Note: This page contains sample records for the topic mountaineer commercial scale from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Commercial scale solar drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial scale drying requires a tremendous amount of energy to heat air when drying various food products and there is an opportunity to utilize solar energy in the drying process. Commercial drying is different from the small scale traditional sun drying practised by farmers. The paper begins with a summary of a feasibility study done for the Spices Board of

J. C. Hollick

1999-01-01

2

Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project  

SciTech Connect

The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.

Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

2011-12-31

3

Yucca Mountain drift scale test progress report  

SciTech Connect

The Drift Scale Test (DST) is part of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Thermal Test being conducted underground at the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of the ESF Thermal Test is to acquire a more in-depth understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes likely to be encountered in the rock mass surrounding the potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain. These processes are monitored by a multitude of sensors to measure the temperature, humidity, gas pressure, and mechanical displacement, of the rock formation in response to the heat generated by the heaters. In addition to collecting passive monitoring data, active hydrological and geophysical testing is also being carried out periodically in the DST. These active tests are intended to monitor changes in the moisture redistribution in the rock mass, to collect water and gas samples for chemical and isotopic analysis, and to detect microfiacturing due to heating. On December 3, 1998, the heaters in the DST were activated. The planned heating phase of the DST is 4 years, and the cooling phase following the power shutoff will be of similar duration. The present report summarizes interpretation and analysis of thermal, hydrological, chemical, and geophysical data for the first 6 months; it is the first of many progress reports to be prepared during the DST.

Apps, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Peterson,J.E.; Sonnenthal, E.; Spycher, N.; Tsang, Y.W.; Williams, K.H.

1999-01-01

4

MOUNTAIN-SCALE COUPLED PROCESSES (TH\\/THC\\/THM)MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the development and validation of the mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic (TH), thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC), and thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) models. These models provide technical support for screening of features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to the effects of coupled TH\\/THC\\/THM processes on mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842], Section 2.1.1.1). The

Y. S. Wu

2005-01-01

5

Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes (TH\\/THC\\/THM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Model Report is to document the development of the Mountain-Scale Thermal-Hydrological (TH), Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical (THC), and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) Models and evaluate the effects of coupled TH\\/THC\\/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This Model Report was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.12.7), and was

P. Dixon

2004-01-01

6

Large-Scale Change: Mountain-Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is designed to help students learn how mountains form, identify the components of mountain systems, and explore the transfer of matter and the role of energy during mountain building. It employs links to three other websites to lead students to information about the evolution of mountains, provide background information on the continent-continent collisions that resulted in the Himalayas, and explore geomorphology from space.

7

MOUNTAIN-SCALE COUPLED PROCESSES (TH/THC/THM)MODELS  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development and validation of the mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic (TH), thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC), and thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) models. These models provide technical support for screening of features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842], Section 2.1.1.1). The purpose and validation criteria for these models are specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Drift-Scale Abstraction) Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842]). Model results are used to support exclusion of certain FEPs from the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model on the basis of low consequence, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.342 [DIRS 173273]. Outputs from this report are not direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. All the FEPs related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ and SZ flow are discussed in Sections 6 and 7 of this report. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The mountain-scale TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH model captures mountain-scale three-dimensional flow effects, including lateral diversion and mountain-scale flow patterns. The mountain-scale THC model evaluates TH effects on water and gas chemistry, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and the resulting impact to UZ hydrologic properties, flow and transport. The mountain-scale THM model addresses changes in permeability due to mechanical and thermal disturbances in stratigraphic units above and below the repository host rock. The THM model focuses on evaluating the changes in UZ flow fields arising out of thermal stress and rock deformation during and after the thermal period (the period during which temperatures in the mountain are significantly higher than ambient temperatures).

Y.S. Wu

2005-08-24

8

Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes (TH/THC/THM)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Model Report is to document the development of the Mountain-Scale Thermal-Hydrological (TH), Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical (THC), and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) Models and evaluate the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This Model Report was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.12.7), and was developed in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. In this Model Report, any reference to ''repository'' means the nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, and any reference to ''drifts'' means the emplacement drifts at the repository horizon. This Model Report provides the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses for analyzing mountain-scale hydrological/chemical/mechanical changes and predict flow behavior in response to heat release by radioactive decay from the nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH Model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH Model captures mountain-scale three dimensional (3-D) flow effects, including lateral diversion at the PTn/TSw interface and mountain-scale flow patterns. The Mountain-Scale THC Model evaluates TH effects on water and gas chemistry, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and the resulting impact to UZ hydrological properties, flow and transport. The THM Model addresses changes in permeability due to mechanical and thermal disturbances in stratigraphic units above and below the repository host rock. The Mountain-Scale THM Model focuses on evaluating the changes in 3-D UZ flow fields arising out of thermal stress and rock deformation during and after the thermal periods.

P. Dixon

2004-02-09

9

The Yucca Mountain Project drift scale test  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Project is currently evaluating the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) response of the potential repository host rock through an in situ thermal testing program. A drift scale test (DST) was constructed during 1997 and heaters were turned on in December 1997. The DST includes nine canister-sized containers with thirty operating heaters each located within the heated drift (HD) and fifty wing heaters located in boreholes in both ribs with a total power output of nominally 210kW. A total of 147 boreholes (combined length of 3.3 km) houses most of the over 3700 TMHC sensors connected with 201 km of cabling to a central data acquisition system. The DST is located in the Exploratory Studies Facility in a 5-m diameter drift approximately 50 m in length. Heating will last up to four years and cooling will last another four years. The rock mass surrounding the DST will experience a harsh thermal environment with rock surface temperatures expected to reach a maximum of about 200 C. This paper describes the process of designing the DST. The first 38 m of the 50-m long Heated Drift (HD) is dedicated to collection of data that will lead to a better understanding of the complex coupled TMHC processes in the host rock of the proposed repository. The final 12 m is dedicated to evaluating the interactions between the heated rock mass and cast-in-place (CIP) concrete ground support systems at elevated temperatures. In addition to a description of the DST design, data from site characterization, and a general description of the analyses and analysis approach used to design the test and make pretest predictions are presented. Test-scoping and pretest numerical predictions of one way thermal-hydrologic, thermal-mechanical, and thermal-chemical behaviors have been completed (TRW, 1997a). These analyses suggest that a dry-out zone will be created around the DST and a 10,000 m{sup 3} volume of rock will experience temperatures above 100 C. The HD will experience large stress increases, particularly in the crown of the drift. Thermoelastic displacements of up to about 16 mm are predicted for some thermomechanical gages. Additional analyses using more complex models will be performed during the conduct of the DST and the results compared with measured data.

Finley, R.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blair, S.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Labs., CA (United States); Boyle, W.J. [Dept. of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

1998-06-01

10

Room at the Mountain: Estimated Maximum Amounts of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Capable of Disposal in a Yucca Mountain Repository  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present an initial analysis of the maximum amount of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) that could be emplaced into a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis identifies and uses programmatic, material, and geological constraints and factors that affect this estimation of maximum amount of CSNF for disposal. The conclusion of this initial analysis is that the current legislative limit on Yucca Mountain disposal capacity, 63,000 MTHM of CSNF, is a small fraction of the available physical capacity of the Yucca Mountain system assuming the current high-temperature operating mode (HTOM) design. EPRI is confident that at least four times the legislative limit for CSNF ({approx}260,000 MTHM) can be emplaced in the Yucca Mountain system. It is possible that with additional site characterization, upwards of nine times the legislative limit ({approx}570,000 MTHM) could be emplaced. (authors)

Kessler, John H. [Electric Power Research Institute - EPRI, 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Kemeny, John [University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); King, Fraser [Integrity Corrosion Consulting, Ltd., 6732 Silverview Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Ross, Alan M. [Alan M. Ross and Associates, 1061 Gray Fox Circle Pleasanton, CA 94566 (Canada); Ross, Benjamen [Disposal Safety, Inc., Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

2006-07-01

11

Aspects of Regional-Scale Flows in Mountainous Terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountaintop data from remote stations in the central Rocky Mountains have been used to analyze terrain-induced regional (meso- to meso-) scale circulation patterns. The circulation consists of a diurnally oscillating wind regime, varying between daytime inflow toward, and nocturnal outflow from, the highest terrain. Both individual case days and longer term averages reveal these circulation characteristics. The persistence and broadscale

James E. Bossert; John D. Sheaffer; Elmar R. Reiter

1989-01-01

12

Scale effect on runoff in alpine mountain catchments on China's Gongga Mountain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding an effective method to upscale or downscale hydrological processes is the central concern in hydrological research. The aim of this paper is to investigate a powerful, regulated relationship between runoff and catchment area, and establish the runoff scale transfer model for Gongga Mountain in China. We chose a series of catchments in which the contributing areas ranged from 0.41 km2 to 80.5 km2 to monitor the hydrological processes and meteorological conditions since 1990. To identify the nature and causes of variation in the runoff response to the size of catchments, a two-stage scaling method was proposed to describe the processes of runoff scaling. The results indicated that runoff had a different statistical relationship in different seasons and the related parameters were also different. The scaling models indicated a higher simulation efficiency and precision between the observed runoff and the calculated runoff, and they also provided a practical way for upscaling or downscaling in an alpine mountain watershed. For alpine mountain catchments, the results showed that the vegetation type and cover might be important factors for the runoff response to the scale effective.

Lin, Y.; Wang, G. X.

2010-03-01

13

Snow Surface Scaling and Roughness in Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent development of suitable remote sensing techniques for area-wide measurements of snow distribution (Terrestrial and Airborne Laser Scanning) allows an in-depth analysis of the snow cover in varying terrain. We present multiple TLS measurements over very complex high Alpine terrain. For the first time, the snow surface development was studied for individual storms. It was observed that the characteristics of an inter-annual consistent snow distribution found at the time of maximum accumulation was mainly formed by one type of individual snow storm event, which repeatedly appeared during the accumulation season. This intra-annual consistency was less pronounced (maximum correlation coefficients between two events of 0.73) than the inter-annual consistency (correlation coefficient between the two years of 0.97). This suggests a convergent behavior of snow depth development formed by comparable storm events. The similarities between individual snow falls as well as the characteristics of the snow cover development were investigated with a fractal analysis. The scaling properties for snow depth and snow depth changes inferred from uni- and omni-directional variograms quantitatively showed that overall snow depth may become what conventionally has been termed "smoother" during an accumulation season. A general trend towards larger scale breaks was observed, which suggests a small but significant shift towards processes acting on a larger scale. This is consistent with the picture of small terrain depressions being successively filled in. In addition to the similarities between snow storms, this points to a modified but not completely altered summer terrain that strongly influences snow depth distribution. These terrain-induced roughness features are on top of the very small scale snow roughness caused by ballistic deposition of individual snow flakes.

Schirmer, Michael; Lehning, Michael

2010-05-01

14

A Mountain Scale Model of Hydrothermal and Geochemical Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When conducting numerical simulations of interactions between thermal, hydrological and geochemical processes in porous rock systems, the system of nonlinear partial differential equations describing mass balance, energy balance, and equilibrium and kinetic reactions is usually solved by complex numerical procedures. For this reason, the coupled modeling of hydrothermal and geochemical processes is computationally expensive and often limited to strict assumptions regarding system properties and complexity, simple chemical and mineralogical systems, or small scale problems. In this presentation we provide a mountain scale model which includes a wide range of subsurface hydrothermal and geochemical processes using a multi-scale modeling approach. Hydrothermal and geochemical variables are fully described in "low-level" models and information from these low-level models is abstracted and upgraded to the mountain scale model. We use this model to evaluate the consequences of different design alternatives on the performance of a geological repository for high level nuclear waste in fractured, porous volcanic tuffs, such as those at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

Glassley, W. E.; Gansemer, J.; Buscheck, T. A.; Sun, Y.; Glascoe, L. G.; Lee, K.

2002-12-01

15

Aostra eyes commercial scale oilsands project  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (Aostra) has begun studying a commercial project for bitumen production using steam assisted gravity drainage techniques developed at its underground test facility (UTF) in northern Alberta. Aostra's project focuses on the Athabasca oilsands deposit. It uses paired horizontal wells with steam injected in one well and bitumen produced from the other. A proof of concept pilot phase at the UTF was completed last year that showed the technique is competitive with conventional bitumen recovery at a scale of 20,000-40,000 b/d. Aostra is producing 2,000 b/d in a demonstration phase.

Not Available

1992-08-31

16

Aspects of regional-scale flows in mountainous terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountaintop data from remote stations in the central Rocky Mountains have been used to analyze terrain-induced regional (meso-\\/beta\\/ to meso-\\/alpha\\/) scale circulation patterns. The circulation consists of a diurnally oscillating wind regime, varying between daytime inflow toward, and nocturnal outflow from, the highest terrain. Both individual case days and longer terms averages reveal these circulation characteristics. The persistence and broadscale

James E. Bossert; John D. Sheaffer; Elmar R. Reiter

1989-01-01

17

Mountains  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

Fuller, M.

1989-01-01

18

Transient mountain waves in an evolving synoptic-scale flow and their interaction with large scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of transient mountain waves and their impact on the large-scale flow are examined through idealized numerical simulations during the passage of a time-evolving synoptic-scale flow over an isolated 3D mountain of height h. The dynamically consistent synoptic-scale flow U accelerates and decelerates with a period of 50 h; the maximum wind arrives over the mountain at 25 h. The synoptic-scale static stability N is constant, so the time dependence of the nonlinearity parameter, epsilon(t) = Nh/U(t), is symmetric about a minimum value at 25 h. The evolution of the vertical profile of mountain-wave induced momentum flux and the cross-mountain drag shows substantial asymmetry about the mid-point of the cycle even though epsilon is symmetric. Larger downward momentum fluxes are found in the mid and upper troposphere when the cross-mountain flow is accelerating and this basic asymmetry can be understood through the WKB ray theory. For mountains high enough to preserve a moderate degree of nonlinearity when the incident flow is strongest, a higher drag state tends to form during the accelerating phase. The impact of transient mountain waves on the synoptic-scale flow is diagnosed through momentum budgets and the spatial flow response. It is found that domain-averaged deceleration can be induced solely due to transience even when no wave dissipation takes place. For the h = 1.5 km case, it is found that a broad region of flow deceleration exists far downstream of the mountain at 50 h which significantly slows down the 20 m s-1 jet of the synoptic-scale flow. It is also found that a large portion of the spatial response can be explained by potential vorticity (PV) dynamics. A "perfect" conventional gravity wave drag (GWD) parameterization is implemented based on the momentum flux distribution computed from the full nonlinear simulation. It is found that this parameterization scheme tends to produce much weaker spatial response and, more importantly, it fails to produce enough flow deceleration near the 20 m s-1 jet. It is suggested that the consideration of momentum re-distribution in association with the balanced response may be required for a better GWD parameterization.

Chen, Chih-Chieh

19

State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states. Semiannual progress report, July-December 1981  

SciTech Connect

The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. The period covered is July through December 1981. Background information is provided, program objectives and the technical approach used are discussed, and the benefits of the program are described. Prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are covered and findings and recommendations are summarized.

Lunis, B.C. (ed.)

1982-08-01

20

State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states. Semiannual progress report, January-July 1981  

SciTech Connect

The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. For each state (Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North and South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming), prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are also covered, and findings and recommendations are given for each state. Some background information about the program is provided. (LEW)

Lunis, B.C.; Toth, W.J. (comps.)

1982-05-01

21

14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain...HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR...Management § 136.35 Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky...

2013-01-01

22

A multidimensional set of rating scales for television commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uses attribute ratings and factor analysis as a method of multidimensional scaling to determine on what dimensions viewers can rate TV commercials. An initial pool of 525 words was reduced to a final set of 45 words by a series of steps designed to eliminate words that: (a) Ss do not spontaneously use, (b) do not discriminate among commercials, and

Clark Leavitt

1970-01-01

23

Estimating Scale Up Cost Factors for Commercial Jet Planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parametric scale-up cost factor study for commercial jets is presented. Three independent variables were used to correlate costs to the customer: maximum take-off weight, number of seats, and length of the plane. Scale-up cost factors for each of these variables are presented, based on data collected on 34 planes from the three largest manufacturers of commercial jet aircraft: Airbus,

Christopher P. Holcomb; Donald S. Remer

2004-01-01

24

Full-scale leaching study of commercial reactor waste forms  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a full-scale leaching experiment which has been conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to study the release of radionuclides from actual commercial reactor waste forms. While many studies characterizing the leaching behavior of simulated laboratory-scale waste forms have been performed, this program represents one of the first attempts in the United States to quantify activity releases for real, full-scale waste forms. 5 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

1984-01-01

25

Approaches to recreational landscape scaling of mountain resorts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the mountain resorts (MR) the climate and the landscape are natural medical resources which are very sensitive to anthropogenic influences [EGU2011-6740-3; EGU2012-6103]. Positive experience of the climatic and landscape treatment at the MR of the North Caucasus allowed us to establish fundamental interrelation between the quality of recreational landscapes (RL), climatic conditions and the efficiency of medical rehabilitation of people at the MR on the basis of rational use of natural medical resources. There have been registered the following bioclimatic distinctions and physiological responses with the recipients suffering from high disadaptation according to the results of the complex route medical and geophysical studies on the urban and park landscapes. We have defined hot discomfort at the open space of urban territory when the weather is extremely hot and anticyclone - the thermal balance (TB) is higher than +840 W/sq.m, extreme risk of solar erythema burn - UVI - higher than 11, the low content of natural anions - lower than 260 ion/cm3, high coefficient of ions unipolarity (CIU) - 2.16 and a high temperature of the underlying surface (asphalt) 46.40C. At the same time in the resort park of vegetable association Bétula péndula (50 years) TB was significantly lower - +480 W/sq.m, there was no risk of erythema burn (UVI 4), an optimum level of natural anions was 840 ion/cm3 and the value of CIU was 0.98, grass and soil temperature was + 290C and there was a favourable background of evaporating metabolites. At such favourable bioclimatic change the patients have been registered to have the voltage reduction of the vegetative index (from 640 to 380; N-150), the increase in efficiency of neurohumoral regulation (from 0.12 to 0.34; N 0,50), the decrease in spectrum excitability of brain activity in the range of waves: delta 0 … 0.4Hz by 16%, the increase in work activity of the brain in the range of waves: thetra 4 … 8 Hz, alpha 8 … 13 Hz. beta 13 … 19 Hz, gamma 19 … 25Hz by 9-17%; the increase in adaptation layer of the organism by 21% and a versatility indicator of health - by 19%; the decrease in systolic (from 145 to 131 mm of mercury) and diastolic (from 96 to 82 mm of mercury) arterial pressure, the increase in indicators of carpal dynamometry (on the right hand from 27 to 36 kg, on the left hand from 25 to 34 kg), the increase in speed of thermogenesis (from 0.0633 to 0.0944 K/s) and quality of neurovascular reactivity (from 48% to 81%). In the whole the patient`s cenesthesia has improved. We have also studied the responses of adaptive reactions with the recipients at other options of RL. But researches are still being carried out in this direction. Their results will be used as a base of RL scaling of North Caucasus mountain territories. This problem is interdisciplinary, multidimensional and deals with both medical and geophysical issues. The studies were performed by support of the Program "Basic Sciences for Medicine" and RFBR project No.10-05-01014_a.

Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaia, Nina; Slepih, Vladimir

2013-04-01

26

State geothermal commercialization programs in ten Rocky Mountain states. Semi-annual progress report, July-December 1979  

SciTech Connect

The activities and findings of the ten state teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Regional Hydrothermal Commercialization Program for the period are described. A summary of the state projects, compilation of project accomplishments, summary of findings, and a description of the major conclusions and recommendations are presented. Also included are chapters on the commercialization activities carried out by individual teams in each state: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New-Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. (MHR)

Griffith, J.L. (comp.)

1980-08-01

27

COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

28

Reconstructing Landscape-scale Tree Invasion Using Survey Notes in the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed landscape-scale invasions of openings in mountain forests by native tree species since EuroAmerican settlement\\u000a (ca. 1870–1899). We reconstructed historical openings across a 250,240 ha area in the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming, using\\u000a notes from the original General Land Office (GLO) surveys, and compared historical openings to modern openings interpreted\\u000a from digital aerial photography. We constructed logistic regression models to describe

Mark D. Andersen; William L. Baker

2006-01-01

29

A mountain-scale model for characterizing unsaturated flow and transport in fractured tuffs of Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a large-scale modeling study characterizing fluid flow and tracer transport in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed underground repository site for storing high-level radioactive waste. The modeling study is conducted using a three-dimensional numerical model, which incorporates a wide variety of field data and takes into account the coupled processes of flow and transport in Yucca Mountain's highly heterogeneous, unsaturated, fractured porous rock. The modeling approach is based on a dual-continuum formulation. Using different conceptual models of unsaturated flow, various scenarios of current and future climate conditions and their effects on the unsaturated zone are evaluated to aid in the assessment of the repository's system performance. These models are calibrated against field-measured data. Model-predicted flow and transport processes under current and future climates are discussed.

Wu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Guoping; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, G.S.

2003-07-18

30

a New Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model for Yucca Mountain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A saturated zone site scale flow model was developed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to incorporate new data and analyses including new stratigraphic and water level data from Nye County wells, single and multiple well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. New analyses include use of data from the 2004 transient Death Valley Regional (ground water) Flow System (DVRFS) model, the 2003 unsaturated zone flow model, and the latest hydrogeologic framework model (HFM). This model includes: (1) the latest understanding of SZ flow, (2) enhanced model validation and uncertainty analyses, (3) improved locations and definitions of fault zones, (4) refined grid resolution (500 to 250 m grid spacing), and (5) use of new data. The flow model was completed using the three dimensional, finite element heat and mass transfer computer code, FEHM V2.24. The SZ site scale flow model was calibrated with the commercial parameter estimation code, PEST to achieve a minimum difference between observed water levels and predicted water levels, and also between volumetric/mass flow rates along specific boundary segments as supplied by the DVRFS. 161 water level and head measurements with varied weights were used for calibration. A comparison between measured water level data and the potentiometric surface yielded an RMSE of 20.7 m (weighted RMSE of 8.8 m). The calibrated model was used to evaluate the impact of alternative models on flow paths and specific discharge predictions. Model confidence was built by comparing: (1) calculated to observed hydraulic heads, and (2) calibrated to measured permeabilities (and therefore specific discharge). In addition, flowpaths emanating from below the repository footprint are consistent with those inferred both from gradients of measured head and from independent water chemistry data. Uncertainties in the SZ site scale flow model were quantified because all uncertainty contributes to inaccuracy in system representation and response. Null space and solution space uncertainties were determined.

Eddebbarh, A.; James, S. C.; Doherty, J.; Zyvoloski, G.; Arnold, B. W.

2007-12-01

31

Modeling studies of mountain-scale radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

We investigate radionuclide transport from a high-level nuclear waste repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. Several radioactive solutes (that cover the range of sorption behavior) and colloids of various sizes are studied. The results of the study indicate the importance of the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The effects of the climatic conditions, diffusion, and sorption (for solutes) or infiltration (for colloids) onto the matrix are discussed. The influence of the colloid size on transport is also investigated.

Moridis, George J.; Seol, Yongkoo; Wu, Yu-Shu

2003-04-29

32

Work related injuries in small scale commercial fishing  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe the epidemiology of work related injury in a group of small scale, independent commercial fishers. Design: Cross sectional survey (baseline instrument of a prospective cohort study). Setting and subjects: Commercial fishers in eastern North Carolina. Results: A cohort of 219 commercial fishers was established and 215 subjects completed an injury questionnaire. The main types of fishing conducted by the cohort were finfishing (159/215) and crabbing (154/215). Of the 215 fishers, 83 reported that they had suffered an injury event in the previous 12 months, a retrospective recall incidence proportion of 38.6 per 100 workers (95% confidence interval 32.1 to 45.1). The 83 injury events resulted in 94 injuries; 47% were penetrating wounds and 24% were strains/sprains. Half of injuries were to the hand/wrist/digits and 13% were to the back. Of the penetrating wounds, 87% were to the hand/wrist/digits, 32% became infected, and 80% were caused by contact with finfish, shellfish, or other marine animal. Of the strains/sprains, 48% were to the back and 26% were to the shoulder. Seventy percent of strains/sprains were caused by moving heavy objects, mainly either while hauling in nets, pots, or lines or loading/unloading the boat. Conclusion: In this group of small scale, independent fishers, the most common reported injuries were penetrating wounds to the hand/wrist/digits from marine animals and strains/sprains to the back while moving heavy objects.

Marshall, S; Kucera, K; Loomis, D; McDonald, M; Lipscomb, H

2004-01-01

33

USING BROAD-SCALE METRICS TO DEVELOP INDICATORS OF WATERSHED VULNERABILITY IN THE OZARK MOUNTAINS (USA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple broad-scale landscape metrics were tested as potential indicators of total phosphorus (TP) concentration, total ammonia (TA) concentration, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria count, among 244 sub-watersheds in the Ozark Mountains (USA). Indicator models were develop...

34

Scaling issues and spatio-temporal variability in ecohydrological modeling on mountain topography: Methods for improving the VELMA model  

EPA Science Inventory

The interactions between vegetation and hydrology in mountainous terrain are difficult to represent in mathematical models. There are at least three primary reasons for this difficulty. First, expanding plot-scale measurements to the watershed scale requires finding the balance...

35

Engineering-scale vitrification of commercial high-level waste  

SciTech Connect

To date, technology for immobilizing commercial high-level waste (HLW) has been extensively developed, and two major demonstration projects have been completed, the Waste Solidification Engineering Prototypes (WSEP) Program and the Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project (NWVP). The feasibility of radioactive waste solidification was demonstrated in the WSEP program between 1966 and 1970 (McElroy et al. 1972) using simulated power-reactor waste composed of nonradioactive chemicals and HLW from spent, Hanford reactor fuel. Thirty-three engineering-scale canisters of solidified HLW were produced during the operations. In early 79, the NWVP demonstrated the vitrification of HLW from the processing of actual commercial nuclear fuel. This program consisted of two parts, (1) waste preparation and (2) vitrification by spray calcination and in-can melting. This report presents results from the NWVP.

Bonner, W.F.; Bjorklund, W.J.; Hanson, M.S.; Knowlton, D.E.

1980-04-01

36

Commercial scale irradiation for insect disinfestation preserves peach quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation is approved as a generic quarantine treatment by the US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Due to the effectiveness of irradiation in controlling insects on commodities, there is a growing need to understand the effects of low dose irradiation on fruit quality. The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity of peaches (Prunus persica) to irradiation, and secondly, to determine the effect of commercial scale treatment on shelf-life, overall quality and consumer liking. Six varieties of peaches were irradiated in small batches at 0.29, 0.49, 0.69 and 0.90 kGy to observe the sensitivity of peaches at different dose levels. Changes in quality were evaluated by 8 trained panelists using descriptive analysis. Sensory characteristics (color, smoothness, aroma, touch firmness, mouth firmness, graininess, overall flavor and off-flavor) were evaluated at 2-4 day intervals and untreated samples served as control. To simulate commercial treatment, peaches were irradiated in pallet quantities at a target dose level of 0.4 kGy. The average absorbed dose was 0.66 kGy with an average dose uniformity ratio of 1.57. Commercially treated peaches were evaluated by 40-80 untrained consumers for acceptability routinely throughout the shelf life. Titratable acidity, Brix, texture and weight loss were also monitored for both commercial and small scale irradiated peaches. There was no dose effect on TA, Brix and weight loss due to irradiation. Peaches irradiated at 0.69 and 0.90 kGy were darker in flesh color, more juicy and less firm as determined by the trained panel and analytical pressure tests. Commercial scale irradiation did not adversely affect shelf life but was seen to enhance ripening. This, however, was perceived as a positive change by consumers. Overall, consumers rated the acceptability of irradiated peaches higher than untreated peaches. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed models to find determinates of irradiation on peaches.

McDonald, Heather; McCulloch, Mary; Caporaso, Fred; Winborne, Ian; Oubichon, Michon; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

2012-06-01

37

The key to commercial-scale geological CO2 sequestration: Displaced fluid management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Wyoming State Geological Survey has completed a thorough inventory and prioritization of all Wyoming stratigraphic units and geologic sites capable of sequestering commercial quantities of CO2 (5-15 Mt CO 2/year). This multi-year study identified the Paleozoic Tensleep/Weber Sandstone and Madison Limestone (and stratigraphic equivalent units) as the leading clastic and carbonate reservoir candidates for commercial-scale geological CO2 sequestration in Wyoming. This conclusion was based on unit thickness, overlying low permeability lithofacies, reservoir storage and continuity properties, regional distribution patterns, formation fluid chemistry characteristics, and preliminary fluid-flow modeling. This study also identified the Rock Springs Uplift in southwestern Wyoming as the most promising geological CO2 sequestration site in Wyoming and probably in any Rocky Mountain basin. The results of the WSGS CO2 geological sequestration inventory led the agency and colleagues at the UW School of Energy Resources Carbon Management Institute (CMI) to collect available geologic, petrophysical, geochemical, and geophysical data on the Rock Springs Uplift, and to build a regional 3-D geologic framework model of the Uplift. From the results of these tasks and using the FutureGen protocol, the WSGS showed that on the Rock Springs Uplift, the Weber Sandstone has sufficient pore space to sequester 18 billion tons (Gt) of CO2, and the Madison Limestone has sufficient pore space to sequester 8 Gt of CO2. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Surdam, R. C.; Jiao, Z.; Stauffer, P.; Miller, T.

2011-01-01

38

Large-scale climatic patterns and area affected by mountain pine beetle in British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence of high spatial synchrony in an area affected by mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) across large distances in British Columbia, Canada, in a study of a spatially explicit database of an area affected by MPB-caused tree mortality for the period 1959–2002. We further show that large-scale climatic patterns (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and, to a lesser

Marc Macias Fauria; E. A. Johnson

2009-01-01

39

Analysis of Coupled Multiphase Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Mechanical Deformation at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A numerical simulation of coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transfer, and mechanical deformation was carried out to study coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test (DST) and for validation of a couple...

J. Rutqvist C. F. Tsang Y. Tsang

2005-01-01

40

Multi-scale field investigation of water flow pathways and residence times in mountainous catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "sky islands" of Arizona and New Mexico in the southwestern United States form a unique complex of about 27 mountain ranges whose ecosystems support many perennial and ephemeral streams in an arid climate. Among these sky islands are the Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson, AZ, with a peak elevation of 9157 ft at Mt. Lemmon. Sabino Canyon Creek is the main stream which runs on the south face of the mountain range. It usually flows from July through April with an average daily flow of approximately 0.28 m3/s (10 cfs). However, flash floods are common both during summer as a result of intense monsoon rains and during spring because of rapid snowmelt. During these events, flow increases rapidally, reaching peak flows up to 480 m3/s (16,000 cfs, July 2006). Characterizing water flow pathways and residence times in these complex catchments is important for improving flash flood warning systems, estimating mountain front recharge, managing forest and wild fires, and understanding ecosystem functions. In the summer of 2006, we set up an extensive hydrometrical and hydro-chemical monitoring network in Sabino Canyon Creek, comprising 40 tipping bucket rain gauges (two of which were equipped to automatically collect rainwater samples), 5 automatic surface water level stations (three of which were equipped with auto samplers), and 8 manual soil lysimeters. In addition, several rain and stream water grab samples were collected manually during intensive rain events. Water samples are analyzed for major ions and liquid water isotopic concentration (2H and 18O) in rain, soil, ground and surface water. The data allows for a detailed reconstruction of water flow pathways and residence times at 3 different catchment scales (2 km2, 8 km2, and 91 km2) during the recorded flow events, including the highest monsoon rainfall-runoff event ever recorded in these mountains.

Lyon, S. W.; Troch, P. A.; Desilets, S. E.

2006-12-01

41

A MOUNTAIN-SCALE 3-D NUMERICAL MODEL FOR CHARACTERIZING UNSATURATED FLOW AND TRANSPORT IN FRACTURED VOLCANIC ROCK AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional site-scale numerical model has been developed to simulate water and gas flow, heat transfer, and radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the American underground repository site for high level radioactive waste. The modeling approach is based on a mathematical formulation of coupled multiphase fluid and heat flow and tracer transport through porous and fractured

Yu-Shu Wu

2006-01-01

42

Full-Scale Schlieren Visualization of Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Aerodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficient removal of cooking effluents from commercial kitchens has been identified as the most pressing energy-related issue in the food service industry. A full-scale schlieren optical system with a 2.1x2.7m field-of-view, described at previous APS/DFD meetings, images the convective airflow associated with a typical gas-fired cooking griddle and ventilation hood. Previous attempts to visualize plumes from cooking equipment by smoke and neutrally-buoyant bubbles were not sufficiently keyed to thermal convection. Here, the point where the ventilation hood fails to capture the effluent plume is clearly visible, thus determining the boundary condition for a balanced ventilation system. Further, the strong influence of turbulent entrainment is seen in the behavior of the combustion products vented by the griddle and the interference caused by a makeup-air outlet located too close to the lip of the ventilation hood. Such applications of traditional fluid dynamics techniques and principles are believed to be important to the maturing of ventilation technology. (Research supported by EPRI and IFMA, Inc.)

Miller, J. D.; Settles, G. S.

1996-11-01

43

Sediment budgets of mountain catchments: Scale dependence and the influence of land-use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term sediment budgets of forested mountain catchments are scarcely investigated today. This is because they are traditionally expected to show few erosion features and low sediment delivery. This opinion originates from process-based hydrological studies proving the runoff preventing properties of trees and forest soils. In addition mountain areas have been colonized later and only sporadically compared to the fruitful loess-covered lowlands. On the other hand steep hillslopes, narrow valleys and the availability of regolith cause a high erosion potential. And there is evidence that historical floods and yearly occurring storms initiate intensive but local and sporadic erosion events. Sediment budgets from zero-order catchments of the Palatinate Forest in the south-western sandstone escarpment in Rhineland-Palatinate show spatially varying intensities of land use impact and relief conditions. The budgets are based on field data and a soilscape model of an upper periglacial cover bed with a homogenous thickness. OSL- and 14C-dates of colluvial deposits allow relating erosion events to land-use changes derived from historical maps and written archives. The presented case studies from the Palatinate Forest are of special interest as the high proximity to the loess-covered and intensively cultivated Rhine Graben effected settlement and land-use intensity in the mountain catchments. Clear cuts for settlements were joined by deforestation for agriculture and stretched mainly along the Haardtrand and high order valleys. Off these areas the strength of interference in the forest ecosystem depended on transport possibilities and distance to the Rhine Graben. In the vicinity strong devastation and clear cutting occurred. With increasing distance the felling intensity decreased and some parts seem to be nearly undisturbed until the 18th century. The needs for wood were controlled by the economical development as well as political decisions on local to European scale. The results from Palatinate Forest show that some of the cultural phases, which have been determined as main Holocene erosion phases in the Rhine Graben, did not extend to the mountain areas. The colluvial documentation of settlement history in small catchments directly connected to the Rhine Graben starts in the Neolithic Period but is not continual, while in those within the mountains colluvial layers older than modern times are missing. An inquiry of historical and modern storm events supports the requirements of local differentiation of sediment dynamics. On the meso-scale the sediment budget of the Speyerbach shows, that the output of the catchment is higher than the sedimentation within the catchment area. A diverse pattern occurs on the local scale: while the loess-covered subcatchments show a dominance of sedimentation, the steeper ones with narrow valleys shows an exceeding delivery to the output. As the latter ones are dominant in the Speyerbach catchment, the meso-scale catchment budget seems to be determined by the majority. Micro-scale diversity of land-use history therefore determines the sediment delivery rate of small mountain catchments and underlines the need for systematic archaeological research activities in mountain areas in Germany.

Förster, Helga; Dotterweich, Markus; Wunderlich, Jürgen

2010-05-01

44

Commercialization of large-scale CPV: what lies ahead?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot lies ahead. The reality is that CPV today shows a lot of promise - but it is yet to be established as a part of the solar market place never mind the energy market. This paper does not focus on the particular CPV technology being commercialized today but rather on the process of commercialization. My presentation will rely

Dave Holland

2008-01-01

45

Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain basin and range. Final technical report, January 1980-March 1981  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

Not Available

1981-07-01

46

Continuous Vacuum Foam Drying of Whole Milk Under Simulated Commercial Scale Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports studies that tested the technical feasibility of vacuum foam drying of whole milk under simulated commercial-scale production. The tests showed that the scale-up ratio from pilot to commercial size is valid and that the feed nozzle will deliver a smooth and continuous ribbon of foam to the belt at commercial rates. They also showed that the agitated-film,

N. C. Aceto; E. F. Schoppet; H. I. Sinnamon; C. C. Panzer

1972-01-01

47

The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model for Yucca Mountain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation provides a reinterpreted conceptual model of the Yucca Mountain site-scale flow system subject to all quality assurance procedures. The results are based on a numerical model of site-scale saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain, which is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. This effort started from the ground up with a revised and updated hydrogeologic framework model, which incorporates the latest lithology data, and increased grid resolution that better resolves the hydrogeologic framework, which was updated throughout the model domain. In addition, faults are much better represented using the 250× 250- m2 spacing (compared to the previous model's 500× 500-m2 spacing). Data collected since the previous model calibration effort have been included and they comprise all Nye County water-level data through Phase IV of their Early Warning Drilling Program. Target boundary fluxes are derived from the newest (2004) Death Valley Regional Flow System model from the US Geologic Survey. A consistent weighting scheme assigns importance to each measured water-level datum and boundary flux extracted from the regional model. The numerical model is calibrated by matching these weighted water level measurements and boundary fluxes using parameter estimation techniques, along with more informal comparisons of the model to hydrologic and geochemical information. The model software (hydrologic simulation code FEHM~v2.24 and parameter estimation software PEST~v5.5) and model setup facilitates efficient calibration of multiple conceptual models. Analyses evaluate the impact of these updates and additional data on the modeled potentiometric surface and the flowpaths emanating from below the repository. After examining the heads and permeabilities obtained from the calibrated models, we present particle pathways from the proposed repository and compare them to those from the previous model calibration. Specific discharge at a point 5~km from the repository is also examined and found to be within acceptable uncertainty. The results show that updated model yields a calibration with smaller residuals than the previous model revision while ensuring that flowpaths follow measured gradients and paths derived from hydrochemical analyses. This work was supported by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office as part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, which is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE AC04 94AL85000.

Al-Aziz, E.; James, S. C.; Arnold, B. W.; Zyvoloski, G. A.

2006-12-01

48

A Mountain-Scale Thermal Hydrologic Model for Simulating FluidFlow and Heat Transfer in Unsaturated Fractured Rock  

SciTech Connect

A multidimensional, mountain-scale, thermal-hydrologic (TH) numerical model is presented for investigating unsaturated flow behavior in response to decay heat from the radioactive waste repository in the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone (UZ), Nevada. The model, consisting of both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) representations of the UZ repository system, is based on the current repository design, drift layout, thermal loading scenario, and estimated current and future climate conditions. This mountain-scale TH model evaluates the coupled TH processes related to mountain-scale UZ flow. It also simulates the impact of radioactive waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including heat-driven processes occurring near and far away from the emplacement tunnels or drifts. The model simulations predict thermally perturbed liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature elevations, as well as the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes and drainage between drifts. These simulations provide mountain-scale thermally perturbed flow fields for assessing the repository performance under thermal loading conditions.

Wu, Yu-Shu; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson,Gudmundur S.

2005-05-25

49

A mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model for simulating fluid flow and heat transfer in unsaturated fractured rock.  

PubMed

A multidimensional, mountain-scale, thermal-hydrologic (TH) numerical model is presented for investigating unsaturated flow behavior in response to decay heat from the proposed radioactive waste repository in the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone (UZ), The model, consisting of both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) representations of the UZ repository system, is based on the current repository design, drift layout, thermal loading scenario, and estimated current and future climate conditions. This mountain-scale TH model evaluates the coupled TH processes related to mountain-scale UZ flow. It also simulates the impact of radioactive waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including heat-driven processes occurring near and far away from the emplacement tunnels or drifts. The model simulates predict thermally perturbed liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature elevations, as well as the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes and drainage between drifts. These simulations provide insights into mountain-scale thermally perturbed flow fields under thermal loading conditions. PMID:16624442

Wu, Yu-Shu; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, G S

2006-04-19

50

Commercial scale research and assessment of poultry welfare.  

