor, while the others received CF-atrazine and alachlor. Chemical movement and persistence was determined by analysis of surface samples ({approximately}3 cm) taken immediately after application and 1.1-m soil cores collected seven times over 2 yr. No significant difference in herbicide residue levels was observed between NT and CT, but there was a herbicide formulation effect. Soil residue analysis suggests that SE-atrazine was more persistent and less mobile than CF-atrazine. Starch- encapsulated-alachlor was slightly more persistent than CF-alachlor, but no differences in mobility between formulations was observed. The differential field behavior between SE-herbicides is attributed to the faster release of alachlor from the starch granules. Increased atrazine persistence was attributed to the reduction of leachate losses. The reduction in atrazine leaching is likely due to the slow release from the starch granules and subsequent diffusion into the son matrix where it is less subject to preferential flow processes. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Process chains in high mountain areas and multi-hazards of different scales - the Barsem disaster, Tajikistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Markus; Fuchs, Sven; Keiler, Margreth

    2016-04-01

    Changes in high-mountain environments are responsible for new and challenging multi-hazard conditions and materialize in particular through cases such as the Barsem disaster (Pamir, Tajikistan) in July 2015. At least 14 major debris flows occurred in the Barsem Valley within four days during a period of exceptional meteorological conditions. The flows transported large volumes of debris on the fan where the village Barsem with about 1,500 inhabitants is located. As a result, 80 homes were completely destroyed, and one person went lost. Moreover, the debris dammed the Gunt River, forming a lake of two kilometers length and endangering the local power supply. The lake interrupted the Pamir Highway and the potential lake outburst threatened the downstream communities along the valley as well as Khorog, the capital of the Gorno Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. The damage was caused directly by the debris flows deposits and by subsequent flooding as a consequence of dammed Gunt River. This contribution will provide a first analysis of the conditions in the debris flow starting zone and the triggering of the event, the sediment connectivity during the event and further consequences downstream related to the accumulated debris dam at the Gunt River. Furthermore, the analysis will be supported by a comparison between different events in the Pamir region and the European Alps focusing on geomorphological features in the starting zone, processes sequences, process-process interactions but also on emerging multi-hazard situation in this context. Increasing challenges due to changes in the high-mountain environment will be discusses for the Pamir region as well as the comparability between different mountain regions.

  1. ‘Oorja’ in India: Assessing a large-scale commercial distribution of advanced biomass stoves to households

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Mark C.; Phadke, Himani; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Shrimali, Gireesh; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2015-01-01

    make pellets. The business orientation of First Energy allowed the company to pivot rapidly to commercial customers when the household market encountered difficulties. The business background of managers also facilitated the initial marketing and distribution efforts that allowed the stove distribution to reach scale. PMID:25814822

  2. Application of Environmental Seismic Intensity scale (ESI 2007) to Krn Mountains 1998 Mw = 5.6 earthquake (NW Slovenia) with emphasis on rockfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosar, A.

    2012-05-01

    The 12 April 1998 Mw = 5.6 Krn Mountains earthquake with a maximum intensity of VII-VIII on the EMS-98 scale caused extensive environmental effects in the Julian Alps. The application of intensity scales based mainly on damage to buildings was limited in the epicentral area, because it is a high mountain area and thus very sparsely populated. On the other hand, the effects on the natural environment were prominent and widespread. These facts and the introduction of a new Environmental Seismic Intensity scale (ESI 2007) motivated a research aimed to evaluate the applicability of ESI 2007 to this event. All environmental effects were described, classified and evaluated by a field survey, analysis of aerial images and analysis of macroseismic questionnaires. These effects include rockfalls, landslides, secondary ground cracks and hydrogeological effects. It was realized that only rockfalls (78 were registered) are widespread enough to be used for intensity assessment, together with the total size of affected area, which is around 180 km2. Rockfalls were classified into five categories according to their volume. The volumes of the two largest rockfalls were quantitatively assessed by comparison of Digital Elevation Models to be 15 × 106 m3 and 3 × 106 m3. Distribution of very large, large and medium size rockfalls has clearly defined an elliptical zone, elongated parallel to the strike of the seismogenic fault, for which the intensity VII-VIII was assessed. This isoseismal line was compared to the tentative EMS-98 isoseism derived from damage-related macroseismic data. The VII-VIII EMS-98 isoseism was defined by four points alone, but a similar elongated shape was obtained. This isoseism is larger than the corresponding ESI 2007 isoseism, but its size is strongly controlled by a single intensity point lying quite far from others, at the location where local amplification is likely. The ESI 2007 scale has proved to be an effective tool for intensity assessment in

  3. The site-scale saturated zone flow model for Yucca Mountain: calibration of different conceptual models and their impact on flow paths.

    PubMed

    Zyvoloski, George; Kwicklis, Edward; Eddebbarh, Al Aziz; Arnold, Bill; Faunt, Claudia; Robinson, Bruce A

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents several different conceptual models of the Large Hydraulic Gradient (LHG) region north of Yucca Mountain and describes the impact of those models on groundwater flow near the potential high-level repository site. The results are based on a numerical model of site-scale saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain. This model is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. The numerical model is calibrated by matching available water level measurements using parameter estimation techniques, along with more informal comparisons of the model to hydrologic and geochemical information. The model software (hydrologic simulation code FEHM and parameter estimation software PEST) and model setup allows for efficient calibration of multiple conceptual models. Until now, the Large Hydraulic Gradient has been simulated using a low-permeability, east-west oriented feature, even though direct evidence for this feature is lacking. In addition to this model, we investigate and calibrate three additional conceptual models of the Large Hydraulic Gradient, all of which are based on a presumed zone of hydrothermal chemical alteration north of Yucca Mountain. After examining the heads and permeabilities obtained from the calibrated models, we present particle pathways from the potential repository that record differences in the predicted groundwater flow regime. The results show that Large Hydraulic Gradient can be represented with the alternate conceptual models that include the hydrothermally altered zone. The predicted pathways are mildly sensitive to the choice of the conceptual model and more sensitive to the quality of calibration in the vicinity on the repository. These differences are most likely due to different degrees of fit of model to data, and do not represent important differences in hydrologic conditions for the different conceptual models. PMID:12714319

  4. A site-scale model for fluid and heat flow in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Haukwa, Charles; Bodvarsson, G. S.

    1999-05-01

    A three-dimensional unsaturated-zone numerical model has been developed to simulate flow and distribution of moisture, gas and heat at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential repository site for high-level radioactive waste. The model takes into account the simultaneous flow dynamics of liquid water, vapor, air and heat in the highly heterogeneous, fractured porous rock in the unsaturated zone (UZ). This model is intended for use in the prediction of the current and future conditions in the UZ so as to aid in the assessment of the system performance of the proposed repository. The modeling approach is based on a mathematical formulation of coupled multiphase, multicomponent fluid and heat flow through porous and fractured rock. Fracture and matrix flow is treated using both dual-permeability and effective-continuum modeling approaches. The model domain covers a total area of approximately 43 km 2, and uses the land surface and the water table as its top and bottom boundaries. In addition, site-specific data, representative surface infiltration, and geothermal conditions are incorporated into the model. The reliability and accuracy of the model have been the subject of a comprehensive model calibration study, in which the model was calibrated against measured data, including liquid saturation, water potential and temperature. It has been found that the model is generally able to reproduce the overall system behavior at Yucca Mountain with respect to moisture profiles, pneumatic pressure variations in different geological units, and ambient geothermal conditions.

  5. [Analysis on factors affecting net primary productivity distribution in Changbai Mountain based on process model for landscape scale].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Yu, Guirui; Yu, Zhenliang; Zhao, Shidong

    2003-05-01

    Based on the data received from remote sensing images, the spatial distribution of annual net primary productivity (NPP) was simulated by the process model (EPPML), and the relationships between annual NPP and environmental conditions were analyzed. The results showed that NPP in 1995 was 0.680 kg C.m-2.yr.-1, mostly ranging from 0.105 to 1.241 kg C.m-2.yr.-1, accounting for 82.1%. The highest NPP (1.084 kg C.m-2.yr.-1) appears in mixed broad-leaved and Korean pine forest. Environmental conditions decide the main trend of the spatial distribution of annual NPP (Carbon) in Changbai Mountain. Soil water content had a negative correlativity with NPP, and the correlation coefficient (R) was -0.65. Therefore, water was sufficient for the growth of plants in Changbai Mountain. NPP was highly correlated with LAI (R = 0.81). When LAI was greater than 4-5 m2.m-2, NPP became saturated. NPP was also highly correlated with canopy transpiration (R = 0.77). The response of NPP on environmental conditions, LAI and canopy transpiration in Betula ermanii and broad-leaved forests were different from those in other vegetation. PMID:12924113

  6. West Virginia Full-Scale Solar Energy Team Growing the Mountain State Energy Economy by Reaching our Full Solar Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Inc., Geostellar,

    2012-02-15

    The WV Team will design and demonstrate a complete set of systems and processes for automating the identification of residential and light commercial solar opportunities, evaluating project finance options, securing permits and arranging for interconnections to the utility grid. These operations will be supported by the predictive qualification and feasibility of residential and light commercial solar energy opportunities in WV based on the current solar LCOE and potential state-wide policy initiatives. Through the WV Department of Commerce and its Division of Energy, the WV Team will coordinate with all 55 county development authorities in West Virginia, as well as a number of local and municipal authorities responsible for zoning and building code ordinances to support and implement a statewide, integrated set of regulations and administrative services. Additionally the WV Team will work with the State administration and legislature to develop incentives that will promote the financing of residential and light commercial solar projects.

  7. Genetic Structure across Broad Spatial and Temporal Scales: Rocky Mountain Tailed Frogs (Ascaphus montanus; Anura: Ascaphidae) in the Inland Temperate Rainforest.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Genevieve; Espindola, Anahi; Waits, Lisette P; Sullivan, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary and historical processes interact to structure genetic variation, however discerning between these can be difficult. Here, we analyze range-wide variation at 13 microsatellite loci in 2098 Rocky Mountain tailed frogs, Ascaphus montanus, collected from 117 streams across the species distribution in the Inland Northwest (INW) and interpret that variation in light of historical phylogeography, contemporary landscape genetics, and the reconstructed paleodistribution of the species. Further, we project species distribution models (SDMs) to predict future changes in the range as a function of changing climate. Genetic structure has a strong spatial signature that is precisely congruent with a deep (~1.8 MY) phylogeographic split in mtDNA when we partition populations into 2 clusters (K = 2), and is congruent with refugia areas inferred from our paleorange reconstructions. There is a hierarchical pattern of geographic structure as we permit additional clusters, with populations clustering following mountain ranges. Nevertheless, genetic diversity is the highest in populations at the center of the range and is attenuated in populations closer to the range edges. Similarly, geographic distance is the single best predictor of pairwise genetic differentiation, but connectivity also is an important predictor. At intermediate and local geographic scales, deviations from isolation-by-distance are more apparent, at least in the northern portion of the distribution. These results indicate that both historical and landscape factors are contributing to the genetic structure and diversity of tailed frogs in the Inland Northwest. PMID:26285914

  8. Comparing current and desired ecological conditions at a landscape scale in the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains, USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Druckenbrod, Dr. Daniel L.; Dale, Virginia H; Olsen, Lisa M

    2007-01-01

    We applied a landscape conservation approach that quantifies current and desired ecological conditions for 10680 km2 of diverse forests in the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains of Tennessee and Kentucky. In this case study, forest cover was classified using Landsat TM imagery and evaluated with forest inventory data. Landform forest associations were characterized by combining forest cover, physiographic descriptions of remnant and historical forests, and forest structure and composition from the inventory data. These landform forest associations estimate current forest conditions and, in comparison with a projection of potential natural forest conditions, indicated that upland deciduous forests in the Plateau have the greatest reduction in cover, particularly in small private ownerships. Although of similar composition, upland deciduous forests in the Plateau also possessed younger stands with smaller trees than observed from potential old-growth conditions. These results provide scientific guidance for transitioning these forests toward desired ecological conditions through regional conservation initiatives.

  9. Sediment trap efficiency of paddy fields at the watershed scale in a mountainous catchment in northwest Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaets, Johanna I. F.; Schmitter, Petra; Hilger, Thomas; Vien, Tran Duc; Cadisch, Georg

    2016-06-01

    Composite agricultural systems with permanent maize cultivation in the uplands and irrigated rice in the valleys are very common in mountainous southeast Asia. The soil loss and fertility decline of the upland fields is well documented, but little is known about reallocation of these sediments within the landscape. In this study, a turbidity-based linear mixed model was used to quantify sediment inputs, from surface reservoir irrigation water and from direct overland flow, into a paddy area of 13 ha. Simultaneously, the sediment load exported from the rice fields was determined. Mid-infrared spectroscopy was applied to analyze sediment particle size. Our results showed that per year, 64 Mg ha-1 of sediments were imported into paddy fields, of which around 75 % were delivered by irrigation water and the remainder by direct overland flow during rainfall events. Overland flow contributed one-third of the received sandy fraction, while irrigated sediments were predominantly silty. Overall, rice fields were a net sink for sediments, trapping 28 Mg ha-1 a-1 or almost half of total sediment inputs. As paddy outflow consisted almost exclusively of silt- and clay-sized material, 24 Mg ha-1 a-1 of the trapped amount of sediment was estimated to be sandy. Under continued intensive upland maize cultivation, such a sustained input of coarse material could jeopardize paddy soil fertility, puddling capacity and ultimately food security of the inhabitants of these mountainous areas. Preventing direct overland flow from entering the paddy fields, however, could reduce sand inputs by up to 34 %.

  10. Sediment trap efficiency of paddy fields at the watershed scale in a mountainous catchment in Northwest Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaets, J. I. F.; Schmitter, P.; Hilger, T.; Vien, T. D.; Cadisch, G.

    2015-12-01

    Composite agricultural systems with permanent maize cultivation in the uplands and irrigated rice in the valleys are very common in mountainous Southeast Asia. The soil loss and fertility decline of the upland fields is well documented, but little is known about reallocation of these sediments within the landscape. In this study, a turbidity-based linear mixed model was used to quantify sediment inputs, from surface reservoir irrigation water and from direct overland flow, into a paddy area of 13 hectares. Simultaneously, the sediment load exported from the rice fields was determined. Mid-infrared spectroscopy was applied to analyze sediment particle size. Our results showed that per year, 64 Mg ha-1 of sediments were imported into paddy fields, of which around 75 % were delivered by irrigation water and the remainder by direct overland flow during rainfall events. Overland flow contributed one third of the received sandy fraction, while irrigated sediments were predominantly silty. Overall, rice fields were a net sink for sediments, trapping 28 Mg ha-1 a-1 or almost half of total sediment inputs. As paddy outflow consisted almost exclusively of silt- and clay-sized material, 24 Mg ha-1 a-1 of the trapped amount of sediment was estimated to be sandy. Under continued intensive upland maize cultivation, such a sustained input of coarse material could jeopardize paddy soil fertility, puddling capacity and ultimately also food security of the inhabitants of these mountainous areas. Preventing direct overland flow from entering the paddy fields, however, could reduce sand inputs by up to 34 %.

  11. Performance of a commercial-scale DiCOM demonstration facility treating mixed municipal solid waste in comparison with laboratory-scale data.

    PubMed

    Walker, L; Cord-Ruwisch, R; Sciberras, S

    2012-12-01

    The current paper describes the performance of a commercial-scale (20,000 tpa) demonstration facility of the DiCOM process, a biological treatment for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The 21-d process combines aerobic composting and high-solids (30%DM), thermophilic (55 °C) anaerobic digestion (AD), within a single vessel. Mechanically sorted OFMSW, derived from mixed household MSW (324 t), was exposed to sequential aerobic/anaerobic/aerobic treatment. The AD, initiated by adding anaerobic inoculum from a previous trial, was stable (without pH intervention) and the onset of methanogenesis, rapid (<3 h). Volatile fatty acids formed during AD (including propionate) were exhausted prior to reuse of the inoculum. As measured by an electron flux from solids to gaseous end-products, AD accounted for the greatest portion of solids degradation (86%=160 m(3)CH(4)/drytOFMSW). However, unlike laboratory trials, limited degradation occurred during initial aerobic treatment. The discharged solids were classified as a composted soil conditioner. PMID:22244951

  12. Regional-scale analysis of high-mountain multi-hazard and risk indicators in the Pamir (Tajikistan) with GRASS GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, F. E.; Mergili, M.

    2013-11-01

    We present a model framework for the regional-scale analysis of high-mountain multi-hazard and -risk indicators, implemented with the open-source software package GRASS GIS. This framework is applied to a 98 300 km2 study area centred in the Pamir (Tajikistan). It includes (i) rock slides, (ii) ice avalanches, (iii) periglacial debris flows and (iv) lake outburst floods. First, a hazard indicator is assigned to each relevant object (steep rock face, glacier or periglacial slope, lake). This indicator depends on the susceptibility and on the possible event magnitude. Second, the possible travel distances, impact areas and, consequently, impact hazard indicators for all types of processes are computed using empirical relationships. The impact hazard indicators are finally superimposed with an exposure indicator derived from the type of land use, resulting in a raster map of risk indicators finally discretized at the community level. The analysis results are presented and discussed at different spatial scales. The major outcome of the study, a set of comprehensive regional-scale hazard and risk indication maps, shall represent an objective basis for the prioritization of target communities for further research and risk mitigation measures.

  13. Commercial scale demonstration enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Annual report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.C.; Snyder, W.O.

    1981-04-01

    This commercial scale test, known as the M-1 Project, is located in Crawford County, Illinois. It encompasses 407 acres of Robinson sand reservoir and covers portions of several waterflood projects that were approaching economic limit. The project includes 248 acres developed on a 2.4-acre five-spot pattern and 159 acres developed on a 5.0-acre five-spot pattern. Development work commenced in late 1974 and has previously been reported. Micellar solution (slug) injection was initiated on February 10, 1977, and is now completed. After 10% of a pore volume of micellar slug was injected, injection of 11% pore volume of Dow 700 Pusher polymer was conducted at a concentration of 1156 ppM. At the end of this reporting period, 625 ppM polymer was being injected into the 2.5-acre pattern and 800 ppM polymer was being injected into the 5.0-acre pattern. The oil cut of the 2.5 and 5.0-acre patterns increased from 8.6% and 5.2%, respectively in September 1979, to 11.0% and 5.9% in September 1980. The oil cut performance has consistently exceeded that predicted for the project. This Fourth Annual Report is organized under the following three Work Breakdown Structures: fluid injection; production; and performance monitoring.

  14. Commercial-Scale Performance Predictions for High-Temperature Electrolysis Plants Coupled to Three Advanced Reactor Types

    SciTech Connect

    M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2007-09-01

    This report presents results of system analyses that have been developed to assess the hydrogen production performance of commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plants driven by three different advanced reactor – power-cycle combinations: a high-temperature helium cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle, a supercritical CO2-cooled reactor coupled to a direct recompression cycle, and a sodium-cooled fast reactor coupled to a Rankine cycle. The system analyses were performed using UniSim software. The work described in this report represents a refinement of previous analyses in that the process flow diagrams include realistic representations of the three advanced reactors directly coupled to the power cycles and integrated with the high-temperature electrolysis process loops. In addition, this report includes parametric studies in which the performance of each HTE concept is determined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the study indicate that overall thermal-to- hydrogen production efficiencies (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) in the 45 - 50% range can be achieved at reasonable production rates with the high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept, 42 - 44% with the supercritical CO2-cooled reactor and about 33 - 34% with the sodium-cooled reactor.

  15. Commercial scale fabrication method for fabricating a gradient refractive-index rod: Overcoming volume shrinkage and chemical restrictions.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hansol; Son, Young Mok; Kim, Mu Gyeom; Ra, Byoung Joo; Park, Joon-Yong; Lee, Seung Hui; Choi, Jin Sung; Song, Min Young; Park, O Ok; Kim, Youn Cheol; Hwang, Jin Taek

    2006-10-01

    We report a fabrication method for a gradient refractive-index polymeric object from a binary comonomer system, regardless of the monomers' reactivity ratio and the molar volume criteria of gradient refractive-index development. To fabricate a large gradient refractive-index rod consisting of a methyl methacrylate and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropyl methacrylate comonomer pair that has not been used for fabrication of a copolymer gradient refractive-index rod by previous conventional methods because of chemical restrictions in molar volume and reactivity ratio difference, we use the so-called successive UV polymerization in a controlled radial volume in conjunction with an automatic refill reactor. Simultaneously and automatically, the volume shrinkage problem, an inevitable shortcoming for the fabrication of a large polymeric object in a commercial production scale, is overcome and exploited. The theoretical features of the refractive-index profile generation of this method are also compared with those of conventional methods for which the chemical restrictions of monomers are crucial for the shape of a refractive-index profile. PMID:16983409

  16. Aqueous geochemical data from the analysis of stream water samples collected in August 2004--Taylor Mountains 1:250,000 scale Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Mueller, Seth; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

    2006-01-01

    We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000 quadrangle. Samples were collected as part of the multi-year U.S. Geological Survey's project -- Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development. Data presented here are from water samples collected primarily in the northeastern part of the Taylor Mountains quadrangle. The data include samples taken from the Taylor Mountains C1, C2, D1, D2, and D4 1:63,360 scale quadrangles. The data are being released at this time with minimal interpretation. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first and second order drainages. Water sampling site selection was based on landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and the cursory field review of the mineralogy from the pan concentrates. Stream water in the Taylor Mountians quadrangle is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), though in a few samples more than 50% of the anionic charge can be attibuted to sulfate ( SO42-). The major-cation chemistry range from Ca/Mg dominated to a mix of Ca/Mg/Na+K. Good agreement was found between the major cation and anions in the duplicate samples. Many trace elements were at or near the method detection limit in these samples but good agreement was found between duplicate samples for elements with detectable concentrations. Major ion concentrations were below detection in all field blanks and the trace elements concentrations generally were below detection. However, Ta (range 0.9 -.1 ug/L) and Zn (1 to 3.5 ug/L) were detected in all blanks and Ba ( 0.24 ug/L) and Th (0.2 ug/L) were detected in one blank. There was good agreement between dupilicate total- and methyl- mercury and DOC samples; however, total mercury, methyl-mercury and dissolve organic carbon (DOC) were detected in the blank at 2.35 ng/L, 0.07 ng/L and 0.57 mg/L, respectively.

  17. Forecasting Distributional Responses of Limber Pine to Climate Change at Management-Relevant Scales in Rocky Mountain National Park

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, William B.; Cook, Tammy; Melton, Forrest; Connor, Jeff; Bobowski, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Resource managers at parks and other protected areas are increasingly expected to factor climate change explicitly into their decision making frameworks. However, most protected areas are small relative to the geographic ranges of species being managed, so forecasts need to consider local adaptation and community dynamics that are correlated with climate and affect distributions inside protected area boundaries. Additionally, niche theory suggests that species' physiological capacities to respond to climate change may be underestimated when forecasts fail to consider the full breadth of climates occupied by the species rangewide. Here, using correlative species distribution models that contrast estimates of climatic sensitivity inferred from the two spatial extents, we quantify the response of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) to climate change in Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado, USA). Models are trained locally within the park where limber pine is the community dominant tree species, a distinct structural-compositional vegetation class of interest to managers, and also rangewide, as suggested by niche theory. Model forecasts through 2100 under two representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5 W/m2) show that the distribution of limber pine in the park is expected to move upslope in elevation, but changes in total and core patch area remain highly uncertain. Most of this uncertainty is biological, as magnitudes of projected change are considerably more variable between the two spatial extents used in model training than they are between RCPs, and novel future climates only affect local model predictions associated with RCP 8.5 after 2091. Combined, these results illustrate the importance of accounting for unknowns in species' climatic sensitivities when forecasting distributional scenarios that are used to inform management decisions. We discuss how our results for limber pine may be interpreted in the context of climate change vulnerability and used to

  18. Polyphase exhumation in the western Qinling Mountains, China: Rapid Early Cretaceous cooling along a lithospheric-scale tear fault and pulsed Cenozoic uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberer, Bianca; Anzenbacher, Thomas; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Dong, Yunpeng; Dunkl, István

    2014-03-01

    The western sector of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt plays a key role in both Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous "Yanshanian" intracontinental tectonics and Cenozoic lateral escape triggered by India-Asia collision. The Taibai granite in the northern Qinling Mountains is located at the westernmost tip of a Yanshanian granite belt. It consists of multiple intrusions, constrained by new Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages (156 ± 3 Ma and 124 ± 1 Ma). Applying various geochronometers (40Ar/39Ar on hornblende, biotite and K-feldspar, apatite fission-track, apatite [U-Th-Sm]/He) along a vertical profile of the Taibai Mountain refines the cooling and exhumation history. The new age constraints record the prolonged pre-Cenozoic intracontinental deformation as well as the cooling history mostly related to India-Asia collision. We detected rapid cooling for the Taibai granite from ca. 800 to 100 °C during Early Cretaceous (ca. 123 to 100 Ma) followed by a period of slow cooling from ca. 100 Ma to ca. 25 Ma, and pulsed exhumation of the low-relief Cretaceous peneplain during Cenozoic times. We interpret the Early Cretaceous rapid cooling and exhumation as a result from activity along the southern sinistral lithospheric scale tear fault of the recently postulated intracontinental subduction of the Archean/Palaeoproterozoic North China Block beneath the Alashan Block. A Late Oligocene to Early Miocene cooling phase might be triggered either by the lateral motion during India-Asia collision and/or the Pacific subduction zone. Late Miocene intensified cooling is ascribed to uplift of the Tibetan Plateau.

  19. Catchment-scale variation in the nitrate concentrations of groundwater seeps in the Catskill Mountains, New York, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    West, A.J.; Findlay, S.E.G.; Burns, Douglas A.; Weathers, K.C.; Lovett, Gary M.

