Science.gov

Sample records for mountaintop removal mining

  1. 30 CFR 785.14 - Mountaintop removal mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hill, except as provided for in 30 CFR 824.11(a)(6), by removing substantially all of the overburden.... (3) The requirements of 30 CFR 824 are made a specific condition of the permit. (4) All other... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mountaintop removal mining. 785.14 Section...

  2. 30 CFR 785.14 - Mountaintop removal mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hill, except as provided for in 30 CFR 824.11(a)(6), by removing substantially all of the overburden.... (3) The requirements of 30 CFR 824 are made a specific condition of the permit. (4) All other... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mountaintop removal mining. 785.14 Section...

  3. 30 CFR 785.14 - Mountaintop removal mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hill, except as provided for in 30 CFR 824.11(a)(6), by removing substantially all of the overburden.... (3) The requirements of 30 CFR 824 are made a specific condition of the permit. (4) All other... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mountaintop removal mining. 785.14 Section...

  4. 30 CFR 785.14 - Mountaintop removal mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hill, except as provided for in 30 CFR 824.11(a)(6), by removing substantially all of the overburden.... (3) The requirements of 30 CFR 824 are made a specific condition of the permit. (4) All other... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountaintop removal mining. 785.14 Section...

  5. 30 CFR 785.14 - Mountaintop removal mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hill, except as provided for in 30 CFR 824.11(a)(6), by removing substantially all of the overburden.... (3) The requirements of 30 CFR 824 are made a specific condition of the permit. (4) All other... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mountaintop removal mining. 785.14 Section...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE MINING METHODS HEAD-OF-HOLLOW FILL AND MOUNTAINTOP REMOVAL. VOLUME 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a portion of the EPA study 'Environmental Assessment of Head-of-Hollow Fill and Mountaintop Removal Mining,' this volume documents the evaluation of the long-term stability of four head-of-hollow fills. Three phases of work included in the endeavor are: collection of samples o...

  7. Changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function downstream from mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mining

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mining has altered the physicochemical landscape of the Central Appalachian region in the U.S. Increased specific conductance and levels of component ions downstream from valley fill sites are toxic to aquatic life and can negatively impa...

  8. 30 CFR 716.3 - Mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mountaintop removal. 716.3 Section 716.3 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.3 Mountaintop removal. (a) Surface coal mining and reclamation operations that remove...

  9. Estimating benthic secondary production from aquatic insect emergence in streams affected by mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining recountours the Appalachian landscape, buries headwater stream channels, and degrades downstream water quality. The goal of this study was to compare benthic community production estimates, based on seasonal insect emergen...

  10. Estimating benthic secondary production from aquatic insect emergence in streams affected by mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley filling is a coal mining method that results in burial of headwater streams. As a result of recent litigation, rapid methods for measuring ecosystem functions are needced for more appropriate permittingand mitigation stra tegies.

  11. Mountaintop mining update

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2006-07-15

    In a bad year for the US mining industry's safety record and public image, Morehead State University hosted a public meeting titled 'Mountaintop mining, health and safety forum'. This was a balanced event, with representatives from the mining industry as well as activists from the environmental community. A full account is given of the presentations and debate at the forum. 6 photos.

  12. Export of detritus and invertebrate from headwater streams: linking mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mining to downstream receiving waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has resulted in large scale alteration of the topography, reduced forest productivity, and burial of headwater streams in the U.S. Central Appalachians. Although MTR/VF coal mining has occurred for several decades and the ...

  13. King Coal vs. Reclamation: federal regulation of mountaintop removal mining in Appalachia

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C.E.; Duffy, R.J.

    2009-10-15

    This research focuses on the regulatory politics of mountaintop removal mining for coal within the Appalachian states of West Virginia and Kentucky. Based on Administrative Presidency concepts suggesting that chief executives seek more control and influence over agency program decisions, this article analyzes President George W. Bush's efforts to promote the development of coal resources within these states despite statutory constraints posed by federal environmental laws. The analysis demonstrates that President Bush effectively achieved his energy production goals by combining the use of discretionary authority with staff controls, executive orders, and regulatory initiatives to lessen industry compliance costs with environmental regulatory requirements.

  14. Evaluating mine reclamation habitats at the landscape level following mountain-top removal

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, S.N.

    1998-12-31

    Present-day regulations of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act were based largely on the technologies and mining methods of the late 1970`s. Thus reclamation management practices today may not fully address the landscape changes that are possible now from mountain-top removal and associated contour mining operations. This study has sought to evaluate the changes in human and natural resource systems associated with large-scale mining in the Coal River Valley region of south-central West Virginia. The Coal River Valley region was studied at a local to a landscape-scale using ground-level sampling, aerial photomaps and constructed GIS maps, starting from a site-specific-scale of natural and restored habitat types. Six watershed-drainage areas were selected for study. Three of these represented contour mining primarily and three other drainage areas encompassed mountain-top removal mining. Landscape components were characterized by overlaying slope, elevation and contour data from maps onto aerial photomaps. On-the-ground sampling was used to distinguish restoration habitat types. The site-specific measurements were obtained using transects placed across the man-made landforms (i.e., backfill, valleyfill, field, pond and drainage ditch) of the reclamation sites in each of the six watershed drainage areas. All of the measured sites had been revegetated with a seed mixture for a wildlife management plan and ranged in age from 2 to 12 years of vegetative growth at the time of the study. Percentage cover by herbaceous and woody species was determined in two-meter square quadrats placed mechanically along all transect lines to quantify the various site-specific vegetation types. Based on the site-specific evaluation, distinguishable habitats were found on each of the man-made landforms. The percentage of mountaintop removal habitats with non-native species has increased over the last decade. Percentages of total area mined in the region over thirty years were

  15. Structural and Functional Characteristics of Natural and Constructed Channels Draining a Reclaimed Mountaintop Removal and Valley Fill Coal Mine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has altered the landscape of the Central Appalachian region in the USA. Among the changes are large-scale topographic recontouring, burial of headwater streams, and degradation of downstream water quality. The goals of our ...

  16. Structural and functional characteristics of natural and constructed channels draining a reclaimed mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has altered the landscape of the Central Appalachian region in the United States. The goals of this study were to 1) compare the structure and function of natural and constructed stream channels in forested and MTR/VF catch...

  17. Impacts of Mountaintop Removal and Valley Fill Coal Mining on C and N Processing in Terrestrial Soils and Headwater Streams.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured C and N cycling indicators in Appalachian watersheds impacted by mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining, and in nearby forested watersheds. These watersheds include ephemeral, intermittent, and perennial stream reaches, and the length of time since d...

  18. Cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunction following acute pulmonary exposure to mountaintop removal mining particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Cody E; Shepherd, Danielle L; Knuckles, Travis L; Thapa, Dharendra; Stricker, Janelle C; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Minarchick, Valerie C; Erdely, Aaron; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Alway, Stephen E; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; Hollander, John M

    2015-12-15

    Throughout the United States, air pollution correlates with adverse health outcomes, and cardiovascular disease incidence is commonly increased following environmental exposure. In areas surrounding active mountaintop removal mines (MTM), a further increase in cardiovascular morbidity is observed and may be attributed in part to particulate matter (PM) released from the mine. The mitochondrion has been shown to be central in the etiology of many cardiovascular diseases, yet its roles in PM-related cardiovascular effects are not realized. In this study, we sought to elucidate the cardiac processes that are disrupted following exposure to mountaintop removal mining particulate matter (PM MTM). To address this question, we exposed male Sprague-Dawley rats to PM MTM, collected within one mile of an active MTM site, using intratracheal instillation. Twenty-four hours following exposure, we evaluated cardiac function, apoptotic indices, and mitochondrial function. PM MTM exposure elicited a significant decrease in ejection fraction and fractional shortening compared with controls. Investigation into the cellular impacts of PM MTM exposure identified a significant increase in mitochondrial-induced apoptotic signaling, as reflected by an increase in TUNEL-positive nuclei and increased caspase-3 and -9 activities. Finally, a significant increase in mitochondrial transition pore opening leading to decreased mitochondrial function was identified following exposure. In conclusion, our data suggest that pulmonary exposure to PM MTM increases cardiac mitochondrial-associated apoptotic signaling and decreases mitochondrial function concomitant with decreased cardiac function. These results suggest that increased cardiovascular disease incidence in populations surrounding MTM mines may be associated with increased cardiac cell apoptotic signaling and decreased mitochondrial function. PMID:26497962

  19. Sediment and epilithon metabolism and hydrolytic activity in streams affected by mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley filling (MTR/VF) is a method of coal mining used in the Central Appalachians. Despite regulations requiring that potential mpacts to stream function be considered in determining compensatory mitigation associated with permitted fill activities, asse...

  20. REMOTE SENSING AND MOUNTAINTOP MINING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal mining is Appalachia has undergone dramatic changes in the past decade. Modem mining practices know as Mountaintop Mining (MTM) and Valley Fills (VF) are at the center of an environmental and legal controversy that has spawned lawsuits and major environmental investigations....

  1. 30 CFR 824.11 - Mountaintop removal: Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mountaintop removal: Performance standards. 824.11 Section 824.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS SPECIAL PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-MOUNTAINTOP REMOVAL § 824.11...

  2. Assessing Different Mechanisms of Toxicity in Mountaintop Removal/Valley Fill Coal Mining-Affected Watershed Samples Using Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Elena A.; Kroeger, Gretchen L.; Arnold, Mariah C.; Thornton, B. Lila; Di Giulio, Richard T.; Meyer, Joel N.

    2013-01-01

    Mountaintop removal-valley fill coal mining has been associated with a variety of impacts on ecosystem and human health, in particular reductions in the biodiversity of receiving streams. However, effluents emerging from valley fills contain a complex mixture of chemicals including metals, metalloids, and salts, and it is not clear which of these are the most important drivers of toxicity. We found that streamwater and sediment samples collected from mine-impacted streams of the Upper Mud River in West Virginia inhibited the growth of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Next, we took advantage of genetic and transgenic tools available in this model organism to test the hypotheses that the toxicity could be attributed to metals, selenium, oxidative stress, or osmotic stress. Our results indicate that in general, the toxicity of streamwater to C. elegans was attributable to osmotic stress, while the toxicity of sediments resulted mostly from metals or metalloids. PMID:24066176

  3. Assessment of corn and banana leaves as potential standardized substrates for leaf decomposition in streams affected by mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley filling is a method of coal mining that buries Central Appalachian headwater streams. A 2007 federal court ruling highlighted the need for measurement of both ecosystem structure and function when assessing streams for mitigaton. Rapid functional as...

  4. Hydrolytic activity and metabolism of sediment and epilithon in streams draining mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley filling (MTR/VF) is a method of coal mining used in the Central Appalachians. Regulations require that potential impacts to stream functions must be considered when determining the compensatory mitigation necessary for replacing aquatic resources un...

  5. 30 CFR 912.824 - Special performance standards-mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... removal. 912.824 Section 912.824 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO... mining operations constituting mountaintop removal mining....

  6. 30 CFR 912.824 - Special performance standards-mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... removal. 912.824 Section 912.824 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO... mining operations constituting mountaintop removal mining....

  7. 30 CFR 912.824 - Special performance standards-mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... removal. 912.824 Section 912.824 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO... mining operations constituting mountaintop removal mining....

  8. 30 CFR 912.824 - Special performance standards-mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... removal. 912.824 Section 912.824 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO... mining operations constituting mountaintop removal mining....

  9. 'Fishing' for Alternatives to Mountaintop Mining in Southern West Virginia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal mining (MTR) is a major industry in southern West Virginia with many detrimental effects for small to mid-sized streams, and interest in alternative, sustainable industries is on the rise. As a first step in a larger effort to assess the value of sport fisheri...

  10. The Dangers of "Proofiness” in the Evaluation of Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of ecological and human health impacts from coal mining in West Virginia presents challenges for agencies responsible for permitting and evaluating those impacts. These challenges include correctly identifying, locating and diagnosing stressor sources and understandin...

  11. 30 CFR 933.824 - Special performance standards-mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.824 Special performance standards—mountaintop removal. Part 824 of this chapter,...

  12. 30 CFR 941.824 - Special performance standards-mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.824 Special performance standards—mountaintop removal. Part 824 of this chapter,...

  13. 30 CFR 941.824 - Special performance standards-mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.824 Special performance standards—mountaintop removal. Part 824 of this chapter,...

  14. 30 CFR 941.824 - Special performance standards-mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.824 Special performance standards—mountaintop removal. Part 824 of this chapter,...

  15. 30 CFR 941.824 - Special performance standards-mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.824 Special performance standards—mountaintop removal. Part 824 of this chapter,...

  16. Microchemical analysis of selenium in otoliths of two West Virginia fishes captured near mountaintop removal coal mining operations.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Mariah C; Friedrich, Lisa A; Lindberg, T Ty; Ross, Matthew; Halden, Norman M; Bernhardt, Emily; Palace, Vince P; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2015-05-01

    Otoliths, calcified inner ear structures, were collected from creek chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus) and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) living in mountaintop mining-impacted and reference streams and analyzed for selenium (Se) content using laser ablation-inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Significant differences in otolith Se were found between the 2 fish species. Results from the present study suggest that a retrospective reconstruction of Se concentrations in muscle can be derived from Se concentrations in otoliths in creek chub but not green sunfish, exemplifying the importance of species differences when determining partitioning of Se among specific tissues. Green sunfish otoliths from all sites contained background (<1 μg/g) or low (1-4 μg/g) average concentrations of whole-otolith Se. In contrast, creek chub otoliths from the historically mined site contained much higher (≥5 μg/g) concentrations of Se than for the same species in the unmined site or for the green sunfish. These data suggest that body burdens of Se in fish can vary considerably over time and that both the timing of sampling and species choice could heavily influence Se assessments. PMID:25639549

  17. The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report assesses the state of the science on the environmental impacts of mountaintop mines and valley fills (MTM-VF) on streams in the Central Appalachian Coalfields. Our review focused on the aquatic impacts of mountaintop removal coal mining, which, as its name suggests, ...

  18. Bioaccumulation and speciation of selenium in fish and insects collected from a mountaintop removal coal mining-impacted stream in West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Arnold, M C; Lindberg, T Ty; Liu, Y T; Porter, K A; Hsu-Kim, H; Hinton, D E; Di Giulio, R T

    2014-07-01

    A major contaminant of concern for mountaintop removal/valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining is selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient that can be toxic to fish. Creek chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus), green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus), and composite insect samples were collected in March-July, 2011-2013 at two sites within the Mud River, West Virginia. One site (MR7) receives MTR/VF coal mining effluent, while the reference site (LFMR) does not. MR7 water had significantly higher concentrations of soluble Se (p < 0.01) and conductivity (p < 0.005) compared to LFMR. MR7 whole insects contained significantly higher concentrations of Se compared to LFMR insects (p < 0.001). MR7 creek chubs had significantly higher Se in fillets, liver, and ovary tissues compared to LFMR samples (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.02, respectively). MR7 green sunfish fillets contained significantly higher Se (p < 0.0001). Histological examination showed LFMR creek chub gills contained a typical amount of parasitic infestations; however MR7 gills contained minimal to no visible parasites. X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses revealed that MR7 whole insects and creek chub tissues primarily contained organic Se and selenite. These two species of Mud River fish were shown to specifically accumulate Se differently in tissues compartments. Tissue-specific concentrations of Se may be useful in determining potential reproductive consequences of Se exposure in wild fish populations. PMID:24723096

  19. THE EFFECT OF APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINTOP MINING ON INTERIOR FOREST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Southern Appalachian forests are predominantly interior because they are spatially extensive with little disturbance imposed by other uses of the land. Appalachian mountaintop mining increased substantially during the 1990s, posing a threat to the interior character of the forest...

  20. 30 CFR 912.824 - Special performance standards-mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-mountaintop removal. 912.824 Section 912.824 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.824 Special...

  1. 30 CFR 910.824 - Special performance standards-mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special performance standards-mountaintop removal. 910.824 Section 910.824 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 910.824 - Special performance standards-mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special performance standards-mountaintop removal. 910.824 Section 910.824 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 933.824 - Special performance standards-mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special performance standards-mountaintop removal. 933.824 Section 933.824 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.824 Special...

  4. 30 CFR 941.824 - Special performance standards-mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special performance standards-mountaintop removal. 941.824 Section 941.824 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.824 Special...

  5. 30 CFR 942.824 - Special performance standards-Mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special performance standards-Mountaintop removal. 942.824 Section 942.824 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 942.824 - Special performance standards-Mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Mountaintop removal. 942.824 Section 942.824 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. When Everything Changes: Mountaintop Mining Effects on Watershed Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nippgen, F.; Ross, M. R.; McGlynn, B. L.; Bernhardt, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    Mountaintop removal coal mining (MTM) in the Central Appalachians has expanded over the last 40 years to cover ~7% of this mountainous landscape. MTM operations remove mountaintops and ridges with explosives and machinery to access underlying coal seams. Much of this crushed rock overburden is subsequently deposited into nearby valleys, creating valley fills that often bury headwater streams. In contrast to other disturbances such as forest clear-cutting, perturbations from MTM can extend hundreds of meters deep into the critical zone and completely reshape landscapes. Despite the expansiveness and intensity of the disturbance, MTM has only recently begun to receive focused attention from the hydrologic community and the effect of MTM on the hydrology of impacted watersheds is still not well understood. We are using a two-pronged approach consisting of GIS analysis to quantify spoil volumes and landscape change, together with empirical analysis and modeling of rainfall and runoff data collected in two sets of paired watersheds. We seek to investigate how MTM affects basic hydrologic metrics, including storm peakflows, runoff response times, baseflow, statistics of flow duration curves, and longer-term water balances. Each pair consists of a mined and an unmined watershed; the first set contains headwater streams (size ~100ha), the second set consists of 3rd order streams, draining ~3500ha. Mining covers ~ 95% of the headwater watershed, and 40% of the 3rd-order watershed. Initial GIS analysis indicates that the overburden moved during the mining process could be up to three times greater than previously estimated. Storm runoff peaks in the mined watersheds were muted as compared to the unmined watersheds and runoff ratios were reduced by up to 75% during both wet and dry antecedent conditions. The natural reference watersheds were highly responsive while the additional storage in the mined watersheds led to decreased peak flows during storms and enhanced baseflow

  8. Isotopic imprints of mountaintop mining contaminants.

    PubMed

    Vengosh, Avner; Lindberg, T Ty; Merola, Brittany R; Ruhl, Laura; Warner, Nathaniel R; White, Alissa; Dwyer, Gary S; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2013-09-01

    Mountaintop mining (MTM) is the primary procedure for surface coal exploration within the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States, and it is known to contaminate streams in local watersheds. In this study, we measured the chemical and isotopic compositions of water samples from MTM-impacted tributaries and streams in the Mud River watershed in West Virginia. We systematically document the isotopic compositions of three major constituents: sulfur isotopes in sulfate (δ(34)SSO4), carbon isotopes in dissolved inorganic carbon (δ(13)CDIC), and strontium isotopes ((87)Sr/(86)Sr). The data show that δ(34)SSO4, δ(13)CDIC, Sr/Ca, and (87)Sr/(86)Sr measured in saline- and selenium-rich MTM impacted tributaries are distinguishable from those of the surface water upstream of mining impacts. These tracers can therefore be used to delineate and quantify the impact of MTM in watersheds. High Sr/Ca and low (87)Sr/(86)Sr characterize tributaries that originated from active MTM areas, while tributaries from reclaimed MTM areas had low Sr/Ca and high (87)Sr/(86)Sr. Leaching experiments of rocks from the watershed show that pyrite oxidation and carbonate dissolution control the solute chemistry with distinct (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios characterizing different rock sources. We propose that MTM operations that access the deeper Kanawha Formation generate residual mined rocks in valley fills from which effluents with distinctive (87)Sr/(86)Sr and Sr/Ca imprints affect the quality of the Appalachian watersheds. PMID:23909446

  9. The effect of Appalachian mountaintop mining on interior forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickham, J.D.; Riitters, K.H.; Wade, T.G.; Coan, M.; Homer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Southern Appalachian forests are predominantly interior because they are spatially extensive with little disturbance imposed by other uses of the land. Appalachian mountaintop mining increased substantially during the 1990s, posing a threat to the interior character of the forest. We used spatial convolution to identify interior forest at multiple scales on circa 1992 and 2001 land-cover maps of the Southern Appalachians. Our analyses show that interior forest loss was 1.75-5.0 times greater than the direct forest loss attributable to mountaintop mining. Mountaintop mining in the southern Appalachians has reduced forest interior area more extensively than the reduction that would be expected based on changes in overall forest area alone. The loss of Southern Appalachian interior forest is of global significance because of the worldwide rarity of large expanses of temperate deciduous forest. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  10. Characterizing the Hydrologic Impacts of Mountaintop Mining Using Stable Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegre, N.; McGuire, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Despite mountaintop removal mining (MTM) accounting for the largest land-use change in the Appalachian region of the eastern US, its impact on runoff processes is poorly understood. Several devastating floods have been attributed to MTM activities upstream but there is little quantifiable evidence on how MTM impacts mechanisms of streamflow generation and flooding downstream. MTM involves removing the forest, topsoil, and overlying bedrock to gain access to deeper coal seams. Excess rock is pushed into adjacent valley to create valley fills that completely bury headwater streams that permanently alter ecosystem organization and processes. Isotope hydrology can provide process-based information about the temporal and geographic sources of runoff and rainfall-runoff relationships, but these approaches have not been applied in systems undergoing rapid change and typically not at larger landscape scales. In this study we examine runoff generation using stable isotopes of water from Sycamore Creek (27 km2), an undisturbed forested catchment, and White Oak Creek (11 km2), a MTM-impacted catchment, to quantify for the first time how landscape-scale disturbances impact rainfall-runoff relationship and the processes that govern runoff generation. Both catchments are headwaters of the Clear Fork River watershed (163 km2), an extensively mined and recurrent flood-prone watershed in southern West Virginia, USA. Mountaintop mining in White Oak Creek has disturbed 3 km2 (27% of catchment area) to include 10 valley fills comprising ~0.8 km2 (7%). Stream and rainfall were continuously measured at the outlet of each catchment and water samples were collected using Isco automated water samplers to incrementally characterize isotopic variations in 18O and 2H. Streamflow was separated into event and pre-event water using a two-component hydrograph separation model. The total fraction of event/pre-event water for each event was estimated by linear interpolation between incremental

  11. Cumulative impacts of mountaintop mining on an Appalachian watershed.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, T Ty; Bernhardt, Emily S; Bier, Raven; Helton, A M; Merola, R Brittany; Vengosh, Avner; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2011-12-27

    Mountaintop mining is the dominant form of coal mining and the largest driver of land cover change in the central Appalachians. The waste rock from these surface mines is disposed of in the adjacent river valleys, leading to a burial of headwater streams and dramatic increases in salinity and trace metal concentrations immediately downstream. In this synoptic study we document the cumulative impact of more than 100 mining discharge outlets and approximately 28 km(2) of active and reclaimed surface coal mines on the Upper Mud River of West Virginia. We measured the concentrations of major and trace elements within the tributaries and the mainstem and found that upstream of the mines water quality was equivalent to state reference sites. However, as eight separate mining-impacted tributaries contributed their flow, conductivity and the concentrations of selenium, sulfate, magnesium, and other inorganic solutes increased at a rate directly proportional to the upstream areal extent of mining. We found strong linear correlations between the concentrations of these contaminants in the river and the proportion of the contributing watershed in surface mines. All tributaries draining mountaintop-mining-impacted catchments were characterized by high conductivity and increased sulfate concentration, while concentrations of some solutes such as Se, Sr, and N were lower in the two tributaries draining reclaimed mines. Our results demonstrate the cumulative impact of multiple mines within a single catchment and provide evidence that mines reclaimed nearly two decades ago continue to contribute significantly to water quality degradation within this watershed. PMID:22160676

  12. Cumulative impacts of mountaintop mining on an Appalachian watershed

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, T. Ty; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Bier, Raven; Helton, A. M.; Merola, R. Brittany; Vengosh, Avner; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    Mountaintop mining is the dominant form of coal mining and the largest driver of land cover change in the central Appalachians. The waste rock from these surface mines is disposed of in the adjacent river valleys, leading to a burial of headwater streams and dramatic increases in salinity and trace metal concentrations immediately downstream. In this synoptic study we document the cumulative impact of more than 100 mining discharge outlets and approximately 28 km2 of active and reclaimed surface coal mines on the Upper Mud River of West Virginia. We measured the concentrations of major and trace elements within the tributaries and the mainstem and found that upstream of the mines water quality was equivalent to state reference sites. However, as eight separate mining-impacted tributaries contributed their flow, conductivity and the concentrations of selenium, sulfate, magnesium, and other inorganic solutes increased at a rate directly proportional to the upstream areal extent of mining. We found strong linear correlations between the concentrations of these contaminants in the river and the proportion of the contributing watershed in surface mines. All tributaries draining mountaintop-mining-impacted catchments were characterized by high conductivity and increased sulfate concentration, while concentrations of some solutes such as Se, Sr, and N were lower in the two tributaries draining reclaimed mines. Our results demonstrate the cumulative impact of multiple mines within a single catchment and provide evidence that mines reclaimed nearly two decades ago continue to contribute significantly to water quality degradation within this watershed. PMID:22160676

  13. Aquatic Ecosystem Enhancement at Mountaintop Mining Sites Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D. Courtney; Lawson, Peter; Morgan, John; Maggard, Randy; Schor, Horst; Powell, Rocky; Kirk, Ed. J.

    2000-01-12

    Welcome to this symposium which is part of the ongoing effort to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding mountaintop mining and valley fills. The EIS is being prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Office of Surface Mining, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in cooperation with the State of West Virginia. Aquatic Ecosystem Enhancement (AEE) at mountaintop mining sites is one of fourteen technical areas identified for study by the EIS Interagency Steering Committee. Three goals were identified in the AEE Work Plan: 1. Assess mining and reclamation practices to show how mining operations might be carried out in a way that minimizes adverse impacts to streams and other environmental resources and to local communities. Clarify economic and technical constraints and benefits. 2. Help citizens clarify choices by showing whether there are affordable ways to enhance existing mining, reclamation, mitigation processes and/or procedures. 3. Ide identify data needed to improve environmental evaluation and design of mining projects to protect the environment. Today’s symposium was proposed in the AEE Team Work Plans but coordinated planning for the event began September 15, 1999 when representatives from coal industry, environmental groups and government regulators met in Morgantown. The meeting participants worked with a facilitator from the Canaan Valley Institute to outline plans for the symposium. Several teams were formed to carry out the plans we outlined in the meeting.

  14. Public drinking water violations in mountaintop coal mining areas of West Virginia, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop coal mining (MTM) has adverse impacts on surface and ground water quality. Instances of domestic well water contamination from mining activities have been documented, but possible mining impacts on public water treatment systems are unknown. We analyzed the U.S. Envir...

  15. Chronic Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Mountaintop Mining Areas of Central Appalachian States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, Laura; Hendryx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Methods: Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for…

  16. AQUATIC IMPACTS STUDY OF MOUNTAINTOP MINING AND VALLEY FILL OPERATIONS IN WEST VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The practice of mountaintop mining and valley fill operations in West Virginia is fraught with controversy. In 1999, EPA, along with several state and federal agencies, initiated an environmental impact study (EIS) to investigate the economic, social and ecological impacts of th...

  17. Comparing Hydrologic Response Times Between a Forested and Mountaintop Mined Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. J.; Zegre, N.

    2012-12-01

    Mountaintop removal mining (MTR) represents the largest land cover/landuse change in the Central Appalachian region. By 2012, the U.S. EPA estimates that MTR will have impacted approximately 6.8% of the predominately forested Appalachian Coalfield region of West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia with nearly 4,000 miles of headwater streams buried under valley fills. In spite of the scale and extent of MTR, its hydrologic impacts are poorly understood. While MTR has a well-established pattern of downstream water quality degradation, its effect on the quantity and timing of catchment runoff is less clear. Several devastating floods in the region have been attributed to MTR, but there is little evidence to either confirm or refute this belief. Existing research has focused on statistical analysis of catchment outlet responses, but results from these studies only offer evidence of differences in hydrologic behavior, not process understanding of how the system is changing. This study begins to address that research gap by exploring differences in hydrologic response times, a fundamental hydraulic parameter that controls the conversion of rainfall to runoff. A simple rainfall-runoff model was used to quantify differences in response times for storm events in a mined and predominantly forested catchment. Results showed that the mountaintop mined catchment responded more quickly to storm events than the forested catchment. The mined catchment also showed more variability in response time than the forested catchment. These patterns repeated using multiple model structures. The more rapid response of the mined catchment is likely attributed to increased impervious surface, preferential flow paths within valley fills that rapidly route water to the stream, or rapid displacement of water stored in valley fills upon the onset of rain. However, further research using tools such as isotope tracers is needed to offer insight about the processes responsible for streamflow

  18. 30 CFR 824.11 - Mountaintop removal: Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulatory authority grants the variance under a permit, in accordance with 30 CFR 785.14; (2) The activities... under 30 CFR 785.14, that a minimum static safety factor of 1.5 will be attained; (8) The resulting... retained on the mountaintop shall be placed in accordance with 30 CFR 816.41 and 816.43 and 816.71...

  19. 30 CFR 824.11 - Mountaintop removal: Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regulatory authority grants the variance under a permit, in accordance with 30 CFR 785.14; (2) The activities... under 30 CFR 785.14, that a minimum static safety factor of 1.5 will be attained; (8) The resulting... retained on the mountaintop shall be placed in accordance with 30 CFR 816.41 and 816.43 and 816.71...

  20. 30 CFR 824.11 - Mountaintop removal: Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulatory authority grants the variance under a permit, in accordance with 30 CFR 785.14; (2) The activities... under 30 CFR 785.14, that a minimum static safety factor of 1.5 will be attained; (8) The resulting... retained on the mountaintop shall be placed in accordance with 30 CFR 816.41 and 816.43 and 816.71...

  1. 30 CFR 824.11 - Mountaintop removal: Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulatory authority grants the variance under a permit, in accordance with 30 CFR 785.14; (2) The activities... under 30 CFR 785.14, that a minimum static safety factor of 1.5 will be attained; (8) The resulting... retained on the mountaintop shall be placed in accordance with 30 CFR 816.41 and 816.43 and 816.71...

  2. Deep Impact: Effects of Mountaintop Mining on Surface Topography, Bedrock Structure, and Downstream Waters.

    PubMed

    Ross, Matthew R V; McGlynn, Brian L; Bernhardt, Emily S

    2016-02-16

    Land use impacts are commonly quantified and compared using 2D maps, limiting the scale of their reported impacts to surface area estimates. Yet, nearly all land use involves disturbances below the land surface. Incorporating this third dimension into our estimates of land use impact is especially important when examining the impacts of mining. Mountaintop mining is the most common form of coal mining in the Central Appalachian ecoregion. Previous estimates suggest that active, reclaimed, or abandoned mountaintop mines cover ∼7% of Central Appalachia. While this is double the areal extent of development in the ecoregion (estimated to occupy <3% of the land area), the impacts are far more extensive than areal estimates alone can convey as the impacts of mines extend 10s to 100s of meters below the current land surface. Here, we provide the first estimates for the total volumetric and topographic disturbance associated with mining in an 11 500 km(2) region of southern West Virginia. We find that the cutting of ridges and filling of valleys has lowered the median slope of mined landscapes in the region by nearly 10 degrees while increasing their average elevation by 3 m as a result of expansive valley filling. We estimate that in southern West Virginia, more than 6.4km(3) of bedrock has been broken apart and deposited into 1544 headwater valley fills. We used NPDES monitoring datatsets available for 91 of these valley fills to explore whether fill characteristics could explain variation in the pH or selenium concentrations reported for streams draining these fills. We found that the volume of overburden in individual valley fills correlates with stream pH and selenium concentration, and suggest that a three-dimensional assessment of mountaintop mining impacts is necessary to predict both the severity and the longevity of the resulting environmental impacts. PMID:26800154

  3. Impacts from valley fill design and age on water quality in mountaintop mined watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M. R.; Lindberg, T. T.; Voss, K.; Bernhardt, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Mountaintop mining (MTM) for coal is the strongest driver of landscape disturbance throughout central Appalachia. The MTM process removes mountain ridges and deposits the resulting spoil into adjacent valleys. Recent research has shown that streams receiving waters from these valley fills exhibit consistent increases in the concentrations of base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+), metals, and anions (HCO3-SO42-) that correlate strongly with an increase in conductivity. Together, these chemical changes degrade the aquatic ecosystems downstream of valley fills and impair the ecosystem services they provide by extirpating sensitive macro-invertebrate taxa and toxicity to fish. Nearly 50% of the variability in conductivity and individual ion species concentration can be explained simply by the positive correlation between percent of catchment area mined and solute concentration. Yet, there is a wide range of valley fill size (0.25-225 hectares), age (1-40 years old), and design (from completely re-contoured landscapes to untouched, dumped spoil material) which may further explain observed patterns in water quality and biogeochemistry in MTM-impacted streams. For this study we asked the question: Do fill construction techniques and fill age predict patterns of stream water quality as measured by ion and metal concentration? To answer this question, we used a synoptic dataset collected from 30 valley fills in the Hobet mining complex in southern West Virginia and a comprehensive dataset collected by the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection. We show that conductivity and ion concentrations are predicted better by valley fill size (p value < 0.05 ) than by valley fill age (statistically insignificant). These results suggest that impacts from MTM on aquatic ecosystems and the ecosystem services they provide may last over long time scales (>50 years), and that trends of expanding valley fill size over the 2000's may have disproportionately negative impacts on the streams

  4. Atmospheric particulate matter in proximity to mountaintop coal mines: sources and potential environmental and human health impacts.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Laura; Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Geboy, Nicholas; Hendryx, Michael; Orem, William; McCawley, Michael; Crosby, Lynn; Tatu, Calin; Varonka, Matthew; DeVera, Christina

    2015-06-01

    Mountaintop removal mining (MTM) is a widely used approach to surface coal mining in the US Appalachian region whereby large volumes of coal overburden are excavated using explosives, removed, and transferred to nearby drainages below MTM operations. To investigate the air quality impact of MTM, the geochemical characteristics of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) from five surface mining sites in south central West Virginia, USA, and five in-state study control sites having only underground coal mining or no coal mining whatsoever were determined and compared. Epidemiologic studies show increased rates of cancer, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, and overall mortality in Appalachian surface mining areas compared to Appalachian non-mining areas. In the present study, 24-h coarse (>2.5 µm) and fine (≤2.5 µm) PM samples were collected from two surface mining sites in June 2011 showed pronounced enrichment in elements having a crustal affinity (Ga, Al, Ge, Rb, La, Ce) contributed by local sources, relative to controls. Follow-up sampling in August 2011 lacked this enrichment, suggesting that PM input from local sources is intermittent. Using passive samplers, dry deposition total PM elemental fluxes calculated for three surface mining sites over multi-day intervals between May and August 2012 were 5.8 ± 1.5 times higher for crustal elements than at controls. Scanning microscopy of 2,249 particles showed that primary aluminosilicate PM was prevalent at surface mining sites compared to secondary PM at controls. Additional testing is needed to establish any link between input of lithogenic PM and disease rates in the study area. PMID:25537164

  5. Atmospheric particulate matter in proximity to mountaintop coal mines: Sources and potential environmental and human health impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurth, Laura; Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark A.; Geboy, Nicholas J.; Hendryx, Michael; Orem, William H.; McCawley, Michael; Crosby, Lynn M.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; DeVera, Christina A.