PubMed

1. Commercial level research on poultry welfare is increasingly important because of the insight it gives into what improves welfare in the context of other important drivers such as human health, environmental impact and cost. 2. There are, however, a number of problems with conducting commercial level research - such as conflicts over aims, financial compensation and legal issues - that need to be addressed if the gains from commercial research are to be optimized. Cooperation between all parties and mutual understanding of the different priorities that may exist between industry and academia are essential. 3. Three important developments for the future are: the setting up of a 'data bank', the application of new statistical methods for analyzing data and new technology for assessing welfare automatically. PMID:22404799

Dawkins, Marian Stamp

2012-01-01

51

Deformation patterns and landscape evolution across scales: the (south-) central Alborz mountains, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highly disparate and diachronous character of tectonic deformation, sparse seismicity, and lack of empirical data pose a major challenge for a correct evaluation and the understanding of tectonic activity in the interior of continents. To overcome this dilemma, instrumental and historic records need to be integrated with millennial and long-term geological time scales. In addition, these environments require a joint evaluation of local studies and orogen-scale processes in order to compare and understand tectonic processes on different length and time scales. Located in the realm of the Eurasia-Arabia collision zone, the Alborz mountains of northern Iran are a zone of ongoing, yet spatially very disparate tectonic activity. Deformation in the orogen and adjacent regions is partitioned into left-lateral strike-slip faulting and thrusting. Earthquakes are randomly distributed in time and space and have moderate to high magnitudes. However, teleseismically recorded events show a higher record in the northern sector of the orogen. In agreement with this pattern, geomorphic proxies suggest higher rock-uplift rates, thus more pronounced tectonic activity in the north. Normalized channel steepness of major streams draining the Alborz mountains, is higher on north- than on south-draining channels. In contrast, total fault offsets are higher in the internal and southern sectors, and apatite fission-track thermochronology (Rezaeian, 2008), as well as the lithologic record of exhumation clearly reveal limited total exhumation in the northern sector. This suggests that the observed gradient in present-day rock-uplift rates is a relatively young tectonic signal and might reflect changes in orogenic boundary conditions. These observations may be reconciled by our structural and geomorphic studies in the south-central Alborz mountains, which reveal a complex tectonic history, involving changes in the regional shortening directions that may be related to changes in the tectonic stress regime. Fault kinematic analysis of major and minor faults in this area reveals early NW-oriented shortening associated with dextrally oblique thrusting, superseded by NE-oriented shortening, similar to the present-day. During this neotectonic regime, the reactivation of previously generated faults has resulted in a nascent transpressional duplex adjacent to the city of Tehran. In addition, the variable fault motions through time have left important, long-lasting imprints in the landscape, with inherited, tectonically overprinted and newly generated topographic features. Numerical fault-slip modelling using changing directions of largest horizontal stress (SHmax) shows that some faults are favorably oriented to accommodate the entire range of NW- to NE oriented directions of SHmax. The spatial coincidence of such faults with deeply exhumed areas indicates that fault-reactivation and subsequent interaction is a major cause of the observed deformation pattern in the south-central Alborz mountains. If, however, the change in the direction of SHmax temporally coincides with the shift in the focus of deformation towards northern sectors, cannot be resolved yet. Despite higher rock-uplift rates in the northern Alborz mountains, deformation is still ongoing in the southern range, attested by shortened Quaternary deposits and the historical record of destructive earthquakes on faults at the southern flank.

Landgraf, Angela; Ballato, Paolo; Strecker, Manfred R.; Friedrich, Anke M.; Zielke, Olaf; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Tabatabaei, Saeid H.; Shahpasandzadeh, Majid

2010-05-01

52

Effect of small-scale fractures on flow and transport processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Although many conceptual models for fracture-matrix interaction have been evaluated for Yucca Mountain site-characterization studies, the most widely used model is currently based on the dual-permeability concept. It was chosen for use in site-characterization partially because it has proved to be capable of matching many types of field observed data. Another consideration is that net infiltration rates at the site are estimated to be very low (on the order of millimeters/year), or close to saturated matrix hydraulic conductivity. Recent field studies and tests, in particular, fracture mapping data, collected along the walls of the underground tunnels reveal that there exists a significantly large variety in fracture sizes from centimeters to tens of meters. There is a considerable amount of small-scale fractures that have not been considered in the previous modeling studies. Although the majority of these small fractures may not contribute much to global flow and transport through the fracture-matrix system, they may provide large amounts of storage pore space and allow for additional connection areas for well-connected, large-scale fractures and surrounding matrix blocks, which ultimately affect fracture-matrix interactions. However, the currently used dual-permeability model is unable to include the potentially important effect of small fractures. To overcome the limitations of the dual-permeability approach, we have developed a triple-continuum conceptual model to investigate the impact of small-scale fractures on flow and transport processes in fractured rocks. This new conceptual model subdivides fractures into two types: large-scale and small-scale. Large-scale fractures are those responsible for global connections; small-scale fractures are those that provide large-fracture storage space and enhance the local connections to the matrix system without contributing to global flow or transport. Because the triple-continuum model is composed of the rock matrix and two types of fractures, it can be regarded as an extension of the traditional dual-permeability model. Using a generalized triple-continuum approach, the model formulation uses three parallel sets of conservation equations to describe flow and transport processes at each location of the system, for the two-fracture and one-matrix systems, respectively. The proposed triple-continuum model has been implemented using both analytical and numerical approaches and applied to field problems at Yucca Mountain. First we apply the new conceptual model to estimate model-related fracture-matrix parameters using field observation data and inverse modeling approach. Then we incorporate the estimated parameters to perform 3-D site-scale flow and transport simulations with the current hydrogeological model of Yucca Mountain. The 3-D modeling results with the triple-continuum model indicate that small fractures have significant impact on radionuclide transport in the UZ system, while their effects on flow and heat transfer are insignificant.

Wu, Yu-Shu; Liu, H.H.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

2002-12-05

53

Pilot-scale tests of tuff gravel flow diversion barriers for Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

This project conducts pilot-scale tests on potential sand/tuff gravel barrier designs and materials by measuring their hydraulic and barrier properties for use in modeling and final designs of possible diversion barriers at Yucca Mountain. The use of rubble composed of crushed paintbrush tuff (referred to as tuff gravel) in an engineered barrier around the waste packages can provide superior performance capabilities in a geologic repository located in the vadose zone. The effectiveness of unsaturated gravel as an hydraulic barrier to inflow of water from the surrounding environment is referred to by various names, e.g., diversion barrier, capillary barrier, or Richard`s barrier. A gravel barrier can also function as a diffusion barrier to the transport of ionic contaminants away from waste packages. Preliminary studies on tuff gravel and other gravel barriers have demonstrated their performance under a wide range of conditions anticipated in disposal scenarios.

Conca, J. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Apted, M.; Kessler, J. [INTERA Sciences, Denver, CO (United States); Kessler, J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

54

Modeling ground water flow in alluvial mountainous catchments on a watershed scale.  

PubMed

In large mountainous catchments, shallow unconfined alluvial aquifers play an important role in conveying subsurface runoff to the foreland. Their relatively small extent poses a serious problem for ground water flow models on the river basin scale. River basin scale models describing the entire water cycle are necessary in integrated water resources management and to study the impact of global climate change on ground water resources. Integrated regional-scale models must use a coarse, fixed discretization to keep computational demands low and to facilitate model coupling. This can lead to discrepancies between model discretization and the geometrical properties of natural systems. Here, an approach to overcome this discrepancy is discussed using the example of the German-Austrian Upper Danube catchment, where a coarse ground water flow model was developed using MODFLOW. The method developed uses a modified concept from a hydrological catchment drainage analysis in order to adapt the aquifer geometry such that it respects the numerical requirements of the chosen discretization, that is, the width and the thickness of cells as well as gradients and connectivity of the catchment. In order to show the efficiency of the developed method, it was tested and compared to a finely discretized ground water model of the Ammer subcatchment. The results of the analysis prove the applicability of the new approach and contribute to the idea of using physically based ground water models in large catchments. PMID:18459959

Wolf, Jens; Barthel, Roland; Braun, Jürgen

2008-05-02

55

Uncertainties in coupled thermal–hydrological processes associated with the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding thermally driven coupled hydrological, mechanical, and chemical processes in unsaturated fractured tuff is essential for evaluating the performance of the potential radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Drift Scale Test (DST), intended for acquiring such an understanding of these processes, has generated a huge volume of temperature and moisture redistribution data. Sophisticated thermal–hydrological (TH) conceptual models have

S. Mukhopadhyay; Y. W. Tsang

2003-01-01

56

A Stoma from the Scale of a Female Cone of Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A stoma from the scale of a female cone of Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca). Magnification = 6800x. Photosynthesis and respiration of male and female cones of Douglas-fir may have significant effects on whole-tree physiology.

Kevin Hultine (University of Idaho;Department of Forest Resources ADR;POSTAL)

2004-03-09

57

Tri-State Synfuels Project Commercial Scale Coal Test: Volume 1. Selection of Camp 1 Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report focuses on the rationale for selecting Camp 1 coal for a commercial scale gasification test conducted at the Sasol One Plant. The initial coal quality evaluation consisted primarily of The Pennsylvania State University coal data from Illinois ...

1982-01-01

58

Predicting Fiber Quality After Commercial Ginning Based on Fiber Obtained with Laboratory-Scale Gin Stands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is often useful, especially in research, to measure properties of cotton lint ginned from small seed cotton samples with small laboratory scale gin stands and use the results to estimate properties of lint after commercial ginning, but these gin stands differ from commercial gins which brings int...

59

The use of TOUGH2 for the LBL\\/USGS 3-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-dimensional site-scale numerical model o the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is under continuous development and calibration through a collaborative effort between Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km² and is bounded by major fault zones to the west (Solitario Canyon Fault), east (Bow Ridge

G. Bodvarsson; G. Chen; C. Haukwa; E. Kwicklis

1995-01-01

60

Destroying chemical wastes in commercial-scale incinerators. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were conducted at Zimpro, Inc., Rothschild, Wisconsin, to determine the effectiveness of wet air oxidation for destruction of two selected aqueous industrial wastes: coke plant waste and Amiben (herbicide) manufacturing waste. A pilot scale facility was tested for the coke plant waste with less than 6g\\/1 total solids and 5.5 g\\/1 Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), chemical compounds such as

J. W. Adams; N. J. Cunningham; J. C. Harris; P. L. Levins; J. L. Stauffer

1976-01-01

61

Thermohydrologic Modeling of the Drift Scale Test in Partially Saturated Fractured Tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of thermohydrologic modeling of the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain show good agreement with field temperatures and liquid phase saturation during the heating as well as the cooling phases of the test. The DST is an ongoing large-scale thermal field test conducted by the US Department of Energy as part of the characterization of Yucca Mountain as a potential site of a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. The test location is 250 m below the ground surface, in fractured nonlithophysal Topopah Spring tuff, which is one of the host-rock units for the potential repository. The DST is one of a series of field-scale thermohydrologic tests designed to help investigators better understand the coupled thermohydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes that would occur in the host rock in response to the radioactive heat of decay from emplaced waste packages. The tests also provide data for the calibration and validation of numerical models used to analyze the thermohydrologic response of the near-field host rock and Engineered Barrier System (EBS). The rock was heated by nine floor heaters, placed along a 47.5-meter long heated drift, and arrays of wing heaters installed in horizontal boreholes on either side of the drift. A bulkhead separates the HD from the unheated section of the drift. Peak heater power during the heating phase was about 52 kW for the floor heaters and 135 kW for the wing heaters. The rock was heated for 4.1 years before all heaters were turned off on January 14, 2002. Monitoring of the cool-down phase is expected to last for at least four years. Using the NUFT code and the dual-permeability approach to representing fracture-matrix interaction, we utilize a half-symmetry model to simulate the thermohydrologic response of the rock to a heating and cooling cycle. The primary goals of the analysis were to study the heat-flow mechanisms and water redistribution patterns in the boiling and sub-boiling zones, and to compare model results with measured temperature and liquid-phase saturation data, and thereby evaluate rock property data sets available for modeling thermohydrologic behavior in the rock. We use a sensitivity analysis to examine the effect of data uncertainty on the results. We obtained a good match between model and observed temperatures, and found that the distinct dryout and condensation zones modeled above and below the heater level agreed fairly well with neutron measurements of liquid-phase saturation.

Lee, K. H.; Buscheck, T. A.; Sun, Y.; Glascoe, L. G.; Gansemer, J.

2003-12-01

62

Large-scale climatic patterns and area affected by mountain pine beetle in British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present evidence of high spatial synchrony in an area affected by mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) across large distances in British Columbia, Canada, in a study of a spatially explicit database of an area affected by MPB-caused tree mortality for the period 1959-2002. We further show that large-scale climatic patterns (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and, to a lesser degree, Arctic Oscillation (AO)) are strongly related to the observed MPB synchrony, and that they probably operate through controlling the frequency of extreme cold winter temperatures that affect MPB larvae survival. A smaller portion of the data's variability is linked to the onset of the two largest outbreaks in the studied period and might be attributed to dispersal from outbreak-prone areas or else to differences in microhabitat (e.g., host availability) in these regions. The onset of a warm PDO phase in 1976 favored MPB outbreaks by reducing the occurrence of extremely low winter temperatures province-wide. Likewise, the exceptionally high and persistent AO values of the late 1980s and 1990s enhanced MPB activity in the southern and northern parts of the region. Summer warmth cannot be discarded as an important agent at smaller scales.

Macias Fauria, Marc; Johnson, E. A.

2009-03-01

63

Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final report, August 1, 1978-February 28, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The work accomplished from August 1978 to February 1980 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program are described. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams and special analyses in support of several federal agencies.

Marlin, J.M.; Cunniff, R.; McDevitt, P.; Nowotny, K.; O'Dea, P.

1981-01-01

64

Regional Operations Research Program for Commercialization of Geothermal Energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final Technical Report, January 1980--March 1981  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The scope of work is as described in New Mexico State University Proposal 80-20-207. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

None

1981-07-01

65

The use of TOUGH2 for the LBL/USGS 3-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The three-dimensional site-scale numerical model o the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is under continuous development and calibration through a collaborative effort between Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major fault zones to the west (Solitario Canyon Fault), east (Bow Ridge Fault) and perhaps to the north by an unconfirmed fault (Yucca Wash Fault). The model consists of about 5,000 grid blocks (elements) with nearly 20,000 connections between them; the grid was designed to represent the most prevalent geological and hydro-geological features of the site including major faults, and layering and bedding of the hydro-geological units. Submodels are used to investigate specific hypotheses and their importance before incorporation into the three-dimensional site-scale model. The primary objectives of the three-dimensional site-scale model are to: (1) quantify moisture, gas and heat flows in the ambient conditions at Yucca Mountain, (2) help in guiding the site-characterization effort (primarily by USGS) in terms of additional data needs and to identify regions of the mountain where sufficient data have been collected, and (3) provide a reliable model of Yucca Mountain that is validated by repeated predictions of conditions in new boreboles and the ESF and has therefore the confidence of the public and scientific community. The computer code TOUGH2 developed by K. Pruess at LBL was used along with the three-dimensional site-scale model to generate these results. In this paper, we also describe the three-dimensional site-scale model emphasizing the numerical grid development, and then show some results in terms of moisture, gas and heat flow.

Bodvarsson, G.; Chen, G.; Haukwa, C.; Kwicklis, E.

1995-12-31

66

Scale-dependent hydraulic conductivity of mountain glacial sediments and implications for shallow groundwater recharge and stream baseflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydraulic conductivity of shallow geologic material is a key control on water and nutrient cycling in mountain watersheds. Many high-elevation watersheds have a veneer of unconsolidated to semi-consolidated glacial sediments, which can serve as an important hydrologic pathway and water storage reservoir. This study utilized three different measurement techniques to characterize the saturated hydraulic conductivity of glacial till sediment across an alpine field site in the Snowy Range Mountains of southern Wyoming, USA. The measurements indicate that the conductivity ranges from approximately 0.05 to 5 m/d and is both spatially variable and scale dependent. The highest estimated conductivities were obtained with a double-ring infiltrometer that is strongly influenced by the coarse-grained fraction of the till. The lowest estimated conductivities were obtained with a mini-disk infiltrometer. The importance of accurately measuring hydraulic conductivity is demonstrated by considering water table fluctuations during snowmelt. A model that is parameterized with the lower, small-scale hydraulic conductivity will overestimate the potential for saturation-excess overland flow (rejected recharge) during peak snowmelt. Using a representative larger-scale hydraulic conductivity, model calculations indicate that the shallow subsurface has the capacity to accommodate all snowmelt. These results show that representative hydraulic conductivities measured at the appropriate scale are critical when quantifying groundwater recharge from snowmelt. This will support efforts to understand groundwater-surface water interaction and late season stream baseflow in mountain watersheds.

Houghton, T. B.; Ronayne, M. J.; Stednick, J. D.; Musselman, R. C.

2011-12-01

67

Seismological evidence for crustal-scale thrusting in the Zagros mountain belt (Iran)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crustal receiver functions (RFs) computed from the records of 45 temporary seismological stations installed on a 620-km-long profile across central Zagros provide the first direct evidence for crustal thickening in this mountain belt. Due to a rather short 14 km average station spacing, the migrated section computed from radial RFs displays the Moho depth variations across the belt with good spatial resolution. From the coast of the Persian Gulf to 25 km southwest of the Main Zagros Thrust (MZT), the Moho is almost horizontal with slight depth variations around 45 km. Crustal thickness then increases abruptly to a maximum of ~70 km beneath the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone, between 50 and 90 km northeast of the surface exposure of the MZT. Further northeast, the Moho depth decreases to ~42 km beneath the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage and the southern part of the Central Iranian microcontinent. The region of thickest crust is located ~75 km to the northeast of the Bouguer anomaly low at -220 mGals. Gravity modelling shows that the measured Moho depth variations can be reconciled with gravity observations by assuming that the crust of Zagros underthrusts the crust of central Iran along the MZT considered as a crustal-scale structure. This hypothesis is compatible with shortening estimates by balanced cross-sections of the Zagros folded belt, as well as with structural and petrological studies of the metamorphic Sanandaj-Sirjan zone.

Paul, Anne; Kaviani, Ayoub; Hatzfeld, Denis; Vergne, Jérôme; Mokhtari, Mohammad

2006-07-01

68

Large-scale effects of timber harvesting on stream systems in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA.  

PubMed

Using Basin Area Stream Survey (BASS) data from the United States Forest Service, we evaluated how timber harvesting influenced patterns of variation in physical stream features and regional fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages. Data were collected for three years (1990-1992) from six hydrologically variable streams in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA that were paired by management regime within three drainage basins. Specifically, we used multivariate techniques to partition variability in assemblage structure (taxonomic and trophic) that could be explained by timber harvesting, drainage basin differences, year-to-year variability, and their shared variance components. Most of the variation in fish assemblages was explained by drainage basin differences, and both basin and year-of-sampling influenced macroinvertebrate assemblages. All three factors modeled, including interactions between drainage basins and timber harvesting, influenced variability in physical stream features. Interactions between timber harvesting and drainage basins indicated that differences in physical stream features were important in determining the effects of logging within a basin. The lack of a logging effect on the biota contradicts predictions for these small, hydrologically variable streams. We believe this pattern is related to the large scale of this study and the high levels of natural variability in the streams. Alternatively, there may be time-specific effects we were unable to detect with our sampling design and analyses. PMID:11740625

Williams, Lance R; Taylor, Christopher M; Warren, Melvin L; Clingenpeel, J Alan

2002-01-01

69

Implication of mountain shading and topographic scaling on energy for snowmelt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many parts of the world, snowmelt energetics are dominated by incoming solar radiation. This is the case in the Canadian Rockies, where sunny winters result in high insolation. Solar irradiance on the snow surface is affected by the atmosphere, the slope and aspect of the immediate topography, and shading from surrounding terrain. Errors in estimating solar irradiation are cumulative over a season and can lead to large errors in snowmelt predictions. Adaptive triangular meshes, a type of unstructured triangular mesh that can adapt to fine-scale processes during model runtime, are more efficient in their use of DEM data than fixed grids when producing solar irradiance maps. An experimental design to calculate the effect of changes in DEM resolution on adaptive mesh irradiation calculations and implication for snowmelt is presented. As part of this experiment, the accuracy of these techniques is compared to measurements of mountain shadows and solar irradiance collected in Marmot Creek Research Basin, Alberta. Time-lapse digital cameras and networks of radiometers provide datasets for diagnosis of model accuracy. Further improvements in computational efficiency are achieved by taking advantage of parallel processing using graphical processing units (GPUs) is also discussed.

Marsh, C.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Spiteri, R.

2011-12-01

70

An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model For Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain site scale saturated zone transport model has been revised to incorporate the updated flow model based on a hydrogeologic framework model using the latest lithology data, increased grid resolution that better resolves the geology within the model domain, updated Kd distributions for radionuclides of interest, and updated retardation factor distributions for colloid filtration. The resulting numerical transport model is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. The transport model results are validated by comparing the model transport pathways with those derived from geochemical data, and by comparing the transit times from the repository footprint to the compliance boundary at the accessible environment with those derived from {sup 14}C-based age estimates. The transport model includes the processes of advection, dispersion, fracture flow, matrix diffusion, sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport. The transport of sorbing radionuclides in the aqueous phase is modeled as a linear, equilibrium process using the Kd model. The colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides is modeled using two approaches: the colloids with irreversibly embedded radionuclides undergo reversible filtration only, while the migration of radionuclides that reversibly sorb to colloids is modeled with modified values for sorption coefficient and matrix diffusion coefficients. Model breakthrough curves for various radionuclides at the compliance boundary are presented along with their sensitivity to various parameters.

S. Kelkar; H. Viswanathan; A. Eddebbarrh; M. Ding; P. Reimus; B. Robinson; B. Arnold; A. Meijer

2006-09-06

71

The site-scale saturated zone flow model for Yucca Mountain: calibration of different conceptual models and their impact on flow paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents several different conceptual models of the Large Hydraulic Gradient (LHG) region north of Yucca Mountain and describes the impact of those models on groundwater flow near the potential high-level repository site. The results are based on a numerical model of site-scale saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain. This model is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport

George Zyvoloski; Edward Kwicklis; Al Aziz Eddebbarh; Bill Arnold; Claudia Faunt; Bruce A. Robinson

2003-01-01

72

Coupled THM Simulations of the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) analysis of the Drift Scale Test (DST) conducted at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The DST is a large-scale, long-term thermal test designed to investigate coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical behavior in a fractured, welded tuff rock mass in support of nuclear waste isolation efforts. The model used for this analysis utilizes temperature distributions predicted by a thermal-hydrological code as input to a distinct element thermal mechanical code. This paper presents a brief discussion of the test and the coupled model, followed by comparison of predicted and measured displacements. Results show that the model predicts the trend and magnitude of the displacements observed in a cross section monitored in the test through four years of heating. Maximum principal stress levels of 60 MPa are predicted in the crown and floor of the heated drift (HD) after 4 years of heating. Comparison of predicted and observed displacements shows that the model closely predicts vertical displacement above the HD and provides a good estimate of horizontal displacement perpendicular to the HD. These results indicate that a thermal expansion coefficient of 9e-6/{Lambda}C is generally appropriate for the rockmass forming this test. Normal displacements on joints in the cross section examined here show opening of up to 2mm on subvertical fractures in regions above and below the HD after 4 years of heating. These fractures do not close upon cooldown, indicating that some permanent enhancement of vertical fracture permeability may occur.

Blair, S C; Carlson, S R; Lee, K; Wagoner, J L

2002-03-08

73

75 FR 32171 - American Electric Power Service Corporation's Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...consideration regarding the scope and content of the EIS; (4) invite...comments on the proposed scope and content of the EIS from all...areas, including impacts to smog and haze and impacts from dust...suggestions concerning the content of the EIS, issues and...

2010-06-07

74

Scaling up ecosystem productivity from patch to landscape: a case study of Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scaling up ecosystem processes from plots to landscapes is essential for understanding landscape structure and functioning\\u000a as well as for assessing ecological impacts of land use and climate change. This study illustrates an upscaling approach to\\u000a studying the spatiotemporal pattern of ecosystem processes in the Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve in northeastern China by\\u000a integrating simulation modeling, GIS, remote sensing data,

Na Zhang; Zhenliang Yu; Guirui Yu; Jianguo Wu

2007-01-01

75

Operational experience of a commercial scale plant of electron beam purification of flue gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A commercial scale plant using electron beam irradiation was constructed to clean the flue gas from a coal fired thermal power plant at Chengdu in China. Operations began in September 1997 and the plant achieved its design performance with the satisfactory recovery of by-product fertilizer for agricultural use. Another commercial plant is now under construction at Nagoya, Japan and the operation will be started in November, 1999.

Doi, Y.; Nakanishi, I.; Konno, Y.

2000-03-01

76

A MOUNTAIN-SCALE 3-D NUMERICAL MODEL FOR CHARACTERIZING UNSATURATED FLOW AND TRANSPORT IN FRACTURED VOLCANIC ROCK AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional site-scale numerical model has been developed to simulate water and gas flow, heat transfer, and radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the American underground repository site for high level radioactive waste. The modeling approach is based on a mathematical formulation of coupled multiphase fluid and heat flow and tracer transport through porous and fractured rock. This model is intended for use in predicting current and future conditions in the unsaturated zone, so as to aid in assessing the system performance of the repository. In particular, an integrated modeling methodology is discussed for integrating a wide variety of moisture, pneumatic, thermal, and isotopic geochemical data into comprehensive modeling analyses. The reliability and accuracy of the model predictions were the subject of a comprehensive model calibration study, in which the model was calibrated against measured data, including liquid saturation, water potential, and temperature. This study indicates that the model is able to reproduce the overall system behavior at Yucca Mountain with respect to moisture profiles, pneumatic pressure and chloride concentration variations in different geological units, and ambient geothermal conditions.

Yu-Shu Wu

2006-02-28

77

Validation of a German version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS28) and motivation analysis in competitive mountain runners.  

PubMed

This study validated a German version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS28) and investigated the sex-specific and age-related differences in motivation of competitive mountain runners. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the SMS28 was based on translation and back-translation methodology. Acceptable validity of the German version of the SMS28 was indicated by the high correlations (.81 to .98) of scores on the seven subscales for the English and German versions completed by 15 subjects. Motivation analysis was performed with 127 competitive male and female mountain runners. The seven subscales of the German version showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient alphas .70 to .85). Findings on motivation of competitive mountain runners were a decline across age groups of Intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment for both sexes and an age-related decline of External regulation only for females. These motivational changes might well be associated with the observed diminishing numbers of older participants in mountain running competitions. PMID:21853770

Burtscher, Johannes; Furtner, Marco; Sachse, Pierre; Burtscher, Martin

2011-06-01

78

Reach-Scale Channel Adjustments to Channel Network Geometry in Mountain Bedrock Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Channel network geometry (CNG) is a critical determinant of hydrological response and may significantly affect incision processes within the Appalachian Plateau near Richwood, West Virginia. The Williams, Cherry, and Cranberry Rivers share drainage divides and their lower reaches flow atop resistant, quartz-rich sandstones. The lower two-thirds of the Cranberry and Williams Rivers display linear profiles atop the sandstones; whereas the Cherry is concave upwards atop the sandstones. Because lithologies and geological structures are similar among the watersheds, we tested whether differences in CNGs explain the profile shapes and reach-scale channel properties. Specifically, we quantified CNG by calculating reach- specific area-distance functions using DEMs. The area-distance functions were then converted into synthetic hydrographs to model hydrological responses. The Cherry River exhibits a classic dendritic drainage pattern, producing peaked hydrographs and low interval transit times. The Cranberry River displays a trellis-like drainage pattern, which produces attenuated hydrographs and high interval transit times. The upstream reaches of the Williams River have a dendritic drainage pattern, but the lower two-thirds of the watershed transitions into an elongated basin with trellis-like CNG. Reach gradients are steeper in the lower reaches of the Williams and Cranberry Rivers where hydrographs are attenuated. In contrast, peaked hydrographs within the Cherry River are associated with lower reach gradients despite resistant sandstone channel beds. Trellis-like CNG may restrict the ability of downstream reaches within the Williams and Cranberry Rivers to achieve the critical discharge needed to cause incision during floods (all other things being equal). If so, increased reach gradients may be hydraulic adjustments that compensate for comparatively low discharges. We are now applying the synthetic hydrographs to HEC-RAS flow models generated from field channel surveys in order to analyze whether stream power and shear stress are adjusted to reflect CNG at the reach- scale. These models are compared to those with discharges calculated using drainage area and precipitation totals alone. We conclude that gradients in bedrock mountain streams may reflect basin-scale hydrology (CNG) and not simply local geological or geomorphic factors. This challenges the conclusions of others who ascribe local channel adjustments to: i) lithology and structure alone, or ii) local colluvium grain sizes.

Plitzuweit, S. J.; Springer, G. S.

2008-12-01

79

Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers.  

PubMed

An important challenge in geomorphology is the reconciliation of the high fluvial incision rates observed in tectonically active mountain ranges with the long-term preservation of significant mountain-range relief in ancient, tectonically inactive orogenic belts. River bedrock erosion and sediment transport are widely recognized to be the principal controls on the lifespan of mountain ranges. But the factors controlling the rate of erosion and the reasons why they seem to vary significantly as a function of tectonic activity remain controversial. Here we use computational simulations to show that the key to understanding variations in the rate of erosion between tectonically active and inactive mountain ranges may relate to a bidirectional coupling between bedrock river incision and landslides. Whereas fluvial incision steepens surrounding hillslopes and increases landslide frequency, landsliding affects fluvial erosion rates in two fundamentally distinct ways. On the one hand, large landslides overwhelm the river transport capacity and cause upstream build up of sediment that protects the river bed from further erosion. On the other hand, in delivering abrasive agents to the streams, landslides help accelerate fluvial erosion. Our models illustrate how this coupling has fundamentally different implications for rates of fluvial incision in active and inactive mountain ranges. The coupling therefore provides a plausible physical explanation for the preservation of significant mountain-range relief in old orogenic belts, up to several hundred million years after tectonic activity has effectively ceased. PMID:23803847

Egholm, David L; Knudsen, Mads F; Sandiford, Mike

2013-06-27

80

The evolution of a meso- ?-scale convective vortex in the Dabie mountain area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of a mesoscale convective system (MCS) that caused strong precipitation in the northern area of Dabie Mountain during 21-22 June 2008 is analyzed, along with the evolution of the associated meso- ?-scale convective vortex (MCV). The mesoscale reanalysis data generated by the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) at a 3-km horizontal resolution and a 1-h time resolution during the South China Heavy Rainfall Experiment (SCHeREX) were utilized. The results show that two processes played key roles in the enhancement of convective instability. First, the mesoscale low-level jet strengthened and shifted eastward, leading to the convergence of warm-wet airflow and increasing convective instability at middle and low levels. Second, the warm-wet airflow interacted with the cold airflow from the north, causing increased vertical vorticity in the vicinity of steeply sloping moist isentropic surfaces. The combined action of these two processes caused the MCS to shift progressively eastward. Condensation associated with the MCS released latent heat and formed a layer of large diabatic heating in the middle troposphere, increasing the potential vorticity below this layer. This increase in potential vorticity created favorable conditions for the development of a low-level vortex circulation. The vertical motion associated with this low-level vortex further promoted the development of convection, creating a positive feedback between the deep convection and the low-level vortex circulation. This feedback mechanism not only promoted the maturation of the MCS, but also played the primary role in the evolution of the MCV. The MCV formed and developed due to the enhancement of the positive feedback that accompanied the coming together of the center of the vortex and the center of the convection. The positive feedback peaked and the MCV matured when these two centers converged. The positive feedback weakened and the MCV began to decay as the two centers separated and diverged.

Xu, Wenhui; Ni, Yunqi; Wang, Xiaokang; Qiu, Xuexing

2012-10-01

81

Workshop on the Federal Role in the Commercialization of Large Scale Windmill Technology (summary and papers)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale wind system and windmill technology and prospects for commercial applications are discussed. Barriers that may affect the commerical viability of large-scale windmill systems are identified, including the relatively poor financial condition of much of the utility industry which effectively prevents many utilities from investing substantially in any new projects. The potential market addressed by the Federal program in large-scale windmill systems is examined. Some of the factors that may limit the degree of market penetration for wind energy systems are: costs of competing fossil and nuclear fuels and technologies; rate of acceptance of new technologies; and competition from other solar technologies, including biomass, solar thermal, and photovoltaic systems. Workshop participants agreed that existing Federal legislation provides significant incentives for the commercialization of large-scale wind machines.

Lerner, J. I.; Miller, G.

82

Multi-scale field investigation of water flow pathways and residence times in mountainous catchments during monsoon rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "sky islands" of Arizona and New Mexico in the southwestern United States form a unique complex of about 27 mountain ranges whose ecosystems support many perennial and ephemeral streams in an arid climate. Among these sky islands are the Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson, AZ, with a peak elevation of 9157 ft at Mt. Lemmon. Sabino Canyon Creek is the main stream which runs on the south face of the mountain range. It usually flows from July through April with an average daily flow of approximately 0.28 m3/s (10 cfs). However, flash floods are common both during summer as a result of intense monsoon rains and during spring because of rapid snowmelt. During these events, flow increases drastically, reaching peak flows up to 480 m3/s (15,984 cfs, July 2006). Characterizing water flow pathways and residence times in these complex catchments is important for improving flash flood warning systems, estimating mountain front recharge, managing forest and wild fires, and understanding ecosystem functions. In the summer of 2006, we set up an extensive hydrometrical and hydro- chemical monitoring network in Sabino Canyon Creek, comprising 40 tipping bucket rain gauges (two of which were equipped to automatically collect rainwater samples), 5 automatic surface water level stations (three of which were equipped with auto samplers), and 8 manual soil lysimeters. In addition, several rain and stream water grab samples were collected manually during intensive rain events. Water samples are analyzed for major ions and liquid water isotopic concentration (2H and 18O) in rain, soil, ground and surface water. The data allows for a detailed reconstruction of water flow pathways and residence times at 3 different catchment scales (2 km2, 8 km2, and 91 km2) during the recorded flow events, including the highest monsoon rainfall-runoff event ever recorded in these mountains.

Troch, P. A.; Lyon, S. W.; Desilets, S.

2007-05-01

83

Comparing denitrification rates and carbon sources in commercial scale upflow denitrification biological filters in aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic biological filtration systems employing nitrifying bacteria to remediate excess ammonia and nitrite concentrations are common components of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). However, significant water exchange may still be necessary to reduce nitrate concentrations to acceptable levels unless denitrification systems are included in the RAS design. This study evaluated the design of a full scale denitrification reactor in a commercial

H. J. Hamlin; J. T. Michaels; C. M. Beaulaton; W. F. Graham; W. Dutt; P. Steinbach; T. M. Losordo; K. K. Schrader; K. L. Main

2008-01-01

84

DEVELOPMENT OF BIOSAFETY LEVEL-2 COMMERCIAL-SCALE PROCESSING FACILITY AT ERRC FOR FOOD PATHOGEN RESEARCH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food safety microbiological research to improve existing technology or to develop new technology for eliminating and/or controlling a particular foodborne pathogen in a target food system is often conducted under laboratory conditions. Such research findings must be validated under commercial-scale...

85

Testing a dual-scale semi-distributed hydrological modelling approach in a small Mediterranean mountain catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Middle mountain areas in the Mediterranean have undergone a long lasting history of land use which frequently resulted in a patchy land cover. The complex land cover patterns and the marked seasonality of the climate are the major challenges for the hydrological modelling of Mediterranean mountain areas, which generate most of the water resources for the lowland populated areas. Research in the Vallcebre catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E) started over 20 years ago with the objective of better understanding the hydrological functioning of Mediterranean mountains. During this period, climatic data and hydrometric records at the outlet of the catchments have been complemented with the monitoring of distributed catchment internal fluxes and states, such as depth to the water table, soil moisture, forest rainfall interception and tree transpiration. Along with several exercises made with hydrological models of diverse degrees of complexity, the semi-distributed TOPBAL model has been implemented at the Can Vila catchment. TOPBAL has been developed within the semi-distributed structure of TOPMODEL on the basis of two drivers of hydrological similarity: topography and vegetation type. The model explicitly considers rainfall interception by vegetation, the control of semi-distributed soil moisture on evapotranspiration, and the two-way exchanges between the root-unsaturated semi-distributed stores and the phreatic store, which is unique for all the catchment as in TOPMODEL. Although the parameter parsimony of TOPMODEL has been followed as much as possible, the wealth of processes and, as a consequence, of parameters, has made convenient the development of a sub-model. PLOTBAL, a plot-scale MATLAB SIMULINK model, makes easier the interactive testing of diverse vegetation and soil parameters, the validation of model simulations with local data, and the simulation of plot-scale vegetation changes. First model results indicate that this modelling approach is adequate to cope with most of the difficulties associated to the modelling of Mediterranean mountain areas within the limitations of uncertainty in the observations.

Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar; Latron, Jérôme; Beven, Keith J.

2013-04-01

86

Quantifying Mountain Block Recharge by Means of Catchment-Scale Storage-Discharge Relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the hydrologic significance of mountainous catchments in providing freshwater resources, especially in semi-arid regions, little is known about key hydrological processes in these systems, such as mountain block recharge (MBR). We developed an empirical approach based on the storage sensitivity function introduced by Kirchner (2009) to develop storage-discharge relationships from stream flow analysis. We investigated sensitivity of MBR estimates to uncertainty in the derivation of the catchment storage-discharge relations. We implemented this technique in a semi-arid mountainous catchment in South-east Arizona, USA (the Marshall Gulch catchment in the Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson) with two distinct rainy seasons, winter frontal storms and summer monsoon separated by prolonged dry periods. Developing storage-discharge relation based on baseflow data in the dry period allowed quantifying change in fractured bedrock storage caused by MBR. Contribution of fractured bedrock to stream flow was confirmed using stable isotope data. Our results show that 1) incorporating scalable time steps to correct for stream flow measurement errors improves the model fit; 2) the quantile method is more suitable for stream flow data binning; 3) the choice of the regression model is more critical when the stage-discharge function is used to predict changes in bedrock storage beyond the maximum observed flow in the catchment and 4) application of daily versus hourly flow did not affect the storage-discharge relationship. This methodology allowed quantifying MBR using stream flow recession analysis from within the mountain system.

Ajami, H.; Troch, P. A.; Maddock, T.; Meixner, T.; Eastoe, C. J.

2009-12-01

87

Origin of mountains on Io by thrust faulting and large-scale mass movements  

PubMed

Voyager stereoimages of Euboea Montes, Io, indicate that this mountain formed when a large crustal block was uplifted 10.5 kilometers and tilted by approximately 6 degrees. Uplift triggered a massive slope failure on the northwest flank, forming one of the largest debris aprons in the solar system. This slope failure probably involved relatively unconsolidated layers totaling approximately 2 kilometers in thickness, overlying a rigid crust (or lithosphere) at least 11 kilometers thick. Mountain formation on Io may involve localized deep-rooted thrust faulting and block rotation, due to compression at depth induced during vertical recycling of Io's crust. PMID:9488645

Schenk; Bulmer

1998-03-01

88

Design of a three-dimensional site-scale model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed. This site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the east and west. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on location of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Different maps, such as contour maps and isopachs maps, are presented for the different infiltration zones, and for the base of the Tiva Canyon, the Paintbrush, and the Topopah Spring hydrogeological units.

Wittwer, C.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chornack, M.P.; Flint, A.L.; Lewis, B.D.; Spengler, R.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Flint, L.E. [Raytheon Services Nevada, Mercury, NV (United States); Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-01-01

89

Estimation of host rock thermal conductivities using thetemperature data from the drift-scale test at Yucca Mountain,Nevada  

SciTech Connect

A large volume of temperature data has been collected from a very large, underground heater test, the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The DST was designed to obtain thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical (THMC) data in the unsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain. Sophisticated numerical models have been developed to analyze the collected THMC data. In these analyses, thermal conductivities measured from core samples have been used as input parameters to the model. However, it was not known whether these core measurements represented the true field-scale thermal conductivity of the host rock. Realizing these difficulties, elaborate, computationally intensive geostatistical simulations have also been performed to obtain field-scale thermal conductivity of the host rock from the core measurements. In this paper, we use the temperature data from the DST as the input (instead of the measured core-scale thermal conductivity values) to develop an estimate of the field-scale thermal conductivity values. Assuming a conductive thermal regime, we develop an analytical solution for the temperature rise in the host rock of the DST; and using a nonlinear fitting routine, we obtain a best-fit estimate of field-scale thermal conductivity for the DST host rock. The temperature data collected from the DST shows clear evidence of two distinct thermal regimes: a zone below boiling (wet) and a zone above boiling (dry). We obtain estimates of thermal conductivity for both the wet and dry zones. We also analyze the sensitivity of these estimates to the input heating power of the DST.

Mukhopadhyay, Sumitra; Tsang, Y.W.

2003-11-25

90

Digital Simulaiion of a Commercial Scale High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Steam Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlinear dynamic model of a commercial scale high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) steam power plant was derived in state-space form from fundamental principles. The plant model is 40th order, time-invariant, deterministic and continuous-time. Numerical results were obtained by digital simulation. Steady-state performance of the nonlinear model was verified with plant heat balance data at 100, 75 and 50 percent

Asok Ray; H. Frederick Bowman

1978-01-01

91

Spatial genetic structure and dispersal of giant pandas on a mountain-range scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the spatial genetic structure of populations can provide insight into the ecological or evolutionary processes\\u000a of the species, and enable wise conservation decisions. We examined the spatial genetic structure of a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population in a heterogeneous mountainous landscape using noninvasive genetic sampling and 12 microsatellite loci. Nonrandom\\u000a genetic structure was detected through spatial autocorrelation analysis, demonstrating

Yibo Hu; Xiangjiang Zhan; Dunwu Qi; Fuwen Wei

2010-01-01

92

Management strategies for a large-scale mountain pine beetle outbreak: Modelling impacts on American martens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the effectiveness of alternative forest management strategies for maintaining American martens (Martes americana) in a sub-boreal landscape subject to an extensive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak, associated salvage logging, and climate change in north-central British Columbia, Canada. We structured the analysis in a Bayesian network (BN) meta-model that incorporated the results of spatially explicit modelling of landscape

J. Douglas Steventon; David K. Daust

2009-01-01

93

Moving beyond component research in mountain regions: Operationalizing systems integration at farm and landscape scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research in support of agricultural development and natural resource management in densely settled mountain ecosystems\\u000a continues to emphasize component over system-level goals. Research by plant breeders, foresters and animal scientists is generally\\u000a designed to maximize the yield of products within their particular area of expertise (edible plant parts, tree products and\\u000a livestock products, respectively), while soil scientists aim largely

Laura German

2006-01-01

94

Large-Scale Effects of Timber Harvesting on Stream Systems in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Basin Area Stream Survey (BASS) data from the United States Forest Service, we evaluated how timber harvesting influenced\\u000a patterns of variation in physical stream features and regional fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages. Data were collected\\u000a for three years (1990–1992) from six hydrologically variable streams in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA that were paired\\u000a by management regime within three drainage basins.