    2001-01-01

    Forested headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains of New York show significant among-catchment variability in mean annual nitrate (NO3-) concentrations. Large contributions from deep groundwater with high NO3- concentrations have been invoked to explain high NO3- concentrations in stream water during the growing season. To determine whether variable contributions of groundwater could explain among-catchment differences in streamwater, we measured NO3- concentrations in 58 groundwater seeps distributed across six catchments known to have different annual average streamwater concentrations. Seeps were identified based on release from bedrock fractures and bedding planes and had consistently lower temperatures than adjacent streamwaters. Nitrate concentrations in seeps ranged from near detection limits (0.005 mg NO3--N/L) to 0.75 mg NO3--N/L. Within individual catchments, groundwater residence time does not seem to strongly affect NO3- concentrations because in three out of four catchments there were non-significant correlations between seep silica (SiO2) concentrations, a proxy for residence time, and seep NO3- concentrations. Across catchments, there was a significant but weak negative relationship between NO3- and SiO2 concentrations. The large range in NO3- concentrations of seeps across catchments suggests: 1) the principal process generating among-catchment differences in streamwater NO3- concentrations must influence water before it enters the groundwater flow system and 2) this process must act at large spatial scales because among-catchment variability is much greater than intra-catchment variability. Differences in the quantity of groundwater contribution to stream baseflow are not sufficient to account for differences in streamwater NO3- concentrations among catchments in the Catskill Mountains.

  20. Polyphase exhumation in the western Qinling Mountains, China: Rapid Early Cretaceous cooling along a lithospheric-scale tear fault and pulsed Cenozoic uplift

    PubMed Central

    Heberer, Bianca; Anzenbacher, Thomas; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Dong, Yunpeng; Dunkl, István

    2014-01-01

    The western sector of the Qinling–Dabie orogenic belt plays a key role in both Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous “Yanshanian” intracontinental tectonics and Cenozoic lateral escape triggered by India–Asia collision. The Taibai granite in the northern Qinling Mountains is located at the westernmost tip of a Yanshanian granite belt. It consists of multiple intrusions, constrained by new Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous U–Pb zircon ages (156 ± 3 Ma and 124 ± 1 Ma). Applying various geochronometers (40Ar/39Ar on hornblende, biotite and K-feldspar, apatite fission-track, apatite [U–Th–Sm]/He) along a vertical profile of the Taibai Mountain refines the cooling and exhumation history. The new age constraints record the prolonged pre-Cenozoic intracontinental deformation as well as the cooling history mostly related to India–Asia collision. We detected rapid cooling for the Taibai granite from ca. 800 to 100 °C during Early Cretaceous (ca. 123 to 100 Ma) followed by a period of slow cooling from ca. 100 Ma to ca. 25 Ma, and pulsed exhumation of the low-relief Cretaceous peneplain during Cenozoic times. We interpret the Early Cretaceous rapid cooling and exhumation as a result from activity along the southern sinistral lithospheric scale tear fault of the recently postulated intracontinental subduction of the Archean/Palaeoproterozoic North China Block beneath the Alashan Block. A Late Oligocene to Early Miocene cooling phase might be triggered either by the lateral motion during India–Asia collision and/or the Pacific subduction zone. Late Miocene intensified cooling is ascribed to uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:27065503

  1. Aqueous geochemical data from the analysis of stream-water samples collected in June and July 2006-Taylor Mountains 1:250,00-scale quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Mueller, Seth; Stetson, Sarah; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. Parameters for which data are reported include pH, conductivity, water temperature, major cation and anion concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and dissolved organic-carbon concentrations. Samples were collected as part of a multiyear U.S. Geological Survey project entitled ?Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development.? Data presented here are from samples collected in June and July 2006. The data are being released at this time with minimal interpretation. This is the third release of aqueous geochemical data from this project; aqueous geochemical data from samples collected in 2004 and 2005 were published previously. The data in this report augment but do not duplicate or supersede the previous data release. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first- and second-order drainages. Water sample site selection was based on landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and a cursory field review of mineralogy from pan concentrates. Stream water in the Taylor Mountains quadrangle is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), although in a few samples more than 50 percent of the anionic charge can be attributed to sulfate (SO42-). The major-cation chemistry ranges from Ca2+/Mg2+ dominated to a mix of Ca2+/Mg2+/Na++K+. Generally, good agreement was found between the major cations and anions in the duplicate samples. Many trace elements in these samples were at or near the analytical method detection limit, but good agreement was found between duplicate samples for elements with detectable concentrations. All field blank major-ion and trace-element concentrations were below detection.

  2. Seasonal and Event Scale Forcings on the Magnitude and Composition of Particulate Organic Matter Fluxes Across a Small Mountainous River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goni, M. A.; Lerczak, J. A.; Smith, L.; Lemagie, E. P.; Alleau, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Small mountainous rivers along the west coast margin of North America display intense seasonal contrasts in runoff, with event-scale peaks in particulate transport associated with winter-time floods. In-situ observations and rapid-response sampling along a typical river-estuary system (Alsea River/Bay, Oregon) were carried out to investigate variations in the magnitude and composition of particulate organic matter transported across the estuary at seasonal, tidal and event scales. Marked contrasts in the overall concentration of particulate organic matter in the estuary are observed during different river discharge conditions (base flow to 3-yr flood), with distinct trends associated with contrasting tidal stage (spring/neap). Elemental, isotopic and biomarker analyses of individual samples reveal large differences in the provenance (phytoplankton, vascular plants, soil) and composition of organic materials mobilized under different discharge/tidal conditions. Continuous, in-situ measurements of current, salinity, temperature and turbidity, combined with the compositions from individual samples allow us to determine instantaneous material fluxes into and out of Alsea Bay. We use these data to derive net fluxes during wintertime conditions and assess the role of floods in the retention and transport of particulate organic matter across the estuarine interface.

  3. Commercial scale demonstration: enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Annual report, October 1980-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.C.

    1982-05-01

    This commercial scale test, known as the M-1 Project, is located in Crawford County, Illinois. It encompasses 407 acres of Robinson sand reservoir and covers portions of several waterflood projects that were approaching economic limit. The project includes 248 acres developed on a 2.5-acre five-spot pattern and 159 acres developed on a 5.0-acre five-spot pattern. Development work commenced in late 1974 and has previously been reported. Micellar solution (slug) injection was initiated on February 10, 1977, and is now completed. After 10% of a pore volume of micellar slug was injected, injection of 11% pore volume of Dow 700 Pusher polymer was conducted at a concentration of 1156 ppM. At the end of this reporting period, 625 ppM polymer was being injected into the 2.5-acre pattern and 800 ppM polymer was being injected into the 5.0-acre pattern. The oil cut of the 2.5-acre pattern has decreased from 11.0% in September 1980, to 7.9% in September 1981. The 2.5-acre pattern had been on a plateau since May 1980, and as of May 1981 appears to be on a decline. The oil cut of the 5.0-acre pattern has increased from 5.9% in September 1980, to 10.9% in September 1981. The 5.0-acre pattern experienced a sharp increase in oil cut after 34% of a pore volume of total fluid had been injected and appears to be continuing its incline. This fifth annual report is organized under the following three work breakdown structures: fluid injection; production; and performance monitoring.

  4. Scale-up of Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, Mark A

    2014-08-27

    on the high levelized economic cost of the process relative to the manufacture of CF from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor fibers. The capital required to sulfonate the fibers adds a significant cost to the process due to the need for investment in a sulfuric acid recovery plant. This high additional capital over the capital for a PAN based CF plant, reduces the levelized economic cost to slightly advantaged over PAN based CF. The sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization route failed to meet the Dow’s return on investment criterion and the cost advantage target set forth for the DOE project. The DOE and Dow decided to halt spending on the project until a new PO fiber stabilization process could be identified that met the DOE physical properties standard and the levelized economic cost constraints of Dow. When the new technology was developed, then award DE-EE0005760 would be re-started with the same goals of the development of a market development plant capable of producing CF at 4 kg/h with the properties that met or exceed those set forth by the Department of Energy Vehicles Technology standard. Progress on the development of the new process has been slow and thus has delayed the scale up project. Dow’s efforts to date have not progressed to the point of demonstrating a commercially-viable process for production of low cost CF from PO precursors for Dow’s rigorous economic constraints. After extensive discussions within Dow and consultation with DOE’s Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams, Dow has decided to proceed with the formal recommendation to terminate subject project. DOE’s AMO Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams agreed with the termination of the project.

  5. INTEGRATING DETAILED SOIL SURVEY AND LANDTYPE MAPPING FOR WATERSHED SCALE ASSESSMENTS IN THE WESTERN OREGON CASCADE MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the Western Oregon Cascades is one of the most intensely managed and economically important forest regions in North America, a lack of detailed soil information has hindered watershed-scale assessments of forest productivity, water supply, sensitive wildlife species, and...

  6. Thermal-hydrological analysis of large-scale thermal tests in the exploratory studies facility at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1996-02-20

    In situ thermal tests, which are to be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, will provide a major portion of the experimental basis supporting the validation of coupled thermal-hydrological-geomechanical-geochemicaI (T-H-M-C) process models required to assess the total system performance at the site. With respect to advective rock dryout, we have identified three major T-H flow regimes: (1) throttled, nonbuoyant, advective rock dryout; (2) unthrottled, nonbuoyant, advective rock dryout; and (3) unthrottled, buoyant, advective rock dryout. With the V-TOUGH code, we modeled a range of heater test sizes, heating rates, and heating durations under a range of plausible hydrological conditions to help optimize an in situ thermal test design that provides sufficient information for determining (a) the dominant mode(s) of heat flow, (b) the major T-H regime(s) and processes (such as vapor diffusion) that govern the magnitude and direction of vapor and condensate flow, and (c) the influence of heterogeneous properties and conditions on the flow of heat, vapor, and condensate. For the plate thermal test, which uniformly heats a disk-shaped area, we evaluated a wide range of test areas, ranging from 50 to 5077 m{sup 2}. We evaluated the single-drift thermal test, which consists of a row of large-waste-package-sized heaters sitting on the floor of the heater drift, and then developed an optimized thermal test configuration, called the single-drift, winged thermal test, in which the heater drift is flanked by wing heater arrays. For this configuration, we considered three heating schedules (with 1-, 2-, and 4-yr full-power heating periods) and three heating rates (122, 177, and 236 W/m{sup 2}). For determining the dominant T-H regime(s) and dominant heat-flow mode(s), the most important diagnostic measurements are vertical temperature and gas-phase pressure profiles and gas-phase pressure and relative humidity RH histories in the drift.

  7. Spatial Heterogeneity in Ecologically Important Climate Variables at Coarse and Fine Scales in a High-Snow Mountain Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kevin R.; Ettinger, Ailene K.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Raleigh, Mark S.; Hille Ris Lambers, Janneke

    2013-01-01

    Climate plays an important role in determining the geographic ranges of species. With rapid climate change expected in the coming decades, ecologists have predicted that species ranges will shift large distances in elevation and latitude. However, most range shift assessments are based on coarse-scale climate models that ignore fine-scale heterogeneity and could fail to capture important range shift dynamics. Moreover, if climate varies dramatically over short distances, some populations of certain species may only need to migrate tens of meters between microhabitats to track their climate as opposed to hundreds of meters upward or hundreds of kilometers poleward. To address these issues, we measured climate variables that are likely important determinants of plant species distributions and abundances (snow disappearance date and soil temperature) at coarse and fine scales at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington State, USA. Coarse-scale differences across the landscape such as large changes in elevation had expected effects on climatic variables, with later snow disappearance dates and lower temperatures at higher elevations. However, locations separated by small distances (∼20 m), but differing by vegetation structure or topographic position, often experienced differences in snow disappearance date and soil temperature as great as locations separated by large distances (>1 km). Tree canopy gaps and topographic depressions experienced later snow disappearance dates than corresponding locations under intact canopy and on ridges. Additionally, locations under vegetation and on topographic ridges experienced lower maximum and higher minimum soil temperatures. The large differences in climate we observed over small distances will likely lead to complex range shift dynamics and could buffer species from the negative effects of climate change. PMID:23762277

  8. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  9. Mountain research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The newly incorporated International Mountain Society (IMS) will in May begin publication of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, Mountain Research and Development. The quarterly will be copublished with the United National University; additional support will come from UNESCO.A primary objective of IMS is to ‘help solve mountain land-use problems by developing a foundation of scientific and technical knowledge on which to base management decisions,’ according to Jack D. Ives, president of the Boulder-based organization. ‘The Society is strongly committed to the belief that a rational worldwide approach to mountain problems must involve a wide range of disciplines in the natural and human sciences, medicine, architecture, engineering, and technology.’

  10. Quantifying the effects of mountain pine beetle infestation on water and biogeochemical cycles at multiple spatial and temporal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; Somor, A. J.; Troch, P. A.; Gochis, D. J.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Biederman, J. A.; Reed, D.; Barnard, H. R.; Whitehouse, F.; Aston, T.; Borkhuu, B.

    2010-12-01

    Unprecedented levels of bark beetle infestation over the last decade have radically altered forest structure across millions of hectares of Western U.S. montane environments. The widespread extent of this disturbance presents a major challenge for governments and resource managers who lack a predictive understanding of how water and biogeochemical cycles will respond to this disturbance over various temporal and spatial scales. There is a widespread perception, largely based on hydrological responses to fire or logging, that a reduction in both transpiration and interception following tree death will increase soil water availability and catchment water yield. However, few studies have directly addressed the effects of insect-induced forest decline on water and biogeochemical cycling. We address this knowledge gap using observations and modeling at scales from 100 to 109 m2 across study sites in CO and WY that vary in the intensity and timing of beetle infestation and tree death. Our focus on multiple sites with different levels of impact allows us to address two broad, organizing questions: How do changes in vegetation structure associated with MPB alter the partitioning of energy and water? And How do these changes in energy and water availability affect local to regional scale water and biogeochemical cycles? This presentation will focus primarily on energy balance and water partitioning, providing context for ongoing biogeochemical work. During the growing season, stand-scale transpiration declines rapidly and soil moisture increases following infestation, consistent with streamflow data from regional catchments that shows an increase in baseflow following widespread attack. During the winter and spring, stand scale snow surveys and continuous snow depth sensors suggested that the variability in snow cover decreased as the severity of beetle impact increases, but there were no significant stand-scale differences in snow depth among levels of impact. This is due

  11. Logistic regression and artificial neural network models for mapping of regional-scale landslide susceptibility in volcanic mountains of West Java (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngadisih, Bhandary, Netra P.; Yatabe, Ryuichi; Dahal, Ranjan K.

    2016-05-01

    West Java Province is the most landslide risky area in Indonesia owing to extreme geo-morphological conditions, climatic conditions and densely populated settlements with immense completed and ongoing development activities. So, a landslide susceptibility map at regional scale in this province is a fundamental tool for risk management and land-use planning. Logistic regression and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models are the most frequently used tools for landslide susceptibility assessment, mainly because they are capable of handling the nature of landslide data. The main objective of this study is to apply logistic regression and ANN models and compare their performance for landslide susceptibility mapping in volcanic mountains of West Java Province. In addition, the model application is proposed to identify the most contributing factors to landslide events in the study area. The spatial database built in GIS platform consists of landslide inventory, four topographical parameters (slope, aspect, relief, distance to river), three geological parameters (distance to volcano crater, distance to thrust and fault, geological formation), and two anthropogenic parameters (distance to road, land use). The logistic regression model in this study revealed that slope, geological formations, distance to road and distance to volcano are the most influential factors of landslide events while, the ANN model revealed that distance to volcano crater, geological formation, distance to road, and land-use are the most important causal factors of landslides in the study area. Moreover, an evaluation of the model showed that the ANN model has a higher accuracy than the logistic regression model.

  12. Application of Time Series Insar Technique for Deformation Monitoring of Large-Scale Landslides in Mountainous Areas of Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, T.; Lu, P.; Liu, C.; Wan, H.

    2016-06-01

    Western China is very susceptible to landslide hazards. As a result, landslide detection and early warning are of great importance. This work employs the SBAS (Small Baseline Subset) InSAR Technique for detection and monitoring of large-scale landslides that occurred in Li County, Sichuan Province, Western China. The time series INSAR is performed using descending scenes acquired from TerraSAR-X StripMap mode since 2014 to get the spatial distribution of surface displacements of this giant landslide. The time series results identify the distinct deformation zone on the landslide body with a rate of up to 150mm/yr. The deformation acquired by SBAS technique is validated by inclinometers from diverse boreholes of in-situ monitoring. The integration of InSAR time series displacements and ground-based monitoring data helps to provide reliable data support for the forecasting and monitoring of largescale landslide.

  13. Incorporating landscape heterogeneity to understand patterns of stream discharge across spatial and temporal scales in forested mountain watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstrom, A.; Jencso, K. G.; McGlynn, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that catchment characteristics (e.g. geology, vegetation, and topography) modulate runoff generation processes that connect hillslopes to streams. However, there has been little direct quantification of the range of spatial scales and climatic forcing under which catchment characteristics and their topology influence patterns and thresholds in stream flow. We measured changes in discharge across 52 reaches (~200 m long) distributed across 5 nested watersheds ranging from 3.2 to 23 km2 in the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, Montana. We performed dilution gauging from early snowmelt through late summer baseflow in the 2013 and 2014 water years to develop stage-discharge relationships for calculation of real-time stream discharge for each of the 52 reaches. We also computed indices of topography, geology, vegetation, and valley characteristics. Preliminary results suggest that the dominant controls, and their degree of influence on observed changes in discharge shifted across wetness states. Total contributing area to each reach was a significant predictor of discharge at high flow with the slope of the relationship decreasing across the annual recession. We examined incremental changes in discharge for each reach and determined that spatiotemporal variability in discharge was related to the underlying lithology. Contributing areas underlain by granite gneiss yielded more water per unit area than those with sandstone. However, yield was less predictable in areas overlying the granite gneiss formation. Our preliminary analysis has identified specific watershed characteristics and time periods at which they influence discharge across watersheds and spatial scales. We suggest that these results can support improved understanding of space-time variability of stream flow and the representation of watershed characteristics in simulation model structures.

  14. Assessment of physical risk factors for the shoulder using the Posture, Activity, Tools, and Handling (PATH) method in small-scale commercial crab pot fishing.

    PubMed

    Kucera, Kristen L; Lipscomb, Hester J

    2010-10-01

    An observational work-sampling technique--Posture, Activity, Tools, and Handling (PATH)--was used to describe the prevalence of awkward postures and other physical risk factors for shoulder symptoms among a purposive sample of 11 small-scale commercial crab pot fishing crews. Fishing activities with awkward shoulder postures included hooking the buoy, feeding the rope into the hydraulic puller, and handling the crab pots. Increasing the size of the crew decreased the frequency of awkward shoulder postures for the captain but not for the mate. Awkward shoulder postures varied by technique, task distribution, equipment, and boat characteristics and setup, indicating these factors may be important determinants of exposure. Care should be taken in assuming personal techniques drives ergonomic exposure variability among these small-scale commercial fishermen. PMID:20954035

  15. Transport of radon gas into a tunnel at Yucca Mountain--estimating large-scale fractured tuff hydraulic properties and implications for the operation of the ventilation system.

    PubMed

    Unger, André; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur

    2004-06-01

    Radon gas concentrations have been monitored as part of the operation of a tunnel (the Exploratory Studies Facility-ESF) at Yucca Mountain to ensure worker safety. The objective of this study was to examine the potential use of the radon data to estimate large-scale formation properties of fractured tuffs. This objective was examined by developing a numerical model, based upon the characteristics of the ESF and the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) tuff unit, capable of predicting radon concentrations for prescribed ventilation conditions. The model was used to address two specific issues. First, it was used to estimate the permeability and porosity of the fractures in the TSw at the length scale of the ESF and extending tens of meters into the TSw, which surrounds the ESF. Second, the model was used to understand the mechanism leading to radon concentrations exceeding a specified level within the ESF. The mechanism controlling radon concentrations in the ESF is a function of atmospheric barometric fluctuations being propagated down the ESF along with ventilated air flow and the slight suction induced by the ventilation exhaust fans at the South Portal of the ESF. These pressure fluctuations are dampened in the TSw fracture continuum according to its permeability and porosity. Consequently, as the barometric pressure in the ESF drops rapidly, formation gases from the TSw are pulled into the ESF, resulting in an increase in radon concentrations. Model calibration to both radon concentrations measured in the ESF and gas-phase pressure fluctuations in the TSw yielded concurrent estimates of TSw fracture permeability and porosity of 1 x 10(-11) m2 and 0.00034, respectively. The calibrated model was then used as a design tool to predict the effect of adjusting the current ventilation-system operation strategy for reducing the probability of radon gas concentrations exceeding a specified level. PMID:15134873

  16. Transport of Radon Gas into a Tunnel at Yucca Mountain-Estimating Large-Scale Fractured Tuff Hydraulic Properties and Implications for the Operation of the Ventilation System

    SciTech Connect

    A. Unger; S. Finsterle; G. Bodvarsson

    2003-06-06

    Radon gas concentrations have been monitored as part of the operation of a tunnel (the Exploratory Studies Facility-ESF) at Yucca Mountain to ensure worker safety. The objective of this study was to examine the potential use of the radon data to estimate large-scale formation properties of fractured tuffs. This objective was examined by developing a numerical model, based upon the characteristics of the ESF and the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) tuff unit, capable of predicting radon concentrations for prescribed ventilation conditions. The model was used to address two specific issues. First, it was used to estimate the permeability and porosity of the fractures in the TSw at the length scale of the ESF and extending tens of meters into the TSw, which surrounds the ESF. Second, the model was used to understand the mechanism leading to radon concentrations exceeding a specified level within the ESF. The mechanism controlling radon concentrations in the ESF is a function of atmospheric barometric fluctuations being propagated down the ESF along with ventilated air flow and the slight suction induced by the ventilation exhaust fans at the South Portal of the ESF. These pressure fluctuations are dampened in the TSw fracture continuum according to its permeability and porosity. Consequently, as the barometric pressure in the ESF drops rapidly, formation gases from the TSw are pulled into the ESF, resulting in an increase in radon concentrations. Model calibration to both radon concentrations measured in the ESF and gas-phase pressure fluctuations in the TSw yielded concurrent estimates of TSw fracture permeability and porosity of l x 10{sup -11} m{sup 2} and 0.00034, respectively. The calibrated model was then used as a design tool to predict the effect of adjusting the current ventilation-system operation strategy for reducing the probability of radon gas concentrations exceeding a specified level.

  17. Approaches to modeling coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemicalprocesses in the Drift Scale Heater Test at Yucca Mountain.

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenthal, E.; Ito, K.; Spycher, N.; Yui, M.; Apps, J.; Sugita,Y.; Conrad, M.; Kawakami, S.

    2005-03-01

    A large-scale underground thermal test (Drift Scale Test DST) in fractured volcanic tuff resulted in changes to water and gas chemistry as well as mineral precipitation and dissolution in fractures. Thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in the DST were modeled by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ''LBNL'' and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute ''JNC'' as part of the international working group DECOVALEX. Predictions of THC processes in the DST for the 4-year heating and 4-year cooling periods were initially performed by the LBNL group, with the current model reflecting a revised heater operation history and model. JNC used primarily the original data from the prediction and created a new model to evaluate a selected set of data. The approaches taken by the groups differed in several ways and a comparison of the methodologies and results of the simulations allow for a better understanding of modeling coupled processes in unsaturated fractured rock. The LBNL model represented the fractures and rock matrix as a fully interacting dual-continuum (in terms of fluid, heat, and chemical transport) with the local mineral water gas reactions treated by kinetic and equilibrium reactions. The JNC model represented the fractures and matrix as a single effective continuum, with equilibrium mineral-water reactions controlling the chemical evolution. Both models considered aqueous species transport, with gas phase CO2 transport only considered in the LBNL model. Comparisons to data collected from the DST illustrate the behavior of the models and their ability to capture the relevant THC processes. Overall, both models capture the temperature evolution in the rock quite closely, although the JNC model gave a closer match to the initial temperature rise in the rock, likely owing to the use of site-specific thermal data as opposed to average properties used for the LBNL model. Both models showed the contrasting solubility effects of increasing temperature on

  18. Snow depth estimation, structure, prediction, and hydrologic modeling at the kilometer scale in the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreight, James L.