    2015-01-01

    Mountaintop removal mining (MTM) is a widely used approach to surface coal mining in the US Appalachian region whereby large volumes of coal overburden are excavated using explosives, removed, and transferred to nearby drainages below MTM operations. To investigate the air quality impact of MTM, the geochemical characteristics of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) from five surface mining sites in south central West Virginia, USA, and five in-state study control sites having only underground coal mining or no coal mining whatsoever were determined and compared. Epidemiologic studies show increased rates of cancer, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, and overall mortality in Appalachian surface mining areas compared to Appalachian non-mining areas. In the present study, 24-h coarse (>2.5 µm) and fine (≤2.5 µm) PM samples were collected from two surface mining sites in June 2011 showed pronounced enrichment in elements having a crustal affinity (Ga, Al, Ge, Rb, La, Ce) contributed by local sources, relative to controls. Follow-up sampling in August 2011 lacked this enrichment, suggesting that PM input from local sources is intermittent. Using passive samplers, dry deposition total PM elemental fluxes calculated for three surface mining sites over multi-day intervals between May and August 2012 were 5.8 ± 1.5 times higher for crustal elements than at controls. Scanning microscopy of 2,249 particles showed that primary aluminosilicate PM was prevalent at surface mining sites compared to secondary PM at controls. Additional testing is needed to establish any link between input of lithogenic PM and disease rates in the study area.

  6. LANDSAT Remote Sensing: Observations of an Appalachian mountaintop surface coal mining and reclamation operation. [kentucky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The potential benefits of using LANDSAT remote sensing data by state agencies as an aide in monitoring surface coal mining operations are reviewed. A mountaintop surface mine in eastern Kentucky was surveyed over a 5 year period using satellite multispectral scanner data that were classified by computer analyses. The analyses were guided by aerial photography and by ground surveys of the surface mines procured in 1976. The application of the LANDSAT data indicates that: (1) computer classification of the various landcover categories provides information for monitoring the progress of surface mining and reclamation operations; (2) successive yearly changes in barren and revegetated areas can be qualitatively assessed for surface mines of 100 acres or more of disrupted area; (3) barren areas consisting of limestone and shale mixtures may be recognized, and revegetated areas in various stages of growth may be identified against the hilly forest background.

  7. The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields (2011 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report assesses the state of the science on the environmental impacts of mountaintop mines and valley fills (MTM-VF) on streams in the central Appalachian coalfields. These coalfields cover about 48,000 square kilometers (122 million acres) in West Virginia, Kentucky, Virgi...

  8. The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields (2011 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the <span class=Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills Central Appalachian Coalfields Final Report "> This report assesses the state of the sci...

  9. Characterizing streamflow response of a mountaintop mined watershed to changing landuse and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegre, N.; Maxwell, A.; Lamont, S.

    2012-12-01

    Mountaintop removal mining (MTR) is a dominant driver of land use/land cover changes in the Appalachian Region of the eastern United States and is expected to increase in scale in the coming decades. The U.S. EPA estimates that, by 2012, MTR will have impacted 6.8% of the largely forested 4.86 million hectares portion of the Appalachian Coalfield region within West Virginia (WV), Kentucky, Virginia, and Tennessee. Between 1992 and 2002, approximately 1,994 km of headwater streams have been buried, and this number is expected to double to almost 4,000 km in 2012. Several devastating floods in this region have been attributed to this practice and recent studies have demonstrated cumulative aquatic degradation downstream of MTR. Despite its scale and extent, its impact on runoff, particularly at larger spatial scales (10^3 - 10^4 km^2), is poorly understood due to the complex relationships between climate, land use, and hydrology. To explore the impacts of this practice at larger scales, we estimated land use/land cover changes using Landsat 5 TM imagery over five periods between 1994-2010; conducted non-parametric trend analyses on annual streamflow, precipitation, and air temperature; and used a simple rainfall-runoff model to estimate hydrologic response time for the Big Coal River watershed (1,011 km^2) located in the southern WV coalfields. Though not statistically significant, annual streamflow decreased, hydrologic response time increased, air temperature increased, and annual precipitation was geographically variable across the area. Correlation analyses reveals that the decreasing trend in streamflow at annual timescales is likely related to changes in precipitation rather than land use/land cover changes. The lack of statistically detectable trends and correlations between land use change and hydrology at this scale are not entirely unexpected due to the long history and the mosaic of anthropogenic and natural processes and disturbances that span large

  10. The environmental costs of mountaintop mining valley fill operations for aquatic ecosystems of the Central Appalachians.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Emily S; Palmer, Margaret A

    2011-03-01

    Southern Appalachian forests are recognized as a biodiversity hot spot of global significance, particularly for endemic aquatic salamanders and mussels. The dominant driver of land-cover and land-use change in this region is surface mining, with an ever-increasing proportion occurring as mountaintop mining with valley fill operations (MTVF). In MTVF, seams of coal are exposed using explosives, and the resulting noncoal overburden is pushed into adjacent valleys to facilitate coal extraction. To date, MTVF throughout the Appalachians have converted 1.1 million hectares of forest to surface mines and buried more than 2,000 km of stream channel beneath mining overburden. The impacts of these lost forests and buried streams are propagated throughout the river networks of the region as the resulting sediment and chemical pollutants are transmitted downstream. There is, to date, no evidence to suggest that the extensive chemical and hydrologic alterations of streams by MTVF can be offset or reversed by currently required reclamation and mitigation practices. PMID:21449964

  11. Terrestrial Carbon Losses from Mountaintop Coal Mining Offsets Regional Forest Carbon Sequestration in the 21ST Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, P. M.; Campbell, J. E.; Fox, J.

    2012-12-01

    Studies that quantify the spatial and temporal variability of carbon sources and sinks provide process-level information for predicting future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide as well as verification of current emission agreements. Assessments of carbon sources and sinks for North America that compare top-down atmospheric constraints with bottom-up inventories find particularly large carbon sinks in the southeastern US. However, this southeastern US sink may be impacted by extreme land-use disturbance events due to mountaintop coal mining (MCM). Here we apply ecosystem modeling and field experiment data to quantify the potential impact of future mountaintop coal mining on the carbon budget of the southern Appalachian forest region. For projections based on historical mining rates and the continued regrowth of un-mined forests, we find that the southern Appalachian forests switch from a net carbon sink to a net carbon source by year 2025 to 2033 with a 30% to 35% loss is terrestrial carbon stocks relative to a scenario with no future mining of forest carbon by the year 2100. Alternatively, scenarios of forest sequestration due to the offsetting effects of CO2 fertilization and enhanced soil respiration result in a 15% to 24% loss in terrestrial carbon stocks by the year 2100 for mining scenarios relative to scenarios with no future mining. These results suggest that while stack emissions are the dominant life-cycle in coal-fired electricity, accounting for mountaintop coal mining in bottom-up inventories may be a critical land-use component of regional carbon budgets.

  12. Terrestrial carbon losses from mountaintop coal mining offset regional forest carbon sequestration in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. Elliott; Fox, James F.; Acton, Peter M.

    2012-12-01

    Studies that quantify the spatial and temporal variability of carbon sources and sinks provide process-level information for the prediction of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide as well as verification of current emission agreements. Assessments of carbon sources and sinks for North America that compare top-down atmospheric constraints with bottom-up inventories find particularly large carbon sinks in the southeastern US. However, this southeastern US sink may be impacted by extreme land-use disturbance events due to mountaintop coal mining (MCM). Here we apply ecosystem modeling and field experiment data to quantify the potential impact of future mountaintop coal mining on the carbon budget of the southern Appalachian forest region. For projections based on historical mining rates, grassland reclamation, and the continued regrowth of un-mined forests, we find that the southern Appalachian forests switch from a net carbon sink to a net carbon source by year 2025-33 with a 30%-35% loss in terrestrial carbon stocks relative to a scenario with no future mining by the year 2100. Alternatively, scenarios of forest sequestration due to the effect of CO2 fertilization result in a 15%-24% loss in terrestrial carbon stocks by the year 2100 for mining scenarios relative to scenarios with no future mining. These results suggest that while power plant stack emissions are the dominant life-cycle stage in coal-fired electricity, accounting for mountaintop coal mining in bottom-up inventories may be a critical component of regional carbon budgets.

  13. Long-Term Impacts on Macroinvertebrates Downstream of Reclaimed Mountaintop Mining Valley Fills in Central Appalachia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, Gregory J.; Passmore, Margaret E.; Pointon, Nancy D.; Felbinger, John K.; Walker, Craig A.; Krock, Kelly J. G.; Fulton, Jennifer B.; Nash, Whitney L.

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have documented adverse effects to biological communities downstream of mountaintop coal mining and valley fills (VF), but few data exist on the longevity of these impacts. We sampled 15 headwater streams with VFs reclaimed 11-33 years prior to 2011 and sampled seven local reference sites that had no VFs. We collected chemical, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrate data in April 2011; additional chemical samples were collected in September 2011. To assess ecological condition, we compared VF and reference abiotic and biotic data using: (1) ordination to detect multivariate differences, (2) benthic indices (a multimetric index and an observed/expected predictive model) calibrated to state reference conditions to detect impairment, and (3) correlation and regression analysis to detect relationships between biotic and abiotic data. Although VF sites had good instream habitat, nearly 90 % of these streams exhibited biological impairment. VF sites with higher index scores were co-located near unaffected tributaries; we suggest that these tributaries were sources of sensitive taxa as drifting colonists. There were clear losses of expected taxa across most VF sites and two functional feeding groups (% scrapers and %shredders) were significantly altered. Percent VF and forested area were related to biological quality but varied more than individual ions and specific conductance. Within the subset of VF sites, other descriptors (e.g., VF age, site distance from VF, the presence of impoundments, % forest) had no detectable relationships with biological condition. Although these VFs were constructed pursuant to permits and regulatory programs that have as their stated goals that (1) mined land be reclaimed and restored to its original use or a use of higher value, and (2) mining does not cause or contribute to violations of water quality standards, we found sustained ecological damage in headwaters streams draining VFs long after reclamation was completed.

  14. Reach-scale geomorphic differences between headwater streams draining mountaintop mined and unmined catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Kristin L.

    2015-05-01

    Mountaintop surface mining (MTM) is a controversial coal extraction method commonly practiced in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, that drastically reengineers previously steep, forested landscapes and alters sediment and water delivery processes to and along headwater channels draining mined areas. Although sediment delivery and hydrologic response from MTM operations remain highly variable and poorly resolved, the inherent close coupling between hillslopes and headwater channels is expected to result in geomorphic differences in stream channels draining MTM landscapes relative to unmined landscapes. Dedicated geomorphic studies are severely lacking in comparison to extensive research on water quality impacts of MTM. This study reports moderate geomorphic differences between headwater (catchment area <~ 6 km2) stream channels draining MTM and unmined catchments in tributaries of the Mud River in southern West Virginia. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicate that MTM streams are characterized by deeper maximum channel depths, smaller width-to-depth ratios, increased bedrock exposure along the streambed, and increased frequency of very fine silt and sand deposition relative to channels draining unmined catchments. Geomorphic differences are most pronounced for streams draining the smallest catchment areas (< 3.5 km2). Collectively, geomorphic differences provide evidence for relatively rapid channel adjustment of accelerated bedrock incision attributed to potential increased hydraulic driving forces and altered sediment regimes in MTM channels, notably sustained delivery of very fine sediment and potentially reduced coarse sediment delivery. More rapid delivery and transfer of water in addition to excess delivery of very fine sediments to and through headwater channels will have consequences to flooding and water quality in the short term and landscape evolution processes over longer time scales. Given the extent of MTM operations in this

  15. Temporal changes in taxonomic and functional diversity of fish assemblages downstream from mountaintop mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Chambers, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    Mountaintop mining (MTM) affects chemical, physical, and hydrological properties of receiving streams, but the long-term consequences for fish-assemblage structure and function are poorly understood. We sampled stream fish assemblages using electrofishing techniques in MTM exposure sites and reference sites within the Guyandotte River basin, USA, during 2010–2011. We calculated indices of taxonomic diversity (species richness, abundance, Shannon diversity) and functional diversity (functional richness, functional evenness, functional divergence) to compare exposure and reference assemblages between seasons (spring and autumn) and across years (1999–2011). We based temporal comparisons on 2 sites that were sampled during 1999–2001 by Stauffer and Ferreri (2002). Exposure assemblages had lower taxonomic and functional diversity than reference assemblages or simulated assemblages that accounted for random variation. Differences in taxonomic composition between reference and exposure assemblages were associated with conductivity and aqueous Se concentrations. Exposure assemblages had fewer species, lower abundances, and less biomass than reference assemblages across years and seasons. Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and Creek Chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) became numerically dominant in exposure assemblages over time because of their persistence and losses of other taxa. In contrast, species richness increased over time in reference assemblages, a result that may indicate recovery from drought. Mean individual biomass increased as fish density decreased and most obligate invertivores were apparently extirpated at MTM exposure sites. Effects of MTM were not related to physical-habitat conditions but were associated with water-quality variables, which may limit quality and availability of benthic macroinvertebrate prey. Simulations revealed effects of MTM that could not be attributed to random variation in fish assemblage structure.

  16. Process Domains in Synthetic Landscapes: Slope-Area Relationships in the Mountaintop Mining Region of Central Appalachia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, K. L.; Ross, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Landscapes and the governing geomorphic processes that shape them have been described in a conceptual framework of process domains. At a coarse scale, process domains are segregated between hillslope, colluvial, and alluvial processes, which can be distinguished by governing erosional processes and partitioned by local slope-drainage area relationships. In landscapes that have experienced dramatic topographic alteration such as the mountaintop coal-mining (MTM) region of central Appalachia, the resulting modified environment may be considered a synthetic landscape. Such a landscape has process domains that are decoupled from prior landscape evolution trajectories. In particular, landslide and debris flow processes, which are a predominant geomorphic agent in these steep mountain systems and a primary sediment delivery mechanism to the downstream fluvial network, may be eliminated from this landscape and detectable through changes in slope-area relationships. We evaluate differences in slope-area relationships using 10-m DEMs between two time periods, pre-mined and post-mined. At five study site located within the MTM region in the central Appalachian Mountains, US, we compare slope-area changes to adjacent unmined landscapes over the same time periods. Distinct differences exist in the character of slope-area relationships between unmined and MTM sites and local slopes are systematically and considerably reduced in all process zones of mined sites. In particular, there is an expansion of the unchanneled valley zone through either an individual or simultaneous upslope shift into the hillslope region and downslope shift into the debris flow region. In addition, local slopes are markedly reduced (33% to 44%) in the post-mined period relative to the pre-mined period at all sites and are generally below the threshold required to trigger landslides and debris flows. The consequence of altered erosion processes in this upper portion of the catchment, particularly the

  17. Comparison of peak discharges among sites with and without valley fills for the July 8-9, 2001 flood in the headwaters of Clear Fork, Coal River basin, mountaintop coal-mining region, southern West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Brogan, Freddie D.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of mountaintop-removal mining practices on the peak discharges of streams were investigated in six small drainage basins within a 7-square-mile area in southern West Virginia. Two of the small basins had reclaimed valley fills, one basin had reclaimed and unreclaimed valley fills, and three basins did not have valley fills. Indirect measurements of peak discharge for the flood of July 8-9, 2001, were made at six sites on streams draining the small basins. The sites without valley fills had peak discharges with 10- to 25-year recurrence intervals, indicating that rainfall intensities and totals varied among the study basins. The flood-recurrence intervals for the three basins with valley fills were determined as though the peak discharges were those from rural streams without the influence of valley fills, and ranged from less than 2 years to more than 100 years.

  18. The environmental price tag on a ton of mountaintop removal coal.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Brian D; Bernhardt, Emily S; Schlesinger, William H

    2013-01-01

    While several thousand square kilometers of land area have been subject to surface mining in the Central Appalachians, no reliable estimate exists for how much coal is produced per unit landscape disturbance. We provide this estimate using regional satellite-derived mine delineations and historical county-level coal production data for the period 1985-2005, and further relate the aerial extent of mining disturbance to stream impairment and loss of ecosystem carbon sequestration potential. To meet current US coal demands, an area the size of Washington DC would need to be mined every 81 days. A one-year supply of coal would result in ∼2,300 km of stream impairment and a loss of ecosystem carbon sequestration capacity comparable to the global warming potential of >33,000 US homes. For the first time, the environmental impacts of surface coal mining can be directly scaled with coal production rates. PMID:24039888

  19. Bacterial community responses to a gradient of alkaline mountaintop mine drainage in Central Appalachian streams.

    PubMed

    Bier, Raven L; Voss, Kristofor A; Bernhardt, Emily S

    2015-06-01

    Microbial community composition and diversity change along chemical gradients, leading to the expectation that microbial community information might provide new gradient characterizations. Here we examine stream bacteria composition and diversity along a strong chemical gradient in Central Appalachian streams. Coal mining in the region generates alkaline mine drainage (AlkMD), causing dramatic increases in conductivity, alkalinity, sulfate and metals sufficient to degrade stream macrobiota communities throughout the ecoregion. In this study, we examined the relationship between water and biofilm chemistry and biofilm bacteria taxonomic composition in streams where active and reclaimed surface coal mines occupied 0-96% of watershed surface area. We incubated wood veneers in each stream site for 4 months to develop biofilms on similar substrates. We sampled water chemistry at the time of deployment and collection, and after 1 month. Following incubation, we collected biofilms for microbial and chemical characterization. Microbial composition was determined by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA amplicons. Biofilm subsamples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine metal concentrations. Our results show that microbial community composition differed significantly between AlkMD-exposed and AlkMD-unexposed sites, and that compositional dissimilarity increased with AlkMD loading. Diversity was not correlated with pH or extent of upstream mining, but instead correlated with biofilm concentrations of Cd, Mn, Zn and Ni. Within mined sites, the extent of upstream mining was negatively correlated with taxonomic richness. Despite major compositional shifts, functional capacity predicted with PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) correlated with mining in only 3 of 43 level-2 KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) Orthology groups. PMID:25500511

  20. Bacterial community responses to a gradient of alkaline mountaintop mine drainage in Central Appalachian streams

    PubMed Central

    Bier, Raven L; Voss, Kristofor A; Bernhardt, Emily S

    2015-01-01

    Microbial community composition and diversity change along chemical gradients, leading to the expectation that microbial community information might provide new gradient characterizations. Here we examine stream bacteria composition and diversity along a strong chemical gradient in Central Appalachian streams. Coal mining in the region generates alkaline mine drainage (AlkMD), causing dramatic increases in conductivity, alkalinity, sulfate and metals sufficient to degrade stream macrobiota communities throughout the ecoregion. In this study, we examined the relationship between water and biofilm chemistry and biofilm bacteria taxonomic composition in streams where active and reclaimed surface coal mines occupied 0–96% of watershed surface area. We incubated wood veneers in each stream site for 4 months to develop biofilms on similar substrates. We sampled water chemistry at the time of deployment and collection, and after 1 month. Following incubation, we collected biofilms for microbial and chemical characterization. Microbial composition was determined by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA amplicons. Biofilm subsamples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine metal concentrations. Our results show that microbial community composition differed significantly between AlkMD-exposed and AlkMD-unexposed sites, and that compositional dissimilarity increased with AlkMD loading. Diversity was not correlated with pH or extent of upstream mining, but instead correlated with biofilm concentrations of Cd, Mn, Zn and Ni. Within mined sites, the extent of upstream mining was negatively correlated with taxonomic richness. Despite major compositional shifts, functional capacity predicted with PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) correlated with mining in only 3 of 43 level-2 KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) Orthology groups. PMID:25500511

  1. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for the new flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes

  2. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for new the flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes.

  3. Air Pollution Particulate Matter Collected from an Appalachian Mountaintop Mining Site Induces Microvascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    KNUCKLES, TRAVIS L.; STAPLETON, PHOEBE A.; MINARCHICK, VALERIE C.; ESCH, LAURA; MCCAWLEY, MICHAEL; HENDRYX, MICHAEL; NURKIEWICZ, TIMOTHY R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Air pollution PM is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In Appalachia, PM from mining may represent a health burden to this sensitive population that leads the nation in cardiovascular disease, among others. Cardiovascular consequences following inhalation of PMMTM are unclear, but must be identified to establish causal effects. Methods PM was collected within 1 mile of an active MTM site in southern WV. The PM was extracted and was primarily <10μm in diameter (PM10), consisting largely of sulfur (38%) and silica (24%). Adult male rats were IT with 300 μg PMMTM. Twenty-four hours following exposure, rats were prepared for intravital microscopy, or isolated arteriole experiments. Results PMMTM exposure blunted endothelium-dependent dilation in mesenteric and coronary arterioles by 26%, and 25%, respectively, as well as endothelium-independent dilation. In vivo, PMMTM exposure inhibited endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation (60% reduction). α-adrenergic receptor blockade inhibited PVNS-induced vasoconstriction in exposed animals compared with sham. Conclusions These data suggest that PMMTM exposure impairs microvascular function in disparate microvascular beds, through alterations in NO-mediated dilation and sympathetic nerve influences. Microvascular dysfunction may contribute to cardiovascular disease in regions with MTM sites. PMID:22963349

  4. Downstream effects of mountaintop coal mining: comparing biological conditions using family- and genus-level macroinvertebrate bioassessment tools

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, G.J.; Passmore, M.E.; Borsuk, F.A.; Reynolds, L.; Rose, C.J.

    2008-09-15

    Surface coal mining with valley fills has impaired the aquatic life in numerous streams in the Central Appalachian Mountains. We characterized macroinvertebrate communities from riffles in 37 small West Virginia streams (10 unmined and 27 mined sites with valley fills) sampled in the spring index period (March-May) and compared the assessment results using family- and genus-level taxonomic data. Specific conductance was used to categorize levels of mining disturbance in mined watersheds as low (<500 {mu} S/cm), medium (500-1000 {mu} S/cm), or high (>1000 {mu} S/cm). Four lines of evidence indicate that mining activities impair biological condition of streams: shift in species assemblages, loss of Epherneroptera taxa, changes in individual metrics and indices, and differences in water chemistry. Results were consistent whether family- or genus-level data were used. In both family- and genus-level nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordinations, mined sites were significantly separated from unmined sites, indicating that shifts in community structure were caused by mining. Several Epherneroptera genera (e.g., Ephemerella, Epeorus, Drunella) and their families (Ephemerellidae, Heptageniidae) were correlated most strongly with the primary NMS axis. These same Ephemeroptera were absent and, thus, eliminated from most of the mined sites. Total Ephemeroptera richness and relative abundance both declined with increasing mining disturbance. Several other metrics, such as richness, composition, tolerance, and diversity, clearly discriminated unmined vs mined sites. The results show that mining activity has had subtle to severe impacts on benthic macroinvertebrate communities and that the biological condition most strongly correlates with a gradient of ionic strength.

  5. 76 FR 30938 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... ions (a measure of salinity) are persistently elevated downstream of mining operations; Degraded water... demonstrates that elevated conductivity (a measure of salinity) is the factor most directly responsible for...

  6. PRIORITY POLLUTANT REMOVAL FROM MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study of the removal of selected priority pollutants from acid mine drainage was conducted at EPA's Crown, West Virginia, site. The pollutants studied were the volatiles benzene, chloroform, methylene chloride, tetrachloroethene, toluene, trans-dichloroethene; the semivolatiles...

  7. ANTIMONY REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY FOR MINING INDUSTRY WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report assessed the current state-of-the-art of antimony removal technology for mining industry wastewaters. Through literature review and personal interviews, it was found that most mines and mills reporting significant quantities of antimony in their raw wastewater had app...

  8. EFFECTS OF MOUNTAINTOP MINING/VALLEY FILL (MTM/VF) ON FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS IN APPALACHIAN HEADWATER STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this poster were 1)to evaluate the impact of MTM/VF on the functional attributes SOD, soil/sediment respiration rate, soil/sediment DEA and dissolved trace gas concentrations across gradients of mining disturbance and hydrolgy and 2)compare these functional attr...

  9. The Affects of Mountain Top Removal Mining on Headwater Streams in Eastern Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Word, D. A.; Jack, J. D.; Kelley, R.

    2005-05-01

    Mountain Top Removal/Valley Fill (MTR/VF) coal mining is a relatively new coal extraction technology that is widely utilized throughout the Appalachian region. During this process, the mountaintop is blasted away, the coal removed and the leftover material (spoil) is then deposited into the surrounding valleys. The potential negative ecological effects of these operations on stream biodiversity has received some attention but there is little available data on how these fills affect stream functions such as litter decomposition rates. We selected 4 streams draining "retired" MTR/VF sites of various ages in eastern Kentucky (USA) and one stream from an actively mined site. We compared leaf mass loss rates, N dynamics, fungal colonization (as measured by ergosterol) and water chemistry parameters in these streams to three unmined reference streams. Leaf litter mass loss was usually higher in the reference streams while water chemistry parameters such as conductivity, nitrate and TDS were often much higher in the MTR/VF streams. Such differences in stream function and water quality should be considered in permitting decisions and in assessing recovery of streams after mining.

  10. Comprehensive impacts of permit decisions to conduct surface coal mining operations under Tennessee Federal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    Representative model mines were developed to evaluate the range of impacts associated with the issuance of coal mining permits under the Tennessee Federal Program. For the purpose of this analysis, the Tennessee bituminous coal field was divided into five regions: Cumberland Block, Wartburg Basin, Northern Cumberland Plateau, Southern Cumberland Plateau, and Walden Ridge South. For each of the five regions, three to five model mines were developed to represent the range of mining activities including underground mines, mountaintop removal mines, contour mines, auger mines, and area mines. A model preparation plant and tipple facility were developed to characterize the impacts associated with the storing, processing, and loading of coal in the five regions.

  11. Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    None Available

    1999-06-24

    The Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium was commissioned by the Mountaintop Removal Mining/Valley Fill Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Interagency Steering Committee as an educational forum for the members of the regulatory community who will participate in the development of the EIS. The Steering Committee sought a balanced audience to ensure the input to the regulatory community reflected the range of perspectives on this complicated and emotional issue. The focus of this symposium is on mining and reclamation technology alternatives, which is one of eleven topics scheduled for review to support development of the EIS. Others include hydrologic, environmental, ecological, and socio-economic issues.

  12. 75 FR 56104 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of Public Teleconferences of the Mountaintop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 29339-29340)]. Materials from the July 2010 meeting are posted on the SAB Web site at http... Mining Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces two public teleconferences of the SAB Mountaintop Mining...

  13. Moss tested to remove manganese from mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    Work at Pennsylvania State University on the treatment of acid mine drainage for the removal of Mn and Fe is reported. The project involves the use of sphagnum moss in settling ponds: this has been shown to be particularly effective in Mn removal. It is suggested that the method may be particularly helpful to small US mine operators who are finding the cost of chemical treatment to comply with Mn discharge limits prohibitive. Field trials of the moss treatment are planned.

  14. REMOVAL OF TRACE ELEMENTS FROM ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lime neutralization, reverse osmosis, and ion exchange were studied for their effectiveness in removing mg/l levels of ten specific trace elements from spiked acid mine drainage under typical operating conditions. The specified toxic materials were arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromi...

  15. In Brief: Coal mining regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) announced on 18 November measures to strengthen the oversight of state surface coal mining programs and to promulgate federal regulations to protect streams affected by surface coal mining operations. DOI's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) is publishing an advance notice of a proposed rule about protecting streams from adverse impacts of surface coal mining operations. A rule issued by the Bush administration in December 2008 allows coal mine operators to place excess excavated materials into streams if they can show it is not reasonably possible to avoid doing so. “We are moving as quickly as possible under the law to gather public input for a new rule, based on sound science, that will govern how companies handle fill removed from mountaintop coal seams,” according to Wilma Lewis, assistant secretary for Land and Minerals Management at DOI.

  16. Fe and Mn removal from mining drainage using goaf filling materials obtained from coal mining process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Chen, Aolei; Qu, Hongbin; Xu, Shouqiang; Zhang, Xue; He, Xuwen

    2015-01-01

    Coal gangue, sandy soil and clay (mass ratio 45:4:1) as goaf filling materials acquired from coal mining processes were applied to remove Fe and Mn effectively from mining drainage. The results of an adsorption kinetic study showed that the Fe adsorption equation was y=21.454y+8.4712, R2=0.9924 and the Mn adsorption equation was y=7.5409x+0.905, R2=0.9957. Meanwhile, the goaf filling materials had low desorption capacity (Fe 6.765 μg/g, Mn 1.52 μg/g) and desorption ratio (Fe 8.98%, Mn 11.04%). Experiments demonstrated that Fe and Mn from mining drainage could be removed stably at a flow rate of 1.2 L/min, Fe inlet concentration of less than 40 mg/L, Mn inlet concentration of less than 2 mg/L and neutral or alkaline conditions. During a procedure of continuous experiments, the effluent quality could meet the requirement of the 'Code for Engineering Design of Sewage Regeneration-GB503352-2002'. A real-application project using goaf filling materials to treat mining drainage in Shendong coal mine showed that the average cost per ton of mining drainage was about 0.55 RMB, which could bring about considerable economic benefit for coal mining enterprises. PMID:26606087

  17. Heavy metals removal from mine runoff using compost bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Christian, David; Wong, Edmund; Crawford, Ronald L; Cheng, I Francis; Hess, Thomas F

    2010-12-14

    Permeable bioreactors have gained both research and management attention as viable methods for treating mine runoff waters. We examined the operation of a field-scale bioreactor (containing mixed compost, straw and gravel) for treatment of runoff from the Mother Load (ML) mine in northern Idaho, U.S. and compared it to an experimental laboratory-scale reactor, containing a similar matrix and treating similar mine runoff water. In general both reactors were efficient in removing most of the metals assayed, Al, As, Cd, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, with the exception of Mn. Both systems showed evidence of bacterial-mediated sulphate reduction and concomitant metal sulphide complexes. However, the experimental laboratory bioreactor showed greater proportions of immobile metals reductions than did the ML bioreactor, presumably due to the greater action of sulphate-reducing bacteria. The major metal removal mechanism in the ML bioreactor was surmised to be adsorption. Differences in metal removal mechanisms between the reactors were hypothesized to be due to fluctuating hydraulic residence times at the ML site, in turn, due to unregulated runoff flow. PMID:21275250

  18. Biomorphic robots as a persistent means for removing explosive mines

    SciTech Connect

    Tilden, M.W.

    1995-04-01

    The current variety and dispersion of explosive mines is a daunting technological problem for current sensory techniques. The bottom line is that the only way to insure a mine has been found and removed is to step on it. As this is an upsetting proposition for biological organisms like animals or children, this paper details a proposed non-biological method that may have validity following additional research into the new science of Biomorphic Machines. A Robobiologist at LANL has invented and developed a variety of {open_quotes}living{close_quotes} robots that are solar powered, legged, autonomous, adaptive to massive damage and terrain, and very inexpensive. This technology, called Nervous Net (Nv) design, allows for the creation of capable walking mechanisms (known as {open_quotes}Biomorphic Robots{close_quotes}) which rather than run on a {open_quotes}work{close_quotes} ethic, use {open_quotes}survivalist{close_quotes} design principles. These principles allow Nv based machines to continue doing work even after multiple limbs have been removed or damaged, and to dynamically negotiate complex terrains as an emergent property of their operation. They are not programmed, and indeed, the 12 transistor controller used keeps their electronic cost well below that of most pocket radios. It is suspected that in finding and removing randomly placed explosive mines, they may be an interesting, capable solution.