Lance R. Williams; Christopher M. Taylor; J. Alan Clingenpeel

2002-01-01

95

Multi-scale Analysis of Collaborative National Forest Planning Contexts in the Rural US Mountain West  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research analyzes regional and sub-regional contexts of the United States Mountain West where community-based forms of national forest planning are emerging to ameliorate conflict related to New West rural transformations characterized by high population growth and increasing service and amenity-based economies. A county-level typology is developed using cluster techniques applied to demographic, economic, and environmental indicators and a novel

Thomas W. Crawford; Randall K. Wilson

2005-01-01

96

Does scale matter? The costs of HIV-prevention interventions for commercial sex workers in India.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To explore how the scale of a project affects both the total costs and average costs of HIV prevention in India. METHODS: Economic cost data and measures of scale (coverage and service volume indicators for number of cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) referred, number of STIs treated, condoms distributed and contacts made with target groups) were collected from 17 interventions run by nongovernmental organizations aimed at commercial sex workers in southern India. Nonparametric methods and regression analyses were used to look at the relationship between total costs, unit costs and scale. FINDINGS: Coverage varied from 250 to 2008 sex workers. Annual costs ranged from US$ 11 274 to US$ 52 793. The median cost per sex worker reached was US$ 19.21 (range = US$ 10.00-51.00). The scale variables explain more than 50% of the variation in unit costs for all of the unit cost measures except cost per contact. Total costs and unit costs have non-linear relationships to scale. CONCLUSION: Average costs vary with the scale of the project. Estimates of resource requirements based on a constant average cost could underestimate or overestimate total costs. The results highlight the importance of improving scale-specific cost information for planning.

Guinness, Lorna; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Rajaraman, Bhuvaneswari; Sankaranarayanan, Girija; Vannela, Gangadhar; Raghupathi, P.; George, Alex

2005-01-01

97

Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.; Balsavich, J.

1992-01-01

98

Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

1992-05-01

99

Analysis of Coupled Multiphase Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Mechanical Deformation at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test  

SciTech Connect

A numerical simulation of coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transfer, and mechanical deformation was carried out to study coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test (DST) and for validation of a coupled THM numerical simulator. The ability of the numerical simulator to model relevant coupled THM processes at the DST was evaluated by comparison of numerical results to in situ measurements of temperature, water saturation, displacement, and fracture permeability. Of particular relevance for coupled THM processes are thermally induced rock-mass stress and deformations, with associated changes in fracture aperture and fractured rock permeability. Thermally induced rock-mass deformation and accompanying changes in fracture permeability were reasonably well predicted using a continuum elastic model, although some individual measurements of displacement and permeability indicate inelastic mechanical responses. It is concluded that fracture closure/opening caused by a change in thermally induced normal stress across fractures is an important mechanism for changes in intrinsic fracture permeability at the DST, whereas fracture shear dilation appears to be less significant. Observed and predicted maximum permeability changes at the DST are within one order of magnitude. These data are important for bounding model predictions of potential changes in rock-mass permeability at a future repository in Yucca Mountain.

J. Rutqvist; C.F. Tsang; Y. Tsang

2005-05-17

100

Coupled Analysis of Change in Fracture Permeability during the Cooling Phase of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results from a coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical analysis of thermally-induced permeability changes during heating and cooling of fractured volcanic rock at the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The analysis extends the previous analysis of the four-year heating phase to include newly available data from the subsequent four year cooling phase. The new analysis of the cooling phase shows that the measured changes in fracture permeability follows that of a thermo-hydro-elastic model on average, but at several locations the measured permeability indicates (inelastic) irreversible behavior. At the end of the cooling phase, the air-permeability had decreased at some locations (to as low as 0.2 of initial), whereas it had increased at other locations (to as high as 1.8 of initial). Our analysis shows that such irreversible changes in fracture permeability are consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). These data are important for bounding model predictions of potential thermally-induced changes in rock-mass permeability at a future repository at Yucca Mountain.

Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Tsang, Y.W.; Min, K.B.; Elsworth, D.

2008-06-01

101

State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain States. Semi-annual progress report, January-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

The following are included: a summary of the state projects, a summary of findings, public outreach, and a description of the major conclusions and recommendations. The commercialization activities carried out by the state teams are described for Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. (MHR)

Tuttle, J.; Coe, B.A.; Gertsch, W.D.; Meyer, R.T.

1980-12-01

102

Environmental variables interact across spatial scales to structure trichopteran assemblages in Ouachita Mountain rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important goal in aquatic ecology is to determine the interacting variables that regulate community structure; however,\\u000a complex biotic and abiotic interactions coupled with the significance of scale have confounded the interpretation of community\\u000a data. We evaluated stream and riparian habitat features in southeastern Oklahoma, USA at a range of spatial scales from local,\\u000a in-stream variables to large-scale, regional characteristics

Heather S. Galbraith; Caryn C. Vaughn; C. Kate Meier

2008-01-01

103

Preliminary safety evaluation of a commercial-scale krypton-85 encapsulation facility  

SciTech Connect

This report demonstrates that a commercial-scale facility for encapsulating krypton-85 in zeolite-5A or glass at a 2000 MTHM per year nuclear fuel reprocessing plant can be designed to contain fragments and the 340 to 850 kCi krypton-85 inventory from an assumed catastrophic failure of the high pressure vessel. The vessel failure was assumed as a worst case and was not based on a detailed design evaluation or operating experience. The process design is based on existing commercial hot isostatic pressing technology operated at up to 40 times the scale required for krypton encapsulation. From the calculated process gas inventory in the pressure vessel and vessel design, the explosive energy of 8.4 kg TNT and vessel plug and fragment velocities were calculated. The facility Containment Cell housing the high pressure vessel was designed to contain the gases, fragments, and the shock wave energy calculated for vessel failure. The Access Cell located directly above the Containment Cell was designed to be a tertiary confinement of krypton-85, should the access hatch be breached.

Christensen, A.B.; Tanner, J.E.; Knecht, D.A.

1980-09-01

104

Preliminary safety evaluation of a commercial-scale krypton-85 encapsulation facility  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates that a commercial-scale facility for encapsulating krypton-85 in zeolite-5A or glass at a 2000 MTHM per year nuclear fuel reprocessing plant can be designed to contain fragments and the 340 to 850 kCi krypton-85 inventory from an assumed catastrophic failure of the high pressure vessel. The vessel failure was assumed as a worst case and was not based on a detailed design evaluation or operating experience. The process design is based on existing commercial hot isostatic pressing technology operated at up to 40 times the scale required for krypton encapsulation. From the calculated process gas inventory in the pressure vessel and vessel design, the maximum explosive energy of 8.4 kg TNT and resulting vessel plug and fragment velocities were calculated. The facility Containment Cell housing the high pressure vessel was designed to contain the gases, fragments, and the shock wave energy calculated for a hypothetical vessel failure. The Access Cell located directly above the Containment Cell was designed to be a tertiary confinement of krypton-85, should the access hatch be breached. 3 figures, 2 tables.

Christensen, A.B.; Tanner, J.E.; Knecht, D.A.

1980-01-01

105

Regional-scale analysis of high-mountain multi-hazard and risk in the Pamir (Tajikistan) with GRASS GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model framework for the regional-scale analysis of high-mountain multi-hazard and -risk, implemented with the Open Source software package GRASS GIS. This framework is applied to a 98 300 km2 study area centred in the Pamir (Tajikistan). It includes (i) rock slides, (ii) ice avalanches, (iii) periglacial debris flows, and (iv) lake outburst floods. First, a hazard indication score is assigned to each relevant object (steep rock face, glacier or periglacial slope, lake). This score depends on the susceptibility and on the expected event magnitude. Second, the possible travel distances, impact areas and, consequently, impact hazard indication scores for all types of processes are computed using empirical relationships. These scores are finally superimposed with an exposure score derived from the type of land use, resulting in a raster map of risk indication scores finally discretized at the community level. The analysis results are presented and discussed at different spatial scales. The major outcome of the study, a set of comprehensive regional-scale hazard and risk indication maps, shall represent an objective basis for the prioritization of target communities for further research and risk mitigation measures.

Gruber, F. E.; Mergili, M.

2013-04-01

106

Transport of radon gas into a tunnel at Yucca Mountain—estimating large-scale fractured tuff hydraulic properties and implications for the operation of the ventilation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon gas concentrations have been monitored as part of the operation of a tunnel (the Exploratory Studies Facility—ESF) at Yucca Mountain to ensure worker safety. The objective of this study was to examine the potential use of the radon data to estimate large-scale formation properties of fractured tuffs. This objective was examined by developing a numerical model, based upon the

André Unger; Stefan Finsterle; Gudmundur Bodvarsson

2004-01-01

107

A quantitative approach to conservation planning: using resource selection functions to map the distribution of mountain caribou at multiple spatial scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Visualizing the distribution of rare or threatened species is necessary for effective implementation of conservation initiatives. Generalized linear models and geographical information systems (GIS) are now powerful tools for conservation planning, but issues of data availability, scale and model extrapolation complicate some applications. 2. Mountain caribou are an endangered ecotype of woodland caribou Rangifer tarandus caribou that occurs

Chris J. Johnson; Dale R. Seip; Mark S. Boyce

2004-01-01

108

Large-scale in situ heater tests for hydrothermal characterization at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

To safely and permanently store high-level nuclear waste, the potential Yucca Mountain repository site must mitigate the release and transport of radionuclides for tens of thousands of years. In the failure scenario of greatest concern, water would contact a waste package, accelerate its failure rate, and eventually transport radionuclides to the water table. Our analyses indicate that the ambient hydrological system will be dominated by repository-heat-driven hydrothermal flow for tens of thousands of years. In situ heater tests are required to provide an understanding of coupled geomechanical-hydrothermal-geochemical behavior in the engineered and natural barriers under repository thermal loading conditions. In situ heater tests have been included in the Site Characterization Plan in response to regulatory requirements for site characterization and to support the validation of process models required to assess the total systems performance at the site. Because of limited time, some of the in situ tests will have to be accelerated relative to actual thermal loading conditions. We examine the trade-offs between the limited test duration and generating hydrothermal conditions applicable to repository performance during the entire thermal loading cycle, including heating (boiling and dry-out) and cooldown (re-wetting). For in situ heater tests to be applicable to actual repository conditions, a minimum heater test duration of 6-7 yr (including 4 yr of full-power heating) is required.

Buscheck, T.A.; Wilder, D.G.; Nitao, J.J.

1993-01-01

109

Environmental Assessment of the BX in-Situ Oil Shale Project and Potential Commercial Scale Development. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a summary of the observed effects of the pilot scale BX in-situ oil shale project on the local environment. It also provides an estimate of potential impacts on the environment from a conceptual 10,000 bbl/day commercial scale operati...

T. J. Gardiner M. Donovan R. Hafele

1985-01-01

110

DNA barcoding at riverscape scales: assessing biodiversity among fishes of the genus Cottus (Teleostei) in northern Rocky Mountain streams.  

PubMed

There is growing interest in broad-scale biodiversity assessments that can serve as benchmarks for identifying ecological change. Genetic tools have been used for such assessments for decades, but spatial sampling considerations have largely been ignored. Here, we demonstrate how intensive sampling efforts across a large geographical scale can influence identification of taxonomic units. We used sequences of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b, analysed with maximum parsimony networks, maximum-likelihood trees and genetic distance thresholds, as indicators of biodiversity and species identity among the taxonomically challenging fishes of the genus Cottus in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Analyses of concatenated sequences from fish collected in all major watersheds of this area revealed eight groups with species-level differences that were also geographically circumscribed. Only two of these groups, however, were assigned to recognized species, and these two assignments resulted in intraspecific genetic variation (>2.0%) regarded as atypical for individual species. An incomplete inventory of individuals from throughout the geographical ranges of many species represented in public databases, as well as sample misidentification and a poorly developed taxonomy, may have hampered species assignment and discovery. We suspect that genetic assessments based on spatially robust sampling designs will reveal previously unrecognized biodiversity in many other taxa. PMID:23496857

Young, Michael K; McKelvey, Kevin S; Pilgrim, Kristine L; Schwartz, Michael K

2013-03-16

111

CVD scaled up for commercial production of bulk SiC  

SciTech Connect

A recent development at Morton International's Advanced Materials group is having a revolutionary impact on the materials world. The firm has successfully scaled production of bulk, cubic ([beta]), chemically vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) to support commercial requirements. To date, they have produced free standing CVD SiC substrates in sheets up to 60 in. across and over one inch thick. The material can also be grown as smaller near-net-shape parts in many different popular geometries. The parts produced by the process are monolithic. Commercially known as CVD SILICON CARBIDE, the material is single phase, theoretically dense, and 99.999% pure, [beta]-SiC. These characteristics lead to superior product attributes such as high values of hardness, flexural strength, and thermal conductivity. Additionally, the product has demonstrated superior oxidation resistance, and polishability. Several markets have shown an interest in the material including: optics, wear parts, information storage, and electronic packaging. Other applications for the material are emerging on what seems like a daily basis.

Not Available

1993-03-01

112

Scale Dependencies of Vegetation and Topography in a Mountainous Environment of Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the effects of spatial scale on estimating the relationship between vegetation biomass and topography within a portion of Glacier National Park, Montana. The Reflectance\\/Absorptance vegetation index, developed from processed Landsat Thematic Mapper digital data, is related to three topographic variables obtained through processed Digital Elevation Models: elevation, slope angle, and slope aspect. R values between the vegetation

Ling Bian; Stephen J. Walsh

1993-01-01

113

Spatial scale affects bioclimate model projections of climate change impacts on mountain plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant species have responded to recent increases in global temperatures by shifting their geographical ranges poleward and to higher altitudes. Bioclimate models project future range contractions of montane species as suitable climate space shifts uphill. The species-climate relationships underlying such models are calibrated using data at either 'macro' scales (coarse resolution, e.g. 50 km ? 50 km, and large spatial

MANDAR R. T RIVEDI; MELA M. B ERRY; M I C H A E L D. M O R E C R O F Tz; TERENCE P. D A W

114

Modeling Watershed-Scale Surface Water - Groundwater Interactions in Mountain Meadows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow processes in mountain meadows are being investigated using a coupled surface water - groundwater flow model of a Sierra Nevada watershed. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model GSFLOW (Markstrom et al., 2008), an integration of the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW), is being utilized for this effort. This model facilitates representation of complex surface-water flow processes important for understanding meadow hydrology, such as snow-melt and soil-water dynamics, as well as groundwater flow processes. The Sagehen Creek watershed, located on the east slope of the northern Sierra Nevada near Truckee, California, USA, has been selected as the basis for the model configuration. Considerable watershed information is available from studies conducted at the Sagehen Creek Field Station and Experimental Forest, and an existing GSFLOW model for the area (Markstrom et al., 2008). The domain of the previously constructed Sagehen GSFLOW model was extended 4 km downstream increasing the modeled watershed area from 27 km2 to 37 km2. This moved the simulated watershed outlet well below the meadows of interest, allowing for assessment of upstream and downstream effects of meadow restoration on streamflow. Model discretization was decreased from 90 m to 30 m to allow for increased spatial resolution in the meadows. Layer discretization was increased from 2 to 5 layers to facilitate representation of meadow stratigraphy. The increased vertical discretization resulted in considerable drying and rewetting of model cells requiring the use of the recently developed Newton formulation for MODFLOW-2005 (Niswonger et al., 2011). The model is being used to analyze the potential effects of geomorphic channel restoration on meadow groundwater discharge to streams under varying hydrologic conditions. Of specific interest is the role of low-permeability meadow strata in regulating discharge to streams, and the effects of erosional breaching and restoration of these layers. Markstrom et al., 2008, U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-D1, 240 p. Niswonger et al., 2011, U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A37, 44 p.

Essaid, H.; Hill, B. R.

2011-12-01

115

Hydrological Impacts of Land Use Change in the Central Appalachian Mountains, U.S.: A Multi-Scale Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying, understanding, and predicting the hydrological impacts of land use changes and land management practices are important objectives of both the academic hydrologist and the civil engineer. Relationships between stormflow response and land use have been most readily observed at small spatial scales (e.g., hillslopes, small experimental watersheds), but have proved difficult to establish in larger basins where (1) high-resolution precipitation data are usually unavailable, (2) land use patterns are often exceedingly complex, and (3) land use changes are essentially uncontrolled. In the Central Appalachian Mountains of the U.S., conversion of forests to mined lands (through devegetation, excavation of overburden and coal deposits, and subsequent reclamation) is the dominant land use change presently occurring. In the Georges Creek basin in western Maryland, for example, the portion of the watershed classified as mined (including active, reclaimed, and abandoned surface mines) increased from 3.8 to 15.5% from 1962 to 1997; modest urbanization of the basin (2.4 to 4.7%) also occurred during this period. In 1999, we initiated a comparative field study to determine if surface coal-mining and subsequent land reclamation practices affect stormflow responses at multiple spatial scales: (1) plot, (2) small watershed, and (3) river basin scales. Results from the plot-scale experiments suggested that soil infiltration capacity is grossly reduced during mining and reclamation, apparently due to loss of forest litter and soil compaction by heavy machinery. At the small watershed (<25 ha) scale, a comparative analysis of a pair of gaged watersheds indicated that conventional methods of surface mining and reclamation can increase peak stormflow, total storm runoff, and storm runoff coefficient by about 250% relative to similar forested watersheds in the same region. Finally, frequency analysis of long-term runoff data from the larger, extensively-mined Georges Creek (area = 127 sq. km.) and predominantly-forested Savage River (area = 188 sq. km.) watersheds in western Maryland was unable to establish a comparable land use effect on stormflow response, due to inherent climatic variability. Such an effect was suggested, however, when high-resolution, gage-adjusted rainfall data generated from NEXRAD (NEXt generation weather RADar; WSR-88D) radars were employed for developing unit hydrographs for specific extreme events. Inadequacies in spatial rainfall estimation thus appear to be a major limiting factor in scaling changes in observed stormflow responses from small experimental watersheds to larger river basins undergoing extensive land use changes. We conclude that land use change effects in gaged river basins can be discerned if flood hydrographs are interpreted using accurate, areal precipitation data.

Eshleman, K. N.; Negley, T. L.; Townsend, P. A.

2003-12-01

116

Ecological niche modeling of the sympatric giant and red pandas on a mountain-range scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat use and separation between the two sympatric species, the giant panda and the red panda, have been primary causes\\u000a of coexistence at the fine scale. In this paper, we addressed the question of coexistence between species in space. By Ecological\\u000a Niche Factor Analysis, we calculated species-specific habitat requirements, built habitat suitability maps and examined interspecific\\u000a differences in spatial niche

Dunwu Qi; Yibo Hu; Xiaodong Gu; Ming Li; Fuwen Wei

2009-01-01

117

Small-scale upper mantle convection and orogeny of Tianshan Mountains in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, from the travel time data recorded in the Tianshan passive seismic array experiment, we present the P-wave\\u000a velocity structure of the upper mantle down to 660 km along the Kuqa-Kuitun profile in terms of seismic tomography technique.\\u000a Based on the P-wave velocity model, we derive the corresponding 2D upper mantle density model. The 2D small-scale convection\\u000a of

Jie Liu; QiYuan Liu; Biao Guo; HuiZhen Song

2007-01-01

118

Small-scale convection in the upper mantle beneath the Chinese Tian Shan Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale convection of the upper mantle beneath the Chinese Tian Shan (Tien Shan) is investigated by numerical modelling. To describe the flow of the heterogeneous upper mantle, the finite element method combined with the marker-in-cell technique is employed. The density model is derived from the P-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle along the Kuche-Kuitun profile across the

Jie Liu; Qi-Yuan Liu; Biao Guo; David A. Yuen; Hui-Zhen Song

119

Small-scale convection in the upper mantle beneath the Chinese Tian Shan Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale convection of the upper mantle beneath the Chinese Tian Shan (Tien Shan) is investigated in terms of numerical modeling. The finite element method combined with the marker-in-cell technique is used to describe the flow of the heterogeneous upper mantle. The density model is derived from the P-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle along the Kuche–Kuitun profile

Jie Liu; Qi-Yuan Liu; Biao Guo; David A. Yuen; Hui-Zhen Song

2007-01-01

120

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Ak Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOITM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this reporting period, DOE accepted the recommendation to continue with dimethyl ether (DME) design verification testing (DVT). DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stzibility is being developed. Planning for a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) was recommended. DOE issued a letter dated 31 July 1997 accepting the recommendation to continue design verification testing. In order to allow for scale-up of the manufacturing technique for the dehydration catalyst from the pilot plant to the commercial scale, the time required to produce the catalyst to the AFDU has slipped. The new estimated delivery date is 01 June 1998.

None

1997-09-30

121

Design and Fabrication of the First Commercial-Scale Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHT) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert synthesis gas (syngas), primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, to methanol. Because of its superior heat management the process can utilize directly the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks. The LPMEOHM Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P., a partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Eastman Chemical Company, to produce methanol from coal-derived syngas. Construction of the LPMEOH~ Process Demonstration Plant at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport was completed in January 1997. Following commissioning and shakedown activities, the fwst production of methanol from the facility occurred on April 2, 1997. Nameplate capacity of 260 short tons per day (TPD) was achieved on April 6, 1997, and production rates have exceeded 300 TPD of methanol at times. This report describes the design, fabrication, and installation of the Kingsport LPMEOEFM reactor, which is the first commercial-scale LPMEOEPM reaetor ever built. The vessel is 7.5 feet in diameter and 70 feet tall with design conditions of 1000 psig at 600 `F. These dimensions represent a significant scale-up from prior experience at the DOE-owned Alternative Fuels Development Unit in LaPorte, Texas, where 18-inch and 22-inch diameter reactors have been tested successfidly over thousands of hours. The biggest obstacles discovered during the scale- up, however, were encountered during fabrication of the vessel. The lessons learned during this process must be considered in tailoring the design for future sites, where the reactor dimensions may grow by yet another factor of two.

None

1998-12-21

122

Mountaineer’s heel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountaineers are at risk of skin lesions caused by constant boot friction. This is the case of a 35 year old mountaineer who presented with large and deeply ulcerated lesions over the medial aspects of both heels after a two and a half day climb using crampons. A number of factors such as the length of the climb in cold

R M Strauss

2004-01-01

123

Droughts and broad-scale climate variability reflected by temperature-sensitive tree growth in the Qinling Mountains, central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between temperature and drought was investigated using the temperature-sensitive growth of Larix chinensis Beissn in the Qinling Mountains, central China. Extremely high tree-ring width index values (TRWI) agreed well with dry conditions defined by the dryness-wetness index (DWI) obtained from data in Chinese historical documents and climate-related papers between 1814 and 1956 (before the short of instrumental measurements); the reverse applied to extremely low TRWI values. The main severe drought epochs occurred from the late 1850s to the 1870s, the 1920s to 1930s and in the 2000s, whereas wet spells occurred from 1817-1827 and 1881-1886. The droughts in the 2000s exhibited a similar pattern as the ones from the 1920s to 1930s, with obviously an increasing temperature. The variation of tree growth agreed well with other reconstructed temperature series from nearby and remote regions, suggesting that Larix chinensis could respond to broad-scale climate variability. The longest cold interval, 1817-1827, could be associated with the influence of the Tambora eruption in 1815.

Liu, Na; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Qi; Bao, Guang

2013-01-01

124

Droughts and broad-scale climate variability reflected by temperature-sensitive tree growth in the Qinling Mountains, central China.  

PubMed

The relationship between temperature and drought was investigated using the temperature-sensitive growth of Larix chinensis Beissn in the Qinling Mountains, central China. Extremely high tree-ring width index values (TRWI) agreed well with dry conditions defined by the dryness-wetness index (DWI) obtained from data in Chinese historical documents and climate-related papers between 1814 and 1956 (before the short of instrumental measurements); the reverse applied to extremely low TRWI values. The main severe drought epochs occurred from the late 1850s to the 1870s, the 1920s to 1930s and in the 2000s, whereas wet spells occurred from 1817-1827 and 1881-1886. The droughts in the 2000s exhibited a similar pattern as the ones from the 1920s to 1930s, with obviously an increasing temperature. The variation of tree growth agreed well with other reconstructed temperature series from nearby and remote regions, suggesting that Larix chinensis could respond to broad-scale climate variability. The longest cold interval, 1817-1827, could be associated with the influence of the Tambora eruption in 1815. PMID:22527758

Liu, Na; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Qi; Bao, Guang

2012-04-21

125

Iceberg calving as a primary source of regional-scale glacier-generated seismicity in the St. Elias Mountains, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the installation of the Alaska Regional Seismic Network in the 1970s, data analysts have noted nontectonic seismic events thought to be related to glacier dynamics. While loose associations with the glaciers of the St. Elias Mountains have been made, no detailed study of the source locations has been undertaken. We performed a two-step investigation surrounding these events, beginning with manual locations that guided an automated detection and event sifting routine. Results from the manual investigation highlight characteristics of the seismic waveforms including single-peaked (narrowband) spectra, emergent onsets, lack of distinct phase arrivals, and a predominant cluster of locations near the calving termini of several neighboring tidewater glaciers. Through these locations, comparison with previous work, analyses of waveform characteristics, frequency-magnitude statistics and temporal patterns in seismicity, we suggest calving as a source for the seismicity. Statistical properties and time series analysis of the event catalog suggest a scale-invariant process that has no single or simple forcing. These results support the idea that calving is often a response to short-lived or localized stress perturbations. Our results demonstrate the utility of passive seismic instrumentation to monitor relative changes in the rate and magnitude of iceberg calving at tidewater glaciers that may be volatile or susceptible to ensuing rapid retreat, especially when existing seismic infrastructure can be used.

O'Neel, Shad; Larsen, Christopher F.; Rupert, Natalia; Hansen, Roger

2010-12-01

126

CFD modeling of commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Optimization of an advanced coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle system requires an accurate numerical prediction of gasifier performance. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to model the turbulent multiphase reacting flow inside commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers. Due to the complexity of the physical and chemical processes involved, the accuracy of sub-models requires further improvement. Built upon a previously developed CFD model for entrained-flow gasification, the advanced physical and chemical sub-models presented in this paper include a moisture vaporization model with consideration of high mass transfer rate and a coal devolatilization model with more species to represent coal volatiles and the heating rate effect on volatile yield. The global gas phase reaction kinetics is also carefully selected. To predict a reasonable peak temperature of the coal/O{sub 2} flame inside an entrained-flow gasifier, the reserve reaction of H{sub 2} oxidation is included in the gas phase reaction model. The enhanced CFD model is applied to simulate two typical commercial-scale oxygen-blown entrained-flow configurations including a single-stage down-fired gasifier and a two-stage up-fired gasifier. The CFD results are reasonable in terms of predicted carbon conversion, syngas exit temperature, and syngas exit composition. The predicted profiles of velocity, temperature, and species mole fractions inside the entrained-flow gasifier models show trends similar to those observed in a diffusion-type flame. The predicted distributions of mole fractions of major species inside both gasifiers can be explained by the heterogeneous combustion and gasification reactions and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. It was also found that the syngas compositions at the CFD model exits are not in chemical equilibrium, indicating the kinetics for both heterogeneous and gas phase homogeneous reactions are important. Overall, the results achieved here indicate that the gasifier models reported in this paper are reliable and accurate enough to be incorporated into process/CFD co-simulations of IGCC power plants for system-wide design and optimization.

Ma, J.; Zitney, S.

2012-01-01

127

Survey of potential health and safety hazards of commercial-scale ethanol production facilities  

SciTech Connect

Generic safety and health aspects of commercial-scale (60 to 600 million L/y) anhydrous ethanol production were identified. Several common feedstocks (grains, roots and fibers, and sugarcane) and fuels (coal, natural gas, wood, and bagasse) were evaluated throughout each step of generic plant operation, from initial milling and sizing through saccharification, fermentation, distillation, and stillage disposal. The fermentation, digestion, or combustion phases are not particularly hazardous, although the strong acids and bases used for hydrolysis and pH adjustment should be handled with the same precautions that every industrial solvent deserves. The most serious safety hazard is that of explosion from grain dust or ethanol fume ignition and boiler/steam line overpressurization. Inhalation of ethanol and carbon dioxide vapors may cause intoxication or asphyxiation in unventilated areas, which could be particularly hazardous near equipment controls and agitating vats. Contact with low-pressure process steam would produce scalding burns. Benzene, used in stripping water from ethanol in the final distillation column, is a suspected leukemogen. Substitution of this fluid by alternative liquids is addressed.

Watson, A.P.; Smith, J.G.; Elmore, J.L.

1982-04-01

128

Scale effects on the controls on mountain grassland leaf stomatal and ecosystem surface conductance to water vapour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stomata are the major pathway by which plants exert control on the exchange of trace gases and water vapour with the aerial environment and thus provide a key link between the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and the state and composition of the atmosphere. Understanding the nature of this control, i.e. how stomatal conductance differs between plant species and ecosystems and how it varies in response to external and internal forcings, is key to predicting feedbacks plants may be providing to changing climatic conditions. Despite a long history of research on stomatal functioning, a fully mechanistic understanding of how stomata function in response to biotic and abiotic controls is still elusive which has led to the development of a large number of (semi-)empirical models of varying complexity. Two of the most widely used models go back to Jarvis (1976) and Ball, Woodrow and Berry (1987), termed J-model and BWB-model, respectively, in the following. The J-model simulates stomatal conductance as some maximal value attenuated by a series of multiplicative functions which are bound between zero and unity, while the BWB-model predicts stomatal conductance as a linear function of photosynthesis, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration in the leaf boundary layer. Both models were developed for the prediction of leaf-scale stomatal conductance to water vapour, but have been applied for simulating ecosystem-scale surface conductance as well. The objective of the present paper is to compare leaf- and ecosystem-scale conductances to water vapour and to assess the respective controls using the two above-mentioned models as analysis frameworks. To this end leaf-level stomatal conductance has been measured by means of leaf-gas exchange methods and ecosystem-scale surface conductance by inverting eddy covariance evapotranspiration estimates at a mountain grassland site in Austria. Our major findings are that the proportionality parameter in the BWB-model is scale-consistent, i.e. does not differ significantly between the leaf- and ecosystem scale, while the residual conductance (at zero light) scales with the amount of above-ground transpiring plant area. Among the environmental forcings, air humidity (either relative humidity or vapour pressure deficit) and carbon dioxide concentration in the boundary layer explained most of the variability of stomatal conductance at the leaf level, while the photosynthetic photon flux density was by far the dominant control at the ecosystem-level. References: Ball J.T., Woodrow I.E., Berry J.A., 1987. A model predicting stomatal conductance and its contribution to the control of photosynthesis under different environmental conditions. In: J. Biggens (Editor), Progress in Photosynthesis Research, Vol. IV. Proceedings of the VII International Congress on Photosynthesis. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp. 221-224. Jarvis P.G., 1976. The interpretation of the variations in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance found in canopies in the field. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London 273(B), 593-610.

Haslwanter, Alois; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

2010-05-01

129

Correcting basin-scale snowfall in a mountainous basin using a distributed snowmelt model and remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adequate estimation of the spatial distribution of snowfall is critical in hydrologic modeling. However, this is a well-known problem in estimating basin-scale snowfall, especially in mountainous basins with data scarcity. This study focuses on correction and estimation of this spatial distribution, which considers topographic effects within the basin. A method is proposed that optimizes an altitude-based snowfall correction factor (Cfsnow). This is done through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed, multilayer energy and water balance-based snowmelt model (WEB-DHM-S) with observed discharge and remotely sensed snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Shuffled Complex Evolution - University of Arizona automatic search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal value of Cfsnow for minimum cumulative error in discharge and snow cover simulations. Discharge error is quantified by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and relative volume deviation, and snow cover error was estimated by pixel-by-pixel analysis. The study region is the heavily snow-fed Yagisawa Basin of the Upper Tone River in northeast Japan. First, the system was applied to one snow season (2002-2003), obtaining an optimized Cfsnow of 0.0007 m-1. For validation purposes, the optimized Cfsnow was implemented to correct snowfall in 2004, 2002 and 2001. Overall, the system was effective, implying improvements in correlation of simulated vs. observed discharge and snow cover. The 4 yr mean of basin-average snowfall for the corrected spatial snowfall distribution was 1160 mm (780 mm before correction). Execution of sensitivity runs against other model input and parameters indicated that Cfsnow could be affected by uncertainty in shortwave radiation and setting of the threshold air temperature parameter. Our approach is suitable to correct snowfall and estimate its distribution in poorly-gauged basins, where elevation dependence of snowfall amount is strong.

Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

2013-09-01

130

Uncertainties in coupled thermal-hydrological processes associated with the drift scale test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Understanding thermally driven coupled hydrological, mechanical, and chemical processes in unsaturated fractured tuff is essential for evaluating the performance of the potential radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Drift Scale Test (DST), intended for acquiring such an understanding of these processes, has generated a huge volume of temperature and moisture redistribution data. Sophisticated thermal hydrological (TH) conceptual models have yielded a good fit between simulation results and those measured data. However, some uncertainties in understanding the TH processes associated with the DST still exist. This paper evaluates these uncertainties and provides quantitative estimates of the range of these uncertainties. Of particular interest for the DST are the uncertainties resulting from the unmonitored loss of vapor through an open bulkhead of the test. There was concern that the outcome from the test might have been significantly altered by these losses. Using alternative conceptual models, we illustrate that predicted mean temperatures from the DST are within 1 degree C of the measured mean temperatures through the first two years of heating. The simulated spatial and temporal evolution of drying and condensation fronts is found to be qualitatively consistent with measured saturation data. Energy and mass balance computation shows that no more than 13 percent of the input energy is lost because of vapor leaving the test domain through the bulkhead. The change in average saturation in fractures is also relatively small. For a hypothetical situation in which no vapor is allowed to exit through the bulkhead, the simulated average fracture saturation is not qualitatively different enough to be discerned by measured moisture redistribution data. This leads us to conclude that the DST, despite the uncertainties associated with open field testing, has provided an excellent understanding of the TH processes.

Mukhopadhyay, Sumitra; Tsang, Y.W.

2002-09-01

131

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase methanol (LPMEOH) Process A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program seeks to offer the energy marketplace more efficient and environmentally benign coal utilization technology options by demonstrating them in industrial settings. This document is a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of one of the projects selected in Round III of the CCT Program, the commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process, initially described in a Report to Congress by DOE in 1992. Methanol is an important, large-volume chemical with many uses. The desire to demonstrate a new process for the production of methanol from coal, prompted Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to submit a proposal to DOE. In October 1992, DOE awarded a cooperative agreement to Air Products to conduct this project. In March 1995, this cooperative agreement was transferred to Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership), a partnership between Air Products and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman). DOE provided 43 percent of the total project funding of $213.7 million. Operation of the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit, which is sited at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee, commenced in April 1997. Although operation of the CCT project was completed in December 2002, Eastman continues to operate the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit for the production of methanol. The independent evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from Volume 2 of the project's Final Report (Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Co., L.P. 2003), as well as other references cited.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2003-10-27

132

Multi-Scale Influences of Climate, Spatial Pattern, and Positive Feedback on 20th Century Tree Establishment at Upper Treeline in the Rocky Mountains, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influences of 20th century climate, spatial pattern of tree establishment, and positive feedback were assessed to gain a more holistic understanding of how broad scale abiotic and local scale biotic components interact to govern upper treeline ecotonal dynamics along a latitudinal gradient (ca. 35°N-45°N) in the Rocky Mountains. Study sites (n = 22) were in the Bighorn, Medicine Bow, Front Range, and Sangre de Cristo mountain ranges. Dendroecological techniques were used for a broad scale analysis of climate at treeline. Five-year age-structure classes were compared with identical five-year bins of 20th century climate data using Spearman’s rank correlation and regime shift analysis. Local scale biotic interactions capable of ameliorating broad scale climate inputs through positive feedback were examined by using Ripley’s K to determine the spatial patterns of tree establishment above timberline. Significant correlations (p < 0.01) between tree establishment and climate were confined to the Front Range, where a positive correlation exists with summer (June-Aug) and cool season (Nov-Apr) temperature range (Tmax-Tmin). Additionally, trees in the Front Range are almost exclusively situated in a random spatial pattern above timberline (4/5 sites). Random spatial patterns imply that positive feedback is of minimal importance and that trees are more closely aligned with broad scale changes in abiotic conditions. This tight coupling between climate and treeline vegetation in the Front Range helps explain synchronous ecological (tree establishment) and climate regime shifts (temperature) during the early 1950s. Similar to the Front Range, a majority of trees at upper treeline in the Bighorn Mountains are in a random spatial pattern, but their existence appears to be dependent on shelter availability in the lee of boulders. This contingency helps explain the lag time between a regime shift to more favorable temperatures and subsequent peaks in tree establishment. The Medicine Bow and Sangre de Cristo Mountains primarily contain clustered spatial patterns of trees above timberline, which indicates a strong reliance on the amelioration of abiotic conditions through positive feedback with nearby vegetation. Although clustered spatial patterns likely originate in response to harsh abiotic conditions such as drought or constant strong winds, the local scale biotic interactions within a clustered formation of trees appears to override the immediate influence of broad scale climate. This is evidenced both by a lack of significant correlations between tree establishment and climate in these mountain ranges, as well as the considerable lag times between initial climate regime shifts and corresponding shifts in tree age structure. Taken together, this research suggests that the influence of broad scale climate on upper treeline ecotonal dynamics is contingent on the local scale spatial patterns of tree establishment and related influences of positive feedback. These findings have global implications for our understanding of how vegetation patterns will respond to various global climate change scenarios.

Elliott, G. P.

2009-12-01

133

The control of heartwater on large-scale commercial and smallholder farms in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

As part of a series of studies associated with the development of improved vaccines for heartwater (a tick-borne disease of ruminant livestock caused by Cowdria ruminantium), field surveys were carried out to assess losses associated with the disease and the costs associated with controlling it in the two main agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe (lowveld and highveld) where heartwater is believed to be endemic and epidemic, respectively. In each zone, a cross-sectional study was performed in the main farming systems (smallholder (SH) and large-scale commercial (LSC) beef and dairy), followed by longitudinal studies in the same sectors to improve data accuracy for some parameters. Suspected heartwater-specific mortality in cattle was similar in all LSC sectors (p = 0.72) accounting for a median 1% mortality risk. Heartwater-specific mortality in SH areas was not assessed due to poor diagnostic ability of the farmers. Few LSC farms and SH households kept sheep; suspected heartwater-specific mortality in LSC sheep was 0.8% in the lowveld and 2.4% in the highveld. Goats were a major enterprise in SH areas but not on LSC farms. Suspected heartwater mortality in LSC goats was 0.8% at one site in the highveld and 17.5% on a farm in the lowveld. Application of acaricides was the major control method for heartwater and other tick-borne diseases on both SH and LSC farms. On LSC farms, plunge dipping was used most frequently and the number of acaricide applications ranged widely between 3 and 52 per year. The total cost of acaricides per head per annum was higher in highveld dairies than in highveld and lowveld beef enterprises (p = 0.03). In SH areas, cattle plunge dipping was conducted by the government with an average frequency of 8 +/- 2 (sd) immersions per annum in both the lowveld and highveld. The type of tick control on sheep and goats in all production systems was highly variable (ranging from none to hand removal or intensive acaricide treatment). Suspected heartwater cases on LSC farms were treated with tetracyclines; treatment was not reported in SH areas. Reported treatment costs were high (median Z$ 120) and highly variable (range Z$-833). Vaccination against heartwater with the live, blood-based vaccine was reported on only one LSC farm. LSC farms applying acaricide 30 or more times per year reported higher morbidity (p < 0.0001) and mortality (p < 0.0001) than farms applying acaricides less than 30 times a year. This finding supports the use of reduced tick control in the management of heartwater in Zimbabwe. PMID:10327438

Chamboko, T; Mukhebi, A W; Callaghan, C J; Peter, T F; Kruska, R L; Medley, G F; Mahan, S M; Perry, B D

1999-04-01

134

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOTH) Process  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOI-P Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman coal-to-chemicals complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, initial planning and procurement work continued on the seven project sites which have been accepted for participation in the off-site, product-use test program. Approximately 12,000 gallons of fuel-grade methanol (98+ wt% methanol, 4 wt% water) produced during operation on carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas at the LPMEOW Demonstration Unit was loaded into trailers and shipped off-site for Mure product-use testing. At one of the projects, three buses have been tested on chemical-grade methanol and on fhel-grade methanol from the LPMEOW Demonstration Project. During the reporting period, planning for a proof-of-concept test run of the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME~ Process at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, TX continued. The commercial catalyst manufacturer (Calsicat) has prepared the first batch of dehydration catalyst in large-scale equipment. Air Products will test a sample of this material in the laboratory autoclave. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laborato~ autoclave), was monitored for the initial extended operation at the lower initial reactor operating temperature of 235oC. At this condition, the decrease in catalyst activity with time from the period 20 December 1997 through 27 January 1998 occurred at a rate of 1.0% per day, which represented a significant improvement over the 3.4Yi per day decline measured during the initial six weeks of operation in April and May of 1997. The deactivation rate also improved from the longer-term rate of 1.6% per day calculated throughout the summer and autumn of 1997.