    Research focuses on observing and predicting spatial distribution of snow depth at the kilometer scale. Observation of spatial snow depth distribution is considered by its estimation from random, sparse observations and important factors affecting this estimation. Predicting spatial distribution of both snow depth and melt rates begins from simple hypothesis wherein the spatial distribution of snow depth is structured by the spatial distribution of controlling variables. Predictions made by this structured view are evaluated in spatial modeling of peak-accumulation snow depth and applied to spatial distribution of a point-scale, temperature-index model of snowmelt runoff using minimal parameter complexity. High-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) measurements provide a rich backdrop for understanding estimation from sparse observations and developing our structured view of snow distribution. The data are used to illuminate the effects of sample size on estimation skill, the uncertainty in estimation due to random sampling, the effect of model resolution on estimation skill, and the difference between cross-validated skill and skill based on the entire distribution. None of these topics have previously been explored in the literature. The effect of predictor quality is also investigated. LiDAR derived predictors are compared to readily available predictors downloaded from the internet. Hierarchical cluster analysis is used to decompose spatial non-stationarity of snow depth and results match qualitative understanding of the spatial distribution of physical controls. The same methodology is then used to decompose spatial non-stationarity of physical controls and infer patterns of snow depth distribution independent of observations. Even when using readily-available predictors, predicted patterns require at least 100--200 observations to be matched by standard estimation methods. Predicted patterns are then applied to formulate a parameterized spatial

  19. Scaling properties of rainfall-runoff generation processes and nutrient flushing mechanisms in the Oregon Cascade Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura, C.; Nickolas, L. B.; Leshchinsky, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Even though it is widely recognized that water quality and availability are crucial to society and wildlife sustainability, we are still not able to predict how much water is moved through a given catchment after a storm event nor what nutrients, solutes, and contaminates are mobilized. We will present preliminary results of a study incorporating of hydrometric information, water stable isotopes (δ18O), and concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), ammonia (NH3), and nitrate (NO3) within 4 sites in a nested framework at the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA), OR. Preliminary analysis of 2 storms (54mm and 145mm) indicate highly variable responses across space along with a positive relation between transit time of event water and storm magnitude in all catchments. In addition there appears to be a moisture threshold after which transit time scales with drainage area across the landscape likely related to higher degree of connectivity. We also found a strong correlation between transit times computed based on temporal variability of δ18O and electrical connectivity (EC). This lead to the analysis of over 50 storm across 10 catchments in the HJA during the last 3 years. In-stream NO3- during storm response are highest within the smaller catchments (1-5 km2) and tend to remain elevated throughout the response period. The larger catchments (15-64 km2) demonstrate smaller increases in NO3-, the response time lags behind that of the smaller catchments, and the concentration returns rapidly to baseflow conditions rather than remaining elevated. In contrast, in-stream NH3 show a higher degree of similarity between sites in terms of magnitude and timing of increases in concentration over the duration of the response period. Ultimately we found that fractions of inorganic nitrogen correlate with transit time and drainage area, opening the possibility of a catchment wide model of nutrient export prediction.

  20. Caucasus Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Often regarded as the southeastern border of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains can be seen here stretching from the Black Sea (left) to the Caspian Sea (right). The mountain range spans 700 miles (1125 km), crossing the countries of Russian Federation, Georgia, and Azerbaijan from left to right respectively. With a snowline of approximately 11,000 feet and peaks such as Mt. Elbrus, that reach 15,000 feet, much of the snow visible in this image is present year round. Also visible in this image are apparent phytoplankton blooms in the Caspian Sea, marked by blue-green swirls.

  1. Performance evaluation of four different methods for circulating water in commercial-scale, split-pond aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The split-pond consists of a fish-culture basin that is connected to a waste-treatment lagoon by two conveyance structures. Water is circulated between the two basins with high-volume pumps and many different pumping systems are being used on commercial farms. Pump performance was evaluated with fou...

  2. Decades-Scale Degradation of Commercial, Side-Chain, Fluorotelomer-Based Polymers in Soils and Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs) are a primary product of the jluorotelomer industry, yet the role of commercial FTPs in degrading to form perjluorocarboxylic acids (P FCAs), including perjluorooctanoic acid, and P FCA precursors, remains ill-defined. Here we report on a 376-d...

  3. A multi-scale analysis of streamflow response to changes in evapotranspiration and soil hydrology in the Blue Ridge Mountains (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, K.; Jackson, C. R.

    2013-12-01

    A large amount of research exploring the relationship between watershed forest cover and streamflow quantity has been conducted in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, particularly in association with the USFS Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and the Coweeta LTER. However, a clear answer to the question ';How does changing tree cover influence runoff?' has not yet emerged for guidance of policy and management. The southern Blue Ridge is the source of water reaching much of the drought-sensitive Southeastern US, and a firmer understanding of the complexities of this issue is critical for water resources management for millions of people and diverse aquatic habitats. When this question has been explored in mesoscale systems (10s to 100s km2), results indicate that watersheds with greater forest cover have greater baseflow. Associated work has shown that hydraulic conductivities in forest soils are nearly an order of magnitude greater than lawn and pasture soils in this region. Our interpretation has been that in these mesoscale systems, the compaction of soil associated with forest conversion to other land uses has played a bigger role than related changes in evapotranspiration (ET) in shaping watershed dynamics and the overall water budget. Particular influence has been seen in baseflows, we posit, due to reduced infiltration and recharge. However, nearly a century of research in small experimental watersheds at Coweeta has shown that forest ET substantially reduces streamflows, including baseflows, when soils are not substantially altered. At this smaller scale of observations, details of forest composition and species water use variability have been thoroughly considered, while in the mesoscale studies 'forest cover' is treated as regionally uniform. Current small-scale work at Coweeta has shown that hemlock decline and subsequent replacement with other species has changed the magnitude and seasonality of ET, which is detectible in streamflow quantity and timing. Here

  4. Jumpstarting commercial-scale CO2 capture and storage with ethylene production and enhanced oil recovery in the US Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, Richard S.; Levine, Jonathan S.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Carey, J. William; Stauffer, Philip H.

    2015-04-27

    CO2 capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technology has yet to be widely deployed at a commercial scale despite multiple high-profile demonstration projects. We suggest that developing a large-scale, visible, and financially viable CCUS network could potentially overcome many barriers to deployment and jumpstart commercial-scale CCUS. To date, substantial effort has focused on technology development to reduce the costs of CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. Here, we propose that near-term investment could focus on implementing CO2 capture on facilities that produce high-value chemicals/products. These facilities can absorb the expected impact of the marginal increase in the cost of production on the price of their product, due to the addition of CO2 capture, more than coal-fired power plants. A financially viable demonstration of a large-scale CCUS network requires offsetting the costs of CO2 capture by using the CO2 as an input to the production of market-viable products. As a result, we demonstrate this alternative development path with the example of an integrated CCUS system where CO2 is captured from ethylene producers and used for enhanced oil recovery in the U.S. Gulf Coast region.

  5. Magnificent Mountains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    One way to increase awareness of endangered national heritage is to teach youth the importance of the land through the study of selected works of art. This article describes a lesson, in which students will study the work of Thomas Moran and create a mountain range collage. A short biography of Thomas Moran is included.

  6. Coupled soil respiration and transpiration dynamics from tree-scale to catchment scale in dry Rocky Mountain pine forests and the role of snowpack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, E.; Barnard, H. R.; Brooks, P. D.; Adams, H.; Burns, M. A.; Wilson, W.; Stielstra, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    determine whether tree root-zone respiration exhibits a similar moisture threshold. Lastly, we examine whether moisture thresholds to temperature sensitivity are consistent across a range of snowpack persistence. Findings are compared to data collected from sites in Arizona and New Mexico to better establish the role of winter precipitation in governing growing season respiration rates. The outcome of this study will contribute to a better understanding of linkages among water, tree physiology, and soil respiration with the ultimate goal of scaling plot-level respiration fluxes to entire catchments.

  7. A Study to Develop an Industrial-Scale, Computer-Controlled High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) System to Assist in Commercializing the Novel, Enabling HMFP Manufacturing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz-; Chourey, Aashish

    2010-08-01

    As the original magnet designer and manufacturer of ORNL s 9T, 5-inch ID bore magnet, American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) has collaborated with ORNL s Materials Processing Group s and this partnership has been instrumental in the development of our unique thermo-magnetic facilities and expertise. Consequently, AMI and ORNL have realized that the commercial implementation of the High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) technology will require the evolution of robust, automated superconducting (SC) magnet systems that will be cost-effective and easy to operate in an industrial environment. The goal of this project and CRADA is to significantly expedite the timeline for implementing this revolutionary and pervasive cross-cutting technology for future US produced industrial components. The successful completion of this project is anticipated to significantly assist in the timely commercialization and licensing of our HMFP intellectual property for a broad spectrum of industries; and to open up a new market for AMI. One notable outcome of this project is that the ThermoMagnetic Processing Technology WON a prestigious 2009 R&D 100 Awards. This award acknowledges and recognizes our TMP Technology as one of the top 100 innovative US technologies in 2009. By successfully establishing the design requirements for a commercial scale magnetic processing system, this project effort has accomplished a key first step in facilitating the building and demonstration of a superconducting magnetic processing coil, enabling the transition of the High Magnetic Field Processing Technology beyond a laboratory novelty into a commercially viable and industrially scalable Manufacturing Technology.

  8. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase 3, Technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this Phase III program for the development of a commercial scale, coal-fired combustion system is to develop and integrate all system components from fuel through total system controls building upon the prior Phase I and II development accomplishments of the MTCI pulse combustion technology and to then field test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During this 13th quarter, a steam generation cost model was developed to compare the economics of steam production in the commercial-scale, coal-fired pulse combustion system with that in a natural gas- or oil-fired system. The purpose of this model is to define the competitive capital cost range for the MTCI system under a specified set of technical and economic conditions. A current preliminary estimate of the MTCI pulse coal combustion system capital cost turns out to be about $120,000 and this is within the target range of the US commercial boiler market sector. European differential fuel costs are expected to be more favorable. Several conceptual arrangements for coal reburn and char burnout were evaluated. The arrangement was selected based on the following considerations viz. utilization of the existing pulse combustor as is, minimization of footprint and vertical space requirement, good mixing of coal, steam and combustion products in the reburn section, and adequate char residence time in the char burnout section.

  9. Aqueous Geochemical Data From the Analysis of Stream-Water Samples Collected in June and July 2005--Taylor Mountains 1:250,000 Scale Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Mueller, Seth; Stetson, Sarah; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

    2006-01-01

    We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle. Parameters for which data are reported include pH, conductivity, water temperature, major cation and anion concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and dissolved organic-carbon concentrations. Samples were collected as part of a multiyear U.S. Geological Survey project 'Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development.' Data presented here are from samples collected in June and July of 2005. The data are being released at this time with minimal interpretation. This is the second release of aqueous geochemical data from this project; 2004 aqueous geochemical data were published previously (Wang and others, 2006). The data in this report augment but do not duplicate or supersede the previous data release. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first- and second-order drainages. Water sample site selection was based on landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and a cursory field review of mineralogy from pan concentrates. Stream water in the Taylor Mountians quadrangle is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), though in a few samples more than 50 percent of the anionic charge can be attributed to sulfate (SO42-). The major-cation chemistry ranges from Ca2+/Mg2+ dominated to a mix of Ca2+/Mg2+/Na++K+. In general, good agreement was found between the major cations and anions in the duplicate samples. Many trace elements in these samples were at or near the analytical method detection limit, but good agreement was found between duplicate samples for elements with detectable concentrations. With the exception of a total mercury concentration of 0.33 ng/L detected in a field blank, field blank major-ion and trace-elements concentrations were below detection.

  10. Analysis of Thermally Induced Changes in Fractured Rock Permeability during Eight Years of Heating and Cooling at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Min, K.-B.; Elsworth, D.; Tsang, Y.

    2008-06-01

    We analyzed a data set of thermally induced changes in fractured rock permeability during a four-year heating (up to 200 C) and subsequent four-year cooling of a large volume, partially saturated and highly fractured volcanic tuff at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test, in Nevada, USA. Permeability estimates were derived from about 700 pneumatic (air-injection) tests, taken periodically at 44 packed-off borehole intervals during the heating and cooling cycle from November 1997 through November 2005. We analyzed air-permeability data by numerical modeling of thermally induced stress and moisture movements and their impact on air permeability within the highly fractured rock. Our analysis shows that changes in air permeability during the initial four-year heating period, which were limited to about one order of magnitude, were caused by the combined effects of thermal-mechanically-induced stress on fracture aperture and thermal-hydrologically-induced changes in fracture moisture content. At the end of the subsequent four-year cooling period, air-permeability decreases (to as low as 0.2 of initial) and increases (to as high as 1.8 of initial) were observed. By comparison to the calculated thermo-hydro-elastic model results, we identified these remaining increases or decreases in air permeability as irreversible changes in intrinsic fracture permeability, consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). In this paper, we discuss the possibility that such fracture asperity shortening and associated decrease in fracture permeability might be enhanced by dissolution of highly stressed surface asperities over years of elevated stress and temperature.

  11. Collision and mountain building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, V. G.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial, chronological, and genetic relationships of recent (Late Alpine) collisions to mountain building are considered at three levels of scale: (i) in separate zones of the Arabian-Caucasus segment of the Alpine-Himalayan Orogenic Belt, (ii) throughout the central segment of this belt from the Alps to the Himalalayas, and (iii) in Central Asia and other mountain belts of continents. Three stages of mountain building are distinguished at all three levels. The first stage starts with widespread collision and similar plate interactions from the end of the Eocene to the middle Miocene and is expressed in the formation of uplifts, commonly no higher than the moderately elevated level in regions that concentrate deformations of transverse shortening induced by compression. The second short stage, which embraces the Pliocene-Quaternary and occasionally the end of the Miocene, differs in general, though differentiated in the value and intensification of vertical movements, when the height of mountains increases by 2-3 times. Elevations are spread over certain platform territories and even frameworks of rift zones. This is related not so much to the intensity of compression and shortening as to the compositional transformation of the upper mantle and the lower crust, leading to their decompaction. Comparison with the Hercynian and Caledonian orogenic stages shows that the second phase, predetermined by widespread collision, reflects a more important geodynamic event expressed in a change of the global plate interaction system and its deep-seated sources.

  12. Efficacy of a commercial live attenuated Lawsonia intracellularis vaccine in a large scale field trial in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sangshin; Lee, Joong-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Oh, Yu-Sik; Kim, Man-Ok; Oh, Yu-Ri; Hwang, Min-A; Lee, Jung-Ah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) is known as one of the most important risk factors causing economic losses in swine industry worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial oral attenuated Lawsonia intracellularis vaccine (Enterisol Ileitis) against PPE under a commercial pig farm condition in Korea. Materials and Methods Thirty two-day-old 672 piglets were randomly allocated into vaccinated and control groups. All piglets in the vaccinated group were inoculated with a commercial attenuated L. intracellularis vaccine as following the manufacturer's instruction. Body weights of all pigs in both groups were measured on the vaccination day and 6, 14, and 20 weeks post vaccination and an average daily weight gain (ADWG) was calculated. Health status was observed biweekly during the whole trial. Results The vaccinated group showed significantly higher body weight (p<0.05) and ADWG (p<0.05) than those of the control group. The vaccinated group had significantly reduced impairments in activity, growth, defecation frequency, and stool hardness (p<0.05). Additional health benefits and improved weight gain by the vaccination produced a 4.2:1 return of investment, and the higher gross margin was $4.80 per pig. Conclusion Our finding suggests that the L. intracellularis vaccine program has effects on the substantial health and economic benefits in the Korean swine industry. PMID:23858405

  13. Geophysical Setting of the Blue Mountain Geothermal Area, North-Central Nevada and its Relationship to a Crustal-Scale Fracture Associated with the Inception of the Yellowstone Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, D. A.; Bouligand, C.; Casteel, J.; Glen, J. M.; Watt, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    The Blue Mountain geothermal field, located about 35 km northwest of Winnemucca, Nevada, is situated along a prominent crustal-scale fracture interpreted from total-intensity aeromagnetic and gravity data. Aeromagnetic data indicate that this feature is related to the intrusion of mafic dikes, similar to the Northern Nevada Rift, and may be associated with the inception of the ~16 Ma Yellowstone Hotspot. This pre-existing large-scale crustal feature may have influenced the location of the geothermal prospect and the spatially associated epithermal gold deposit on the western flank of Blue Mountain. Other epithermal gold deposits in north-central Nevada are strongly correlated with this and other similar crustal-scale fractures associated with the Yellowstone Hotspot as well (Ponce and Glen, 2002). We investigate mafic dikes exposed along the western flank of Blue Mountain, and encountered in drill-holes DB-1 and DB-2 at depths of about 500 and 750 meters, respectively. The dikes are composed of gabbro to diorite and physical-property measurements indicate they have an average saturated-bulk density of 2852 kg/m3 and a moderately magnetic susceptibility of about 18.0 x 10-3 SI. Geologic investigations by Wyld (2002) and paleomagnetic investigations of the dikes indicate they are no younger than about 10 Ma and have a paleomagnetic direction consistent with a mid-Miocene age, suggesting they may be related to the inception of the Yellowstone Hotspot. Gravity, magnetic, and physical-property data were collected in the area in order to improve the regional data coverage, which was relatively sparse throughout this part of north-central Nevada, especially on pre-Cenozoic bedrock. These data are used to better constrain the geophysical setting of Blue Mountain. In particular, we invert gravity data to determine the geometry of the basins in the area which may yield important structural information. Simultaneous forward modeling of magnetic and gravity anomaly data is

  14. How Close We Are to Achieving Commercially Viable Large-Scale Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria: A Review of the Biological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. PMID:25793279

  15. Plot and field scale soil moisture dynamics and subsurface wetness control on runoff generation in a headwater in the Ore Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, E.; Graeff, T.; Morgner, M.; Bauer, A.; Bronstert, A.

    2010-06-01

    This study presents an application of an innovative sampling strategy to assess soil moisture dynamics in a headwater of the Weißeritz in the German eastern Ore Mountains. A grassland site and a forested site were instrumented with two Spatial TDR clusters (STDR) that consist of 39 and 32 coated TDR probes of 60 cm length. Distributed time series of vertically averaged soil moisture data from both sites/ensembles were analyzed by statistical and geostatistical methods. Spatial variability and the spatial mean at the forested site were larger than at the grassland site. Furthermore, clustering of TDR probes in combination with long-term monitoring allowed identification of average spatial covariance structures at the small field scale for different wetness states. The correlation length of soil water content as well as the sill to nugget ratio at the grassland site increased with increasing average wetness and but, in contrast, were constant at the forested site. As soil properties at both the forested and grassland sites are extremely variable, this suggests that the correlation structure at the forested site is dominated by the pattern of throughfall and interception. We also found a very strong correlation between antecedent soil moisture at the forested site and runoff coefficients of rainfall-runoff events observed at gauge Rehefeld. Antecedent soil moisture at the forest site explains 92% of the variability in the runoff coefficients. By combining these results with a recession analysis we derived a first conceptual model of the dominant runoff mechanisms operating in this catchment. Finally, we employed a physically based hydrological model to shed light on the controls of soil- and plant morphological parameters on soil average soil moisture at the forested site and the grassland site, respectively. A homogeneous soil setup allowed, after fine tuning of plant morphological parameters, most of the time unbiased predictions of the observed average soil

  16. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission: Science from Geostationary Orbit on-board a Commercial Communications Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastes, R.; Deaver, T.; Krywonos, A.; Lankton, M. R.; McClintock, W. E.; Pang, R.

    2011-12-01

    Geostationary orbits are ideal for many science investigations of the Earth system on global scales. These orbits allow continuous observations of the same geographic region, enabling spatial and temporal changes to be distinguished and eliminating the ambiguity inherent to observations from low Earth orbit (LEO). Just as observations from geostationary orbit have revolutionized our understanding of changes in the troposphere, they will dramatically improve our understanding of the space environment at higher altitudes. However, geostationary orbits are infrequently used for science missions because of high costs. Geostationary satellites are large, typically weighing tons. Consequently, devoting an entire satellite to a science mission requires a large financial commitment, both for the spacecraft itself and for sufficient science instrumentation to justify a dedicated spacecraft. Furthermore, the small number of geostationary satellites produced for scientific missions increases the costs of each satellite. For these reasons, it is attractive to consider flying scientific instruments on satellites operated by commercial companies, some of whom have fleets of ~40 satellites. However, scientists' lack of understanding of the capabilities of commercial spacecraft as well as commercial companies' concerns about risks to their primary mission have impeded the cooperation necessary for the shared use of a spacecraft. Working with a commercial partner, the GOLD mission has successfully overcome these issues. Our experience indicates that there are numerous benefits to flying on commercial communications satellites (e.g., it is possible to downlink large amounts of data) and the costs are low if the experimental requirements adequately match the capabilities and available resources of the host spacecraft. Consequently, affordable access to geostationary orbit aboard a communications satellite now appears possible for science payloads.

  17. [Mountain sickness].

    PubMed

    Bultas, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mountaineering brings many health risks, one of which is mountain sickness. Its mildest form - acute mountain sickness - is mainly characterized by subjective symptoms (headache, loss of appetite, insomnia, weakness, nausea and rarely also vomiting). Advanced and life-threatening forms are characterized by tissue edema - cerebral or pulmonary high altitude edema. The common denominator of these acute forms is the low oxygen tension leading to hypoxemia and tissue ischemia. Sum of maladaptive or adaptive processes can modify the clinical picture. Underlying mechanisms of the chronic forms of pulmonary disease are the adaptation processes - pulmonary hypertension and polycythemia leading to heart failure.The only causal therapeutic intervention is to restore adequate oxygen tension, descend to lower altitudes or oxygen therapy. Pharmacotherapy has only a supportive effect. The prophylaxis includes stimulation of the respiratory center by carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (acetazolamide) antiedematous treatment with glucocorticoids (dexamethasone), increase lymphatic drainage of the lungs and brain by β2-agonists (salmeterol) or mitigation of pulmonary hypertension by calcium channel blockers or phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (sildenafil or tadalafil). PMID:26750624

  18. Commercial-scale evaluation of two agricultural waste products, cotton burr/stem and module wraps in thermoplastic composites and comparison with laboratory-scale results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory-scale research had shown the potential of using cotton burr/stem (CBS) as a fiber filler in thermoplastic composites. This study evaluates the potential of using waste materials from cotton harvesting/ginning operations, CBS, and cotton module wraps (CMW) as a filler and substrate in ther...

  19. Toward systems-level analysis of agricultural production from crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM): scaling from cell to commercial production.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sarah C; Ming, Ray; LeBauer, David S; Long, Stephen P

    2015-10-01

    Systems-level analyses have become prominent tools for assessing the yield, viability, economic consequences and environmental impacts of agricultural production. Such analyses are well-developed for many commodity crops that are used for food and biofuel, but have not been developed for agricultural production systems based on drought-tolerant plants that use crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). We review the components of systems-level evaluations, and identify the information available for completing such analyses for CAM cropping systems. Specific needs for developing systems-level evaluations of CAM agricultural production include: improvement of physiological models; assessment of product processing after leaving the farm gate; and application of newly available genetic tools to the optimization of CAM species for commercial production. PMID:26094655

  20. Scale-Up of CdTe Photovoltaic Device Processes for Commercial Application: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-196

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D.

    2013-02-01

    Through this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, NREL and PrimeStar Solar will work together to scale up the NREL CdTe photovoltaic process from the laboratory to produce photovoltaic devices in a size that is commercially viable. The work in this phase will focus on the transference of NREL CdTe device fabrication techniques to PrimeStar Solar. NREL and PrimeStar Solar will engage in a series of technical exchange meetings and laboratory training sessions to transfer the knowledge of CdTe PV film growth from NREL to PrimeStar Solar. PrimeStar Solar will grow thin films on PrimeStar Solar equipment and interleave them with NREL-grown films in an effort to develop a commercial scale process on PrimeStar Solar equipment. Select NREL film growth equipment will be upgraded either by PrimeStar Solar or at PrimeStar Solar's expense to increase equipment reliability and throughput.

  1. A Study to Develop an Industrial-Scale, Computer-Controlled High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) System to Assist in Commercializing the Novel, Enabling HMFP Manufacturing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lutdka, G. M.; Chourey, A.

    2010-05-12

    As the original magnet designer and manufacturer of ORNL’s 9T, 5-inch ID bore magnet, American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) has collaborated with ORNL’s Materials Processing Group’s and this partnership has been instrumental in the development of our unique thermo-magnetic facilities and expertise. Consequently, AMI and ORNL have realized that the commercial implementation of the High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) technology will require the evolution of robust, automated superconducting (SC) magnet systems that will be cost-effective and easy to operate in an industrial environment. The goal of this project and CRADA is to significantly expedite the timeline for implementing this revolutionary and pervasive cross-cutting technology for future US produced industrial components. The successful completion of this project is anticipated to significantly assist in the timely commercialization and licensing of our HMFP intellectual property for a broad spectrum of industries; and to open up a new market for AMI. One notable outcome of this project is that the ThermoMagnetic Processing Technology WON a prestigious 2009 R&D 100 Awards. This award acknowledges and recognizes our TMP Technology as one of the top 100 innovative US technologies in 2009. By successfully establishing the design requirements for a commercial scale magnetic processing system, this project effort has accomplished a key first step in facilitating the building and demonstration of a superconducting magnetic processing coil, enabling the transition of the High Magnetic Field Processing Technology beyond a laboratory novelty into a commercially viable and industrially scalable Manufacturing Technology.

  2. From genetic improvement to commercial-scale mass culture of a Chilean strain of the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis with enhanced productivity of the red ketocarotenoid astaxanthin

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Patricia I.; Inostroza, Ingrid; Pizarro, Mario; Pérez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a red ketocarotenoid, widely used as a natural red colourant in marine fish aquaculture and poultry and, recently, as an antioxidant supplement for humans and animals. The green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the richest natural sources of this pigment. However, its slow growth rate and complex life cycle make mass culture difficult for commercial purposes. The aims of this research were (i) to standardize and apply a genetic improvement programme to a Chilean strain of H. pluvialis in order to improve its carotenogenic capacity and (ii) to evaluate the performance of a selected mutant strain in commercial-sized (125 000 L) open ponds in the north of Chile. Haematococcus pluvialis strain 114 was mutated by ethyl methanesulfonate. The level of mutagen dose (exposure time and concentration) was one that induced at least 90 % mortality. Surviving colonies were screened for resistance to the carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor diphenylamine (25 µM). Resistant mutants were grown in a 30-mL volume for 30 days, after which the total carotenoid content was determined by spectrophotometry. Tens of mutants with improved carotenogenic capacity compared with the wild-type strain were isolated by the application of these standardized protocols. Some mutants exhibited curious morphological features such as spontaneous release of astaxanthin and loss of flagella. One of the mutants was grown outdoors in commercial-sized open ponds of 125 000 L in the north of Chile. Grown under similar conditions, the mutant strain accumulated 30 % more astaxanthin than the wild-type strain on a per dry weight basis and 72 % more on a per culture volume basis. We show that random mutagenesis/selection is an effective strategy for genetically improving strains of H. pluvialis and that improved carotenogenic capacity is maintained when the volume of the cultures is scaled up to a commercial size. PMID:23789055

  3. Assessment of Constructed Wetland in Nutrient Reduction, in the Commercial Scale Experiment Ponds of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Tariq; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guosen

    2016-03-01

    A free water surface constructed wetland (CW) was integrated into two commercial ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to evaluate the role of CW in reducing the excess nutrient concentration and other pollutants produced from the aquaculture waste. Hydraulic residence time was kept constant (24 h). There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in total suspended solids (TSS, 73.2 ± 15.4 %) and total nitrogen (TN, 39.6 ± 44.2 %) between wetland inflow and wetland outflow. The performance of the CW was highly impacted by the low concentration of dissolved nutrients at the inflow of CW. Results showed about 43.8 ± 24.6 % NO3 (-), 25.7 ± 23.0 % NH4 (+), 14.3 ± 1.0 % NO2 (-), 28.4 ± 18.8 % DIN and 13.1 ± 10.0 % PO4 (3-) were removed. In agreement with previous published investigations, comparing values of pollutants before and after recirculation, this study concludes that a CW system can provide good water quality and minimize external water input. PMID:26679323

  4. Vapor Transport Through Fractures and Other High-Permeability Paths: Its Role in the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Tsang, Y. W.