  19. Nitrogen removal in Northern peatlands treating mine wastewaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Katharina; Karlsson, Teemu; Turunen, Kaisa; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Backnäs, Soile

    2015-04-01

    Natural peatlands can be used as passive purification systems for mine wastewaters. These treatment peatlands are well-suited for passive water treatment as they delay the flow of water, and provide a large filtration network with many adsorptive surfaces on plant roots or soil particles. They have been shown to remove efficiently harmful metals and metalloids from mine waters due to variety of chemical, physical and biological processes such as adsorption, precipitation, sedimentation, oxidation and reduction reactions, as well as plant uptake. Many factors affect the removal efficiency such as inflow water quality, wetland hydrology, system pH, redox potential and temperature, the nature of the predominating purification processes, and the presence of other components such as salts. However, less attention has been paid to nitrogen (N) removal in peatlands. Thus, this study aimed to assess the efficiency of N removal and seasonal variation in the removal rate in two treatment peatlands treating mine dewatering waters and process effluent waters. Water sampling from treatment peatland inflow and outflow waters as well as pore waters in peatland were conducted multiple times during 2012-2014. Water samples were analysed for total N, nitrate-N and ammonium-N. Additionally, an YSI EXO2 device was used for continuous nitrate monitoring of waters discharged from treatment peatlands to the recipient river during summer 2014. The results showed that the oxic conditions in upper peat layer and microbial activity in treatment peatlands allowed the efficient oxidation of ammonium-N to nitrite-N and further to nitrate-N during summer time. However, the slow denitrification rate restricts the N removal as not all of the nitrate produced during nitrification is denitrified. In summer time, the removal rate of total N varied between 30-99 % being highest in late summer. N removal was clearly higher for treatment peatland treating process effluent waters than for peatland

  20. 30 CFR 716.3 - Mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural, residential, or public facility (including recreational facilities) use is proposed for the... or control slides and erosion, prevent damage to natural water courses, avoid water pollution, or...

  1. 30 CFR 716.3 - Mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural, residential, or public facility (including recreational facilities) use is proposed for the... or control slides and erosion, prevent damage to natural water courses, avoid water pollution, or...

  2. 30 CFR 716.3 - Mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural, residential, or public facility (including recreational facilities) use is proposed for the... or control slides and erosion, prevent damage to natural water courses, avoid water pollution, or...

  3. 30 CFR 716.3 - Mountaintop removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural, residential, or public facility (including recreational facilities) use is proposed for the..., except where engineering data substantiates and the regulatory authority finds that a minimum static... operations are proceeding in accordance with the terms of the permit and applicable requirements of the...

  4. Phosphorus removal performance of acid mine drainage from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ruihua, Li; Lin, Zhu; Tao, Tao; Bo, Liu

    2011-06-15

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in Yunfu iron sulfide mine contain Fe(2+), Fe(3+), and Al(3+) up to 8000, 1700 and 1200 mg/L, respectively. Phosphorus removal from synthetic wastewater with 10mg/L of total phosphorus (TP) concentration and second municipal effluent with 3.5-4.0mg/L of TP concentration were conducted with the AMD by jar tests. Dosage of the AMD and initial pH of water are the two most important parameters affecting the performance of phosphorus removal of the AMD. The optimal phosphorus removal efficiency and residual iron ions (TFe) concentration are 97.0% and 3.0mg/L, respectively, at 1.61 Fe/P molar ratio and pH 8.03 for synthetic wastewater, and 92.1% and 0.32 mg/L, respectively, for second municipal effluent at 1.41 Fe/P molar ratio and pH 7.3. Resultant heavy metal concentration in effluents and precipitate was very low, and the risk of resultant heavy metal contamination was very small. The phosphorus removal performance of the AMD was much similar to that of ferric sulfate (FS) and polyferric sulfate (PFS), and better than that of FeSO(4). And residual TFe concentration in treated water arising from utilization of the AMD was similar to that of FeSO(4), and higher than that of FS and PFS. The AMD could be used as coagulant for phosphorus removal from wastewater directly due to the presence of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), and Al(3+) largely. PMID:21514994

  5. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  6. Removal of heavy metals from mine waters by natural zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Ulla Wingenfelder; Carsten Hansen; Gerhard Furrer; Rainer Schulin

    2005-06-15

    The study investigated the removal of Fe, Pb, Cd, and Zn from synthetic mine waters by a natural zeolite. The emphasis was given to the zeolite's behavior toward a few cations in competition with each other. Pb was removed efficiently from neutral as well as from acidic solutions, whereas the uptake of Zn and Cd decreased with low pH and high iron concentrations. With increasing Ca concentrations in solution, elimination of Zn and Cd became poorer while removal of Pb remained virtually unchanged. The zeolite was stable in acidic solutions. Disintegration was only observed below pH 2.0. Forward- and back-titration of synthetic acidic mine water were carried out in the presence and absence of zeolite to simulate the effects of a pH increase by addition of neutralizing agents and a re-acidification which can be caused by subsequent mixing with acidic water. The pH increase during neutralization causes precipitation of hydrous ferric oxides and decreased dissolved metal concentrations. Zeolite addition further diminished Pb concentrations but did not have an effect on Zn and Cd concentrations in solution. During re-acidification of the solution, remobilization of Pb was weaker in the presence than in the absence of zeolite. No substantial differences were observed for Fe, Cd, and Zn immobilization. The immobilization of the metals during pH increase and the subsequent remobilization caused by re-acidification can be well described by a geochemical equilibrium speciation model that accounts for metal complexation at hydrous ferric oxides, for ion exchange on the zeolite surfaces, as well as for dissolution and precipitation processes. 42 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. The As removal from arsenopyrite-bearing mine waste by microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Myung, Eun Ji; Hack Lim, Dae; Kim, Bong Ju; Park, Cheon Young

    2016-04-01

    Penalties incurred by miners for arsenic in concentrates have increased significantly because the removal and disposal of arsenic is difficult and costly for smelters and because the environmental challenges are increasing worldwide. Typically miners incur penalties on arsenic in concentrates above 0.2% As with smelter rejection limits of 0.5%. Therefore, finding an effective solution for removing As during primary mining activities is necessary to avoid penalty. The aim of this study was to investigate the As removal from mine waste using microwave process. The mine waste samples were characterized by chemical and XRD analysis. To determine of As removal from the microwave experiments, aqua regia digestion was performed according to Korean environmental standard method(KESM) and the As removal effect were evaluated using the standard EPA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure(TCLP, EPA 1311 method). The result of mineralogical character for mine waste using XRD was detected arsenopyrite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and quartz. The chemical analysis of As, Pb, Zn contents in the mine waste measured 13,896.0, 896.1 and 1,054.6 mg/kg, respectively. The As removal of experiments was conducted to examine the effects of microwave exposure time(1~15min). The results showed that the As removal in mine waste (exposure time = 10min) was 92.90%, and the temperature of mine waste by microwave heating was 886℃. The TCLP leaching of treated mine waste by microwave measured values were below the EPA's current regulatory threshold(As, Pb, Zn : 5 mg/L). The optimum condition of microwave exposure for As removal from arsenopyrite-bearing mine waste was obtained at 800W, 2450MHz, 10min. Acknowledgment : This work was supported by the Energy and Resources Engineering Program Grant funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Korea

  8. The Ultimate Mountaintop: Astronomy Aboard Stratospheric Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As funding, for astronomy dwindles and the competition for observation time heats up, more astronomers may turn to balloons. Far above the Keck telescope on Hawaii's Mauna Kea, higher still than the hostile snowcapped peaks of Mt. Everest, there exists a 40-kilometer summit that will place their telescopes above 99% of the atmosphere. With the prospect of 100-day and even 1,000-day balloons, the climb to the summit is more and more tempting. Surely, given enough cash, most astronomers would opt for a lunar base or a platform beyond the Earth. Until then, many seem happy to settle for a stratospheric mountaintop.

  9. The effect of magnesium on partial sulphate removal from mine water as gypsum.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of magnesium on the removal efficiency of sulphate as gypsum from mine water. The precipitation conditions were simulated with MINEQL + software and the simulation results were compared with the results from laboratory jar test experiments. Both the simulation and the laboratory results showed that magnesium in the mine water was maintaining sulphate in a soluble form as magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) at pH 9.6. Thus magnesium was preventing the removal of sulphate as gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). However, change in the lime precipitation pH from 9.6 to 12.5 resulted in magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) precipitation and improved sulphate removal. Additionally, magnesium hydroxide could act as seed crystals for gypsum precipitation or co-precipitate sulphate further enhancing the removal of sulphate from mine water. PMID:26067895

  10. Removal of phosphorus from agricultural wastewaters using adsorption media prepared from acid mine drainage sludge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Montgomery, Gary A.; Ritenour, Kelsey L.; Tucker, Travis W.

    2009-01-01

    Excess phosphorus in wastewaters promotes eutrophication in receiving waterways. A??cost-effective method for the removal of phosphorus from water would significantly reduce the impact of such wastewaters on the environment. Acid mine drainage sludge is a waste product produced by the neutralization of acid mine drainage, and consists mainly of the same metal hydroxides used in traditional wastewater treatment for the removal of phosphorus. In this paper, we describe a method for the drying and pelletization of acid mine drainage sludge that results in a particulate media, which we have termed Ferroxysorb, for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater in an efficient packed bed contactor. Adsorption capacities are high, and kinetics rapid, such that a contact time of less than 5 min is sufficient for removal of 60-90% of the phosphorus, depending on the feed concentration and time in service. In addition, the adsorption capacity of the Ferroxysorb media was increased dramatically by using two columns in an alternating sequence so that each sludge bed receives alternating rest and adsorption cycles. A stripping procedure based on treatment with dilute sodium hydroxide was also developed that allows for recovery of the P from the media, with the possibility of generating a marketable fertilizer product. These results indicate that acid mine drainage sludges - hitherto thought of as undesirable wastes - can be used to remove phosphorus from wastewater, thus offsetting a portion of acid mine drainage treatment costs while at the same time improving water quality in sensitive watersheds.

  11. An innovative carbonate coprecipitation process for the removal of zinc and manganese from mining impacted waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, P.L.; Chambers, M.A.; Deaguero, A.L.; Wildeman, T.R.; Reisman, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Although mine drainage is usually thought of as acidic, there are many cases where the water is of neutral pH, but still contains metal species that can be harmful to human or aquatic animal health, such as manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn). Typical treatment of mine drainage waters involves pH adjustment, but this often results in excessive sludge formation and removal of nontoxic species such as magnesium and calcium. Theoretical consideration of the stability of metal carbonate species suggests that the target metals could be removed from solution by coprecipitation with calcium carbonate. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a limestone-based process for remediation of acid mine drainage that increases calcium carbonate saturation. This treatment could then be coupled with carbonate coprecipitation as an innovative method for removal of toxic metals from circumneutral mine drainage waters. The new process was termed the carbonate coprecipitation (CCP) process. The CCP process was tested at the laboratory scale using a synthetic mine water containing 50 mg/L each of Mn and Zn. Best results showed over 95% removal of both Mn and Zn in less than 2 h of contact in a limestone channel. The process was then tested on a sample of water from the Palmerton zinc superfund site, near Palmerton, Pennsylvania, containing over 300 mg/L Zn and 60 mg/L Mn. Treatment of this water resulted in removal of over 95% of the Zn and 40% of the Mn in the limestone channel configuration. Because of the potential economic advantages of the CCP process, further research is recommended for refinement of the process for the Palmerton water and for application to other mining impacted waters as well. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  12. Filter materials for metal removal from mine drainage--a review.

    PubMed

    Westholm, Lena Johansson; Repo, Eveliina; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    A large number of filter materials, organic and inorganic, for removal of heavy metals in mine drainage have been reviewed. Bark, chitin, chitosan, commercial ion exchangers, dairy manure compost, lignite, peat, rice husks, vegetal compost, and yeast are examples of organic materials, while bio-carbons, calcareous shale, dolomite, fly ash, limestone, olivine, steel slag materials and zeolites are examples of inorganic materials. The majority of these filter materials have been investigated in laboratory studies, based on various experimental set-ups (batch and/or column tests) and different conditions. A few materials, for instance steel slag materials, have also been subjects to field investigations under real-life conditions. The results from these investigations show that steel slag materials have the potential to remove heavy metals under different conditions. Ion exchange has been suggested as the major metal removal mechanisms not only for steel slag but also for lignite. Other suggested removal mechanisms have also been identified. Adsorption has been suggested important for activated carbon, precipitation for chitosan and sulphate reduction for olivine. General findings indicate that the results with regard to metal removal vary due to experimental set ups, composition of mine drainage and properties of filter materials and the discrepancies between studies renders normalisation of data difficult. However, the literature reveals that Fe, Zn, Pb, Hg and Al are removed to a large extent. Further investigations, especially under real-life conditions, are however necessary in order to find suitable filter materials for treatment of mine drainage. PMID:24781327

  13. Metal removal and sulfate reduction in low-sulfate mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, G.H.; Updegraff, D.M.; Radehaus, P.M.; Bates, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    A treatability study using two continuous upflow bioreactors was conducted to evaluate the potential removal of metal contamination, primarily zinc, from mine drainage with constructed wetlands that incorporate sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The drainage from the Burleigh Tunnel in Silver Plume, Colorado, contains low levels of sulfate that may limit the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria, thus limiting metal removal by the system. Total metals, anions, and field parameters in the mine drainage and the bioreactor effluents were routinely analyzed over 8 weeks. In addition, the bioreactor compost packing was analyzed for metals and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Zinc removal in both reactors was in excess of 99% after 8 weeks of operation. Furthermore, sulfate-reducing bacteria in the bioreactor compost ranged from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 6} colony-forming units per gram of compost.

  14. Indirect Manganese Removal by Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. Isolated from Brazilian Mine Water

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Natália Rocha; Amorim, Soraya Sander; Santos, Pricila Almeida; Reis, Flávia Donária; Cordeiro, Mônica Mendes; Guerra-Sá, Renata; Leão, Versiane Albis

    2015-01-01

    Manganese is a contaminant in the wastewaters produced by Brazilian mining operations, and the removal of the metal is notoriously difficult because of the high stability of the Mn(II) ion in aqueous solutions. To explore a biological approach for removing excessive amounts of aqueous Mn(II), we investigated the potential of Mn(II) oxidation by both consortium and bacterial isolates from a Brazilian manganese mine. A bacterial consortium was able to remove 99.7% of the Mn(II). A phylogenetic analysis of isolates demonstrated that the predominant microorganisms were members of Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Lysinibacillus genera. Mn(II) removal rates between 58.5% and 70.9% were observed for Bacillus sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. while the Lysinibacillus isolate 13P removes 82.7%. The catalytic oxidation of Mn(II) mediated by multicopper oxidase was not properly detected; however, in all of the experiments, a significant increase in the pH of the culture medium was detected. No aggregates inside the cells grown for a week were found by electronic microscopy. Nevertheless, an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the isolates revealed the presence of manganese in Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. grown in K medium. These results suggest that members of Stenotrophomonas and Lysinibacillus genera were able to remove Mn(II) by a nonenzymatic pathway. PMID:26697496

  15. Low temperature removal of inorganic sulfur compounds from mining process waters.

    PubMed

    Liljeqvist, Maria; Sundkvist, Jan-Eric; Saleh, Amang; Dopson, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Process water and effluents from mining operations treating sulfide rich ores often contain considerable concentrations of metastable inorganic sulfur compounds such as thiosulfate and tetrathionate. These species may cause environmental problems if released to downstream recipients due to oxidation to sulfuric acid catalyzed by acidophilic microorganisms. Molecular phylogenic analysis of the tailings pond and recipient streams identified psychrotolerant and mesophilic inorganic sulfur compound oxidizing microorganisms. This suggested year round thiosalt oxidation occurs. Mining process waters may also contain inhibiting substances such as thiocyanate from cyanidation plants. However, toxicity experiments suggested their expected concentrations would not inhibit thiosalt oxidation by Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans SS3. A mixed culture from a permanently cold (4-6 °C) low pH environment was tested for thiosalt removal in a reactor design including a biogenerator and a main reactor containing a biofilm carrier. The biogenerator and main reactors were successively reduced in temperature to 5-6 °C when 43.8% of the chemical oxidation demand was removed. However, it was found that the oxidation of thiosulfate was not fully completed to sulfate since low residual concentrations of tetrathionate and trithionate were found in the discharge. This study has demonstrated the potential of using biotechnological solutions to remove inorganic sulfur compounds at 6°C and thus, reduce the impact of mining on the environment. PMID:21280027

  16. Heavy metal removal from acid mine drainage by calcined eggshell and microalgae hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the use of calcined eggshells and microalgae for the removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD) and the simultaneous enhancement of biomass productivity. The experiment was conducted over a period of 6 days in a hybrid system containing calcined eggshells and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. The results show that the biomass productivity increased to ~8.04 times its initial concentration of 0.367 g/L as measured by an optical panel photobioreactor (OPPBR) and had a light transmittance of 95 % at a depth of 305 mm. On the other hand, the simultaneous percent removal of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, As, and Cd from the AMD effluent was found to be 99.47 to 100 %. These results indicate that the hybrid system with calcined eggshells and microalgae was highly effective for heavy metal removal in the AMD. PMID:25940497

  17. Treatment of acid mine drainage with fly ash: Removal of major contaminants and trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gitari, M.W.; Petrik, L.F.; Etchebers, O.; Key, D.L.; Iwuoha, E.; Okujeni, C.

    2006-08-15

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has been reacted with two South African fly ashes in a batch setup in an attempt to evaluate their neutralization and major, trace elements removal capacity. Different fly ash:acid mine drainage ratios (FA:AMD) were stirred in a beaker for a set time and the process water analyzed for major, trace elements and sulphate content. The three factors that finally dictated the nature of the final solution in these neutralization reactions were the FA:AMD ratio, the contact time of the reaction and the chemistry of the AMD. Efficiency of the elements removal was directly linked to the amount of FA in the reaction mixture and to the final pH attained. Most elements attained approximate to 100% removal only when the pH of minimum solubility of their hydroxides was achieved (i.e., Mg = 10.49 - 11.0, Cu{sup 2+} = 6, Pb{sup 2+} = 6 - 7). Dissolution of CaO and subsequent precipitation of gypsum and formation of Al, Fe oxyhydroxysulphates, Fe oxyhydroxides with subsequent adsorption of sulphate contributed to the sulphate attenuation. Significant leaching of B, Sr, Ba and Mo was observed as the reaction progressed and was observed to increase with quantity of fly ash in the reaction mixture. However B was observed to decrease at high FA:AMD ratios probably as result of co-precipitation with CaCO{sub 3}(s).

  18. Removal and accumulation of mercury by aquatic macrophytes from an open cast coal mine effluent.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Virendra Kumar; Tripathi, B D; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2009-12-30

    In this study, the mercury (Hg) removal capacities of two aquatic macrophytes, Pistia stratiotes and Azolla pinnata, were investigated against the coal mining effluent. These plants reduced mercury from the effluent via rhizofiltration and subsequent accumulation in plant. The removal rate of P. stratiotes and A. pinnata was 80% and 68%, respectively, after 21 days of exposure to the effluent containing 10 microg L(-1) of Hg. As mercury from the effluent was accumulated in the root and shoot tissues of both aquatic macrophytes, they were proven to be a root accumulator with a translocation factor of less than one during the entire study. The decreasing Hg content in effluent (from 10 to 2.0 microg L(-1)) was reflected by its accumulation in roots (0.57+/-0.02 mg g(-1) in P. stratiotes) and leaves of the experimental plants (0.42+/-0.01 mg g(-1), P. stratiotes). As a result, Hg concentrations in the coal mining effluent were tightly associated with those observed from macrophytes. Considering the high removal efficiencies of Hg by these aquatic macrophytes, these plants can be recommended for the actual treatment of Hg-containing waste waters. PMID:19665290

  19. Removal of copper in leachate from mining residues using electrochemical technology.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Andréa; Drogui, Patrick; Daghrir, Rimeh; Zaviska, François; Benzaazoua, Mostafa

    2014-01-15

    This research is related to a laboratory study on the performance of a successive mining residues leaching and electrochemical copper recovery process. To clearly define the experimental region for response surface methodology (RSM), a preliminary study was performed by applying a current intensity varying from 0.5 A to 4.0 A for 60 min. By decreasing the current intensity from 4.0 A to 0.5 A, a good adhesion and a very smooth and continuous interface of copper was formed and deposited on the cathode electrode. However, the removal rate of Cu decreased from 83.7% to 37.9% when the current intensity passed from 4.0 A to 0.5 A, respectively. Subsequently, the factorial design and central composite design methodologies were successively employed to define the optimal operating conditions for copper removal in the mining residues leachate. Using a 2(3) factorial matrix, the best performance for copper removal (97.7%) was obtained at a current intensity of 2.0 A during 100 min. The current intensity and electrolysis time were found to be the most influent parameters. The contribution of current intensity and electrolysis time was around 65.8% and 33.9%, respectively. The treatment using copper electrode and current intensity of 1.3 A during 80 min was found to be the optimal conditions in terms of cost/effectiveness. Under these conditions, 86% of copper can be recovered for a total cost of 0.56 $ per cubic meter of treated mining residues leachate. PMID:24365775

  20. Assessing the utility of mixed organic materials for removal of metals in mine drainage impacted waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H.; Neculita, C.; Lee, G.; Jeong, J.; Cho, D.; Chang, S.

    2010-12-01

    The use of natural organic materials in bioreactors is one of the most sustainable technologies for treatment of metals in mine-impacted waters. Several natural organic substrates including mushroom compost, cow manure, sawdust, wood chips, and cut rice straw were characterized and used in combination for treating mine drainage with acidic (pH 3) and moderate pH (pH 6). Bench-scale batch experiments were performed for 35-day period to evaluate the performance of organic substrates in removing dissolved metals. Overall results indicated that mixtures of different substrates showed satisfactory performances in removing metals (Al > Fe > Mn) (up to 100%), generating alkalinity, and reducing sulfate at both pH conditions. The mixture of sawdust and cow manure was found as the most effective whereas the mixture containing 40% cut rice straw gave limited efficiency, suggesting organic carbon released from this substrate is not readily available for biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. The mushroom compost based bioreactors released significant amount of sulfate, which may raise a concern upon the start-up of field-scale bioreactors. Collectively, the substrate mixtures had comparable performances to the mushroom compost, the most commonly used material in field bioreactors, in terms of metal removal, pH neutralization, and sulfate reduction, except for the reactors containing rice straw. Especially, the mixture of sawdust and cow manure was the most efficient substrate for treatment of mine-impacted waters. The correlation between the extent of sulfate reduction and dissolved organic carbon/SO42- ratio was weak and this indicates the type of DOC plays more important role in sulfate reduction than the absolute concentration and that the ratio is not sensitive enough to properly describe the relative effectiveness of substrate mixtures.

  1. Do post-mining constructed channels replace functional characteristics of headwater streams?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop mining and valley fill (MTMVF) is a method of coal mining common in eastern Kentucky and southern West Virginia. Over 1200 miles of stream channel have been buried by MTMVF. Permits for surface coal mining have recognized constructed drainage ditches associated with ...

  2. Metals removal from an acid mine drainage: The Argo Tunnel experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cevaal, J.N.; Abel, R.J.; Rogers, S.E.

    1996-12-31

    The abandoned Argo Tunnel, located approximately 30 miles west of Denver in Idaho Springs, Colorado, is part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site and was identified as the most significant source of metals contamination to Clear Creek. More than 740 pounds of metals (including iron, manganese, zinc, copper and aluminum) are discharged from the Argo each day. During the course of bench-scale testing and preliminary design of the chemical precipitation treatment facility for the Argo Tunnel acid mine drainage, three treatment processes: conventional chemical precipitation, {open_quotes}high density sludge{close_quotes} precipitation arid membrane separation; and four chemical reagents: hydrated lime, caustic, magnesium hydroxide, and lime plus soda ash were evaluated. The result was the prepurchase of a {open_quotes}high density sludge{close_quotes} precipitation process using caustic as the reagent. The process was sized to treat the design average flow rate from the tunnel with additional capacity for potential future groundwater flows and for most surge events. The treatment facility was sited at the Argo Tunnel portal and adjacent to the Argo Mill, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The nearby historic designation and strong local mining heritage led to null styled superstructure encompassing indigenous mining architecture. Improvements to the water quality within the basin include removal of most of the 740 pounds of metals the tunnel currently discharges to Clear Creek and a significant reduction in instream metal concentrations, notably zinc, manganese and copper.

  3. Reduction of acidity and removal of metal ions from coal mining effluents using chitosan microspheres.

    PubMed

    Laus, Rogério; Geremias, Reginaldo; Vasconcelos, Helder L; Laranjeira, Mauro C M; Fávere, Valfredo T

    2007-10-22

    Effluents from coal mining operations are not only highly acid but also depict elevated concentrations of metals which may contaminate the environment. Due to the polybasic characteristic of chitosan, this biopolymer is capable of both neutralizing and removing iron, aluminum and copper ions from such effluents. The present study aimed at evaluating the use of chitosan microspheres for their importance in continuous systems. The microspheres were prepared by the phase inversion method. Their average diameter and morphology were determined. Water samples from decantation pool (DP) and acidic mine drainage (AMD) effluents were treated using different amounts of microspheres. The pH and concentration of Fe, Al and Cu ions were evaluated both before and after treatment of effluent samples. The results revealed that the microspheres were capable of increasing the pH of DP and AMD samples from 2.34 and 2.58, respectively, to 6.20, i.e., close to neutrality. The treatment also resulted in full removal of the metals investigated. PMID:17499431

  4. Continuous removal of zinc from wastewater and mine dump leachate by a microalgal biofilm PSBR.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; Lin, Gengyi; Podola, Björn; Melkonian, Michael

    2015-10-30

    Bio-removal of heavy metals from wastewater by microalgae has been investigated for decades. However, technical and economical limitations of cultivation systems for microalgae still impair progress toward application. Recently, a novel type of bioreactor for (immobilized) biofilm cultivation, the Porous Substrate Bioreactor (PSBR), has been shown to optimize biomass feedstock production and harvest, offering novel possibilities for application in the treatment of wastewater. We used two types of laboratory-scale Twin-Layer PSBRs to remove zinc (2-3 mg Zn L(-1)) from synthetic wastewater and real mine dump leachate in a continuous and batch process. The selection and use of a biofilm of a Zn-resistant strain of the green alga Stichococcus bacillaris (EC50 of 28.9 mg Zn L(-1) based on Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence analysis) led to a high zinc absorption capacity of 15-19 mg Z ng(-1) algal dry matter. The removal capacity for zinc correlated positively with biomass production and was thus, light dependent. Bio-removal properties observed here combined with biomass productivities of PSBR systems compare favorably with other algal-based bio-sorption technologies. PMID:25956641

  5. Application of granular ferric hydroxides for removal elevated concentrations of arsenic from mine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlachta, Małgorzata; Włodarczyk, Paweł; Wójtowicz, Patryk

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic is naturally occurring element in the environment. Over three hundred minerals are known to contain some form of arsenic and among them arsenopyrite is the most common one. Arsenic-bearing minerals are frequently associated with ores containing mined metals such as copper, tin, nickel, lead, uranium, zinc, cobalt, platinum and gold. In the aquatic environment arsenic is typically present in inorganic forms, mainly in two oxidation states (+5, +3). As(III) is dominant in more reduced conditions, whereas As(V) is mostly present in an oxidizing environment. However, due to certain human activities the elevated arsenic levels in aquatic ecosystems are arising to a serious environmental problem. High arsenic concentrations found in surface and groundwaters, in some regions originate from mining activities and ore processing. Therefore, the major concern of mining industry is to maintain a good quality of effluents discharged in large volumes. This requires constant monitoring of effluents quality that guarantee the efficient protection of the receiving waters and reacting to possible negative impact of contamination on local communities. A number of proven technologies are available for arsenic removal from waters and wastewaters. In the presented work special attention is given to the adsorption method as a technically feasible, commonly applied and effective technique for the treatment of arsenic rich mine effluents. It is know that arsenic has a strong affinity towards iron rich materials. Thus, in this study the granular ferric hydroxides (CFH 12, provided by Kemira Oyj, Finland) was applied to remove As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions. The batch adsorption experiments were carried out to assess the efficiency of the tested Fe-based material under various operating parameters, including composition of treated water, solution pH and temperature. The results obtained from the fixed bed adsorption tests demonstrated the benefits of applying granular

  6. Settlement of mine spoil fill from water infiltration: Case study in eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Karem, W.A.; Kalinski, M.E.; Hancher, D.E.

    2007-09-15

    Mine spoil valley fills are a by-product of mountaintop removal mining in the Appalachian coal mining region of the United States. These fills often result in large expanses of relatively flat land covering thousands of acres, which can be used for commercial or industrial development. However, this material is susceptible to damaging settlement, and highly publicized failures of structures built on mine spoil fills have led to reluctance on the part of investors to develop these areas. A key settlement mechanism in mine spoil is water infiltration. Percolating water slakes the shaly, angular spoil material at interparticle stress points, leading to excessive deformation and settlement. A lumber processing facility in Hazard, Ky., is an example of a structure that sustained serious damage as a result of settlement caused by water infiltration. A forensic site investigation of the facility revealed that excavation of existing surface mine spoil beneath the building footprint removed the low-permeability crust that forms on the top of mature mine spoil fill deposits. The removal of the crust allowed the infiltration of surface water. This, coupled with the unique configuration of the storm water drainage system at the facility and surface water drainage toward the building, led to differential settlement up to 1:120 (vertical: horizontal) and angular distortion up to 1: 150 over a period of several months. Foundation underpinning was performed to remedy the situation. For future development on mine spoil sites, recommended mitigating measures include presaturation of the mine spoil, design of drainage systems to adequately convey surface water away from the building, and use of geosynthetic barrier layers to prevent infiltration of surface water into the mine spoil beneath the structure.

  7. Removal of phosphorus, fluoride and metals from a gypsum mining leachate using steel slag filters.

    PubMed

    Claveau-Mallet, Dominique; Wallace, Scott; Comeau, Yves

    2013-03-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the capacity of steel slag filters to treat a gypsum mining leachate containing 11-107 mg P/L ortho-phosphates, 9-37 mg/L fluoride, 0.24-0.83 mg/L manganese, 0.20-3.3 zinc and 1.7-8.2 mg/L aluminum. Column tests fed with reconstituted leachates were conducted for 145-222 days and sampled twice a week. Two types of electric arc furnace (EAF) slags and three filter sequences were tested. The voids hydraulic retention time (HRT(v)) of columns ranged between 4.3 and 19.2 h. Precipitates of contaminants present in columns were sampled and analyzed with X-ray diffraction at the end of tests. The best removal efficiencies over a period of 179 days were obtained with sequential filters that were composed of Fort Smith EAF slag operated at a total HRT(v) of 34 h which removed 99.9% of phosphorus, 85.3% of fluoride, 98.0% of manganese and 99.3% of zinc. Mean concentration at this system's effluent was 0.04 mg P/L ortho-phosphates, 4 mg/L fluoride, 0.02 mg/L manganese, 0.02 zinc and 0.5 mg/L aluminum. Thus, slag filters are promising passive and economical systems for the remediation of mining effluents. Phosphorus was removed by the formation of apatite (hydroxyapatite, Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)OH or fluoroapatite, Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F) as confirmed by visual and X-ray diffraction analyses. The growth rate of apatite was favored by a high phosphorus concentration. Calcite crystals were present in columns and appeared to be competing for calcium and volume needed for apatite formation. The calcite crystal growth rate was higher than that of apatite crystals. Fluoride was removed by precipitation of fluoroapatite and its removal was favored by a high ratio of phosphorus to fluoride in the wastewater. PMID:23305683

  8. Uranium(VI) reduction and removal by high performing purified anaerobic cultures from mine soil.

    PubMed

    Chabalala, Simphiwe; Chirwa, Evans M N

    2010-01-01

    Biological uranium reduction was investigated using bacteria isolated from a uranium mine in Limpopo, South Africa. Background uranium concentration in soil from the mine was determined to be 168 mgkg(-1) much higher than the typical background uranium concentration in natural soils (0.30-11.7 mgkg(-1)). Therefore it was expected that the bacteria isolated from the site were resistant to U(VI) toxicity. Preliminary studies using a non-purified consortium from the mine soil showed that U(VI) [uranyl(VI) dioxide, UO(2)(2+)] was reduced and re-oxidized intermittently due to the coexistence of U(VI) reducers and U(VI) oxidisers in the soil. Results from U(VI) reduction by individual species showed that the purified cultures of Pantoea sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Enterobacter sp. reduced U(VI) to U(IV) [U(OH)(4)(aq)] under pH 5-6. Klebsiella sp. had to be eliminated from the cultures since these contributed to the remobilisation of uranium to the hexavelant form. The initial reduction rate determined at 50% point in 30 mgL(-1) batches was highest in Pseudomonas sp. at 30 mgL(-1), followed by Pantoea sp. Rapid reduction was observed in all cultures during the first 6h of incubation with equilibrium conditions obtained only after incubation for 24h. Complete U(VI) reduction was observed at concentrations as high as 200mgL(-1) and up to 88% removal after 24h in batches with an initial added U(VI) concentration of 400 mgL(-1). PMID:19883933

  9. COMPARISON OF APATITE II™ TREATMENT SYSTEM AT TWO MINES FOR METALS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two abandoned lead-zinc mine sites, the Nevada Stewart Mine (NSM) and Success Mine, are located within the Coeur d'Alene Mining District, in northern Idaho. An Apatite II™ Treatment System (ATS) was implemented at each site to treat metal-laden water, mainly zinc. In the ATS, f...

  10. Adsorption compared with sulfide precipitation as metal removal processes from acid mine drainage in a constructed wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machemer, Steven D.; Wildeman, Thomas R.

    1992-01-01

    Metal removal processes from acid mine drainage were studied in an experimental constructed wetland in the Idaho Springs-Central City mining district of Colorado. The wetland was designed to passively remove heavy metals from the mine drainage flowing from the Big Five Tunnel. Concurrent studies were performed in the field on the waters flowing from the wetland and in the laboratory on the wetland substrate. Both studies suggest that there is competition for organic adsorption sites among Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn. Iron and Cu appear to be more strongly adsorbed than Zn and Mn. The adsorption of metals varies with the fluctuation of pH in the outflow water. Also indicated by field and laboratory studies is the microbial reduction of sulfate with a corresponding increase in the sulfide concentration of the water. As sulfide is generated. Cu and Zn are completely removed. The field results suggest that upon start up of a constructed wetland, the adsorption of dissolved metals onto organic sites in the substrate material will be an important process. Over time, sulfide precipitation becomes the dominant process for metal removal from acid mine drainage.