None

1998-12-21

135

Influence of Mountain Waves and NAT Nucleation Mechanisms on Polar Stratospheric Cloud Formation at Local and Synoptic Scales during the 1999-2000 Arctic Winter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A scheme for introducing mountain wave-induced temperature perturbations in a microphysical polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) model has been developed. A data set of temperature fluctuations attributable to mountain waves as computed by the Mountain Wave Fo...

B. Knudsen E. V. Browell N. Larsen S. D. Eckermann S. H. Svendsen

2005-01-01

136

Evaluation of microbial stability, bioactive compounds, physicochemical properties, and consumer acceptance of pomegranate juice processed in a commercial scale pulsed electric field system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper investigated the feasibility for pasteurizing raw pomegranate juice in a commercial scale pulsed electric field (PEF) system. The juice was processed in a commercial scale PEF processing system at 35 and 38 kV/cm for 281 µs at 55 degree C with a flow rate of 100 L/h. Effect of PEF process...

137

An evaluation of the Robinson M-1 commercial scale demonstration of enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial scale micellar-polymer project was conducted in the Robinson Sand of the M-1 project in southwestern Illinois. The project utilized a crude oil sulfonate surfactant system to flood the reservoir which, at the time of the project, was in an advanced stage of waterflood depletion. Injected fluids consisted of a 0.10 pore volume crude oil sulfonate slug, a 1.05

1988-01-01

138

The characteristics of coincineration of dewatered sludge, waste oil and waste solvent in commercial-scale fluidized bed incinerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial-scale Fluidized Bed Incinerator (FBI), which has a capacity of 60 tons per day to treat dewatered sludge and\\u000a waste oil or solvent, was developed as one of the governmental R&D projects from 1990 to 1997. From the design, construction\\u000a and operation of the plant, the characteristics of co-combustion and appropriate operating conditions with successful fly\\u000a ash recirculation and

Jae-Hoi Gu; Woon-Ha Yeo; Yong-Chil Seo; Sang-Hoon Lee; Jea-Keun Lee

2002-01-01

139

Dissemination and survival of commercial wine yeast in the vineyard: a large-scale, three-years study.  

PubMed

The use of commercial wine yeast strains as starters has been extensively generalised over the past two decades. In this study, a large-scale sampling plan was devised over a period of three years in six different vineyards to evaluate the dynamics and survival of industrial yeast strains in the vineyard. A total of 198 grape samples were collected at various distances from the wineries, before and after harvest, and yeast strains isolated after spontaneous fermentation were subsequently identified by molecular methods. Among 3780 yeast strains identified, 296 isolates had a genetic profile identical to that of commercial yeast strains. For a large majority (94%), these strains were recovered at very close proximity to the winery (10-200 m). Commercial strains were mostly found in the post-harvest samples, reflecting immediate dissemination. Analysis of population variations from year to year indicated that permanent implantation of commercial strains in the vineyard did not occur, but instead that these strains were subject to natural fluctuations of periodical appearance/disappearance like autochthonous strains. Our data show that dissemination of commercial yeast in the vineyard is restricted to short distances and limited periods of time and is largely favoured by the presence of water run-off. PMID:15975857

Valero, Eva; Schuller, Dorit; Cambon, Brigitte; Casal, Margarida; Dequin, Sylvie

2005-07-01

140

Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences] [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences; Shevenell, L., Garside, L. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

1995-12-01

141

A hierarchical approach for scaling forest inventory and fuels data from local to landscape scales in the Davis Mountains, Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study combined hierarchical cluster analysis and classification and regression tree algorithms to quantify vegetation and fuel characteristics and to generate spatially explicit vegetation and fuels maps for forest and fire management in the Davis Mountains of west Texas, USA. We used field data, landscape metrics derived from digital elevation models, and spectral information from remotely sensed imagery to (1)

Helen M. Poulos; Ann E. Camp; Richard G. Gatewood; Lynn Loomis

2007-01-01

142

Impact of scaling on soft-error rates in commercial microprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of technology scaling and logic design on the ?-particle and neutron-induced soft-error rate (SER) of Alpha microprocessors (HP Alpha Development Group, Shrewsbury, MA) has been investigated. Our results indicate that the reduced charge-collection efficiency at the device level as well as circuit- and system-level mitigation techniques have successfully combatted the scaling trend of the critical charge. Process scaling

Norbert Seifert; Xiaowei Zhu; Lloyd W. Massengill

2002-01-01

143

Disturbance of the Marine Benthic Habitat by Commercial Fishing: Impacts at the Scale of the Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial fishing is one of the most important human impacts on the marine benthic environment. One such impact is through disturbance to benthic habitats as fishing gear (trawls and dredges) are dragged across the seafloor. While the direct effects of such an impact on benthic communities appear obvious, the magnitude of the effects has been very difficult to evaluate. Experimental

S. F. Thrush; J. E. Hewitt; V. J. Cummings; P. K. Dayton; M. Cryer; S. J. Turner; G. A. Funnell; R. G. Budd; C. J. Milburn; M. R. Wilkinson

1998-01-01

144

Protective immunity in cattle vaccinated with a commercial scale, inactivated, bivalent vesicular stomatitis vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercially prepared oil-adjuvanted, inactivated vaccine containing antigens of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) serotypes New Jersey (NJ) and Indiana 1 (IND1) was administered to calves to determine its ability to induce protective immunity. Weekly serological studies were conducted. The 12 calves in Group I were vaccinated once and challenge inoculated with VSV New Jersey 28 days later. Two calves were

James A. House; Carol House; Philippe Dubourget; Michel Lombard

2003-01-01

145

Commercial Scale Expanded Bed Hydroprocessing of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Extract. Monthly Technical Progress Report, January.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second 30-day catalyst aging run was terminated after 33 periods of operation using a modified, commercially available Shell 324 nickel-molybdenum catalyst. A period constitutes 24 hours of operation and is equivalent to a 24-hour day. A final catalys...

J. D. Potts

1978-01-01

146

Astronomical time scale for the Middle Oxfordian to Late Kimmeridgian in the Swiss and French Jura Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed investigation of facies and sedimentary structures reveals that, during the Middle Oxfordian to Late Kimmeridgian,\\u000a the shallow carbonate platform of the Swiss and French Jura Mountains recorded high-frequency sea-level fluctuations quite\\u000a faithfully. The cyclostratigraphic analysis within the established biostratigraphic and sequence-chronostratigraphic framework\\u000a implies that the resulting hierarchically stacked depositional sequences formed in tune with the orbital cycles of precession

André Strasser

2007-01-01

147

High-throughput cryopreservation of spermatozoa of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus): establishment of an approach for commercial-scale processing  

PubMed Central

Hybrid catfish created by crossing of female channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and male blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are being used increasingly in foodfish aquaculture because of their fast growth and efficient food conversion. However, the availability of blue catfish males is limited, and their peak spawning is at a different time than that of the channel catfish. As such, cryopreservation of sperm of blue catfish could improve production of hybrid catfish, and has been studied in the laboratory and tested for feasibility in a commercial dairy bull cryopreservation facility. However, an approach for commercially relevant production of cryopreserved blue catfish sperm is still needed. The goal of this study was to develop practical approaches for commercial-scale sperm cryopreservation of blue catfish by use of an automated high-throughput system (MAPI, CryoBioSystem Co.). The objectives were to: 1) refine cooling rate and cryoprotectant concentration, and evaluate their interactions; 2) evaluate the effect of sperm concentration on cryopreservation; 3) refine cryoprotectant concentration based on the highest effective sperm concentration; 4) compare the effect of thawing samples at 20 °C or 40 °C; 5) evaluate the fertility of thawed sperm at a research scale by fertilizing with channel catfish eggs; 6) test the post-thaw motility and fertility of sperm from individual males in a commercial setting, and 7) test for correlation of cryopreservation results with biological indices used for male evaluation. The optimal cooling rate was 5 °C/min (Micro Digitcool, IMV) for high-throughput cryopreservation using CBS high-biosecurity 0.5-ml straws with 10% methanol, and a concentration of 1 × 109 sperm/ml. There was no difference in post-thaw motility when samples were thawed at 20 °C for 40 s or 40 °C for 20 s. After fertilization, the percentage of neurulation (Stage V embryos) was 80 ± 21%, and percentage of embryonic mobility (Stage VI embryo) was 51 ± 22%. There was a significant difference among the neurulation values produced by thawed blue catfish sperm, fresh blue catfish sperm (P = 0.010) and channel catfish sperm (P = 0.023), but not for Stage VI embryos (P ? 0.585). Cryopreserved sperm from ten males did not show significant variation in post-thaw motility or fertility at the neurulation stage. This study demonstrates that the protocol established for high-throughput cryopreservation of blue catfish sperm can provide commercially relevant quantities and quality of sperm with stable fertility for hybrid catfish production and provides a model for establishment of commercial-scale approaches for other aquatic species.

Hu, E; Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R.

2012-01-01

148

Preliminary 3-D site-scale studies of radioactive colloid transortin the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The U.S: Department of Energy is actively investigating the technical feasibility of permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this study we investigate, by means of numerical simulation, the transport of radioactive colloids under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table. The site hydrology and the effects of the spatial distribution of hydraulic and transport properties in the Yucca Mountain subsurface are considered. The study of migration and retardation of colloids accounts for the complex processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, and includes advection, diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion, kinetic colloid filtration, colloid straining, and radioactive decay. The results of the study indicate that the most important factors affecting colloid transport are the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The transport of colloids is strongly influenced by their size (as it affects diffusion into the matrix, straining at hydrogeologic unit interfaces, and transport velocity) and by the parameters of the kinetic-filtration model used for the simulations. Arrival times at the water table decrease with an increasing colloid size because of smaller diffusion, increased straining, and higher transport velocities. The importance of diffusion as a retardation mechanism increases with a decreasing colloid size, but appears to be minimal in large colloids.

Moridis, G.J.; Hu, Q.; Wu, Y.-S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

2001-09-01

149

Multi-scale simulations of three dimensional laminated structures induced by mountain waves in the UTLS region during T-REX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution mesoscale and microscale simulations of wave breaking and laminated structures induced by mountain waves in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) are presented for two Intense Observational Periods (IOPs) of the Terrain-induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) campaign of measurements. Vertical nesting and refined vertical gridding have been developed and applied in microscale simulations coupled the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to resolve multi-scale nonlinear processes associated with mountain wave breaking. The finest nest of WRF is coupled with embedded microscale nests. The fully three-dimensional nonhydrostatic, compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a stretched, adaptive grid in the vertical and improved resolution in the UTLS region. For nesting, both lateral and vertical boundary conditions are treated via relaxation zones where the velocity and temperature fields are relaxed to those obtained from the mesoscale WRF inner nest. Real-case simulations based on initial and boundary conditions from high resolution T799 L91 ECMWF analysis data are conducted for two IOPs of the T-REX campaign. Localized sharp shear layers and stiff gradients of vertical velocity and potential temperature are predicted above the tropopause and in the lower stratosphere within the embedded microscale nests. Fully resolved three-dimensional instability mechanisms and multi-scale dynamics in UTLS are compared with in situ balloon and aircraft observations during T-REX.

Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.; Grubisic, V.

2009-04-01

150

Mountain Biking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announcing a new WWW page for Mountain Biking enthusiasts. This page focuses on mountain biking in the San Francisco Bay area (including descriptions of several local trails), but also contains links to descriptions of mountain biking in other areas, including Pittsburgh, Colorado, Utah and New Zealand.

151

Mountains Flowing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountains look solid, but actually they flow like molasses under their own weight, according to a new study. This radio broadcast introduces research into the forces on mountains, and how they can best be explained by mountains flowing like a liquid. The study is changing the way scientists think about how the American landscape was formed. The clip is 2 minutes in length.

152

Mountain Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about processes that affect the shape of mountains. While determining the relative age of mountains involves a variety of complex interacting factors, this probe is designed to determine if students consider weathering factors or if they intuitively believe taller mountains are older.

Eberle, Francis; Farrin, Lynn; Keeley, Page

2005-01-01

153

SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION FOR THE PORT OF NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination and beneficial use of dredged material is a component of a comprehensive Dredged Material Management Plan for the Port of New York and New Jersey. The authors describe here a regional contaminated sediment decontamination program that is being implemented to meet the needs of the Port. The components of the train include: (1) dredging and preliminary physical processing (materials handling), (2) decontamination treatment, (3) beneficial use, and (4) public outreach. Several types of treatment technologies suitable for use with varying levels of sediment contamination have been selected based on the results of bench- and pilot-scale tests. This work is being conducted under the auspices of the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA). The use of sediment washing is suitable for sediments with low to moderate contamination levels, typical of industrialized waterways. BioGenesis Enterprises and Roy F. Weston, Inc. performed the first phase of an incremental decontamination demonstration with the goal of decontaminating 700 cubic yards (cy) (pilot-scale) for engineering design and cost economics information for commercial scale operations. This pilot test was completed in March, 1999. The next phase will scale-up to operation of a commercial facility capable of treating 40 cy/hr. It is anticipated that this will be completed by January 2000 (250,000 cy/yr). Manufactured topsoil is one beneficial use product from this process. Tests of two high-temperature treatment technologies are also in progress. They are well suited to produce almost complete destruction of organic compounds in moderate to highly contaminated dredged materials and for production of high-value beneficial reuse products. The Institute of Gas Technology is demonstrating a natural gas-fired thermochemical manufacturing process with an initial treatment capacity of 30,000 cy/yr into operation by the fall of 1999. Design and construction of a 100,000 cy/yr facility will be based on the operational results obtained from the demonstration facility. The decontaminated dredged material will be converted to a construction-grade cement. Prior bench- and pilot-scale tests showed that this treatment removes 99.99% of the organic contaminants and immobilizes the metals. The Westinghouse Science and Technology Center has demonstrated use of a high-temperature plasma to achieve 99.99% removal efficiencies for organic contaminants while immobilizing metals in a glass matrix. It was shown that a glass product such as tiles or fibers can be produced and that it can be used for manufacturing high quality glass tiles on a commercial scale.

JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

1999-07-01

154

Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

NONE

1996-03-01

155

THE TESTING OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ENGINEERING AND PLANT SCALE ANNULAR CENTRIFUGAL CONTACTORS FOR THE PROCESSING OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL  

SciTech Connect

Annular centrifugal contactors are being evaluated for process scale solvent extraction operations in support of United State Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative goals. These contactors have the potential for high stage efficiency if properly employed and optimized for the application. Commercially available centrifugal contactors are being tested at the Idaho National Laboratory to support this program. Hydraulic performance and mass transfer efficiency have been measured for portions of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle using 5-cm diameter annular centrifugal contactors. Advanced features, including low mix sleeves and clean-in-place rotors, have also been evaluated in 5-cm and 12.5-cm contactors.

Jack D. Law; David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Nick Mann; Scott Herbst

2006-10-01

156

Monitoring change in mountainous dry-heath vegetation at a regional scale using multitemporal Landsat TM data.  

PubMed

Vegetation cover-change analysis requires selection of an appropriate set of variables for measuring and characterizing change. Satellite sensors like Landsat TM offer the advantages of wide spatial coverage while providing land-cover information. This facilitates the monitoring of surface processes. This study discusses change detection in mountainous dry-heath communities in Jämtland County, Sweden, using satellite data. Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ data from 1984, 1994 and 2000, respectively, were used. Different change detection methods were compared after the images had been radiometrically normalized, georeferenced and corrected for topographic effects. For detection of the classes change--no change the NDVI image differencing method was the most accurate with an overall accuracy of 94% (K = 0.87). Additional change information was extracted from an alternative method called NDVI regression analysis and vegetation change in 3 categories within mountainous dry-heath communities were detected. By applying a fuzzy set thresholding technique the overall accuracy was improved from of 65% (K = 0.45) to 74% (K = 0.59). The methods used generate a change product showing the location of changed areas in sensitive mountainous heath communities, and it also indicates the extent of the change (high, moderate and unchanged vegetation cover decrease). A total of 17% of the dry and extremely dry-heath vegetation within the study area has changed between 1984 and 2000. On average 4% of the studied heath communities have been classified as high change, i.e. have experienced "high vegetation cover decrease" during the period. The results show that the low alpine zone of the southern part of the study area shows the highest amount of "high vegetation cover decrease". The results also show that the main change occurred between 1994 and 2000. PMID:15049346

Nordberg, Maj-Liz; Evertson, Joakim

2003-12-01

157

Technology Scaling Trends and Accelerated Testing for Soft Errors in Commercial Silicon Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. We consider the soft error sensitivity trends to various memory and logic components as they are scaled to smaller dimensions, higher integration densities, and lower operating voltages. We also review the three radiation mechanisms responsible for soft errors in the terrestrial environment and discuss the methods for characterizing radiation sensitivity and methods for extrapolating product soft

Robert Baumann

2003-01-01

158

Three problem areas affecting the future of solar energy. [13 research projects on commercial scale use of solar and geothermal energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen awards for social science research on incentives and barriers to the commercial-scale use of solar and geothermal energy were made in June 1975. Nine of the awards deal with residential and commercial solar thermal water heating and space heating and cooling. The others deal with a legal analysis of incentives and barriers to the use of wind energy machines;

1976-01-01

159

Northeast-southwest structural transect: Rocky Mountain foreland, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

A northeast-southwest structural transect has been constructed across the Rocky Mountain foreland in Wyoming, a distance of about 400 mi. The line of transect begins in the northern Black Hills and traverses the northern Powder River basin, the Bighorn Mountains from Buffalo to Bonanza, the Big Horn basin from Worland to Hamilton dome, the Owl Creek Mountains, the northern Wind River basin at Maverick Springs, the Wind River Mountains to Pinedale in the Green River basin, the Moxa Arch at Big Piney and Riley Ridge, and into the thrust belt, ending at the Idaho border. In terms of a vertical and horizontal scale of 1 in. = 2000 ft, the section is about 90 ft long (i.e., the section is approximately 409 mi long). The data base for the transect includes published geologic maps, commercial photogeologic mapping, well data, and modern seismic data through critical parts of the basin areas. The data base provides an excellent found for analyzing structural relationships on both a regional and a local scale. Regional horizontal shortening of the foreland has occurred primarily through basement-involved displacements on basin-boundary megathrusts, which separate the mountain ranges from sedimentary basins, and on the smaller, intrabasin thrusts, which produced the anticlinal traps for Paleozoic oil accumulations.

Stone, D.S.

1987-08-01

160

Barriers to commercialization of large-scale solar electricity: Lessions learned from the LUZ experience  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the economic and policy factors leading to the initial successful introduction of Luz International Limited`s Solar Electric Generating Systems (SEGS). It then addresses the wide range of barriers to continued SEGS commercialization, including state and federal tax policy, avoided cost energy pricing, artificial size limitations under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), the loss of effectiveness of PURPA itself, the lack of incentives available to utilities as owners of solar electric plants, and the limited ways in which the environmental benefits of this technology have been recognized. The way in which each of these barriers contributed to the suspension of new LUZ projects is highlighted. In addition, mitigation approaches to each of these barriers are suggested.

Lotker, M. [Lotker (Michael), Westlake Village, CA (United States)

1991-11-01

161

Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

Not Available

1991-01-01

162

Circulating regeneration and resource recovery of flue gas desulfurization residuals using a membrane electroreactor: from lab concept to commercial scale.  

PubMed

Desulfurization residuals (using NaOH sorbent) were regenerated electrochemically, and at the same time sulfur in the flue gas was recovered as H(2)SO(4) and H(2) was produced as a clean energy. Since industrialization should always be the final goal to pursue for lab technologies and the evolution of pilot- and full-scale commercial reactors has taken place relatively slowly, this paper is aimed to develop an electroreactor on a sufficiently large scale to evaluate the application potential of the proposed regeneration process. The following key design parameters are discussed: (1) voltage distributions over electrode, membrane, and electrolyte; and (2) scaling up correlation based on lab-scale reactor operation parameters. Thereafter, in the developed reactor, the desulfurization residuals using NaOH sorbent from a semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) facility of a power plant in Shandong Province were regenerated and it is significant to note that the electrochemical efficiency of the designed reactor is comparable to that of the chlor-alkali industry, showing that the technology is environmentally friendly and economically feasible. If this technology is to be employed for FGD, the facility could be a profit-generating manufacturing part instead of a currently money-consuming burden for the plants. PMID:22974141

Yang, Chenglei; Hu, Ying; Cao, Limei; Yang, Ji

2012-09-26

163

Full-Scale Structural and NDI Validation Tests of Bonded Composite Doublers for Commercial Aircraft Applications  

SciTech Connect

Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. Most of the concerns surrounding composite doubler technology pertain to long-term survivability, especially in the presence of non-optimum installations, and the validation of appropriate inspection procedures. This report focuses on a series of full-scale structural and nondestructive inspection (NDI) tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Full-scale tests were conducted on fuselage panels cut from retired aircraft. These full-scale tests studied stress reductions, crack mitigation, and load transfer capabilities of composite doublers using simulated flight conditions of cabin pressure and axial stress. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of aircraft structure repairs were subjected to extreme tension, shear and bending loads to examine the composite laminate's resistance to disbond and delamination flaws. Several of the structures were loaded to failure in order to determine doubler design margins. Nondestructive inspections were conducted throughout the test series in order to validate appropriate techniques on actual aircraft structure. The test results showed that a properly designed and installed composite doubler is able to enhance fatigue life, transfer load away from damaged structure, and avoid the introduction of new stress risers (i.e. eliminate global reduction in the fatigue life of the structure). Comparisons with test data obtained prior to the doubler installation revealed that stresses in the parent material can be reduced 30%--60% through the use of the composite doubler. Tests to failure demonstrated that the bondline is able to transfer plastic strains into the doubler and that the parent aluminum skin must experience significant yield strains before any damage to the doubler will occur.

Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

1999-02-01

164

Comparing current and desired ecological conditions at a landscape scale in the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains, USA.  

SciTech Connect

We applied a landscape conservation approach that quantifies current and desired ecological conditions for 10680 km2 of diverse forests in the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains of Tennessee and Kentucky. In this case study, forest cover was classified using Landsat TM imagery and evaluated with forest inventory data. Landform forest associations were characterized by combining forest cover, physiographic descriptions of remnant and historical forests, and forest structure and composition from the inventory data. These landform forest associations estimate current forest conditions and, in comparison with a projection of potential natural forest conditions, indicated that upland deciduous forests in the Plateau have the greatest reduction in cover, particularly in small private ownerships. Although of similar composition, upland deciduous forests in the Plateau also possessed younger stands with smaller trees than observed from potential old-growth conditions. These results provide scientific guidance for transitioning these forests toward desired ecological conditions through regional conservation initiatives.

Druckenbrod, Dr. Daniel L. [Longwood University; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Olsen, Lisa M [ORNL

2007-01-01

165

Comparative Study on Two Commercial Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Optimum Ethanol Production on Industrial Scale  

PubMed Central

Two commercial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saf-Instant (Baker's yeast) and Ethanol red (Mutant) were compared for ethanol production during hot summer season, using molasses diluted up to 6-7° Brix containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeasts were propagated in fermentation vessels to study the effects of yeast cell count and varying concentrations of Urea, DAP, inoculum size and Lactrol (Antibiotic). Continuous circulation of mash was maintained for 24 hours and after this fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 16 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (Saf-instant) with cell concentration of 400?millions/mL at molasses sugar level of 13%–15% (pH 4.6 ± 0.2, Temp. 32°C ± 1), inoculum size of 25% (v/v), urea concentration, 150?ppm, DAP, 53.4?ppm and Lactrol,150?ppm supported maximum ethanol production (8.8%) with YP/S = 250?L ethanol per tone molasses (96.5% yield), and had significantly lower concentrations of byproducts. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved.

Mukhtar, K.; Asgher, M.; Afghan, S.; Hussain, K.; Zia-ul-Hussnain, S.

2010-01-01

166

Kinematics of structures and active tectonics of an active orogenic belt, Alborz Mountains, northern Iran: New insights from scaled analogue modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analogue and numerical modelling have been used to simulate spatial-temporal evolution of structures formed during evolution of the orogenic belts. However, few modeling studies have focused on the deformational styles of oblique shortening or indentation. This paper investigates the influence of South Caspian Basin (SCB) motion since the past 12 Ma on the kinematic of the structures and active tectonics of the Alborz Mountains by conducting scaled analogue models. The modeling approach illustrates the sequential development of an arcuate-shape foreland-propagating imbricate stack in front of a rigid indenter during the orthogonal and subsequent shortening. The orthogonal shortening characterize by a prevailing dextral and sinistral oblique-slip motion in the east- and west-side of the models. According to our analyses, the oblique shortening is substantially accommodated by the sinistral transpression in the sand wedge borders and internal uplift. The oblique shortening is associated with the consistent sinistral motion on the WNW-striking oblique-slip thrusts, whereas the east-west thrusts and ENE-striking dextral oblique thrusts reactivate as the sinistral oblique thrusts. Quantification of the model surface deformation approves shortening partition by the foreland-vergent sinistral thrusting in the south and hinterland-vergent back thrusting in the north. The similarity of our model with nature is examined with the geologic, geodetic and seismicity of the Alborz and suggest concentration of moderate- to large-magnitude earthquakes (Mw up to 7.4-7.7) with a recurrence interval of ~ 700-1300 years predominantly along the frontal sinistral-slip thrusts in the southern margin of Alborz and much less on the hinterland-vergent back thrusts in the south of Caspian Sea. Model results also suggest that short-lived back-thrusts of the south central Alborz could reactivate and sustain destructive earthquakes in the capital city of Tehran. Key words: Oblique shortening, scaled analogue modelling, active tectonics, Alborz Mountains, northern Iran.

Shahpasandzadeh, Majid; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Koyi, Hemin A.

2010-05-01

167

A Basin-Averaged Water Balance Approach to Estimate Catchment-Scale Groundwater Flow in a Semi-arid Mountainous Catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of the contribution of groundwater flow from highland areas of mountainous watersheds to semi-arid and arid valley bottom unconsolidated aquifers is increasingly needed for the assessment of water resources in many populated areas. In mountainous environments, however, data for Darcy equation parameters are limited, leading to uncertainty in estimates of groundwater flow of up to two or more orders of magnitude. An alternative method for estimating regional groundwater flow from highland to valley bottom areas was developed for the semi-arid Okanagan Basin, British Columbia, Canada. The method involved a basin-averaged water balance approach, using mean annual surface water run-off (RO) data for 9 gauged tributaries with spatially distributed estimates of mean annual precipitation (P) and actual evapotranspiration (AET), to develop basin-averaged relationships for prediction of recharge-driven groundwater flow through the bedrock highland areas. Groundwater flow from highland bedrock areas to unconsolidated valley bottom aquifers was subsequently accounted for through a calibration exercise using a spreadsheet tool developed for the project. Average annual AET was the most difficult parameter to quantify at the tributary catchment scale. Spatially distributed AET estimates were developed using temperature and precipitation data, with consideration of expected AET ranges established based on available data for the region. Results for the bedrock areas in the Okanagan Basin indicated basin-averaged partitioning of mean annual precipitation as 68% AET, 19% to surface water run-off (in streams), and 13% to net recharge (groundwater flow). The influence of AET and surface water run-off parameter uncertainty on regional bedrock groundwater flow calculations was a factor of 2 (AET range of 60-70% catchment precipitation) and 1.2 (RO range of 14 to 26%), respectively. This approach allows for preliminary estimates of water budget constrained recharge- driven groundwater flow at the catchment or basin scale.

Neilson-Welch, L. A.; Allard, R.; Geller, D.; Allen, D. M.

2008-12-01

168

Lysimeter study of commercial reactor waste forms: waste form acquisition characterization and full-scale leaching  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) as part of a joint program with Savannah River Laboratory. Typical full-scale (55-gallon drum size) waste forms were acquired by BNL from a boiling water reactor (BWR) and a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Liquid waste stream activity concentrations were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. This information was used to determine the waste from activity inventory, providing the necessary source term for lysimeter and leaching experiments. Predominant radionuclides of interest include /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, and /sup 54/Mn. A full-scale leaching experiment was initiated by BNL encompassing four representative waste stream-solidification agent combinations. Waste streams tested include PWR evaporator concentrate (boric acid waste), BWR evaporator concentrate (sodium sulfate waste) and BWR evaporator concentrate plus ion exchange resins. Solidification agents include masonry cement, portland type III cement, and vinyl ester-styrene (Dow polymer). Analyses of leachates indicate measurable leach rates of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, and /sup 60/Co from both BWR and PWR cement waste forms. The leach rates for both cesium isotopes in cement are at least two orders of magnitude greater than those for cobalt. Leachates from the BWR Dow polymer waste form include the same isotopes present in cement leachates, with the addition of /sup 54/Mn. Cesium leach rates from the Dow polymer waste form are approximately one order of magnitude lower than from an equivalent cement waste form. The /sup 60/Co cumulative fraction release, however, is approximately three times greater for the Dow polymer waste form.

Not Available

1983-02-01

169

Scaling and Optimization of Magnetic Refrigeration for Commercial Building HVAC Systems Greater than 175 kW in Capacity  

SciTech Connect

Heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVACR) account for approximately one- third of building energy consumption. Magnetic refrigeration presents an opportunity for significant energy savings and emissions reduction for serving the building heating, cooling, and refrigeration loads. In this paper, we have examined the magnet and MCE material requirements for scaling magnetic refrigeration systems for commercial building cooling applications. Scaling relationships governing the resources required for magnetic refrigeration systems have been developed. As system refrigeration capacity increases, the use of superconducting magnet systems becomes more applicable, and a comparison is presented of system requirements for permanent and superconducting (SC) magnetization systems. Included in this analysis is an investigation of the ability of superconducting magnet based systems to overcome the parasitic power penalty of the cryocooler used to keep SC windings at cryogenic temperatures. Scaling relationships were used to develop the initial specification for a SC magnet-based active magnetic regeneration (AMR) system. An optimized superconducting magnet was designed to support this system. In this analysis, we show that the SC magnet system consisting of two 0.38 m3 regenerators is capable of producing 285 kW of cooling power with a T of 28 K. A system COP of 4.02 including cryocooler and fan losses which illustrates that an SC magnet-based system can operate with efficiency comparable to traditional systems and deliver large cooling powers of 285.4 kW (81.2 Tons).

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; West, David L [ORNL; Mallow, Anne M [ORNL

2012-01-01

170

Geophysical Setting of the Blue Mountain Geothermal Area, North-Central Nevada and its Relationship to a Crustal-Scale Fracture Associated with the Inception of the Yellowstone Hotspot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Blue Mountain geothermal field, located about 35 km northwest of Winnemucca, Nevada, is situated along a prominent crustal-scale fracture interpreted from total-intensity aeromagnetic and gravity data. Aeromagnetic data indicate that this feature is related to the intrusion of mafic dikes, similar to the Northern Nevada Rift, and may be associated with the inception of the ~16 Ma Yellowstone Hotspot.

D. A. Ponce; C. Bouligand; J. Casteel; J. M. Glen; J. T. Watt

2009-01-01

171

Commercial-scale demonstration of a liquid-phase methanol process  

SciTech Connect

The Eastman Chemical Company operates a coal gasification complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The primary output of this plant is carbonylation-derived acetic anhydride. The required methyl acetate is made from methanol and acetic acid. Methanol is currently produced from syngas by a gas-phase process, which must receive stoichiometric quantities of carbon monoxide and hydrogen to avoid overheating the catalyst. Control of this CO/H{sub 2} ratio is accomplished with a shift reactor. A liquid-phase methanol process (LPMEOH{trademark}) has been developed by Air Products. Efficient heat removal permits the direct use of syngas without the need for the shift reactor. An Air Products/Eastman joint venture, with partial funding from the Department of Energy under the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been formed to build a demonstration-scale liquid-phase methanol plant. This talk will focus on the unique features of this plant and how it will be integrated into the existing facilities.

Cook, S.L. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States)

1995-12-31

172

Measures for minimizing radiation hazardous to the environment in the advent of large-scale space commercialization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of hazardous effects from radio-frequency (RF), light, infrared, and nuclear radiation on human and other biological species in the advent of large-scale space commercialization is considered. Attention is focused on RF/microwave radiation from earth antennas and domestic picture phone communication links, exposure to microwave radiation from space solar-power satellites, and the continuous transmission of information from spacecraft as well as laser radiation from space. Measures for preventing and/or reducing these effects are suggested, including the use of interlocks for cutting off radiation toward ground, off-pointing microwave energy beams in cases of altitude failure, limiting the satellite off-axis gain data-rate product, the use of reflective materials on buildings and in personnel clothing to protect from space-borne lasers, and underwater colonies in cases of high-power lasers. For nuclear-power satellites, deposition in stable points in the solar system is proposed.

Murthy, S. Nataraja

173

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHTM) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOIYM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, comments from the DOE on the Topical Report "Economic Analysis - LPMEOHTM Process as an Add-on to IGCC for Coproduction" were received. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing for the coproduction of dimethyl ether (DIME) and methanol was made. DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed. A recommendation document summarizing catalyst targets, experimental results, and the corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst was issued on 30 June 1997. The off-site, product-use test plan was updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Acurex Environmental Corporation and Air Products screened proposals for this task by the likelihood of the projects to proceed and the timing for the initial methanol requirement. Eight sites from the list have met these criteria. The formal submission of the eight projects for review and concurrence by the DOE will be made during the next reporting period. The site paving and final painting were completed in May of 1997. Start-up activities were completed during the reporting period, and the initial methanol production from the demonstration unit occurred on 02 April 1997. The first extended stable operation at the nameplate capacity of 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day) took place on 06 April 1997. Pressure drop and resistance coefficient across the gas sparger at the bottom of the reactor increased over this initial operating period. The demonstration unit was shut down from 08 May -17 June 1997 as part of a scheduled complex outage for the Kingsport site. During this outage, the gas sparger was removed, cleaned, and reinstalled. After completion of other maintenance activities, the demonstration unit was restarted, and maintained stable operation through the remainder of the reporting period. Again, the gas sparger showed an increase in pressure drop and resistance since the restart, although not as rapidly as during the April-May operation. Fresh oil was introduced online for the first time to a new flush connection on the gas inlet line to the reactov the flush lowered the pressure drop by 1 psi. However, the effects were temporary, and the sparger resistance coefficient continued to increase. Additional flushing with both fresh oil and entrained slurry recovered in the cyclone and secondary oil knock-out drum will be attempted in order to stabilize the sparger resistance coefficient.

None

1997-06-30

174

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LOMEOH(TM)) Process  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million effort being conducted under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day (TPD)) of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was designed, constructed, and began a four-year operational period in April of 1997 at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to "demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH?M Process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility." The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fiel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four-year demonstration period. The LPMEOJYM process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfidly piloted at a 10-TPD rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products' LaPorte, Texas, site. This Demonstration Project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.

None

1997-12-31

175

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHT") demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L. P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day) of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was designed, constructed, and is operating at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to "demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOWM Process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility." The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fiel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four-year demonstration period. The LPMEOITM process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfdly piloted at a 10 tons-per- day (TPD) rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products' LaPorte, Texas, site. This demonstration project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.

None

1997-09-30

176

Mountain Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you've ever wanted to turn your hiking skills into helpful information, the Mountain Watch section of the Appalachian Mountain Club website may be of great interest. The site is designed to turn hikers into "citizen scientists" who can "aid in the collection of data that measures the ecological health of our mountains." The site contains four areas (including "Mountain Plants" and "Mountain Weather") where visitors can submit their own recent findings and observations. First-time visitors will need to fill out the volunteer data section, and this takes just a few minutes. After this, visitors will receive a password which will allow them to report on alpine flowers, air quality, and related subjects. Visitors can also read the observations of others, and read up on their "Naturalist Blog".

177

Drought reconstruction in the Qilian Mountains over the last two centuries and its implications for large-scale moisture patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a composite tree-ring chronology from two sites of Qilian Juniper ( Sabina przewalskii) in the northwestern Qilian Mountains (QM), Northwestern China. Precipitation in June was found to be the main limiting factor for tree-growth. The tree rings are also significantly and positively correlated with June precipitation over large areas of the northern Tibetan Plateau (TP). The authors thus consider that the tree-ring based drought reconstruction from 1803-2006 is representative of a large area drought history. During the reconstruction period, persistent and severe dry epochs occurred in the 1820s-1830s, 1870s-1880s, 1920s, and 1950s-1960s, and persistent wet periods were found from 1803-1810s, 1890s-1920s, and 1970s-1980s. The severe dry and wet periods are similar to those found over the northeastern TP, indicating the potential linkages of the drought regimes between them. Comparison with global SST indicates that the drought variability is closely related to the tropical Pacific and Arctic Ocean SSTs, suggesting the connection of regional moisture variations to the Asian monsoon and westerly belt circulations, respectively.

Liu, Wenhuo; Gou, Xiaohua; Yang, Meixue; Zhang, Yong; Fang, Keyan; Yang, Tao; Jin, Liya

2009-07-01

178

Advancement in the modeling of pressure-flow for the guidance of development and scale-up of commercial-scale biopharmaceutical chromatography.  

PubMed

This paper details the advancements made in the modeling of open column and packed bed pressure-flow. The theoretical description is a one-dimensional elasticity model. By accounting for the loss of intra-particle porosity through empiricism, and by systematically selecting the functional form of the elastic modulus from stress-strain data, this model can accurately predict several kinds of large-scale behavior from small-scale data: packed pressure-flow, open column pressure-flow, and critical velocity. The robustness of the model has been demonstrated for MabSelect, SP 650M, Butyl Sepharose 4 FF and several other agarose-based and polymethacrylate-based resins. The predicted critical velocities are on average within +/-5% of observations. A simple modification to the Blake-Kozeny permeability expression allows accurate prediction of packed bed pressure-flow explicitly from compression factor, packed bed height, and settled bed inter-particle porosity. The model provides limits on mobile phase velocity and on operating pressure-flow as a function of bed height, particle size, and resin rigidity, and allows exploration of commercial manufacturing scenarios to identify scalable process time and cycle number. PMID:18374935

Keener, Ronald N; Fernandez, Erik J; Maneval, James E; Hart, Roger A

2008-03-13

179

Catchment-scale variation in the nitrate concentrations of groundwater seeps in the Catskill Mountains, New York, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forested headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains of New York show significant among-catchment variability in mean annual nitrate (NO3-) concentrations. Large contributions from deep groundwater with high NO3- concentrations have been invoked to explain high NO3- concentrations in stream water during the growing season. To determine whether variable contributions of groundwater could explain among-catchment differences in streamwater, we measured NO3- concentrations in 58 groundwater seeps distributed across six catchments known to have different annual average streamwater concentrations. Seeps were identified based on release from bedrock fractures and bedding planes and had consistently lower temperatures than adjacent streamwaters. Nitrate concentrations in seeps ranged from near detection limits (0.005 mg NO3--N/L) to 0.75 mg NO3--N/L. Within individual catchments, groundwater residence time does not seem to strongly affect NO3- concentrations because in three out of four catchments there were non-significant correlations between seep silica (SiO2) concentrations, a proxy for residence time, and seep NO3- concentrations. Across catchments, there was a significant but weak negative relationship between NO3- and SiO2 concentrations. The large range in NO3- concentrations of seeps across catchments suggests: 1) the principal process generating among-catchment differences in streamwater NO3- concentrations must influence water before it enters the groundwater flow system and 2) this process must act at large spatial scales because among-catchment variability is much greater than intra-catchment variability. Differences in the quantity of groundwater contribution to stream baseflow are not sufficient to account for differences in streamwater NO3- concentrations among catchments in the Catskill Mountains.

West, A. J.; Findlay, S. E. G.; Burns, D. A.; Weathers, K. C.; Lovett, G. M.

2001-01-01

180

Basin scale denudation rates in the active mountain belt of Taiwan: The in situ produced 10Be cosmogenic point of view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct and feedback relationships between tectonics, climate and denudation are a matter of debate. A better understanding of these relationships requires quantifying rates of denudation in a wide range of climate and tectonic settings, as well as at various time and space scales. Because of an ongoing active collision implying high uplift rates and a climate prone to extreme rainfall events and frequent tropical typhoons facilitating strong erosion dominated by mass movements and high degree of fluvial transport, the Taiwan environment is highly dynamic. In Taiwan, the erosion/denudation rates have been studied for the last thirty years by methodological approaches spanning two very different time scales: the short-term (a few decades) from the analysis of the river suspended loads, and the long-term (several hundred of thousands to a few millions of years), using data from low-temperature thermo-chronology and associated thermo-mechanical models. The comparison between the results issued from these studies suggests that the rates determined from the low-temperature thermo-chronology data and associated models are substantially lower than those determined from the modern hydrological records. Due to the high importance of stochastic erosional events, the question is whether or not the erosion rates determined from modern hydrological records are representative for long-term geological processes. This issue is particularly important in highly dynamic environments such as Taiwan. To be able to compare rates of erosion and denudation integrated over short and long-term periods of time, it is thus necessary to apply another approach that bridges the gap between those two time-scales and is less sensitive to high-frequency erosional events. The method based on in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be in river borne quartz minerals responds to this requirement, and allows opening the short-term time window. The studied watersheds were sampled on both sides of the Central Range (Tajia, Wu and Choshui Rivers to the West and Heping, Liwu and Mugua Rivers to the East). The measured 10Be concentrations yield basin-wide denudation rates ranging from 0.9±0.2 to 3.7±1.1 mm/yr and from 2.8±0.9 to 6.4±2.2 mm/yr for the western and eastern sides, respectively. These denudation rates are integrated over characteristic time scales of several hundreds of years. All together, those preliminary results show a convincing discrepancy between the western and eastern sides, in agreement with the dissymmetrical structure of the mountain topography. Indeed, the underplating phenomena due to collision occur especially beneath the Eastern Central Range and result in its rapid exhumation, whereas rock uplift is responsible for the mountain building in the Western part of Taiwan. The deeply eroded and steep catchments located in the Eastern part of the mountain belt and the more mature western landscape may reflect the differential uplift rates from each side of the Central Range.