    2001-12-01

    Heating unsaturated fractured tuff sets off a series of complicated thermal-hydrological (TH) processes, which result in large-scale redistribution of moisture in the host rock. Moisture redistribution arises from boiling of water near heat sources, transport of vapor away from those heat sources, condensation of that vapor in cooler rock, and subsequent gravity drainage of condensate through fractures. Vapor transport through high-permeability paths, which include both the fractures in the rock and other conduits, contributes to the evolution of these TH processes in two ways. First, the highly permeable natural fractures provide easy passage for vapor away from the heat sources. Second, these fractures and other highly permeable conduits allow vapor (and the associated energy) to escape the rock through open boundaries of the test domain. The overall impact of vapor transport on the evolution of the TH processes can be more easily understood in the context of the Drift Scale Test (DST), the largest ever in situ heater test in unsaturated fractured tuff. The DST, in which a large volume of rock has been heated for four years now, is located in the middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) stratigraphic unit of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The fractured tuff in Tptpmn contains many well-connected fractures. In the DST, heating is provided by nine cannister heaters placed in a five-meter-diameter Heated Drift (HD) and fifty wing heaters installed orthogonal to the axis of the HD. The test has many instrumentation boreholes, some of which are not sealed by packers or grout and may provide passage for vapor and energy. Of these conduits, the boreholes housing the wing heaters are most important for vapor transport because of their proximity to heat sources. While part of the vapor generated by heating moves away from the heat sources through the fractures and condenses elsewhere in the rock, the rest of the vapor, under gas-pressure difference, enters the HD by way of the high

  5. A practical overview and comparison of certain commercial forensic software tools for processing large-scale digital investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the usefulness of modern forensic software tools for processing large-scale digital investigations. In particular, we focus on the new version of Nuix 4.2 and compare it with AccessData FTK 4.2, X-Ways Forensics 16.9 and Guidance Encase Forensic 7 regarding its performance, functionality, usability and capability. We will show how these software tools work with large forensic images and how capable they are in examining complex and big data scenarios.

  6. A Quality Assurance Initiative for Commercial-Scale Production in High-Throughput Cryopreservation of Blue Catfish Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Hu, E; Liao, T. W.; Tiersch, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of fish sperm has been studied for decades at a laboratory (research) scale. However, high-throughput cryopreservation of fish sperm has recently been developed to enable industrial-scale production. This study treated blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) sperm high-throughput cryopreservation as a manufacturing production line and initiated quality assurance plan development. The main objectives were to identify: 1) the main production quality characteristics; 2) the process features for quality assurance; 3) the internal quality characteristics and their specification designs; 4) the quality control and process capability evaluation methods, and 5) the directions for further improvements and applications. The essential product quality characteristics were identified as fertility-related characteristics. Specification design which established the tolerance levels according to demand and process constraints was performed based on these quality characteristics. Meanwhile, to ensure integrity throughout the process, internal quality characteristics (characteristics at each quality control point within process) that could affect fertility-related quality characteristics were defined with specifications. Due to the process feature of 100% inspection (quality inspection of every fish), a specific calculation method, use of cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts, was applied to monitor each quality characteristic. An index of overall process evaluation, process capacity, was analyzed based on in-control process and the designed specifications, which further integrates the quality assurance plan. With the established quality assurance plan, the process could operate stably and quality of products would be reliable. PMID:23872356

  7. 2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  8. Scale Matters: An Action Plan for Realizing Sector-Wide"Zero-Energy" Performance Goals in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Stephen; Selkowitz, Stephen; Granderson, Jessica; Haves, Philip; Mathew, Paul; Harris, Jeff

    2008-06-16

    It is widely accepted that if the United States is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions it must aggressively address energy end use in the building sector. While there have been some notable but modest successes with mandatory and voluntary programs, there have also been puzzling failures to achieve expected savings. Collectively, these programs have not yet reached the majority of the building stock, nor have they yet routinely produced very large savings in individual buildings. Several trends that have the potential to change this are noteworthy: (1) the growing market interest in 'green buildings' and 'sustainable design', (2) the major professional societies (e.g. AIA, ASHRAE) have more aggressively adopted significant improvements in energy efficiency as strategic goals, e.g. targeting 'zero energy', carbon-neutral buildings by 2030. While this vision is widely accepted as desirable, unless there are significant changes to the way buildings are routinely designed, delivered and operated, zero energy buildings will remain a niche phenomenon rather than a sector-wide reality. Toward that end, a public/private coalition including the Alliance to Save Energy, LBNL, AIA, ASHRAE, USGBC and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) are developing an 'action plan' for moving the U.S. commercial building sector towards zero energy performance. It addresses regional action in a national framework; integrated deployment, demonstration and R&D threads; and would focus on measurable, visible performance indicators. This paper outlines this action plan, focusing on the challenge, the key themes, and the strategies and actions leading to substantial reductions in GHG emissions by 2030.

  9. Geologic Sequestration of CO2 in Deep, Unmineable Coalbeds: An Integrated Researdh and Commercial-Scale Field Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves; George Koperna

    2008-09-30

    The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative consortium with the objective of advancing industry's understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. This will allow primary recovery, enhanced recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration operations to be commercially enhanced and/or economically deployed. The project was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coalseams. The initial project accomplished a number of important objectives, which mainly revolved around performing baseline experimental studies, documenting and analyzing existing field projects, and establishing a global network for technology exchange. The results from that Phase have been documented in a series of reports which are publicly available. An important outcome of the initial phase was that serious limitations were uncovered in our knowledge of reservoir behavior when CO{sub 2} is injected into coal. To address these limitations, the project was extended in 2005 as a government-industry collaborative consortium. Selected accomplishments from this phase have included the identification and/or development of new models for multi-component sorption and diffusion, laboratory studies of coal geomechanical and permeability behavior with CO{sub 2} injection, additional field validation studies, and continued global technology exchange. Further continuation of the consortium is currently being considered. Some of the topics that have been identified for investigation include further model development/refinement related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins, the extension of the work to gas shale

  10. The efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study

    PubMed Central

    Schneitz, C.; Hakkinen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 103 cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter. The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens. PMID

  11. The efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Schneitz, C; Hakkinen, M

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 10(3) cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens. PMID

  12. Case studies of unique problems and events encountered during design, construction, and operation of three large commercial-scale fuel ethanol plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the unique problems and events encountered during the design, construction, start-up, and operation phases of three differently constructed alcohol fuel projects. These projects were awarded cost sharing contracts (Cooperative Agreements) as part of the Department of Energy's effort to expedite ethanol production on a commercial scale. The scope of the projects included final design, economic and financial analysis, market analysis, environmental analysis, facility construction, and plant start-up operation. The three ethanol plants are a 20-million gallon per year (MMGPY) new-construction or grass roots facility; a 60-MMGPY plant constructed using refurbished equipment at a decommissioned ammonia fertilizer facility; and a 10-MMGPY retrofitted brewery. A comparison of the case histories of these projects clearly points out the advantages and disadvantages of each type of design and construction.

  13. Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{sup trademark}) process. Third quarterly report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH)(TM) demonstration project at King sport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L. P. (the Partnership). A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 TPD) of methanol is being designed and constructed at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to `demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH(TM) Process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.` The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four year demonstration period. The LPMEOH(TM) process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfully piloted at a 10-TPD rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products` LaPorte, Texas, site. This demonstration project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.

  14. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  15. Protection of the Mountain Ridgelines Utilizing GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, M.

    2013-12-01

    Korean peninsula is characterized by numerous hills and mountains. The longest mountain ridgeline starting from Mt. Baekdusan to Mt. Jirisan is called Baekdudaegan which is similar to the continental divide or topographical watershed. In this study, GIS data, such as remotesensing images, national digital map, and watershed map, are used to analyze Korean mountain ridgelines structure and one Baekdudaegan data and nine Ridgelines are extracted. When extracted Baekdudaegan and other Ridgelines are overlaid on geologic maps, granite and gneiss are main components on the mountain ridgelines. The main mountain ridgelines are considered as the spiritual heritage overlapped in the land in Korea. As the environmental state is relatively better than those of other region in Korea, so many mountain ridgelines are legally protected by national legislation. The mountain ridgelines has hierarchical system; Baekdudaegan, Jeongmaek, Gimaek and Jimaek etc. according to their scale and total lengths of ridgelines. As only part of mountain ridgelines are currently protected by law or managed in environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedure, we think that most part of them should be under protection. Considering the environmental state of the ridgelines, we think that some protective measures should be set up nearby 1 km on both sides of them. If there goes a development plan or project near the main mountain ridgelines, topographical change index (TCI) and topographical scale index (TSI) etc. are to be applied in EIA. This study intends: firstly, to analyze the topological characteristics of the Korean mountain ridgelines using GIS, secondly, to analyze the geological characteristics of nearby mountain ridgelines, and lastly, to find a way to utilize the results on EIA.

  16. Large Scale Solid Phase Synthesis of Peptide Drugs: Use of Commercial Anion Exchange Resin as Quenching Agent for Removal of Iodine during Disulphide Bond Formation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, K. M. Bhaskara; Kumari, Y. Bharathi; Mallikharjunasarma, Dokka; Bulliraju, Kamana; Sreelatha, Vanjivaka; Ananda, Kuppanna

    2012-01-01

    The S-acetamidomethyl (Acm) or trityl (Trt) protecting groups are widely used in the chemical synthesis of peptides that contain one or more disulfide bonds. Treatment of peptides containing S-Acm protecting group with iodine results in simultaneous removal of the sulfhydryl protecting group and disulfide formation. However, the excess iodine needs to be quenched or adsorbed as quickly as possible after completion of the disulfide bond formation in order to minimize side reactions that are often associated with the iodination step. We report here a simple method for simultaneous quenching and removal of iodine and isolation of disulphide bridge peptides. The use of excess inexpensive anion exchange resin to the oxidized peptide from the aqueous acetic acid/methanol solution affords quantitative removal of iodine and other color impurities. This improves the resin life time of expensive chromatography media that is used in preparative HPLC column during the purification of peptide using preparative HPLC. Further, it is very useful for the conversion of TFA salt to acetate in situ. It was successfully applied commercially, to the large scale synthesis of various peptides including Desmopressin, Oxytocin, and Octreotide. This new approach offers significant advantages such as more simple utility, minimal side reactions, large scale synthesis of peptide drugs, and greater cost effectiveness. PMID:23118772

  17. Commercial-scale recycling of NdFeB-type magnets with grain boundary modification yields products with 'designer properties' that exceed those of starting materials.

    PubMed

    Zakotnik, M; Tudor, C O

    2015-10-01

    NdFeB-type magnets dominate the market for high performance magnetic materials, yet production of 'virgin' magnets via mining is environmentally, financially and energetically costly. Hence, interest is growing in 'magnet to magnet' recycling schemes that offer the potential for cheaper, more environmentally-friendly solutions to the world's growing appetite for rare-earth based magnetic materials. Unfortunately, previously described recycling processes only partially capitalise on this potential, because the methods described to date are limited to 'laboratory scale' or operate only under ideal conditions and result in products that fail to recapture the coercivity of the starting, scrap materials. Herein, we report a commercial scale process (120 kg batches) that completely recovers the properties of the starting scrap magnets. Indeed, 'grain boundary modification', via careful addition of a proprietary mix of blended elements, produces magnets with 'designer properties' that can exceed those of the starting materials and can be closely tailored to meet a wide variety of end-user applications, including high-coercivity (>2000 kA/m), sintered magnets suitable for motor applications. PMID:26239935

  18. Gas Fermentation—A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low-Carbon-Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks

    PubMed Central

    Liew, FungMin; Martin, Michael E.; Tappel, Ryan C.; Heijstra, Björn D.; Mihalcea, Christophe; Köpke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants). Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields. PMID:27242719

  19. Gas Fermentation-A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low-Carbon-Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Liew, FungMin; Martin, Michael E; Tappel, Ryan C; Heijstra, Björn D; Mihalcea, Christophe; Köpke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants). Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields. PMID:27242719

  20. Reassessing regime shifts in the North Pacific: incremental climate change and commercial fishing are necessary for explaining decadal-scale biological variability.

    PubMed

    Litzow, Michael A; Mueter, Franz J; Hobday, Alistair J

    2014-01-01

    In areas of the North Pacific that are largely free of overfishing, climate regime shifts - abrupt changes in modes of low-frequency climate variability - are seen as the dominant drivers of decadal-scale ecological variability. We assessed the ability of leading modes of climate variability [Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA), North Pacific Index (NPI), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)] to explain decadal-scale (1965-2008) patterns of climatic and biological variability across two North Pacific ecosystems (Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea). Our response variables were the first principle component (PC1) of four regional climate parameters [sea surface temperature (SST), sea level pressure (SLP), freshwater input, ice cover], and PCs 1-2 of 36 biological time series [production or abundance for populations of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), groundfish, herring (Clupea pallasii), shrimp, and jellyfish]. We found that the climate modes alone could not explain ecological variability in the study region. Both linear models (for climate PC1) and generalized additive models (for biology PC1-2) invoking only the climate modes produced residuals with significant temporal trends, indicating that the models failed to capture coherent patterns of ecological variability. However, when the residual climate trend and a time series of commercial fishery catches were used as additional candidate variables, resulting models of biology PC1-2 satisfied assumptions of independent residuals and out-performed models constructed from the climate modes alone in terms of predictive power. As measured by effect size and Akaike weights, the residual climate trend was the most important variable for explaining biology PC1 variability, and commercial catch the most important variable for biology PC2. Patterns of climate sensitivity and exploitation history for taxa strongly associated with biology

  1. Resprout and Survival of Willow ( Salix) Cuttings on Bioengineering Structures in Actively Eroding Gullies in Marls in a Mountainous Mediterranean Climate: A Large-Scale Experiment in the Francon Catchment (Southern Alps, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, F.; Labonne, S.

    2015-10-01

    Improving the understanding of the role of vegetation and bioengineering structures on erosion and sedimentation control, especially in torrent-prone catchments in a mountainous Mediterranean climate, has become a key issue today for the scientific community working in ecological engineering and restoration ecology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of willow ( Salix) cuttings in resprouting and survival on bioengineering structures in actively eroding gullies in marls and to identify the factors influencing this performance. Measurements were taken from 2008 to 2011 on 336 bioengineering structures, namely brush layers on wooden sills (BL) and brush layers with brush mats on wooden sills (BLM), using 8890 cuttings of Salix purpurea and Salix incana. These structures were built in 18 gullies of the Francon Catchment in marls (73 ha) in the Southern French Alps. After four growing seasons, the results revealed a total cutting survival rate of 45 %. They also demonstrated that in BLM, brush mats provided better survival (56 %) than brush layers (37 %). In BL, brush layers alone showed 51 % cutting survival. Cutting resprout and survival were observed for all structure aspects. They were positively related to increasing gully size and vegetation cover on gully sides. The results of this large-scale experiment clarified previous data obtained on a limited sample of bioengineering structures, providing further detail and showing that it is possible to use such structures made of willow cuttings to revegetate actively eroding gullies in marls within a mountainous Mediterranean climate.

  2. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  3. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  4. Commercializing Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  5. The effects of aircraft on climate and pollution. Part II: 20-year impacts of exhaust from all commercial aircraft worldwide treated individually at the subgrid scale.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M Z; Wilkerson, J T; Naiman, A D; Lele, S K

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the 20-year impacts of emissions from all commercial aircraft flights worldwide on climate, cloudiness, and atmospheric composition. Aircraft emissions from each individual flight worldwide were modeled to evolve from the subgrid to grid scale with the global model described and evaluated in Part I of this study. Simulations with and without aircraft emissions were run for 20 years. Aircraft emissions were found to be responsible for -6% of Arctic surface global warming to date, -1.3% of total surface global warming, and -4% of global upper tropospheric warming. Arctic warming due to aircraft slightly decreased Arctic sea ice area. Longer simulations should result in more warming due to the further increase in CO2. Aircraft increased atmospheric stability below cruise altitude and decreased it above cruise altitude. The increase in stability decreased cumulus convection in favor of increased stratiform cloudiness. Aircraft increased total cloud fraction on average. Aircraft increased surface and upper tropospheric ozone by -0.4% and -2.5%, respectively and surface and upper-tropospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) by -0.1% and -5%, respectively. Aircraft emissions increased tropospheric OH, decreasing column CO and CH4 by -1.7% and -0.9%, respectively. Aircraft emissions increased human mortality worldwide by -620 (-240 to 4770) deaths per year, with half due to ozone and the rest to particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5). PMID:24601012

  6. Multi-scale biomarker evaluation of the toxicity of a commercial azo dye (Disperse Red 1) in an animal model, the freshwater cnidarian Hydra attenuata.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Laetitia; Pech, Nicolas; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Moreau, Xavier

    2016-06-01

    Acute (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) and chronic (7 days) tests have been performed to evaluate the effects of the commercial azo dye Disperse Red 1 (DR1) using various biomarkers in the freshwater invertebrate Hydra attenuata. Morphological changes have been selected to calculate ecotoxicological thresholds for sublethal and lethal DR1 concentrations. A multinomial logistic model showed that the probability of each morphological stage occurrence was function of concentration, time and interaction between both. Results of oxidative balance parameter measurements (72 h and 7 days) suggest that polyps set up defense mechanisms to limit lipid peroxidation caused by DR1. DR1 exposure at hormetic concentrations induces increase of asexual reproductive rates. This result suggests (1) an impact on the fitness-related phenotypical traits and (2) trade-offs between reproduction and maintenance to allow the population to survive harsher conditions. Changes in serotonin immuno-labeling in polyps showing alterations in feeding behavior suggest that chronic DR1 exposure impaired neuronal processes related to ingesting behavior in H. attenuata. This ecotoxicity study sheds light on the possible serotonin function in Hydra model and reports for the first time that serotonin could play a significant role in feeding behavior. This study used a multi-scale biomarker approach investigating biochemical, morphological, reproductive and behavioral endpoints in Hydra attenuata. This organism is proposed for a pertinent animal model to assess ecotoxicological impact of pollutant mixtures in freshwater environment. PMID:27019466

  7. Triclocarban, triclosan and its transformation product methyl triclosan in native earthworm species four years after a commercial-scale biosolids application.

    PubMed

    Macherius, André; Lapen, David R; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Römbke, Jörg; Topp, Edward; Coors, Anja

    2014-02-15

    Triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS) and methyl triclosan (Me-TCS) were detected in soil and the native population of earthworms of an agricultural field in Ottawa, Canada, about four years after a commercial-scale application of biosolids. In soil that received biosolids, TCC and TCS were detected at median concentrations of 13.0 and 1.5 ng/g soil (d.w.), respectively, while Me-TCS, the transformation product of triclosan, was detected at a six-fold higher median concentration than its precursor. In earthworms collected at the biosolids-amended field-plot about four years post application, Me-TCS was also detected at higher concentrations (26 to 114 ng/g tissue d.w.) than TCS (16-51 ng/g) and TCC (4-53 ng/g). These data provide evidence that not only parent compounds but also their transformation products need to be considered in faunal bioaccumulation studies. Moreover, the preliminary results for pooled earthworm samples from different ecological groups suggest that the degree of bioaccumulation of biosolids-associated contaminants may depend on the habitat and feeding behavior of the organisms. PMID:24291564

  8. Photocatalytic mineralization of commercial herbicides in a pilot-scale solar CPC reactor: photoreactor modeling and reaction kinetics constants independent of radiation field.

    PubMed

    Colina-Márquez, Jose; Machuca-Martínez, Fiderman; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2009-12-01

    The six-flux absorption-scattering model (SFM) of the radiation field in the photoreactor, combined with reaction kinetics and fluid-dynamic models, has proved to be suitable to describe the degradation of water pollutants in heterogeneous photocatalytic reactors, combining simplicity and accuracy. In this study, the above approach was extended to model the photocatalytic mineralization of a commercial herbicides mixture (2,4-D, diuron, and ametryne used in Colombian sugar cane crops) in a solar, pilot-scale, compound parabolic collector (CPC) photoreactor using a slurry suspension of TiO(2). The ray-tracing technique was used jointly with the SFM to determine the direction of both the direct and diffuse solar photon fluxes and the spatial profile of the local volumetric rate of photon absorption (LVRPA) in the CPC reactor. Herbicides mineralization kinetics with explicit photon absorption effects were utilized to remove the dependence of the observed rate constants from the reactor geometry and radiation field in the photoreactor. The results showed that the overall model fitted the experimental data of herbicides mineralization in the solar CPC reactor satisfactorily for both cloudy and sunny days. Using the above approach kinetic parameters independent of the radiation field in the reactor can be estimated directly from the results of experiments carried out in a solar CPC reactor. The SFM combined with reaction kinetics and fluid-dynamic models proved to be a simple, but reliable model, for solar photocatalytic applications. PMID:19943672

  9. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a type of bacteria carried by ticks. ... Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. The ...

  10. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  11. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000654.htm Rocky Mountain spotted fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a ...

  12. Environmental and Economic Performance of Commercial-scale Solar Photovoltaic Systems: A Field Study of Complex Energy Systems at the Desert Research Institute (DRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.

    2014-12-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are being aggressively deployed at residential, commercial, and utility scales to complement power generation from conventional sources. This is motivated both by the desire to reduce carbon footprints and by policy-driven financial incentives. Although several life cycle analyses (LCA) have investigated environmental impacts and energy payback times of solar PV systems, most results are based on hypothetical systems rather than actual, deployed systems that can provide measured performance data. Over the past five years, Desert Research Institute (DRI) in Nevada has installed eight solar PV systems of scales from 3 to 1000 kW, the sum of which supply approximately 40% of the total power use at DRI's Reno and Las Vegas campuses. The goal of this work is to explore greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts and examine the economic performance of DRI's PV systems by developing and applying a comprehensive LCA and techno-economic (TEA) model. This model is built using data appropriate for each type of panel used in the DRI systems. Power output is modeled using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) model PVWatts. The performance of PVWatts is verified by the actual measurements from DRI's PV systems. Several environmental and economic metrics are quantified for the DRI systems, including life cycle GHG emissions and energy return. GHG results are compared with Nevada grid-based electricity. Initial results indicate that DRI's solar-derived electricity offers clear GHG benefits compared to conventional grid electricity. DRI's eight systems have GHG intensity values of 29-56 gCO2e/kWh, as compared to the GHG intensity of 212 gCO2e/kWh of national average grid power. The major source of impacts (82-92% of the total) is the upstream life cycle burden of manufacturing PV panels, which are made of either mono-crystalline or multi-crystalline silicon. Given the same type of PV panel, GHG intensity decreases as the scale of the system increases

  13. Techno-economic analysis for incorporating a liquid-liquid extraction system to remove acetic acid into a proposed commercial scale biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Mitigating the effect of fermentation inhibitors in bioethanol plants can have a great positive impact on the economy of this industry. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using ethyl acetate is able to remove fermentation inhibitors-chiefly, acetic acid-from an aqueous solution used to produce bioethanol. The fermentation broth resulting from LLE has higher performance for ethanol yield and its production rate. Previous techno-economic analyses focused on second-generation biofuel production did not address the impact of removing the fermentation inhibitors on the economic performance of the biorefinery. A comprehensive analysis of applying a separation system to mitigate the fermentation inhibition effect and to provide an analysis on the economic impact of removal of acetic acid from corn stover hydrolysate on the overall revenue of the biorefinery is necessary. This study examines the pros and cons associated with implementing LLE column along with the solvent recovery system into a commercial scale bioethanol plant. Using details from the NREL-developed model of corn stover biorefinery, the capital costs associated with the equipment and the operating cost for the use of solvent were estimated and the results were compared with the profit gain due to higher ethanol production. Results indicate that the additional capital will add 1% to the total capital and manufacturing cost will increase by 5.9%. The benefit arises from the higher ethanol production rate and yield as a consequence of inhibitor extraction and results in a $0.35 per gallon reduction in the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:971-977, 2016. PMID:27390294

  14. Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…

  15. University of Utah, Energy Commercialization Center

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, James

    2014-01-17

    culture all played a role in inhibiting the development and distribution of a regional ecosystem and commercialization process. Had the University and the ECC been able to develop a software platform, some of these challenges may have been overcome, but without the final development and release of the Western Innovation Network, the ECC realistically could not scale and distribute a commercialization platform. Further, cleantech startups need to engage in a more intensive customer validation process, and establish strong community connections if they are to succeed in commercializing their products. The university system incentivizes research and access to research funding and risk capital is competitive, so by nature collaboration on commercialization was difficult. Each of the local ecosystems within the Rocky Mountain West was unique. Utah did not, and does not, have a system outside of the universities to support entrepreneurs and cleantech commercialization. Through the ECC’s efforts developing a regional ecosystem, it became clear that successful ecosystems had a community and associated mechanisms that supported local entrepreneurs and startups. Most importantly the ECC aided in the creation of Utah’s cleantech ecosystem, one that supports entrepreneurs and startup companies that need help and support in their efforts to commercialize clean technologies. The absence of support for clean tech from state government and local organizations was a significant impediment to cleantech commercialization. To overcome this challenge, the ECC has formed Sustainable Startups. Sustainable Startups is a new non-profit organization designed to build a culture and community in Utah that supports and understands the importance of cleantech and sustainable development. While the ECC generated mixed success in building a regional commercialization ecosystem for cleantech, the organization did provide tremendous benefit to startups and the broader public. Over 60 companies were

  16. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  17. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  18. Analysis of precipitation data from in situ and large-scale source in a tropical mountain environment. Study case of the Cordillera Blanca region, Peru.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourre, Lise; Junquas, Clémentine; Condom, Thomas; Lebel, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    The study area, the watershed of the Rio Santa in Peru, accuses a strong longitudinal climatic gradient, from the humid Amazonian lowlands to the drier Pacific coast, associated with an altitudinal gradient, with the highest point of the watershed at 6,768 meters asl. The Cordillera Blanca situated in this area, had more than 600 km² of glacier coverage at the end of the 20th century, with more than half that belongs to the watershed of the Rio Santa. The application of a hydrological model in this area requires the analysis and regionalization of precipitation, a key variable for the establishment of a water balance. In this context, different sources of precipitation data are useful in order to catch the spatial and temporal variability: in situ meteorological stations, TRMM 3B42 and 3B43 product satellite data and outputs of WRF model (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) at 3 km of spatial resolution. Precipitations are dependent on both the large-scale atmospheric circulation and local parameters such as topography or albedo. As all these variables cannot be properly taken into account in large scale models, it is important to evaluate the contribution of regional models in the analysis and the understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of precipitation across a watershed. To investigate the spatial and temporal variability of precipitations, two approaches have been adopted in this work. In a first approach the spatial repartition of precipitation is described from station data. The second approach is focused on the assessment of a high-scale regional climate model (WRF) and the TRMM satellite data to reproduce spatially and temporally in situ observed precipitations. This comparison was carried out for different time-scale variability: on a monthly time scale with the observation of the seasonal cycle, on the daily time scale to study the occurrence of precipitation, and finally with the hourly data to study the representation of diurnal cycle. First

  19. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MW power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full-sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MW Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  20. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MR power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full- sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, and (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MR Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  1. Commercial Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

  2. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Specific Phytochemical Indicatives in Cirivilvādi Kaṣāya Prepared Freshly and at Commercial Scale

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Anita; Aramya, A. R.; Manohar, R.; Latha, K.