  11. Novel approach to zinc removal from circum-neutral mine waters using pelletised recovered hydrous ferric oxide.

    PubMed

    Mayes, William M; Potter, Hugh A B; Jarvis, Adam P

    2009-02-15

    Data are presented which evaluate the performance of a pilot-scale treatment system using pelletised hydrous ferric oxide (HFO; a waste stream from coal mine water treatment) as a high surface area sorbent for removing zinc (Zn) from a metal mine water discharge in the North Pennines Orefield, UK. Over a 10-month period the system removed Zn at mean area- and volume-adjusted removal rates of 3.7 and 8.1gm(-3)day(-1), respectively, with a mean treatment efficiency of 32% at a low mean residence time of 49min. There were seasonal effects in Zn removal owing to establishment and dieback of algae in the treatment tank. This led to increased Zn uptake in early summer months followed by slight Zn release upon algae senescence. In addition to these biosorptive processes, the principal sinks for Zn appear to be (1) sorption onto the HFO surface, and (2) precipitation with calcite-dominated secondary minerals. The latter were formed as a product of dissolution of portlandite in the cement binder and calcium recarbonation. Further optimisation of the HFO pelletisation process holds the possibility for providing a low-cost, low footprint treatment option for metal rich mine waters, in addition to a valuable after-use for recovered HFO from coal mine water treatment facilities. PMID:18583040

  12. Evaluation of the potential of indigenous calcareous shale for neutralization and removal of arsenic and heavy metals from acid mine drainage in the Taxco mining area, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Romero, F M; Núñez, L; Gutiérrez, M E; Armienta, M A; Ceniceros-Gómez, A E

    2011-02-01

    In the Taxco mining area, sulfide mineral oxidation from inactive tailings impoundments and abandoned underground mines has produced acid mine drainage (AMD; pH 2.2-2.9) enriched in dissolved concentrations (mg l⁻¹) sulfate, heavy metals, and arsenic (As): SO₄²⁻ (pH 1470-5454), zinc (Zn; 3.0-859), iron (Fe; pH 5.5-504), copper (Cu; pH 0.7-16.3), cadmium (Cd; pH 0.3-6.7), lead (Pb; pH < 0.05-1.8), and As (pH < 0.002-0.6). Passive-treatment systems using limestone have been widely used to remediate AMD in many parts of the world. In limestone-treatment systems, calcite simultaneously plays the role of neutralizing and precipitating agent. However, the acid-neutralizing potential of limestone decreases when surfaces of the calcite particles become less reactive as they are progressively coated by metal precipitates. This study constitutes first-stage development of passive-treatment systems for treating AMD in the Taxco mine area using indigenous calcareous shale. This geologic material consists of a mixture of calcite, quartz, muscovite, albite, and montmorillonite. Results of batch leaching test indicate that calcareous shale significantly increased the pH (to values of 6.6-7.4) and decreased heavy metal and As concentrations in treated mine leachates. Calcareous shale had maximum removal efficiency (100%) for As, Pb, Cu, and Fe. The most mobile metals ions were Cd and Zn, and their average percentage removal was 87% and 89%, respectively. In this natural system (calcareous shale), calcite provides a source of alkalinity, whereas the surfaces of quartz and aluminosilicate minerals possibly serve as a preferred locus of deposition for metals, resulting in the neutralizing agent (calcite) beings less rapidly coated with the precipitating metals and therefore able to continue its neutralizing function for a longer time. PMID:20523977

  13. Conversion of coal mine drainage ochre to water treatment reagent: Production, characterisation and application for P and Zn removal.

    PubMed

    Sapsford, Devin; Santonastaso, Marco; Thorn, Peter; Kershaw, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Coal mine drainage ochre is a ferruginous precipitate that forms from mine water in impacted watercourses and during treatment. With thousands of tonnes per annum of such ochre arising from mine water treatment in the UK alone, management of these wastes is a substantive issue. This paper demonstrates that the ochre from both active and passive treatment of coal mine drainage can be transformed into an effective water treatment reagent by simple acid dissolution and that the reagent can be used for the removal of dissolved phosphorous from municipal wastewater and zinc from non-coal mine waters. Ochre is readily soluble in H2SO4 and HCl. Ochre is more soluble in HCl with solubilities of up to 100 g/L in 20% (w/w) HCl and 68 g/L in 10% (w/w) H2SO4. For four of the eight tested ochres solubility decreased in higher concentrations of H2SO4. Ochre compositional data demonstrate that the coal mine ochres tested are relatively free from problematic levels of elements seen by other authors from acid mine drainage-derived ochre. Comparison to British Standards for use of iron-based coagulants in drinking water treatment was used as an indicator of the acceptability of use of the ochre-derived reagents in terms of potentially problematic elements. The ochre-derived reagents were found to meet the 'Grade 3' specification, except for arsenic. Thus, for application in municipal wastewater and mine water treatment additional processing may not be required. There was little observed compositional difference between solutions prepared using H2SO4 or HCl. Ochre-derived reagents showed applicability for the removal of P and Zn with removals of up to 99% and 97% respectively measured for final pH 7-8, likely due to sorption/coprecipitation. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that applying a Fe dose in the form of liquid reagent leads to a better Fe:P and Fe:Zn removal ratio compared to ochre-based sorption media tested in the literature. PMID:26081304

  14. Utilizing acid mine drainage sludge and coal fly ash for phosphate removal from dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y R; Tsang, Daniel C W; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate a new and sustainable approach for the reuse of industrial by-products from wastewater treatment. The dairy industry produces huge volumes of wastewater, characterized by high levels of phosphate that can result in eutrophication and degradation of aquatic ecosystems. This study evaluated the application of acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge, coal fly ash, and lignite as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of phosphate from dairy wastewater. Material characterization using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis revealed significant amounts of crystalline/amorphous Fe/Al/Si/Ca-based minerals and large surface areas of AMD sludge and fly ash. Batch adsorption isotherms were best described using the Freundlich model. The Freundlich distribution coefficients were 13.7 mg(0.577) L(0.423) g(-1) and 16.9 mg(0.478) L(0.522) g(-1) for AMD sludge and fly ash, respectively, and the nonlinearity constants suggested favourable adsorption for column applications. The breakthrough curves of fixed-bed columns, containing greater than 10 wt% of the waste materials (individual or composite blends) mixed with sand, indicated that phosphate breakthrough did not occur within 100 pore volumes while the cumulative removal was 522 and 490 mg kg(-1) at 10 wt% AMD sludge and 10 wt% fly ash, respectively. By contrast, lignite exhibited negligible phosphate adsorption, possibly due to small amounts of inorganic minerals suitable for phosphate complexation and limited surface area. The results suggest that both AMD sludge and fly ash were potentially effective adsorbents if employed individually at a ratio of 10 wt% or above for column application. PMID:24617077

  15. Mineral equilibria and the high radar reflectivity of Venus mountaintops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klose, K. B.; Wood, J. A.; Hashimoto, A.

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between altitude and microwave emissivity in 10 highland regions of Venus is investigated on the basis of the Magellan data set. Highlands on Venus are found to display high radar reflectivity. The required change in surface electrical properties occurs abruptly at a 'critical altitude,' whose value varies from one highland area to another. Critical altitudes range from 4.75 km to 2.49 km. Differences in reflectivity are caused by differences in the surface mineral assemblage, which determines the dielectric constant of surface material. The mineral responsible for high radar reflectivity on mountaintops is pyrite, which occurs in weathered mineral assemblages at high altitudes. Conductive pyrite occurs dispersed in insulating materials, forming a loaded dielectric material.

  16. Effect of mine wastewater on nutrient removal and lipid production by a green microalga Micratinium reisseri from concentrated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Kabra, Akhil N; Salama, El-Sayed; Roh, Hyun-Seog; Kim, Jung Rae; Lee, Dae Sung; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2014-04-01

    Effect of mine wastewater on the nutrient removal efficiency of a green microalga Micratinium reisseri from concentrated municipal wastewater (CMW) with simultaneous lipid production was investigated. Different dilution ratios (1-10%) of CMW either with mine wastewater (MWF) or mine wastewater without Fe (MWOF) were used. M. reisseri showed the highest growth (0.8gL(-1)) and nutrient uptake (35.9mgTNL(-1) and 5.4mgTPL(-1)) at 3% MWF ([Fe]tot=6.7mgL(-1)), and the highest lipid productivity (10.4mgL(-1)day(-1)) at 5% MWF ([Fe]tot=11.2mgL(-1)) after 15days. CMW supported the algal autoflocculation due to formation of phosphate, calcium and magnesium precipitates at a high suspension pH. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed that the microalgal lipids possessed 79-82% of C16/C18 fatty acids. Application of mine wastewater improved the nutrient removal efficiency, growth and lipid productivity of M. reisseri cultivated in CMW. PMID:24534788

  17. A new and effective approach to boron removal by using novel boron-specific fungi isolated from boron mining wastewater.

    PubMed

    Taştan, Burcu Ertit; Çakir, Dilara Nur; Dönmez, Gönül

    2016-01-01

    Boron-resistant fungi were isolated from the wastewater of a boron mine in Turkey. Boron removal efficiencies of Penicillium crustosum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were detected in different media compositions. Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) and two different waste media containing molasses (WM-1) or whey + molasses (WM-2) were tested to make this process cost effective when scaled up. Both isolates achieved high boron removal yields at the highest boron concentrations tested in MSM and WM-1. The maximum boron removal yield by P. crustosum was 45.68% at 33.95 mg l(-1) initial boron concentration in MSM, and was 38.97% at 42.76 mg l(-1) boron for R. mucilaginosa, which seemed to offer an economically feasible method of removing boron from the effluents. PMID:26877036

  18. Removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD) using coal fly ash, natural clinker and synthetic zeolites.

    PubMed

    Ríos, C A; Williams, C D; Roberts, C L

    2008-08-15

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a widespread environmental problem associated with both working and abandoned mining operations, resulting from the microbial oxidation of pyrite in presence of water and air, affording an acidic solution that contains toxic metal ions. The generation of AMD and release of dissolved heavy metals is an important concern facing the mining industry. The present study aimed at evaluating the use of low-cost sorbents like coal fly ash, natural clinker and synthetic zeolites to clean-up AMD generated at the Parys Mountain copper-lead-zinc deposit, Anglesey (North Wales), and to remove heavy metals and ammonium from AMD. pH played a very important role in the sorption/removal of the contaminants and a higher adsorbent ratio in the treatment of AMD promoted the increase of the pH, particularly using natural clinker-based faujasite (7.70-9.43) and the reduction of metal concentration. Na-phillipsite showed a lower efficiency as compared to that of faujasite. Selectivity of faujasite for metal removal was, in decreasing order, Fe>As>Pb>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr. Based on these results, the use of these materials has the potential to provide improved methods for the treatment of AMD. PMID:18221835

  19. Synergistic wetland treatment of sewage and mine water: pollutant removal performance of the first full-scale system.

    PubMed

    Younger, Paul L; Henderson, Robin

    2014-05-15

    Wetland systems are now well-established unit processes in the treatment of diverse wastewater streams. However, the development of wetland technology for sewage treatment followed an entirely separate trajectory from that for polluted mine waters. In recent years, increased networking has led to recognition of possible synergies which might be obtained by hybridising approaches to achieve co-treatment of otherwise distinct sewage and mine-derived wastewaters. As polluted discharges from abandoned mines often occur in or near the large conurbations to which the former mining activities gave rise, there is ample scope for such co-treatment in many places worldwide. The first full-scale co-treatment wetland anywhere in the world receiving large inflows of both partially-treated sewage (∼100 L s(-)(1)) and mine water (∼300 L s(-1)) was commissioned in Gateshead, England in 2005, and a performance evaluation has now been made. The evaluation is based entirely on routinely-collected water quality data, which the operators gather in fulfillment of their regulatory obligations. The principal parameters of concern in the sewage effluent are suspended solids, BOD5, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) and phosphate (P); in the mine water the only parameter of particular concern is total iron (Fe). Aerobic treatment processes are appropriate for removal of BOD5, NH4-N and Fe; for the removal of P, reaction with iron to form ferric phosphate solids is a likely pathway. With these considerations in mind, the treatment wetland was designed as a surface-flow aerobic system. Sample concentration level and daily flow rate date from April 2007 until March 2011 have been analyzed using nonparametric statistical methods. This has revealed sustained, high rates of absolute removal of all pollutants from the combined wastewater flow, quantified in terms of differences between influent and effluent loadings (i.e. mass per unit time). In terms of annual mass retention rates, for instance

  20. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the Removal of Total Dissolved Solids from Coal Mine Water: A Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal mine water (CMW) is typically treated to remove suspended solids, acidity, and soluble metals, but high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) have been reported to impact the environment at several CMW discharge points. Consequently, various states have establishe...

  1. An Innovative Carbonate Coprecipitation Process For The Removal Of Zinc And Manganese From Mining Impacted Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although mine drainage is usually thought of as acidic, there are many cases where the water is of neutral pH, but still contains metal species that can be harmful to human or aquatic animal health, such as manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn). Typical treatment of mine drainage waters ...

  2. MECHANISMS OF HEAVY METAL REMOVAL FROM ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING CHITIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) emanating from inactive or active mine sites contains elevated levels of toxic heavy metals, which can have an adverse impact to the surrounding environment. The major pathway involved in generation of AMD is weathering of pyritic mineral ores, where in s...

  3. Potential application of sludge produced from coal mine drainage treatment for removing Zn(II) in an aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Cui, Mingcan; Jang, Min; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2011-01-01

    Various analyses of physico-chemical characteristics and batch tests were conducted with the sludge obtained from a full-scale electrolysis facility for treating coal mine drainage in order to find the applicability of sludge as a material for removing Zn(II) in an aqueous phase. The physico-chemical analysis results indicated that coal mine drainage sludge (CMDS) had a high specific surface area and also satisfied the standard of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) because the extracted concentrations of certain toxic elements such as Pb, Cu, As, Hg, Zn, and Ni were much less than their regulatory limits. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the CMDS mainly consists of goethite (70%) and calcite (30%) as a weight basis. However, the zeta potential analysis represented that the CMDS had a lower isoelectric point of pH (pH(IEP)) than that of goethite or calcite. This might have been caused by the complexation of negatively charged anions, especially sulfate, which usually exists with a high concentration in coal mine drainage. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry analysis revealed that Zn(II) was dominantly removed as a form of precipitation by calcite, such as smithsonite [ZnCO₃] or hydrozincite [Zn₅(CO₃)₂(OH)₆]. Recycling sludge, originally a waste material, for the removal process of Zn(II), as well as other heavy metals, could be beneficial due to its high and speedy removal capability and low economic costs. PMID:21063752

  4. Organic substrates as electron donors in permeable reactive barriers for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Kijjanapanich, P; Pakdeerattanamint, K; Lens, P N L; Annachhatre, A P

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to select suitable natural organic substrates as potential carbon sources for use as electron donors for biological sulphate reduction in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB). A number of organic substrates were assessed through batch and continuous column experiments under anaerobic conditions with acid mine drainage (AMD) obtained from an abandoned lignite coal mine. To keep the heavy metal concentration at a constant level, the AMD was supplemented with heavy metals whenever necessary. Under anaerobic conditions, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) converted sulphate into sulphide using the organic substrates as electron donors. The sulphide that was generated precipitated heavy metals as metal sulphides. Organic substrates, which yielded the highest sulphate reduction in batch tests, were selected for continuous column experiments which lasted over 200 days. A mixture of pig-farm wastewater treatment sludge, rice husk and coconut husk chips yielded the best heavy metal (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) removal efficiencies of over 90%. PMID:23437664

  5. Lost Mountain: a year in the vanishing wilderness; radical strip mining and the devastation of Appalachia

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, E.

    2007-02-15

    The mountains of Appalachia are home to one of the great forests of the world - they predate the Ice Age and scientists refer to them as the 'rainforests' of North America for their remarkable density and species diversity. These mountains also hold the mother lode of American coal, and the coal mining industry has long been the economic backbone for families in a region hard-pressed for other job opportunities. But recently, a new type of mining has been introduced -'radical strip mining', aka 'mountaintop removal'- in which a team employing no more than ten men and some heavy machinery literally blast off the top of a mountain, dump it in the valley below, and scoop out the coal. Erik Reece chronicles the year he spent witnessing the systematic decimation of a single mountain, aptly named 'Lost Mountain'. A native Kentuckian and the son of a coal worker, Reece makes it clear that strip mining is neither a local concern nor a radical contention, but a mainstream crisis that encompasses every hot-button issue - from corporate hubris and government neglect, to class conflict and poisoned groundwater, to irrevocable species extinction and landscape destruction. Published excerpts of Lost Mountain are already driving headlines and legislative action in Kentucky.

  6. Selective removal of transition metals from acidic mine waters by novel consortia of acidophilic sulfidogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ňancucheo, Ivan; Johnson, D. Barrie

    2012-01-01

    Summary Two continuous‐flow bench‐scale bioreactor systems populated by mixed communities of acidophilic sulfate‐reducing bacteria were constructed and tested for their abilities to promote the selective precipitation of transition metals (as sulfides) present in synthetic mine waters, using glycerol as electron donor. The objective with the first system (selective precipitation of copper from acidic mine water containing a variety of soluble metals) was achieved by maintaining a bioreactor pH of ∼2.2–2.5. The second system was fed with acidic (pH 2.5) synthetic mine water containing 3 mM of both zinc and ferrous iron, and varying concentrations (0.5–30 mM) of aluminium. Selective precipitation of zinc sulfide was possible by operating the bioreactor at pH 4.0 and supplementing the synthetic mine water with 4 mM glycerol. Analysis of the microbial populations in the bioreactors showed that they changed with varying operational parameters, and novel acidophilic bacteria (including one sulfidogen) were isolated from the bioreactors. The acidophilic sulfidogenic bioreactors provided ‘proof of principle’ that segregation of metals present in mine waters is possible using simple online systems within which controlled pH conditions are maintained. The modular units are versatile and robust, and involve minimum engineering complexity. PMID:21895996

  7. Removal and recovery of metal ions from acid mine drainage using lignite--A low cost sorbent.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Chander, Subhash

    2006-10-11

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), has long been a significant environmental problem resulting from the microbial oxidation of iron pyrite in presence of water and air, affording an acidic solution that contains toxic metal ions. The main objective of this study was to remove and recover metal ions from acid mine drainage (AMD) by using lignite, a low cost sorbent. Lignite has been characterized and used for the AMD treatment. Sorption of ferrous, ferric, manganese, zinc and calcium in multi-component aqueous systems was investigated. Studies were performed at different pH to find optimum pH. To simulate industrial conditions for acid mine wastewater treatment, all the studies were performed using single and multi-columns setup in down flow mode. The empty bed contact time (EBCT) model was used for minimizing the sorbent usage. Recovery of the metal ions as well as regeneration of sorbent was achieved successfully using 0.1 M nitric acid without dismantling the columns. PMID:16784810

  8. Evaluation of Point of Use Water Treatment Devices for Removal of Mine Wastes from Well Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA Region VII and the Office of Research and Development (ORD) are conducting a large-scale study to identify the prevalence of lead (Pb) and other contaminants in drinking water at four mine waste areas in Washington County, Missouri. Numerous households in Potosi, Richwoo...

  9. 77 FR 66578 - San Bernardino National Forest, Mountaintop Ranger District, CA, Santa Ana Watershed Hazardous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ...The Mountaintop Ranger District, San Bernardino National Forest proposes to reduce fire risk and improve forest health within approximately 19,850 acres around the Barton Flats area of the upper Santa Ana Watershed under the authority of the Healthy Forests Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. To meet the primary purposes of providing for firefighter safety and community protection, it is proposed......

  10. Investigating the Effectiveness of Mineral Precipitate as a Tool in the Removal of Heavy Metals from Mine Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abongwa, P. T.; Geyer, C.; Puckette, J.

    2014-12-01

    Mine water from a precious metal mine in Colorado drains into an underground tunnel and flows for about 8 km before being discharged into a series of sequentially connected settling ponds (5) aimed at removing suspended particulate. Our results suggest these ponds also remove heavy metals from solution through adsorption and mineral precipitation. Analyses of the precipitates and water in the settling ponds showed relatively higher metal concentration on the precipitates than in the corresponding aqueous solutions. Speciation modeling showed that the precipitates were mainly travertine, ferrihydrite, fe-oxyhdroxide and gypsum and these are expected to provide surfaces for metal adsorption. Overall, the average concentrations of trace metals were such that, Al concentration was 0.0 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 9.4 mg/L for the precipitate; Fe concentration was 0.04 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 20.1 mg/L for the precipitate; Mn concentration was 0.2 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 10.2 mg/L for the precipitate; Sr concentration was 3 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 8 mg/L for the precipitate; Zn concentration was 0.1 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 1.4 mg/L for the precipitate. Sulfate concentrations in solutions (1346 mg/L) were about seventeen times higher than on the precipitate (80 mg/L). As the water exits the tunnel, its carbon is expected to consistently decrease over space as it moves along the settling ponds while precipitating carbonates. The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations showed consistent drop from 109 mg/L at the tunnel exit to 96 mg/L at middle pond and 92 mg/L at the exit pond, which corresponds to decreasing pCO2 and removal of carbon from solution through travertine precipitation and CO2 outgassing. This data indicate a strong influence of mineral precipitate as an effective component in the attenuation of metals in mine

  11. Physical habitat and water quality correlates of crayfish distributions in a mined watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Loughman, Zachary J.

    2014-01-01

    In mined watersheds, water quality alters aquatic faunas, but few studies have focused on associations between stream habitat and crayfish distributions. We examined associations of water quality and physical habitat quality on presence/absence of six crayfish species in the upper Kanawha River drainage of southern West Virginia, USA, a region with a long history of surface and mountaintop removal mining of coal. Data supported an association of physical habitat quality with the presence of four species (Cambarus carinirostris, Cambarus robustus, Cambarus cf. sciotensis, and Orconectes sanbornii). Cambarus bartonii cavatus and the non-native Orconectes virilis were associated with lower quality physical habitat than that of the other four species. Relative to other species, C. b. cavatus was associated with the lowest conductivity values, whereas O. virilis was associated with the highest conductivity values. Secondary and tertiary burrowers were generally associated with relatively high-quality physical habitat. However, C. b. cavatus, a crayfish known to burrow extensively in headwater streams, was associated with the lowest quality physical habitat. Physical habitat quality was generally supported over stream conductivity as a variable influencing crayfish distributions. Our data demonstrate the importance of stream habitat quality when assessing crayfish assemblages within mined watersheds.

  12. A comparative study of removal of fluoride from contaminated water using shale collected from different coal mines in India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Gargi; Dutta, Manjari; Dutta, Susmita; Adhikari, Kalyan

    2016-05-01

    Low-cost water defluoridation technique is one of the most important issues throughout the world. In the present study, shale, a coal mine waste, is employed as novel and low-cost adsorbent to abate fluoride from simulated solution. Shale samples were collected from Mahabir colliery (MBS) and Sonepur Bazari colliery (SBS) of Raniganj coalfield in West Bengal, India, and used to remove fluoride. To increase the adsorption efficiency, shale samples were heat activated at a higher temperature and samples obtained at 550 °C are denoted as heat-activated Mahabir colliery shale (HAMBS550) and heat-activated Sonepur Bazari colliery shale (HASBS550), respectively. To prove the fluoride adsorption onto different shale samples and ascertain its mechanism, natural shale samples, heat-activated shale samples, and their fluoride-loaded forms were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction study, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effect of different parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, size of particles, and initial concentration of fluoride was investigated during fluoride removal in a batch contactor. Lower pH shows better adsorption in batch study, but it is acidic in nature and not suitable for direct consumption. However, increase of pH of the solution from 3.2 to 6.8 and 7.2 during fluoride removal process with HAMBS550 and HASBS550, respectively, confirms the applicability of the treated water for domestic purposes. HAMBS550 and HASBS550 show maximum removal of 88.3 and 88.5 %, respectively, at initial fluoride concentration of 10 mg/L, pH 3, and adsorbent dose of 70 g/L. PMID:26620857

  13. Biogeochemical removal of Zn and Cd in the Coeur D'Alene River (Idaho, USA), downstream of a mining district.

    PubMed

    Paulson, A J

    2001-10-20

    The conservative biogeochemical behavior of dissolved Zn and Cd in a 17-km, free-flowing reach of the Coeur d'Alene River downstream of a mining district is typical of watersheds in which suspended matter concentrations are low. For watersheds impacted by acid-rock drainage (ARD), low suspended matter concentrations are more likely to be found when acid rock drainage travels through soils because much of the Fe and Al that could form adsorbing surfaces is retained within the soils. In the absence of additional sources of solid substrates, metals can be transported great distances downstream once this Fe- and Al-poor ARD seeps into surface waters. In a 46-km backwater reach of the Coeur d'Alene River, it appears that biological activity increased pH and provided the organic matter solid substrate which removed approximately 50% of the Zn and Cd. Zn removal was partially reversible as pH decreased. These observations reinforce the concept that both inorganic and organic carbon chemistry must be measured if significant. advances in our understanding of the attenuation of Zn and Cd from ARD sources are to be made. PMID:11669275

  14. Chromate removal by yeasts isolated from sediments of a tanning factory and a mine site in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Liliana B; Fernández, Pablo M; Amoroso, María J; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2008-10-01

    Twenty-one yeast-like microorganisms were isolated from tannery effluents and from a nickel-copper mine in Argentina. They were tested for their Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II) and Cr(VI) tolerance in qualitative assays on solid medium. Three isolates were selected for their multiple tolerance to the different heavy metals and highest tolerance to Cr(VI). According to morphological and physiological analysis and 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain sequences the isolates were characterized as: Lecythophora sp. NGV-1, Candida sp. NGV-9 and Aureobasidium pullulans VR-8. Resistance of the three strains to high Cr(VI) concentrations and their ability to remove Cr(VI) were assessed using YNB-glucose medium supplemented with 0.5 and 1 mM Cr(VI). Chromate removal activity was estimated by measuring remaining Cr(VI) concentration in the supernatant using the colorimetric 1,5-diphenylcarbazide method and total chromium was determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results indicate that the initial Cr(VI) concentration negatively influenced growth and the specific growth rate but stimulated the metabolic activity of the three strains; resistance to Cr(VI) by these strains was mainly due to reduction of Cr(VI) rather than chromium bioaccumulation. This study showed the potential ability of these strains as tools for bioremediation of Cr(VI) from contaminated sites. PMID:18528763

  15. Radium and barium removal through blending hydraulic fracturing fluids with acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Kondash, Andrew J; Warner, Nathaniel R; Lahav, Ori; Vengosh, Avner

    2014-01-21

    Wastewaters generated during hydraulic fracturing of the Marcellus Shale typically contain high concentrations of salts, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), and metals, such as barium, that pose environmental and public health risks upon inadequate treatment and disposal. In addition, fresh water scarcity in dry regions or during periods of drought could limit shale gas development. This paper explores the possibility of using alternative water sources and their impact on NORM levels through blending acid mine drainage (AMD) effluent with recycled hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFFs). We conducted a series of laboratory experiments in which the chemistry and NORM of different mix proportions of AMD and HFFF were examined after reacting for 48 h. The experimental data combined with geochemical modeling and X-ray diffraction analysis suggest that several ions, including sulfate, iron, barium, strontium, and a large portion of radium (60-100%), precipitated into newly formed solids composed mainly of Sr barite within the first ∼ 10 h of mixing. The results imply that blending AMD and HFFF could be an effective management practice for both remediation of the high NORM in the Marcellus HFFF wastewater and beneficial utilization of AMD that is currently contaminating waterways in northeastern U.S.A. PMID:24367969

  16. Mountaintop island age determines species richness of boreal mammals in the American Southwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frey, J.K.; Bogan, M.A.; Yates, T.L.

    2007-01-01

    Models that describe the mechanisms responsible for insular patterns of species richness include the equilibrium theory of island biogeography and the nonequilibrium vicariance model. The relative importance of dispersal or vicariance in structuring insular distribution patterns can be inferred from these models. Predictions of the alternative models were tested for boreal mammals in the American Southwest. Age of mountaintop islands of boreal habitat was determined by constructing a geographic cladogram based on characteristics of intervening valley barriers. Other independent variables included area and isolation of mountaintop islands. Island age was the most important predictor of species richness. In contrast with previous studies of species richness patterns in this system, these results supported the nonequilibrium vicariance model, which indicates that vicariance has been the primary determinant of species distribution patterns in this system. Copyright ?? Ecography 2007.

  17. Nitrogen removal and spatial distribution of denitrifier and anammox communities in a bioreactor for mine drainage treatment.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Roger B; Winbjörk, Harry; Hellman, Maria; Hallin, Sara

    2014-12-01

    Mine drainage water may contain high levels of nitrate (NO3(-)) due to undetonated nitrogen-based explosives. The removal of NO3(-) and nitrite (NO2(-)) in cold climates through the microbial process of denitrification was evaluated using a pilot-scale fixed-bed bioreactor (27 m(3)). Surface water was diverted into the above-ground bioreactor filled with sawdust, crushed rock, and sewage sludge. At hydraulic residence times of ca.15 h and with the addition of acetate, NO3(-) and NO2(-) were removed to below detection levels at a NO3(-) removal rate of 5-10 g N m(-3) (bioreactor material) d(-1). The functional groups contributing to nitrogen removal in the bioreactor were studied by quantifying nirS and nirK present in denitrifying bacteria, nosZI and nosZII genes from the nitrous oxide - reducing community, and a taxa-specific part of the16S rRNA gene for the anammox community. The abundances of nirS and nirK were almost 2 orders of magnitude greater than the anammox specific 16S rRNA gene, indicating that denitrification was the main process involved in nitrogen removal. The spatial distribution of the quantified genes was heterogeneous in the bioreactor, with trends observed in gene abundance as a function of depth, distance from the bioreactor inlet, and along specific flowpaths. There was a significant relationship between the abundance of nirS, nirK, and nosZI genes and depth in the bioreactor, such that the abundance of organisms containing these genes may be controlled by oxygen diffusion and substrate supply in the partially or completely water-saturated material. Among the investigated microbial functional groups, nirS and anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes exhibited a systematic trend of decreasing and increasing abundance, respectively, with distance from the inlet, which suggested that the functional groups respond differently to changing environmental conditions. The greater abundance of nirK along central flowpaths may indicate that the bioreactor

  18. The interstitial location of selenium and arsenic in rocks associated with coal mining using ultrasound extractions and principal component analysis (PCA).

    PubMed

    Pumure, I; Renton, J J; Smart, R B

    2011-12-30

    The release of selenium and arsenic from coal mine wastes into main waterways is an environmental cause for concern in the mining industry due to a myriad of subsequent ecotoxicological problems associated with the two metalloids. In a 2002 USEPA study undertaken in a mountaintop removal/valley fill (MTR/VF) mining area in southern West Virginia, measured Se concentrations were higher than the stipulated 5 ng/mL in 66 out of the 213 water samples collected. We studied the chemical composition of forty seven randomly selected pulverized core rock samples collected from depths of 25 ft to 881 ft from MTR/VF sites to determine the amounts of bioaccessible (ultrasound leachable) As and Se concentrations and their tentative locations within the rock matrix. The application of principal component analysis (PCA) to the chemical data, suggested that ultrasound leachable selenium concentrations were associated with 14 Å d-spacing phyllosilicate clays (chlorite, montmorillonite and vermiculite all 2:1 layered clays) whilst ultrasound leachable arsenic concentrations were closely related to the concentration of illite, another 2:1 phyllosilicate clay. Negative correlations between leachable arsenic and selenium with kaolinite a 1:1 layered clay, were also observed. We used the observed negative correlations to rule out the presence of selenium or arsenic in 1:1 kaolinite. Hence mining waste from MTR/VF sites containing substantial amounts of illite and 14 Å d-spacing clays may require to be placed in priority landfills or valley fills. PMID:22056124

  19. Hydraulic residence time and iron removal in a wetland receiving ferruginous mine water over a 4 year period from commissioning.

    PubMed

    Kusin, F M; Jarvis, A P; Gandy, C J

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) has been conducted for the UK Coal Authority's mine water treatment wetland at Lambley, Northumberland, to determine the hydraulic performance of the wetland over a period of approximately 4 years since site commissioning. The wetland RTD was evaluated in accordance with moment analysis and modelled based on a tanks-in-series (TIS) model to yield the hydraulic characteristics of system performance. Greater hydraulic performance was seen during the second site monitoring after 21 months of site operation i.e. longer hydraulic residence time to reflect overall system hydraulic efficiency, compared to wetland performance during its early operation. Further monitoring of residence time during the third year of wetland operation indicated a slight reduction in hydraulic residence time, thus a lower system hydraulic efficiency. In contrast, performance during the fourth year of wetland operation exhibited an improved overall system hydraulic efficiency, suggesting the influence of reed growth over the lifetime of such systems on hydraulic performance. Interestingly, the same pattern was found for iron (which is the primary pollutant of concern in ferruginous mine waters) removal efficiency of the wetland system from the second to fourth year of wetland operation. This may therefore, reflect the maturity of reeds for maintaining efficient flow distribution across the wetland to retain a longer residence time and significant fractions of water involved to enhance the extent of treatment received for iron attenuation. Further monitoring will be conducted to establish whether such performance is maintained, or whether efficiency decreases over time due to accumulation of dead plant material within the wetland cells. PMID:20962411

  20. APPLICATIONS OF LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES IN REMOVING OXYANIONS FROM OIL REFINING AND COAL MINING WASTEWATER

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jin; Paul Fallgren

    2006-03-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a study of using the layered double hydroxides (LDH) as filter material to remove microorganisms, large biological molecules, certain anions and toxic oxyanions from various waste streams, including wastewater from refineries. Results demonstrate that LDH has a high adsorbing capability to those compounds with negative surface charge. Constituents studied include model bacteria, viruses, arsenic, selenium, vanadium, diesel range hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mixed petroleum constituents, humic materials and anions. This project also attempted to modify the physical structure of LDH for the application as a filtration material. Flow characterizations of the modified LDH materials were also investigated. Results to date indicate that LDH is a cost-effective new material to be used for wastewater treatment, especially for the treatment of anions and oxyanions.