Siame, L. L.; Derrieux, F.; Bourles, D. L.; Braucher, R.; Chen, R.

2010-12-01

181

Signatures of large-scale and local climates on the demography of white-tailed ptarmigan in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA.  

PubMed

Global climate change may impact wildlife populations by affecting local weather patterns, which, in turn, can impact a variety of ecological processes. However, it is not clear that local variations in ecological processes can be explained by large-scale patterns of climate. The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) is a large-scale climate phenomenon that has been shown to influence the population dynamics of some animals. Although effects of the NAO on vertebrate population dynamics have been studied, it remains uncertain whether it broadly predicts the impact of weather on species. We examined the ability of local weather data and the NAO to explain the annual variation in population dynamics of white-tailed ptarmigan ( Lagopus leucurus) in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA. We performed canonical correlation analysis on the demographic subspace of ptarmigan and local-climate subspace defined by the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) using data from 1975 to 1999. We found that two subspaces were significantly correlated on the first canonical variable. The Pearson correlation coefficient of the first EOF values of the demographic and local-climate subspaces was significant. The population density and the first EOF of local-climate subspace influenced the ptarmigan population with 1-year lags in the Gompertz model. However, the NAO index was neither related to the first two EOF of local-climate subspace nor to the first EOF of the demographic subspace of ptarmigan. Moreover, the NAO index was not a significant term in the Gompertz model for the ptarmigan population. Therefore, local climate had stronger signature on the demography of ptarmigan than did a large-scale index, i.e., the NAO index. We conclude that local responses of wildlife populations to changing climate may not be adequately explained by models that project large-scale climatic patterns. PMID:12242476

Wang, Guiming; Hobbs, N Thompson; Galbraith, Hector; Giesen, Kenneth M

2002-06-04

182

Coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical analyses of the YuccaMountain Drift Scale Test - Comparison of field measurements topredictions of four different numerical models  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test (DST) is a multiyear, large-scale underground heater test designed to study coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical behavior in unsaturated fractured and welded tuff. As part of the international cooperative code-comparison project DECOVALEX, four research teams used four different numerical models to simulate and predict coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes at the DST. The simulated processes included above-boiling temperature changes, liquid and vapor water movements, rock-mass stress and displacement, and THM-induced changes in fracture permeability. Model predictions were evaluated by comparison to measurements of temperature, water saturation,displacement, and air permeability. The generally good agreement between simulated and measured THM data shows that adopted continuum model approaches are adequate for simulating relevant coupled THM processes at the DST. Moreover, TM-induced rock-mass deformations were reasonably well predicted using elastic models, although some individual displacements appeared to be better captured using an elasto-plastic model. It is concluded that fracture closure/opening caused by change in normal stress across fractures is the dominant mechanism for TM-induced changes in intrinsic fracture permeability at the DST, whereas fracture shear dilation appears to be less significant. This indicates that TM-induced changes in intrinsic permeability at the DST, which are within one order of magnitude, tend to be reversible.

Rutqvist, J.; Barr, D.; Datta, R.; Gens, A.; Millard, A.; Olivella, S.; Tsang, C.-F.; Tsang, Y.

2004-08-30

183

Patterns of snow, deposition, and soil nutrients at multiple spatial scales at a Rocky Mountain tree line ecotone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forest-alpine tundra ecotone in the Front Range of Colorado typically occurs as a gradual transition from the treeless tundra to the closed canopy coniferous subalpine forest. We evaluated the patterns of snow, deposition inputs, and soil properties at three spatial scales: across the entire ecotone, with distance from tree limit in the transitional krummholz zone, and around individual trees. Snow depth was deepest in the krummholz zone and lowest in the alpine tundra and upwind of trees near tree limit, but was not predictive of most soil properties except for surface litter decomposition. Inorganic deposition ranged from 0.7 to 7.7 g m-2 yr-1 across the ecotone and tended to be higher downwind than upwind of trees. The exchangeable acid cation concentrations were significantly higher in the forest and increased gradually toward the tundra. The exchangeable base cations (Ca, Mg, and K) were only predictable at the scale of individual trees with greater concentrations downwind of trees. Resin bag available N was rarely predictable at any spatial scale, but was correlated among seasons. While the ecotone is in many ways a gradual transition from alpine tundra to subalpine forest, patterns observed across this vegetation gradient were often replicated on the scale of individual trees: downwind of trees was more similar to the forest, and upwind of trees was more similar to the tundra. No single spatial scale or gradient can provide uniform generalities about the amounts or fluxes of materials that determine the soil properties of this ecotone.

Liptzin, Daniel; Seastedt, Timothy R.

2009-12-01

184

Continuous operation of commercial-scale plasma–chemical aftertreatment system of smoke tube boiler emission with oxidation reduction potential and pH control  

Microsoft Academic Search

NOx removal from an actual boiler flue gas is investigated using an indirect plasma and chemical hybrid system comprising a commercial ozonizer and an Na2SO3 chemical scrubber. A high NOx removal efficiency in the continuous operation of a commercial-scale apparatus is achieved by controlling pH and oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and injecting additional Na2SO3 and NaOH aqueous solutions into the

Tomoyuki Kuroki; Hidekatsu Fujishima; Keiichi Otsuka; Tomohiro Ito; Masaaki Okubo; Toshiaki Yamamoto; Keiichiro Yoshida

2008-01-01

185

Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system: Phase 3, Quarterly progress report No. 9, October 1, 1992December 31, 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, etc. These buildings generally require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu\\/hr. Objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry

A. F. Litka; R. W. Breault

1993-01-01

186

Thermal-hydrological analysis of large-scale thermal tests in the exploratory studies facility at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

In situ thermal tests, which are to be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, will provide a major portion of the experimental basis supporting the validation of coupled thermal-hydrological-geomechanical-geochemicaI (T-H-M-C) process models required to assess the total system performance at the site. With respect to advective rock dryout, we have identified three major T-H flow regimes: (1) throttled, nonbuoyant, advective rock dryout; (2) unthrottled, nonbuoyant, advective rock dryout; and (3) unthrottled, buoyant, advective rock dryout. With the V-TOUGH code, we modeled a range of heater test sizes, heating rates, and heating durations under a range of plausible hydrological conditions to help optimize an in situ thermal test design that provides sufficient information for determining (a) the dominant mode(s) of heat flow, (b) the major T-H regime(s) and processes (such as vapor diffusion) that govern the magnitude and direction of vapor and condensate flow, and (c) the influence of heterogeneous properties and conditions on the flow of heat, vapor, and condensate. For the plate thermal test, which uniformly heats a disk-shaped area, we evaluated a wide range of test areas, ranging from 50 to 5077 m{sup 2}. We evaluated the single-drift thermal test, which consists of a row of large-waste-package-sized heaters sitting on the floor of the heater drift, and then developed an optimized thermal test configuration, called the single-drift, winged thermal test, in which the heater drift is flanked by wing heater arrays. For this configuration, we considered three heating schedules (with 1-, 2-, and 4-yr full-power heating periods) and three heating rates (122, 177, and 236 W/m{sup 2}). For determining the dominant T-H regime(s) and dominant heat-flow mode(s), the most important diagnostic measurements are vertical temperature and gas-phase pressure profiles and gas-phase pressure and relative humidity RH histories in the drift.

Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

1996-02-20

187

Analysis of Fine-Scale Feldspar Zoning and Groundmass by FE-EMPA: An Example from the Jemez Mountains Volcanic Field, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative analysis of mineral phases by electron microprobe analysis using a thermal field emission source (FE-EMPA) provides several important advantages compared to EMPA analysis with the more conventional tungsten filament source. The FE-EMPA provides a significant increase in resolution, with the potential for sub-micron quantitative analyses critical for fine-scale zonation. Additionally, a higher beam current may be applied at lower accelerating voltage (~5 KeV) while still retaining a small spot size and sampling volume (smaller zone of excitation), thus allowing for analysis of very small particles without exciting X-rays from the surrounding material. This application is therefore ideally suited for groundmass phase analysis. To test FE-EMPA applications we have focused on several samples of feldspar zonation and groundmass textures from andesites and dacites (63-68 wt% SiO2) from the Tschicoma Formation in the Jemez Mountain Volcanic Field, New Mexico. Prior whole rock geochemical studies have suggested that that the Tschicoma andesites and dacites are generated primarily by magma mixing between crustal material and more primitive basaltic andesites. A variety of complex textures are observed petrographically in the dacites including rapid growth and inclusion entrapment, strongly resorbed zones, regrowth, and very fine-scale oscillatory zoning. Oscillatory zoning is also evident in groundmass feldspar from several samples. Using the natural oscillatory zoning we will present results demonstrating the combined effects of adjusting beam current and accelerating voltage to optimize the spatial resolution of the quantitative analyses. Fine spatial resolution allows us to better constrain rim compositions and compare these directly to feldspar compositions from the fine-grained groundmass. The combination of very fine-scale zoning profiles, with precise rim and groundmass compositions significantly improves our ability to interpret the growth history of individual grains and therefore allows us to redefine our petrogenetic models in environments of complex magma evolution.

Rowe, M. C.; Wolff, J. A.; Cornelius, S.

2010-12-01

188

Spatial Heterogeneity in Ecologically Important Climate Variables at Coarse and Fine Scales in a High-Snow Mountain Landscape  

PubMed Central

Climate plays an important role in determining the geographic ranges of species. With rapid climate change expected in the coming decades, ecologists have predicted that species ranges will shift large distances in elevation and latitude. However, most range shift assessments are based on coarse-scale climate models that ignore fine-scale heterogeneity and could fail to capture important range shift dynamics. Moreover, if climate varies dramatically over short distances, some populations of certain species may only need to migrate tens of meters between microhabitats to track their climate as opposed to hundreds of meters upward or hundreds of kilometers poleward. To address these issues, we measured climate variables that are likely important determinants of plant species distributions and abundances (snow disappearance date and soil temperature) at coarse and fine scales at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington State, USA. Coarse-scale differences across the landscape such as large changes in elevation had expected effects on climatic variables, with later snow disappearance dates and lower temperatures at higher elevations. However, locations separated by small distances (?20 m), but differing by vegetation structure or topographic position, often experienced differences in snow disappearance date and soil temperature as great as locations separated by large distances (>1 km). Tree canopy gaps and topographic depressions experienced later snow disappearance dates than corresponding locations under intact canopy and on ridges. Additionally, locations under vegetation and on topographic ridges experienced lower maximum and higher minimum soil temperatures. The large differences in climate we observed over small distances will likely lead to complex range shift dynamics and could buffer species from the negative effects of climate change.

Ford, Kevin R.; Ettinger, Ailene K.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Raleigh, Mark S.; Hille Ris Lambers, Janneke

2013-01-01

189

Spatial heterogeneity in ecologically important climate variables at coarse and fine scales in a high-snow mountain landscape.  

PubMed

Climate plays an important role in determining the geographic ranges of species. With rapid climate change expected in the coming decades, ecologists have predicted that species ranges will shift large distances in elevation and latitude. However, most range shift assessments are based on coarse-scale climate models that ignore fine-scale heterogeneity and could fail to capture important range shift dynamics. Moreover, if climate varies dramatically over short distances, some populations of certain species may only need to migrate tens of meters between microhabitats to track their climate as opposed to hundreds of meters upward or hundreds of kilometers poleward. To address these issues, we measured climate variables that are likely important determinants of plant species distributions and abundances (snow disappearance date and soil temperature) at coarse and fine scales at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington State, USA. Coarse-scale differences across the landscape such as large changes in elevation had expected effects on climatic variables, with later snow disappearance dates and lower temperatures at higher elevations. However, locations separated by small distances (?20 m), but differing by vegetation structure or topographic position, often experienced differences in snow disappearance date and soil temperature as great as locations separated by large distances (>1 km). Tree canopy gaps and topographic depressions experienced later snow disappearance dates than corresponding locations under intact canopy and on ridges. Additionally, locations under vegetation and on topographic ridges experienced lower maximum and higher minimum soil temperatures. The large differences in climate we observed over small distances will likely lead to complex range shift dynamics and could buffer species from the negative effects of climate change. PMID:23762277

Ford, Kevin R; Ettinger, Ailene K; Lundquist, Jessica D; Raleigh, Mark S; Hille Ris Lambers, Janneke

2013-06-07

190

Quantifying the effects of mountain pine beetle infestation on water and biogeochemical cycles at multiple spatial and temporal scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unprecedented levels of bark beetle infestation over the last decade have radically altered forest structure across millions of hectares of Western U.S. montane environments. The widespread extent of this disturbance presents a major challenge for governments and resource managers who lack a predictive understanding of how water and biogeochemical cycles will respond to this disturbance over various temporal and spatial scales. There is a widespread perception, largely based on hydrological responses to fire or logging, that a reduction in both transpiration and interception following tree death will increase soil water availability and catchment water yield. However, few studies have directly addressed the effects of insect-induced forest decline on water and biogeochemical cycling. We address this knowledge gap using observations and modeling at scales from 100 to 109 m2 across study sites in CO and WY that vary in the intensity and timing of beetle infestation and tree death. Our focus on multiple sites with different levels of impact allows us to address two broad, organizing questions: How do changes in vegetation structure associated with MPB alter the partitioning of energy and water? And How do these changes in energy and water availability affect local to regional scale water and biogeochemical cycles? This presentation will focus primarily on energy balance and water partitioning, providing context for ongoing biogeochemical work. During the growing season, stand-scale transpiration declines rapidly and soil moisture increases following infestation, consistent with streamflow data from regional catchments that shows an increase in baseflow following widespread attack. During the winter and spring, stand scale snow surveys and continuous snow depth sensors suggested that the variability in snow cover decreased as the severity of beetle impact increases, but there were no significant stand-scale differences in snow depth among levels of impact. This is due both to an increase in snow under the canopies of dead trees and a decrease in snow cover in canopy gaps. For example, mean snow depth under the canopy was 86cm (CV 0.02) in unimpacted sites and 95cm (CV 0.05) in heavily impacted sites. In canopy gaps however, mean snow depth was 117cm (CV 0.11) in unimpacted sites but only 93cm (CV 0.07) in heavily impacted sites. At the watershed scale, bark beetle infestation was more likely to decrease the amount of both snowmelt and annual runoff, suggesting that the opening of the canopy increases sublimation and evaporation of the snow cover. These data suggest that the disturbance due to bark beetle infestation is both quantitatively and qualitatively different than either fire or logging. Using these observations, we develop a conceptual model for evaluating how biotic and abiotic processes couple water and biogeochemical cycles in forest ecosystems.

Brooks, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; Somor, A. J.; Troch, P. A.; Gochis, D. J.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Biederman, J. A.; Reed, D.; Barnard, H. R.; Whitehouse, F.; Aston, T.; Borkhuu, B.

2010-12-01

191

A Basin-Averaged Water Balance Approach to Estimate Catchment-Scale Groundwater Flow in a Semi-arid Mountainous Catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantification of the contribution of groundwater flow from highland areas of mountainous watersheds to semi-arid and arid valley bottom unconsolidated aquifers is increasingly needed for the assessment of water resources in many populated areas. In mountainous environments, however, data for Darcy equation parameters are limited, leading to uncertainty in estimates of groundwater flow of up to two or more orders

L. A. Neilson-Welch; R. Allard; D. Geller; D. M. Allen

2008-01-01

192

An evaluation of the Robinson M-1 commercial scale demonstration of enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood  

SciTech Connect

A commercial scale micellar-polymer project was conducted in the Robinson Sand of the M-1 project in southwestern Illinois. The project utilized a crude oil sulfonate surfactant system to flood the reservoir which, at the time of the project, was in an advanced stage of waterflood depletion. Injected fluids consisted of a 0.10 pore volume crude oil sulfonate slug, a 1.05 pore volume graded mobility slug using Dow Pusher 700, and a drive water slug to depletion. Micellar injection started in 1977. By December, 1986, overall operations in the 2.5-acre pattern area were uneconomical while polymer injection was continuing in the 5.0-acre pattern area. Depletion of the 5.0-acre pattern area is forecast for 1991 or sooner. Ultimate oil recovery is estimated at 1,397,000 barrels with cumulative oil recovery at December, 1986, of 1,299,000 barrels. Although the crude oil sulfonate system successfully mobilized and produced waterflood residual oil, the project was not economic because of both lower than anticipated recovery and higher than expected operating costs. The lower than anticipated recovery is attributed to poor volumetric sweep efficiency and salinity/hardness effects. 7 refs., 54 figs., 25 tabs.

Cole, E.L.

1988-12-01

193

Commercial scale demonstration enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Annual report, October 1979-September 1980  

SciTech Connect

This commercial scale test, known as the M-1 Project, is located in Crawford County, Illinois. It encompasses 407 acres of Robinson sand reservoir and covers portions of several waterflood projects that were approaching economic limit. The project includes 248 acres developed on a 2.4-acre five-spot pattern and 159 acres developed on a 5.0-acre five-spot pattern. Development work commenced in late 1974 and has previously been reported. Micellar solution (slug) injection was initiated on February 10, 1977, and is now completed. After 10% of a pore volume of micellar slug was injected, injection of 11% pore volume of Dow 700 Pusher polymer was conducted at a concentration of 1156 ppM. At the end of this reporting period, 625 ppM polymer was being injected into the 2.5-acre pattern and 800 ppM polymer was being injected into the 5.0-acre pattern. The oil cut of the 2.5 and 5.0-acre patterns increased from 8.6% and 5.2%, respectively in September 1979, to 11.0% and 5.9% in September 1980. The oil cut performance has consistently exceeded that predicted for the project. This Fourth Annual Report is organized under the following three Work Breakdown Structures: fluid injection; production; and performance monitoring.

Howell, J.C.; Snyder, W.O.

1981-04-01

194

Small scale heterogeneity of Phanerozoic lower crust: evidence from isotopic and geochemical systematics of mid-Cretaceous granulite gneisses, San Gabriel Mountains, southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An elongate belt of mid-Cretaceous, compositionally banded gneisses and granulites is exposed in Cucamonga terrane, in the southeastern foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. Banded gneisses include mafic granulites of two geochemical types: type 1 rocks are similar to high Al arc basalts and andesites but have higher HFSE (high-field-strength-element) abundances and extremely variable LILE (largeion-lithophile-element) abundances, while type 2 rocks are relatively low in Al and similar to alkali rich MOR (midocean-ridge) or intraplate basalts. Intercalated with mafic granulites are paragneisses which include felsic granulites, aluminous gneisses, marble, and calc-silicate gneisses. Type 1 mafic granulites and calcic trondhjemitic pegmatites also oceur as cross-cutting, synmetamorphic dikes or small plutons. Small-scale heterogeneity of deep continental crust is indicated by the lithologic and isotopic diversity of intercalated ortho-and paragneisses exposed in Cucamonga terrane. Geochemical and isotopic data indicate that K, Rb, and U depletion and Sm/Nd fractionation were associated with biotite +/- muscovite dehydration reactions in type 1 mafic granulites and aluminous gneisses during high-grade metamorphism. Field relations and model initial isotopic ratios imply a wide range of protolith ages, ranging from Early Proterozoic to Phanerozoic. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

Barth, A. P.; Wooden, J. L.; May, D. J.

1992-01-01

195

Pre-test simulations of laboratory-scale heater experiments in tuff. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-scale heater experiments are Proposed to observe thermohydrologic Processes in tuffaceous rock using existing equipment and x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the experiments is to gain understanding of the near-field behavior and thermodynamic environment surrounding a heat source. As a prelude to these experiments, numerical simulations are performed to determine design-related parameters such as optimal heating power and heating duration. In addition, the simulations aid in identifying and understanding thermal processes and mechanisms that may occur under a variety of experimental conditions. Results of the simulations show that convection may play an important role in the heat transfer and thermodynamic environment of the heater if the Rayleigh-Darcy number exceeds a critical value (= 10 for the laboratory experiments) depending on the type of backfill material within the annulus (or drift).

Ho, Clifford K.

1995-09-01

196

Transport of Radon Gas into a Tunnel at Yucca Mountain-Estimating Large-Scale Fractured Tuff Hydraulic Properties and Implications for the Operation of the Ventilation System  

SciTech Connect

Radon gas concentrations have been monitored as part of the operation of a tunnel (the Exploratory Studies Facility-ESF) at Yucca Mountain to ensure worker safety. The objective of this study was to examine the potential use of the radon data to estimate large-scale formation properties of fractured tuffs. This objective was examined by developing a numerical model, based upon the characteristics of the ESF and the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) tuff unit, capable of predicting radon concentrations for prescribed ventilation conditions. The model was used to address two specific issues. First, it was used to estimate the permeability and porosity of the fractures in the TSw at the length scale of the ESF and extending tens of meters into the TSw, which surrounds the ESF. Second, the model was used to understand the mechanism leading to radon concentrations exceeding a specified level within the ESF. The mechanism controlling radon concentrations in the ESF is a function of atmospheric barometric fluctuations being propagated down the ESF along with ventilated air flow and the slight suction induced by the ventilation exhaust fans at the South Portal of the ESF. These pressure fluctuations are dampened in the TSw fracture continuum according to its permeability and porosity. Consequently, as the barometric pressure in the ESF drops rapidly, formation gases from the TSw are pulled into the ESF, resulting in an increase in radon concentrations. Model calibration to both radon concentrations measured in the ESF and gas-phase pressure fluctuations in the TSw yielded concurrent estimates of TSw fracture permeability and porosity of l x 10{sup -11} m{sup 2} and 0.00034, respectively. The calibrated model was then used as a design tool to predict the effect of adjusting the current ventilation-system operation strategy for reducing the probability of radon gas concentrations exceeding a specified level.

A. Unger; S. Finsterle; G. Bodvarsson

2003-06-06

197

Scaling Properties Of Flash-Flood And Snowmelt Dominated Steep Low-Order Streams In Central Texas And The Cascade Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Channel geometry, grain size, slope, and morphology are examined as a function of drainage area for steep, low-oder streams in two different climates. The first is for the steep, flash-flood dominated bedrock and mixed bedrock-alluvial streams found along the Balcones Escarpment in central Texas. In this region extremely heavy and localized rainfall due to convective thunderstorms and moist air from the Gulf of Mexico combine with thin soil layers to produce some of the largest runoff conditions in the United States. Such storms, soil conditions, and basin physiography make for unique conditions where significant transport of sediment often takes place during rapid episodic events. Therefore, the question is put forward as to how stream morphology and channel geometry develop under such conditions and whether or not stream properties scale as they would in perennial rivers. To aid in the analysis, data from the Balcones Escarpment streams are compared with data from low-order mountain streams in the Pacific Northwest. Channel property scaling in both regions is then compared to classic relationships for higher-order gravel bed rivers. Particular care is given in the analysis in differentiating between bedrock and alluvial rivers, and between flash flood and snowmelt dominated climates. The data and analysis serve to inform the role that climatic forcing has on the development of stream network geometry and the routing of water and sediment through the watershed. Additionally, the simple relations for stream properties can provide needed information to couple with DEMs and rainfall data for predicting water and sediment distribution in basins with little to no on the ground channel information.

Machado, G.; Strom, K. B.

2011-12-01

198

Scaling of Carbon Cycle Processes in a Mountain Ecosystem Using Isotopes of Respired Carbon Dioxide in Nocturnal Cold-air Drainage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nocturnal air drainage in mountain ecosystems offers a unique opportunity for scaling of carbon cycle processes in complex terrain using stable isotopes. We have found that more than half of ecosystem-respired CO2 can be transferred advectively from a small (100 ha) watershed at night, and the range of CO2 concentrations in the air collected from a 37 m tower situated at the base of the watershed is sufficient for Keeling plot analysis to determine the carbon isotope composition of ecosystem-respired CO2, or ?13CR-eco. We now seek to determine, 1) What is the spatial "footprint" of ?13CR- eco measurements, and how does this footprint vary over time? 2) What is the relationship between ?13CR-eco and measurements of isofluxes from soils and foliage across a range of specific sites in the watershed? 3) What is the relationship between ?13CR-eco and carbon cycle processes in the watershed? To answer these questions we conducted extensive measurements of atmospheric processes, augmented by experimental releases of an inert gas (SF6) in collaboration with Dr. Brian Lamb, Washington State University. We installed and instrumented eight plots along a ridge-to-ridge transect; we are continuously measuring above- and belowground microclimate in all plots and in a subset of plots we are continuously measuring sapflow and periodically measuring soil and leaf respiration and their isotopic composition. Atmospheric analyses indicated that air collected for Keeling plot analysis represented a well-mixed sample of all or nearly all of the watershed, and for several hours of most nights this footprint was stable. Respiratory fluxes and isofluxes from both soils and foliage varied both temporally and spatially; the variation among plots was often greater than the temporal variation of a particular plot over the growing season. Scaled to the ecosystem level, respiratory fluxes from foliage exceeded soil fluxes by as much as a factor of two, and fluxes from the south-facing slope were significantly and consistently greater than from the north- facing slope. Consistent with these findings and with atmospheric analyses, ?13CR-eco measured at the tower appeard to be related more closely with concurrent rather than lagged canopy processes, and influenced by conditions throughout the watershed rather than proximal to the tower. We are developing an ecohydrological modeling approach to explore these relationships in more detail. Ultimately we hope to "invert" the model to use ?13CR-eco to monitor carbon cycle processes at the watershed scale on a continuing basis.

Bond, B. J.; Barnard, H.; Conklin, D.; Hauck, M.; Kayler, Z.; Mix, A. C.; Phillips, C.; Pypker, T.; Sulzman, E.; Unsworth, M.

2006-12-01

199

Performance evaluation of a pilot-scale permeable reactive barrier at former Naval Air Station Moffett Field, Mountain View, California: Volume 1. Final report, April 1996--November 1998  

SciTech Connect

A pilot scale permeable reactive barrier (PRB) or treatment wall demonstration project was initiated by the US Navy EFA West at the former Naval Air Station Moffett Field site in Mountain View, California about 3 years ago. Performance evaluations and cost-benefit analyses were performed by the US Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and were sponsored by the Department of Defense (DoD) Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP). The Moffett Field PRB uses a funnel-and-gate design, where the funnel is made of interlocking steel sheet piles and the gate consists of a reactive cell filled with zero-valent granular iron. Since its construction in April 1996, groundwater monitoring was conducted on a quarterly basis to demonstrate the effectiveness of the barrier technology in capturing and remediating groundwater that contained dissolved chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds. The primary contaminants of concern at Moffett Field in the vicinity of the PRB are trichloroethene, cis-1,2 dichloroethene, and perchloroethene at upgradient concentrations of about 2900 micrograms per liter, 280 micrograms/L, and 26 microgram/L, respectively. Quarterly monitoring events included water level measurements, field parameter testing, and groundwater sampling at about 75 monitoring points. Two tracer tests using bromide solutions and flow meter testing were also completed in April and August 1997 at the site. Iron cell coring samples were collected and analyzed in December 1997 for use as indicators of reactivity and longevity. Data from the quarterly monitoring, tracer testing, and iron cell coring have been used to determine the overall barrier performance. Since the first sampling event in June 1996, concentrations of all chlorinated compounds were either reduced to non-detect or to below the drinking water maximum contaminant levels within the first 2-3 feet of the permeable iron cell.

Reeter, C.; Gavaskar, A.; Sass, B.; Gupta, N.; Hicks, J.

1998-11-01

200

Analysis of Thermally Induced Changes in Fractured Rock Permeability during Eight Years of Heating and Cooling at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed a data set of thermally induced changes in fractured rock permeability during a four-year heating (up to 200 C) and subsequent four-year cooling of a large volume, partially saturated and highly fractured volcanic tuff at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test, in Nevada, USA. Permeability estimates were derived from about 700 pneumatic (air-injection) tests, taken periodically at 44 packed-off borehole intervals during the heating and cooling cycle from November 1997 through November 2005. We analyzed air-permeability data by numerical modeling of thermally induced stress and moisture movements and their impact on air permeability within the highly fractured rock. Our analysis shows that changes in air permeability during the initial four-year heating period, which were limited to about one order of magnitude, were caused by the combined effects of thermal-mechanically-induced stress on fracture aperture and thermal-hydrologically-induced changes in fracture moisture content. At the end of the subsequent four-year cooling period, air-permeability decreases (to as low as 0.2 of initial) and increases (to as high as 1.8 of initial) were observed. By comparison to the calculated thermo-hydro-elastic model results, we identified these remaining increases or decreases in air permeability as irreversible changes in intrinsic fracture permeability, consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). In this paper, we discuss the possibility that such fracture asperity shortening and associated decrease in fracture permeability might be enhanced by dissolution of highly stressed surface asperities over years of elevated stress and temperature.

Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Min, K.-B.; Elsworth, D.; Tsang, Y.

2008-06-01

201

Magnificent Mountains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One way to increase awareness of endangered national heritage is to teach youth the importance of the land through the study of selected works of art. This article describes a lesson, in which students will study the work of Thomas Moran and create a mountain range collage. A short biography of Thomas Moran is included.|

Anderson, Heather

2004-01-01

202

Mountain Sickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HAVE just come back from a journey in the region of the Andes, and in looking over the numbers of NATURE, which had accumulated during my absence, I came across the extract, which you make in your notes of February 21, from the Revue Scientifique, on the subject of mountain sickness. I cannot agree with M. Kronecker's statement that

George Griffith

1895-01-01

203

Assessment of physical risk factors for the shoulder using the Posture, Activity, Tools, and Handling (PATH) method in small-scale commercial crab pot fishing.  

PubMed

An observational work-sampling technique--Posture, Activity, Tools, and Handling (PATH)--was used to describe the prevalence of awkward postures and other physical risk factors for shoulder symptoms among a purposive sample of 11 small-scale commercial crab pot fishing crews. Fishing activities with awkward shoulder postures included hooking the buoy, feeding the rope into the hydraulic puller, and handling the crab pots. Increasing the size of the crew decreased the frequency of awkward shoulder postures for the captain but not for the mate. Awkward shoulder postures varied by technique, task distribution, equipment, and boat characteristics and setup, indicating these factors may be important determinants of exposure. Care should be taken in assuming personal techniques drives ergonomic exposure variability among these small-scale commercial fishermen. PMID:20954035

Kucera, Kristen L; Lipscomb, Hester J

2010-10-01

204

Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of a series of lessons in a continuing study of change. It is designed to give students hands-on experience manipulating and controlling the variables involved in the process of soil erosion. They will be able to identify variables that influence rates of change and use group consensus to design and build what they believe to be the strongest mountain possible.

1998-01-01

205

Mountains: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the lessons from "Mountain: A Global Resource" that were developed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and The Mountain Institute for use by NCSS members and their students. Provides an overview that introduces the mountains, mountain cultures, historical perceptions, and the geographical importance of mountains. (CMK)

Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

1999-01-01

206

The field tradition in mountain geomorphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fieldwork has a long and honored tradition in mountain geomorphology, and justifiably so. Many features and processes present in mountains occur at fine to very fine spatial scales that simply do not lend themselves well to analyses via remote methods. The nature of the sampling of data in mountain environments also constrains the use of computational techniques, such as GIS, in favor of on-site data collection. In addition, when one is present in the field in mountains, the dynamic nature of the landscape often provides unexpected rewards that could not be planned for in a campaign of remote analysis. These aspects of scale, sampling, and serendipity make on-site fieldwork still the preferred method for geomorphological research in mountain environments. Several examples of features occurring at fine spatial scale that could only be effectively examined in the field are presented in this paper, as well as examples of data sampling occurring at fine scale. I also illustrate several instances where being on-site, at a specific unexpected moment, in the dynamic mountain environment provided scientific insight that could only be obtained through the serendipity of being there. Why continue to conduct geomorphological fieldwork in mountains? "Because the mountains are there"!

Butler, David R.

2013-10-01

207

Analysis of products from the pyrolysis of plastics recovered from the commercial scale recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three plastic fractions from a commercial waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) processing plant were collected and investigated for the possibility of recycling them by batch pyrolysis. The first plastic was from equipment containing cathode ray tubes (CRTs), the second plastic was from refrigeration equipment, and the third plastic was from mixed WEEE. Initially, the decomposition of each of the

William J. Hall; Paul T. Williams

2007-01-01

208

Hydrocarbonization process evaluation report. Volume I. Conceptual design and cost estimate of a commercial-scale facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary design and an economic evaluation of a Hydrocarbonization Facility based on United States Steel Corporation's Clean Coke process are presented. Volume I includes the conceptual design and cost estimate of a commercial facility for producing clean char, oil, and pipeline gas fuels having a heating value comparable to 100,000 bbl of fuel oil per day. Volume II of

J. M. Holmes; D. A. Dyslin; M. S. Edwards; D. S. Joy; G. R. Peterson; C. B. Smith; P. M. Lantz

1977-01-01

209

Rapid large scale purification of ellagitannins from pomegranate husk, a by-product of the commercial juice industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed fresh and in processed forms as juice, jams and wine. Pomegranate fruit husk\\/peel is a rich source of hydrolyzable tannins called ellagitannins (ETs). In the commercial pomegranate juice (PJ) industry, these ETs are extracted from the husk in significant quantities into the juice due to their hydrophilic properties. Pomegranate husk, a by-product

N. Seeram; R. Lee; M. Hardy; D. Heber

2005-01-01

210

2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

211

Advancement in the modeling of pressure-flow for the guidance of development and scale-up of commercial-scale biopharmaceutical chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the advancements made in the modeling of open column and packed bed pressure-flow. The theoretical description is a one-dimensional elasticity model. By accounting for the loss of intra-particle porosity through empiricism, and by systematically selecting the functional form of the elastic modulus from stress–strain data, this model can accurately predict several kinds of large-scale behavior from small-scale

Ronald N. Keener; Erik J. Fernandez; James E. Maneval; Roger A. Hart

2008-01-01

212

Solar photocatalytic degradation of commercial textile azo dyes: Performance of pilot plant scale thin film fixed-bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performances of solar photocatalytic pilot plant using TiO2-P25 (Degussa) were investigated for removal of commercial azo dye chosen as model compound. Experiments were carried out to optimize various parameters, influencing the performance of the operated thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR) with an area of 25 m2. The results showed kinetic dependency on flow rate, catalyst loading, and initial dye concentration. The

Ghanem Zayani; Latifa Bousselmi; Farouk Mhenni; Ahmed Ghrabi

2009-01-01

213

Financing Small-Scale Industry and Agriculture in Developing Countries: The Merits and Limitations of 'Commercial' Policies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses how two factors lead to an unwillingness of financial institutions to finance small-scale industry and agriculture in developing countries: (a) controls on interest rates, and (b) the initially high risks and administrative costs invol...

D. Anderson F. Khambata

1982-01-01

214

Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.; Balsavich, J.

1992-01-01

215

Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

1992-05-01

216

Climatology of summer midtropospheric perturbations in the US northern plains. Part II: large-scale effects of the Rocky Mountains on genesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propagating convective storms across the US northern plains are often coupled with preexisting midtropospheric perturbations\\u000a (MPs) initiated over the Rocky Mountains. A companion study (Part I) notes that such MPs occur most commonly at 12 UTC (early\\u000a morning) and 00 UTC (late afternoon). Using a regional reanalysis and a general circulation model (GCM), this study investigates\\u000a how such a bimodal

Shih-Yu Wang; Tsing-Chang Chen; Eugene S. Takle

2011-01-01

217

A Large-scale, Multihabitat Inventory of the Phylum Tardigrada in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA: A Preliminary Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI) is underway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP), with the goal of\\u000a attempting to identify all species of life in the 2000 km2 park. The GSMNP is a hotbed of biodiversity, a U.N. Biosphere Reserve, and one of the largest protected, deciduous forests\\u000a in the temperate world. We have completed two field seasons

Paul J. Bartels; Diane R. Nelson

2006-01-01

218

Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission: Science from Geostationary Orbit on-board a Commercial Communications Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geostationary orbits are ideal for many science investigations of the Earth system on global scales. These orbits allow continuous observations of the same geographic region, enabling spatial and temporal changes to be distinguished and eliminating the ambiguity inherent to observations from low Earth orbit (LEO). Just as observations from geostationary orbit have revolutionized our understanding of changes in the troposphere, they will dramatically improve our understanding of the space environment at higher altitudes. However, geostationary orbits are infrequently used for science missions because of high costs. Geostationary satellites are large, typically weighing tons. Consequently, devoting an entire satellite to a science mission requires a large financial commitment, both for the spacecraft itself and for sufficient science instrumentation to justify a dedicated spacecraft. Furthermore, the small number of geostationary satellites produced for scientific missions increases the costs of each satellite. For these reasons, it is attractive to consider flying scientific instruments on satellites operated by commercial companies, some of whom have fleets of ~40 satellites. However, scientists' lack of understanding of the capabilities of commercial spacecraft as well as commercial companies' concerns about risks to their primary mission have impeded the cooperation necessary for the shared use of a spacecraft. Working with a commercial partner, the GOLD mission has successfully overcome these issues. Our experience indicates that there are numerous benefits to flying on commercial communications satellites (e.g., it is possible to downlink large amounts of data) and the costs are low if the experimental requirements adequately match the capabilities and available resources of the host spacecraft. Consequently, affordable access to geostationary orbit aboard a communications satellite now appears possible for science payloads.

Eastes, R.; Deaver, T.; Krywonos, A.; Lankton, M. R.; McClintock, W. E.; Pang, R.

2011-12-01

219

Atomic scale observation and characterization of redox-induced interfacial layers in commercial Si thin film photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamics considerations and experimental evidence suggest that redox reactions occur at the interfaces between transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) and the active silicon layers in photovoltaic stacks, with potentially nefarious effects to device efficiency. The presence of interfacial layers of oxidized silicon and reduced metal is confirmed here with analytical depth profiling techniques in industrially produced Si thin film solar cells. Atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy loss spectroscopy are used to show that the specific chemistry of the interface, the front TCO being Sn-rich while the back TCO is Zn-rich, has a strong influence on the size of the resulting interfacial layer. Furthermore, the morphology of the interface and the impact of annealing treatments are also studied, leading to suggestions for possible improvements of commercial device efficiency.

Ramasse, Quentin; Anapolsky, Abraham; Lazik, Christopher; Jin, Miao; Armstrong, Karl; Wang, Dapeng

2009-02-01

220

Monomer composition and sequence of sodium alginate extracted at pilot plant scale from three commercially important seaweeds from Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine waters of the Baja California peninsula (Mexico) are a rich source of brown seaweeds with a great potential for\\u000a exploitation. For that reason, Sargassum sinicola, Eisenia arborea, and Macrocystis pyrifera collected from different locations were subjected to extraction of sodium alginate using a pilot-plant scale process developed\\u000a in our facilities. The composition and sequence parameters of the recovered

Jesús Iván Murillo-Álvarez; Gustavo Hernández-Carmona

2007-01-01

221

Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system: Phase 2, Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, April 1, 1992--June 20, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for the commercial sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS) fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen Inc. under contract to the Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr. will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 million Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems. This report documents the work carried out in the seventh quarter of the program. During this period, proof-of-concept tests aimed at eliminating ash accumulation in the combustor and boiler were conducted. A compressed air soot blower system was installed on the boiler and combustor design changes implemented to reduced direct impingement of slurry on the upper chamber partition. As part of this testing, emission performance goals using Kentucky Hazard Prince Mine coal water slurry were met. Also, during this period the automatic control system for the system was installed and operation with this system was implemented.

Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

1992-08-01

222

A quality assurance initiative for commercial-scale production in high-throughput cryopreservation of blue catfish sperm.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation of fish sperm has been studied for decades at a laboratory (research) scale. However, high-throughput cryopreservation of fish sperm has recently been developed to enable industrial-scale production. This study treated blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) sperm high-throughput cryopreservation as a manufacturing production line and initiated quality assurance plan development. The main objectives were to identify: (1) the main production quality characteristics; (2) the process features for quality assurance; (3) the internal quality characteristics and their specification designs; (4) the quality control and process capability evaluation methods, and (5) the directions for further improvements and applications. The essential product quality characteristics were identified as fertility-related characteristics. Specification design which established the tolerance levels according to demand and process constraints was performed based on these quality characteristics. Meanwhile, to ensure integrity throughout the process, internal quality characteristics (characteristics at each quality control point within process) that could affect fertility-related quality characteristics were defined with specifications. Due to the process feature of 100% inspection (quality inspection of every fish), a specific calculation method, use of cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts, was applied to monitor each quality characteristic. An index of overall process evaluation, process capacity, was analyzed based on in-control process and the designed specifications, which further integrates the quality assurance plan. With the established quality assurance plan, the process could operate stably and quality of products would be reliable. PMID:23872356

Hu, E; Liao, T W; Tiersch, T R

2013-07-18

223

Scale Matters: An Action Plan for Realizing Sector-Wide"Zero-Energy" Performance Goals in Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

It is widely accepted that if the United States is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions it must aggressively address energy end use in the building sector. While there have been some notable but modest successes with mandatory and voluntary programs, there have also been puzzling failures to achieve expected savings. Collectively, these programs have not yet reached the majority of the building stock, nor have they yet routinely produced very large savings in individual buildings. Several trends that have the potential to change this are noteworthy: (1) the growing market interest in 'green buildings' and 'sustainable design', (2) the major professional societies (e.g. AIA, ASHRAE) have more aggressively adopted significant improvements in energy efficiency as strategic goals, e.g. targeting 'zero energy', carbon-neutral buildings by 2030. While this vision is widely accepted as desirable, unless there are significant changes to the way buildings are routinely designed, delivered and operated, zero energy buildings will remain a niche phenomenon rather than a sector-wide reality. Toward that end, a public/private coalition including the Alliance to Save Energy, LBNL, AIA, ASHRAE, USGBC and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) are developing an 'action plan' for moving the U.S. commercial building sector towards zero energy performance. It addresses regional action in a national framework; integrated deployment, demonstration and R&D threads; and would focus on measurable, visible performance indicators. This paper outlines this action plan, focusing on the challenge, the key themes, and the strategies and actions leading to substantial reductions in GHG emissions by 2030.