    2015-01-01

    Kaṣāya or decoction is an Ayurvedic dosage form, prescribed based on the stage of the disease according to the principles of Ayurveda. This dosage form is traditionally prepared fresh and consumed on the same day but for the sake of convenience; the process of preparation has been modified so that it can be stored with longer shelf life, easy availability and produced in large quantities. There is a need to understand the implications of this modification in terms of chemical changes. This work attempted to check the phytochemical profile of both freshly prepared decoction and commercially available decoction with reference to some analytical parameters like pH, total soluble solids, phenols, alkaloids, potassium and to assess the changes in the thin layer chromatography profiling of the decoction. The results showed that phenols and potassium are found to be two fold higher in freshly prepared decoction, compared to commercially available decoction diluted to dosage in practice (1:4 ratio). However, the total alkaloid content was found to be approximately ten fold higher in commercially available decoction. It was observed that the thin layer chromatography profile of decoctions was extracted into petroleum ether and chloroform was similar and consistent with different batches though the bands in commercially available decoction were slightly more intense compared to freshly prepared decoction. The total soluble solids in commercially available decoction were four times higher than freshly prepared decoction. The study reveals that there are differences in the phytochemical profiles of the freshly prepared decoction and commercially available decoction of the same formulation. However, the significance of these differences can be determined only by further clinical studies. On the other hand, the study lends support to the practice of diluting the commercially available decoction to make it equivalent to freshly prepared decoction. PMID:26798186

  4. Geophysical expression of the Ghost Dance fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Antler and Live Yucca Ridges, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, reveal small-scale faulting associated with the Ghost Dance and possibly other faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  5. Geophysical expression of the Ghost Dance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.

    1995-12-01

    Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Antler and Live Yucca Ridges, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, reveal small-scale faulting associated with the Ghost Dance and possibly other faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  6. MARBLE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, Mary M.; Hale, William N.

    1984-01-01

    The Marble Mountain Wilderness is located in the north-central Klamath Mountains of northern California. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral investigations indicate that the wilderness has areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for placer gold, for chromite, and for marble. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

  7. Yucca Mountain Project Surface Facilities Design

    SciTech Connect

    P.W. McDaniel; N.R. Brown; P.G. Harrington; J.T. Gardiner; L.J. Trautner

    2002-11-20

    With the recent designation of the Yucca Mountain site as a proposed repository for the disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel, DOE spent nuclear fuel and high- level waste, work is proceeding on the design of surface facilities to receive, unload, and package the waste into waste packages for emplacement in the repository. This paper summarizes recent progress in the design of these surface facilities.

  8. Implications of gene flow in the scale-up and commercial use of biotechnology-derived crops: Economic and policy considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide, the area planted to biotechnology-derived crops (i.e. ‘genetically modified’ or ‘GM’ crops) has expanded rapidly, increasing more than fifty-fold since first commercialized in 1996. In 2005, GM crops expanded to 90 million ha and were produced in 21 countries on six continents. The US i...

  9. Part A - low-aluminum-content iron-aluminum alloys. Part B - commercial-scale melting and processing of FAPY alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Howell, C.R.; Hall, F.; Valykeo, J.

    1996-06-01

    The FAPY is a Fe-16 at. % Al alloy of nominal composition. The aluminum content of the alloy is such that it remains single phase ({alpha}) without the formation of an ordered phase (DO{sub 3}). The alloy has good oxidation resistance at temperatures up to 1000{degrees}C and has shown significantly superior performance as heating elements as compared to the commonly used nickel-based alloy, Nichrome. Although wire for the heating elements has been fabricated from small (15-1b) laboratory heats, for its commercial applications, the wire needs to be producible from large (1200 to 1500-1b) air-melted heats. The purpose of this study was to produce commercial size heats and investigate their mechanical properties and microstructure in the as-cast, hot-worked, and cold-worked conditions. The results of this study are expected to provide: (1) insight into processing steps for large heats into wire under commercial conditions, and (2) the mechanical properties data on commercial size heats in various product forms.

  10. Development and testing of a commercial scale coal-fired combustion system -- Phase 3. Final technical progress report, September 26, 1990--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.; Breault, R.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of work performed in the development and testing of a coal-fired space heating system for the commercial market sector. Although coal is the most plentiful energy resource in the US, its use since World War II has been largely restricted to utility power generation for environmental and economic reasons. Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant heating fuels for office buildings, apartment complexes, and similar structures. Generally, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program was to design, build, and test a coal-based heating system for this sector, and determine the economic viability and market potential for the system. Coal water slurry (CWS) fuel was chosen as the fuel form for this development effort. CWS eliminates the need to use dry pulverized coal with its attendant handling, metering, and dusting problems, as well as its explosive potential. A brief description of the overall system design is given in this report, as well as a discussion of the unique features of the system configuration and key components. This is followed by a summary of the testing performed, including a comparison between system performance and program goals. Finally, the results of the economic evaluation are presented, along with a commercialization plan for the technology. A key issue in the eventual commercialization of the technology is the availability of a competitively priced coal water slurry fuel. Predicted prices and availability of CWS are discussed.

  11. Near-Channel Sources and Sinks along a Mountainous Stream: Establishing the Controls and Time Scales of the Lateral Transfer of Sediment and Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartner, J. D.; Renshaw, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    River channels exchange sediment, carbon, and other matter with hillslopes and floodplains. An ongoing challenge is to quantify the time and length scales of these lateral interactions, and to establish physical controls on direction of transfer. Here we investigate whether downstream changes in stream power (Ω) can predict near-channel sources or sinks of matter on decadal time scales in a case study of Mink Brook, a 50 km2 watershed in New Hampshire, USA. Building on the Exner equation, we hypothesize that reaches with downstream increases in stream power (Ω↑) exhibit near-channel deposition and accumulation of organic matter, and reaches of downstream decreases in stream power (Ω↓) exhibit near-channel erosion and stripping of organic matter. We measured 210Pbex inventory (an indicator of erosion versus deposition), organic matter inventory, grain size, and depth of alluvium/colluvium in 29 soil pits at 6 cross sections along the brook. Sites had equivalent total Ω for a given storm event. However, 3 cross sections exhibited Ω↑, and 3 exhibited Ω↓. All cross sections showed a general trend of stripping of organic matter and fine sediment particles in the channel, paired with loading of matter at the ~2-year flood elevation. From the ~2- to ~25-year flood elevation, a marked difference appeared between sites. The Ω↑ cross sections exhibited several locations of erosion and stripping of organic matter, as evidenced by low 210Pbex inventories (70 to 1,000 bq m-2), low organic matter inventories (17 to 219 kg m-2), and thin alluvial cover (average 23 cm). The low 210Pbex inventories, below the characteristic 6,000 bq m-2 of stable soil profiles in this region, suggest no areas had consistent deposition over the last century. In contrast, the Ω↓ cross sections exhibited deposition of fine particles and organic matter from the ~2- to ~25-year flood elevation, as evidenced by elevated 210Pbex inventories (up to 9,100 bq m-2), elevated organic matter

  12. Economic geology of the Copper Mountain Supracrustal Belt, Owl Creek Mountains, Fremont County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hausel, W.D.; Graff, P.J.; Albert, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Archean stratigraphy and associated mineral deposits at Copper Mountain were investigated to determine if this supracrustal belt has potential commercial mineral deposits. It was concluded Copper Mountain lacks the stratigraphic and structural character of a classical greenstone belt, exhibits higher metamorphic grade, and may be better classified as a high-grade terrain. However, potential is noted for stratiform Au associated with iron formation, stratiform W associated with gneiss, and Cu-Au mineralization in strike veins. 63 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs. (ACR)

  13. Seasonal Distributions of Mountain Torques during FGGE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ming-Ying; Schaack, Todd K.

    1984-10-01

    Based on surface pressure and terrain height analyses from the National Meteorological Center, mountain torques are calculated for January, April, July and October 1979 during the First GARP Global Experiment. The zonally integrated mountain torques are generally in good agreement with previous studies. For all four months, positive torque exists in the tropical latitudes as well as in the polar and subtropical latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere; negative torque exists in northern middle latitudes and most of the Southern Hemisphere. An exception occurs in July when the mountain torque is negative between 5 and 25°N and positive in the Southern Hemisphere subtropics. Over latitudes where large terrain variation exists such as near 20°S due to the Andes, the estimate obtained in this study is larger in magnitude than that from previous work. The difference is due to the differences in both grid resolution and the particular atmospheric data and topography selected.The meridional profiles of individual continental mountain torques are examined to illustrate geographical contributions to the net zonal torque. The positive mountain torque in northern high latitudes is due mainly to North America and Greenland. Both North America and Eurasia contribute to the sink of angular momentum in northern middle latitudes and the source in the subtropical latitudes. The negative torque between 5 and 25°N in July is due to the influence of the Indian monsoon trough on Arabia and Africa. The negative mountain torque over South America dominates the positive torque over Africa and Australia in the Southern Hemisphere in January and October.Although the monthly averaged zonally integrated mountain torque assumes lesser importance when compared to the frictional torque, regional mountain torque at the synoptic time scale is quite large and can have considerable influence on the large scale circulation. Hemispheric torques are in qualitative agreement with previous work. Due to

  14. Does Nature and Persistence of Substrate at a Mesohabitat Scale Matter for Chironomidae Assemblages? a Study of Two Perennial Mountain Streams in Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Epele, Luis Beltrán; Miserendino, María Laura; Brand, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    of the Chironomidae assemblage at the habitat scale is significant for conservation purposes and for the management of low order streams in Patagonia. PMID:22947060

  15. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  16. Commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Togai, Masaki

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on commercial applications of fuzzy logic in Japan are presented. Topics covered include: suitable application area of fuzzy theory; characteristics of fuzzy control; fuzzy closed-loop controller; Mitsubishi heavy air conditioner; predictive fuzzy control; the Sendai subway system; automatic transmission; fuzzy logic-based command system for antilock braking system; fuzzy feed-forward controller; and fuzzy auto-tuning system.

  17. Existence of Large Turbulent Eddies in the Early-Morning Boundary Layer Acting as an Effective Mountain to Force Mountain Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, R. M.

    2016-04-01

    Numerical modelling suggests that the turbulent boundary layer can act as an effective mountain forcing mountain waves. In the daytime, convective rolls can cover the mountains, raising the mountain-wave launching height. In non-convective conditions, the nature of the effective mountain is unknown. Here, we investigate if the early-morning boundary layer, moving rapidly across mountains, also contains large eddies of size comparable with convective cells. Temperature profiles from thousands of high-resolution radiosondes show superadiabatic gradients of vertical scale a few hundred metres in the boundary layer, appearing as the boundary-layer wind speed increases. These are explained by the overturning of potential temperature surfaces in large eddies advected with the wind and/or longitudinal rolls. An early-morning satellite image shows longitudinal rolls over mountains up to 1 km height. It is suggested that early-morning fast-moving airflow over mountains, producing mountain waves, also creates a turbulent boundary layer underneath them containing large eddies of scale a few hundred metres, in addition to classic turbulence. These are part of the effective mountain, higher than the actual mountain, which explains the formation of mountain waves.

  18. Lake oxygen isotopes as recorders of North American Rocky Mountain hydroclimate: Holocene patterns and variability at multi-decadal to millennial time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Berkelhammer, Max; Barron, John A.; Steinman, Byron A.; Finney, Bruce P.; Abbott, Mark B.

    2016-02-01

    Lake sediment oxygen isotope records (calcium carbonate-δ18O) in the western North American Cordillera developed during the past decade provide substantial evidence of Pacific ocean-atmosphere forcing of hydroclimatic variability during the Holocene. Here we present an overview of 18 lake sediment δ18O records along with a new compilation of lake water δ18O and δ2H that are used to characterize lake sediment sensitivity to precipitation-δ18O in contrast to fractionation by evaporation. Of the 18 records, 14 have substantial sensitivity to evaporation. Two records reflect precipitation-δ18O since the middle Holocene, Jellybean and Bison Lakes, and are geographically positioned in the northern and southern regions of the study area. Their comparative analysis indicates a sequence of time-varying north-south precipitation-δ18O patterns that is evidence for a highly non-stationary influence by Pacific ocean-atmosphere processes on the hydroclimate of western North America. These observations are discussed within the context of previous research on North Pacific precipitation-δ18O based on empirical and modeling methods. The Jellybean and Bison Lake records indicate that a prominent precipitation-δ18O dipole (enriched-north and depleted-south) was sustained between ~ 3.5 and 1.5 ka, which contrasts with earlier Holocene patterns, and appears to indicate the onset of a dominant tropical control on North Pacific ocean-atmosphere dynamics. This remains the state of the system today. Higher frequency reversals of the north-south precipitation-δ18O dipole between ~ 2.5 and 1.5 ka, and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, also suggest more varieties of Pacific ocean-atmosphere modes than a single Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) type analogue. Results indicate that further investigation of precipitation-δ18O patterns on short (observational) and long (Holocene) time scales is needed to improve our understanding of the processes that drive

  19. Lake oxygen isotopes as recorders of North American Rocky Mountain hydroclimate: Holocene patterns and variability at multi-decadal to millennial time scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Max Berkelhammer; Barron, John A.; Steinman, Byron A.; Finney, Bruce P.; Abbott, Mark B.

    2016-01-01

    Lake sediment oxygen isotope records (calcium carbonate-δ18O) in the western North American Cordillera developed during the past decade provide substantial evidence of Pacific ocean–atmosphere forcing of hydroclimatic variability during the Holocene. Here we present an overview of 18 lake sediment δ18O records along with a new compilation of lake water δ18O and δ2H that are used to characterize lake sediment sensitivity to precipitation-δ18O in contrast to fractionation by evaporation. Of the 18 records, 14 have substantial sensitivity to evaporation. Two records reflect precipitation-δ18O since the middle Holocene, Jellybean and Bison Lakes, and are geographically positioned in the northern and southern regions of the study area. Their comparative analysis indicates a sequence of time-varying north–south precipitation-δ18O patterns that is evidence for a highly non-stationary influence by Pacific ocean–atmosphere processes on the hydroclimate of western North America. These observations are discussed within the context of previous research on North Pacific precipitation-δ18O based on empirical and modeling methods. The Jellybean and Bison Lake records indicate that a prominent precipitation-δ18O dipole (enriched-north and depleted-south) was sustained between ~ 3.5 and 1.5 ka, which contrasts with earlier Holocene patterns, and appears to indicate the onset of a dominant tropical control on North Pacific ocean–atmosphere dynamics. This remains the state of the system today. Higher frequency reversals of the north–south precipitation-δ18O dipole between ~ 2.5 and 1.5 ka, and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, also suggest more varieties of Pacific ocean–atmosphere modes than a single Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) type analogue. Results indicate that further investigation of precipitation-δ18O patterns on short (observational) and long (Holocene) time scales is needed to improve our understanding of the

  20. MPRS (URBOT) commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel

    2003-09-01

    The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

  1. Mountaineering fatalities on Denali.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott E; Campbell, Aaron D; Dow, Jennifer; Grissom, Colin K

    2008-01-01

    Mount McKinley, or Denali, is the tallest mountain in North America and attracts over 1,000 climbers annually from around the world. Since Denali is located within a national park, the National Park Service (NPS) manages mountaineering activities and attempts to maintain a balance of an adventurous experience while promoting safety. We retrospectively reviewed the fatalities on Denali from 1903 to 2006 to assist the NPS, medical personnel, and mountaineers improve safety and reduce fatalities on the mountain. Historical records and the NPS climber database were reviewed. Demographics, mechanisms, and circumstances surrounding each fatality were examined. Fatality rates and odds ratios for country of origin were calculated. From 1903 through the end of the 2006 climbing season, 96 individuals died on Denali. The fatality rate is declining and is 3.08/1,000 summit attempts. Of the 96 deaths, 92% were male, 51% occurred on the West Buttress route, and 45% were due to injuries sustained from falls. Sixty-one percent occurred on the descent and the largest number of deaths in 1 year occurred in 1992. Climbers from Asia had the highest odds of dying on the mountain. Fatalities were decreased by 53% after a NPS registration system was established in 1995. Although mountaineering remains a high-risk activity, safety on Denali is improving. Certain groups have a significantly higher chance of dying. Registration systems and screening methods provide ways to target at-risk groups and improve safety on high altitude mountains such as Denali. PMID:18331224

  2. Mountain-Top Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cussen, John P.

    1976-01-01

    Described is the Talcott Mountain Science Center for Student Involvement, Inc., near Hartford, Connecticut, and the programs in natural science offered at the facility and by center personnel in local schools. (SL)

  3. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... If you have fluid in your lungs (pulmonary edema), treatment may include: Oxygen A high blood pressure ...

  4. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  5. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdemir, L.; Hansen, F.D.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests and potentially large-scale laboratory demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdemir, L.; Hansen, F.D.

    1991-12-31

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests, and potentially large-scale lab. demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well-quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs.

  7. Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 2, July 1--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The project involves the construction of a 260 tons-per-day (TPD) or 80,000 gallon per day methanol demonstration unit utilizing an existing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression, liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated was developed by Air Products in a DOE sponsored program that started in 1981. Originally tested at a small, DOE-owned experimental facility in LaPorte, Texas, the LPMEOH{trademark} process offers several advantages over current methods of making methanol. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The liquid dissipates heat from the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the gas-to-methanol reaction to proceed at higher rates. The process is ideally suited to the type of gas produced by modern coal gasifiers. At the Eastman Chemical complex, the technology will be integrated with existing coal gasifiers to demonstrate the commercially important aspects of the operation of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process to produce methanol. A four-year demonstration will prove the commercial applicability of the process. An off-site product-use test program will prove the suitability of the methanol as a transportation fuel and as a fuel for stationary applications in the power industry.

  8. Tall tower or mountain top measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Leuenberger, Markus; Schanda, Rüdiger; Henne, Stephan; Buchmann, Nina

    2014-05-01

    Resolving the regional transport and distribution of greenhouse gases in the troposphere is a key topic that challenges both modelers and experimentalists. A dense network of measurement stations would be required, in particular including measurements at high elevation to better represent the entire lower troposphere, and not only small-scale local conditions in the near-surface atmosphere. While this can be achieved by tall towers, also mountain top stations (e.g. Schauinsland, Brocken) and other stations at high elevation (e.g., Mouna Loa, Jungfraujoch) are often appropriate, due to their extended concentration footprint. However, especially over complex, mountainous terrain, the transport of atmospheric gases and their spatio-temporal distribution is difficult to predict due to the development of thermally induced local wind patterns and boundary layer processes. Therefore, the main goal of our study is to test to what extend boundary layer processes at the surface and local wind patterns close to the ground at a mountain top site influence the ambient greenhouse gas patterns compared to measurements taken at a similar altitude but at a tall tower site. To this end we use measurements from the Zugerberg mountain top station, located at a pre-Alpine mountain ridge (987 m a.s.l., 4 m above ground) exposed to the prevailing synoptic winds in Switzerland, and compare these measurements with a neighboring tall tower site (Beromünster radio broadcast tower with its top at 1014 m a.s.l., 217 m above local ground level, and ≡500 m above the Swiss Plateau). The Beromünster tall tower is located at a distance of only 30 km from the mountain top station as the bird flies, and hence a direct comparison minimizes confounding factors that are not related to the tall tower vs. mountain top position of the measurements. Both stations are part of the CarboCount CH greenhouse gas observation network (http://www.carbocount.ch) initiated for long-term monitoring and modeling of

  9. Possible uranium mineralization, Mineral Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; McHugh, John B.; Ficklin, Walter H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mineral Mountains block in west-central Utah is a horst whose core stands structurally high relative to all nearby basin-and-range fault blocks. Rocks of the Mineral Mountains range from Precambrian to Quaternary in age, but mostly consist of Tertiary granitic rocks. The range lies with the Wah Wah-Tusher mineral belt. Lead, silver, gold, and tungsten have been mined commercially. During a geochemical survey conducted in the summer of 1978, 30 water samples and 29 stream-sediment samples were collected from the Mineral Mountains area. The interpretation of simple plots of uranium concentrations and the results of a Q-mode factor analysis indicate that potential exists for uranium mineral deposits within the Mineral Mountains. The most favorable areas are in the granitic pluton near its contacts with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The most likely source of the uranium anomalies is uraninite-bearing epigenic veins along faults and fractures within the pluton. Three hypothetical models are proposed to account for the uranium mineralization.

  10. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  11. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase 3. Technical progress report, January 1992--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  12. Commercial LANDSAT?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Private industry should assume responsibility either for the United States' land satellite (LANDSAT) system or for both the land and the weather satellite systems, recommends the Land Remote Sensing Satellite Advisory Committee. The committee (Eos, June 29, 1982, p. 553), composed of representatives from academia, industry, and government, has a working group that is evaluating the potential for commercialization of remote sensing satellites.The recommendations call for industry ownership or operation of either or both of the remote sensing systems, but only up to and including the holding of raw, unprocessed data. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) currently operates LANDSAT but will be relinquishing its responsibility to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on January 31. NOAA already operates the U.S. civilian weather satellite service, which includes the NOAA-5, NOAA-6, and the Geostationary Operational Environmental (GOES) satellites (Eos, June 2, 1981, p. 522).

  13. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Stacy E; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C; Carr, Mark H; Cinner, Joshua E; Crowder, Larry B; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C; Kittinger, John N; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience. PMID:25790464

  14. Managing Small-Scale Commercial Fisheries for Adaptive Capacity: Insights from Dynamic Social-Ecological Drivers of Change in Monterey Bay

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Stacy E.; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C.; Carr, Mark H.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Crowder, Larry B.; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C.; Kittinger, John N.; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M.; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience. PMID:25790464

  15. Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Charles F.

    Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

  16. Field-scale examination of neonicotinoid insecticide persistence in soil as a result of seed treatment use in commercial maize (corn) fields in southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Schaafsma, Arthur; Limay-Rios, Victor; Xue, Yingen; Smith, Jocelyn; Baute, Tracey

    2016-02-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides, especially as seed treatments, have raised concerns about environmental loading and impacts on pollinators, biodiversity, and ecosystems. The authors measured concentrations of neonicotinoid residues in the top 5 cm of soil before planting of maize (corn) in 18 commercial fields with a history of neonicotinoid seed treatment use in southwestern Ontario in 2013 and 2014 using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. A simple calculator based on first-order kinetics, incorporating crop rotation, planting date, and seed treatment history from the subject fields, was used to estimate dissipation rate from the seed zone. The estimated half-life (the time taken for 50% of the insecticide to have dissipated by all mechanisms) based on 8 yr of crop history was 0.64 (range, 0.25-1.59) yr and 0.57 (range, 0.24-2.12) yr for 2013 and 2014, respectively. In fields where neonicotinoid residues were measured in both years, the estimated mean half-life between 2013 and 2014 was 0.4 (range, 0.27-0.6) yr. If clothianidin and thiamethoxam were used annually as a seed treatment in a typical crop rotation of maize, soybean, and winter wheat over several years, residues would plateau rather than continue to accumulate. Residues of neonicotinoid insecticides after 3 yr to 4 yr of repeated annual use tend to plateau to a mean concentration of less than 6 ng/g in agricultural soils in southwestern Ontario. PMID:26332416

  17. Aqueous geochemical data from the analysis of stream-water samples collected in June and August 2008—Taylor Mountains 1:250,000- and Dillingham D-4 1:63,360-scale quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Owens, Victoria; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000- and Dillingham D-4 1:63,360-scale quadrangles, Alaska. Reported parameters include pH, conductivity, water temperature, major cation and anion concentrations, and trace-element concentrations. We collected the samples as part of a multiyear U.S. Geological Survey project entitled "Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development." Data presented here are from samples collected in June and August 2008. Minimal interpretation accompanies this data release. This is the fourth release of aqueous geochemical data from this project; data from samples collected in 2004, 2005, and 2006 were published previously. The data in this report augment but do not duplicate or supersede the previous data releases. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first- and second-order drainages. Water sample sites were selected on the basis of landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and a cursory field review of mineralogy from pan concentrates. Stream water in the study area is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), although in a few samples more than 50 percent of the anionic charge can be attributed to sulfate (SO42-). The major-cation chemistry of these samples ranges from Ca2+-Mg2+ dominated to a mix of Ca2+-Mg2+-Na++K2+. In most cases, analysis of duplicate samples showed good agreement for the major cation and major anions with the exception of the duplicate samples at site 08TA565. At site 08TA565, Ca, Mg, Cl, and CaCO3 exceeded 25 percent and the concentrations of trace elements As, Fe and Mn also exceeded 25 percent in this duplicate pair. Chloride concentration varied by more than 25 percent in 5 of the 11 duplicated samples. Trace-element concentrations in these samples generally were at or near the detection limit for the method used and, except for Co at site 08TA565, generally good

  18. Incorporating Watershed-Scale Groundwater/Surface Water Interactions to Better Understand How ENSO/PDO Teleconnections Affect Streamflow Variability in Geologically Complex, Semiarid, Snow-Dominated Mountainous Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsinnajinnie, L.; Frisbee, M. D.; Wilson, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    In the Southwestern U.S., warm anomalies in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are associated with increased probability of wetter than normal winter precipitation. For semiarid, snow-dominated mountainous watersheds, teleconnections, such as ENSO, may strongly affect the magnitude and timing of snowmelt pulses in streamflow. In examining stream-gage data, an implicit assumption is made that all the streamflow generation processes operative within the watershed are captured by the stream gage. However, zones of strong groundwater discharge to the stream alternating with zones of strong recharge from the stream may emerge in geologically complex watersheds. The spatial complexity of these groundwater/surface water interactions may not be captured in the stream-gage discharge data. This may not be a problem in watersheds where streamflow is generated primarily by shallow, fast runoff processes. In that case, changes associated with ENSO can be quickly apparent in streamflow (i.e., an increase in snowpack associated with warm ENSO anomalies will quickly translate to increases in daily and peak streamflow). However, the spatial complexity of groundwater/surface water interactions creates a problem in geologically complex watersheds where interactions with deep, regional groundwater are present. In this case, we test the hypothesis that the combined effect of complex geology and deep groundwater interactions creates phase shifts between peak snowpack, onset and peak of snowmelt pulses, and teleconnection indices. Using time-series analysis, the relationships between teleconnections, and metrics for snowpack and streamflow are evaluated for selected watersheds in New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado. A phase shift (lag) is observed between the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI) and onset and peak of snowmelt pulses in streamflow in snow-dominated watersheds with complex geology across scales of 50 to 1600 km2. Additionally, strong relationships between teleconnections and

  19. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  20. Mountain Home Well - Photos

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-01-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  1. Western Mountain Initiative: predicting ecosystem responses to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.; Peterson, David L.; Wilson, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems of the western United States provide irreplaceable goods and services such as water, timber, biodiversity, and recreational opportunities, but their responses to climatic changes are complex and not well understood. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI), a collaboration between USGS and U.S. Forest Service scientists, catalyzes assessment and synthesis of the effects of disturbance and climate change across western mountain areas, focusing on national parks and surrounding national forests. The WMI takes an ecosystem approach to science, integrating research across science disciplines at scales ranging from field studies to global trends.

  2. Commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  3. Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 11, January 1--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-11

    During this quarter, the third draft of the Topical Report on Process Economics Studies was issued for review. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing on the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) was made. A liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed, and a decision to proceed with a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) is pending the release of a memo from Air Products on the catalyst targets and corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst. The off-site product-use test plan is to be updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Air Products and Acurex Environmental Corporation continued developing the listing of product-use test participants who are involved in fuel cell, transportation, and stationary power plant applications. Start-up activities (Task 3.1) began during the reporting period, and coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was introduced to the demonstration unit. The recycle compressor was tested successfully on syngas at line pressure of 700 psig, and the reactor loop reached 220 C for carbonyl burnout. Iron carbonyl in the balanced gas feed remained below the 10 ppbv detection limit for all samples but one. Within the reactor loop, iron carbonyl levels peaked out near 200 ppbv after about 40 hours on-stream, before decreasing to between 10--20 ppbv at 160 hours on -stream. Nickel carbonyl measurements reached a peak of about 60 ppbv, and decreased at all sampling locations to below the 10 ppbv detection limit by 70 hours on-stream. Catalyst activation of the nine 2,250 lb batches required for the initial catalyst charge began and concluded. All batches met or slightly exceeded the theoretical maximum uptake of 2.82 SCF of reducing gas/lb catalyst.

  4. Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report No. 1, October 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products). This document describes major accomplishments in project development for Fiscal Year 1993. The preliminary process hazards review, project safety plan, schedule, and cost management report are included as appendices. The demonstration is sited at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. Air Products and Eastman are working on a partnership agreement which will form the Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. As a limited partner in the venture, Eastman will own and operate the demonstration unit. The project involves the construction of a 260 tons-per-day (TPD) or 80,000 gallon per day methanol demonstration unit utilizing an existing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression, liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated was developed by Air Products in a DOE sponsored program that started in 1981. Originally tested at a small, DOE-owned experimental facility in LaPorte, Texas, the LPMEOH{trademark} process offers several advantages over current methods of making methanol. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The liquid dissipates heat from the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the gas-to-methanol reaction to proceed at higher rates. The process is ideally suited to the type of gas produced by modem coal gasifiers. At the Eastman Chemical complex, the technology will be integrated with existing coal gasifiers to demonstrate the commercially important aspects of the operation of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process to produce methanol.

  5. Characterizing the Severe Turbulence Environments Associated with Commercial Aviation Accidents. Part 2; Hydrostatic Mesobeta Scale Numerical Simulations of Supergradient Wind Flow and Streamwise Ageostrophic Frontogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Huffman, Allan W.; Lux, Kevin M.; Cetola, Jeffrey D.; Charney, Joseph J.; Riordan, Allen J.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Waight, Kenneth T., III; Proctor, Fred (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Simulation experiments reveal key processes that organize a hydrostatic environment conducive to severe turbulence. The paradigm requires juxtaposition of the entrance region of a curved jet stream, which is highly subgeostrophic, with the entrance region of a straight jet stream, which is highly supergeostrophic. The wind and mass fields become misphased as the entrance regions converge resulting in the significant spatial variation of inertial forcing, centripetal forcing, and along- and cross-stream pressure gradient forcing over a mesobeta scale region. This results in frontogenesis and the along-stream divergence of cyclonic and convergence of cyclonic ageostrophic vertical vorticity. The centripetally forced mesoscale front becomes the locus of large gradients of ageostrophic vertical vorticity along an overturning isentrope. This region becomes favorable for streamwise vorticity gradient formation enhancing the environment for organization of horizontal vortex tubes in the presence of buoyant forcing.

  6. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program

  7. Predicting the Future at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Wilson

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes a climate-prediction model funded by the DOE for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Several articles in the open literature attest to the effects of the Global Ocean Conveyor upon paleoclimate, specifically entrance and exit from the ice age. The data shows that these millennial-scale effects are duplicated on the microscale of years to decades. This work also identifies how man may have influenced the Conveyor, affecting global cooling and warming for 2,000 years.

  8. Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This is a compilation of petrographic slides detailing the microstructure and petrographic character of the tuff deposits associated with the Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. It describes crystal structures, clay alterations, and mineral associations. The paper contains a description of the petrographic thin-sections but contains no narrative or conclusions of what the slides suggest with regards to the facility.

  9. DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An…

  10. The Strongest Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnes, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

  11. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  12. Rocky Mountain Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutkiewicz, Jody Steiner, Ed.

    This publication features articles detailing the state of educational programs in the Rocky Mountain area. The articles address: 1) the impact of physical geography on culture, education, and lifestyle; 2) the education of migrant and/or agricultural workers and their children; 3) educational needs of children in rural areas; 4) outdoor education;…

  13. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  14. [Mountaineering and altitude sickness].

    PubMed

    Maggiorini, M

    2001-06-01

    Almost every second trekker or climber develops two to three symptoms of the high altitude illness after a rapid ascent (> 300 m/day) to an altitude above 4000 m. We distinguish two forms of high altitude illness, a cerebral form called acute mountain sickness and a pulmonary form called high altitude pulmonary edema. Essentially, acute mountain sickness is self-limiting and benign. Its symptoms are mild to moderate headache, loss of appetite, nausea, dizziness and insomnia. Nausea rarely progresses to vomiting, but if it does, this may anticipate a progression of the disease into the severe form of acute mountain sickness, called high altitude cerebral edema. Symptoms and signs of high altitude cerebral edema are severe headache, which is not relieved by acetaminophen, loss of movement coordination, ataxia and mental deterioration ending in coma. The mechanisms leading to acute mountain sickness are not very well understood; the loss of cerebral autoregulation and a vasogenic type of cerebral edema are being discussed. High altitude pulmonary edema presents in roughly twenty percent of the cases with mild symptoms of acute mountain sickness or even without any symptoms at all. Symptoms associated with high altitude pulmonary edema are incapacitating fatigue, chest tightness, dyspnoe at the minimal effort that advances to dyspnoe at rest and orthopnoe, and a dry non-productive cough that progresses to cough with pink frothy sputum due to hemoptysis. The hallmark of high altitude pulmonary edema is an exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Successful prophylaxis and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema using nifedipine, a pulmonary vasodilator, indicates that pulmonary hypertension is crucial for the development of high altitude pulmonary edema. The primary treatment of high altitude illness consists in improving hypoxemia and acclimatization. For prophylaxis a slow ascent at a rate of 300 m/day is recommended, if symptoms persist, acetazolamide at a

  15. Commercial-scale demonstration of the liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report No. 3, October 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). A facility producing 260 TPD of methanol will be designed and constructed at a site located at the Eastman Chemical complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration facility operational period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to ``demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH{trademark} process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.`` The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low sulfur dioxide, low nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research shows promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the operations phase. During the period 1 October 1994 to 31 March 1995, the project team completed essentially all the activities necessary to start detailed design. Major accomplishments in these activities are discussed.

  16. Digital mountains: toward development and environment protection in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaobo

    2007-06-01

    Former studies on mountain system are focused on the department or subject characters, i.e. different department and branches of learning carry out researches only for their individual purposes and with individual characters of the subject of interests. As a whole, their investigation is lacking of comprehensive study in combination with global environment. Ecological environment in mountain regions is vulnerable to the disturbance of human activities. Therefore, it is a key issue to coordinate economic development and environment protection in mountain regions. On the other hand, a lot of work is ongoing on mountain sciences, especially depending on the application of RS and GIS. Moreover, the development of the Digital Earth (DE) provides a clue to re-understand mountains. These are the background of the emergence of the Digital Mountains (DM). One of the purposes of the DM is integrating spatial related data and information about mountains. Moreover, the DM is a viewpoint and methodology of understanding and quantifying mountains holistically. The concept of the DM is that, the spatial and temporal data related to mountain regions are stored and managed in computers; moreover, manipulating, analyzing, modeling, simulating and sharing of the mountain information are implemented by utilizing technologies of RS, GIS, GPS, Geo-informatic Tupu, computer, virtual reality (VR), 3D simulation, massive storage, mutual operation and network communication. The DM aims at advancing mountain sciences and sustainable mountain development. The DM is used to providing information and method for coordinating the mountain regions development and environment protection. The fundamental work of the DM is the design of the scientific architecture. Furthermore, construct and develop massive databases of mountains are the important steps these days.

  17. Condensation versus diffusion. A spatial-scale-independent theory of aggregate structures in edible oils: applications to model systems and commercial shortenings studied via rheology and USAXS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pink, David A.; Peyronel, Fernanda; Quinn, Bonnie; Singh, Pratham; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how solid fats structures come about in edible oils and quantifying their structures is of fundamental importance in developing edible oils with pre-selected characteristics. We considered the great range of fractal dimensions, from 1.91 to 2.90, reported from rheological measurements. We point out that, if the structures arise via DLA/RLA or DLCA/RLCA, as has been established using ultra small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS), we would expect fractal dimensions in the range ~1.7 to 2.1, and ~2.5 or ~3.0. We present new data for commercial fats and show that the fractal dimensions deduced lie outside these values. We have developed a model in which competition between two processes can lead to the range of fractal dimensions observed. The two processes are (i) the rate at which the solid fat particles are created as the temperature is decreased, and (ii) the rate at which these particles diffuse, thereby meeting and forming aggregates. We assumed that aggregation can take place essentially isotropically and we identified two characteristic times: a time characterizing the rate of creation of solid fats, {τ\\text{create}}(T)\\equiv 1/{{R}S}(T) , where {{R}S}(T) is the rate of solid condensation (cm3 s-1), and the diffusion time of solid fats, {τ\\text{diff}}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right)=< {{r}2}> /6{D}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right) , where {D}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right) is their diffusion coefficient and < {{r}2}> is the typical average distance that fats must move in order to aggregate. The intent of this model is to show that a simple process can lead to a wide range of fractal dimensions. We showed that in the limit of very fast solid creation, {τ\\text{create}}\\ll {τ\\text{diff}} the fractal dimension is predicted to be that of DLCA, ~1.7, relaxing to that of RLCA, 2.0-2.1, and that in the limit of very slow solid creation, {τ\\text{create}}\\gg {τ\\text{diff}} , the fractal dimension is predicted to be that obtained via DLA, ~2.5, relaxing to that of RLA, 3

  18. Chronology of latest Pleistocene mountain glaciation in the western Wasatch Mountains, Utah, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laabs, Benjamin J. C.; Marchetti, David W.; Munroe, Jeffrey S.; Refsnider, Kurt A.; Gosse, John C.; Lips, Elliott W.; Becker, Richard A.; Mickelson, David M.; Singer, Brad S.

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the timing of mountain glacier and paleolake expansion and retraction in the Great Basin region of the western United States has important implications for regional-scale climate change during the last Pleistocene glaciation. The relative timing of mountain glacier maxima and the well-studied Lake Bonneville highstand has been unclear, however, owing to poor chronological limits on glacial deposits. Here, this problem is addressed by applying terrestrial cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating to a classic set of terminal moraines in Little Cottonwood and American Fork Canyons in the western Wasatch Mountains. The exposure ages indicate that the main phase of deglaciation began at 15.7 ± 1.3 ka in both canyons. This update to the glacial chronology of the western Wasatch Mountains can be reconciled with previous stratigraphic observations of glacial and paleolake deposits in this area, and indicates that the start of deglaciation occurred during or at the end of the Lake Bonneville hydrologic maximum. The glacial chronology reported here is consistent with the growing body of data suggesting that mountain glaciers in the western U.S. began retreating as many as 4 ka after the start of northern hemisphere deglaciation (at ca. 19 ka).

  19. Successful commercialization of nanophotonic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Supriya L.; Clarke, Roger B. M.; Hyde, Sam C. W.

    2006-08-01

    The exploitation of nanotechnology from proof of principle to realizable commercial applications encounters considerable challenges in regards to high volume, large scale, low cost manufacturability and social ethics. This has led to concerns over converting powerful intellectual property into realizable, industry attractive technologies. At The Technology Partnership we specifically address the issue of successful integration of nanophotonics into industry in markets such as biomedical, ophthalmic, energy, telecommunications, and packaging. In this paper we draw on a few examples where we have either developed industrial scale nanophotonic technology or engineering platforms which may be used to fortify nano/microphotonic technologies and enhance their commercial viability.

  20. Commercial-scale demonstration of the liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report No. 4, 1 April--30 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L. P.(the Partnership). A facility producing 260 TPD of methanol will be designed and constructed at a site located at the Eastman Chemical complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration facility operational period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to ``demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH{trademark} process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.`` The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low sulfur dioxide, low nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research shows promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the operations phase. During this last quarter the project transitioned to the design phase. the project requires review under the National environmental Policy Act to move to the construction phase, which is scheduled to begin in August of 1995. DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment, and a Finding of No Significant Impact was issued during this quarter. The facility is scheduled to be mechanically complete in November of 1996.

  1. Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Environmental monitoring report No. 1, 1 April 1997--31 June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-13

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 TPD) of methanol was designed, constructed, and has begun operation at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to {open_quotes}demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH{trademark} Processing conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.{close_quotes} The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four-year demonstration period. The LPMEOH{trademark} process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfully piloted at a 10-TPD rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products` LaPorte, Texas, site. This demonstration project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.

  2. Rockfall exposures in Montserrat mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontquerni Gorchs, Sara; Vilaplana Fernández, Joan Manuel; Guinau Sellés, Marta; Jesús Royán Cordero, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    This study shows the developed methodology to analyze the exposure level on a 1:25000 scale, and the results obtained by applying it to an important part of the Monataña de Montserrat Natural Park for vehicles with and without considering their occupants. The development of this proposal is part of an ongoing study which focuses more in-depth in the analysis of the rockfall risk exposure in different scales and in different natural and social contexts. This research project applies a methodology to evaluate the rockfall exposure level based on the product of the frequency of occurrence of the event by an exposure function of the vulnerable level on a 1:25,000 scale although the scale used for the study was 1:10,000. The proposed methodology to calculate the exposure level is based on six phases: 1- Identification, classification and inventory of every element potentially under risk. 2- Zoning of the frequency of occurrence of the event in the studied area. 3- Design of the exposure function for each studied element. 4- Obtaining the Exposure index, it can be defined as the product of the frequency of occurrence by the exposure function of the vulnerable element through SIG analysis obtained with ArcGis software (ESRI) 5- Obtaining exposure level by grouping into categories the numerical values of the exposure index. 6- Production of the exposition zoning map. The different types of vulnerable elements considered in the totality of the study are: Vehicles in motion, people in vehicles in motion, people on paths, permanent elements and people in buildings. Each defined typology contains all elements with same characteristics and an exposure function has been designed for each of them. For the exposure calculation, two groups of elements have been considered; firstly the group of elements with no people involved and afterwards same group of elements but with people involved. This is a first comprehensive and synthetic work about rockfall exposure on the Montserrat

  3. Malapert Mountain: Gateway to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrunk, D.; Sharpe, B.

    The long lunar nights at the equatorial and mid-latitude regions of the Moon place severe limitations on the solar power and thermal management requirements of an unmanned lunar base. A solution to this problem is to locate sunlight-dependent facilities in polar regions, where nights can be very short due to chance interactions of lunar topography and orbital mechanics. Based on analyses of Clementine and Earth-based radar imaging of the Moon, the authors conclude that the summit of Malapert Mountain near the South Pole has the best combination of factors for a sunlight-dependent lunar base. Using a commercial software product, they determined that the Mountain summit receives full or partial sunlight for 93% of the lunar year and always has the Earth in view for direct Earth-Moon communications. By exploiting these optimum conditions, a remotely operated base at the summit could coordinate the scientific exploration of the entire south polar region. The base could also expedite the development of a permanent utility infrastructure and of facilities for human settlement. The authors conclude that the fortuitous and highly advantageous combination of physical factors of Malapert Mountain makes it the optimum site for beginning the human exploration and settlement of the Moon.

  4. Malapert mountain: Gateway to the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Burton L.; Schrunk, David G.

    2003-06-01

    The long lunar nights at the equatorial and mid-latitude regions of the Moon place severe limitations on the solar power and thermal management requirements of an unmanned lunar base. A solution to this problem is to locate sunlight-dependent facilities in polar regions where nights can be very short due to chance interactions of lunar topography and orbital mechanics. Based on analyses of Clementine and Earth-based radar imaging of the Moon, the authors conclude that the summit of Malapert Mountain near the South Pole has the best combination of factors for a sunlight-dependent lunar base. Using a commercial software product, they determined that the Mountain summit receives full or partial sunlight for 93% of the lunar year and always has the Earth in view for direct Earth-Moon communications. By exploiting these optimum conditions, a remotely operated base at the summit could coordinate the scientific exploration of the entire south polar region. The base could also expedite the development of a permanent utility infrastructure and facilities for human settlement. The authors conclude that the fortuitous and highly advantageous combination of physical factors of Malapert Mountain makes it the optimum site for beginning the human exploration and settlement of the Moon.

  5. ADVANCES IN YUCCA MOUNTAIN DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, P.G.; Gardiner, J.T.; Russell, P.R.Z.; Lachman, K.D.; McDaniel, P.W.; Boutin, R.J.; Brown, N.R.; Trautner, L.J.

    2003-02-27

    Since site designation of the Yucca Mountain Project by the President, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the transition from the site characterization phase of the project to preparation of the license application. As part of this transition, an increased focus has been applied to the repository design. Several evolution studies were performed to evaluate the repository design and to determine if improvements in the design were possible considering advances in the technology for handling and packaging nuclear materials. The studies' main focus was to reduce and/or eliminate uncertainties in both the pre-closure and post-closure performance of the repository and to optimize operations. The scope and recommendations from these studies are the subjects of this paper and include the following topics: (1) a more phased approach for the surface facility that utilize handling and packaging of the commercial spent nuclear fuel in a dry environment rather than in pools as was presented in the site recommendation; (2) slight adjustment of the repository footprint and a phased approach for construction and emplacement of the repository subsurface; and (3) simplification of the construction, fabrication and installation of the waste package and drip shield.

  6. Geological map of Bare Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Monsen, S.A.; Carr, M.D.; Reheis, M.C.; Orkild, P.P.

    1992-12-31

    Bare Mountain comprises the isolated complex of mountain peaks southeast of the town of Beatty in southern Nye County, Nevada. This small mountain range lies between the alluvial basins of Crater Flat to the east and the northern Amargosa Desert to the southwest. The northern boundary of the range is less well defined, but for this report, the terrane of faulted Miocene volcanic rocks underlying Beatty Mountain and the unnamed hills to the east are considered to be the northernmost part of Bare Mountain. The southern tip of the mountain range is at Black Marble, the isolated hill at the southeast corner of the map. The main body of the range, between Fluorspar Canyon and Black Marble, is a folded and complexly faulted, but generally northward-dipping (or southward-dipping and northward-overturned), sequence of weakly to moderately metamorphosed upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic marine strata, mostly miogeoclinal (continental shelf) rocks. The geology of Bare Mountain is mapped at a scale of 1:24,000.

  7. Land use/cover changes in European mountain areas: identifying links between global driving forces and local consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Schröter, Dagmar; Glade, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Minor land use/cover changes in mountain areas can aggravate the consequences of hydro-meteorological hazards such as landslides, avalanches, rockfall and flash floods. What is more, they change the provisioning of ecosystem services; also as their recovery after anthropogenic induced changes in mountains are slower or not occurring at all due to harsh climate and soil conditions. Examples of these changes are urbanization in high risk areas or deforestation on slopes. To understand the driving forces behind land use/cover changes in European mountain areas, the focus is on the two case study areas: The Val Canale valley in the Italian Alps and the Buzau valley in the Romanian Carpathians. Land use/cover changes were analyzed in the recent decades applying various remote sensing techniques, such as satellite imagery classification and visual interpretation, as well as integration of various databases (e.g. forestry, spatial planning and cadaster plans). Instead of identifying the statistical significance of particular variables (e.g. population change), the links between different driving forces of global change (e.g. political and policy changes, infrastructural plans) and local socio-economic variables were investigated further through interviewing local and regional stakeholders. The results show how both areas differ in the consequences of global changes in terms of land use/cover change. The Italian area witnessed a trajectory from a commercially active and competitive area, to an area with a large portion of abandoned commercial, customs, industrial and mining zones. These processes were accompanied by the expansion of settlements comprised mostly of secondary housing on areas with high risk, resulting in catastrophic consequences in recent flash floods and debris flows events. The Romanian site also witnessed a breakdown of local commercial and industrial activities. Together with land ownership reforms, this has resulted in the emergence of subsistence

  8. Yucca Mountain Milestone

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Rod

    1997-06-09

    The Department of Energy project to determine if the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is suitable for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste reached a major milestone in late April when a 25-foot-diameter tunnel boring machine ``holed through'' completing a five-mile-long, horseshoe-shaped excavation through the mountain. When the cutting-head of the giant machine broke through to daylight at the tunnel's south portal, it ended a 2 1/2-year excavation through the mountain that was completed ahead of schedule and with an outstanding safety record. Video of the event was transmitted live by satellite to Washington, DC, where it was watched by Secretary of Energy Frederico Pena and other high-level DOE officials, signifying the importance of the project's mission to find a repository for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants. This critical undertaking is being performed by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The tunnel is the major feature of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which serves as an underground laboratory for engineers and scientists to help determine if Yucca Mountain is suitable to serve as a repository for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Morrison Knudsen's Environmental/Government Group is providing design and construction-management services on the project. The MK team is performing final design for the ESF and viability assessment design for the underground waste repository that will be built only if the site is found suitable for such a mission. In fact, if at anytime during the ESF phase, the site is found unsuitable, the studies will be stopped and the site restored to its natural state.