  1. Validity of manganese as a surrogate of heavy metals removal in constructed wetlands treating acidic mine water

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, E.; Unz, R.F.; Hellier, W.W.

    1998-12-31

    The evaluation of manganese as a surrogate for heavy metal behavior in two wetland treatment systems receiving acidic coal mine drainage in central Pennsylvania was investigated. The use of manganese as an indicator is based on physical/chemical treatment processes quite different from wetland treatment. The treatment systems represented one anoxic, subsurface flow system and one oxic surface flow system. Water quality parameters measured included pH, alkalinity, acidity, and a suite of metals. Correlation and linear regression analysis were used to evaluate the ability of a candidate predictor variable (indicator) to predict heavy metal concentrations and removal. The use of manganese as a predictor of effluent quality proved to be poor in both wetland treatment systems, as evidenced by low linear R{sup 2} values and negative correlations. Zinc emerged as the best predictor of the detectable heavy metals at the anoxic wetland. Zinc exhibited positive strong linear correlations with copper, cobalt, and nickel (R{sup 2} values of 0.843, 0.881, and 0.970, respectively). Effluent pH was a slightly better predictor of effluent copper levels in the anoxic wetland. Iron and cobalt effluent concentrations showed the only strong relationship (R{sup 2} value = 0.778) in the oxic system. The lack of good correlations with manganese strongly challenges its appropriateness as a surrogate for heavy metals in these systems.

  2. Biofilm establishment and heavy metal removal capacity of an indigenous mining algal-microbial consortium in a photo-rotating biological contactor.

    PubMed

    Orandi, S; Lewis, D M; Moheimani, N R

    2012-09-01

    An indigenous mining algal-microbial consortium was immobilised within a laboratory-scale photo-rotating biological contactor (PRBC) that was used to investigate the potential for heavy metal removal from acid mine drainage (AMD). The microbial consortium, dominated by Ulothrix sp., was collected from the AMD at the Sar Cheshmeh copper mine in Iran. This paper discusses the parameters required to establish an algal-microbial biofilm used for heavy metal removal, including nutrient requirements and rotational speed. The PRBC was tested using synthesised AMD with the multi-ion and acidic composition of wastewater (containing 18 elements, and with a pH of 3.5 ± 0.5), from which the microbial consortium was collected. The biofilm was successfully developed on the PRBC's disc consortium over 60 days of batch-mode operation. The PRBC was then run continuously with a 24 h hydraulic residence time (HRT) over a ten-week period. Water analysis, performed on a weekly basis, demonstrated the ability of the algal-microbial biofilm to remove 20-50 % of the various metals in the order Cu > Ni > Mn > Zn > Sb > Se > Co > Al. These results clearly indicate the significant potential for indigenous AMD microorganisms to be exploited within a PRBC for AMD treatment. PMID:22644382

  3. Simultaneous removal of Ni(II), As(III), and Sb(III) from spiked mine effluent with metakaolin and blast-furnace-slag geopolymers.

    PubMed

    Luukkonen, Tero; Runtti, Hanna; Niskanen, Mikko; Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarkkinen, Minna; Kemppainen, Kimmo; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2016-01-15

    The mining industry is a major contributor of various toxic metals and metalloids to the aquatic environment. Efficient and economical water treatment methods are therefore of paramount importance. The application of natural or low-cost sorbents has attracted a great deal of interest due to the simplicity of its process and its potential effectiveness. Geopolymers represent an emerging group of sorbents. In this study, blast-furnace-slag and metakaolin geopolymers and their raw materials were tested for simultaneous removal of Ni(II), As(III) and Sb(III) from spiked mine effluent. Blast-furnace-slag geopolymer proved to be the most efficient of the studied materials: the experimental maximum sorption capacities for Ni, As and, Sb were 3.74 mg/g, 0.52 mg/g, and 0.34 mg/g, respectively. Although the capacities were relatively low due to the difficult water matrix, 90-100% removal of Ni, As, and Sb was achieved when the dose of sorbent was increased appropriately. Removal kinetics fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. Our results indicate that geopolymer technology could offer a simple and effective way to turn blast-furnace slag to an effective sorbent with a specific utilization prospect in the mining industry. PMID:26598283

  4. LINKING COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS DEGRADED BY MOUNTAINTOP MINING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Water Act and its subsequent amendments recognize the importance of protecting biological integrity, a concept synonymous with preserving structure and function within lotic ecosystems. This research will improve current taxonomically based risk assessment models,...

  5. Biodegradation of biphenyl and removal of 2-chlorobiphenyl by Pseudomonas sp. KM-04 isolated from PCBs-contaminated mine impacted soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I.; Chon, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to remediate the PCBs contaminated mine soil using microcosm study. For that, the naturally occurring microorganisms are stimulated and enriched in soil itself by supplementing biphenyl as well as benzoic acid. As a result the biphenyl degrading organisms are induced to degrade the PCBs contamination. From the stimulated soil, the biphenyl degrading organisms are isolated and degraded metabolites are elucidated. Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 was isolated from PCBs-contaminated soil in a coal mine-impacted area, and identification of bacteria was done by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene analysis. The growth of Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 using biphenyl as the sole carbon source was investigated by culturing in 100-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 10 ml sterilized MSM and 10 μg/ml biphenyl, and the ability of KM-04 to remove biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl from mine soil was investigated. Metabolite formation was confirmed by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometric analysis. Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 uses biphenyl as a sole carbon and energy source, and resting cells convert biphenyl to its metabolic intermediates, including dihydroxybiphenyl, 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid, and benzoic acid. Incubation of real soil collected from abandoned mine areas with resting cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 for 10 days resulted in the 98.5 % of biphenyl and 82.3 % of 2-chlorobiphenyl in a slurry system. The ability of the Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 to bioremediate biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl from abandoned mine soil was examined using soil microcosm studies under laboratory conditions. Treatment of mine soil with the Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 for 15 days resulted in 87.1 % reduction in biphenyl and 68.7 % in 2-chlorobiphenyl contents. The results suggest that Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 is a potential candidate for the biological removal of biphenyl and chlorinated derivatives

  6. Measuring and Characterizing Sky Brightness over the Nighttime in Tucson and Surrounding Observatory Mountaintops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. E.; Jensen, L.; Pompea, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    Research interns are using 6 Sky Quality Meters (SQM) around Tucson and 4 more on nearby observatory mountaintops to measure the night sky brightness and characterize its behavior over the entire night over the summer and during the academic school year. The "SQM" devices are inexpensive, yet reliable, computer-free devices, automatically log data, and have housing to protect them from weather. The students download the data onto a computer every few weeks. Two devices are at a central location on the roof of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) and the others are 9 miles N, E, S and W. Four more devices are on observatory mountaintops, namely Mount Lemmon, Mount Hopkins and 2 on Kitt Peak. For the pair of devices at NOAO and on Kitt Peak, one is in the housing unit and the other is exposed to the night sky to track the lossiness of the glass in the housing unit. The SQM is next to the sophisticated and more expensive "Night Sky Brightness Monitor" (NSBM) on Mount Lemmon, Mount Hopkins and, in the future, Kitt Peak. The student interns compare the SQM to the NSBM data on the mountaintops, weather data (temperature and humidity), internal temperature of the SQM, the all-sky camera that is up on Kitt Peak and the SQM results from Tucson. Weather stations already exist very close to all of the locations (usually within a mile or a few feet). We discuss the students' analysis of the data and conclusions as well as the challenges and successes of the program and its plans for expansion.

  7. Remediation of antimony-rich mine waters: Assessment of antimony removal and shifts in the microbial community of an onsite field-scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Enzong; Kalin, Margarete; Krumins, Valdis; Dong, Yiran; Ning, Zengping; Liu, Tong; Sun, Min; Zhao, Yanlong; Wu, Shiliang; Mao, Jianzhong; Xiao, Tangfu

    2016-08-01

    An on-site field-scale bioreactor for passive treatment of antimony (Sb) contamination was installed downstream of an active Sb mine in Southwest China, and operated for one year (including a six month monitoring period). This bioreactor consisted of five treatment units, including one pre-aerobic cell, two aerobic cells, and two microaerobic cells. With the aerobic cells inoculated with indigenous mine water microflora, the bioreactor removed more than 90% of total soluble Sb and 80% of soluble antimonite (Sb(III)). An increase in pH and decrease of oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) was also observed along the flow direction. High-throughput sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene variable (V4) region revealed that taxonomically diverse microbial communities developed in the bioreactor. Metal (loid)-oxidizing bacteria including Ferrovum, Thiomonas, Gallionella, and Leptospirillum, were highly enriched in the bioreactor cells where the highest total Sb and Sb(III) removal occurred. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that a suite of in situ physicochemical parameters including pH and Eh were substantially correlated with the overall microbial communities. Based on an UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) tree and PCoA (Principal Coordinates Analysis), the microbial composition of each cell was distinct, indicating these in situ physicochemical parameters had an effect in shaping the indigenous microbial communities. Overall, this study was the first to employ a field-scale bioreactor to treat Sb-rich mine water onsite and, moreover, the findings suggest the feasibility of the bioreactor in removing elevated Sb from mine waters. PMID:27208755

  8. Removal of As(III) and As(V) using iron-rich sludge produced from coal mine drainage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jung-Seok; Kim, Young-Soo; Park, Sang-Min; Baek, Kitae

    2014-09-01

    To test the feasibility of the reuse of iron-rich sludge (IRS) produced from a coal mine drainage treatment plant for removing As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions, we investigated various parameters, such as contact time, pH, initial As concentration, and competing ions, based on the IRS characterization. The IRS consisted of goethite and calcite, and had large surface area and small particles. According to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping results, As was mainly removed by adsorption onto iron oxides. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that nearly 70 % adsorption of As was achieved within 1 h, and the pseudo-second-order model well explained As sorption on the IRS. The adsorption isotherm results agreed with the Freundlich isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacities for As(III) and As(V) were 66.9 and 21.5 mg/g, respectively, at 293 K. In addition, the adsorption showed the endothermic character. At high pH or in the presence of phosphate, the adsorption of As was decreased. When the desorption experiment was conducted to reuse the IRS, 85 % As was desorbed with 1.0 N NaOH. In the column experiment, adsorbed As in real acid mine drainage was 43 % of the maximum adsorbed amount of As in the batch test. These results suggested that the IRS is an effective adsorbent for As and can be effectively applied for the removal of As in water and wastewater. PMID:24859699

  9. Anaerobic Biochemical Reactor (BCR) Treatment Of Mining-Influenced Water (MIW) - Investigation Of Metal Removal Efficiency and Ecotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    BCR have been successful at removing a high percentage of metals from MIW, while BCR effluent toxicity has not been examined previously in the field. This study examined 4 active pilot BCR systems for removal of metals and toxicity. Removal efficiency for Al, As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb...

  10. Zn(II) and Cu(II) removal by Nostoc muscorum: a cyanobacterium isolated from a coal mining pit in Chiehruphi, Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Smita; Diengdoh, Omega L; Syiem, Mayashree B; Pakshirajan, Kannan; Kiran, Mothe Gopi

    2015-03-01

    Nostoc muscorum was isolated from a coal mining pit in Chiehruphi, Meghalaya, India, and its potential to remove Zn(II) and Cu(II) from media and the various biochemical alterations it undergoes during metal stress were studied. Metal uptake measured as a function of the ions removed by N. muscorum from media supplemented independently with 20 μmol/L ZnSO4 and CuSO4 established the ability of this cyanobacterium to remove 66% of Zn(2+) and 71% of Cu(2+) within 24 h of contact time. Metal binding on the cell surface was found to be the primary mode of uptake, followed by internalization. Within 7 days of contact, Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) mediated dissimilar effects on the organism. For instance, although chlorophyll a synthesis was increased by 12% in Zn(2+)-treated cells, it was reduced by 26% in Cu(2+)-treated cells. Total protein content remained unaltered in Zn(2+)-supplemented medium; however, a 15% reduction was noticed upon Cu(2+) exposure. Copper enhanced both photosynthesis and respiration by 15% and 19%, respectively; in contrast, photosynthesis was unchanged and respiration dropped by 11% upon Zn(2+) treatment. Inoculum age also influenced metal removal ability. Experiments in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (a photosynthetic inhibitor), carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (an uncoupler), and exogenous ATP established that metal uptake was energy dependent, and photosynthesis contributed significantly towards the energy pool required to mediate metal removals. PMID:25670258

  11. Relative importance of plant uptake and plant associated denitrification for removal of nitrogen from mine drainage in sub-arctic wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hallin, Sara; Hellman, Maria; Choudhury, Maidul I; Ecke, Frauke

    2015-11-15

    Reactive nitrogen (N) species released from undetonated ammonium-nitrate based explosives used in mining or other blasting operations are an emerging environmental problem. Wetlands are frequently used to treat N-contaminated water in temperate climate, but knowledge on plant-microbial interactions and treatment potential in sub-arctic wetlands is limited. Here, we compare the relative importance of plant uptake and denitrification among five plant species commonly occurring in sub-arctic wetlands for removal of N in nitrate-rich mine drainage in northern Sweden. Nitrogen uptake and plant associated potential denitrification activity and genetic potential for denitrification based on quantitative PCR of the denitrification genes nirS, nirK, nosZI and nosZII were determined in plants growing both in situ and cultivated in a growth chamber. The growth chamber and in situ studies generated similar results, suggesting high relevance and applicability of results from growth chamber experiments. We identified denitrification as the dominating pathway for N-removal and abundances of denitrification genes were strong indicators of plant associated denitrification activity. The magnitude and direction of the effect differed among the plant species, with the aquatic moss Drepanocladus fluitans showing exceptionally high ratios between denitrification and uptake rates, compared to the other species. However, to acquire realistic estimates of N-removal potential of specific wetlands and their associated plant species, the total plant biomass needs to be considered. The species-specific plant N-uptake and abundance of denitrification genes on the root or plant surfaces were affected by the presence of other plant species, which show that both multi- and inter-trophic interactions are occurring. Future studies on N-removal potential of wetland plant species should consider how to best exploit these interactions in sub-arctic wetlands. PMID:26360231

  12. Evaluation of the use of an alkali modified fly ash as a potential adsorbent for the removal of metals from acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, P. K.; Tripathy, S.; Panigrahi, M. K.; Equeenuddin, Sk. Md.

    2013-09-01

    The coal fly ash (FA), mainly containing high unburnt carbon was modified by alkali hydrothermal treatment. The modified fly ash (MFA) contains lower amounts of Si and Al and has a higher surface area and pH than the untreated fly ash (FA). The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of MFA as a low cost adsorbent material for the removal of Al, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and Mn from acid mine drainage (AMD). The effect of dose, contact time and competing cations on the adsorption of metals was investigated. The results showed that the sorption process onto MFA was initially rapid, but slowed down thereafter. The optimum time for metal uptake was 180 min while the optimum dose of MFA for metal removal was 120 g/L. The adsorption data best fit to the Freundlich isotherm model, which demonstrates that the adsorption process is controlled by the heterogeneous nature of the adsorbent. Adsorption kinetics of Al, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn onto MFA follow a pseudo second-order reaction, which implies that chemisorption is the adsorption rate-limiting step for them, while for Mn it is intra-particle diffusion. Preliminary treatment of real mine drainage from Jaintia Hills coalfield indicates that MFA can be an effective and low-cost adsorbent for the treatment of AMD. The desorption data show that most of the metal ions were substantially desorbed in the acidic media, implying that the adsorbent can be regenerated and reused efficiently.

  13. Mining apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ingle, J.E.; Lane, A.J.; Mcgee, D.A.

    1981-03-10

    An improved mining apparatus for excavating material, such as coal, for example, from an earth formation, such as a coal seam, for example, wherein a miner, having a forward and a rearward cutter, is guided through the coal seam and excavates a borehole therein, the borehole being filled with a working fluid during the operation of the miner, the working fluid facilitating the operation of the miner and providing a vehicle for removing the mined material. Substantially all of the operations of the miner are controlled from the earth's surface thereby eliminating the necessity and accompanying hazards and costs involved in utilizing personnel underground during the mining operations.

  14. Venus mountain-top mineralogy: Misconceptions about pyrite as the high radar-reflecting phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.; Straub, Darcy W.

    1993-01-01

    Altitude-dependent, high radar-reflectivity surfaces on Venus are observed on most mountainous volcanic terranes above a planetary radius of about 6054 km. However, high radar-reflectivity areas also occur at lower altitudes in some impact craters and plain terranes. Pyrite (FeS2) is commonly believed to be responsible for the high radar reflectivities at high elevations on Venus, on account of large dielectric constants measured for sulfide-bearing rocks that were erroneously attributed to pyrite instead of pyrrhotite. Pentlandite-pyrrhotite assemblages may be responsible for high reflectivities associated with impact craters on the Venusian surface, by analogy with Fe-Ni sulfide deposits occurring in terrestrial astroblemes. Mixed-valence Fe(2+)-Fe(3+) silicates, including oxyhornblende, oxybiotite, and ilvaite, may contribute to high radar reflecting surfaces on mountain-tops of Venus.

  15. Simplified modeling of phosphorus removal by vegetative filter strips to control runoff pollution from phosphate mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Y.-M.; Muñoz-Carpena, R.

    2009-11-01

    SummaryRunoff non-point source pollution from phosphate mining areas poses a potential risk to ecosystems in many parts of the world. Mining sand tailings in Central Florida, which still contain apatite (phosphate rock), have shaped the landscape in reclaimed lands at the upper Peace River basin. The objective of this study is to model the efficiency of vegetative filter strips for controlling surface runoff pollution from phosphate mining sand tailings. The numerical model VFSMOD-W is used to predict overland flow and sediment trapping within the filter and is linked to a simplified phosphorous (P) transport algorithm based on experimental data to predict total P (TP), particulate P (PP) and dissolved P (DP) fractions in the filter outflow. An advanced global inverse optimization technique is used for the model calibration process, and the uncertainty of the measured data is considered in goodness-of-fit indicators. The VFSMOD-W can predict hydrology and sediment transport well (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency >0.6) for calibration and validation events with peak outflow rate from VFS greater than 0.0004 m 3/s. The good prediction in runoff and sediment resulted also in good predictions of PP and TP transport since apatite is a main component of sediment. A good prediction of DP was found by considering the rainfall impact on DP dissolved from apatite in surface soil. The uncertainty of measured data included in the goodness-of-fit indicators is a more realistic method to evaluate model performance and data sets. VFSMOD-W combined with the simplified P modeling approach successfully predicted runoff, sediment, and P transport in phosphate mining sand tailings, which provides management agencies a design tool for controlling runoff and P transport using vegetative filter strips.

  16. The efficiency of combined CaO/electrochemical treatment in removal of acid mine drainage induced toxicity and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Radić, Sandra; Vujčić, Valerija; Cvetković, Želimira; Cvjetko, Petra; Oreščanin, Višnja

    2014-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a by-product of the mining industry that has a detrimental effect on aquatic plant and animal life due to high load of heavy metals and sulfates. In the present study, the toxic and genotoxic potential of AMD prior to and following combination of neutralization/electrocoagulation processes was evaluated using several bioassays and selected parameters. Regardless of pH correction of AMD prior to Daphnia bioassay, high acute toxicity was observed in Daphnia magna. The mine leachate also induced strong phyto-, cyto- and genotoxicity to Allium cepa roots. Short term exposure to AMD inhibited duckweed growth and chlorophyll a content and simultaneously promoted lipid peroxidation and DNA damage despite duckweed capability to upregulate antioxidative defense mechanisms. The results show that observed (geno)toxicity could be related to oxidative stress most probably induced by toxic metal action. However, influence of low pH as a contributing factor in the phytotoxicity of AMD cannot be excluded. The application of combined treatment eliminated genotoxicity and was highly efficient in reducing toxicity of AMD. Thus, the method seems to be suitable for treatment of AMD waters enabling their safe discharge to an aquatic environment. PMID:23895778

  17. Enhanced Removal of Arsenic and Antimony in the Mining Site by Calcined γ-Fe2O3/Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Choi, Heechul; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic (As) and Antimony (Sb) have been recognized as harmful contaminants in aquatic environment due to its high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Especially, the contamination of arsenic in the mining areas is considered as a serious emerging environmental issue in Korea. Due to the hazardous effect of arsenic, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulated maximum contamination level of arsenic to 10 μg/L in drinking water. The harmful effect on human health by excessive intake of antimony was also reported by previous studies, and severe contamination level (100 - 7,000 μg/L) of antimony reported in surface and groundwater of abandoned mining area in China and Slovakia. Therefore, US EPA regulated maximum contaminants level of antimony in drinking water to 6 μg/L. In order to remove anionic contaminants in drinking water, various type of nanomaterials have been developed. Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is the artificial anionic clay that is based on the layered structure of positively charged brucite-like layers with interlayers of anions. The LDH is one of the promising nanomaterials for the removal of anionic contaminants because it has high selectivity for arsenic, phosphate, chromium and antimony. However, the biggest problem of LDH for wastewater treatment is that the particles cannot be easily separated after the removal of contaminants. In this study, magnetic nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3) supported LDH nanocomposite (γ-Fe2O3/LDH) was investigated to enhance magnetic particle recovery and removal efficiency for arsenic and antimony. The calcined γ-Fe2O3/LDH nanocomposites synthesized by co-precipitation method, and the crystallographic properties of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and layered structure of LDH were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The nano-sized γ-Fe2O3 (30 to 50 nm) was stably attached on the surface of LDH (100 to 150 nm) and O1s spectrum by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) explained that there are both physical and

  18. Floral resources and habitat affect the composition of hummingbirds at the local scale in tropical mountaintops.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbird communities tend to respond to variation in resources, having a positive relationship between abundance and diversity of food resources and the abundance and/or diversity of hummingbirds. Here we examined the influence of floral resource availability, as well as seasonality and type of habitat on the composition of hummingbird species. The study was carried out in two habitats of eastern Brazilian mountaintops. A gradient representative of the structure of hummingbird community, based on species composition, was obtained by the ordination of samples using the method of non-metric multidimensional scaling. The composition of hummingbird species was influenced by the type of habitat and floral resource availability, but not by seasonality. Hummingbird communities differ between habitats mainly due to the relative abundance of hummingbird species. The variation in composition of hummingbird species with the variation in floral resource availability may be related to differences in feeding habits of hummingbirds. Hummingbird species with the longest bills visited higher proportions of ornithophilous species, while hummingbirds with shorter bills visited higher proportions of non-ornithophilous species. The results demonstrate that at local-scale the composition of hummingbird species is affected by the type of habitat and floral resources availability, but not by seasonality. PMID:25945619

  19. Frozen Mummies from Andean Mountaintop Shrines: Bioarchaeology and Ethnohistory of Inca Human Sacrifice.

    PubMed

    Ceruti, Maria Constanza

    2015-01-01

    This study will focus on frozen mummies of sacrificial victims from mounts Llullaillaco (6739 m), Quehuar (6130 m), El Toro (6160 m), and the Aconcagua massif. These finds provide bioarchaeological data from mountaintop sites that has been recovered in scientifically controlled excavations in the northwest of Argentina, which was once part of the southern province of the Inca Empire. Numerous interdisciplinary studies have been conducted on the Llullaillaco mummies, including radiological evaluations by conventional X-rays and CT scans, which provided information about condition and pathology of the bones and internal organ, as well as dental studies oriented to the estimation of the ages of the three children at the time of death. Ancient DNA studies and hair analysis were also performed in cooperation with the George Mason University, the University of Bradford, and the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Copenhagen. Ethnohistorical sources reveal interesting aspects related to the commemorative, expiatory, propitiatory, and dedicatory aspects of human sacrifice performed under Inca rule. The selection of the victims along with the procedures followed during the performance of the capacocha ceremony will be discussed, based on the bioarchaeological evidences from frozen mummies and the accounts recorded by the Spanish chroniclers. PMID:26345378

  20. Frozen Mummies from Andean Mountaintop Shrines: Bioarchaeology and Ethnohistory of Inca Human Sacrifice

    PubMed Central

    Ceruti, Maria Constanza

    2015-01-01

    This study will focus on frozen mummies of sacrificial victims from mounts Llullaillaco (6739 m), Quehuar (6130 m), El Toro (6160 m), and the Aconcagua massif. These finds provide bioarchaeological data from mountaintop sites that has been recovered in scientifically controlled excavations in the northwest of Argentina, which was once part of the southern province of the Inca Empire. Numerous interdisciplinary studies have been conducted on the Llullaillaco mummies, including radiological evaluations by conventional X-rays and CT scans, which provided information about condition and pathology of the bones and internal organ, as well as dental studies oriented to the estimation of the ages of the three children at the time of death. Ancient DNA studies and hair analysis were also performed in cooperation with the George Mason University, the University of Bradford, and the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Copenhagen. Ethnohistorical sources reveal interesting aspects related to the commemorative, expiatory, propitiatory, and dedicatory aspects of human sacrifice performed under Inca rule. The selection of the victims along with the procedures followed during the performance of the capacocha ceremony will be discussed, based on the bioarchaeological evidences from frozen mummies and the accounts recorded by the Spanish chroniclers. PMID:26345378

  1. Combined effects of dam removal and past sediment mining on a relatively large lowland sandy gravel bed river (Vienne River, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursache, Ovidiu; Rodrigues, Stephane; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Jugé, Philippe; Richard, Nina

    2014-05-01

    Dam removal is of growing interest for the management of sediment fluxes within fluvial basins, morphological evolution and ecological restoration of rivers. If dam removal experiments are now quite well documented for small streams located in the upstream parts of river networks, examples of lowland and relatively large rivers are still scarce. In this study we present a dam removal operation carried out on the Vienne River (France) to restore both sediment and biotic continuity. The Vienne River is 363 km in length. On its middle reaches the average slope is equal to 0.0003 m.m-1 and the average annual discharge is 195 m3.s-1 at the gauging station of Nouâtre. The river is characterized by a sinuous single channel of an average width of 150 m. The sediments are mainly made of a siliceous mixture of sands and gravels and were intensively mined between years 1930 and 1995's. In 1920, a 4 m height dam was built just downstream the confluence between the Vienne and Creuse Rivers triggering a total sediment deposition upstream of 900 000 m3 in 75 years. Hence, in 1998, the removal of the dam increased severely the sediment supply delivered to the Vienne River. The objective of this study is to understand and quantify the fluvial processes and morphological evolution on a reach of 50 km of the Vienne associated with the dam remova and the presence of ancient sand pits located along the riverbed. This study is based on field data collected during 7 surveys performed between 1998 and 2013. This large dataset focuses on bed geometry (detailed bathymetrical surveys), sediment grain size, and bedload fluxes measured using isokinetic samplers. It was combined with a 1D numerical model developed to assess flow dynamics and sediment transport capacity before and after dam removal. Results show that dam removal triggered both headward and progressive (near the dam) erosions and that discharges higher than 100 m3.s-1 were sufficient to erode the sandy sediments trapped by the

  2. The potential of Lemna gibba L. and Lemna minor L. to remove Cu, Pb, Zn, and As in gallery water in a mining area in Keban, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sasmaz, Merve; Arslan Topal, Emine Işıl; Obek, Erdal; Sasmaz, Ahmet

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate removal efficiencies of Cu, Pb, Zn, and As in gallery water in a mining area in Keban, Turkey by Lemna gibba L. and Lemna minor L. These plants were placed in the gallery water of Keban Pb-Zn ore deposits and adapted individually fed to the reactors. During the study period (8 days), the plant and water samples were collected daily and the temperature, pH, and electric conductivity of the gallery water were measured daily. The plants were washed, dried, and burned at 300 °C for 24 h in a drying oven. These ash and water samples were analyzed by ICP-MS to determine the amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn, and As. The Cu, Pb, Zn and As concentrations in the gallery water of the study area detected 67, 7.5, 7230, and 96 μg L(-1), respectively. According to the results, the obtained efficiencies in L. minor L. and L. gibba L. are: 87% at day 2 and 36% at day 3 for Cu; 1259% at day 2 and 1015% at day 2 for Pb; 628% at day 3 and 382% at day 3 for Zn; and 7070% at day 3 and 19,709% at day 2 for As, respectively. The present study revealed that both L. minor L. and L. gibba L. had very high potential to remove Cu, Pb, Zn, and As in gallery water contaminated by different ores. PMID:26332457

  3. Trends in Monthly Methane Emissions in Los Angeles Inferred by Mountaintop Remote Sensing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C.; Sander, S. P.; Pongetti, T. J.; Yung, Y. L.; Newman, S.; Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Rao, P.; Gurney, K. R.; Oda, T.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas and a target of new emissions regulations in the United States. Despite its importance, there are large uncertainties in its emissions. In the megacity of Los Angeles, anthropogenic CH4 is emitted from a variety of sources including wastewater treatment plants, landfills, oil wells, dairy farms and the natural gas infrastructure. To quantify the methane budget in the basin, it is necessary to understand the spatial and temporal variability of the emission patterns. To address this issue, since 2011, continuous daytime mountaintop remote sensing measurements of CH4 and CO2 have been acquired by a JPL-built Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) at the California Laboratory of Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) on Mount Wilson. At an altitude of 1.67 km a.s.l., the CLARS-FTS samples the dry-air slant column abundances of CH4 and CO2 (XCH4 and XCO2) by targeting 29 reflection points in the L.A. basin, including a reference point at the observatory. Using this unique dataset and tracer-to-tracer correlation analysis, we derive the monthly trends of top-down methane emissions over a period of nearly four years from 2011 to 2015. Consistent strong emission peaks in winter and weaker peaks in summer were observed during this period. We compare our top-down emissions and bottom-up emissions database to understand the drivers of the observed CH4 monthly emission patterns in the basin. Copyright 2015. California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  4. Persistent Daily New Particle Formation at a Mountain-Top Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. G.; Chirokova, G.; Lowenthal, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can impact climate, air quality and visibility, and human health. Recent work suggests that newly formed particles exhibit enhanced hygroscopicity, may be more effective as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN), and increase the indirect radiative effect beyond current estimates. Specifically, high elevations may be preferential sites for nucleation and thus provide a significant global source of CCN. Factors including increased UV radiation and turbulence may boost nucleation frequency at high elevations. Frequent new particle formation (NPF) has been observed regularly at Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), a high elevation mountaintop observatory in Colorado. These events occurred during 52% of the 474 measurement days from 2001 to 2009, consistently during the mid-afternoon throughout the spring, summer and winter months. Average growth rates, condensation sinks, and formation rates for these NPF events will be presented. The strongest correlation factor with NPF is ultraviolet radiation. The events are not related to increased ozone concentration or pre-existing aerosol surface area, implying that nucleation can occur anywhere in the free troposphere. During the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (StormVEx), winter 2010-11, the Department of Energy second ARM mobile facility (AMF2) was deployed to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. An extensive suite of instruments was operated for measurement of aerosol and cloud properties at and near SPL. At SPL, a TSI Nano-Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), a standard SMPS, and three Droplet Measurement Technology Cloud Probes (FSSP, CIP, and PIP) measured aerosol and cloud particle size distributions from 3 nm to 6.2 mm. This presentation will describe several case studies demonstrating new particle formation within clouds at SPL during StormVEx.

  5. Contributions of dust and biomass burning to aerosols at a Colorado mountain-top site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. G.; Petersen, R.; Andrews, E.; Michalsky, J.; McCubbin, I. B.; Ogren, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Visible Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (vis-MFRSR) data were collected at Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), a mountain-top facility in northwest Colorado, from 1999 to 2011 and in 2013. From 2011 to 2014, in situ measurements of aerosol light scattering were also obtained. Using these data sets together, the seasonal impact of dust and biomass burning is considered for the western USA. Analysis indicates that the median contributions to spring and summer aerosol optical depth (AOD) from dust and biomass-burning aerosols across the data set are comparable. The mean AOD is slightly greater in the summer, with significantly more frequent and short-duration high AOD measurements due to biomass-burning episodes than in the spring. The Ångström exponent showed a significant increase in the summer for both the in situ and vis-MFRSR data, suggesting an increase in combustion aerosols. Spring dust events are less distinguishable in the in situ data than the column measurement, suggesting that a significant amount of dust may be found above the elevation of SPL, 3220 m a.s.l. Twenty-two known case studies of intercontinental dust, regional dust, and biomass-burning events were investigated. These events were found to follow a similar pattern, in both aerosol loading and Ångström exponent, as the seasonal mean signal in both the vis-MFRSR and ground-based nephelometer. This data set highlights the wide-scale implications of a warmer, drier climate on visibility in the western USA.

  6. Use of spatially explicit physicochemical data to measure downstream impacts of headwater stream disturbance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory agencies need methods to quantify the influence of headwater streams on downstream water quality as a result of litigation surrounding jurisdictional criteria and the influence of mountaintop removal coal mining activities. We collected comprehensive, spatially-referen...

  7. Metal interferences and their removal prior to the determination of As(T) and As(III) in acid mine waters by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ball, James W.