Selkowitz, Stephen; Selkowitz, Stephen; Granderson, Jessica; Haves, Philip; Mathew, Paul; Harris, Jeff

2008-06-16

224

Three-Dimensional Fractal Mountains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study provides a guide to a series of systematic techniques used to create fractal mountains. The fractal mountains are created through an Interactive System for Fractal Mountains (ISFM). To create the fractal mountains in ISFM a modified midpoint di...

P. J. Collins

1988-01-01

225

Warming permafrost in European mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present the first systematic measurements of European mountain permafrost temperatures from a latitudinal transect of six boreholes extending from the Alps, through Scandinavia to Svalbard. Boreholes were drilled in bedrock to depths of at least 100 m between May 1998 and September 2000. Geothermal profiles provide evidence for regional-scale secular warming, since all are nonlinear, with near-surface warm-side

Charles Harris; Daniel Vonder Mühll; Ketil Isaksen; Wilfried Haeberli; Johan Ludvig Sollid; Lorenz King; Per Holmlund; Francesco Dramis; Mauro Guglielmin; David Palacios

2003-01-01

226

Prediction of mountain stream morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a large and diverse data set from mountain streams around the world to explore relationships between reach-scale channel morphology and control variables. The data set includes 177 step-pool reaches, 44 plane-bed reaches, and 114 pool-riffle reaches from the western United States, Panama, and New Zealand. We performed several iterations of stepwise discriminant analysis on these data. A three-variable

Ellen Wohl; David Merritt

2005-01-01

227

Lesson 2: Sacred Mountains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson in which the students are divided into four Mountain Study Teams in order to examine a sacred mountain. Explains that the students in each group assume a particular role, such as an historian or scientist. Provides a profile on the four mountains and a definition of the seven student roles. (CMK)

Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

1999-01-01

228

Lesson 1: Mountains Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a lesson that enables students to explain the global importance of mountains by applying the five themes of geography (location, place, relationships within places, movement, and regions) to a particular mountain range. Explains that students work in teams to prepare a brochure about their mountain range. (CMK)

Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

1999-01-01

229

Mountains Majesty: Ecosystems of the Rocky Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traveling from the East, one can see the towering snow-covered peaks of the Rocky Mountains long before reaching foothills. But to fully appreciate these mountains, one must venture into them and experience up close the colorful bursts of summer wildflowers, the glittering leaves of the quaking aspen, the cold clear alpine streams and lakes, and the distinctive sweet scent of the ponderosa pine. Scientists from the Bureau of Land Management provide an in-depth look at the management issues and diversity of plants, animals, and habitats of the Rocky Mountains.

Wooster, Betsy; Rieben, Elizabeth; Quesenberry, Leah

2004-11-01

230

Tectonics, Climate, and Mountain Topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By regressing simple, independent variables that describe climate and tectonic processes against measures of topography and relief of 69 mountain ranges worldwide, we quantify the relative importance of these processes in shaping observed landscapes. Climate variables include latitude (as a surrogate for mean annual temperature and insolation, but most importantly for the likelihood of glaciation) and mean annual precipitation. To quantify tectonics we use shortening rates across each range. As a measure of topography, we use mean and maximum elevations and relief calculated over different length scales. We show that the combination of climate (negative correlation) and tectonics (positive correlation) explain substantial fractions (> 25%, but < 50%) of mean and maximum elevations of mountain ranges, but that shortening rates account for smaller portions, <25%, of the variance in most measures of topography and relief (i.e. with low correlations and large scatter). Relief is insensitive to mean annual precipitation, but does depend on latitude, especially for relief calculated over small (~1 km) length scales, which we infer to reflect the importance of glacial erosion. Larger-scale (averaged over length scales of ~10 km) relief, however, correlates positively with tectonic shortening rate. Moreover, the ratio between small-scale and large-scale relief, as well as the relative relief (the relief normalized by the mean elevation of the region) varies most strongly with latitude (strong positive correlation). Therefore, the location of a mountain range on Earth and corresponding climatic conditions, not just tectonic forcing, appears to be a key factor in determining its shape and size. In any case, the combination of tectonics and climate, as quantified here, can account for approximately half of the variance in these measures of topography. The failure of present-day shortening rates to account for more than 25% of most measures of relief raises the question: Is active tectonics overrated in attempts to account for present-day relief and exhumation rates of high terrain? The following points are of particular importance: 1) Elevations of ranges directly reflect the interaction between tectonics, which thickens the crust, and therefore increases elevations, and climate (through erosion), which thins the crust, and hence decreases the elevation. The importance of tectonics appears to be modest in most cases, and suggests that although tectonics is obviously essential for mountain building, but the shapes of mature ranges appear to be controlled mostly by climate factors, that cause a large scatter. 2) Relief is not sensitive to mean annual precipitation amounts, but increases with shortening rates and latitude (hence glacial erosion). Relief averaged over large areas is not affected much by climatic factors, and more by tectonics, but relief measured on short distance scales correlates best with a combination of tectonics and latitude. Relief in high-latitude mountain ranges result largely from glacial excavation at valley scale of the topography created by tectonics. 3) The location of a mountain range on Earth appears to be an important factor in determining its elevation. Latitude also correlates with relief measured on short distance scales and the relative relief (the amount of relief scaled to the mean elevation of the range). Presumably, the climatic differences that vary with latitude, glaciers in particular, play a crucial role in shaping that relief.

Champagnac, J.-D.; Molnar, P.; Sue, C.; Herman, F.

2012-04-01

231

Colorado Rocky Mountain climate: Trends and sensitivities  

SciTech Connect

While the study of climate involves intricate feedbacks between the atmosphere, vegetation and hydrology, the terrain of the Colorado Rocky Mountains adds further complexities which have considerable effects on the character of climate and changing climate in this region. The special characteristics of climate in this area are due, in part, to the interactions between the regional climates of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent Central Great Plains. Observed climatic conditions at several mountain sites show long and short-term trends in surface air temperature, solar radiation input, stream runoff and extent of glaciation. Numerical experiments using a regional atmospheric model show that the mountain climate and that of the adjacent plains are sensitive to the disruption caused by human activity, specifically land cover and land use changes, as well as changes in large scale forcing. Model results also show local impacts due to a rising treeline, a possible regional feedback to a projected warmer climate.

Chase, T.N.; Pielke, R.A.; Baron, J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1995-06-01

232

Mountain Front Recharge and the Role of Hillslope Processes above the Mountain Front  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recharge at the mountain front is an important component of a basin groundwater balance in arid and semi-arid areas. Mountain-front recharge (MFR) is traditionally estimated using basin-centered approaches, such as basin groundwater modeling or isotopic analyses of basin groundwater. These methods do not consider hydrologic processes above the mountain front. Mountain-centered approaches to estimate MFR also exist, but they have been mostly empirical. The future lies in integrated mountain-centered approaches, aimed at observing, understanding, and modeling processes in the mountain-block hydrologic system, and yielding high-resolution models and visualizations of water (and chemical) movement over and through mountain blocks. Important processes can be divided into three groups. These are process that control how much water enters the mountain block at the surface and near surface, how water moves through the block, and finally how it leaves the block and enters the adjacent basin. This presentation focuses on the first of these groups. After all, if no water enters the block there is only runoff to carry water to the basin. Like many hillslope scale studies it concerns the role of precipitation, evapotranspiration and vegetation, and vadose zone processes in the thin mantel of soil overlying the bedrock. Unlike those studies the focus is on partitioning of water to the bedrock, and the controls on that partitioning.

Wilson, J. L.

2005-12-01

233

Mountain Home Municipal Airport, Mountain Home, Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the proposal for land acquisition, and realignment and improvement of a general utility runway, Mountain Home, Idaho. The adverse environmental effects are noise exposure, and air pollution. (Author)

1972-01-01

234

Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help char...

D. B. Hudson W. R. Guertal A. L. Flint

1994-01-01

235

Photocatalytic mineralization of commercial herbicides in a pilot-scale solar CPC reactor: photoreactor modeling and reaction kinetics constants independent of radiation field.  

PubMed

The six-flux absorption-scattering model (SFM) of the radiation field in the photoreactor, combined with reaction kinetics and fluid-dynamic models, has proved to be suitable to describe the degradation of water pollutants in heterogeneous photocatalytic reactors, combining simplicity and accuracy. In this study, the above approach was extended to model the photocatalytic mineralization of a commercial herbicides mixture (2,4-D, diuron, and ametryne used in Colombian sugar cane crops) in a solar, pilot-scale, compound parabolic collector (CPC) photoreactor using a slurry suspension of TiO(2). The ray-tracing technique was used jointly with the SFM to determine the direction of both the direct and diffuse solar photon fluxes and the spatial profile of the local volumetric rate of photon absorption (LVRPA) in the CPC reactor. Herbicides mineralization kinetics with explicit photon absorption effects were utilized to remove the dependence of the observed rate constants from the reactor geometry and radiation field in the photoreactor. The results showed that the overall model fitted the experimental data of herbicides mineralization in the solar CPC reactor satisfactorily for both cloudy and sunny days. Using the above approach kinetic parameters independent of the radiation field in the reactor can be estimated directly from the results of experiments carried out in a solar CPC reactor. The SFM combined with reaction kinetics and fluid-dynamic models proved to be a simple, but reliable model, for solar photocatalytic applications. PMID:19943672

Colina-Márquez, Jose; Machuca-Martínez, Fiderman; Li Puma, Gianluca

2009-12-01

236

Commercial-Scale Organic Farming in the Corn Belt in Relation to Conventional Practices and Alternative Agricultural Systems (Some Organic Farmers Do Not Appear to Fit Some Widely Held Stereotypes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study one type of organic farmer was compared to various images of farmers. It was found that the stereotypes were inaccurate. This type of organic farmer operates on a commercial scale, and in most cases, once farmed using conventional methods. T...

W. Lockeretz S. Wernick

1979-01-01

237

Commercializing Biological Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)|

LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

1973-01-01

238

Galileo's Moon Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Galileo's Moon Mountain Model illustrates the method used by Galileo to measure the height of a mountain on the Moon. Using his improved telescope design, Galileo was able to see spots of light in the otherwise dark potion of the Moon. He interpreted these spots as mountain peaks which caught the rays of the sun even though the sun did not illuminate the Moon's surface at the base of the mountain. He measured the distance of the bright spot from the terminator (the line separating the lit and unlit portions of the Moon) as a fraction of the Moon's radius. Then he was able to use a geometrical argument to determine the height of the mountain as a fraction of the Moon's radius. Galileo knew that the Moon's radius was approximately 1600 km (he didn't use those units, of course), which allowed him to determine the absolute height of the mountain. (Note that the modern value for the Moon's radius is about 1740 km.) One window shows the view from above the North pole of the Moon. The mountain appears near the bottom of this window. A ray of sunlight which just grazes the Moon's surface at the terminator is shown. Controls allow the user to adjust the angle of sunlight (thus altering the Moon's phase) and the height of the mountain. The other window shows the view from Earth. When sunlight strikes the top of the mountain a bright spot becomes visible in the dark area of the Moon. Likewise, when the mountain is in the bright region it casts a shadow. The distance across the Moon's face from terminator to mountain in shown.

Timberlake, Todd

2011-05-18

239

Mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli), a small, cavity-nesting songbird, is one of the most common birds of montane and coniferous forest from southern Arizona and Baja California north to British Columbia and the Yukon territory. This publication describes the life history of the Mountain Chickadee.

McCallum, D. Archibald; Grundel, Ralph; Dahlsten, Donald L.

1999-01-01

240

Injuries in mountain biking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite still growing attraction mountain biking as a matter of sports traumatology still lacks relevant data based on large cross-sectional surveys. To obtain an overview of risk factors, types, and main body sites of injuries occurring in mountain biking we assessed the results of a questionnaire answered by 3873 athletes. A total of 8133 single lesions were reported by 3474

H. Gaulrapp; A. Weber; B. Rosemeyer

2001-01-01

241

Quantifying Mountain Front Recharge Using Isotopic Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve our conceptual and quantitative understanding of mountain-front/mountain-block recharge (MFR) associated with the Huachuca Mountains of the Upper San Pedro River Basin in Arizona, we employed a suite of geochemical measurements including isotopic tracers and noble gases. MFR is frequently the dominant source of recharge to alluvial basins in the semiarid Basin and Range province. It consists of mountain runoff that infiltrates at the mountain front (mountain-front recharge), and percolation through the mountain bedrock that reaches the basin via the movement of deep groundwater (mountain-block recharge). The rate of MFR can be estimated from a water balance, a Darcy's law analysis, or inverse modeling of groundwater processes. Despite the large volume of research on water resources in the basin and the critical importance of MFR to the water budget, the best estimates of MFR obtained using these methods may have errors as large as 100%. We find that geochemical tracers address mechanistic questions regarding recharge seasonality, location, and rates as well as addressing groundwater flowpaths and residence times. The gradient of stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in groundwater with elevation mirrors that of regional precipitation, providing a constraint on the location and seasonality of recharge. Stable isotopic signatures indicate that MFR is dominated by winter precipitation but has 1/3 or more contribution from monsoon precipitation. Detectable tritium and 14C values greater than 100 pMC for springs, shallow groundwater in mountain canyons, and from wells along the mountain front indicate decade-scale residence times. Away from the mountain front 14C values rapidly decrease, reaching 12.3±0.2 pMC near the river. This suggests total basin residence times greater than 10,000 years, consistent with past measurements. Ongoing analysis of noble gas concentrations will provide an indication of recharge conditions. The solubility of noble gases in water depends on temperature and pressure; thus, noble gas concentrations provide a means to distinguish water samples recharged at different elevations.

Wahi, A. K.; Ekwurzel, B.; Hogan, J. F.; Eastoe, C. J.; Baillie, M. N.

2005-05-01

242

Vulnerability to a small-scale commercial fishery of Lake Tana's (Ethiopia) endemic Labeobarbus compared with African catfish and Nile tilapia: An example of recruitment-overfishing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986 a motorised, commercial gillnet fishery was introduced in Lake Tana, Ethiopia's largest lake (3050km2) in addition to the artisanal, predominantly subsistence fishery conducted from reedboats. The three main species groups targeted by this fishery are a species flock of endemic, large Labeobarbus spp., African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The commercial gillnet fisheries was monitored

Martin de Graaf; Paul A. M. van Zwieten; Marcel A. M. Machiels; Endale Lemma; Tesfaye Wudneh; Eshete Dejen; Ferdinand A. Sibbing

2006-01-01

243

Yucca Mountain Project Surface Facilities Design  

SciTech Connect

With the recent designation of the Yucca Mountain site as a proposed repository for the disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel, DOE spent nuclear fuel and high- level waste, work is proceeding on the design of surface facilities to receive, unload, and package the waste into waste packages for emplacement in the repository. This paper summarizes recent progress in the design of these surface facilities.

P.W. McDaniel; N.R. Brown; P.G. Harrington; J.T. Gardiner; L.J. Trautner

2002-11-20

244

E-mountains and progress of digital mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human being has experienced five stages on the mountainous study, in which the form of mountain information presented like a cycle, i.e. starts from data, and changed to information, knowledge, finally returned back to data. Similarly, attribute of mountain information also experienced a cycle of objective information-subjective information-objective information. There is no essential difference between e-mountains and digital mountains. Based on the analyzing of the progression of e-mountains studies in China and abroad, this work proposed three key points to build digital mountains (China): 1) integration and sharing mountain information; 2) methods and models of mountain data mining; 3) visualization and 3-D simulation of mountain surface processes.

Jiang, Xiaobo; Ji, Wei; Zeng, Hongcheng

2009-09-01

245

Mountains and Moving Plates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the lecture notes for a class on plate tectonics and mountain building which is taught at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The course describes the connections between the earth's tectonic plates, earthquakes, and its many mountain ranges. Topics include basic geography, the structure of the earth's interior, the relationships between the seismic cycle, volcanism, and plate movements, erosion of mountains, and mass wasting. Links are provided to additional resources, including aerial photos of geologic features, an interactive map of geology and topography of the United States, and a glossary.

246

Last Glacial Maximum lacustrine and fluviatile Formations in the Tibesti and other Saharan mountains, and large-scale climatic teleconnections linked to the activity of the Subtropical Jet Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mountains of the central Sahara (lat ca. 20° to 22°N, long 16° to 19°E) and particularly in the Tibesti mountains, important lacustrine formations developed during the late Pleistocene, primarily during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Two main phases, separated by a brief regression, intervened between ca. 20,000 and 15,500 BP, and between 15,000 and 12,500 BP. Pollen analyses

Jean Maley

2000-01-01

247

Smoky Mountain Field School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Tennessee Division of Continuing Education contains the home page for the Smoky Mountain Field School which offers supervised wilderness adventures for people of all ages and levels of experience. http://www.ce.utk.edu/Smoky/

248

The Strongest Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After learning about weathering and erosion, fifth-grade students worked in cooperative groups to create a "mountain" that could resist the effects of water erosion and demonstrate their understanding of the subject.

Monnes, Colleen

2004-10-01

249

Mountains of Fractals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Mountains of Fractals" article in the Math DL develops algorithms to produce coastlines and mountains in two dimensions by adapting mathematical ideas related to the construction of such fractals as Koch's curve. EJS is used to create a hands-on activity that allows a reader to create a coastline with a rubberband, six-sided die, and thumb tacks. Java applications allow for exploration of these algorithms and the influence of their associated parameters. After discussing 2D fractal mountains, this article extends the 2D algorithm to produce 3D mountains. Finally, mathematical issues in random number generation are discussed. More specifically, linear congruential generators are considered and shown to be suitable as a random number generator for the 3D fractal landscape algorithm. The use of fractal landscapes in movies is also discussed.

Chartier, Tim

2009-09-11

250

Closed Brayton cycle advanced central receiver solar-electric power system. Volume III. Development plan for a commercial-scale closed Brayton cycle Advanced Central Receiver Power Plant with coupled sensible heat storage. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A development plan is presented to advance the closed Brayton cycle, storage-coupled, Advanced Central Receiver Power Plant conceptual design to an initial commercial-scale operational plant in 1985. The plan describes the development approach utilized, the major program elements in the development path, and the technology items which must be improved and\\/or verified. The plan covers three sequential program phases. Phase

Halvorson

1978-01-01

251

YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION  

SciTech Connect

The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

A.M. Simmons

2004-04-16

252

Pennsylvania's dead mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most first-time visitors to Blue Mountain are never quite prepared for it. They don't expect to see 2000 acres of dead mountain-especially land looking like that. The defoliation started in 1898 when New Jersey Zinc Company opened the first of two plants to process zinc silicate (and later zinc sulfide) from nearby New Jersey. While the acid rain worked on

Lalo

2009-01-01

253

Rocky Mountain acidification study  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report were to determine the sensitivity of watersheds characteristic of the Rocky Mountain Region and the relationship of watershed sensitivity to geology and soils; to evaluate the extent of current acidification and the potential for increasing acidification with increasing deposition of nitrate and sulfate; to evaluate the results of the preceding in terms of impacts on fish populations; and to develop recommendations for assessment of future trends in both changing water chemistry and impacts on fish populations. Areas selected for study included the Rocky Mountain National Ppark and Yellowstone National Park, exemplifying two different geologic types that are representative of a large portion of the Rocky Mountain region. Rocky Mountain National Park is primarily underlain by granite and Yellowstone National Park by volcanic materials. Sensitivity is primarily determined by bedrock geology and varies inversely with elevation. High-elevation lakes and streams in the central Rocky Mountain region are very sensitive to acidic deposition. With respect to fish populations there is currently no evidence of chronic acidification and thus no apparent impact on fisheries. However, the very low base cation concentration observed in the headwater drainages of Rocky Mountain National Park suggests extreme sensitivity to acidification. Waters in volcanic areas such as Yellowstone National Park are generally of high alkalinity and do not represent potentially sensitive habitats. 109 references, 31 figures, 24 tables.

Gibson, J.H.; Galloway, J.N.; Schofield, C.; McFee, W.; Johnson, R.; McCarley, S.; Dise, N.; Herzog, D.

1983-10-01

254

Loveliness but with an Edge: Looking at the Smoky Mountains, 1920-1945  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to the infrastructural and commercial changes it wrought in Tennessee and North Carolina, the development of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park encouraged efforts to manage visitors' perceptions of nature. Organizations that shaped regional tourism after 1920 devoted themselves to making mountain recreation both an aesthetic and kinesthetic experience. Visitors were expected to earn their sightseeing while driving

Edward Slavishak

2012-01-01

255

ERC commercialization activities  

SciTech Connect

The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MR power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full- sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, and (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MR Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

Maru, H.C.

1995-12-01

256

Antiaggregative Effect of Verbenone on Response of the Mountain Pine Beetle to Baited Traps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Response of the mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) to Lindgren funnel traps baited with a commercial lure, alone and in combination with verbenone, an aggregation-inhibiting pheromone, was measured in a lodgepole pine (Pinus cont...

R. F. Schmitz M. D. McGregor

1990-01-01

257

Mountain building and mantle dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain building at convergent margins requires tectonic forces that can overcome frictional resistance along large-scale thrust faults and support the gravitational potential energy stored within the thickened crust of the orogen. A general, dynamic model for this process is still lacking. Here we propose that mountain belts can be classified between two end-members. First, those of "slab pull" type, where subduction is mainly confined to the upper mantle, and rollback trench motion lead to moderately thick crustal stacks, such as in the Mediterranean. Second, those of "slab suction" type, where whole-mantle convection cells ("conveyor belts") lead to the more extreme expressions of orogeny, such as the largely thickened crust and high plateaus of present-day Tibet and the Altiplano. For the slab suction type, deep mantle convection produces the unique conditions to drag plates toward each other, irrespective of their nature and other boundary conditions. We support this hypothesis by analyzing the orogenic, volcanic, and convective history associated with the Tertiary formation of the Andes after ~40 Ma and Himalayas after collision at ~55 Ma. Based on mantle circulation modeling and tectonic reconstructions, we surmise that the forces necessary to sustain slab-suction mountain building in those orogens derive, after transient slab ponding, from the mantle drag induced upon slab penetration into the lower mantle, and from an associated surge of mantle upwelling beneath Africa. This process started at ~65-55 Ma for Tibet-Himalaya, when the Tethyan slab penetrated into the lower mantle, and ~10 Myr later in the Andes, when the Nazca slab did. This surge of mantle convection drags plates against each other, generating the necessary compressional forces to create and sustain these two orogenic belts. If our model is correct, the available geological records of orogeny can be used to decipher time-dependent mantle convection, with implications for the supercontinental cycle.

Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W.; Conrad, Clinton P.; Husson, Laurent

2013-01-01

258

Implications of gene flow in the scale-up and commercial use of biotechnology-derived crops: Economic and policy considerations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Worldwide, the area planted to biotechnology-derived crops (i.e. ‘genetically modified’ or ‘GM’ crops) has expanded rapidly, increasing more than fifty-fold since first commercialized in 1996. In 2005, GM crops expanded to 90 million ha and were produced in 21 countries on six continents. The US i...

259

A Study to Develop an Industrial-Scale, Computer-Controlled High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) System to Assist in Commercializing the Novel, Enabling HMFP Manufacturing Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the original magnet designer and manufacturer of ORNL s 9T, 5-inch ID bore magnet, American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) has collaborated with ORNL s Materials Processing Group s and this partnership has been instrumental in the development of our unique thermo-magnetic facilities and expertise. Consequently, AMI and ORNL have realized that the commercial implementation of the High Magnetic Field Processing

Gail Mackiewicz-Ludtka; Aashish Chourey

2010-01-01

260

A Study to Develop an Industrial-Scale, Computer-Controlled High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) System to Assist in Commercializing the Novel, Enabling HMFP Manufacturing Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the original magnet designer and manufacturer of ORNLs 9T, 5-inch ID bore magnet, American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) has collaborated with ORNLs Materials Processing Groups and this partnership has been instrumental in the development of our unique thermo-magnetic facilities and expertise. Consequently, AMI and ORNL have realized that the commercial implementation of the High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) technology will

G. M. Lutdka; A. Chourey

2010-01-01

261

The Mountaineers Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With an eye towards conservation and documentation, The Mountaineers outdoor club has been in existence since 1906. Since that time, the group has been actively engaged in and around the Pacific NorthwestÂs many wilderness areas in a variety of capacities. Recently, the University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections project saw fit to digitize some of their extensive photographic collections. The result is this fine online archive which contains delightful documentation of some of their early expeditions, such as a 1912 trek to Mount Rainier and a 1951 sojourn to Mount Olympus in the Olympic Mountain range. The site also includes a detailed map of their 1920 outing to Mount Olympus and an introductory essay about the history of the organization. Finally, the site also contains 28 bulletins from the organizationÂs history that document some of their outings and mountaineering accomplishments.

262

Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system: Phase 3, Quarterly technical progress report No. 11, April 1, 1993June 30, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu\\/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for

A. F. Litka; R. W. Breault

1993-01-01

263

Yucca Mountain Project - Science & Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit

Hong-Nian Jow; R. C. Moore; K. B. Helean; S. Mattigod; M. Hochella; A. R. Felmy; J. Liu; K. Rosso; G. Fryxell; J. Krumhansl; Y. Wang

2005-01-01

264

Development and testing of a commercial scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of work performed in the development and proof-of-concept (POC) testing of a coal-fired space heating system for the commercial market sector. The objective of this program is to design, build and test a coal based heating system for this sector and determine the economic viability and market potential for the system. Coal water slurry (CWS) fuel has been chosen as the fuel form for this development effort. CWS eliminates the need to use dry pulverized coal with its attendant handling, metering and dusting problems as well as its explosive potential. Equally important in selecting a fuel form is the impact on emission levels and pollution control equipment requirements. CWS is amenable to coal washing since coal cleaning technologies are generally water-based processes requiring the fine grinding of the coal. In the first stage. an overall system heat balance was prepared, system components were designed and manufactured or purchased, the system was fully assembled and preliminary testing performed to validate component performance and identify key operating variables. In the second stage the system was operated for prolonged periods to simulate a commercial application, and combustion and thermal efficiencies; tendencies to slag, foul, erode and corrode; and gaseous and particulate emissions were evaluated. Also during the second stage, an assessment of the commercial viability of the system was made. This assessment included an evaluation of the economics and market potential, including the sensitivity to fluctuations in fuel prices.

Litka, A.; Breault, R.

1992-10-23

265

Mountain Man Measurement Rendezvous  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners participate in several activities where they apply measurement skills. Learners explore how the Mountain Men played an important part in the history of the American frontier and more importantly, how the Mountain Men used different techniques for making measurements in their daily activities. At the various stations, learners measure their jump distances, handfuls of "gold," water-soaked sponges, "buffalo chip" throws, arm spans, "stone" throws, "arrow" tosses, foot sizes, pots of beans, and "shooting" distances. This activity works well outside.

Lessonplans, Utah

2012-10-22

266

Predicting the Future at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes a climate-prediction model funded by the DOE for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Several articles in the open literature attest to the effects of the Global Ocean Conveyor upon paleoclimate, specifically entrance and exit from the ice age. The data shows that these millennial-scale effects are duplicated on the microscale of years to decades. This work also identifies how man may have influenced the Conveyor, affecting global cooling and warming for 2,000 years.

J. R. Wilson

1999-07-01

267

Lithium sorption to Yucca Mountain tuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Li ion has been used as a reactive tracer in field tests performed in the saturated and unsaturated-zone in volcanic tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Lithium sorbs weakly by cation exchange and permits field-scale testing of laboratory-based predictions of reactive-solute transport. A series of laboratory studies show that Li sorption is nonlinear and varies with lithology in the different

I. Anghel; H. J. Turin; P. W. Reimus

2002-01-01

268

Human impacts to mountain streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the

Ellen Wohl

2006-01-01

269

SACRED MOUNTAINS WHERE BEING OF \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since primeval days to date, the Japanese have regarded certain mountains as objects of worship believing that mountains are places where multitudinous gods reside. This belief in mountains as sacred places still lives on and is practiced in the Japanese traditional religion, Shinto, which is based on animism and ancestor worship. Today, this notion of sacredness is generally accepted and

Kazuyuki Yano

270

Yucca Mountain tuffs  

SciTech Connect

This is a compilation of petrographic slides detailing the microstructure and petrographic character of the tuff deposits associated with the Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. It describes crystal structures, clay alterations, and mineral associations. The paper contains a description of the petrographic thin-sections but contains no narrative or conclusions of what the slides suggest with regards to the facility.

NONE

1996-08-01

271

DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

272

Melting Mountain Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's glaciers are shrinking at alarming rates, and many scientists believe it is due to changes in climate. Dr. Lonnie Thompson of Ohio State University and Dr. Douglas Hardy of UMass-Amherst discuss glaciers and how they melt, and pay special attention to Africa's tallest mountain, Mt. Kilimanjaro. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

273

The Strongest Mountain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

Monnes, Colleen

2004-01-01

274

Yucca Mountain Review Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Yucca Mountain Review Plan provides guidance for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff to evaluate a U.S. Department of Energy license application for a geologic repository. It is not a regulation and does not impose regulatory requirements. Th...

2003-01-01

275

Mountain-Plains Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

276

Carve That Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students further investigate major landforms (e.g., mountains, rivers, plains, hills, oceans and plateaus). They build a three-dimensional model of a landscape depicting several of these landforms. Once they have built their model, they act as civil and transportation engineers to build a road through the landscape they have created.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

277

The Mountaineer Minority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

1974-01-01

278

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 2, July 1--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The project involves the construction of a 260 tons-per-day (TPD) or 80,000 gallon per day methanol demonstration unit utilizing an existing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression, liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated was developed by Air Products in a DOE sponsored program that started in 1981. Originally tested at a small, DOE-owned experimental facility in LaPorte, Texas, the LPMEOH{trademark} process offers several advantages over current methods of making methanol. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The liquid dissipates heat from the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the gas-to-methanol reaction to proceed at higher rates. The process is ideally suited to the type of gas produced by modern coal gasifiers. At the Eastman Chemical complex, the technology will be integrated with existing coal gasifiers to demonstrate the commercially important aspects of the operation of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process to produce methanol. A four-year demonstration will prove the commercial applicability of the process. An off-site product-use test program will prove the suitability of the methanol as a transportation fuel and as a fuel for stationary applications in the power industry.

NONE

1994-12-31

279

What Is Scale?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scale is one of the big ideas that cross the science domains. Whether one is talking about the weight of a blue whale, the size of a galaxy or a molecule, or the age of a mountain range, scale is an essential tool in understanding the universe in a scient

Taylor, Amy R.; Jones, M. G.; Falvo, Michael R.

2009-09-01

280

Architecture of basin-mountain systems and their influences on gas distribution: A case study from the Sichuan basin, South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basin-mountain systems in the Sichuan basin exert major control on today's oil/gas distribution, chiefly through their controlling influence on petroleum reservoirs preservation, the thickness of deposited terrestrial formations and degree of uplift and denudation. The composite basin-mountain system in the Sichuan basin and its peripheral mountains can be classified as two types - margin-plate systems and interior-plate systems. The margin-plate basin-mountain systems include the Sichuan basin and its surrounding Longmen Mountains, Micang Mountains and Daba Mountains, which are not only the western and northern marginal area of the Sichuan basin, but also represent the western margin of the Yangtze plate (South China Block). The margin-plate basin-mountain systems, with binary units of large-scale thrust belts and foreland basins, have different deep lithospheric structures, abrupt boundaries and great contrast in today's geomorphology between the basin and the mountains. On the contrary, the interior-plate basin-mountain systems comprised by the Sichuan basin and its adjacent interior-plate Qiyue Mountains, Dalou Mountains and Daliang Mountains; represent the eastern and southern marginal area of the Sichuan basin located within the Yangtze plate. They have similar lithospheric structure and gradual boundaries between the basin and the adjacent mountains, lacking foreland basins. Today's medium-large scale natural gas accumulations in the Sichuan basin are mainly distributed in the areas influenced by the margin-plate basin-mountain systems, and are located especially in the foreland basins.

Liu, Shugen; Deng, Bin; Li, Zhiwu; Sun, Wei

2012-03-01

281

Commercial Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

282

Geological map of Bare Mountain, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Bare Mountain comprises the isolated complex of mountain peaks southeast of the town of Beatty in southern Nye County, Nevada. This small mountain range lies between the alluvial basins of Crater Flat to the east and the northern Amargosa Desert to the southwest. The northern boundary of the range is less well defined, but for this report, the terrane of faulted Miocene volcanic rocks underlying Beatty Mountain and the unnamed hills to the east are considered to be the northernmost part of Bare Mountain. The southern tip of the mountain range is at Black Marble, the isolated hill at the southeast corner of the map. The main body of the range, between Fluorspar Canyon and Black Marble, is a folded and complexly faulted, but generally northward-dipping (or southward-dipping and northward-overturned), sequence of weakly to moderately metamorphosed upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic marine strata, mostly miogeoclinal (continental shelf) rocks. The geology of Bare Mountain is mapped at a scale of 1:24,000.

Monsen, S.A.; Carr, M.D.; Reheis, M.C.; Orkild, P.P.

1992-12-31

283

A mountain scene in Yukon, Alaska depicts how vegetation changes from the base to the top of the mountain due to differences in elevation and topograp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A mountain scene in Yukon, Alaska depicts how vegetation changes from the base to the top of the mountain due to differences in elevation and topography. The base of the mountain is vegetated by spruce forests. Progressing up the mountain, the forest gives way to subalpine shrub, alpine meadows, and tundra. The tops of the mountains are covered by glaciers. The mountains shown in the image are typical of areas that are protected from development because they are located in national or provincial parks. Understanding large-scale patterns of plant and animal distribution within and between these parks will enable the biota to be effectively conserved. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (15:4) in April of 2005.

Danby, Ryan

2010-02-12

284

Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3. Technical progress report, April 1991--June 1991  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

Not Available

1991-12-31

285

Mountain treelines: A roadmap for research orientation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For over 100 years, mountain treelines have been the subject of varied research endeavors and remain a strong area of investigation. The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of the epistemology of mountain treeline research-that is, to investigate how knowledge on treelines has been acquired and the changes in knowledge acquisition over time, through a review of fundamental questions and approaches. The questions treeline researchers have raised and continue to raise have undoubtedly directed the current state of knowledge. A continuing, fundamental emphasis has centered on seeking the general cause of mountain treelines, thus seeking an answer to the question, "What causes treeline?" with a primary emphasis on searching for ecophysiological mechanisms of low-temperature limitation for tree growth and regeneration. However, treeline research today also includes a rich literature that seeks local, landscape-scale causes of treelines and reasons why treelines vary so widely in three-dimensional patterns from one location to the next, and this approach and some of its consequences are elaborated here. In recent years, both lines of research have been motivated greatly by global climate change. Given the current state of knowledge, we propose that future research directions focused on a spatial approach should specifically address cross-scale hypotheses using statistics and simulations designed for nested hierarchies; these analyses will benefit from geographic extension of treeline research.

Malanson, George P.; Resler, Lynn M.; Bader, Maaike Y.; Holtmeier, Fredrich-Karl; Butler, David R.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Daniels, Lori D.; Fagre, Daniel B.

2011-01-01

286

Commercial Banks and Microfinance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 30 years, microfinance has proven to be a viable solution for the alleviation of poverty through international organizations, voluntary work and donations. Today, the challenge facing microfinance institutions is self-sufficiency. Consequently, the integration of microfinance with commercial banks will provide the necessary scale and outreach in making microfinance a self-sufficient and thus long-term solution for the alleviation

Zeynep Ugur

2006-01-01

287

ADVANCES IN YUCCA MOUNTAIN DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

Since site designation of the Yucca Mountain Project by the President, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the transition from the site characterization phase of the project to preparation of the license application. As part of this transition, an increased focus has been applied to the repository design. Several evolution studies were performed to evaluate the repository design and to determine if improvements in the design were possible considering advances in the technology for handling and packaging nuclear materials. The studies' main focus was to reduce and/or eliminate uncertainties in both the pre-closure and post-closure performance of the repository and to optimize operations. The scope and recommendations from these studies are the subjects of this paper and include the following topics: (1) a more phased approach for the surface facility that utilize handling and packaging of the commercial spent nuclear fuel in a dry environment rather than in pools as was presented in the site recommendation; (2) slight adjustment of the repository footprint and a phased approach for construction and emplacement of the repository subsurface; and (3) simplification of the construction, fabrication and installation of the waste package and drip shield.

Harrington, P.G.; Gardiner, J.T.; Russell, P.R.Z.; Lachman, K.D.; McDaniel, P.W.; Boutin, R.J.; Brown, N.R.; Trautner, L.J.

2003-02-27

288

Monitoring and management of mountain environment.  

PubMed

The monitoring of mountain environment gives necessary information for its control and effective management in view of its sustainable development. A system of complex monitoring of environment has been established, including physical, chemical, meteorological, hydrological, biological and sociological factors. Methods and observations have been developed and applied. Using a geographical information system, a database was created for Rila Mountain and a modern computer network connected to internet was established. As a direct consequence of the French-Bulgarian project OM2 (carried out in the period 1993-1998) a Basic Environmental Observatory (on the peak Moussala, 2925 m) was constructed and put in operation in attempt to control the large scale and long-term transportation of atmospheric pollutants. PMID:15162863

Stamenov, J N; Vachev, B I

2004-01-01

289

East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results  

SciTech Connect

Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

Deola, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Air Quality Dept.

1996-09-01

290

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an acute febrile illness transmitted to man by ticks infected with Rickettsia rickettsii. Usually sudden in onset, it is characterized by chills, headache, and fever lasting 2 or more weeks. A characteristic rash\\u000a appears on the extremities on about the 4th febrile day and spreads to the trunk. The exanthem and other anatomical manifestations\\u000a result

Aaron Milstone; J. Stephen Dumler

291

Folds, Faults, and Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash explores forces and processes that deform rocks by creating folds, faults, and mountain ranges. The overview covers topics such as stress, tension, deformation, strike, dip, folds and thrusts, and an interactive model allows users to model different processes related to these topics. This site provides diagrams, interactive animations, and supplementary information suitable for introductory level undergraduate physical geology or high school Earth science students.

Smoothstone; Company, Houghton M.

292

WIDCO's program for UCG commercialization  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes an underground coal gasification programme being carried out in Washington State, US. Following laboratory tests, the first full-scale field trial took place at the end of 1983; the second will be later this year. The last phase will consist of commercial-scale tests.

Paul, R.A.

1984-02-01

293

Cs137 distribution in forest floor and surface soil layers from two mountainous regions in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional characteristics of forest soils in the mountainous regions in Bulgaria were assessed in order to obtain a better understanding of cesium distribution in soil. The aim of this paper is to describe the small-scale spatial variability of Cs-137 contamination in forest floor and surface soil layers in relation to regional and local characteristics. The mountainous regions of Bulgaria

Miglena Zhiyanski; Jaume Bech; Maria Sokolovska; Eric Lucot; Joan Bech; Pierre-Marie Badot

2008-01-01

294

Determinants of mountaineers' decision to climb: An innovative marketing for mountaineering tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework is proposed to examine the determinants of the mountaineers' decision to climb. First, the four mountain-specific motivational factors are discussed, which include: mountain landscape; organization role, accessibility and perceived risk. It is argued that these factors are unique to the mountaineering tourism and as such, has an implication on the mountaineers' decision to climb a selected mountain.

Siti Hajar Mohamad Taher; Salamiah A. Jamal

2012-01-01

295

Geologic factors controlling patterns of small-volume basaltic volcanism: Application to a volcanic hazards assessment at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is located within an active volcanic field. Probabilistic volcanic hazard models for future eruptions through the proposed repository depend heavily on our understanding of the spatial controls on volcano distribution at a variety of scales. On regional scales, Pliocene-Quaternary volcano clusters are located east of the Bare Mountain fault. Extension

Charles B. Connor; John A. Stamatakos; David A. Ferrill; Brittain E. Hill; Goodluck I. Ofoegbu; F. Michael Conway; Budhi Sagar; John Trapp

2000-01-01

296

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 11, January 1--March 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter, the third draft of the Topical Report on Process Economics Studies was issued for review. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing on the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) was made. A liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed, and a decision to proceed with a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) is pending the release of a memo from Air Products on the catalyst targets and corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst. The off-site product-use test plan is to be updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Air Products and Acurex Environmental Corporation continued developing the listing of product-use test participants who are involved in fuel cell, transportation, and stationary power plant applications. Start-up activities (Task 3.1) began during the reporting period, and coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was introduced to the demonstration unit. The recycle compressor was tested successfully on syngas at line pressure of 700 psig, and the reactor loop reached 220 C for carbonyl burnout. Iron carbonyl in the balanced gas feed remained below the 10 ppbv detection limit for all samples but one. Within the reactor loop, iron carbonyl levels peaked out near 200 ppbv after about 40 hours on-stream, before decreasing to between 10--20 ppbv at 160 hours on -stream. Nickel carbonyl measurements reached a peak of about 60 ppbv, and decreased at all sampling locations to below the 10 ppbv detection limit by 70 hours on-stream. Catalyst activation of the nine 2,250 lb batches required for the initial catalyst charge began and concluded. All batches met or slightly exceeded the theoretical maximum uptake of 2.82 SCF of reducing gas/lb catalyst.