  9. Computation of spatial significance of mountain objects extracted from multiscale digital elevation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh

    2014-06-01

    The derivation of spatial significance is an important aspect of geospatial analysis and hence, various methods have been proposed to compute the spatial significance of entities based on spatial distances with other entities within the cluster. This paper is aimed at studying the spatial significance of mountain objects extracted from multiscale digital elevation models (DEMs). At each scale, the value of spatial significance index SSI of a mountain object is the minimum number of morphological dilation iterations required to occupy all the other mountain objects in the terrain. The mountain object with the lowest value of SSI is the spatially most significant mountain object, indicating that it has the shortest distance to the other mountain objects. It is observed that as the area of the mountain objects reduce with increasing scale, the distances between the mountain objects increase, resulting in increasing values of SSI. The results obtained indicate that the strategic location of a mountain object at the centre of the terrain is more important than its size in determining its reach to other mountain objects and thus, its spatial significance.

  10. Landscape of a Glaciated Rift Flank: Structure of the Transantarctic Mountains From the Royal Society Range to the Churchill Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demyanick, E.; Wilson, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    Multiphase tectonic activity has shaped the regional landscape of the Transantarctic Mountains in Paleozoic, Jurassic, and Cenozoic times. The Antarctic ice sheets have covered the continent for the last 34 m.y. and coeval glacial activity and tectonism have affected mountain landscape evolution. Large-scale linear morphologic features within the mountains are controlled by bedrock structure. Satellite imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs) have been used in this study to map regional, linear morphologic trends along the mountain chain between the Royal Society Range and the Churchill Mountains. ASTER imagery was mosaicked and processed to enhance linear features and lineament analysis was employed to quantify major trends in the mountains. These trends were then compared to geologic maps and other structural and geomorphic data for the area. A low-resolution DEM derived from topographic map contours and new, higher- resolution DEMs created from ASTER imagery were used to create contour, shaded relief, slope steepness, and slope aspect maps. Geomorphology was assessed using these maps and related to mapped lineaments. Linear features that parallel known rift-related faults, or form typical rift-fault patterns, were used to develop a structural model for the architecture of this sector of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank.

  11. Mountain treelines: A roadmap for research orientation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malanson, George P.; Resler, Lynn M.; Bader, Maaike Y.; Holtmeier, Fredrich-Karl; Butler, David R.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Daniels, Lori D.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    For over 100 years, mountain treelines have been the subject of varied research endeavors and remain a strong area of investigation. The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of the epistemology of mountain treeline research-that is, to investigate how knowledge on treelines has been acquired and the changes in knowledge acquisition over time, through a review of fundamental questions and approaches. The questions treeline researchers have raised and continue to raise have undoubtedly directed the current state of knowledge. A continuing, fundamental emphasis has centered on seeking the general cause of mountain treelines, thus seeking an answer to the question, "What causes treeline?" with a primary emphasis on searching for ecophysiological mechanisms of low-temperature limitation for tree growth and regeneration. However, treeline research today also includes a rich literature that seeks local, landscape-scale causes of treelines and reasons why treelines vary so widely in three-dimensional patterns from one location to the next, and this approach and some of its consequences are elaborated here. In recent years, both lines of research have been motivated greatly by global climate change. Given the current state of knowledge, we propose that future research directions focused on a spatial approach should specifically address cross-scale hypotheses using statistics and simulations designed for nested hierarchies; these analyses will benefit from geographic extension of treeline research.

  12. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, R.A.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  13. Middle Miocene Displacement Along the Rand Detachment Fault, Rand Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulaker, D. Z.; Grove, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Laramide flat-slab subduction extinguished Sierra Nevada pluton emplacement in southern California by ca. 85 Ma as trench-derived sediments were underthrust and accreted beneath arc basement. These relationships are well illustrated in the Rand Mountains, situated just south of the Garlock fault in the northwestern Mojave Desert. Here, accreted rocks within the Rand Mountains are referred to as Rand Schist. The Rand Detachment fault juxtaposes Rand Schist beneath 87 Ma Sierran granitoids. New zircon (U-Th)/He age results from schist and basement juxtaposed across the Rand Detachment fault are 15 ± 3 Ma and 30 ± 5 Ma, respectively. When considered within the context of previously reported thermochronology from the Rand Mountains, our data shows that the Rand Detachment fault in the Rand Mountains is a middle Miocene fault that facilitated extension of the northwest Mojave Desert. This timing is in temporal and spatial agreement with regional extension throughout the Mojave triggered by northern migration of the slab window after collision of the Mendocino Triple Junction with the southern California margin. Further evidence of slab-window-related magmatism in the easternmost Rand Mountains is provided by the 19 Ma Yellow Aster pluton and 19 Ma rhyolite porphyry. It is possible that Miocene extension re-activated an older structure within the Rand Mountains. For example, a similar low-angle fault juxtaposing schist and basement present in the San Emigdio Mountains is believed to have accommodated large scale Late Cretaceous displacement, exhuming Rand Schist and overlying deepest Sierran basement to shallow crustal levels by 77 Ma [1]. However, 68-72 Ma phengite cooling ages and other thermochronology from the Rand Mountains indicates that any pre-Miocene extension in this area must postdate that in the San Emigdio Mountains. [1] Chapman et al., 2012. Geosphere, 8, 314-341.

  14. Estimating snow-water equivalent (SWE) over long mountain transects with snowmobile-mounted GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, W. S.; Provart, M.; Miller, S. N.; Dogan, M.

    2014-12-01

    The hydrologic balance in most alpine watersheds is dominated by snowmelt, which provides peak spring runoff and recharges mountain aquifers, contributing to baseflow throughout the year. Measurement of snow-water equivalent (SWE) is necessary for accurate modeling of alpine hydrology but is challenging due to the variability in snow accumulation, ablation and redistribution at scales from microtopography to hillslopes to mountainsides. Here we present a method for imaging snow stratigraphy and estimating SWE over large distances from a ground-penetrating radar system mounted on a snowmobile. We mount commercial GPR systems (500 and 800 MHz) to the front of the snowmobile to provide maximum mobility and ensure that measurements are taken on pristine snow. High-quality images show detailed snow stratigraphy down to the ground surface over snow depths up to at least 8 m, enabling elucidation of snow accumulation and redistribution processes. We estimate snow density (and thus SWE, assuming no liquid water) by measuring radar velocity of the snowpack through migration focusing analysis. Results from the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming, show that estimates of snow density from GPR (0.40±0.15 gm/cm3) are in good agreement with those from coincident snow cores (0.35±0.08 gm/cm3). Using this method, snow thickness, snow density, and therefore SWE can be measured over large areas solely from rapidly acquired common-offset GPR profiles, without the need for common-midpoint acquisition or snow cores.

  15. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  16. Bedrock infiltration estimates using catchment water storage in the mountain rain snow transition zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimates of bedrock infiltration from mountain catchments in the western U.S. are essential to water resource managers because they provide an estimate of mountain block recharge to regional aquifers. On smaller scales, bedrock infiltration is an important term in water mass balance studies, which...

  17. Cascading effects of fire exclusion in Rocky Mountain ecosystems: a literature review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keane, R.E.; Ryan, K.C.; Veblen, T.T.; Allen, C.D.; Logan, J.; Hawkes, B.

    2002-01-01

    The health of many Rocky Mountain ecosystems is in decline because of the policy of excluding fire in the management of these ecosystems. Fire exclusion has actually made it more difficult to fight fires, and this poses greater risks to the people who fight fires and for those who live in and around Rocky Mountain forests and rangelands. This paper discusses the extent of fire exclusion in the Rocky Mountains, then details the diverse and cascading effects of suppressing fires in the Rocky Mountain landscape by spatial scale, ecosystem characteristic, and vegetation type. Also discussed are the varied effects of fire exclusion on some important, keystone ecosystems and human concerns.

  18. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mountain Sickness, and Headache Print Email Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness, and Headache ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... entering your e-mail address below. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness, and Headache David W. Dodick, MD, FAHS, ...

  19. Human impacts to mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  20. Hydrology and the natural heritage of the Scottish mountains.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R C; Thompson, D B

    2002-07-22

    The physical natures of the Scottish mountains and their geographical position have created a montane environment, which can be considered as unique in European terms. The mountains of Scotland have been subjected to major environmental changes throughout the past centuries including climate change, deforestation, hydropower developments and more recently the expansion of plantation forestry. Mountain ecosystems have the ability to withstand large climatic variations and extreme events but it is suggested that they may not withstand some of the climatic barriers, which have recently been crossed. The greatest recent land use change in Scotland's mountains has been the expansion of plantation forests. The effects on headwater catchment hydrology are mainly in the reduction in runoff. It is suggested that plantation forestry has a more significant impact on the natural heritage through other influences such as water chemistry and river sediments. Future management of the Scottish mountains needs to consider the great natural heritage value in addition to other interests such as water resources, hydropower generation, commercial forestry and tourism. PMID:12169004

  1. Chemical weathering within high mountain depositional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emberson, R.; Hovius, N.; Hsieh, M.; Galy, A.

    2013-12-01

    relatively short length scales, with moderate increases in dissolved solutes over as little as 1km along the course of a river crossing a debris fan within the catchment. We hypothesise that debris fans and associated hyporheic regimes act as a filter of sorts, with the solute output from these sources being driven by dissolution and reprecipitation depending on the residence time of water within the vadose zone. This is controlled primarily by the prevailing seasonal weather: groundwater reservoirs are rapidly flushed during heavy precipitation associated with typhoons and tropical storms. In view of an expected increase of typhoon activity in the region, we propose that long-term monitoring of hydrological and chemical fluxes from mixed bedrock-alluvial mountain catchments can contribute to understanding of the impact of climate variability and change on Earth's carbon cycle.

  2. Commercial Development Suborbital Rocket Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The enclosed report provides information on the sixth flight of the Consort suborbital rocket series. Consort 6 is currently scheduled for launch on February 19, 1993, with lift off at 11:00 a.m., Mountain Time. It will carry seven materials and biotechnology experiments, two accelerometer systems, a controller and battery packs in a module nearly 12 feet tall and weighing approximately 1,004 pounds. Consort 6 will reach an apogee of approximately 200 miles providing about 7 minutes of microgravity time. The entire mission, from launch to touchdown, is expected to last approximately 15 minutes. The Consort series is part of a unique suborbital rocket launch services program conducted by the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) in conjunction with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). This service is managed through the Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS), a CCDS based University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). at the This suborbital rocket program provides CCDS investigators with a microgravity environment to achieve commercial development objectives, or to test developmental hardware or techniques in preparation for orbital flights or additional follow-on work. Rocket and launch services for Consort 6, including use of the Starfire 1 launch vehicle, are provided by EER Systems Corporation. Integration of the payload into Starfire 1 will be handled by McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company.

  3. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  4. Nature and continuity of the Sundance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Christopher J.; Dickerson, Robert P.; Day, Warren C.

    2000-01-12

    This report describes the detailed geologic mapping (1:2,400 scale) that was performed in the northern part of the potential nuclear waste repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine the nature and extent of the Sundance Fault zone and to evaluate structural relations between the Sundance and other faults.

  5. Modeling surface winds in mountainous catchments as a function of topography and vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop accurate distributed hydrological models, spatially accurate meteorological forcing fields are required. In mountainous basins, elevation and topography strongly influence temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure, and wind. At the watershed scale, temperature, precipitation, ...

  6. Review of Yucca Mountain Disposal Criticality Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Scaglione, John M; Wagner, John C

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, submitted a license application for construction authorization of a deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in June of 2008. The license application is currently under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However,on March 3, 2010 the DOE filed a motion requesting withdrawal of the license application. With the withdrawal request and the development of the Blue Ribbon Commission to seek alternative strategies for disposing of spent fuel, the status of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is uncertain. What is certain is that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will continue to be generated and some long-lived components of the SNF will eventually need a disposition path(s). Strategies for the back end of the fuel cycle will continue to be developed and need to include the insights from the experience gained during the development of the Yucca Mountain license application. Detailed studies were performed and considerable progress was made in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues regarding geologic disposal of SNF. This paper reviews selected technical studies performed in support of the disposal criticality analysis licensing basis and the use of burnup credit. Topics include assembly misload analysis, isotopic and criticality validation, commercial reactor critical analyses, loading curves, alternative waste package and criticality control studies, radial burnup data and effects, and implementation of a conservative application model in the criticality probabilistic evaluation as well as other information that is applicable to operations regarding spent fuel outside the reactor. This paper summarizes the work and significant accomplishments in these areas and provides a resource for future, related activities.

  7. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  8. Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gail Heath

    2012-07-01

    Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

  9. ESTIMATES OF CLOUD WATER DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM SITES IN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY, Whitetop Mountain, VA, and Clingrnan's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). ...

  10. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  11. Landscape Morphology of the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinlan, K. T.; Barnes, J. B.; Pavelsky, T.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers and rivers can significantly modify the shape of mountain landscapes. Following deformation and glaciation, bedrock river form and incision patterns are primarily controlled by variations in geologic structure, the glacial preconditioning of the landscape, and climate. However, the extent to which these factors integrate to affect Holocene patterns and rates of fluvial processes is poorly understood. Fluvial processes dominate the morphology of the Canadian Rocky Mountains today, though the inherited imprint of glaciers remains substantial. This study of fluvial geomorphology in the Athabasca River watershed in Jasper National Park, Alberta, addresses two primary ideas: (1) the fluvial response to deglaciation in alpine environments, and (2) the role of thrust belt geology affecting differential erosion in shaping post-orogenic topography. We use the 0.75 arc-second GeoBase Digital Elevation Model (~18m resolution) to analyze patterns of river concavity (θ) and normalized steepness index (ksn), estimate rock erodibility with field-based proxy measurements, and determine basin-averaged erosion rates using existing river gauge data. We find that bedrock geology and glacial preconditioning exhibit different yet recognizable morphological signatures and that they appear to be related to basin erosion rate. The principal differences we observe include the shape and scale of knickzones, magnitude of channel steepness values, channel concavity patterns, and relationship to bedrock geology. We find that lithologically controlled channel steepness patterns are contained to local spatial scales (<500m) and feature sharp increases in channel steepness at or near contacts between lithologies with differences in measured erodibility. By contrast, glacially controlled steepness patterns are expansive in spatial extent (1-10km), are insensitive to bedrock geology, and have higher overall channel steepness values than areas of lithologically controlled channel steepness

  12. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  13. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  14. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  15. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  16. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  17. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  18. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  19. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  20. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  1. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  2. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  3. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  4. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  5. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  6. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  7. Thermochromism in Commercial Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Mary Anne; Leblanc, Monique

    1999-09-01

    Many commercial products change color with a change of temperature. How do they do it? The processes responsible for the two major categories of commercial thermochromic coloring agents are presented, along with a description of applications of thermochromic materials.

  8. Extinction of Harrington's Mountain Goat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  9. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  10. Mid-pacific mountains revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroenke, Loren W.; Kellogg, James N.; Nemoto, Kenji

    1985-06-01

    The Mid-Pacific Mountains are guyots whose volcanic pedestals have been constructed on a broad basement plateau, the flanks of which are downfaulted. Edifice construction may have been controlled by an orthogonal system of intersecting faults trending roughly ENE and NNW. Low amplitude gravity anomalies observed over the Mid-Pacific Mountains indicate complete Airy-Heiskanen isostatic compensation, crustal thickening, and eruption on thin elastic lithosphere. Tholeiites of the Mid-Pacific Mountains resemble lavas of Iceland and the Galapagos Islands. The orthogonal fault system, low gravity anomalies, and lava chemistry of the Mid-Pacific Mountains can be explained by eruption on or near a great ENE-trending rift system.

  11. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  12. Geography and Weather: Mountain Meterology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogil, H. Michael; Collins, H. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Provided are 26 ideas to help children explore the effects of mountains on the weather. Weather conditions in Nepal and Colorado are considered separately. Nine additional sources of information are listed. (CW)

  13. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

  14. The fate of glacierized mountain systems in a +4oC world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J.; Harrison, S.

    2012-12-01

    Mountain landscapes are sensitive to climate change because glaciers, alpine permafrost and mountain ecosystems exist at or near to their temperature and precipitation limits. Most records worldwide show mountain glaciers and alpine permafrost are in retreat, particularly on mid- and low-latitude mountains, and are expected to retreat dramatically in a + 4oC world. GCMs show that global warming will produce significant albedo- and ecosystem-driven changes in heat balance over glacierized mountains which will accelerate the rate of warming and associated land surface changes. Such climate amplification will facilitate glacier retreat and permafrost warming, destabilizing rock slopes, liberating loose sediments and increasing the potential for geohazards. We argue that retreat of mountain glaciers and permafrost over the next decades will lead to a directional change in the dominant geomorphic process domain, from glacial/periglacial to paraglacial. Under + 4oC warming, a significant portion of glacierized mountains worldwide will become dominated by paraglacial processes, characterized by increased meltwater production, land surface instability, and sediment yield into mountain catchments. Mountain geohazards triggered by the onset of widespread paraglacial relaxation and more variable climatic regimes will be significant geomorphic processes and of relevance to planning and adaption in mountain regions. On medium time scales (50-100 years), decreased glacier-fed water supply will become the most significant issue, affecting large agricultural regions in precipitation-limited continental interiors. The nonlinear response of land surface processes to climate forcing means that mountain geohazards and patterns of glacier-fed water supply have low predictability. This is particularly where downscaled GCMs are too coarse to provide well-constrained inputs into land surface models. As such, the fate of glacierized mountains is a modeling, geomorphic and management

  15. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  16. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  17. Commercialism in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kirstin

    2001-01-01

    This document gives voice to concerns raised by critics and supporters of commercialism in schools and provides brief descriptions of several important resources on this topic. "Commercial Activities in School" (U.S. General Accounting Office) reports on the nature and frequency of commercial activities in public schools, as well as the laws and…

  18. COMMERCIAL FOODS, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DORNFIELD, BLANCHE E.

    THE UNDERSTANDING AND MASTERY OF FUNDAMENTAL MATHEMATICS IS A NECESSARY PART OF COMMERCIAL FOODS WORK. THIS STUDENT HANDBOOK WAS DESIGNED TO ACCOMPANY A COMMERCIAL FOODS COURSE AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL FOR STUDENTS WITH APPROPRIATE APTITUDES AND COMMERCIAL FOOD SERVICE GOALS. THE MATERIAL, TESTED IN VARIOUS INTERESTED CLASSROOMS, WAS PREPARED BY…

  19. Atlas Mountain Range, Mali, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    ATLAS pallets are backdropped against the Atlas Mountains (31.0N, 1.0W). ATLAS is an acronym for ATmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science. Taken from a point over Mali, in the western Sahara, the northwest looking view shows dunes in the Iguidi dune sea and colors characteristic of the Saharan side of the Atlas Mountains. The edge of a large sandstorm, that transported sand and dust to Yugoslavia and beyond, can also be seen.

  20. Monitoring low density avian populations: An example using Mountain Plovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dreitz, V.J.; Lukacs, P.M.; Knopf, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Declines in avian populations highlight a need for rigorous, broad-scale monitoring programs to document trends in avian populations that occur in low densities across expansive landscapes. Accounting for the spatial variation and variation in detection probability inherent to monitoring programs is thought to be effort-intensive and time-consuming. We determined the feasibility of the analytical method developed by Royle and Nichols (2003), which uses presence-absence (detection-non-detection) field data, to estimate abundance of Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) per sampling unit in agricultural fields, grassland, and prairie dog habitat in eastern Colorado. Field methods were easy to implement and results suggest that the analytical method provides valuable insight into population patterning among habitats. Mountain Plover abundance was highest in prairie dog habitat, slightly lower in agricultural fields, and substantially lower in grassland. These results provided valuable insight to focus future research into Mountain Plover ecology and conservation. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  1. On the Measurement of Turbulence Over Complex Mountainous Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiperski, Ivana; Rotach, Mathias W.

    2016-04-01

    The theoretical treatment of turbulence is largely based on the assumption of horizontally homogeneous and flat underlying surfaces. Correspondingly, approaches developed over the years to measure turbulence statistics in order to test this theoretical understanding or to provide model input, are also largely based on the same assumption of horizontally homogeneous and flat terrain. Here we discuss aspects of turbulence measurements that require special attention in mountainous terrain. We especially emphasize the importance of data quality (flux corrections, data quality assessment, uncertainty estimates) and address the issues of coordinate systems and different post-processing options in mountainous terrain. The appropriate choice of post-processing methods is then tested based on local scaling arguments. We demonstrate that conclusions drawn from turbulence measurements obtained in mountainous terrain are rather sensitive to these post-processing choices and give suggestions as to those that are most appropriate.

  2. Field Studies Delve Into the Intricacies of Mountain Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, Harindra J. S.; Pardyjak, Eric R.

    2013-09-01

    Mountain meteorology, in particular weather prediction in complex (rugged) terrain, is emerging as an important topic for science and society. Large urban settlements such as Los Angeles, Hong Kong, and Rio de Janeiro have grown within or in the shadow of complex terrain, and managing the air quality of such cities requires a good understanding of the air flow patterns that spill off of mountains. On a daily time scale, the interconnected engineered and natural systems that sustain urban metabolism and quality of life are affected by weather [Fernando, 2010]. Further, recent military engagements in remote mountainous areas have heightened the need for better weather predictions—alpine warfare is considered to be one of the most dangerous types of combat.

  3. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: LITIGATION TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND SERVICES, ROCKY MOUNTAIN ARSENAL (BASIS F WASTES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report consists of 5 documents which cover incineration tests at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA), Denver, CO, ranging from a labor- atory test plan and bench-scale test to full-scale testing. This abstract reports only on the results of bench-scale incineration test...

  4. Io: Mountains and crustal extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is argued that there is good reason to conclude that mountains on Io, like those on Earth, are subject to growth and decay. The decay of mountains will be assisted by the ability of SO sub 2 to rot silicate rock and by explosive escape of sub-surface SO sub 2 from aquifers (Haemus Mons is seen to be covered by bright material, presumably fallout from a SO sub 2 rich plume which had been active on the mountain flanks). On the west side of the massif at 10 degrees S, 270 degrees W a rugged surface consists of long ridges running perpendicular to the downslope direction, suggesting tectonic denudation with crustal blocks sliding down the mountain flank. Tectonic denudation may be assisted, as in the case of the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana by overloading mountain flanks with volcanic products. The surfaces of some massifs exhibit a well developed, enigmatic corrugated terrain, consisting of complex ridge systems. Ridges may bifurcate, anastomose to form closed depressions and form concentric loops. Taken together, observations of morphology, heat flux, surface deposits and styles of volcanism may point to the existence of lithosphere domains with distinct compositions and tectonic regimes.

  5. Uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, E.

    1987-09-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains, a major continental range, extend approximately 3,000 kilometers, vary from less than 50 to more than 400 kilometers wide, and have elevations of up to 4,500 meters. Earth scientists have generally defined the stratigraphy of the range and recognize that uplift of the region occurred after the Jurassic period but still know very little about the processes that effected uplift. Unlike other major mountain chains, the Transantarctic Mountains show no evidence of thrusting, folding, regional metamorphism, and andesitic volcanism associated with their uplift. The objectives during austral summer 1987-1988 are to map the uplift geometry of the Transantarctic Mountains using erosion surfaces (pre-Devonian Kukir peneplain) and widespread terrace levels as datum planes and to determine the uplift rates for the mountain range using fission-track dating of apatites. Presently, fission-track dating provides only quantitative data on the initiation time, amount, and rate of uplift. Through research, the authors hopes to extend data from Victoria Land through 1,600 kilometers of the Transantarctic Mountains. This study also has implications for the glacial history of Antarctica, because the uplift occurred during the inception, growth, and subsequent fluctuations of the east and west antarctic ice sheets. It will also add to our understanding of the nature of the East-West Antarctic boundary and to the knowledge of the sedimentation history in the Ross embayment and the basins beneath polar plateau.

  6. Weather observations on Whistler Mountain during five storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thériault, Julie M.; Rasmussen, Kristen L.; Fisico, Teresa; Stewart, Ronald E.; Joe, Paul; Gultepe, Ismail; Clément, Marilys; Isaac, George A.

    2014-01-01

    A greater understanding of precipitation formation processes over complex terrain near the west coast of British Colombia will contribute to many relevant applications, such as climate studies, local hydrology, transportation, and winter sport competition. The phase of precipitation is difficult to determine because of the warm and moist weather conditions experienced during the wintertime in coastal mountain ranges. The goal of this study is to investigate the wide range of meteorological conditions that generated precipitation on Whistler Mountain from 4-12 March 2010 during the SNOW-V10 field campaign. During this time period, five different storms were documented in detail and were associated with noticeably different meteorological conditions in the vicinity of Whistler Mountain. New measurement techniques, along with the SNOW-V10 instrumentation, were used to obtain in situ observations during precipitation events along the Whistler mountainside. The results demonstrate a high variability of weather conditions ranging from the synoptic-scale to the macro-scale. These weather events were associated with a variation of precipitation along the mountainside, such as events associated with snow, snow pellets, and rain. Only two events associated with a rain-snow transition along the mountainside were observed, even though above-freezing temperatures along the mountainside were recorded 90 % of the time. On a smaller scale, these events were also associated with a high variability of snowflake types that were observed simultaneously near the top of Whistler Mountain. Overall, these detailed observations demonstrate the importance of understanding small-scale processes to improve observational techniques, short-term weather prediction, and longer-term climate projections over mountainous regions.