    2003-01-01

    Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) is a sensitive and selective method for the determination of total arsenic (arsenic(III) plus arsenic(V)) and arsenic(III); however, it is subject to metal interferences for acid mine waters. Sodium borohydride is used to produce arsine gas, but high metal concentrations can suppress arsine production. This report investigates interferences of sixteen metal species including aluminum, antimony(III), antimony(V), cadmium, chromium(III), chromium(IV), cobalt, copper(II), iron(III), iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(IV), selenium(VI), and zinc ranging in concentration from 0 to 1,000 milligrams per liter and offers a method for removing interfering metal cations with cation exchange resin. The degree of interference for each metal without cation-exchange on the determination of total arsenic and arsenic(III) was evaluated by spiking synthetic samples containing arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with the potential interfering metal. Total arsenic recoveries ranged from 92 to 102 percent for all metals tested except antimony(III) and antimony(V) which suppressed arsine formation when the antimony(III)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 4 or the antimony(V)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 2. Arsenic(III) recoveries for samples spiked with aluminum, chromium(III), cobalt, iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(VI), and zinc ranged from 84 to 107 percent over the entire concentration range tested. Low arsenic(III) recoveries occurred when the molar ratios of metals to arsenic(III) were copper greater than 120, iron(III) greater than 70, chromium(VI) greater than 2, cadmium greater than 800, antimony(III) greater than 3, antimony(V) greater than 12, or selenium(IV) greater than 1. Low recoveries result when interfering metals compete for available sodium borohydride, causing incomplete arsine production, or when the interfering metal oxidizes arsenic(III). Separation of interfering metal cations using

  8. 30 CFR 715.11 - General obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section or 30 CFR 720.13(b). (d) Indian lands—(1) Mine maps. Any person conducting surface coal mining and...; (2) Surface coal mining operations involving mountaintop removal; (3) Special bituminous coal mines... mine and permit area at a scale of 1:6000 or larger. The map shall show as of May 3, 1978, the...

  9. Impacts of mountaintop mining on terrestrial ecosystem integrity: Identifying landscape thresholds for avian species in the central Appalachians, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Douglas A.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Strager, Michael P.; Mazzarella, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Because of little overlap in habitat requirements, managing landscapes simultaneously to maximally benefit both guilds may not be possible. Our avian thresholds identify single community management targets accounting for scarce species. Guild or individual species thresholds allow for species-specific management.

  10. 75 FR 18499 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... Coalfields and a Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams AGENCY...) ``A Field-based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams'' (EPA/600/R... Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields'' and ``A Field-based Aquatic...

  11. 75 FR 51058 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... 12, 2010 (75 FR 18499). By following the link below, reviewers may download the initial data and EPA... developed by the National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) within EPA's Office of Research and... Science Advisory Board (SAB) on July 21--23, 2010. The public comment period for the SAB meeting follows...

  12. 75 FR 30393 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Assessment (NCEA) within EPA's Office of Research and Development as part of a set of actions taken by EPA to... independent review panel convened by EPA's Science Advisory Board (SAB). The SAB's peer review meeting, which... peer review under applicable information quality guidelines. The documents have not been...

  13. 75 FR 39934 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... FR 29339). The public comment period described above and the SAB meeting follow separate processes... Register notice announcing the public comment period was published on April 12, 2010 (75 FR 18499), and an extension of the public comment period was published on June 1, 2010 (75 FR 30393). By following the...

  14. Occurrence of upslope flows at the Pico mountaintop observatory: A case study of orographic flows on a small, volcanic island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleissl, J.; Honrath, R. E.; Dziobak, M. P.; Tanner, D.; Val MartíN, M.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.

    2007-05-01

    Upslope flows caused by mechanical forcing in strong synoptic winds or by buoyant forcing driven by solar heating under weak synoptic winds can influence the air composition at mountaintop observatories. Using meteorological and trace gas measurements at the PICO-NARE observatory on Pico mountain (Azores Islands, North Atlantic Ocean), the frequency and impact of such orographic flows on a small, volcanic, subtropical island was examined. To determine the origin of mechanically lifted air, upstream kinetic energy was balanced against potential energy gained during uplift (Sheppard's model). Mechanically forced upslope flow is most important during October through April, when the calculated probability of observing marine boundary layer (MBL) air at the observatory near the summit ranges from 35 to 60% per month. In contrast, lower synoptic wind speeds and a more stable lower free troposphere during May-September result in a reduced frequency of MBL impacts (<20%). Buoyant upslope flows (BUF) were quantified through meteorological measurements on the mountain slope in summer 2004. Diurnal cycles of wind direction on the mountain slope consistent with daytime upslope and nighttime downslope flow were found on 24% of the days during late June, July, and August 2004. Buoyant forcing can also occur in the presence of moderate synoptic winds, resulting in enhancement of the mechanically forced upslope flow on the windward side of the mountain. Such conditions were found on 15% of the summer days in 2004. However, on BUF days the specific humidity at the mountaintop was significantly smaller than on the slope, indicating turbulent mixing during ascent or vertical decoupling of air masses. Impacts of BUF or a mixture of buoyant and mechanical upslope flow on O3 or nitrogen oxides mixing ratios at the mountaintop station were rare or extremely small, and no significant diurnal cycle of O3 (expected if daytime BUF of MBL air occurred regularly) was present. Midday increases

  15. Post-reclamation use of surface-mined lands in Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Hiremath, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to evaluate the potential on-site monetary returns to the surface landowner from agricultural and forestry uses under different levels of reclamation of surface-mined lands in Kentucky. Three typical sites were chosen for the analysis: area-mine site, contour-bench and mountaintop sites. Results indicate that on fully reclaimed area-mine and mountaintop sites, grain crops are profitable - at all discount rates when labor supplies were not limiting. Under limited labor supplies, an enterprise mix containing both agronomic crops and forest crops is profitable. Agronomic crops replace forest crops as labor becomes less binding. On all partially reclaimed sites, cottonwood pure stand was the most-profitable enterprise at 3% discount rate irrespective of labor supplies. At discount rates of 5% or greater, alfalfa had the highest net returns if labor was not limiting. Under limited labor supplies a combination of alfalfa and a forest crop resulted in the maximum net returns. At 10% discount rate, all tree mixtures had negative net returns.

  16. Resource Recovery from Flooded Underground Mines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  17. Resource Recovery of Flooded Underground Mine Workings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  18. Removal and co-transport of Zn, As(V), and Cd during leachate seepage through downgradient mine soils: A batch sorption and column study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juhee; Nam, Seung Mo; Hyun, Seunghun

    2016-05-01

    The removal of Zn, As(V), and Cd during the leachate seepage process was measured in single, binary, and ternary solute systems by batch sorption and 1-D column flow experiments, followed by a sequential extraction procedure (SEP). In single-solute systems, sorption (Kd(⁎)) occurred in the order of As(V)>Zn≫Cd, and this sequence did not change in the presence of other solutes. In multi-solute systems, the sorption of Zn (~20%) and Cd (~27%) was enhanced by As(V), while Zn and Cd suppressed the sorption of each other. In all cases, As(V) sorption was not affected by the cations, indicating that As(V) is prioritized by sorption sites to a much greater degree than Zn and Cd. Element retention by column soils was strongly correlated (r(2)=0.77) with Kd(⁎). Across column segments, mass retention was in the order of inlet (36-54%)>middle (26-35%)>outlet (20-31%), except for Cd in the Zn-Cd binary system. The result of SEP revealed that most of the retained Cd (98-99%) and Zn (56-71%) was in the labile fraction (e.g., the sum of F1 and F2) while only 9-12% of As(V) was labile and most (>55%) was specifically adsorbed to Fe/Al oxides. Plots of the labile fraction (f(labile)) and the fast sorption fraction (f(fast)) suggested that the kinetics of specific As(V) sorption occur rapidly (f(fast)>f(labile)), whereas labile Zn and Cd sorption occurs slowly (f(labile)>f(fast)), indicating the occurrence of kinetically limited labile sorption sites, probably due to Zn-Cd competition. In conclusion, the element leaching potential of mine leachate can be greatly attenuated during downgradient soil seepage. However, when assessing the soil attenuation process, the impact of sorption competitors and the lability of adsorbed elements should first be considered. PMID:26896586

  19. "easyMine" - realistic and systematic mine detection simulation tooltion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttger, U.; Beier, K.; Biering, B.; Müller, C.; Peichl, M.; Spyra, W.

    2004-05-01

    Mine detection is to date mainly performed with metal detectors, although new methods for UXO detection are explored worldwide. The main problem for the mine detection to date is, that there exist some ideas of which sensor combinations could yield a high score, but until now there is no systematic analysis of mine detection methods together with realistic environmental conditions to conclude on a physically and technically optimized sensor combination. This gap will be removed by a project "easyMine" (Realistic and systematic Mine Detection Simulation Tool) which will result in a simulation tool for optimizing land mine detection in a realistic mine field. The project idea for this software tool is presented, that will simulate the closed chain of mine detection, including the mine in its natural environment, the sensor, the evaluation and application of the measurements by an user. The tool will be modularly designed. Each chain link will be an independent, exchangeable sub- module and will describe a stand alone part of the whole mine detection procedure. The advantage of the tool will be the evaluation of very different kinds of sensor combinations in relation of their real potential for mine detection. Three detection methods (metal detector, GPR and imaging IR-radiometry) will be explained to be introduced into the easyMine software tool in a first step. An actual example for land mine detection problem will be presented and approaches for solutions with easyMine will be shown.

  20. Arsenic, Zinc, and Aluminium Removal from Gold Mine Wastewater Effluents and Accumulation by Submerged Aquatic Plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata)

    PubMed Central

    Yusoff, Ismail; Fatt, Ng Tham; Othman, Faridah; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2013-01-01

    The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata) to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2%) and zinc (93.7%) and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8%) compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5%) and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water. PMID:24102060

  1. Application of maghemite nanoparticles as sorbents for the removal of Cu(II), Mn(II) and U(VI) ions from aqueous solution in acid mine drainage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etale, Anita; Tutu, Hlanganani; Drake, Deanne C.

    2014-06-01

    The adsorptive removal of Cu(II), Mn(II) and U(VI) by maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated under acid mine drainage (AMD) conditions to assess NP potential for remediating AMD-contaminated water. The effects of time, NP and metal concentration, as well as manganese and sulphate ions were quantified at pH 3. Adsorption of all three ions was rapid, and equilibrium was attained in 5 min or less. 56 % of Cu, 53 % of Mn and 49 % of U were adsorbed. In addition, adsorption efficiencies were enhanced by ≥10 % in the presence of manganese and sulphate ions, although Cu sorption was reduced in 1:2 Cu-to-Mn solutions. Adsorption also increased with pH: 86 % Cu, 62 % Mn and 77 % U were removed from solution at pH 9 and increasing initial metal concentrations. Increasing NP concentrations did not, however, always increase metal removal. Kinetics data were best described by a pseudo-second-order model, implying chemisorption, while isotherm data were better fitted by the Freundlich model. Metal removal by NPs was then tested in AMD-contaminated surface and ground water. Removal efficiencies of up to 46 % for Cu and 54 % for Mn in surface water and 8 % for Cu and 50 % for Mn in ground water were achieved, confirming that maghemite NPs can be applied for the removal of these ions from AMD-contaminated waters. Notably, whereas sulphates may increase adsorption efficiencies, high Mn concentrations in AMD will likely inhibit Cu sorption.

  2. Application of maghemite nanoparticles as sorbents for the removal of Cu(II), Mn(II) and U(VI) ions from aqueous solution in acid mine drainage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etale, Anita; Tutu, Hlanganani; Drake, Deanne C.

    2016-06-01

    The adsorptive removal of Cu(II), Mn(II) and U(VI) by maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated under acid mine drainage (AMD) conditions to assess NP potential for remediating AMD-contaminated water. The effects of time, NP and metal concentration, as well as manganese and sulphate ions were quantified at pH 3. Adsorption of all three ions was rapid, and equilibrium was attained in 5 min or less. 56 % of Cu, 53 % of Mn and 49 % of U were adsorbed. In addition, adsorption efficiencies were enhanced by ≥10 % in the presence of manganese and sulphate ions, although Cu sorption was reduced in 1:2 Cu-to-Mn solutions. Adsorption also increased with pH: 86 % Cu, 62 % Mn and 77 % U were removed from solution at pH 9 and increasing initial metal concentrations. Increasing NP concentrations did not, however, always increase metal removal. Kinetics data were best described by a pseudo-second-order model, implying chemisorption, while isotherm data were better fitted by the Freundlich model. Metal removal by NPs was then tested in AMD-contaminated surface and ground water. Removal efficiencies of up to 46 % for Cu and 54 % for Mn in surface water and 8 % for Cu and 50 % for Mn in ground water were achieved, confirming that maghemite NPs can be applied for the removal of these ions from AMD-contaminated waters. Notably, whereas sulphates may increase adsorption efficiencies, high Mn concentrations in AMD will likely inhibit Cu sorption.

  3. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  4. As(III) and As(V) removal from the aqueous phase via adsorption onto acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS) alginate beads and goethite alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hongkyun; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Jongsik; Ji, Min-Kyu; Han, Young-Soo; Park, Young-Tae; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2015-07-15

    Acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS) is a solid waste generated following the neutralization of acid mine drainage (AMD). This material entrapped in calcium alginate was investigated for the sorption of As(III) and As(V). Three different adsorbent materials were prepared: AMDS alginate beads (AABs), goethite alginate beads (GABs), and pure alginate beads. The effects of pH and the adsorption kinetics were investigated, and the adsorption isotherms were also evaluated. The optimum pH range using the AABs was determined to be within 2-10 for As(III) and 2-9 for As(V). Adsorption equilibrium data were evaluated using the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity qmax was 18.25 and 4.97 mg g(-1) for As(III) on AAB and GAB, respectively, and 21.79 and 10.92 mg g(-1) for As(V) on AAB and GAB, respectively. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) was observed to follow pseudo-second order kinetics. The As K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) revealed that the adsorbed As(III) on the AABs was oxidized to As(V) via manganese oxide in the AMDS. PMID:25804789

  5. Longwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  6. Flowers visited by hummingbirds in the open habitats of the southeastern Brazilian mountaintops: species composition and seasonality.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2014-08-01

    The hummingbird-visited plant community located on the open-habitat mountaintop of the Espinhaço Range was studied for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009) in Serra do Cipó National Park, Southeastern Brazil (19° 15' S and 43° 31' W). The floral characteristics and flowering period of the hummingbird-visited plants was monthly recorded along trails located in three vegetation types: (1) typical campos rupestres (TCR), (2) open fields (OPF), and (3) capões de mata (CAM). Hummingbird visitation was observed in 51 plant species, 22 ornithophilous and 29 non-ornithophilous species. The TCR showed the greatest number of species visited (N = 38), followed by the OPF (N = 18) and CAM (N = 17). Six species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers: Augastes scutatus, Campylopterus largipennis, Colibri serrirostris, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei. This study demonstrates that the species richness and the number of ornithophilous species visited by the hummingbirds at the study site are more similar to hummingbird-plant communities of the Atlantic Forest than to those of the Cerrado communities and other Brazilian highland open-habitat communities. The plant families most visited by hummingbirds were Bromeliaceae and Asteraceae. Although the Asteraceae family is rarely used as a food resource for hummingbirds in other high and lowland communities, in the study site this family is used mainly by the endemic hummingbird Augastes scutatus. We found a large overlap of flowering throughout the year among the species visited by the hummingbirds. Thus, the nectar availability supports these resident hummingbirds. The present study also showed that the studied hummingbird-plant community is composed of many species endemic to the campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range, some of which are considered to be in danger of extinction, thus constituting a unique and threatened community. Thus, understanding hummingbird-plant pollination

  7. Assessing filtering of mountaintop CO2 mole fractions for application to inverse models of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B.-G. J.; Desai, A. R.; Stephens, B. B.; Bowling, D. R.; Burns, S. P.; Watt, A. S.; Heck, S. L.; Sweeney, C.

    2012-02-01

    There is a widely recognized need to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchanges in areas of complex terrain including the United States Mountain West. CO2 fluxes over mountainous terrain are often difficult to measure due to unusual and complicated influences associated with atmospheric transport. Consequently, deriving regional fluxes in mountain regions with carbon cycle inversion of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction is sensitive to filtering of observations to those that can be represented at the transport model resolution. Using five years of CO2 mole fraction observations from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON), five statistical filters are used to investigate a range of approaches for identifying regionally representative CO2 mole fractions. Test results from three filters indicate that subsets based on short-term variance and local CO2 gradients across tower inlet heights retain nine-tenths of the total observations and are able to define representative diel variability and seasonal cycles even for difficult-to-model sites where the influence of local fluxes is much larger than regional mole fraction variations. Test results from two other filters that consider measurements from previous and following days using spline fitting or sliding windows are overly selective. Case study examples showed that these windowing-filters rejected measurements representing synoptic changes in CO2, which suggests that they are not well suited to filtering continental CO2 measurements. We present a novel CO2 lapse rate filter that uses CO2 differences between levels in the model atmosphere to select subsets of site measurements that are representative on model scales. Our new filtering techniques provide guidance for novel approaches to assimilating mountain-top CO2 mole fractions in carbon cycle inverse models.

  8. EVIDENCE FOR METAL ATTENUATION IN ACID MINE WATER BY SULFATE REDUCTION, PENN MINE, CALAVERAS COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Penn Mine in Calaveras County, California, produced Cu from massive sulfide ores from 1861 to 1953. Mine wastes were removed to a landfill during the late 1990s, improving surface-water quality, but deep mine workings were not remediated and contain metalliferous water with p...

  9. Web Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes

    The World-Wide Web provides every internet citizen with access to an abundance of information, but it becomes increasingly difficult to identify the relevant pieces of information. Research in web mining tries to address this problem by applying techniques from data mining and machine learning to Web data and documents. This chapter provides a brief overview of web mining techniques and research areas, most notably hypertext classification, wrapper induction, recommender systems and web usage mining.

  10. Text Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  11. Data Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Discusses data mining (DM) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), taking the view that KDD is the larger view of the entire process, with DM emphasizing the cleaning, warehousing, mining, and visualization of knowledge discovery in databases. Highlights include algorithms; users; the Internet; text mining; and information extraction.…

  12. Morenci Mine, AZ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Morenci open-pit copper mine in southeast Arizona is North America's leading producer of copper. In the 1860s, prospectors arrived looking for gold; instead they found copper. Underground mining began in the 1870s, and the first pit was opened in 1939. Phelps Dodge employs over 200 people in the mining and refining operations. Around-the-clock removal of 700,000 tons of rock per day results in production of 382 thousand tons of copper per year. Phelps Dodge is now developing the Safford Mine, about 12 km southwest of Morenci. It will be the first new copper mine in the US in more than 30 years. When production starts in 2008, the Safford Mine will produce 109 thousand tons of copper. This ASTER image uses shortwavelength infrared bands to highlight in bright pink the altered rocks in the Morenci pit associated with copper mineralization.

    The image covers an area of 21 x 16.9 km, was acquired on July 14, 2007, and is centered near 33.1 degrees north latitude, 109.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Advanced mercury removal from gold leachate solutions prior to gold and silver extraction: a field study from an active gold mine in Peru.

    PubMed

    Matlock, Matthew M; Howerton, Brock S; Van Aelstyn, Mike A; Nordstrom, Fredrik L; Atwood, David A

    2002-04-01

    Mercury contamination in the Gold-Cyanide Process (GCP) is a serious health and environmental problem. Following the heap leaching of gold and silver ores with NaCN solutions, portions of the mercury-cyano complexes often adhere to the activated carbon (AC) used to extract the gold. During the electrowinning and retorting steps, mercury can be (and often is) emitted to the air as a vapor. This poses a severe health hazard to plant workers and the local environment. Additional concerns relate to the safety of workers when handling the mercury-laden AC. Currently, mercury treatment from the heap leach solution is nonexistent. This is due to the fact that chelating ligands which can effectively work under the adverse pH conditions (as present in the heap leachate solutions) do not exist. In an effort to economically and effectively treat the leachate solution prior to passing over the AC, a dipotassium salt of 1,3-benzenediamidoethanethiol (BDET2-) has been developed to irreversibly bind and precipitate the mercury. The ligand has proven to be highly effective by selectively reducing mercury levels from average initial concentrations of 34.5 ppm (parts per million) to 0.014 ppm within 10 min and to 0.008 ppm within 15 min. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), Raman, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy demonstrate the formation of a mercury-ligand compound, which remains insoluble over pH ranges of 0.0-14.0. Leachate samples from an active gold mine in Peru have been analyzed using cold vapor atomic fluorescence (CVAF) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for metal concentrations before and after treatment with the BDET2- ligand. PMID:11999077

  14. 78 FR 35975 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Safety Standards for Underground Coal Mine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Areas Where Mechanized Mining Equipment Is Being Installed or Removed AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... to use air from a belt air course to ventilate a working section, or an area where mechanized mining... Sections and Areas Where Mechanized Mining Equipment is Being Installed or Removed. MSHA is...

  15. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  16. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  17. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  18. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  19. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  20. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  1. Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by a waste mud from copper mine industry: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Kemer, Baris; Duran, Celal; Senturk, Hasan Basri; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-07-30

    The objective of this study was to assess the adsorption potential of a waste mud (WM) for the removal of lead (Pb(II)) ions from aqueous solutions. The WM was activated with NaOH in order to increase its adsorption capacity. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system as a function of solution pH, contact time, initial Pb(II) concentration, activated-waste mud (a-WM) concentration, temperature, etc. Optimum pH was specified as 4.0. The adsorption kinetic studies indicated that the overall adsorption process was best described by pseudo-second-order kinetics. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of a-WM was obtained by using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and both models fitted well. Adsorption capacity for Pb(II) was found to be 24.4 mg g(-1) for 10 g L(-1) of a-WM concentration. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (Delta G degrees), enthalpy (Delta H degrees), and entropy (DeltaS degrees) indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) ions on the a-WM was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic, at temperature range of 0-40 degrees C. Desorption studies were carried out successfully with diluted HCl solutions. The results indicate that a-WM can be used as an effective and no-cost adsorbent for the treatment of industrial wastewaters contaminated with Pb(II) ions. PMID:19167162

  2. Intracellular Biosynthesis and Removal of Copper Nanoparticles by Dead Biomass of Yeast Isolated from the Wastewater of a Mine in the Brazilian Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Salvadori, Marcia R.; Ando, Rômulo A.; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudio A.; Corrêa, Benedito

    2014-01-01

    In this study was developed a natural process using a biological system for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) and possible removal of copper from wastewater by dead biomass of the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Dead and live biomass of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was used to analyze the equilibrium and kinetics of copper biosorption by the yeast in function of the initial metal concentration, contact time, pH, temperature, agitation and inoculum volume. Dead biomass exhibited the highest biosorption capacity of copper, 26.2 mg g−1, which was achieved within 60 min of contact, at pH 5.0, temperature of 30°C, and agitation speed of 150 rpm. The equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm and Kinetic analysis indicated a pseudo-second-order model. The average size, morphology and location of NPs biosynthesized by the yeast were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The shape of the intracellularly synthesized NPs was mainly spherical, with an average size of 10.5 nm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the copper NPs confirmed the formation of metallic copper. The dead biomass of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa may be considered an efficiently bioprocess, being fast and low-cost to production of copper nanoparticles and also a probably nano-adsorbent of this metal ion in wastewater in bioremediation process. PMID:24489975

  3. Intracellular biosynthesis and removal of copper nanoparticles by dead biomass of yeast isolated from the wastewater of a mine in the Brazilian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Salvadori, Marcia R; Ando, Rômulo A; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudio A; Corrêa, Benedito

    2014-01-01

    In this study was developed a natural process using a biological system for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) and possible removal of copper from wastewater by dead biomass of the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Dead and live biomass of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was used to analyze the equilibrium and kinetics of copper biosorption by the yeast in function of the initial metal concentration, contact time, pH, temperature, agitation and inoculum volume. Dead biomass exhibited the highest biosorption capacity of copper, 26.2 mg g(-1), which was achieved within 60 min of contact, at pH 5.0, temperature of 30°C, and agitation speed of 150 rpm. The equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm and Kinetic analysis indicated a pseudo-second-order model. The average size, morphology and location of NPs biosynthesized by the yeast were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The shape of the intracellularly synthesized NPs was mainly spherical, with an average size of 10.5 nm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the copper NPs confirmed the formation of metallic copper. The dead biomass of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa may be considered an efficiently bioprocess, being fast and low-cost to production of copper nanoparticles and also a probably nano-adsorbent of this metal ion in wastewater in bioremediation process. PMID:24489975

  4. Mine system

    SciTech Connect

    Stoppani, B.R.

    1983-10-04

    A mine system comprises at least one mining machine adapted to haul itself, in a reciprocating manner, along a mineral face, and a control box housing means to control the various electrical elements of the machine(s), the box being located in a mine roadway at one end of the mineral face along which the machine(s) is reciprocating, and the box being electrically connected to a terminal box housed in a body of the machine(s).

  5. Mining the earth

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Substances extracted from the earth - stone, iron, bronze - have been so critical to human development that historians name the ages of our past after them. But while scholars have carefully tracked human use of minerals, they have never accounted for the vast environmental damage incurred in mineral production. Few people would guess that a copper mining operation has removed a piece of Utah seven times the weight of all the material dug for the Panama Canal. Few would dream that mines and smelters take up to a tenth of all the energy used each year, or that the waste left by mining measures in the billions of tons - dwarfing the world's total accumulation of more familiar kinds of waste, such as municipal garbage. Indeed, more material is now stripped from the earth by mining than by all the natural erosion of the earth's rivers. The effects of mining operations on the environment are discussed under the following topics: minerals in the global economy, laying waste, at what cost cleaning up, and dipping out. It is concluded that in the long run, the most effective strategy for minimizing new damage is not merely to make mineral extraction cleaner, but to reduce the rich nations needs for virgin (non-recycled) minerals.

  6. Paramont's Black Bear No. 4 mine does it right, again

    SciTech Connect

    Sanda, A.

    2007-07-15

    The Paramont Coal Company Virginia, LLC, a subsidiary of Alpha Natural Resources, recently won the '2007 overall award for excellence in mining and reclamation from the Virginia Division of Mined Land Reclamation and the Virginia Mining Association. Coal People Magazine recently visited Black Bear No. 4 mine where a settling pond was being removed and stream bed placed to drain the area, part of the 451-acre award winning reclamation project. The article recounts discussions with mining engineers about the company's operations with emphasis on the Black Bear No. 4 mine. Black Bear No. 1 mine won five state and national awards last year for conservation and land management practices. 8 photos.

  7. African mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference addressing the development of the minerals industry in Africa. Topics covered include: A review - past, present and future - of Zimbabwe's mining industry; Geomorphological processes and related mineralization in Tanzania; and Rock mechanics investigations at Mufulira mine, Zambia.

  8. The Henderson Mine as an Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, E. D.

    2006-07-11

    The Henderson Mine, operated by the Climax Molybdenum Company, is one of two sites under consideration by NSF to host a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Henderson, in the Rocky Mountains west of Denver, is an active molybdenum mine with large access shafts and high rock processing and removal capability.

  9. Impact of Mountaintop Mining/Valley Fill on the Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition and Concentration of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon in Headwater Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Headwater streams are the dominant land-water interface across much of the landscape and provide many important ecological services. Cycling and transport of various carbon fractions, which serve as important food sources for downstream aquatic ecosystems, are among the important...

  10. Mountain-Top Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cussen, John P.

    1976-01-01

    Described is the Talcott Mountain Science Center for Student Involvement, Inc., near Hartford, Connecticut, and the programs in natural science offered at the facility and by center personnel in local schools. (SL)

  11. Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) use of rock drainage channels on reclaimed mines in southern West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chamblin, H.D.; Wood, P.B.; Edwards, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Allegheny woodrats (Neotoma magister) currently receive protected status throughout their range due to population declines. Threats associated with habitat fragmentation (e.g., introduced predators, disease, loss of connectivity among subpopulations and habitat loss) may explain why Allegheny woodrats are no longer found in many areas where they existed just 25 y ago. In southern West Virginia, surface coal mining is a major cause of forest fragmentation. Furthermore, mountaintop mining, the prevalent method in the region, results in a loss of rock outcrops and cliffs within forested areas, typical habitat of the Allegheny woodrat To determine the extent that Allegheny woodrats make use of reclaimed mine land, particularly rock drainages built during reclamation, we sampled 24 drainage channels on reclaimed surface mines in southern West Virginia, collected habitat data at each site and used logistic regression to identify habitat variables related to Allegheny woodrat presence. During 187 trap nights, 13 adult, 2 subadult and 8 juvenile Allegheny woodrats were captured at 13 of the 24 sites. Percent of rock as a groundcover and density of stems >15 cm diameter-at-breast-height (DBH) were related to Allegheny woodrat presence and were significantly greater at sites where Allegheny woodrats were present than absent. Sites where Allegheny woodrats were present differed substantially from other described habitats in West Virginia, though they may simulate boulder piles that occur naturally. Our findings suggest the need for additional research to examine the dynamics between Allegheny woodrat populations inhabiting rock outcrops in forests adjacent to mines and populations inhabiting constructed drainage channels on reclaimed mines. However, if Allegheny woodrats can use human-created habitat, our results will be useful to surface mine reclamation and to other mitigation efforts where rocky habitats are lost or disturbed.

  12. Adenoid removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... This does not cause problems most of the time. Alternative Names Adenoidectomy; Removal of adenoid glands Images Adenoid removal - series References Wetmore RF. Tonsils and adenoids. In: Kliegman ...

  13. 30 CFR 56.12036 - Fuse removal or replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuse removal or replacement. 56.12036 Section 56.12036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  14. 30 CFR 56.12036 - Fuse removal or replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuse removal or replacement. 56.12036 Section 56.12036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  15. 30 CFR 56.12036 - Fuse removal or replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuse removal or replacement. 56.12036 Section 56.12036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  16. 30 CFR 56.12036 - Fuse removal or replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuse removal or replacement. 56.12036 Section 56.12036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  17. 30 CFR 56.12036 - Fuse removal or replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuse removal or replacement. 56.12036 Section 56.12036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  18. 43 CFR 3108.2-4 - Conversion of unpatented oil placer mining claims: Class III reinstatements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... officer on all production removed or sold from the oil placer mining claim, including all royalty on... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conversion of unpatented oil placer mining... oil placer mining claims: Class III reinstatements. (a) For any unpatented oil placer mining...

  19. Grasshopper sparrow reproductive success and habitat use on reclaimed surface mines varies by age of reclamation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Petra; Ammer, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied 3 mountaintop mining–valley fill (MTMVF) complexes in southern West Virginia, USA to examine grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum pratensis) demographic response to different age classes of mine land reclamation. For 71 nests monitored during the 2001–2002 breeding seasons, overall nest success (36%) was within the range of nest success rates previously reported for this species, but it was highest on more recently reclaimed sites (56%). Nest density and clutch size did not differ (P > 0.30) among reclamation age classes, whereas number of fledglings was greater (P = 0.01) on more recently reclaimed sites. We measured vegetation variables at 70 nest subplots and at 96 systematic subplots to compare nest vegetation with vegetation available on the plots. We found that nests occurred in areas with more bare ground near the nest, greater vegetation height–density surrounding the nest site, lower grass height, and fewer woody stems, similar to previous studies. As postreclamation age increased, vegetation height–density and maximum grass height increased, and sericea (Lespedeza cuneata) became more dominant. Nest success declined with increasing vegetation height–density at the nest. The grasslands available on these reclaimed mine complexes are of sufficient quality to support breeding populations of grasshopper sparrows, but nest success decreased on the older reclaimed areas. Without active management, grasslands on reclaimed MTMVF mines become less suitable for nesting grasshopper sparrows about 10 years after reclamation.

  20. TOXICITY APPROACHES TO ASSESSING MINING IMPACTS AND MINE WASTE TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Office of Research and Development's National Exposure Research Laboratory and National Risk Management Research Laboratory have been evaluating the impact of mining sites on receiving streams and the effectiveness of waste treatment technologies in removing toxicity fo...

  1. Metal Removal Efficiency And Ecotoxicological Assessment Of Field-Scale Passive Treatment Biochemical Reactors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biochemical reactors (BCRs) are useful for removing metals from mining-impacted water at remote sites. Removal processes include sorption and precipitation of metal sulfides, carbonates, and hydroxides. A question of interest is whether BCRs remove aquatic toxicity. ...

  2. Metal removal efficiency and ecotoxicological assessment of field-scale passive treatment biochemical reactors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biochemical reactors (BCRs) are useful for removing metals from mining-impacted water (MIW) at remote sites. Removal processes include sorption and precipitation of metal sulfides, carbonates and hydroxides. A question of interest is whether BCRs remove aquatic toxicit...

  3. Coastal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) declared by President Reagan in March 1983 has met with a mixed response from those who would benefit from a guaranteed, 200-nautical-mile (370-km) protected underwater mining zone off the coasts of the United States and its possessions. On the one hand, the U.S. Department of the Interior is looking ahead and has been very successful in safeguarding important natural resources that will be needed in the coming decades. On the other hand, the mining industry is faced with a depressed metals and mining market.A report of the Exclusive Economic Zone Symposium held in November 1983 by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mineral Management Service, and the Bureau of Mines described the mixed response as: “ … The Department of Interior … raring to go into promotion of deep-seal mining but industrial consortia being very pessimistic about the program, at least for the next 30 or so years.” (Chemical & Engineering News, February 5, 1983).

  4. Hydraulic mining method

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  5. Mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, G.A.

    1985-05-07

    A haulage system for a mining machine comprises a mining machine mounted on and/or guided by a conveyor and reciprocable with respect thereto, the conveyor being provided with a rack having plural rows of teeth of identical pitch, with the teeth of one row staggered with respect to an adjacent row(s), and the machine being provided with at least one power driven haulage sprocket comprising plural sets of peripherally arranged teeth of identical pitch, one set being angularly staggered with respect to an adjacent set(s), whereby one set is engageable with each row of teeth of the rack. The invention also includes a mining machine provided with such a power driven haulage sprocket, and a rack as above described and provided with end fittings for securing in articulated manner to an adjacent rack.