NONE

1997-06-11

297

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report No. 1, October 1, 1993--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products). This document describes major accomplishments in project development for Fiscal Year 1993. The preliminary process hazards review, project safety plan, schedule, and cost management report are included as appendices. The demonstration is sited at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. Air Products and Eastman are working on a partnership agreement which will form the Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. As a limited partner in the venture, Eastman will own and operate the demonstration unit. The project involves the construction of a 260 tons-per-day (TPD) or 80,000 gallon per day methanol demonstration unit utilizing an existing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression, liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated was developed by Air Products in a DOE sponsored program that started in 1981. Originally tested at a small, DOE-owned experimental facility in LaPorte, Texas, the LPMEOH{trademark} process offers several advantages over current methods of making methanol. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The liquid dissipates heat from the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the gas-to-methanol reaction to proceed at higher rates. The process is ideally suited to the type of gas produced by modem coal gasifiers. At the Eastman Chemical complex, the technology will be integrated with existing coal gasifiers to demonstrate the commercially important aspects of the operation of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process to produce methanol.

NONE

1998-12-31

298

Tri-State Synfuels Project Commercial Scale Coal Test: Volume 5. Kentucky stockpile tests. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; coal stockpile study  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on the compacted coal stockpile built at Uniontown, Kentucky with a 200-ton sample representative of Camp 1 coal shipped to Sasolburg, Republic of South Africa. This stockpile program had several objectives: obtain information on the changes in quality of coal over a period of one year resulting from weatering and leaching. The weathering of coal may affect the physical and chemical properties, the gasification characteristics and oxygen consumption); obtain chemical composition of rainwater leached through the pile and collected over a period of one year to assist in the environmental design of water collection system; and demonstrate construction of a stockpile that is safe from spontaneous ignition. Conclusions and design recommendationa for the long term storage of compacted coal resulted from the program. Recommendations of interest include oxidation and weathering stability, minimal leaching due to rainwater, limited impact on gasification characteristics and effective method to minimize spontaneous ignition. The tests conducted on the compacted stockpile (Section 3.0) provided observations over the one-year period on spontaneous ignition, surface and weathering, oxidation as measured by chemical, physical and gasification property changes, size degradation, acid runoff, pH of rainwater and leachate and extent of leaching. Texas Gas was responsible for constructing, maintaining and collecting site data at the stockpile (Section 4.1.1). Paul Weir Company was responsible for sampling, screening, analytical testing program and the leaching program for the stockpile over regular intervals of one to two months (Section 4.2.1). Lurgi was requested to analyze samples (Section 4.2.2) corresponding to the samples analyzed by Commercial Testing and Engineering and report on the influence of weathering on the gasification characteristics.

Not Available

1982-06-01

299

Mountain Waves and Downslope Windes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain waves form above and downwind of topographic barriers and frequently pose a serious hazard to mountain aviation because of strong-to-extreme turbulence. This foundation module will describe the features of mountain wave and explore the conditions under which they form. Like other foundation modules in the Mesoscale Primer, this module will start with a forecast scenario and conclude with a final exam. Rich graphics, audio narration, and frequent interactions enhance the presentation.

Spangler, Tim

2004-01-01

300

Mountain Waves and Downslope Winds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain waves form above and downwind of topographic barriers and frequently pose a serious hazard to mountain aviation because of strong-to-extreme turbulence. This foundation module will describe the features of mountain wave and explore the conditions under which they form. Like other foundation modules in the Mesoscale Primer, this module will start with a forecast scenario and conclude with a final exam. Rich graphics, audio narration, and frequent interactions enhance the presentation.

Spangler, Tim

2006-12-11

301

Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

Frazer, Charles F.

302

Selling Out Kids. Commercialism in Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Commercialism in schools takes many forms, ranging from the overt sale of advertising space to the presence of corporate logos. There are risks to in-school commercialism that parents must understand and deal with. Includes sidebars on PTA positions and a rating scale of in-school commercialism. (SM)|

Herzog, Susan

1997-01-01

303

Selling Out Kids. Commercialism in Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commercialism in schools takes many forms, ranging from the overt sale of advertising space to the presence of corporate logos. There are risks to in-school commercialism that parents must understand and deal with. Includes sidebars on PTA positions and a rating scale of in-school commercialism. (SM)

Herzog, Susan

1997-01-01

304

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part...

2011-10-01

305

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part...

2012-10-01

306

Defining Hydrogeological Boundaries for Mountain Front Recharge (MFR) Predictions in Multi-Catchment Mountainous Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross-catchment groundwater flow in mountainous watersheds results from the development of local, intermediate, and regional groundwater flow pathways in multi-catchment systems. As such, hydrogeological analysis (e.g. water balance calculations and numerical modelling) to assess contributions of groundwater to mountain front recharge (MFR) must consider the choice of boundaries based on hydrological divides. Numerical 3-dimensional hydrogeological modelling was completed using FeFlow (DHI-WASY), for conceptual regional-scale multi-catchment systems; extending from a watershed boundary to a mountain front. The modelled systems were designed to represent major ridge and valley configurations observed in mountainous watersheds including: nested, adjacent, disconnected, non-parallel, and parallel catchments. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity scenarios were simulated; with the heterogeneous scenario including a shallow zone of higher hydraulic conductivity bedrock overlying less permeable bedrock. The influence of cross-catchment flow in the development of groundwater flow pathways contributing to MFR was examined. The results provide a basis for identifying topographic scenarios where contributions to MFR may originate outside hydrological divides. This understanding will contribute to improving MFR predictions using both the numerical modelling approach and the water balance approach.

Neilson-Welch, L. A.; Allen, D. M.

2010-12-01

307

Commercial-scale demonstration of the liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report No. 3, October 1, 1994--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). A facility producing 260 TPD of methanol will be designed and constructed at a site located at the Eastman Chemical complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration facility operational period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to ``demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH{trademark} process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.`` The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low sulfur dioxide, low nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research shows promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the operations phase. During the period 1 October 1994 to 31 March 1995, the project team completed essentially all the activities necessary to start detailed design. Major accomplishments in these activities are discussed.

NONE

1995-12-31

308

Landform Interpretation: Table Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working collaboratively, groups of students [3-4]develop hypotheses addressing the paleotopography of a Miocene river channel [Table Mountain Latite] and processes that have resulted in its current topographic expression. Students use observations/data gained from topographic maps [Sonora, Keystone, Melones Dam and Knight's Ferry 7.5 minute quadrangles], San Francisco-San Jose Regional Geological Map, aerial photos, and Google Earth [120 39 01W; 37 48 15N to 120 26 17W; 37 57 36N]. Using PowerPoint, students present and defend their hypotheses and plans for further research during the final week of the semester. Designed for a geomorphology course

Pearson, Gene

309

Arbuckle Mountain Hydroelectric project  

SciTech Connect

Hydropower regulations, particularly those which must be met during the pre-construction phase, have become considerably more extensive and complicated over the last few years. This article, which outlines the pre-construction phase of the Arbuckle Mountain Hydroelectric project, provides a good example of the steps developers should be prepared to take before construction commences. The Department of Energy is funding $750,000 of the project's $1,200,000 budget to gain meaningful and reliable information for the public regarding the development and operation of an inexpensive, low head, domestically manufactured cross-flow turbine. To satisfy their requirements several studies and reports are being prepared for the DOE.

Peterson, J.C.

1986-02-01

310

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Environmental monitoring report No. 1, 1 April 1997--31 June 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 TPD) of methanol was designed, constructed, and has begun operation at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to {open_quotes}demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH{trademark} Processing conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.{close_quotes} The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four-year demonstration period. The LPMEOH{trademark} process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfully piloted at a 10-TPD rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products` LaPorte, Texas, site. This demonstration project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.

NONE

1998-02-13

311

Commercial-scale demonstration of the liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report No. 4, 1 April--30 June 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L. P.(the Partnership). A facility producing 260 TPD of methanol will be designed and constructed at a site located at the Eastman Chemical complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration facility operational period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to ``demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH{trademark} process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.`` The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low sulfur dioxide, low nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research shows promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the operations phase. During this last quarter the project transitioned to the design phase. the project requires review under the National environmental Policy Act to move to the construction phase, which is scheduled to begin in August of 1995. DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment, and a Finding of No Significant Impact was issued during this quarter. The facility is scheduled to be mechanically complete in November of 1996.

NONE

1995-12-31

312

Thermally driven upslope flow in mountainous terrain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buoyancy driven up-slope flow and its separation from mountain apex are two important processes that determine meso and regional flows in mountainous areas. Such flow configurations have applications from mountain meteorology to large scale monsoonal circulation. A combined experimental and theoretical study toward improving our understanding of the mechanisms governing upslope flow processes, in particular, generation of upstream circulating cells and plume rise at the apex is presented. The experiments were performed in a 1.25x.35x.3 m water tank, using an inclined (10 to 30 degrees from the horizontal) electrical foil as the heated slope. Under certain condition the flow configuration produced stable circulation cells and rising limited plumes of finite height. Particle Tracking Velocimetry and flow visualization techniques were used for the diagnostics of velocity field and plume rise height, and relevant salient dimensionless quantities were evaluated in terms of governing parameters. Theoretical arguments are presented to explain the results. Parameter ranges for the appearance of characteristic flow patterns are also delineated.

Liberzon, Dan; Hocut, Christopher; Fernando, Harindra J.

2011-11-01

313

Hydrology and the natural heritage of the Scottish mountains.  

PubMed

The physical natures of the Scottish mountains and their geographical position have created a montane environment, which can be considered as unique in European terms. The mountains of Scotland have been subjected to major environmental changes throughout the past centuries including climate change, deforestation, hydropower developments and more recently the expansion of plantation forestry. Mountain ecosystems have the ability to withstand large climatic variations and extreme events but it is suggested that they may not withstand some of the climatic barriers, which have recently been crossed. The greatest recent land use change in Scotland's mountains has been the expansion of plantation forests. The effects on headwater catchment hydrology are mainly in the reduction in runoff. It is suggested that plantation forestry has a more significant impact on the natural heritage through other influences such as water chemistry and river sediments. Future management of the Scottish mountains needs to consider the great natural heritage value in addition to other interests such as water resources, hydropower generation, commercial forestry and tourism. PMID:12169004

Johnson, R C; Thompson, D B

2002-07-22

314

Forest expansion in mountain ecosystems: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the main threats that mountain areas in industrialised countries are nowadays facing, land abandonment is by far the most important. Land abandonment is mainly due to marginalisation trends and it is closely associated with other processes such as depopulation and decline of mountain farming. The most evident consequence of such a situation is the phenomenon of forest expansion, due

Giorgio Conti; Laura Fagarazzi

315

A Day on Bare Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students may have the idea that all mountains are volcanoes and were formed by eruptions. The story in this chapter brings up questions about the geology of mountains and the weathering and erosion that takes place as nature breaks down the higher landsca

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2010-03-12

316

Modeling surface winds in mountainous catchments as a function of topography and vegetation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to develop accurate distributed hydrological models, spatially accurate meteorological forcing fields are required. In mountainous basins, elevation and topography strongly influence temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure, and wind. At the watershed scale, temperature, precipitation, ...

317

Resource Recovery and Cavity Growth During the Rocky Mountain 1 Field Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resource recovery and cavity growth remain important issues affecting performance, scale-up and overall process efficiency for underground coal gasification (UCG). Results from the recently completed dual-module Rocky Mountain I (RM I) UCG experiment give...

R. J. Cena J. A. Britten C. B. Thorsness

1988-01-01

318

Mountain Height Distribution and Tectonic Structural Mapping on Titan from Cassini RADAR: Implications for the Origin of Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini RADAR has revealed mountainous features of relatively high topography around Titan. The origin of Titan's mountainous features has been attributed to two broad hypotheses: endogenic, formed by compressional or extensional tectonism, and exogenic, implying formation by impact cratering followed by erosion. To understand the tectonic and erosional contributions that have shaped Titan's mountains, it is important to utilize topographic data. Direct altimetric measurements have generally coarse resolution while stereo measurements from overlapping SAR swaths and SARTopo calculations have provided moderate-resolution topographic data for Titan. In addition, pixel-scale measurements of slopes and heights of mountain peaks have been obtained from the radarclinometry method. The purpose of this study is first, to study the global distribution of mountain peak heights and slopes using radarclinometry and, second, to analyze global and local structure through geomorphologic mapping and to utilize stress analysis to understand the tectonic history. Preliminary results for our studies of mountain heights from radarclinometry reveal peak heights range from 120 m to 3310 m in elevation with a mean maximum slope, or the steepest value over a pixel length for each mountain, of 29 degrees. Thus far, 200 mountains exceed 1 km in elevation, and these are dominantly found near the equator, perhaps indicating those mountains formed by a common process, where energy was concentrated. In comparison, rim heights on Ksa and Sinlap craters are 750-800 m, similar to heights of rims and central peaks on Ganymede (generally not over 1 km). This means crater rim heights are related to the formation process, which yields heights lower than those of mountain belts, and also to erosion, which has likely brought down the rim heights from their original values. Both effects mean that for Titan, with an ice lithosphere likely thinner then Ganymede's, tectonism that occurred more recently than the major impact phase is the most likely cause of higher features. Structural mapping enables us to determine mountain origins by revealing key morphologies. We mapped mountain chains with peak heights over 1 km as tectonic units. Structure maps of curvilinear mountain belts in the equatorial area highlight their general west-east orientation, with a strike of two general orientations of 80 degrees and 102 degrees. The sinuosity of the mountain belts in T61 and T8 is 1.02 to 1.34. The short wavelength structure of curved mountain chains near the equator and 200 W longitude is consistent with extension, with the average wavelength of sinuosity being on the order of 50 km, but further analysis is needed to identify if compressional or extensional tectonism caused their formation. Our mountain height distribution results and structural and stress analysis leads us to conclude the origin of most of the mountains on Titan is endogenic, from regional tectonic stresses. The tectonic structural mapping is intended to provide constraints on surficial, geological, and interior evolution and to facilitate future geophysical modeling on Titan.

Liu, Z.; Radebaugh, J.; Kirk, R. L.; Cassini Radar Team

2011-12-01

319

Low-latitude mountain glacier evidence for abrupt climate changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clear evidence that a widespread warming of Earth's climate system is now underway comes from low latitude mountain glaciers. Proxy temperature histories reconstructed from ice cores, and the rapidly accelerating loss of both the total ice area and ice volume on a near global scale suggest that these glaciers responding to increasing rates of melting. In situ observations reveal the

L. G. Thompson; E. S. Mosley-Thompson; P. Lin; M. E. Davis; T. A. Mashiotta; H. H. Brecher

2004-01-01

320

PHOTOGRAPHIC MAPS OF MOUNTAIN AREAS - CAN THEY BE USEFUL?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usefulness of a popular photomap of the mountain region is analyzed on the basis of the Polish Tatra tourist photomap at scale 1:20,000 issued in 2002. Strong and weak points of the result and the difficulties during compilation are displayed and discussed. Paper presents the resulting photomap and the chain of decisions and choices included in the compilation process. Concept

Jacek Drachal

321

Nature and continuity of the Sundance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the detailed geologic mapping (1:2,400 scale) that was performed in the northern part of the potential nuclear waste repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine the nature and extent of the Sundance Fault zone and to evaluate structural relations between the Sundance and other faults.

Potter, Christopher J.; Dickerson, Robert P.; Day, Warren C.

2000-01-12

322

Landsliding and the evolution of normal-fault-bounded mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the tectonic and climatic history in high-relief regions, such as the mountains of the western U.S. Basin and Range province, is contained in the mort?holo  of hillslopes, drainage networks, and other landforms that range in scale from 10-' to 10  km. To understand how these landforms evolve, we have developed a numerical landscape evolution model that

Alexander L. Densmore; Michael A. Ellis; Robert S. Anderson

1998-01-01

323

Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) is a native insect of the pine forests of western North America, and its populations periodically erupt into large-scale outbreaks. During outbreaks, the resulting widespread tree mortality reduces forest carbon uptake and increases future emissions from the decay of killed trees. The impacts of insects on forest carbon dynamics, however,

W. A. Kurz; C. C. Dymond; G. Stinson; G. J. Rampley; E. T. Neilson; A. L. Carroll; T. Ebata; L. Safranyik

2008-01-01

324

YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --  

SciTech Connect

This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

NA

2003-08-05

325

Commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

326

Successful commercialization of nanophotonic technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exploitation of nanotechnology from proof of principle to realizable commercial applications encounters considerable challenges in regards to high volume, large scale, low cost manufacturability and social ethics. This has led to concerns over converting powerful intellectual property into realizable, industry attractive technologies. At The Technology Partnership we specifically address the issue of successful integration of nanophotonics into industry in markets such as biomedical, ophthalmic, energy, telecommunications, and packaging. In this paper we draw on a few examples where we have either developed industrial scale nanophotonic technology or engineering platforms which may be used to fortify nano/microphotonic technologies and enhance their commercial viability.

Jaiswal, Supriya L.; Clarke, Roger B. M.; Hyde, Sam C. W.

2006-09-01

327

Surficial geologic map along the Castle Mountain Fault between Houston and Hatcher Pass Road, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is a 1:25,000-scale surficial geologic map along the Castle Mountain fault between Houston and Hatcher Pass Road in southcentral Alaska. The map area lies entirely within the Anchorage 1:250,000-scale quadrangle and within the Matanuska-Susitna Borough. The primary purpose of the map is to delineate the location of the Castle Mountain fault and other active or potentially active faults in the area. This map lies between two other maps along the Castle Mountain fault by Detterman and others (1974, 1976).

Haeussler, P. J.

1998-01-01

328

A Prediction System for Local Wind Variations in Mountainous Terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-level model system for the prediction of local flows in mountainous terrain is described. The system is based uponan operational weather prediction model with a horizontal grid spacing of about 10 km. The large-scale flow is transformed to a more detailed terrain, first by a mesoscale model with grid spacing of about 1 km, and then by a local-scale

K. J. Eidsvik; A. Holstad; I. Lie

2004-01-01

329

Review of Yucca Mountain Disposal Criticality Studies  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, submitted a license application for construction authorization of a deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in June of 2008. The license application is currently under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However,on March 3, 2010 the DOE filed a motion requesting withdrawal of the license application. With the withdrawal request and the development of the Blue Ribbon Commission to seek alternative strategies for disposing of spent fuel, the status of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is uncertain. What is certain is that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will continue to be generated and some long-lived components of the SNF will eventually need a disposition path(s). Strategies for the back end of the fuel cycle will continue to be developed and need to include the insights from the experience gained during the development of the Yucca Mountain license application. Detailed studies were performed and considerable progress was made in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues regarding geologic disposal of SNF. This paper reviews selected technical studies performed in support of the disposal criticality analysis licensing basis and the use of burnup credit. Topics include assembly misload analysis, isotopic and criticality validation, commercial reactor critical analyses, loading curves, alternative waste package and criticality control studies, radial burnup data and effects, and implementation of a conservative application model in the criticality probabilistic evaluation as well as other information that is applicable to operations regarding spent fuel outside the reactor. This paper summarizes the work and significant accomplishments in these areas and provides a resource for future, related activities.

Scaglione, John M [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL

2011-01-01

330

Glacial effects limiting mountain height.  

PubMed

The height of mountain ranges reflects the balance between tectonic rock uplift, crustal strength and surface denudation. Tectonic deformation and surface denudation are interdependent, however, and feedback mechanisms-in particular, the potential link to climate-are subjects of intense debate. Spatial variations in fluvial denudation rate caused by precipitation gradients are known to provide first-order controls on mountain range width, crustal deformation rates and rock uplift. Moreover, limits to crustal strength are thought to constrain the maximum elevation of large continental plateaus, such as those in Tibet and the central Andes. There are indications that the general height of mountain ranges is also directly influenced by the extent of glaciation through an efficient denudation mechanism known as the glacial buzzsaw. Here we use a global analysis of topography and show that variations in maximum mountain height correlate closely with climate-controlled gradients in snowline altitude for many high mountain ranges across orogenic ages and tectonic styles. With the aid of a numerical model, we further demonstrate how a combination of erosional destruction of topography above the snowline by glacier-sliding and commensurate isostatic landscape uplift caused by erosional unloading can explain observations of maximum mountain height by driving elevations towards an altitude window just below the snowline. The model thereby self-consistently produces the hypsometric signature of the glacial buzzsaw, and suggests that differences in the height of mountain ranges mainly reflect variations in local climate rather than tectonic forces. PMID:19675651

Egholm, D L; Nielsen, S B; Pedersen, V K; Lesemann, J-E

2009-08-13

331

Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results  

SciTech Connect

Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

Gail Heath

2012-07-01

332

Mountain Tourism: Toward a Conceptual Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework is proposed to examine tourism and recreation issues in mountainous regions. First, six mountain-specific resource characteristics are discussed, which include diversity, marginality, difficulty of access, fragility, niche and aesthetics. It is argued that these characteristics are unique to mountainous regions and, as such, have specific implications for mountain recreation and tourism development. The paper then examines the

Raymond Chipeniuk

2005-01-01

333

Epilithic diatoms of mountain lakes of the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the international project EMERGE, species composition of epilithic diatoms of 34 selected high mountain\\u000a lakes of Slovak part of the Tatra Mountains were investigated. In all, 127 taxa of diatoms belonging to 26 genera were recorded.\\u000a Comparison of the epilithic assemblages of the investigated lakes showed differences both in relative abundance and taxa present\\u000a in the

Elena Štefková

2006-01-01

334

Unstable dynamics and population limitation in mountain hares.  

PubMed

The regular large-scale population fluctuations that characterize many species of northern vertebrates have fascinated ecologists since the time of Charles Elton. There is still, however, no clear consensus on what drives these fluctuations. Throughout their circumpolar distribution, mountain hares Lepus timidus show regular and at times dramatic changes in density. There are distinct differences in the nature, amplitude and periodicity of these fluctuations between regions and the reasons for these population fluctuations and the geographic differences remain largely unknown. In this review we synthesize knowledge on the factors that limit or regulate mountain hare populations across their range in an attempt to identify the drivers of unstable dynamics. Current knowledge of mountain hare population dynamics indicates that trophic interactions--either predator-prey or host-parasite--appear to be the major factor limiting populations and these interactions may contribute to the observed unstable dynamics. There is correlative and experimental evidence that some mountain hare populations in Fennoscandia are limited by predation and that predation may link hare and grouse cycles to microtine cycles. Predation is unlikely to be important in mountain hare populations in Scotland as most hares occur on sporting estates where predators are controlled, but this hypothesis remains to be experimentally tested. There is, however, emerging experimental evidence that some Scottish mountain hare populations are limited by parasites and that host-parasite interactions contribute to unstable dynamics. By contrast, there is little evidence from Fennoscandia that parasitism is of any importance to mountain hare population dynamics, although disease may cause periodic declines. Although severe weather and food limitation may interact to cause periodic high winter mortality there is little evidence that food availability limits mountain hare populations. There is a paucity of information concerning the factors limiting or regulating mountain hare populations in the Alps of Central Europe or in the tundra and taiga belts of Russia. Future research on mountain hare population dynamics should focus on the interactions between predation, parasitism and nutrition with stochastic factors such as climate and anthropogenic management including harvesting. PMID:17944616

Newey, Scott; Dahl, Fredrik; Willebrand, Tomas; Thirgood, Simon

2007-11-01

335

Topography and the water cycle in a temperate middle mountain environment: the need for interdisciplinary experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two main characteristics of mountainous regions are the large topography-driven lateral redistributions of water and energy, and the considerable topography-related heterogeneities on all scales. These features are difficult to estimate, to incorporate into hydrologic models and to aggregate on the general circulation model grid scale. On the local scale, the topography controls the spatial patterns of water and energy inputs,

Bruno Ambroise

1995-01-01

336

SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: LITIGATION TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND SERVICES, ROCKY MOUNTAIN ARSENAL (BASIS F WASTES)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report consists of 5 documents which cover incineration tests at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA), Denver, CO, ranging from a labor- atory test plan and bench-scale test to full-scale testing. This abstract reports only on the results of bench-scale incineration test...

337

Laboratory experiments on mountain-induced rotors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of mountain-induced rotors has received considerable interest in recent years, which cumulated in the large international field experiment T-REX (Grubisic et al, 2008). Also several numerical simulations on the formation of rotors have been published recently (e.g. Vosper, 2004; Doyle and Durran, 2007). Although much insight into the rotor problem has been gathered through these activities, some additional information might be provided by laboratory experiments in stratified towing tanks. This kind of research has been used frequently with respect to the lee wave problem (e.g. Eiff and Bonneton, 2000), but not many systematic laboratory experiments on the rotor problem have been performed. Here we present some results on laboratory experiments on the formation of mountain-induced rotors, which have been performed in the large towing tank (22.0 m length, 3.0 m width, 1,5 m hight) of Meteo-France at Toulouse. The new aspect of our experiments is the use of variable vertical stratification as compared to the usual linear density profile (constant Brunt-Vaisala frequency) as used in the same tank by Eiff and Bonneton (2000). In fact we were guided by the numerical simulations of Vosper (2004) who has shown, that an elevated inversion (density jump) above the mountain top is favourable for the formation of rotors on the lee side slope. These simulations have provided information, under which combinations of inversion height, inversion strength and upstream wind speed rotors, lee waves or hydraulic jumps can be expected. By proper scaling of the experimental set up we were able, to find these mountain-induced phenomena also in our laboratory experiments within nearly the same parameter range as in the simulations of Vosper. The flow phenomena were made visible by streakline photographs. The velocity fields within lee waves and rotors were obtained by a PIV method. By this we were also able to perform some quantitative comparison with results from numerical simulations, especially concerning the return flow in the lower part of rotors and the sweeping of boundary layer vorticity into the upper part of rotors. Our laboratory experiments confirm, that an elevated inversion is supporting the formation of rotors in the lee side of mountains, as was already indicated in numerical simulations mentioned above. Doyle, J.D. and D.D. Durran: J.Atmos.Sci, 64, 4202-4221 (2007). Eiff, O.S. and P. Bonneton: Phys.Fluids, 12, 1073-1086 (2000). Grubisic, V. et al.: Bull.Amer.Meteor.Soc., 89, 1513-1533 (2008). Vosper, S.B.: Quart.J.Roy.Meteor.Soc., 130, 1723-1748 (2004).

Knigge, C.; Etling, D.; Paci, A.; Eiff, O.

2010-09-01

338

Monitoring low density avian populations: An example using Mountain Plovers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Declines in avian populations highlight a need for rigorous, broad-scale monitoring programs to document trends in avian populations that occur in low densities across expansive landscapes. Accounting for the spatial variation and variation in detection probability inherent to monitoring programs is thought to be effort-intensive and time-consuming. We determined the feasibility of the analytical method developed by Royle and Nichols (2003), which uses presence-absence (detection-non-detection) field data, to estimate abundance of Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) per sampling unit in agricultural fields, grassland, and prairie dog habitat in eastern Colorado. Field methods were easy to implement and results suggest that the analytical method provides valuable insight into population patterning among habitats. Mountain Plover abundance was highest in prairie dog habitat, slightly lower in agricultural fields, and substantially lower in grassland. These results provided valuable insight to focus future research into Mountain Plover ecology and conservation. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

Dreitz, V. J.; Lukacs, P. M.; Knopf, F. L.

2006-01-01

339

COMMERCIAL SCALE SOLAR-POWERED DESALINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies dealing with the potential of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) for desalination along the Mediterranean Coast and in the Middle East choose to use RES to generate electricity first, and then use this electricity to power desalination. The present work eliminates the phase of electricity generation by using solar thermal energy directly for distillation by evaporation. Saving the thermal

Dan Sagie; Eli Mandelberg; Joseph Weinberg

340

YUCCA Mountain project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the experimental work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during fiscal year 2004 (FY 04) under the Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) Memorandum Purchase Order (MPO), contract number B004210CM3X. Important results related to the technical bases, uncertainties, validation, and conservatism in current source term models are summarized below. An examination of specimens of commercial spent nuclear fuel

W. L. Ebert; J. A. Fortner; R. J. Finch; J. L. Jerden; J. C. Cunnane

2005-01-01

341

Engineered barrier environment, Yucca Mountain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Energy is studying the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential nuclear waste repository site. Environmental conditions are important to engineered barrier system (EBS) design, materials testing, selection, design criteria, w...

D. G. Wilder

1993-01-01

342

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat  

SciTech Connect

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

1986-02-01

343

The Dilemma of Mountain Roads  

EPA Science Inventory

Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources....

344

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat  

PubMed Central

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images

Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

1986-01-01

345

The interaction of katabatic winds and mountain waves  

SciTech Connect

The variation in the oft-observed, thermally-forced, nocturnal katabatic winds along the east side of the Rocky Mountains can be explained by either internal variability or interactions with various other forcings. Though generally katabatic flows have been studied as an entity protected from external forcing by strong thermal stratification, this work investigates how drainage winds along the Colorado Front Range interact with, in particular, topographically forced mountain waves. Previous work has shown, based on measurements taken during the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain 1993 field program, that the actual dispersion in katabatic flows is often greater than reflected in models of dispersion. The interaction of these phenomena is complicated and non-linear since the amplitude, wavelength and vertical structure of mountain waves developed by flow over the Rocky Mountain barrier are themselves partly determined by the evolving atmospheric stability in which the drainage flows develop. Perturbations to katabatic flow by mountain waves, relative to their more steady form in quiescent conditions, are found to be caused by both turbulence and dynamic pressure effects. The effect of turbulent interaction is to create changes to katabatic now depth, katabatic flow speed, katabatic jet height and, vertical thermal stratification. The pressure effect is found to primarily influence the variability of a given katabatic now through the evolution of integrated column wave forcing on surface pressure. Variability is found to occur on two scales, on the mesoscale due to meso-gamma scale mountain wave evolution, and on the microscale, due to wave breaking. Since existing parameterizations for the statically stable case are predominantly based on nearly flat terrain atmospheric measurements under idealized or nearly quiescent conditions, it is no surprise that these parameterizations often contribute to errors in prediction, particularly in complex terrain.

Poulos, G.S.

1997-01-01

346

A study of structure and mechanism of a meso-beta-scale convective vortex and associated heavy rainfall in the dabie mountain area part I: Diagnostic analysis of the structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis was conducted on the evolutional process of a mesoscale convective vortex (MCV) and associated heavy rainfall in the Dabie Mountain area on 21-22 June 2008, as well as their structural characteristics in different stages, by using the mesoscale reanalysis data with 3 km and 1 h resolution generated by the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) in the Southern China Heavy Rainfall Experiment. The results showed that the latent heat released by convection in the midtroposphere was the main energy source for the development of a low-level vortex. There was a positive feedback interaction between the convection and the vortex, and the evolution of the MCV was closely related to the strength of the positive interaction. The most typical characteristics of the thermal structure in different stages were that, there was a relatively thin diabatic heating layer in the midtroposphere in the formative stage; the thickness of diabatic heating layer significantly increased in the mature stage; and it almost disappeared in the decay stage. The characteristics of the dynamic structure were that, in the formative stage, there was no anticyclonic circulation at the high level; in the mature stage, an anticyclonic circulation with strong divergence was formed at the high level; in the decay stage, the anticyclonic circulation was damaged and the high-level atmosphere was in a disordered state of turbulence. Finally, the structural schematics of the MCV in the formative and mature stage were established respectively.

Xu, Wenhui; Ni, Yunqi; Wang, Xiaokang; Qiu, Xuexing; Bao, Xinghua; Jin, Wenyan

2011-09-01

347

Cathedral Mountain debris flows, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historic debris flow activity along the north side of Cathedral Mountain in the southern Rocky Mountains of British Columbia,\\u000a began in 1925 and has increased in frequency up to 1985. A typical debris flow event involves approximately 100,000 m3 of material. Debris flow velocities and discharges above the head of the fan crossed by the Trans-Canada Highway and the\\u000a C.P.R.

L. E. Jackson; O. Hungr; J. S. Gardner; C. Mackay

1989-01-01

348

Plate tectonics and mountain building  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the greatest strengths of the modern plate tectonics theory is its ability to explain the origin of virtually all of\\u000a the present and most ancient mountain belts on Earth. In other words, mountain building (orogeny) stands in strong causal\\u000a interrelation with the global plate drift pattern. The motor of orogeny is subduction. To enable subduction, a basin floored

Wolfgang Frisch; Martin Meschede; Ronald Blakey

349

Building for the Future by Expatiating the Past: High Drama from the Summit of China's Learning Mountain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a large-scale learning initiative, the Chinese Communist Party has declared Lushan to be a "learning mountain". There have been people learning at Lushan Mountain for 2000 years. In 1959 there was a Central Committee meeting at Lushan, where Mao Zedong purged his widely respected comrade Peng Dehuai for daring to say people were…

Boshier, Roger; Huang, Yan

2006-01-01

350

Characteristics of Mountain Waves over Himalayan Region: Observations and Numerical Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

T. K. Ramkumar, M. Venkat Ratnam National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Gadanki, India-517112 Gravity waves are generated in the atmosphere from different sources, of these, mountain waves, generated by airflow over topography, is believed to be one of the dominant sources, particularly in the extratropics during winter. Mountain waves significantly transport momentum and energy vertically up through the atmosphere and the effect of which is essential to understand the middle atmosphere circulation and chemistry. Extensive studies on mountain waves have been done in the past but the dynamics of the small-scale waves are not well understood. Interestingly, the nadir looking satellites are capable for resolving the small horizontal scale gravity waves. Mountain waves have been observed by satellites over several parts of the world such as Antarctic Peninsula, Scandinavia, South Georgia Island, Andes etc., using nadir looking and limb scanning satellite measurements. However, the mountain waves over Himalayan mountain region is least studied though this region is associated with highly complex topography and is a potential source for the generation of waves. In the present study, we describe a mountain wave event observed in three dimensions using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) satellite measured atmospheric radiance and temperatures over the western Himalayan mountain region. As a supplement to the AIRS measurements, we have also used the temperature information obtained from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The mountain wave event is also well represented in the high resolution Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis data. A close agreement between the observed and theoretical vertical wavelengths for a stationary gravity wave is found. Using three dimensional (3D) wave properties of the wave, we also estimated the wave momentum flux. In addition, we also present the statistics on the wave properties compiled over one month of data during winter period over the Himalayan region. Apart from the observations we also present results from numerical simulations of the mountain waves, using Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model during this period.

Niranjan Kumar, Kondapalli

2012-07-01

351

Distribution and Properties of Clinoptilolite-Bearing Tuffs in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation on the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation, Southwestern Colorado and Northwestern New Mexico (Chapter A).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The distribution, purity, chemistry, and ammonium exchange capacity of clinoptilolite on the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation were evaluated to determine the economic potential of this area for this commercially important zeolite. Altered volcanic ash beds in...

P. L. Hansley R. A. Sheppard

1993-01-01

352

Modeling heterogeneous unsaturated porous media flow at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Geologic systems are inherently heterogeneous and this heterogeneity can have a significant impact on unsaturated flow through porous media. Most previous efforts to model groundwater flow through Yucca Mountain have used stratigraphic units with homogeneous properties. However, modeling heterogeneous porous and fractured tuff in a more realistic manner requires numerical methods for generating heterogeneous simulations of the media, scaling of material properties from core scale to computational scale, and flow modeling that allows channeling. The Yucca Mountain test case of the INTRAVAL project is used to test the numerical approaches. Geostatistics is used to generate more realistic representations of the stratigraphic units and heterogeneity within units is generated using sampling from property distributions. Scaling problems are reduced using an adaptive grid that minimizes heterogeneity within each flow element. A flow code based on the dual mixed-finite-element method that allows for heterogeneity and channeling is employed. In the Yucca Mountain test case, the simulated volumetric water contents matched the measured values at drill hole USW UZ-16 except in the nonwelded portion of Prow Pass.

Robey, T.H. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-03-01

353

COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GASDESULFURIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the commercial development of the advancedsilicate (ADVACATE) process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This commercialization follows several years of bench-scale sorbentdevelopment, pilot plant process optimization, and field pilotevaluation. esults are pr...

354

YUCCA Mountain project.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the experimental work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during fiscal year 2004 (FY 04) under the Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) Memorandum Purchase Order (MPO), contract number B004210CM3X. Important results related to the technical bases, uncertainties, validation, and conservatism in current source term models are summarized below. An examination of specimens of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) that had been subjected to corrosion testing for up to 10 years under hydrologically unsaturated conditions was undertaken to elucidate radionuclide release pathways and mechanisms.

Ebert, W. L.; Fortner, J. A.; Finch, R. J.; Jerden, J. L.; Cunnane, J. C.

2005-03-28

355

10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE AUXILIARY STRUCTURES. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

356

Aeromagnetic surveys across Crater Flat and parts of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

As part of a study to characterize a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, aeromagnetic surveys were conducted in April 1993 along the trace of a planned seismic profile across Crater Flat and parts of Yucca Mountain. This report includes a presentation and preliminary interpretation of the data. The profiles are at scales of 1:100,000. Also included are a gridded color contour map of the newly acquired data and a discussion of the likely applicability of very-low-frequency (VLF) electromagnetic surveys to Yucca Mountain investigations.

Sikora, R.F.; Campbell, D.L.; Kucks, R.P.

1995-12-31

357

Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where pro- cess dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosys- tem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER WUN- DRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high moun- tain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation re- gions (JUNG et al. 1997, LÖFFLER WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differ- entiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been in- vestigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the different altitudinal belts. The local differences of temperature dynamics are illustrated in a map as an example of the low alpine al- titudinal belt showing a 4-dimensional characterization (in space and time) of high mountain ecosystem functioning. Hydrological aspects derived from those results are presented showing the large-scaled hydrological dynamics of high mountain catch- ment basins in central Norway. The results of the process analysis of hydrological dynamics in the central Norwegian high mountains are discussed within the frame of 1 investigations on altitudinal changes of mountain ecosystem structure and function- ing (LÖFFLER WUNDRAM [in print]). The poster illustrates the theoretical and methodological conception, methods and techniques, examples from complex data material as well as general outcomes of the project (RÖSSLER [in prep.]. 2

Löffler, J.; Rössler, O.

358

Yucca Mountain and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership  

SciTech Connect

Renewed U.S. interest in advanced nuclear fuel cycles involving reprocessing and recycling, embodied in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative, has raised questions about the role of a Yucca Mountain repository - what it will be used for, and when. While the repository is widely recognized as a key part of U.S. waste management strategy, the potential for advanced fuel cycles to improve the capacity and performance of a repository have led some to question whether its development can be deferred pending resolution of questions about the fuel cycle and the fate of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). This paper discusses the rationale for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) goal of completing the proposed Yucca Mountain repository by 2017 in parallel with pursuit of its goals for GNEP, as well as issues posed for the repository program by deployment of the initial facilities of an advanced fuel cycle. (authors)

Kim, D. [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cotton, A.T. [JK Research Associates, Inc./, Bechtel SAIC Co., LLC, Washington, DC (United States)

2007-07-01

359

21st Century Projected Northern Rocky Mountain River Discharges Under Greenhouse Forcings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 20th century hydroclimatology of the northern Rocky Mountains is heavily influenced by recurring large-scale climate patterns: the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the Arctic Oscillation\\/North Atlantic Oscillation (AO\\/NAO). Hence, northern Rocky Mountain river discharge variability can be successfully modeled by regression techniques using these climate indices as predictors. Generalized least squares (GLS) regression addresses

J. St. Jacques; S. L. Lapp; Y. Zhao; E. Barrow; D. Sauchyn

2010-01-01

360

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...topographic maps used to determine the boundary of the Snipes Mountain viticultural area are titled: (1) Sunnyside, Wash., 1965, photo revised 1978; and (2) Granger, Wash., 1965. (c) Boundary. The Snipes Mountain viticultural area is...

2013-04-01

361

[Organization and management of mountain rescues].  

PubMed

Mountain rescue is a matter for specialists. Specific training, a model of organisation under state control, emergency protocols and information and prevention campaigns have helped to improve morbidity and mortality rates in the mountains. PMID:23951620

Maupin, Thierry

362

Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery Plan outlines steps for recovery of gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations in portions of their former range in the Northern Rocky Mountains of the United States. Historical evidence documents the presence of gray wo...

1987-01-01

363

Mountain Warfare: The Need for Specialist Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study focuses on the need for specialist training for mountain warfare. It analyzes the special characteristics of mountain and high altitude terrain which affect conduct of military operations. It identifies the differences between low and high moun...

M. A. Malik

2003-01-01

364

Analysis of Rocky Mountain I Underground Coal Gasification test. Topical report, March 1989December 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Rocky Mountain I Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Project, the Extended Linked Well (ELW) module and the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) module were operated and demonstrated side-by-side. This engineering analysis of the process data was conducted to establish the viability of these technologies for commercial use. The data indicate that an optimum oxygen rate (700 SCFM) exists for

S. S. Lan; F. M. Floyd

1989-01-01

365

Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station  

SciTech Connect

A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

Lyles Brad,McCurdy Greg,Chapman Jenny,Miller Julianne

2012-01-01

366

Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides data on plants and fungi from the Hengduan Mountains and adjacent areas of south-central China, including the Gaoligong Mountains and Tibetan Himalaya. The data were derived from georeferenced collections made on recent expeditions (1984-present) to the region, and include specimens with DNA tissue. Users can browse specimens by name; search by taxon, collector number, or date; or browse collecting localities in the database using Google Earth (TM). There is also information on expeditions and personnel, the Biodiversity of the Eastern Himalaya project, an image gallery, a multilingual gazetteer and thesaurus, and a map showing the historic Tibetan provinces of the region.