  7. Prediction of mountain stream morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen; Merritt, David

    2005-08-01

    We use a large and diverse data set from mountain streams around the world to explore relationships between reach-scale channel morphology and control variables. The data set includes 177 step-pool reaches, 44 plane-bed reaches, and 114 pool-riffle reaches from the western United States, Panama, and New Zealand. We performed several iterations of stepwise discriminant analysis on these data. A three-variable discriminant function using slope (S), D84, and channel width (w) produced an error rate of 24% for the entire data set. Seventy percent of plane-bed reaches were correctly classified (16% incorrectly classified as pool-riffle and 14% incorrectly classified as step-pool). Sixty-seven percent of pool-riffle channels were correctly classified (31% incorrectly classified as plane-bed and 2% as step-pool). Eighty-nine percent of step-pool reaches were correctly classified (9% incorrectly classified as plane-bed and 2% as pool-riffle). The partial R2 values and F tests indicate that S is by far the most significant single explanatory variable. Comparison of the eight discriminant functions developed using different data sets indicates that no single variable is present in all functions, suggesting that the discriminant functions are sensitive to the specific stream reaches being analyzed. However, the three-variable discriminant function developed from the entire data set correctly classified 69% of the 159 channels included in an independent validation data set. The ability to accurately classify channel type in other regions using the three-variable discriminant function developed from the entire data set has important implications for water resources management, such as facilitating prediction of channel morphology using regional S-w-D84 relations calibrated with minimal field work.

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Comer, K M

    1991-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an endemic tickborne disease found throughout the United States and other regions of the world. Exposure may result in a spectrum of disease from subclinical infection to severe or fatal multiorgan collapse. The disease is maintained in nature in Ixodid tick vectors and their hosts. The most important ticks in the United States are Dermacentor variabilis and Dermacentor andersoni. Small mammals are the natural reservoirs in the wild. Dogs become infected when a tick harboring Rickettsia rickettsii feeds on the dog. Dogs do not develop sufficient rickettsemia to act as a reservoir in the transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii. Thus, although dogs act as sentinels to the presence of the disease, they cannot directly transmit infection. Signs in early stages of disease often are nonspecific. The most characteristic laboratory abnormality is thrombocytopenia, but serologic testing is necessary for confirmation of infection. Tetracycline and chloramphenicol are effective antibiotics to treat infection. Treatment should continue for 14 to 21 days to allow host immune defenses to develop and eradicate the organism. Prevention requires avoidance of tick-infested areas and rapid removal of ticks should exposure occur. PMID:2014623

  9. The interaction of katabatic winds and mountain waves

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    The variation in the oft-observed, thermally-forced, nocturnal katabatic winds along the east side of the Rocky Mountains can be explained by either internal variability or interactions with various other forcings. Though generally katabatic flows have been studied as an entity protected from external forcing by strong thermal stratification, this work investigates how drainage winds along the Colorado Front Range interact with, in particular, topographically forced mountain waves. Previous work has shown, based on measurements taken during the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain 1993 field program, that the actual dispersion in katabatic flows is often greater than reflected in models of dispersion. The interaction of these phenomena is complicated and non-linear since the amplitude, wavelength and vertical structure of mountain waves developed by flow over the Rocky Mountain barrier are themselves partly determined by the evolving atmospheric stability in which the drainage flows develop. Perturbations to katabatic flow by mountain waves, relative to their more steady form in quiescent conditions, are found to be caused by both turbulence and dynamic pressure effects. The effect of turbulent interaction is to create changes to katabatic now depth, katabatic flow speed, katabatic jet height and, vertical thermal stratification. The pressure effect is found to primarily influence the variability of a given katabatic now through the evolution of integrated column wave forcing on surface pressure. Variability is found to occur on two scales, on the mesoscale due to meso-gamma scale mountain wave evolution, and on the microscale, due to wave breaking. Since existing parameterizations for the statically stable case are predominantly based on nearly flat terrain atmospheric measurements under idealized or nearly quiescent conditions, it is no surprise that these parameterizations often contribute to errors in prediction, particularly in complex terrain.

  10. Quantifying the time scale of elevated geomorphic response following wildfires using multi-temporal LiDAR data: An example from the Las Conchas fire, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orem, Caitlin A.; Pelletier, Jon D.

    2015-03-01

    Sediment yields commonly increase following wildfires in mountainous landscapes. Quantifying the magnitude and duration of elevated sediment yields following wildfires is important for quantifying the relative importance of wildfire-affected versus non-wildfire-affected erosion in the long-term evolution of landscapes and for understanding the processes of post-wildfire erosion. In this study we use bi-annual terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) surveys conducted over a 2-yr period together with repeat airborne laser scanning (ALS) surveys conducted over a 1-yr period to estimate the dependence of sediment yield on time following the high-severity Las Conchas fire of 2011 within two small (approximately 1.3 km2) watersheds. The dependence of sediment yield on time since the wildfire was quantified using DEMs of Difference (DoDs) of the upland watersheds (to measure erosion) and of the adjacent piedmonts (to measure the deposition of eroded sediment). Over the 2-yr study period, sediment volume decreased linearly with time and sediment yield decreased exponentially with time in one watershed, while the other watershed showed a more complex relationship with time influenced by the specific sequence of rainstorms that impacted that watershed. Both watersheds had a recovery time of approximately 1 yr, suggesting that vegetation regrowth and the stabilization of incised valley bottoms were primarily responsible for the decline in sediment yield versus time following the wildfire. Multi-temporal DoDs of the piedmonts show how they responded to the delivery of elevated sediment yields from the upland watersheds, i.e. by (1) incision of the proximal portion of the piedmont, triggering distal deposition, (2) infilling of the incised channel and avulsion, and (3) incision of the distal portion, creating an incised channel connecting the proximal and distal ends of the piedmont. The dynamic nature of incision/aggradation and channel shifting on piedmonts following wildfires has

  11. Elevation dependency of mountain snow depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, T.; Bühler, Y.; Lehning, M.

    2014-12-01

    Elevation strongly affects quantity and distribution patterns of precipitation and snow. Positive elevation gradients were identified by many studies, usually based on data from sparse precipitation stations or snow depth measurements. We present a systematic evaluation of the elevation-snow depth relationship. We analyse areal snow depth data obtained by remote sensing for seven mountain sites near to the time of the maximum seasonal snow accumulation. Snow depths were averaged to 100 m elevation bands and then related to their respective elevation level. The assessment was performed at three scales: (i) the complete data sets (10 km scale), (ii) sub-catchments (km scale) and (iii) slope transects (100 m scale). We show that most elevation-snow depth curves at all scales are characterised through a single shape. Mean snow depths increase with elevation up to a certain level where they have a distinct peak followed by a decrease at the highest elevations. We explain this typical shape with a generally positive elevation gradient of snow fall that is modified by the interaction of snow cover and topography. These processes are preferential deposition of precipitation and redistribution of snow by wind, sloughing and avalanching. Furthermore, we show that the elevation level of the peak of mean snow depth correlates with the dominant elevation level of rocks (if present).

  12. The Evolution of Mountain Permafrost in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, C.; Delaloye, R.; Roer, I. H.; Hilbich, C.; Hoelzle, M.; Kenner, R.; Kotlarski, S.; Lambiel, C.; Marmy, A.; Müller, J.; Noetzli, J.; Phillips, M.; Rajczak, J.; Salzmann, N.; Schaepman, M. E.; Schar, C.; Staub, B.; Völksch, I.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost, defined as lithospheric material whose temperature remains below 0 °C for two or more consecutive years, occurs in many high-mountain regions of the European Alps. Mountain permafrost in the European Alps is characterised by temperatures only a few degrees below zero and is therefore particularly sensitive to projected climate changes in the 21st century. To evaluate the sensitivity of mountain permafrost to climatic changes and to assess its future evolution, not only climatic variables such as air temperature, radiation and timing and duration of snow cover have to be considered, but also subsurface characteristics such as ground temperature, ice content, porosity or hydraulic properties. In Switzerland, permafrost monitoring started only 1-2 decades ago but currently comprises a large set of meteorological, geophysical, kinematic and ground thermal parameters at a large variety of field sites. Within a large integrating national project (The evolution of mountain permafrost in Switzerland: TEMPS) these data sets are jointly analysed for the first time by combining observations with model simulations using a dynamic process-oriented soil model capable of addressing frozen terrain. In combination with results from Regional Climate Model ensembles, the project TEMPS aims to create plausible evolution scenarios of mountain permafrost at specific sites and will investigate the interactions between atmosphere and permafrost focusing on the evolution of ground temperature, ice content and related degradation and creep processes. This contribution will show first results concerning (a) new observation techniques in high-mountain permafrost, including thermal, geophysical and kinematic methods, (b) sensitivity studies with the soil model COUP regarding the impact of temperature and precipitation anomalies on different permafrost landforms and (c) strategies for downscaling and debiasing RCM output data for permafrost analysis on the station scale at high

  13. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  14. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  15. Drainage flows: A mountain-plains interface numerical case study

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.; Bossert, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In January/February, 1991 an intensive set of measurements was taken around Rocky Flats near Denver, CO, USA under the auspices of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program. This region of the country is known as the Front Range, and is characterized by a transition from the relatively flat terrain of the Great Plains to the highly varied terrain of the Rocky Mountains. The mountains are oriented north-south and rise from 1800m above mean sea level (MSL) to 3600m MSL at the Continental Divide. Numerous east-west oriented valleys begin in the mountains and end at the plains interface. This terrain makes the Front Range a challenging region to model. One of the more important flows created by this severe terrain are the highly-varying drainage flows found during stagnant, wintertime conditions. These flows can interact with larger-scale mountain and synoptic winds. One goal of the ASCOT 1991 program was to gain insight into multi-scale meteorological interaction by observing wintertime drainage conditions at the mountain-valley-plains interface. ASCOT data included surface and upper air measurements on approximately a 50km{sup 2} scale. Simultaneously, an SF{sub 6} tracer release study was being conducted around Rocky Flats, a nuclear materials production facility. Detailed surface concentration measurements were completed for the SF{sub 6} plume. This combination of meteorological and tracer concentration data provided a unique data set for comparisons of mesoscale and dispersion modeling results with observations and for evaluating our capability to predict pollutant transport. Our approach is to use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model to simulate atmospheric conditions and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) to model the dispersion of the SF{sub 6}.

  16. Drainage flows: A mountain-plains interface numerical case study

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.; Bossert, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    In January/February, 1991 an intensive set of measurements was taken around Rocky Flats near Denver, CO, USA under the auspices of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program. This region of the country is known as the Front Range, and is characterized by a transition from the relatively flat terrain of the Great Plains to the highly varied terrain of the Rocky Mountains. The mountains are oriented north-south and rise from 1800m above mean sea level (MSL) to 3600m MSL at the Continental Divide. Numerous east-west oriented valleys begin in the mountains and end at the plains interface. This terrain makes the Front Range a challenging region to model. One of the more important flows created by this severe terrain are the highly-varying drainage flows found during stagnant, wintertime conditions. These flows can interact with larger-scale mountain and synoptic winds. One goal of the ASCOT 1991 program was to gain insight into multi-scale meteorological interaction by observing wintertime drainage conditions at the mountain-valley-plains interface. ASCOT data included surface and upper air measurements on approximately a 50km{sup 2} scale. Simultaneously, an SF{sub 6} tracer release study was being conducted around Rocky Flats, a nuclear materials production facility. Detailed surface concentration measurements were completed for the SF{sub 6} plume. This combination of meteorological and tracer concentration data provided a unique data set for comparisons of mesoscale and dispersion modeling results with observations and for evaluating our capability to predict pollutant transport. Our approach is to use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model to simulate atmospheric conditions and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) to model the dispersion of the SF{sub 6}.

  17. Building for the Future by Expatiating the Past: High Drama from the Summit of China's Learning Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger; Huang, Yan

    2006-01-01

    As part of a large-scale learning initiative, the Chinese Communist Party has declared Lushan to be a "learning mountain". There have been people learning at Lushan Mountain for 2000 years. In 1959 there was a Central Committee meeting at Lushan, where Mao Zedong purged his widely respected comrade Peng Dehuai for daring to say people were…

  18. Hydrometeorology of Rocky Mountain floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, Robert D.

    Climatology and flood hydrology of the Rocky Mountains were the topics of a workshop held in Lakewood, Colo., October 4-5, 1990. Ninety-one people participated in the workshop, which was organized by Robert Jarrett, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver; John Liou, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Denver; and Doug Laiho, Delta Environmental Consultants, Boulder, representing the American Society of Civil Engineers.The workshop was held to address some of the recognized complexities in the hydrometeorology of floods in the Rocky Mountains. The complexities are caused by the effects of rough mountain terrain on meteorology, snowmelt and rainfall flooding, and limited rainfall and streamflow data. The current theories and methods used to estimate flood flows in the Rocky Mountains, particularly estimation of the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and the probable maximum flood (PMF), have been questioned by hydrologists and engineers for some time. Purposes of the workshop were to review the current understanding and ongoing research of floods—both frequent and extreme, including the PMF, in the Rocky Mountains; to bring together scientists, engineers, and flood-plain managers in government, industry, consulting firms, and universities; and to provide a mechanism for the exchange of ideas and technology between climatologists, meteorologists, hydrologists, engineers, and managers.

  19. Mountain biking injuries: an update.

    PubMed

    Kronisch, Robert L; Pfeiffer, Ronald P

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the available literature regarding injuries in off-road bicyclists. Recent progress in injury research has allowed the description of several patterns of injury in this sport. Mountain biking remains popular, particularly among young males, although sales and participation figures have decreased in the last several years. Competition in downhill racing has increased, while cross-country racing has decreased somewhat in popularity. Recreational riders comprise the largest segment of participants, but little is known about the demographics and injury epidemiology of noncompetitive mountain cyclists. Most mountain bikers participating in surveys reported a history of previous injuries, but prospective studies conducted at mountain bike races have found injury rates of <1%. The most common mechanism of injury involves a forward fall over the handlebars, usually while riding downhill, which can result in direct trauma to the head, torso and upper extremities. A variety of factors can be associated with this type of fall, including trail surface irregularities, mechanical failures and loss of control. In mountain bike racing the risk of injury may be higher for women than men. Minor injuries such as abrasions and contusions occur frequently, but are usually of little consequence. Fractures usually involve the torso or upper extremities, and shoulder injuries are common. Head and face injuries are not always prevented by current helmet designs. Fatal injuries are rare but have been reported. Improvements in safety equipment, rider training and racecourse design are suggested injury prevention measures. The authors encourage continued research in this sport. PMID:12076178

  20. Mountaineer`s gas facilities decision support system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Mountaineer Gas Co. of Charleston, W.Va., is justifiably proud of its capacity to combine electronic maps with a full database of information about its facilities and customers, and use that mix to make the decisions required in operating a gas company with better information and more quickly. Determining when a pipeline needs replacement or repair used to take several days at Mountaineer. With the new system in place, the decision can be made in a matter of minutes. The paper describes the system and its development, then discusses adding customer information as the next step.

  1. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

  2. Commercial energy audits: headache or opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Hanneman, J.C.; Crandall, G.C.

    1984-04-12

    A summary of Michigan's 1982 commercial energy audit pilot program illustrates that utilities, shareholders, ratepayers, and private businesses can all benefit from large-scale audit services. Specific benefits to the utilities include market preservation, enhanced community and customer relations, and access to important customer demographic information. The federal Commercial and Apartment Conservation Service (CACS) rules can be more useful than burdensome because they confirm the right and duty of energy utilities to offer energy audits to nonresidential customers. 5 footnotes and references.

  3. Mountain hydrology of the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, R.C.; Molotch, N.P.; Painter, T.H.; Dettinger, M.D.; Rice, R.; Dozier, J.

    2006-01-01

    Climate change and climate variability, population growth, and land use change drive the need for new hydrologic knowledge and understanding. In the mountainous West and other similar areas worldwide, three pressing hydrologic needs stand out: first, to better understand the processes controlling the partitioning of energy and water fluxes within and out from these systems; second, to better understand feedbacks between hydrological fluxes and biogeochemical and ecological processes; and, third, to enhance our physical and empirical understanding with integrated measurement strategies and information systems. We envision an integrative approach to monitoring, modeling, and sensing the mountain environment that will improve understanding and prediction of hydrologic fluxes and processes. Here extensive monitoring of energy fluxes and hydrologic states are needed to supplement existing measurements, which are largely limited to streamflow and snow water equivalent. Ground-based observing systems must be explicitly designed for integration with remotely sensed data and for scaling up to basins and whole ranges. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Dependence of snowmelt simulations on scaling of the forcing processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spatial organization and scaling relationships of snow distribution in mountain environs is ultimately dependent on the controlling processes. These processes include interactions between weather, topography, vegetation, snow state, and seasonally-dependent radiation inputs. In large scale snow...

  5. Monitoring the Snowpack in Remote, Ungauged Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozier, J.; Davis, R. E.; Bair, N.; Rittger, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Our objective is to estimate seasonal snow volumes, relative to historical trends and extremes, in snow-dominated mountains that have austere infrastructure, sparse gauging, challenges of accessibility, and emerging or enduring insecurity related to water resources. The world's mountains accumulate substantial snow and, in some areas, produce the bulk of the runoff. In ranges like Afghanistan's Hindu Kush, availability of water resources affects US policy, military and humanitarian operations, and national security. The rugged terrain makes surface measurements difficult and also affects the analysis of remotely sensed data. To judge feasibility, we consider two regions, a validation case and a case representing inaccessible mountains. For the validation case, we use the Sierra Nevada of California, a mountain range of extensive historical study, emerging scientific innovation, and conflicting priorities in managing water for agriculture, urban areas, hydropower, recreation, habitat, and flood control. For the austere regional focus, we use the Hindu Kush, where some of the most persistent drought in the world causes food insecurity and combines with political instability, and occasional flooding. Our approach uses a mix of satellite data and spare modeling to present information essential for planning and decision making, ranging from optimization of proposed infrastructure projects to assessment of water resources stored as snow for seasonal forecasts. We combine optical imagery (MODIS on Terra/Aqua), passive microwave data (SSM/I and AMSR-E), retrospective reconstruction with energy balance calculations, and a snowmelt model to establish the retrospective context. With the passive microwave data we bracket the historical range in snow cover volume. The rank orders of total retrieved volume correlates with reconstructions. From a library of historical reconstruction, we find similar cases that provide insights about snow cover distribution at a finer scale than

  6. 10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE AUXILIARY STRUCTURES. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  7. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  8. Understanding Mountain Range Spatial Variability of Surface Hoar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrikx, J.

    2014-12-01

    Surface hoar, once buried often produce a persistent weak layer that is a common instability problem in the snow pack in SW Montana and many other areas around the world. Surface hoar is a common weak layer type in avalanche accidents in a continental and intermountain snowpack. It is however relatively well understood that aspect plays an important role in the spatial location of the growth, and survival of these grain forms, due to the unequal distribution of incoming radiation. However this factor alone does not explain the complex and often confusing spatial pattern of these grains forms throughout the landscape at larger, mountain range spatial scales. In this paper we present a unique data set including over one hundred days of manual observations of surface hoar at sixteen locations on Pioneer Mountain at the Yellowstone Club in southwestern Montana. Using this wealth of observational data located on different aspects, elevations and exposures, coupled with detailed meteorological observations, detailed site scale observations (e.g. Sky view plots) we examine the spatial variability of surface hoar at this scale, and examine the factors that control its spatial distribution. Our results further supports our preliminary work, which shows that small-scale meteorological differences, site scale differences, and local scale lapse rates can greatly influence the spatial variability of surface hoar, over and above that which aspect alone can explain. These results highlight our incomplete understanding of the processes at this large, mountain range scale, and are likely to have implications for both regional and local scale avalanche forecasting in environments where surface hoar cause ongoing instabilities.

  9. Magnetic investigations along selected high-resolution seismic traverses in the central block of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.; Sikora, R.F.; Roberts, C.W.; Morin, R.L.; Halvorson, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    Ground magnetic data collected along several traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are interpreted. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Magnetic data and models along traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain reveal anomalies associated with known faults and indicate a number of possible concealed faults beneath the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain. The central part of the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain is characterized by numerous small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting. Magnetic modeling of the terrain along the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain indicates that terrain induced magnetic anomalies of about 100 to 150 nT are present along some profiles where steep terrain exists above the magnetometer.

  10. Temporally and spatially uniform rates of erosion in the southern Appalachian Great Smoky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matmon, A.; Bierman, P.R.; Larsen, J.; Southworth, S.; Pavich, M.; Caffee, M.

    2003-01-01

    We measured 10Be in fluvial sediment samples (n = 27) from eight Great Smoky Mountain drainages (1-330 km2). Results suggest spatially homogeneous sediment generation (on the 104-105 yr time scale and > 100 km2 spatial scale) at 73 ?? 11 t km-2 yr-1, equivalent to 27 ?? 4 m/m.y. of bedrock erosion. This rate is consistent with rates derived from fission-track, long-term sediment budget, and sediment yield data, all of which indicate that the Great Smoky Mountains and the southern Appalachians eroded during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic at ???30 m/m.y. In contrast, unroofing rates during the Paleozoic orogenic events that formed the Appalachian Mountains were higher (???102 m/m.y.). Erosion rates decreased after termination of tectonically driven uplift, enabling the survival of this ancient mountain belt with its deep crustal root as an isostatically maintained feature in the contemporary landscape.

  11. White Mountain Wilderness, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Segerstrom, K.; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey made during 1971-1973, the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. In mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significantly, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  12. BLOOD MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koeppen, Robert P.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Blood Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia, indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources. Natural gas may be present at great depth, perhaps 5 mi down and below the overthrust sheets of the Blue Ridge Mountains, but presently available information is not adequate to evaluate the resource potential of this commodity. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

  13. Yearly report, Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, J.N.

    1992-09-30

    We proposed to (1) Develop our data logging and analysis equipment and techniques for analyzing seismic data from the Southern Great Basin Seismic Network (SGBSN), (2) Investigate the SGBSN data for evidence of seismicity patterns, depth distribution patterns, and correlations with geologic features (3) Repair and maintain our three broad band downhole digital seismograph stations at Nelson, nevada, Troy Canyon, Nevada, and Deep Springs, California (4) Install, operate, and log data from a super sensitive microearthquake array at Yucca Mountain (5) Analyze data from micro-earthquakes relative to seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain.

  14. Commercial fertilizers 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.; Montgomery, M.H.

    1991-12-01

    This document contains consumption data for commercial fertilizers in the USA for 1991. Graphical information on the consumption by class is given for the nation. State by state data for consumption of several types of commercial fertilizers are presented. Only numerical data is included.

  15. Commercialism in Intercollegiate Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delany, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the history of intercollegiate athletics and the evolution of commercialization in college sports, particularly through television. Argues that few Division I programs could be self-sufficient; the issue is the degree to which sports are commercialized for revenue, and the challenge to balance schools' needs, private sector interests, and…

  16. Commercialism@Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Morales, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    The Center for the Analysis of Commercialism in Schools found that the number of press citations from 1990 to 2000 discussing seven types of commercializing activities (program sponsorship, exclusive agreements, incentive programs, appropriation of space, sponsored educational materials, electronic marketing, privatization, and fund raising)…

  17. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  18. A comparison of two potential repositories: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Pflum, C.G.

    1994-07-11

    Two repositories in the same country, yet Congress and the DOE manage them differently. While Congress encumbers WIPP with unanticipated oversight and inappropriate regulations, Congress streamlines the commercial repository program and promises improved regulations for Yucca Mountain. While DOE encouraged science at the expense of the WIPP infrastructure, DOE postponed its scientific investigations at Yucca Mountain and constructed an infrastructure, large enough to support an ambitious program that was never realized. Somewhere between WIPP and Yucca Mountain lies an ideal repository program. A program where consistent national policy promotes progress; where lucid regulations inspire confidence; where science and infrastructure are balanced; and where oversight groups do not become the tail that wags the dog. Neither WIPP nor Yucca Mountain are ideal programs, but each has its advantages that approach the ideal. Consistent national policy would steer the ideal repository program in a predictable direction. Here Yucca Mountain has the advantage. Successive legislation has streamlined the siting process and promises better regulations. From the beginning, the ideal program would know its regulators and regulations. Again, Yucca Mountain has the advantage. More familiar with regulators and regulations, the Yucca Mountain program had the foresight not to declare HLW to be hazardous and subject to dual regulations. The ideal program would equitably balance its science and infrastructure. Here neither program has the advantage and could possibly represent extremes. The WIPP`s emphasis on scientific investigations left it with little or no infrastructure to deal with regulations and oversight. A regulatory infrastructure, for example, could have forewarned WIPP that its in situ tests were not relevant to the regulations. On the opposite extreme, the Yucca Mountain`s emphasis on infrastructure left it with less money for scientific investigations.

  19. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  20. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  1. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  2. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  3. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  4. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  5. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  6. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  7. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  8. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  9. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  10. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  11. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  12. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  13. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  14. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  15. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  16. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  17. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  18. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  19. Lone Mountain processing boosts recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgarth, T.; Bethell, P.; Gupta, B.K.

    2005-08-01

    A new deslime column flotation circuit installed at Arch Coal's Lone Mountain preparation plant in St. Charles, Va., USA recovers an additional 20 tph. The article describes how this column technology was selected. It explains the circuit design, start-up and post upgrade distant testing. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Artifical Mountains: A Synthetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipiera, Paul P.; Aumann, John A.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a secondary science unit which uses an urban environment to develop a comparison between naturally formed mountains and man-constructed skyscrapers. The unit is one in a series of fifty laboratory activities designed to stimulate students of earth science by interrelating scientific principles and procedures to a familiar environment.…