  6. Asteroid mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    The earliest studies of asteroid mining proposed retrieving a main belt asteroid. Because of the very long travel times to the main asteroid belt, attention has shifted to the asteroids whose orbits bring them fairly close to the Earth. In these schemes, the asteroids would be bagged and then processed during the return trip, with the asteroid itself providing the reaction mass to propel the mission homeward. A mission to one of these near-Earth asteroids would be shorter, involve less weight, and require a somewhat lower change in velocity. Since these asteroids apparently contain a wide range of potentially useful materials, our study group considered only them. The topics covered include asteroid materials and properties, asteroid mission selection, manned versus automated missions, mining in zero gravity, and a conceptual mining method.

  7. Summer to Early Fall O3\\ and CO Measurements in the North Atlantic Ocean at a Mountaintop Site in the Azores Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edlin, C. L.; Honrath, R. E.

    2001-12-01

    A system for the continuous ground-based measurement of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) was recently installed at a mountaintop site in the Portuguese Azores Islands in the central north Atlantic Ocean{}. The main objective of this site will be the determination of the frequency and impact of transport events bringing O3\\ and O3\\ precursors from North America and Europe to the central north Atlantic Ocean region. These measurements are a part of the PICO-NARE study (Pico International atmospheric Chemistry Observatory - North Atlantic Research Experiment). The measurement site is located on the top of Pico mountain at an altitude of 2225 meters, allowing frequent sampling of free tropospheric air. Frequency and magnitude of long-range pollution events to the north Atlantic from continental sources are determined through analysis of correlation between O3\\ and CO and the use of back-trajectory data. Data obtained from July to October, 2001 will be presented here. The measurements will be analyzed to assess ambient levels of O3\\ and CO in the remote central north Atlantic region. Additionally, these measurements will be utilized to identify and quantify O3\\ import and en route production associated with polluted air masses transported to the north Atlantic region. Meteorological data will also be analyzed and presented, to begin characterization of the PICO-NARE site for determination of the frequency of the free tropospheric observations at the site.

  8. Long Distance Dispersal of Zooplankton Endemic to Isolated Mountaintops - an Example of an Ecological Process Operating on an Evolutionary Time Scale

    PubMed Central

    Vanschoenwinkel, Bram; Mergeay, Joachim; Pinceel, Tom; Waterkeyn, Aline; Vandewaerde, Hanne; Seaman, Maitland; Brendonck, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings suggest a convergence of time scales between ecological and evolutionary processes which is usually explained in terms of rapid micro evolution resulting in evolution on ecological time scales. A similar convergence, however, can also emerge when slow ecological processes take place on evolutionary time scales. A good example of such a slow ecological process is the colonization of remote aquatic habitats by passively dispersed zooplankton. Using variation at the protein coding mitochondrial COI gene, we investigated the balance between mutation and migration as drivers of genetic diversity in two Branchipodopsis fairy shrimp species (Crustacea, Anostraca) endemic to remote temporary rock pool clusters at the summit of isolated mountaintops in central South Africa. We showed that both species colonized the region almost simultaneously c. 0.8 My ago, but exhibit contrasting patterns of regional genetic diversity and demographic history. The haplotype network of the common B. cf. wolfi showed clear evidence of 11 long distance dispersal events (up to 140 km) with five haplotypes that are shared among distant inselbergs, as well as some more spatially isolated derivates. Similar patterns were not observed for B. drakensbergensis presumably since this rarer species experienced a genetic bottleneck. We conclude that the observed genetic patterns reflect rare historic colonization events rather than frequent ongoing gene flow. Moreover, the high regional haplotype diversity combined with a high degree of haplotype endemicity indicates that evolutionary- (mutation) and ecological (migration) processes in this system operate on similar time scales. PMID:22102865

  9. Mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.R.; Spence, A.M.

    1981-06-23

    In a system for the supply of fluid under pressure to machinery of an underground mine working, lengths of fixed conduit are secured to parts of the conveyor assembly, prior to the assembly of said parts at the underground mine working. When the conveyor assembly has been assembled, the length of fixed conduits are interconnected, either by straight lengths of flexible conduit, or by branched lengths of flexible conduit, where take off for fluid under pressure is required for the machinery, for example a roof support unit.

  10. Radioactivities related to coal mining.

    PubMed

    Seddeek, Mostafa K; Sharshar, Taher; Ragab, Hossam S; Badran, Hussein M

    2005-08-01

    Natural radioactivity concentrations due to the coal mining in Gabal El-Maghara, North Sinai, Egypt, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Coal, water and soil samples were investigated in this study. The (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in coal before extraction were 18.5 +/- 0.5, 29.5 +/- 1.2 and 149.0 +/- 8.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These concentrations were reduced to 18-22% after extraction due to the clay removal of the coal ore. The activity contents of the water and soil samples collected from the surrounding area did not show any evidence of enhancement due to the mining activities. Absorbed dose rate and effective dose equivalent in the mine environment were 29.4 nGy h(-1) and 128.0 microSv a(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations in the mine environment and the surrounding areas (5 km away from the mine) are similar to that found in other regions in North and South Sinai. Based on the measurements of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides, the mine activity does not lead to any enhancement in the local area nor represents any human risk. PMID:16049576

  11. Kidney removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the surgical cut is located. Recovery after a laparoscopic procedure is most often quicker, with less pain. Outlook (Prognosis) The outcome is most often good when a single kidney is removed. If both kidneys are removed, ...

  12. Tick Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... ticks Tickborne diseases abroad Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia mayonii Tick Removal Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... a tick quite effectively. How to remove a tick Use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick ...

  13. Biomodification of coal to remove mercury

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biological process for removal of mercury from coal is under investigation. Iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria have previously been used for desulfurization of coal and for mineral mining. We have shown that removal of mercury from coal is also possible via the same principles. Two pure culture...

  14. Automation and robotics technology for intelligent mining systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welsh, Jeffrey H.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines is approaching the problems of accidents and efficiency in the mining industry through the application of automation and robotics to mining systems. This technology can increase safety by removing workers from hazardous areas of the mines or from performing hazardous tasks. The short-term goal of the Automation and Robotics program is to develop technology that can be implemented in the form of an autonomous mining machine using current continuous mining machine equipment. In the longer term, the goal is to conduct research that will lead to new intelligent mining systems that capitalize on the capabilities of robotics. The Bureau of Mines Automation and Robotics program has been structured to produce the technology required for the short- and long-term goals. The short-term goal of application of automation and robotics to an existing mining machine, resulting in autonomous operation, is expected to be accomplished within five years. Key technology elements required for an autonomous continuous mining machine are well underway and include machine navigation systems, coal-rock interface detectors, machine condition monitoring, and intelligent computer systems. The Bureau of Mines program is described, including status of key technology elements for an autonomous continuous mining machine, the program schedule, and future work. Although the program is directed toward underground mining, much of the technology being developed may have applications for space systems or mining on the Moon or other planets.

  15. Underground mining methods handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hustrulid, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Sections discuss: mine design considerations; stopes requiring minimum support (includes room-and-pillar mining and sublevel stoping); stopes requiring some additional support other than pillars (includes shrinkage stoping, cut-and-fill stoping, undercut-and-fill mining, timber-supported system, top-slice mining, longwall mining and shortwall mining); caving methods (sublevel and block caving); underground equipment; financial considerations; design; and mine ventilation.

  16. Data mining

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Kargupta, H.; Stafford, B.G.; Buescher, K.L.; Ravindran, B.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop and implement data mining technology suited to the analysis of large collections of unstructured data. This has taken the form of a software tool, PADMA (Parallel Data Mining Agents), which incorporates parallel data accessing, parallel scalable hierarchical clustering algorithms, and a web-based user interface for submitting Structured Query Language (SQL) queries and interactive data visualization. The authors have demonstrated the viability and scalability of PADMA by applying it to an unstructured text database of 25,000 documents running on an IBM SP2 at Argonne National Laboratory. The utility of PADMA for discovering patterns in data has also been demonstrated by applying it to laboratory test data for Hepatitis C patients and autopsy reports in collaboration with the University of New Mexico School of Medicine.

  17. The Mechanization of Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marovelli, Robert L.; Karhnak, John M.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanization of mining is explained in terms of its effect on the mining of coal, focusing on, among others, types of mining, productivity, machinery, benefits to retired miners, fatality rate in underground coal mines, and output of U.S. mining industry. (Author/JN)

  18. Difference in particle formation at a mountaintop location during spring and summer: Implications for the role of sulfuric acid and organics in nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fangqun; Hallar, A. Gannet

    2014-11-01

    New particle formation (NPF) has been observed frequently at Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), a high-elevation mountaintop observatory in Colorado. A detailed analysis of field measurements taken in March and July 2012 at SPL reveals significant and interesting differences in NPF during the spring and summer months. Persistent long-lasting NPF occurred on a daily basis in March but was absent in July. Bursts of ultrafine particles did occur frequently in July, but such bursts were short-lasting and did not show any obvious pattern. A global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) coupled with a size-resolved advanced particle microphysics model is used to interpret in-depth this observed nucleation phenomenon. The model captures well the observed persistent daily nucleation events in March and the absence of regional-scale NPF in July. Model simulations indicate that aerosol precursors were dominated by H2SO4 gas in March and by low-volatile secondary organic gases (LV-SOGs) in July, which are consistent with previous particle composition measurements at SPL. The observed persistent daily NPF in March and the absence of regional-scale nucleation in July at SPL indicate that H2SO4 gas plays a much more critical role in the initial nucleation process, although LV-SOGs dominate particle growth in July. Our analysis suggests that the short-lasting bursts of ultrafine particles observed at SPL in July are likely associated with nucleation in subgrid power plant plumes, where concentrations of H2SO4 rather than LV-SOGs are expected to be higher.

  19. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  20. Mining review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCartan, L.; Morse, D.E.; Plunkert, P.A.; Sibley, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    The average annual growth rate of real gross domestic product (GDP) from the third quarter of 2001 through the second quarter of 2003 in the United States was about 2.6 percent. GDP growth rates in the third and fourth quarters of 2003 were about 8 percent and 4 percent, respectively. The upward trends in many sectors of the U.S. economy in 2003, however, were shared by few of the mineral materials industries. Annual output declined in most nonfuel mining and mineral processing industries, although there was an upward turn toward yearend as prices began to increase.

  1. 30 CFR 823.12 - Soil removal and stockpiling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil removal and stockpiling. 823.12 Section... ON PRIME FARMLAND § 823.12 Soil removal and stockpiling. (a) Prime farmland soils shall be removed from the areas to be disturbed before drilling, blasting, or mining. (b) The minimum depth of soil...

  2. 30 CFR 57.12036 - Fuse removal or replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuse removal or replacement. 57.12036 Section 57.12036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12036 Fuse removal or replacement. Fuses shall not be removed...

  3. 30 CFR 57.12036 - Fuse removal or replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuse removal or replacement. 57.12036 Section 57.12036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12036 Fuse removal or replacement. Fuses shall not be removed...

  4. Mine seepage problems in drift mine operations

    SciTech Connect

    DeRossett, C.; Johnson, D.E.; Bradshaw, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    Extensive mining in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Region has occurred in coal deposits located above valley floors. Underground mines present unique stability problems resulting from the creation of mine pools in abandoned works. {open_quotes}Blowouts{close_quotes} occur when hydrostatic pressures result in the cataclysmic failure of an outcrop-barrier. Additionally, seepage from flooded works results in saturation of colluvium, which may ultimately mobilize as landslides. Several case studies of both landslides and blowouts illustrate that considerations should be taken into account to control or prevent these problems. Underground mine maps and seepage conditions at the individual sites were examined to determine the mine layouts, outcrop-barrier widths, and structure of the mine floors. Discharge monitoring points were established in and near the landslides. These studies depict how mine layout, operation, and geology influence drainage conditions. The authors suggest that mine designs should incorporate drainage control to insure long-term stability and limit liability. The goal of the post-mining drainage plan is control of the mine drainage, which will reduce the size of mine pools and lower the hydrostatic pressure. Recommendations are made as to several methods that may be useful in controlling mine drainage.

  5. Solutions for Arsenic Control in Mining Processes and Extractive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitola, Raisa; Korhonen, Tero; Backnäs, Soile; Turunen, Kaisa; Kaartinen, Tommi; Laine-Ylijoki, Jutta; Wahlström, Margareta; Venho, Antti; Ahoranta, Sarita; Nissilä, Marika; Puhakka, Jaakko

    2015-04-01

    In mining, quarrying and industrial minerals production arsenic is a common element, thus creating a challenge in mining processes. This project aimed to develop solutions to control and remove As-compounds in materials and effluents of beneficiation processes and other mining operations. Focus was on various technologies e.g. traditional mineral processing, bioprocessing, water treatment, as well as various materials such as gold ores and concentrates, industrial by-products, and mine waters. The results of suggest that by novel mineral processing and proper water treatment methods the amount of As-compounds in tailings and effluents can be reduced to levels that satisfy the regulations concerning mining waste management. According to the environmental research, mining activities tend to increase the proportion of potentially mobile and available elements in soil. The effect of mining activity on geogenic contamination needs to be considered in risk assessment.

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF AQUAFIX AND SAPS PASSIVE MINE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AT SUMMITVILLE MINE SITE, INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency evaluated two passive water treatment (PWT) technologies for metals removal from acid mine drainage (AMD) at the Summitville Mine Superfund Site in southern Colorado...

  7. Acid mine drainage: An economic total resource recovery solution

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, R.L.; Clarke, S.R.; Brackenbury, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    A common feature of abandoned hard rock mines and subterranean coal mines is the creation of toxic and acidic solution often containing iron, copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, manganese and alkaline earth and alkali metals. A process is described which sequentially removes heavy metals using electrochemical ion exchange and rotating cylinder electrodes. Studies summarized indicate recovery of copper, zinc, iron, and aluminum oxide; selective stripping of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and lead; and recovery of water acceptable for drinking after removal of heavy metals.

  8. Kidney removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... will be on your side, just below the ribs or right over the lowest ribs. Muscle, fat, and tissue are cut and moved. Your surgeon may need to remove a rib to do the procedure. The tube that carries ...

  9. Spleen removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders of blood cells, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP), hereditary spherocytosis , thalassemia, hemolytic anemia , and hereditary ... spherocytic anemia Hemolytic anemia Hodgkin lymphoma Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) Patient Instructions Spleen removal - child - discharge Spleen ...

  10. Tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Adatto, Maurice A; Halachmi, Shlomit; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Over 50,000 new tattoos are placed each year in the United States. Studies estimate that 24% of American college students have tattoos and 10% of male American adults have a tattoo. The rising popularity of tattoos has spurred a corresponding increase in tattoo removal. Not all tattoos are placed intentionally or for aesthetic reasons though. Traumatic tattoos due to unintentional penetration of exogenous pigments can also occur, as well as the placement of medical tattoos to mark treatment boundaries, for example in radiation therapy. Protocols for tattoo removal have evolved over history. The first evidence of tattoo removal attempts was found in Egyptian mummies, dated to have lived 4,000 years BC. Ancient Greek writings describe tattoo removal with salt abrasion or with a paste containing cloves of white garlic mixed with Alexandrian cantharidin. With the advent of Q-switched lasers in the late 1960s, the outcomes of tattoo removal changed radically. In addition to their selective absorption by the pigment, the extremely short pulse duration of Q-switched lasers has made them the gold standard for tattoo removal. PMID:21865802

  11. Penn State researches acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-27

    A brief news item reports that work is being carried out at Penn State University on the effectiveness of sphagnum moss and other marsh-type plants in removing iron from acid mine water. A sphagnum moss bog has been established in a greenhouse at the University and field work is also being undertaken in a natural environment in Clearfield County.

  12. Mitigation planning for raptors during mining

    SciTech Connect

    Platt, S.W.

    1990-12-31

    Birds of prey and their eggs, young and nests are protected by state and federal laws and regulations. Surface mining operators may experience conflicts with raptors when expanding into nesting areas or when raptors are attracted into mining areas. State and federal permits are required for disturbance or manipulation of birds of prey. Mitigation planning for raptors begins before mining and continues through mining. As conflict situations changes, so must the mitigation plan. Before each nesting season the mining schedule should be compared to areas of known raptor nesting activity. If overlap occurs, nest protection measures may be needed. Areas of potential conflict should be patrolled regularly to identify the presence of a raptor pair and nest starts. Should a raptor nest be built and eggs laid, a change in the mining schedule or an egg or brood manipulation may resolve the conflict. Bridger Coal Company has successfully mitigated conflicts with 3 raptor species. A ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis) nest with brood was successfully relocated across a pit. Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicensis) egg clutches were removed from 2 highwall nests and transported in a portable incubator to a commercial raptor propagator where they were hatched, fed and conspecifically imprinted until achieving self-thermoregulation. All chicks were returned to the mine and successfully placed into foster nests. A metal artificial nest ledge for a prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus) was constructed in a cliff and a traditional nesting ledge rendered inaccessible. The falcon pair successfully nested in the artificial ledge.

  13. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  14. ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation covered five topics; arsenic chemistry, best available technology (BAT), surface water technology, ground water technology and case studies of arsenic removal. The discussion on arsenic chemistry focused on the need and method of speciation for AsIII and AsV. BAT me...

  15. Splinter removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... remove a splinter, first wash your hands with soap and water. Use tweezers to grab the splinter. Carefully pull it out at the same angle it went in. If the splinter is under the skin or hard to grab: Sterilize a pin or needle by ...

  16. REMOVING INORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When EPA sets a regulation ( a maxim contaminant level) for a contaminant, it must also specify the "best available technology" (BAT) that can be used to remove the contaminant. ecause the regulations apply to community water systems, the technologies selected are ones that are c...

  17. 4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, SNOWSHEDS AND TIPPLE (LEFT BACKGROUND). VIEW TO EAST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

  18. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE FROM KEETLEY MINE ROAD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE FROM KEETLEY MINE ROAD, SHOWING TAILING DUMP. VIEW TO WEST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

  19. Mining lease handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Mining leases and similar agreements are some of the most common documents encountered by mining attorneys. The mining Lease Handbook contains a collection of mining lease clauses which have been organized and assembled for over 25 years. The clauses in this book have been coordinated and cross-referenced to enable the Handbook user to create a mining lease having a logical structure with consistent terminology throughout. In many cases, alternative clauses are included. The accompanying commentary provides insight into the use of the various clauses while pointing our pitfalls to be avoided. This Handbook is devoted primarily to mining leases, several chapters cover the subjects of options, subleases, and ancillary documents.

  20. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume I. Mine water and mine waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  1. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume II. Mine reclamation, abandoned mine lands and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  2. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2005-01-31

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time. PMID:15629576

  3. Air pollutant intrusion into the Wieliczka Salt Mine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salmon, L.G.; Cass, G.R.; Kozlowski, R.; Hejda, A.; Spiker, E. C.; Bates, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Wieliczka Salt Mine World Cultural Heritage Site contains many rock salt sculptures that are threatened by water vapor condensation from the mine ventilation air. Gaseous and particulate air pollutant concentrations have been measured both outdoors and within the Wieliczka Salt Mine, along with pollutant deposition fluxes to surfaces within the mine. One purpose of these measurements was to determine whether or not low deliquescence point ionic materials (e.g., NH4NO3) are accumulating on surfaces to an extent that would exacerbate the water vapor condensation problems in the mine. It was found that pollutant gases including SO2 and HNO3 present in outdoor air are removed rapidly and almost completely from the air within the mine by deposition to surfaces. Sulfur isotope analyses confirm the accumulation of air pollutant-derived sulfur in liquid dripping from surfaces within the mine. Particle deposition onto interior surfaces in the mine is apparent, with resulting soiling of some of those sculptures that have been carved from translucent rock salt. Water accumulation by salt sculpture surfaces was studied both experimentally and by approximate thermodynamic calculations. Both approaches suggest that the pollutant deposits on the sculpture surfaces lower the relative humidity (RH) at which a substantial amount of liquid water will accumulate by 1% to several percent. The extraordinarily low SO2 concentrations within the mine may explain the apparent success of a respiratory sanatorium located deep within the mine.

  4. Mine waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This book reports on mine waste management. Topics covered include: Performance review of modern mine waste management units; Mine waste management requirements; Prediction of acid generation potential; Attenuation of chemical constituents; Climatic considerations; Liner system design; Closure requirements; Heap leaching; Ground water monitoring; and Economic impact evaluation.

  5. Data Mining for CRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thearling, Kurt

    Data Mining technology allows marketing organizations to better understand their customers and respond to their needs. This chapter describes how Data Mining can be combined with customer relationship management to help drive improved interactions with customers. An example showing how to use Data Mining to drive customer acquisition activities is presented.

  6. Mining apparatus having an improved coupling assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Ingle, J.E.

    1981-09-08

    A mining apparatus is disclosed for excavating material from an earth formation having a miner which is removably connectable to a carrier by a coupling assembly. The mining apparatus includes other carriers which are interconnected by the coupling assembly of the present invention. The coupling assembly includes a male connector and a female connector, the male connector being disposable in a portion of the female connector in an insert position and the male connector being movable from the insert position to a connected position for interconnecting the male and the female connectors.

  7. 30 CFR 823.12 - Soil removal and stockpiling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Soil removal and stockpiling. 823.12 Section 823.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS SPECIAL PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-OPERATIONS ON PRIME FARMLAND § 823.12 Soil removal...

  8. 30 CFR 823.12 - Soil removal and stockpiling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Soil removal and stockpiling. 823.12 Section 823.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS SPECIAL PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-OPERATIONS ON PRIME FARMLAND § 823.12 Soil removal...

  9. 30 CFR 823.12 - Soil removal and stockpiling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Soil removal and stockpiling. 823.12 Section 823.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS SPECIAL PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-OPERATIONS ON PRIME FARMLAND § 823.12 Soil removal...

  10. Data Mining Model Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudici, Paolo

    The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the role of statistical models and, more generally, of statistics, in choosing a Data Mining model. After a preliminary introduction on the distinction between Data Mining and statistics, we will focus on the issue of how to choose a Data Mining methodology. This well illustrates how statistical thinking can bring real added value to a Data Mining analysis, as otherwise it becomes rather difficult to make a reasoned choice. In the third part of the paper we will present, by means of a case study in credit risk management, how Data Mining and statistics can profitably interact.

  11. Mined area detection overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, Ian A.; Deas, Robert M.; Port, Daniel M.

    2002-08-01

    An overview of the progress on the UK MOD Applied Research Program for Land Mine Detection. The Defense Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) carries out and manages the whole of the UK MOD's Mined Area Detection Applied Research Program both within its own laboratories and in partnership with industrial and academic research organizations. This paper will address two specific areas of Applied Research: hand held mine detection and vehicle mounted mine detection in support of the Mine Detection Neutralization and Route Marking System which started in April 1997. Both are multi-sensor systems, incorporating between them metal detection, ground penetrating radar, nuclear quadrupole resonance, ultra-wideband radar, and polarized thermal imaging.

  12. Forced removals embodied as tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Eugene T; Morrow, Carl D; Ho, Theodore; Fürst, Nicole; Cohelia, Rebekkah; Tram, Khai Hoan; Farmer, Paul E; Wood, Robin

    2016-07-01

    South Africa has one of the worst tuberculosis burdens in the world. Several ecological forces have contributed to this, including high HIV prevalence; failing TB control strategies; crowded, poorly ventilated indoor environments-including the complex web of political and economic interests which produce them; the development of racial capitalism; and mining and migration. In the following study, we measure CO2 levels in public transport to investigate the role extended commutes from peri-urban settlements to urban sites of work-a direct result of forced removals-potentially play in propagating the TB epidemic in Cape Town, South Africa. PMID:27239703

  13. Escondida Mine, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    This ASTER image covers 30 by 37 km in the Atacama Desert, Chile and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida Cu-Au-Ag open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and came on stream in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentration of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9 pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. This image is a conventional 3-2-1 RGB composite. Figure 1 displays SWIR bands 4-6-8 in RGB, and highlights lithologic and alteration differences of surface units. The image is located at 24.3 degrees south latitude and 69.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  14. 76 FR 35398 - Scoria Mining Addition, Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Forest Service Scoria Mining Addition, Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National... uninterrupted mining of their Federal coal lease. The Forest Service proposes to authorize TBCC to remove scoria... of private surface lands. The total lands encumbered by mining activity will not include the...

  15. Data mining in radiology

    PubMed Central

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-01-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining. PMID:25024513

  16. Data mining in radiology.

    PubMed

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-04-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining. PMID:25024513

  17. Commercial Data Mining Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Segall, Richard S.

    This chapter discusses selected commercial software for data mining, supercomputing data mining, text mining, and web mining. The selected software are compared with their features and also applied to available data sets. The software for data mining are SAS Enterprise Miner, Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0, PASW (formerly SPSS Clementine), IBM Intelligent Miner, and BioDiscovery GeneSight. The software for supercomputing are Avizo by Visualization Science Group and JMP Genomics from SAS Institute. The software for text mining are SAS Text Miner and Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0. The software for web mining are Megaputer PolyAnalyst and SPSS Clementine . Background on related literature and software are presented. Screen shots of each of the selected software are presented, as are conclusions and future directions.

  18. Cerulean Warbler abundance and occurrence relative to large-scale edge and habitat characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, P.B.; Bosworth, S.B.; Dettmers, R.

    2006-02-15

    We examined Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) abundance and occurrence in southwestern West Virginia, where the coal-mining technique of mountaintop removal mining-valley fill converts large contiguous tracts of deciduous forest to forest patches surrounded by early successional habitats. Our study objectives were to quantify abundance and occurrence of Cerulean Warblers relative to (1) distance from the edge of extensive reclaimed grasslands and (2) habitat structure and landscape characteristics. Cerulean Warbler abundance increased with distance from the edge and edge effects extended 340 m into the forest. Percent occurrence did not vary with distance from mine edge, suggesting a degree of tolerance to the extensive edge occurring at the interface of forest and reclaimed lands. Abundance and occurrence were greater on ridges and midslopes than in bottomlands; consequently, disturbances such as mountaintop mining in which ridges are removed may have a greater impact on populations compared to other sources of fragmentation where ridges are not disturbed. It was found that, in addition to outright loss of forested habitat, mountaintop mining-valley fill alters the spatial configuration of forested habitats, creating edge and area effects that negatively affect Cerulean Warbler abundance and occurrence in the reclaimed mine landscape.

  19. Stability evaluation of the Markel Mine at Weeks Island, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.L.

    1994-06-01

    A three dimensional (3D) finite element analysis of the Markel Mine located on Weeks Island was performed to: (1) evaluate the stability of the mine and (2) determine the effect of mine failure on the nearby Morton Salt mine and SPR facilities. The first part of the stability evaluation investigates the effect of pillar failure on mine stability. These simulations revealed that tensile stresses and dilatant damage develop in the overlying salt as a result of pillar loss. These tensile stresses extend to the salt/overburden interface only for the case where all 45 of the pillars are assumed to fail. Tensile stresses would likely cause microfracturing of the salt, resulting in a flow path for groundwater from the overlying aquifer to enter the mine. The dilatant damage bridges between the mine and the overburden in the case where 15 or more pillars are removed from the model. Dilatant damage is attributed to microfracturing or changes in the pore structure of the salt and could also result in a flow path for groundwater to enter the mine. The second part of the Markel Mine evaluation investigates the stability of the pillars with respect to three failure mechanisms: tensile failure, compressive failure, and creep rupture. A 3D slabbing pillar model of the Markel mine was developed to investigate progressive failure of the pillars and the effect of slabbing on mine stability. Based on a strain-limiting creep rupture criterion, pillar failure is predicted to be extensive at present. The associated loss of pillar strength should be equivalent to removing all pillars from the model as was done in the first part of this stability analysis, resulting in the possibility of ground water intrusion. Since creep rupture is not a well understood phenomenon, further development and validation of this criterion is recommended.

  20. Automation of the longwall mining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W.; Aster, R. W.; Harris, J.; High, J.

    1982-01-01

    Cost effective, safe, and technologically sound applications of automation technology to underground coal mining were identified. The longwall analysis commenced with a general search for government and industry experience of mining automation technology. A brief industry survey was conducted to identify longwall operational, safety, and design problems. The prime automation candidates resulting from the industry experience and survey were: (1) the shearer operation, (2) shield and conveyor pan line advance, (3) a management information system to allow improved mine logistics support, and (4) component fault isolation and diagnostics to reduce untimely maintenance delays. A system network analysis indicated that a 40% improvement in productivity was feasible if system delays associated with all of the above four areas were removed. A technology assessment and conceptual system design of each of the four automation candidate areas showed that state of the art digital computer, servomechanism, and actuator technologies could be applied to automate the longwall system.

  1. Tridimensional modelling and resource estimation of the mining waste piles of São Domingos mine, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Alexandre; Matos, João; Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2016-04-01

    Located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) northern sector, near the Portuguese/Spanish border, the outcropping São Domingos deposit was mined since Roman time. Between 1854 and 1966 the Mason & Barry Company developed open pit excavation until 120 m depth and underground mining until 420 m depth. The São Domingos subvertical deposit is associated with felsic volcanics and black shales of the IPB Volcano-Sedimentary Complex and is represented by massive sulphide and stockwork ore (py, cpy, sph, ga, tt, aspy) and related supergene enrichment ore (hematite gossan and covellite/chalcocite). Different mine waste classes were mapped around the old open pit: gossan (W1), felsic volcanic and shales (W2), shales (W3) and mining waste landfill (W4). Using the LNEG (Portuguese Geological Survey) CONASA database (company historical mining waste characterization based on 162 shafts and 160 reverse circulation boreholes), a methodology for tridimensional modelling mining waste pile was followed, and a new mining waste resource is presented. Considering some constraints to waste removal, such as the Mina de São Domingos village proximity of the wastes, the industrial and archaeological patrimony (e.g., mining infrastructures, roman galleries), different resource scenarios were considered: unconditioned resources (total estimates) and conditioned resources (only the volumes without removal constraints considered). Using block modelling (SURPAC software) a mineral inferred resource of 2.38 Mt @ 0.77 g/t Au and 8.26 g/t Ag is estimated in unconditioned volumes of waste. Considering all evaluated wastes, including village areas, an inferred resource of 4.0 Mt @ 0.64 g/t Au and 7.30 g/t Ag is presented, corresponding to a total metal content of 82,878 oz t Au and 955,753 oz t Ag. Keywords. São Domingos mine, mining waste resources, mining waste pile modelling, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal

  2. Coal Mining, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This simulated natural color ASTER image in the German state of North Rhine Westphalia covers an area of 30 by 36 km, and was acquired on August 26, 2000. On the right side of the image are 3 enormous opencast coalmines. The Hambach opencast coal mine has recently been brought to full output capacity through the addition of the No. 293 giant bucket wheel excavator. This is the largest machine in the world; it is twice as long as a soccer field and as tall as a building with 30 floors. To uncover the 2.4 billion tons of brown coal (lignite) found at Hambach, five years were required to remove a 200-m-thick layer of waste sand and to redeposit it off site. The mine currently yields 30 million tons of lignite annually, with annual capacity scheduled to increase to 40 million tons in coming years.

    The image is centered at 51 degrees north latitude, 6.4 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change

  3. Collaborative Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyle, Steve

    Collaborative Data Mining is a setting where the Data Mining effort is distributed to multiple collaborating agents - human or software. The objective of the collaborative Data Mining effort is to produce solutions to the tackled Data Mining problem which are considered better by some metric, with respect to those solutions that would have been achieved by individual, non-collaborating agents. The solutions require evaluation, comparison, and approaches for combination. Collaboration requires communication, and implies some form of community. The human form of collaboration is a social task. Organizing communities in an effective manner is non-trivial and often requires well defined roles and processes. Data Mining, too, benefits from a standard process. This chapter explores the standard Data Mining process CRISP-DM utilized in a collaborative setting.

  4. Renewed mining and reclamation: Imapacts on bats and potential mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.E.; Berry, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    Historic mining created new roosting habitat for many bat species. Now the same industry has the potential to adversely impact bats. Contemporary mining operations usually occur in historic districts; consequently the old workings are destroyed by open pit operations. Occasionally, underground techniques are employed, resulting in the enlargement or destruction of the original workings. Even during exploratory operations, historic mine openings can be covered as drill roads are bulldozed, or drills can penetrate and collapse underground workings. Nearby blasting associated with mine construction and operation can disrupt roosting bats. Bats can also be disturbed by the entry of mine personnel to collect ore samples or by recreational mine explorers, since the creation of roads often results in easier access. In addition to roost disturbance, other aspects of renewed mining can have adverse impacts on bat populations, and affect even those bats that do not live in mines. Open cyanide ponds, or other water in which toxic chemicals accumulate, can poison bats and other wildlife. The creation of the pits, roads and processing areas often destroys critical foraging habitat, or change drainage patterns. Finally, at the completion of mining, any historic mines still open may be sealed as part of closure and reclamation activities. The net result can be a loss of bats and bat habitat. Conversely, in some contemporary underground operations, future roosting habitat for bats can be fabricated. An experimental approach to the creation of new roosting habitat is to bury culverts or old tires beneath waste rock. Mining companies can mitigate for impacts to bats by surveying to identify bat-roosting habitat, removing bats prior to renewed mining or closure, protecting non-impacted roost sites with gates and fences, researching to identify habitat requirements and creating new artificial roosts.

  5. Two part mine roof support unit

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, K.; Dunkel, G.; Elsner, B.

    1983-08-30

    A mine roof support unit is constituted by two detachably connected parts. Each of the parts has a floor girder which supports a roof bar by means of a hydraulic prop. The roof support unit is intended for use at the lower end of an inclined longwall working which meets its access gallery at an angle other than 90/sup 0/. The detachability of the two parts enables one of these parts to be removed from the working as its face is advanced. The removed part can then be transported to the other end of working. Each of the parts is provided with means for detachably connecting an advance mechanism.