367

Ecohydrologic process modeling of mountain block groundwater recharge.  

PubMed

Regional mountain block recharge (MBR) is a key component of alluvial basin aquifer systems typical of the western United States. Yet neither water scientists nor resource managers have a commonly available and reasonably invoked quantitative method to constrain MBR rates. Recent advances in landscape-scale ecohydrologic process modeling offer the possibility that meteorological data and land surface physical and vegetative conditions can be used to generate estimates of MBR. A water balance was generated for a temperate 24,600-ha mountain watershed, elevation 1565 to 3207 m, using the ecosystem process model Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles) (Running and Hunt 1993). Input data included remotely sensed landscape information and climate data generated with the Mountain Climate Simulator (MT-CLIM) (Running et al. 1987). Estimated mean annual MBR flux into the crystalline bedrock terrain is 99,000 m(3) /d, or approximately 19% of annual precipitation for the 2003 water year. Controls on MBR predictions include evapotranspiration (radiation limited in wet years and moisture limited in dry years), soil properties, vegetative ecotones (significant at lower elevations), and snowmelt (dominant recharge process). The ecohydrologic model is also used to investigate how climatic and vegetative controls influence recharge dynamics within three elevation zones. The ecohydrologic model proves useful for investigating controls on recharge to mountain blocks as a function of climate and vegetation. Future efforts will need to investigate the uncertainty in the modeled water balance by incorporating an advanced understanding of mountain recharge processes, an ability to simulate those processes at varying scales, and independent approaches to calibrating MBR estimates. PMID:19702780

Magruder, Ian A; Woessner, William W; Running, Steve W

2009-08-20

368

A comparison of two potential repositories: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Two repositories in the same country, yet Congress and the DOE manage them differently. While Congress encumbers WIPP with unanticipated oversight and inappropriate regulations, Congress streamlines the commercial repository program and promises improved regulations for Yucca Mountain. While DOE encouraged science at the expense of the WIPP infrastructure, DOE postponed its scientific investigations at Yucca Mountain and constructed an infrastructure, large enough to support an ambitious program that was never realized. Somewhere between WIPP and Yucca Mountain lies an ideal repository program. A program where consistent national policy promotes progress; where lucid regulations inspire confidence; where science and infrastructure are balanced; and where oversight groups do not become the tail that wags the dog. Neither WIPP nor Yucca Mountain are ideal programs, but each has its advantages that approach the ideal. Consistent national policy would steer the ideal repository program in a predictable direction. Here Yucca Mountain has the advantage. Successive legislation has streamlined the siting process and promises better regulations. From the beginning, the ideal program would know its regulators and regulations. Again, Yucca Mountain has the advantage. More familiar with regulators and regulations, the Yucca Mountain program had the foresight not to declare HLW to be hazardous and subject to dual regulations. The ideal program would equitably balance its science and infrastructure. Here neither program has the advantage and could possibly represent extremes. The WIPP`s emphasis on scientific investigations left it with little or no infrastructure to deal with regulations and oversight. A regulatory infrastructure, for example, could have forewarned WIPP that its in situ tests were not relevant to the regulations. On the opposite extreme, the Yucca Mountain`s emphasis on infrastructure left it with less money for scientific investigations.

Pflum, C.G.

1994-07-11

369

Impact of Quaternary Climate on Seepage at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium-series ages, oxygen-isotopic compositions, and uranium contents were determined in outer growth layers of opal and calcite from 0.5- to 3-centimeter-thick mineral coatings hosted by lithophysal cavities in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed site of a permanent repository for high-level radioactive waste. Micrometer-scale growth layering in the minerals was imaged using a cathodoluminescence detector on a

J. F. Whelan; J. B. Paces; L. A. Neymark; A. K. Schmitt; M. Grove

2006-01-01

370

A Prediction System for Local Wind Variations in Mountainous Terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-level model system for the prediction of local flows in mountainous terrain is described. The system is based upon\\u000a an operational weather prediction model with a horizontal grid spacing of about 10 km. The large-scale flow is transformed\\u000a to a more detailed terrain, first by a mesoscale model with grid spacing of about 1 km, and then by a

K. J. Eidsvik; A. Holstad; I. Lie; T. Utnes

2004-01-01

371

Fault Zone Structure of Middle Mountain, Central California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Middle Mountain uplift feature in Central California provides an exceptional laboratory in which to study the characteristics of an active fault zone. This complex geological terrain is not distinguished by a single master fault, but rather a 1-3 kilometer wide zone with numerous sub-parallel faults and folds. In order to further understand this deformation, detailed 1:6000 scale geologic field

M. Thayer; J. R. Arrowsmith

2005-01-01

372

Early petroleum exploration, Rocky Mountain region, USA  

SciTech Connect

Historically, geology exposed on the flanks of Rocky Mountain uplifts has given unique opportunities to integrate surface and subsurface data to understand the petroleum geology of the intermontane basins. Exploration evolved from drilling near seeps to mapping of surface anticlines, to use of geophysics and subsurface data acquired by drilling. Oil seeps were first recorded by explorers in Wyoming in 1832 (Dallas dome, Wind River basin) and 1847 (Absaroka thrust, southwest area). Oil skimmed from springs was used for medicinal purposes and sold for wagon lubrication. The first commercial well was drilled in 1862 by an oil seep 9 mi north of Florence, Colorado. Subsequent drilling led to the discovery of the Florence field which has now produced more than 15,000,000 barrels of oil. Production is from fractured Cretaceous shale in a tilted graben with a fault trap on the updip side. Early fields were geologically diverse and reports describing the accumulations developed concepts that guided exploration in the region. The following fields illustrate the wide range of trapping conditions. (1) Faults and fractures on homoclinal dip: Florence-Oil Creek area (1862) and Boulder (1901), Colorado; Uinta basin, Utah. (2) Closed anticline: Dallas dome (1884) and Salt Creek (1908), Wyoming; Rangely (1902), Colorado. (3) Stratigraphic change on anticlinal plunge or regional dip: Moorcroft (1888) and Shannon (1889), Wyoming. (4) Syncline: Mexican Hat (1907), Utah; Blanco gas field (1926), New Mexico. (5) Unconformity: Kevin-Sunburst (1922), Montana. Techniques and ideas developed in areas peripheral to the Rocky Mountains also influence exploration in the overall region, especially Kansas, Oklahoma, and Canada.

Weimer, R.J.

1991-03-01

373

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is âBell Mountain.â (b) Approved map. The...

2010-04-01

374

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is âBell Mountain.â (b) Approved map. The...

2009-04-01

375

Mountain Belts and the New Global Tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the sedimentary, volcanic, structural, and metamorphic chronology in mountain belts, and consideration of the implications of the new global tectonics (plate tectonics), strongly indicate that mountain belts are a consequence of plate evolution. It is proposed that mountain belts develop by the deformation and metamorphism of the sedimentary and volcanic assemblages of Atlantic-type continental margins. These assemblages result

John F. Dewey; John M. Bird

1970-01-01

376

Interferometry SAR in Antarctic Grove Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grove Mountains locates to the southwest of Princess Elizabeth Land, inland areas of east Antarctica. Field Work in Grove Mountains is very difficult. Interferometric SAR is a powerful tool in DEM generation, vertical change detection and determining the velocities and directions of ice streams. After the field GPS\\/RTK surveying work in Grove Mountains during the 1999\\/2000 summer season, we got

Xiao Cheng; Chunxia Zhou; Qulin Tan; Guanhua Xu; Yun Shao

2002-01-01

377

Mountain restoration: Soil and surface wildlife habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much wildlife habitat is being destroyed by extractive resource industries in mountain environments. This article illustrates how mountain wildlife habitat was restored in a devastated area. A strip mine for coal on the east slopes of the Alberta Rockies, occupied during its operations by Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis, Shaw 1803), was reclaimed as bighorn habitat. By considering

B. N. MacCullum; V. Geist

1992-01-01

378

Soil quality and productivity responses to watershed restoration in the Ouachita mountains of Arkansas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The Ouachita Mountains Ecosystem Management Research Project (OEMP) is a 'large interdisciplinary research project designed to provide the scientific foundation for landscape management at the scale of watersheds. The OEMP has progressed through three phases: developing natural regeneration alternatives to clearcutting and planting; testing of these alternatives at the stand scale; and the present Phase III which compares the

John A. Stantutf; Daniel A. Marion; Martin Spetich; Kenneth Luckow; M. Guldin; Calvin E. Meier

379

Disturbance and Canopy Gaps as Indicators of Forest Health in the Blue Mountains of Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbance profiles, indices based on both spatial and non-spatial statistics, are used to examine how small-scale disturbances and the resulting canopy gaps disrupt ecosystem patterns and processes in selected stands in the Blue Mountains of Oregon. The biological meaning of many indices remains un- defined for small scale disturbance phenomena, but their disturbance profiles could eventually be used to assess

J. S Beatty; B. W. Geils

380

Modeling dispersion in three-dimensional heterogeneous fractured media at Yucca Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly resolved numerical simulations are conducted to evaluate the longitudinal and transverse dispersivities proposed for use in the larger-scale Yucca Mountain saturated zone (SZ) site-scale model. Two different stochastic continuum models (SCM) that define the spatial variability of permeability are inferred from the observed fracture characteristics and the measured permeabilities. These models are created with a combination of indicator geostatistics

Sean A McKenna; Douglas D Walker; Bill Arnold

2003-01-01

381

Landsliding and the evolution of normal-fault-bounded mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the tectonic and climatic history in high-relief regions, such as the mountains of the western U.S. Basin and Range province, is contained in the morphology of hillslopes, drainage networks, and other landforms that range in scale from 10-1 to 101km. To understand how these landforms evolve, we have developed a numerical landscape evolution model that combines a detailed tectonic displacement field with a set of physically based geomorphic rules. Bedrock landsliding, long recognized as a significant geomorphic process in mountainous topography, is for the first time explicitly included in the rule set. In a series of numerical experiments, we generate synthetic landscapes that closely resemble mountainous topography observed in the Basin and Range. The production of realistic landscapes depends critically on the presence of bedrock landslides, and landsliding yields rates of long-term erosion that are comparable in magnitude to those of fluvial erosion. The erosive efficiency of bedrock landsliding implies that hillslopes may respond very quickly to changes in local base level and that fluvial erosion is the rate-limiting process in steady state experimental landscapes, Our experiments generate power law distributions of landslide sizes, somewhat similar to both field and laboratory observations. Thus even a simple model of bedrock landsliding is capable of quantitatively reproducing mountainous topography and landslide distributions and represents a significant step forward in our understanding of the evolution of normal-fault-bounded ranges.

Densmore, Alexander L.; Ellis, Michael A.; Anderson, Robert S.

1998-07-01

382

Isentropic Pressure and Mountain Torques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation of pressure torques and mountain torques is investigated on the basis of observations for the polar caps, two midlatitude and two subtropical belts, and a tropical belt by evaluating the lagged covariances of these torques for various isentropic surfaces. It is only in the polar domains and the northern midlatitude belts that the transfer of angular momentum to

Joseph Egger; Klaus-Peter Hoinka

2009-01-01

383

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia  

PubMed Central

We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that >21% of the serum samples had antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae.

Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P.; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David

2007-01-01

384

The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

Young, Jeff

1997-01-01

385

Anatomy of a Mountain Range.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

Chew, Berkeley

1993-01-01

386

Gearing Up for Mountain Biking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the gear system of a mountain bike to discover any redundancy in the many gear settings available to the cyclist. Suggests a best strategy for changing up through the gears on a typical 21-gear system and an adjustment to the available gears that would result in a smoother change. (Author/ASK)|

Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

1999-01-01

387

Rocky Mountain Bio Lab: Wildflowers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explores the work of environmentalist John Hart, a Professor of Environmental Science at U.C. Berkley. In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, Dr. Hart has established an experimental laboratory in which he has artificially created and maintained a 3-degree increase in surface temperature of a plot of land, and documented the impact on plant species occupying the plot.

Geographic, National

388

Anatomy of a Mountain Range.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

Chew, Berkeley

1993-01-01

389

Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

Not Available

1994-04-29

390

Environmental Impacts of Transportation to the Potential Repository at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada analyzes a Proposed Action to construct, operate, monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. As part of the Proposed Action, the EIS analyzes the potential impacts of transporting commercial and DOE spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to Yucca Mountain from 77 sites across the United States. The analysis includes information on the comparative impacts of transporting these materials by truck and rail and discusses the impacts of building a rail line or using heavy-haul trucks to move rail casks from a mainline railroad in Nevada to the site. This paper provides an overview of the analyses and the potential impacts of these transportation activities. The potential transportation impacts were looked at from two perspectives: transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste by legal-weight truck or by rail on a national scale and impacts specific to Nevada from the transportation of these materials from the State borders to the Yucca Mountain site. In order to address the range of impacts that could result from the most likely modes, legal-weight truck and rail, the EIS employed two analytical scenarios--mostly legal-weight truck and mostly rail. Estimated national transportation impacts were based on 24 years of transportation activities. Approximately 8 fatalities could occur from all causes in the nationwide general population from incident-free transportation activities of the mostly legal-weight truck scenario and about 4 from the mostly rail scenario. The analysis examined the radiological consequences under the maximum foreseeable accident scenario and also overall accident risk. The overall accident risk over the 24 year period would be about 0.0002 latent cancer fatality for the mostly legal-weight truck scenario and about 0.0005 latent cancer fatality for the mostly rail scenario. The maximum reasonably foreseeable accident scenario resulted in 0.55 latent cancer fatality for the legal-weight truck case and 5 latent cancer fatalities in the case of mostly rail. The EIS also analyzed the impacts associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the State of Nevada. This included: constructing a branch rail line and using it to ship waste to the repository; upgrading highways in Nevada for use by heavy-haul trucks; constructing and operating an intermodal transfer station; and transporting personnel and materials to support construction and operation of the repository.

R.L. Sweeney; R. Best; P. Bolton; P. Adams

2002-01-03

391

Commercial combustion research: ISS hardware and commercial products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary ISS hardware to be used for commercial combustion research, and the first commercial hardware to be sent to ISS, is SpaceDRUMS™. The centerpiece of the display is a full-scale mockup of the SpaceDRUMS™ facility, which is scheduled to be launched to ISS aboard UF-1 in January, 2001. This facility was developed by CCACS industrial member Guigné International Ltd. (GIL), in partnership with SpaceHab™. It is capable of high-precision positioning, manipulation and shaping of both solid and liquid samples. The positioning system operates by application of pulsed acoustic restoring forces. This display features some of the commercial combustion hardware planned for the International Space Station, as well as one of the early commercial products to come out of the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines. Backing up the display is a board showing all of the combustion research within CCACS. Each of the projects is described, along with the hardware planned for the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. The industrial partners in CCACS are listed, along with the project interests of each. Finally, summaries of the investments made to date by all the parties are shown. The display also contains a new commercial product, a de-modulating digital camera, which was developed in the course of the combustion research within CCACS and in conjunction with member Princeton Instruments (now a division of Roper Scientific). The camera operates through lock-in detection and amplification applied to the signals associated with each pixel in the field of view. By employing a modulation/de-modulation technique, weak images can be extracted from the strong backgrounds that characterize combustion experiments. Particular portions of flames and solid matter within flames can be observed using this camera. .

Schowengerdt, F. D.

2000-01-01

392

Numerical simulations of stably stratified flow through a mountain pass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of boundary-layer friction in stably stratified flow through a mountain pass is examined through a series of idealized numerical simulations. Both two-dimensional (2-D) simulations of flow through a valley which is infinitely long in the direction of the flow and three-dimensional (3-D) simulations of flow through a pass in a 2-D ridge are conducted. For the 2-D simulations the secondary flow induced by the flow turning in the boundary layer is investigated and the behaviour categorized depending on the location of any flow separation on the valley side. The separation (diagnosed using surface stresses) is found to depend primarily on a Froude number based on the valley depth. The generation of potential vorticity (PV) in the boundary layer adjacent to the valley sides is examined in the 2-D simulations, and numerical results are found to agree well with simple scaling analysis. In the 3-D case PV is still generated in the boundary layer adjacent to the sides of the pass, and this PV is advected out of the pass by the flow across the mountain. When the upstream flow is sufficiently strongly stratified (Froude number based on the mountain height less than unity) a hydraulic jump occurs on the lee side of the mountain ridge, enabling advection of the PV out of the boundary layer and into the interior of the flow. Examination of the PV structure on isentropic surfaces downwind of the mountain ridge reveals the presence of PV banners which originate from the sides of the pass. In these simulations frictional processes within the boundary layer appear to dominate the production of the PV banners, and gravity-wave breaking plays a relatively minor role.

Ross, A. N.; Vosper, S. B.

2003-01-01

393

Thermochromism in Commercial Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many commercial products change color with a change of temperature. How do they do it? The processes responsible for the two major categories of commercial thermochromic coloring agents are presented, along with a description of applications of thermochromic materials.

Mary Anne White; Monique Leblanc

1999-01-01

394

Commercial Systems Validation Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Commercial Systems Validation Laboratory (CSVL) is composed of the (1) Virtual Product Laboratory (VPL), (2) Commercial Instrument Validation Laboratory (CIVL), and (3) In-Flight Verification & Validation Network (IVVN). All three laboratories are...

R. Ryan

2001-01-01

395

Commercial Master File.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contains a listing of commercial operator and restricted operator licensees in operator name sequence. A cross-reference of commercial operators by serial number is also included. File only covers last seven years.

1988-01-01

396

Commercial Operator History File.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contains a listing of commercial operator and restricted operator licensees in operator name sequence. A crossreference of commercial operators by serial number is also included. This report is produced once a year and contains licenses issued seven or mo...

1983-01-01

397

Commercial Cooking Equipment Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the efforts of a project aimed at improving the thermal efficiency of gas-fired commercial cooking equipment, specifically the development of a commercial open top section employing powered burners and the development of means for ap...

R. L. Himmel

1983-01-01

398

Gravity and magnetic investigations of the Ghost Dance and Solitario Canyon faults, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Ground magnetic and gravity data collected along traverses across the Ghost Dance and Solitario Canyon faults on the eastern and western flanks, respectively, of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are interpreted. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Gravity and magnetic data and models along traverses across the Ghost Dance and Solitario Canyon faults show prominent anomalies associated with known faults and reveal a number of possible concealed faults beneath the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain. The central part of the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain is characterized by several small amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small scale faulting.

Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.

1995-12-31

399

Use of Integrated Decay Heat Limits to Facilitate Spent Nuclear Fuel Loading to Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

As an alternative to the use of the linear loading or areal power density (APD) concept, using integrated decay heat limits based on the use of mountain-scale heat transfer analysis is considered to represent the thermal impact from the deposited spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Yucca Mountain repository. Two different integrated decay heat limits were derived to represent both the short-term (up to 50 years from the time of repository closure) and the long-term decay heat effect (up to 1500 years from the time of repository closure). The derived limits were found to appropriately represent the drift wall temperature limit (200 deg. C) and the midway between adjacent drifts temperature limit (96 deg. C) as long as used fuel is uniformly loaded into the mountain. These limits can be a useful practical guide to facilitate the loading of used fuel into Yucca Mountain. (authors)

Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University (United States); Piet, Steven [Idaho National Laboratory (United States)

2007-07-01

400

Mountain pine beetle infestation impacted by water availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation pattern and landscape structure intersect to exert strong control over ecohydrological dynamics at the watershed scale. The hydrologic implications of vegetation disturbance (e.g. fire, disease etc.) depend on the spatial pattern and form of environmental change. Here we investigate this intersection at Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF), Montana with a focus on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic currently affecting the Rocky Mountains. We calibrated QuickBird remote sensing imagery with a leaf-level spectral library of local vegetation. We used this spectral library to determine optimal vegetation indices for differentiating stages of beetle infestation within the 37 km2 TCEF watershed. These indices formed the basis of a three-component mixing model to quantify the extent and magnitude of beetle infestation across the TCEF watershed. We compared disturbance patterns to spatially distributed topography and vegetation variables derived from a LiDAR-based digital elevation model (DEM) of TCEF. We determined that certain landscape characteristics (low vegetation density, south facing slopes, steep slopes, locations with small contributing areas, and locations with lower values of the topographic wetness index (TWI)) were significantly more likely to exhibit the effects of beetle infestation. Our efforts to monitor vegetation mortality across space and time provide a context for assessing landscape susceptibility to initial mountain pine beetle infestation via feedbacks between biodiversity and hydrological patterns and further research into understanding how outbreak (i.e. landscape scale infestation) patterns may affect watershed ecohydrology via altered water and biogeochemical cycles.

Kaiser, K. E.; McGlynn, B.; Emanuel, R.

2012-04-01

401

Humps and hollows: basalt weathering in low-latitude mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical, chemical and biological weathering processes are significant contributors to landscape development in mountain blocks worldwide, and over long time scales, but the interplay between different weathering processes is uncertain. Jurassic-age basalt lava flows underlie the Drakensberg mountain range of eastern Lesotho, southern Africa (summits 3200-3400 m asl), and weathered bedrock is commonly exposed on flat plateau surfaces. Subaerial weathering throughout the Quaternary and Holocene has resulted in a range of weathering forms, some of which exploit pre-existing cooling fractures within the basalts, and some of which are independent of geological control. These forms include pseudokarst-style potholes, karren and other microforms. The geometry, chemistry of water contained within the potholes, seasonal presence of ice, sediment and organic residues all suggest that physical, chemical and biological weathering processes are significant at different times and in different ways in subaerial weathering. Moreover, it is also likely that these process-types show pronounced seasonal variability that means that the interplay between different processes is subtle. Aggregated rates of land surface denudation or geomorphic development of single landforms therefore hide this subtle interplay between different processes. Changes in mountain summit soil depth (through soil erosion), ecosystems and climate will change this balance between different processes, and will operate over different spatial and temporal scales.

Knight, Jasper; Grab, Stefan

2013-04-01

402

Spatiotemporal patterns of mountain pine beetle activity in the southern Rocky Mountains.  

PubMed

The current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in the southern Rocky Mountains has impacted approximately 750 000 ha of forest. Weather and habitat heterogeneity influence forest insect population dynamics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Comparison of forest insect population dynamics in two principal host species may elucidate the relative contribution of weather and landscape factors in initiating and driving extensive outbreaks. To investigate potential drivers of the current MPB outbreak, we compared broadscale spatiotemporal patterns of MPB activity in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from 1996 to 2010 in Colorado and southern Wyoming with regional weather fluctuations, and then tracked the annual meso-scale progression of the epidemic in lodgepole pine with respect to weather, topographic, previous MPB activity, and forest stand attributes. MPB activity in lodgepole pine compared to ponderosa pine showed higher magnitude and extent of spatial synchrony. Warm temperatures and low annual precipitation favorable to beetle populations showed high regional synchrony across areas of both pine species, suggesting that habitat interacts with weather in synchronizing MPB populations. Cluster analysis of time series patterns identified multiple, disjunct locations of incipient MPB activity (epicenters) in lodgepole pine, which overlapped an earlier 1980s MPB outbreak, and suggests a regional trigger (drought) across this homogenous forest type. Negative departures from mean annual precipitation played a key role in subsequent spread of MPB outbreak. Development of the outbreak was also associated with lower elevations, greater dominance by lodgepole pine, stands of larger tree size, and stands with higher percentage canopy cover. After epidemic levels of MPB activity were attained, MPB activity was less strongly associated with stand and weather variables. These results emphasize the importance of considering differences in patterns of MPB dynamics for different host pine species even under similar regional-scale weather variation and the nonstationarity of outbreak dynamics over time. PMID:23185879

Chapman, Teresa B; Veblen, Thomas T; Schoennagel, Tania

2012-10-01

403

Commercial Radio as Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

1996-01-01

404

Commercialism in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document gives voice to concerns raised by critics and supporters of commercialism in schools and provides brief descriptions of several important resources on this topic. "Commercial Activities in School" (U.S. General Accounting Office) reports on the nature and frequency of commercial activities in public schools, as well as the laws and…

Larson, Kirstin

2001-01-01

405

The structure and stratigraphy of South Mountain, west-central Vermont  

SciTech Connect

The geology of South Mountain, in Bristol, Vermont, consists of rift-related clastic sediments on a Middle Proterozoic basement. Both the basement and the sediments have been subsequently deformed by the Taconic and Acadian orogenies. South Mountain lies at the northern end of the Ripton anticline, a basement-cored, doubly-plunging, map-scale fold. The Late Proterozoic to Lower Cambrian stratigraphic sequence above the basement includes the Pinnacle Formation, the Forestdale Marble, the Fairfield Pond Formation and the Cheshire Quartzite. This study concentrates on the Cheshire Quartzite and the Fairfield Pond Formation in order to work out a more detailed structural and stratigraphic model for the Cheshire Quartzite and to examine the contact relationship between the two formations. Although in general agreement with previous studies of nearby areas, this study shows that stratigraphic and structural relationships on South Mountain are more complex than previously reported. Preliminary results of mapping show a series of medium and large scale folds trending NNE on the east side of the mountain and trending due north on the west. A regionally penetrative east-dipping cleavage is folded on the east side of the mountain by east verging folds with west-dipping axial planes. A later, west-dipping cleavage associated with the west-dipping axial planes becomes sub-vertical toward the central part of the mountain. On the west side of the mountain, however, the late cleavage is either not present or is very weakly expressed in the rocks. Additionally, some rocks currently mapped as the eastern-most Cheshire Quartzite are structurally below the Fairfield Pond Formation and hence may be part of the Pinnacle Formation. This may require new structural interpretations including the possibility of a fault along the eastern side of South Mountain.

Condon, R.K. (Middlebury College, VT (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-03-01

406

Ecology of Streams and Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides an introduction to the ecology of streams and mountains. It discusses how trees falling into a mountain stream can provide habitat by creating logjams, even going so far as to float to the sea during spring floods, where they provide cover for ocean fish. There is also a description of alpine ecosystems, those which exist above the tree line, and the animals that live or visit there, and a discussion of the idea of structure and function as it pertains to organisms as diverse as elephants and fungi. A section on soil ecology describes the relationship between mushrooms, the soil, and other organisms such as trees. A quiz and glossary are also provided.

407

Recompression therapy of mountain sickness.  

PubMed

This paper describes the treatment of a severe case of acute mountain sickness with a portable hyperbaric chamber. A 37-year old climber was treated for acute high altitude pulmonary oedema, which developed on the North Col of Mount Everest, at an altitude of 7,060 m. The treatment in the portable Gamow bag hyperbaric chamber lasted two hours, with a bag pressure of 103 mm Hg (0.136 kg/cm2 or 2 psig) using ambient air, without the addition of oxygen. With this pressure increase, the hyperbaric chamber lowered the patient's effective ambient altitude from 6,050 to 4,400 m. The treatment was successful and the pulmonary oedema disappeared. Outside the hyperbaric chamber, the patient recovered fully when he reached the altitude of 2,000 m. Portable hyperbaric chamber is recommended for the treatment of severe cases of acute mountain sickness, as well as for risky descent to lower altitudes. PMID:12150075

Markovi?, Dubravko; Kovacevi?, Hasan

2002-03-01

408

How do American mountains affect tropical Pacific climate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountains on the American continents affect Pacific climate significantly. The gap winds across Central America are a good example, imprinting on the eastern Pacific intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The wind curls associated these gap winds maintain a thermocline dome, cooling sea surface temperature and punching a hole in the summer ITCZ west of Central America. In winter, on the other hand, the eastern Pacific ITCZ is known to be displaced south of the eastern Pacific warm pool, almost the only exception of an otherwise close collocation of the SST maximum and ITCZ over the eastern Pacific. Our regional model experiments show that as the northeast trades blow across Central American mountains, the subsidence on the lee side is the cause of the southward displacement of the Pacific ITCZ. A new finding from recent satellite scatterometer observations is that the gap winds, strongest in winter, displays a secondary maximum in July- August. Our diagnostic and model studies show that this summer gap wind is associated with the mid- summer draught over Central America, due to the unsynchronized seasonal march between the Pacific and Atlantic ITCZs. The influence of American mountains is not limited to the vicinity of the continents but spreads over the entire Pacific basin. To assess this basin-scale influence, we remove these mountains in a global coupled general circulation model. The removal of American mountains weakens the latitudinal asymmetry of Pacific climate, with the ITCZ staying longer south of the equator during February-May. Two orographic effects contribute to this basin-scale change in climate: a) the winter northeast trades intensify without the Central American mountain barrier, which cools the SST north of the equator; b) the moisture over the Amazonia spreads to the Southeast Pacific without the Andes, in favor of a southern ITCZ. In a coupled system, both effects would help move the ITCZ south of the equator during boreal spring. This change in climatic asymmetry has an effect on the seasonal variations in the equatorial cold tongue, reducing the annual and increasing the semi-annual cycle.

Xie, S.; Okajima, H.; Xu, H.; Small, J.

2006-12-01

409

Optimum gradient of mountain paths.  

PubMed

By combining the experiment results of R. Margaria (Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Memorie 7: 299-368, 1938), regarding the metabolic cost of gradient locomotion, together with recent insights on gait biomechanics, a prediction about the most economical gradient of mountain paths (approximately 25%) is obtained and interpreted. The pendulum-like mechanism of walking produces a waste of mechanical work against gravity within the gradient range of up to 15% (the overall efficiency is dominated by the low transmission efficiency), whereas for steeper values only the muscular efficiency is responsible for the (slight) metabolic change (per meter of vertical displacement) with respect to gradient. The speeds at the optimum gradient turned out to be approximately 0.65 m/s (+0.16 m/s vertical) and 1.50 m/s (-0.36 m/s vertical), for uphill and downhill walking, respectively, and the ascensional energy expenditure was 0.4 and 2.0 ml O2.kg body mass-1.vertical m-1 climbed or descended. When the metabolic power becomes a burden, as in high-altitude mountaineering, the optimum gradient should be reduced. A sample of real mountain path gradients, experimentally measured, mimics the obtained predictions. PMID:8594031

Minetti, A E

1995-11-01

410

Commercialization of vein contrast enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ongoing clinical study of an experimental infrared (IR) device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE) that visualizes surface veins for medical access, indicates that a commercial device with the performance of the existing VCE would have significant clinical utility for even a very skilled phlebotomist. A proof-of-principle prototype VCE device has now been designed and constructed that captures IR images of surface veins with a commercial CCD camera, transfers the images to a PC for real-time software image processing to enhance the vein contrast, and projects the enhanced images back onto the skin with a modified commercial LCD projector. The camera and projector are mounted on precision slides allowing for precise mechanical alignment of the two optical axes and for measuring the effects of axes misalignment. Precision alignment of the captured and projected images over the entire field-of-view is accomplished electronically by software adjustments of the translation, scaling, and rotation of the enhanced images before they are projected back onto the skin. This proof-of-principle prototype will be clinically tested and the experience gained will lead to the development of a commercial device, OnTarget!, that is compact, easy to use, and will visualize accessible veins in almost all subjects needing venipuncture.

Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal; Vrancken, Carlos; Zhang, Yong; Zeman, Herbert D.; Weinberg, Devin

2003-07-01

411

SANTA LUCIA WILDERNESS, AND GARCIA MOUNTAIN, BLACK MOUNTAIN, LA PANZA, MACHESNA MOUNTAIN, LOS MACHOS HILLS, BIG ROCKS, AND STANLEY MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Santa Lucia Wilderness Area and Garcia Mountain, Black Mountain, La Panza, Machesna Mountain, Los Machos Hills, Big Rocks, and Stanley Mountain Roadless Areas together occupy an area of about 218 sq mi in the Los Padres National Forest, California. On the basis of a mineral-resource evaluation a small area in the Black Mountain Roadless Area has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium, and a small area in the Stanley Mountain Roadless Area has probable potential for low-grade mercury resources. Although petroleum resources occur in rocks similar to those found in the study area, no potential for petroleum resources was identified in the wilderness or any of the roadless areas. No resource potential for other mineral resources was identified in any of the areas. Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical sampling probably would increase knowledge about distribution and modes of occurrence of uranium and cinnabar in those areas, respectively.

Frizzell, Jr. , Virgil, A.; Kuizon, Lucia

1984-01-01

412

Western Mountain Initiative. A Network of Mountain Protected Areas for Global Change Research. Program Report 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Western Mountain Initiative (WMI) is to understand and predict the responses emphasizing sensitivities, thresholds, resistance, and resilience of Western mountain ecosystems to climatic variability and change. The rate and magnitude o...

2006-01-01

413

Geology Fieldnotes: Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Guadalupe Mountains National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the geologic history of Guadalupe Mountains' ancient marine fossil reef and the structural geology of the Mountains' Western Escarpment (including the Frijole Ranch area, the Pine Springs area, and the Capitan Limestone structures). The park maps section includes a map of the Capitan Reef today.

414

Geographic Information Science and Mountain Geomorphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain areas are among the most threatened environments worldwide.These sensitive systems suffer from human encroachment, resource extraction, and subsequent environmental degradation. Mountain ecosystems are also extremely sensitive to climate variability with impacts on snow and ice cover, hydrologic response, and sediment yield. From this perspective, mountain environments can be viewed as one of the “canaries in the coal mine” for the entire global environmental system.

Scuderi, Louis A.

415

Project Title: The Western Mountain Initiative: Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Western Mountain Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate warming is affecting Western mountain ecosystems, directly through changes in water dynamics and indirectly through altered disturbance regimes. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI; http:\\/\\/www.cfr.washington.edu\\/research.fme\\/wmi) team explores the effects of climate change on ecological disturbance, responses of forest vegetation, mountain hydrology, and the coupled hydro-ecological responses that determine vulnerability of Western mountain ecosystems to change. Extensive data sets, empirical studies,

Nathan L. Stephenson

416

Commercialization strategy report for coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

It was concluded that: Coal liquids will address a major segment of the energy economy, namely, petroleum and petroleum derived products; Methanol and Fischer--Tropsch processes are technically ready but economically uncompetitive, at present; Scale up of direct hydrogenation processes to verify commercial feasibility requires major government funding; Federal assistance will probably be required for all first-of-a-kind commercial facilities; Coal liquids will be economically competitive with imported petroleum by late 1980's or early 1990's.

Lloyd, E.A.; Almuala, B.C.; Ingberman, A.K.; Joseph, L.M.; Lobe, N.; Siegel, J.S.; Singer, M.I.; Smithson, J.H.

1979-01-01

417

PROGRESS COMMERCIALIZING SOLAR-ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The commercial status of the principal solar electric technologies-photovoltaic and solar thermal-is reviewed. Current and near-term market niches are identified, and projected longer-term markets are explored along with the key strategies for achieving them, including technological breakthroughs, manufacturing developments, economies of scale and mass production, and market creation. Market barriers and public policy impacts on commercialization are discussed.

Raymond Dracker; Pascal De Laquil III

1996-01-01

418

World commercial aircraft accidents  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

Kimura, C.Y.

1993-01-01

419

Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the different altitudinal belts. The local differences of temperature dynamics are illustrated in a map as an example of the low alpine altitudinal belt showing a 4-dimensional characterization (in space and time) of high mountain ecosystem functioning. Hydrological aspects derived from those results are presented showing the large- scaled hydrological dynamics of high mountain catchment basins in central Norway. The results of the process analysis of hydrological dynamics in the central Norwegian high mountains are discussed within the frame of investigations on altitudinal changes of mountain ecosystem structure and functioning (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM [in print]). The poster illustrates the theoretical and methodological conception, methods and techniques, examples from complex data material as well as general outcomes of the project (RÖßLER [in prep.]. JUNG, G., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Untersuchungen zur Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Forschungsansatz. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium 3: 4-36. Oldenburg. KÖHLER, B., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1994): Probleme der kleinräumigen Geoökovarianz im mittelnorwegischen Gebirge. Norsk geogr. Tidsskr. 48: 99- 111. LÖFFLER, J. (1997): Großmaßstäbige geoökologische Kartierungen in den Höhenstufen des mittelnorwegischen Gebirges. NORDEN 12: 205-228. Bremen. LÖFFLER, J. (1998): Geoökologische Untersuchungen zur Struktur mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Oldenburger Geoökologische Studien 1. Oldenburg. LÖFFLER, J., O.-D. FINCH, J. NAUJOK &R. PAPE (2001): Möglichkeiten der Integration zoologischer Aspekte in die landschaftsökologische Untersuchung von Hochgebirgen. Methodendiskussion am Beispiel ökologischer Prozesssysteme und Biozönosen. Naturschutz u. Landschaftsplanung 33 (11): 351-357. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Klimatische Phänomene in mittelnorwegischen Hochgebirgslandschaften und ihre ökosystemare Bedeutung. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium 3: 37-86. Oldenburg. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (1999): Klei

Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

420

Mountain women’: silent contributors to the global agenda for sustainable mountain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we examine the transnational and international discourses and initiatives focused on and\\/or carried out by the so-called ‘mountain women.’ Tracking the growing reference to ‘mountain women’, we analyze the way in which the construction and the claim of a gendered identity has developed within the general debate on the international recognition of the global importance of mountain

Gilles Rudaz; Bernard Debarbieux

2011-01-01

421

Interpretive geophysical fault map across the central block of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical data collected along 29 traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada reveal anomalies associated with known fault sand indicate a number of possible concealed faults beneath the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain. Geophysical interpretations indicate that Midway Valley is characterized by several known and previously unknown faults, that the existence of the Yucca Wash fault is equivocal, and that the central part of the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain is characterized by numerous low-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect numerous small-scale faults. Gravity and magnetic data also reveal several large-amplitude anomalies that reflect larger-scale faulting along the margins of the central block.

Ponce, D.A.

1996-12-31

422

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2013-01-01

423

Commercializing the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “commercialization of the Internet” is shorthand for three nearly simultaneous events. They are the removal of restrictions by the National Science Foundation over the use of the Internet for commercial purposes, the founding of Netscape, and the rapid entry of tens of thousands-perhaps hundreds of thousands-of firms into commercial ventures using technologies that employ the suite of TCP\\/IP standards.

S. Greenstein

1998-01-01

424

Mountaineering as affect regulation: the moderating role of self-regulation strategies.  

PubMed

We investigated the change in mountaineers' affect from pre- to post-mountain route and the moderating role of self-regulation strategies in this process. First, we hypothesized that engagement in a high-risk sport such as mountaineering would lead to a decrease in negative affect and an increase in positive affect and that this affect regulation would be moderated by self-regulation strategies (escape from self-awareness and compensation). Second, we predicted that the self-regulation affect process would be specifically associated with high-risk sport rather than sport generally. One hundred and five mountaineers and 73 judokas completed the Risk and Excitement Inventory and the Positive and Negative Emotions Scale before and after completing their activity (mountain route or judo fight). Regression analyses revealed that anxiety significantly decreased from pre- to post-mountain route and that the self-regulation of escape from awareness yielded a significantly greater anxiety decrease. No such interaction emerged for the compensation strategy and no effects were revealed for judokas. Results are discussed in terms of the specificity of the high-risk sport domain in its ability to serve an affect regulation function for those individuals who seek to escape from self-awareness. PMID:20397078

Castanier, Carole; Le Scanff, Christine; Woodman, Tim

2011-01-01

425

Coal quality in area of Sand Mountain and Lookout Mountain, southern Appalachian Mountains, Georgia, Tennessee, and Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 10 coal beds of Pennsylvanian age crop out around Sand Mountain and Lookout Mountain in Georgia, Tennessee, and Alabama. These beds were deposited in barrier and fluvial environments. Few determinations of modern coal-quality data have been made for these coals, although they have been mined for more than 100 years. To evaluate their quality, 47 coal samples from

T. L. Crawford

1986-01-01

426

Folding above faults, Rocky Mountains  

SciTech Connect

Asymmetric folds formed above basement faults can be observed throughout the Rocky Mountains. Several previous interpretations of the folding process made the implicit assumption that one or both fold hinges migrated or rolled'' through the steep forelimb of the fold as the structure evolved (rolling hinge model). Results of mapping in the Bighorn and Seminoe Mountains, WY, and Sangre de Cristo Range, CO, do not support this hypothesis. An alternative interpretation is presented in which fold hinges remained fixed in position during folding (fixed hinge model). Mapped folds share common characteristics: (1) axial traces of the folds intersect faults at or near the basement/cover interface, and diverge from faults upsection; (2) fold hinges are narrow and interlimb angles cluster around 80--100[degree] regardless of fold location; (3) fold shape is typically angular, despite published cross sections that show concentric folds; and, (4) beds within the folds show thickening and/or thinning, most commonly adjacent to fold hinges. The rolling hinge model requires that rocks in the fold forelimbs bend through narrow fold hinges as deformation progressed. Examination of massive, competent rock units such as the Ord. Bighorn Dolomite, Miss. Madison Limestone, and, Penn. Tensleep Sandstone reveals no evidence of the extensive internal deformation that would be expected if hinges rolled through rocks of the forelimb. The hinges of some folds (e.g. Golf Creek anticline, Bighorn Mountains) are offset by secondary faults, effectively preventing the passage of rocks from backlimb to forelimb. The fixed hinge model proposes that the fold hinges were defined early in fold evolution, and beds were progressively rotated and steepened as the structure grew.

McConnell, D.A. (Univ. of Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

427

Yucca Mountain and The Environment  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Project places a high priority on protecting the environment. To ensure compliance with all state and federal environmental laws and regulations, the Project established an Environmental Management System. Important elements of the Environmental Management System include the following: (1) monitoring air, water, and other natural resources; (2) protecting plant and animal species by minimizing land disturbance; (3) restoring vegetation and wildlif