  6. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  7. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  8. Mining agreements III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book cover the following: Forms of mining agreements; Preliminary letter agreements; Acquisition of mineral interests involving securities; Partnership tax treatment in mining agreements; Non-tax consequences of partnerships under state law; Protection against joint venturers' liabilities; Joint venture decision making; Mining royalties; Commingling and unitization provisions; Indemnification and insurance provisions; Area of interest provision; Dispute resolution; and Non-participation and default provisions.

  9. A baseline lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

  10. Canada's largest mining scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    A large coal mining development in Canada's British Columbia, is opening up the wilderness in the northeastern part of that province. North East Coal Development, two open-pit mines operated by Quintette Coal Ltd., and Teck Corporation, both Vancouver-based mining companies, has started to ship to a group of Japanese steel companies 6,500,000 tons annually of metallurgical and additional quantities of thermal coal. To open this wilderness, some 80 miles southwest of Dawson Creek, and to develop the two surface mines, processing plants, and associated facilities involved several massive multimillion-dollar projects. These projects are discussed.

  11. Potassium Permanganate as an Alternative for Gold Mining Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordiales, M.; Fernández, D.; Verdeja, L. F.; Sancho, J.

    2015-09-01

    The feasibility of using potassium permanganate as a reagent for cyanide oxidation in wastewater was experimentally studied. Both artificial and production wastewater from two different gold mines were tested. The experiments had three goals: determine the optimum reagent concentration and reaction time required to achieve total cyanide removal, obtain knowledge of the reaction kinetics, and improve the management of the amount of reagent. The results indicate that potassium permanganate is an effective and reliable oxidizing agent for the removal of cyanide from gold mining wastewater.

  12. Mining Glossary and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This booklet was produced in an effort to increase the awareness and appreciation of young people for the Earth's resources. The Mining Education Glossary is intended to provide easy reference to mining terms which are used in the minerals recovery industry and as a useful resource for teaching basic learning skills. Accompanying the glossary are…

  13. Underground Coal Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  14. Longwall Coal Mining and Soil Moisture Changes in Southwestern Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeil-McCullough, E. K.; Bain, D.

    2014-12-01

    Subsidence from longwall coal mining impacts the surface and sub-surface hydrology in overlying areas. During longwall mining, coal is completely removed in large rectangular panels and the overlying rock collapses into the void. Though the hydrologic effects of longwall mining subsidence have been studied in arid systems, in humid-temperate regions these effects are not well understood. In particular, it is not clear how longwall mining will impact soil moisture patterns. Utilizing simple soil water modeling frameworks (ArcGIS-based Water Balance Toolbox) and the locations of recent long wall mining, potential impacts on soil water availability were predicted at the landscape scale. For example, in areas overlying panel edges, soil available water capacities (AWC) were altered based on several scenarios of AWC change and interactions between aspect driven soil moisture regimes and the mining perturbation were explored over a five year period (2008-2013). The regular patterns of soil moisture arising from insolation contrasts, when interacting with broad-scale longwall mining impacts, are predicted to cause complicated patterns of soil moisture change. These predictions serve as a means to guide field campaigns necessary to understand longwall mining's hydrologic impacts in wetter climates

  15. PRB mines mature

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-08-15

    Already seeing the results of reclamation efforts, America's largest surface mines advance as engineers prepare for the future. 30 years after the signing of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act by Jimmy Carter, western strip mines in the USA, especially in the Powder River Basin, are producing more coal than ever. The article describes the construction and installation of a $38.5 million near-pit crusher and overland belt conveyor system at Foundation Coal West's (FCW) Belle Ayr surface mine in Wyoming, one of the earliest PRB mines. It goes on to describe the development by Rio Tinto of an elk conservatory, the Rochelle Hill Conservation Easement, on reclaimed land at Jacobs Ranch, adjacent to the Rochelle Hills. 4 photos.

  16. IDENTIFYING RECENT SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES USING A NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI) CHANGE DETECTION METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory



    Coal mining is a major resource extraction activity on the Appalachian Mountains. The increased size and frequency of a specific type of surface mining, known as mountain top removal-valley fill, has in recent years raised various environmental concerns. During mountainto...

  17. Applied Behavior Analysis Is Ideal for the Development of a Land Mine Detection Technology Using Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    The detection and subsequent removal of land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) from many developing countries are slow, expensive, and dangerous tasks, but have the potential to improve the well-being of millions of people. Consequently, those involved with humanitarian mine and UXO clearance are actively searching for new and more efficient…

  18. Effect Of Imposed Anaerobic Conditions On Metals Release From Acid-Mine Drainage Contaminated Streambed Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of streams influenced by mine-drainage may require removal and burial of metal-containing bed sediments. Burial of aerobic sediments into an anaerobic environment may release metals, such as through reductive dissolution of metal oxyhydroxides. Mining-impacted aerob...

  19. Considerations in the development of incidental reclamation concepts for an extensively mined watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, J.; McCann, M.

    1982-12-01

    This paper deals with environmental effects caused by extensive coal mining in the North Fork watershed of the Pound River of Virginia, and plans for reclamation of these abandoned sites. The study plan is outlined for determining the current environmental problems in this steep slope area. Ideas for alternative mining practices for incidental coal removal during this reclamation process is also discussed.

  20. Preliminary Results: Release Of Metals From Acid-Mine Drainage Contaminated Streambed Sediments Under Anaerobic Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many miles of streams in the western U.S. are contaminated with acid-mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned metal mines. Treatment of these streams may include removal of the existing sediments, with subsequent burial (e.g., in a repository). Burial of previously aerobic sediments ma...

  1. Metals Release From Mining-Impacted Streambed Sediments In The North Fork Of Clear Creek, Colorado

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many miles of streams in the US (and worldwide) are contaminated by metals originating from both active and abandoned mine sites. Streams affected by mine drainage are often toxic to aquatic life. Thus, it is desirable to remediate these sites through removal or treatment of th...

  2. Examination of the mining of heavy oil and tar sands by overburden substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.

    1982-02-01

    A mining procedure which removes the geologic formations above an oil or tar sand bearing reservoir by strip mining techniques, then floods the upper surface of the reservoir with a pool of water, is examined by computational models and laboratory scale experiments. The results of the studies indicate low production rates are achieved by such a procedure.

  3. 1. VIEW OF PHILLIPS MINE. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. SULLIVAN MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF PHILLIPS MINE. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. SULLIVAN MINE IS LOCATED ROUGHLY 75 YARDS BEYOND AND ROUGHLY IN LINE WITH THE SNOW ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE IMAGE. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Phillips Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  4. 1. VIEW OF SULLIVAN MINE ON RIGHT WITH PHILLIPS MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SULLIVAN MINE ON RIGHT WITH PHILLIPS MINE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 200 YARDS THROUGH TREES IN THE DIRECTION OF THE MOUND ON THE LEFT SIDE OF ROAD. CAMERA POINTING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Sullivan Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  5. 2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE WITH TAILINGS ON RIGHT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. COLLAPSED ADIT APPROXIMATELY 25 YARDS UPHILL TO THE LEFT OF FAR BUILDING. TIP TOP AND ONTARIO ARE LOCATED OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  6. Heavy metal removal using peat/wetland treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, S.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the mechanisms and application of a peat/wetland treatment system for heavy metal removal from wastewater. The mechanisms involved in the removal of heavy metals are complex and difficult to predict, however, peat has been proven to be an effective medium to remove metals. The successful design of a peat/wetland treatment system for acid mine drainage is presented to emphasize the low cost and minimal maintenance involved in this passive metal removal technique.

  7. 25 CFR 213.42 - Operations after removal of restrictions from leased lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Removal of... heretofore approved and leases for other minerals now or hereafter in force on land from all of...

  8. Strata mechanics in coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremic, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book considers the following topics: coal measure; coal seam feature; roof and floor strata; virgin strata pressure; deformation and failure of structure; room and pillar mining; longwall mining; slice mining; open slope mining; sub-level caving; and coal pillar structure.

  9. Data Mining in Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoech, Dick; Quinn, Andrew; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the historical and larger context of data mining and describes data mining processes, techniques, and tools. Illustrates these using a child welfare dataset concerning the employee turnover that is mined, using logistic regression and a Bayesian neural network. Discusses the data mining process, the resulting models, their predictive…

  10. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Coblentz, B.

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  11. Teleoperated control system for underground room and pillar mining

    DOEpatents

    Mayercheck, William D.; Kwitowski, August J.; Brautigam, Albert L.; Mueller, Brian K.

    1992-01-01

    A teleoperated mining system is provided for remotely controlling the various machines involved with thin seam mining. A thin seam continuous miner located at a mining face includes a camera mounted thereon and a slave computer for controlling the miner and the camera. A plurality of sensors for relaying information about the miner and the face to the slave computer. A slave computer controlled ventilation sub-system which removes combustible material from the mining face. A haulage sub-system removes material mined by the continuous miner from the mining face to a collection site and is also controlled by the slave computer. A base station, which controls the supply of power and water to the continuous miner, haulage system, and ventilation systems, includes cable/hose handling module for winding or unwinding cables/hoses connected to the miner, an operator control module, and a hydraulic power and air compressor module for supplying air to the miner. An operator controlled host computer housed in the operator control module is connected to the slave computer via a two wire communications line.

  12. Thyroid gland removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002933.htm Thyroid gland removal To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Thyroid gland removal is surgery to remove all or ...

  13. Gallbladder removal - laparoscopic

    MedlinePlus

    Laparoscopic gallbladder removal is surgery to remove the gallbladder using a medical device called a laparoscope. ... lets the doctor see inside your belly. Gallbladder removal surgery is done while you are under general ...

  14. DESIGN MANUAL: PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual summarizes process design information for the best developed methods for removing phosphorus from wastewater. his manual discusses several proven phosphorus removal methods, including phosphorus removal obtainable through biological activity as well as chemical precip...

  15. Closedure - Mine Closure Technologies Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, Päivi; Kauppila, Tommi; Pasanen, Antti; Backnäs, Soile; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Turunen, Kaisa; Karlsson, Teemu; Solismaa, Lauri; Hentinen, Kimmo

    2015-04-01

    Closure of mining operations is an essential part of the development of eco-efficient mining and the Green Mining concept in Finland to reduce the environmental footprint of mining. Closedure is a 2-year joint research project between Geological Survey of Finland and Technical Research Centre of Finland that aims at developing accessible tools and resources for planning, executing and monitoring mine closure. The main outcome of the Closedure project is an updatable wiki technology-based internet platform (http://mineclosure.gtk.fi) in which comprehensive guidance on the mine closure is provided and main methods and technologies related to mine closure are evaluated. Closedure also provides new data on the key issues of mine closure, such as performance of passive water treatment in Finland, applicability of test methods for evaluating cover structures for mining wastes, prediction of water effluents from mine wastes, and isotopic and geophysical methods to recognize contaminant transport paths in crystalline bedrock.

  16. Man-Made Major Hazards Like Earthquake or Explosion; Case Study, Turkish Mine Explosion (13 May 2014).

    PubMed

    Vasheghani Farahani, Jamileh

    2014-10-01

    In all over the world, mining is considered as a high-risk activity that is pregnant with serious disasters not only for miners, engineers, and other people into it, but also for people who live near the mines. In this article, our main purpose is to examine some major mine disasters and safety in mines and the case study is a coal mine in Turkey. Safety in mines is one of the most important issues that need attention. Therefore, it is suggested that existing deficiencies in mines should be removed by continuous monitoring in all devices, equipments, control of Methane and safe separation of coal from a mine. Moreover, we recommend that early warning systems should be installed to alert some explosions, fires and other dangerous events to the fire departments, hospitals, Red Crescent and other major reliefs. Experiences from previous events in mines can help managers and miners. With some plans and projects related to disasters in mines and solution for them, some diseases such as black lung disease or other problems in mines such as carbon monoxide poisoning can forestall a danger. Before Mine owners begin their activity, they must research about the environmental and social effects of their activities. Therefore, they should identify some important hazards and determine some essential tasks to remove them or control risks via collaboration with other scientists. PMID:26060707

  17. Man-Made Major Hazards Like Earthquake or Explosion; Case Study, Turkish Mine Explosion (13 May 2014)

    PubMed Central

    VASHEGHANI FARAHANI, Jamileh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In all over the world, mining is considered as a high-risk activity that is pregnant with serious disasters not only for miners, engineers, and other people into it, but also for people who live near the mines. In this article, our main purpose is to examine some major mine disasters and safety in mines and the case study is a coal mine in Turkey. Safety in mines is one of the most important issues that need attention. Therefore, it is suggested that existing deficiencies in mines should be removed by continuous monitoring in all devices, equipments, control of Methane and safe separation of coal from a mine. Moreover, we recommend that early warning systems should be installed to alert some explosions, fires and other dangerous events to the fire departments, hospitals, Red Crescent and other major reliefs. Experiences from previous events in mines can help managers and miners. With some plans and projects related to disasters in mines and solution for them, some diseases such as black lung disease or other problems in mines such as carbon monoxide poisoning can forestall a danger. Before Mine owners begin their activity, they must research about the environmental and social effects of their activities. Therefore, they should identify some important hazards and determine some essential tasks to remove them or control risks via collaboration with other scientists. PMID:26060707

  18. 78 FR 39531 - Mine Rescue Teams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... July 1, 2013 Part V Department of Labor Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 49 Mine... and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 49 Mine... Miner Act Requirements for Underground Coal Mine Operators and Mine Rescue Teams Type of mine...

  19. Coal mine subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Rahall, N.J.

    1991-05-01

    This paper examines the efficacy of the Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement's (OSMRE) efforts to implement the federally assisted coal mine subsidence insurance program. Coal mine subsidence, a gradual settling of the earth's surface above an underground mine, can damage nearby land and property. To help protect property owners from subsidence-related damage, the Congress passed legislation in 1984 authorizing OSMRE to make grants of up to $3 million to each state to help the states establish self-sustaining, state-administered insurance programs. Of the 21 eligible states, six Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wyoming applied for grants. This paper reviews the efforts of these six states to develop self-sustaining insurance programs and assessed OSMRE's oversight of those efforts.

  20. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Turney, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

  1. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Passive treatment technology cleans up colorado mining waste

    SciTech Connect

    Morea, S.; Olsen, R. ); Wildeman, T. )

    1990-12-01

    This article describes the performance of a module designed to treat acid mine drainage from an mining tunnel. The site is one of the many abandoned mineral mines in Colorado. At optimum conditions passive treatment removed up to 98% of the zinc, 99% of the copper, 94% of the lead, and 86% of the iron in the mine drainage. It also increased pH from 3.0 to a value greater than 6.5. This treatment meets the need for a low cost operating and maintenance system. Because of the success of the pilot plant, the project team has obtained a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program grant from the EPA to continue operating the pilot plant for two additional years and to prepare the first design manual on passive treatment technology.

  3. Data Stream Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Zaslavsky, Arkady; Krishnaswamy, Shonali

    Data mining is concerned with the process of computationally extracting hidden knowledge structures represented in models and patterns from large data repositories. It is an interdisciplinary field of study that has its roots in databases, statistics, machine learning, and data visualization. Data mining has emerged as a direct outcome of the data explosion that resulted from the success in database and data warehousing technologies over the past two decades (Fayyad, 1997,Fayyad, 1998,Kantardzic, 2003).

  4. Mining Specifications: A Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Andreas

    Recent advances in software validation and verification make it possible to widely automate whether a specification is satisfied. This progress is hampered, though, by the persistent difficulty of writing specifications. Are we facing a “specification crisis”? In this paper, I show how to alleviate the burden of writing specifications by reusing and extending specifications as mined from existing software and give an overview on the state of the art in specification mining, its origins, and its potential.

  5. Based on the HAAR wavelet processing mine ground and underground contact measurement data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Wen, Hongyan; Han, Yakun; Kong, Lingshuai; Wang, Qingtao

    2015-12-01

    With the development of measurement technology, using the total station and GPS in the mining area are popular in the mine ground and underground contact measurement. Due to the particularity of the mining area, sometimes the measurement data of low precision can't meet the production requirements. In this paper using HAAR wavelet processing the measured data of a certain coal mine ground and underground contact domestic. To the original data preprocessing, first eliminate noise and then carries on the adjustment. After removed the noise of the late adjustment data quality, is conducive to improve the quality of the final data, to meet actual production needs.

  6. Coal-Mac, Inc. Phoenix No. 1 mine provides wildlife haven. 2007 Wildlife West Virginia Award

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, A.

    2007-07-15

    Coal Mac, Inc.'s Harless Wood Industrial Park off Holden 22 Mines Road in Logan Country, West Virginia is an award-winning reclamation site in the mountains frequented by geese, wild turkey, deer and black bears. Orchard grass and rye is a temporary cover for the timothy, clover and other seedlings. The area was mined several years ago. Some 40,000-50,000 tons of coal per month are surfaced mined with the current permit that takes in 1,500-2,000 acres. After removing the coal, valleys are backfilled as part of the mining and reclamation plan. 10 photos.

  7. Stabilization of the As-contaminated soil from the metal mining areas in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ko, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Ju-Yong; Bang, Sunbeak; Lee, Jin-Soo; Ko, Ju-In; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2012-01-01

    The stabilization efficiencies of arsenic (As) in contaminated soil were evaluated using various additives such as limestone, steel mill slag, granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), and mine sludge collected from an acid mine drainage treatment system. The soil samples were collected from the Chungyang area, where abandoned Au-Ag mines are located. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure, sequential extraction analysis, aqua regia digestion, cation exchange capacity, loss on ignition, and particle size distribution were conducted to assess the physical and chemical characteristics of highly arsenic-contaminated soils. The total concentrations of arsenic in the Chungyang area soil ranged up to 145 mg/kg. After the stabilization tests, the removal percentages of dissolved As(III) and As(V) were found to differ from the additives employed. Approximately 80 and 40% of the As(V) and As(III), respectively, were removed with the use of steel mill slag. The addition of limestone had a lesser effect on the removal of arsenic from solution. However, more than 99% of arsenic was removed from solution within 24 h when using GFH and mine sludge, with similar results observed when the contaminated soils were stabilized using GFH and mine sludge. These results suggested that GFH and mine sludge may play a significant role on the arsenic stabilization. Moreover, this result showed that mine sludge can be used as a suitable additive for the stabilization of arsenic. PMID:21826510

  8. Underground at Black Diamond Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.

    1989-10-01

    Although California is noted for its mining history and annually leads the nation in total monetary value of minerals produced, there a few opportunities for the public to tour underground mines. One reason is that nearly all mining in the state today is done above ground in open pits. Another reason is that active underground mines are not commonly favorable to public tours. There is one place, Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve, where the public can safely tour a formerly active underground mine. Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve is a 3,600-acre parkland about 5 miles southwest of Antioch in Contra Costa County. The Preserve was established in the early 1970s and is administered by the East Bay Regional Park District. Black Diamond Mines Preserve is noteworthy for its mining history as well as its natural history, both of which are briefly described here.

  9. CAERs's mine mapping program and Kentucky's mine mapping initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hiett, J.

    2007-07-01

    Since 1884 the Kentucky Department of Mines and Minerals (KDMM now OMSL) has had a mine mapping function as it relates to mine safety. The CAER's Mine Mapping Program has provided this service to that agency since 1972. The program has been in continuous operation under the current staff and management over that period. Functions include operating the Mine Map Repository/Mine Map Information Center of the OMSL; and receiving and processing all annual coal mine license maps, old maps, and related data. The Kentucky Mine Mapping Initiative's goal is to ensure that every underground and surface mine map in Kentucky is located, digitized and online. The Kentucky mine mapping website plays a vital role in the safety of Kentuckians. The purpose of the web service is to make available electronic maps of mined out areas and approximately 32,000 engineering drawings of operating or closed mines that are located in the state. Future phases of the project will include the archival scanning of all submitted mine maps; the recovery from outside sources of maps that were destroyed in a 1948 fire; and the development of further technology to process maps and related data. 7 photos.

  10. XML algebras for data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Yao, JingTao

    2004-04-01

    The XML is a new standard for data representation and exchange on the Internet. There are studies on XML query languages as well as XML algebras in literature. However, attention has not been paid to research on XML algebras for data mining due to partially the fact that there is no widely accepted definition of XML mining tasks. This paper tries to examine the XML mining tasks and provide guidelines to design XML algebras for data mining. Some summarization and comparison have been done to existing XML algebras. We argue that by adding additional operators for mining tasks, XML algebras may work well for data mining with XML documents.

  11. Conveyorized applications to surface mining

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, A.N.

    1983-06-01

    Worldwide, there are numerous conveyorized surface mines successfully operating today. Each surface mine is unique and requires a custom made system which ideally begins as part of the mine development plan. When properly applied, conveyorized systems can offer major cost savings in both capital costs and operating and maintenance costs. With modern technology, both required availability and flexibility have been satisfied on the many currently operating mines. Conveyorized systems offer a valuable ''tool'' which when combined with the other proven mining technology results in the most efficient surface mine operations which spells lower costs and higher profits.

  12. Underground mine communications: a survey

    SciTech Connect

    Yarkan, S.; Guzelgoz, S.; Arslan, H.; Murphy, R.R.

    2009-07-01

    After a recent series of unfortunate underground mining disasters, the vital importance of communications for underground mining is underlined one more time. Establishing reliable communication is a very difficult task for underground mining due to the extreme environmental conditions. Until now, no single communication system exists which can solve all of the problems and difficulties encountered in underground mine communications. However, combining research with previous experiences might help existing systems improve, if not completely solve all of the problems. In this survey, underground mine communication is investigated. Major issues which underground mine communication systems must take into account are discussed. Communication types, methods, and their significance are presented.

  13. Lunar construction/mining equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozdemir, Levent

    1990-01-01

    For centuries, mining has utilized drill and blast as the primary method of rock excavation. Although this technique has undergone significant improvements, it still remains a cyclic, labor intensive operation with inherent safety hazards. Other drawbacks include damage to the surrounding ground, creation of blast vibrations, rough excavation walls resulting in increased ventilation requirements, and the lack of selective mining ability. Perhaps the most important shortcoming of drill and blast is that it is not conducive to full implementation of automation or robotics technologies. Numerous attempts have been made in the past to automate drill and blast operations to remove personnel from the hazardous work environment. Although most of the concepts devised look promising on paper, none of them was found workable on a sustained production basis. In particular, the problem of serious damage to equipment during the blasting cycle could not be resolved regardless of the amount of charge used in excavation. Since drill and blast is not capable of meeting the requirements of a fully automated rock fragmentation method, its role is bound to gradually decrease. Mechanical excavation, in contrast, is highly suitable to automation because it is a continuous process and does not involve any explosives. Many of the basic principles and trends controlling the design of an earth-based mechanical excavator will hold in an extraterrestrial environment such as on the lunar surface. However, the economic and physical limitations for transporting materials to space will require major rethinking of these machines. In concept, then, a lunar mechanical excavator will look and perform significantly different from one designed for use here on earth. This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of such mechanical excavator systems.

  14. ARSENIC REMOVAL BY IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the removal of arsenic from drinking water using iron removal processes that include oxidation/filtration and the manganese greensand processes. Presentation includes results of U.S. EPA field studies conducted in Michigan and Ohio on existing iron remo...

  15. Deep mine cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Conan, J.

    1984-11-06

    A deep mine cooling system comprising a compressor supplied with air and rotatively driven by a motor and an expansion turbine supplied with compressed air from said compressor and driving an actuating unit, wherein the compressed air, after leaving the compressor but prior to reaching the expansion turbine, passes through a steam generator whose output provides the energy required to operate an absorption refrigeration machine used to cool utility water for mining, said compressed air on leaving the steam generator going to a first heat exchanger in which it yields calories to a water circuit comprising a second heat exchanger, said second heat exchanger giving off the calories absorbed by the water in the first heat exchanger to the air fed by the second heat exchanger to a drying cell that is regenerated by said air from the second heat exchanger, said drying cell being part of a set of two cells working in alternation, the other cell in the set receiving the compressed air from the first heat exchanger, such that the compressed air is fed to said expansion turbine after leaving said drying unit, and wherein the air exhausted from said expansion turbine is sent to a third heat exchanger after which it is distributed according to the needs of the mine, said third exchanger being traversed by the water collected in the mine, cooled in said exchanger and circulated upon leaving said exchanger to meet the cool water requirements of the mine.

  16. String Mining in Bioinformatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Ghanem, Moustafa

    Sequence analysis is a major area in bioinformatics encompassing the methods and techniques for studying the biological sequences, DNA, RNA, and proteins, on the linear structure level. The focus of this area is generally on the identification of intra- and inter-molecular similarities. Identifying intra-molecular similarities boils down to detecting repeated segments within a given sequence, while identifying inter-molecular similarities amounts to spotting common segments among two or multiple sequences. From a data mining point of view, sequence analysis is nothing but string- or pattern mining specific to biological strings. For a long time, this point of view, however, has not been explicitly embraced neither in the data mining nor in the sequence analysis text books, which may be attributed to the co-evolution of the two apparently independent fields. In other words, although the word "data-mining" is almost missing in the sequence analysis literature, its basic concepts have been implicitly applied. Interestingly, recent research in biological sequence analysis introduced efficient solutions to many problems in data mining, such as querying and analyzing time series [49,53], extracting information from web pages [20], fighting spam mails [50], detecting plagiarism [22], and spotting duplications in software systems [14].

  17. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M.

    2009-09-15

    A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

  18. Mine drainage and surface-mine reclamation. Volume 2. Mine reclamation, abandoned mine lands, and policy issues. Information Circular/1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. The publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts.

  19. Gravity in a Mine Shaft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Peter M.; Hall, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the effects of gravity, local density compared to the density of the earth, the mine shaft, centrifugal force, and air buoyancy on the weight of an object at the top and at the bottom of a mine shaft. (JRH)

  20. Pneumatic stowing seals mines

    SciTech Connect

    Brezovec, D.

    1983-11-01

    A mechanized technique to seal abandoned mines has been used successfully to close 13 openings at Duquesne Light Co.'s mined-out Warwick No. 2 mine, near Greensboro, Pa. The mechanized system, which uses a pneumatic stower and crushed limestone, closed the entries more economically and in less time than it would have taken to install traditional concrete block stopping and clay plug seals, according to John C. Draper. Draper, a mining engineer with Duquesne Light's coal department, was in charge of installing the Warwick seals in a Bureau of Mines-sponsored field test on the pneumatic sealing technique. The lowest estimated cost for installing conventional stopping and plug closures for the 13 Warwick openings was $225,000, says Draper, while the openings were closed using the mechanized system for $245,000. Draper says the newer stopping cost more in the instance because work was stopped often to gather information for the experiment. The experimental closures were installed in 38 days. The job would have taken at least 149 days if traditional closures were being installed, Draper say. To install a traditional concrete block/clay plug closure, the mine opening must be cleaned thoroughly and the roof must be supported for some 3 ft from the outside. Then a solid wall or stopping must be built 25 ft from the surface and the entry must be packed with clay to the surface. Much of this job requires workers to remain underground. In pneumatic stowing, 1 1/2-in. crushed limestone with fines is conveyed through a pipeline and into the mine opening under low air pressure. Watertight seals can be installed by blowing about 10 ft of rock into the opening against the top to act as roof support. Safety posts are installed and about 10 or 15 ft of mine entry is cleaned. About 2 in. of raw cement or bentonite is placed on the floor and limestone mixed with dry cement or bentonite is blown into the opening.

  1. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine...) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings of a permanent nature with identifying names shown; (k) Underground mine workings underlying and within...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine...) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings of a permanent nature with identifying names shown; (k) Underground mine workings underlying and within...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine...) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings of a permanent nature with identifying names shown; (k) Underground mine workings underlying and within...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine...) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings of a permanent nature with identifying names shown; (k) Underground mine workings underlying and within...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine...) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings of a permanent nature with identifying names shown; (k) Underground mine workings underlying and within...

  6. 30 CFR 75.373 - Reopening mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reopening mines. 75.373 Section 75.373 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.373 Reopening mines. After a mine is...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine map. 75.1200 Section 75.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200 Mine map. The operator of a coal mine shall...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine map. 75.1200 Section 75.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200 Mine map. The operator of a coal mine shall...

  9. 30 CFR 75.373 - Reopening mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reopening mines. 75.373 Section 75.373 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.373 Reopening mines. After a mine is...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine map. 75.1200 Section 75.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200 Mine map. The operator of a coal mine shall...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine map. 75.1200 Section 75.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200 Mine map. The operator of a coal mine shall...

  12. 30 CFR 75.373 - Reopening mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reopening mines. 75.373 Section 75.373 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.373 Reopening mines. After a mine is...

  13. 30 CFR 75.373 - Reopening mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reopening mines. 75.373 Section 75.373 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.373 Reopening mines. After a mine is...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine map. 75.1200 Section 75.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200 Mine map. The operator of a coal mine shall...

  15. 30 CFR 75.373 - Reopening mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reopening mines. 75.373 Section 75.373 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.373 Reopening mines. After a mine is...

  16. WIRELESS MINE WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2002-04-01

    Two industrial prototype units for through-the-earth wireless communication were constructed and tested. Preparation for a temporary installation in NIOSH's Lake Lynn mine for the through-the-earth and the in-mine system were completed. Progress was made in the programming of the in-mine system to provide data communication. Work has begun to implement a wireless interface between equipment controllers and our in-mine system.

  17. Exploring the techno-economic feasibility of mine rock waste utilisation in road works: The case of a mining deposit in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agyeman, Stephen; Ampadu, Samuel I K

    2016-02-01

    Mine rock waste, which is the rock material removed in order to access and mine ore, is free from gold processing chemical contaminants but presents a significant environmental challenge owing to the large volumes involved. One way of mitigating the environmental and safety challenges posed by the large volume of mine rock waste stockpiled in mining communities is to find uses of this material as a substitute for rock aggregates in construction. This article reports on a study conducted to evaluate the engineering properties of such a mine deposit to determine its suitability for use as road pavement material. Samples of mine rock waste, derived from the granitic and granodioritic intrusive units overlying the gold-bearing metavolcanic rock and volcano-clastic sediments of a gold mining area in Ghana, were obtained from three mine rock waste disposal facilities and subjected to a battery of laboratory tests to determine their physical, mechanical, geotechnical, geometrical and durability properties. The overall conclusion was that the mine rock waste met all the requirements of the Ghana Ministry of Transportation specification for use as aggregates for crushed rock subbase, base and surface dressing chippings for road pavements. The recommendation is to process it into the required sizes for the various applications. PMID:26526020

  18. Copper electrowinning from acid mine drainage: a case study from the closed mine "Cerovo".

    PubMed

    Gorgievski, M; Bozić, D; Stanković, V; Bogdanović, G

    2009-10-30

    Copper removal from acid mine drainage originating from closed copper mine "Cerovo" RTB Bor, Serbia and containing approximately 1.3 g dm(-3) of copper and a very small amount of Fe2+/Fe3+ ions, has been successfully performed by the direct electrowinning method using either a porous copper sheet or carbon felt as the cathode. A cell with a fluidised bed of inert turbulent promoters, also used in this study, may be considered as unacceptable for the purpose view, having a cell voltage between 12 and 14 V. The cells used in the electrowinning experiments were compared in terms of cell voltage, pH and copper concentration. The results showed that it is possible to remove copper successfully from the mine waters with a high degree of electrowinning--higher than 92% and with a satisfactorily average current efficiency (>60%). Depending on the process time and the applied current, a final copper concentration less than 0.1 g dm(-3) was achieved. The specific energy consumption was approximately 7 kWh kg(-1) of deposited copper. A dense copper deposit was obtained when a three-dimensional electrode was used. PMID:19493615

  19. Review of South American mines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    A general overview is presented of the mining activity and plans for South America. The countries which are presented are Columbia, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. The products of the mines include coal, bauxite, gold, iron, uranium, copper and numerous other minor materials. A discussion of current production, support and processing facilities, and mining strategies is also given.

  20. Mine-Mouth Geyser Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Nevers, Noel

    1982-01-01

    An oilwell drilling rig accidentally drilled into an underground salt mine, draining a lake and filling the mine, with water jetting out of the mine 400 feet into the air. An explanation of the jetting phenomenon is offered in terms of the laws of fluid dynamics, with supporting diagrams and calculations. (Author/JN)

  1. Phenol removal pretreatment process

    DOEpatents

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    2004-04-13

    A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

  2. ORGANIC COATING REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cleaner coating removal technologies are developing rapidly to meet a variety of industrial needs to replace solvent strippers having toxic properties. his guide describes cleaner technologies that can be used to reduce waste in coating removal operations. nformation is presented...

  3. Wart remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Remover Panscol Paplex Ultra PediaPatch Sal-Acid Sal-Plant Salacid Salactic Film Trans-Plantar Trans-Ver-Sal Vergo Verukan Viranol Wart Remover Other products may also contain salicylates and other acids.

  4. Weakly supervised glasses removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhicheng; Zhou, Yisu; Wen, Lijie

    2015-03-01

    Glasses removal is an important task on face recognition, in this paper, we provide a weakly supervised method to remove eyeglasses from an input face image automatically. We choose sparse coding as face reconstruction method, and optical flow to find exact shape of glasses. We combine the two processes iteratively to remove glasses more accurately. The experimental results reveal that our method works much better than these algorithms alone, and it can remove various glasses to obtain natural looking glassless facial images.

  5. Environmental aspects of lunar helium-3 mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Carrier, W. D., III; Schmitt, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    Three potential detrimental effects of lunar He-3 mining have been identified; visual changes, atmospheric contamination, and solid waste disposal. The removal of small craters (less than 20 m diameter) and the change in the albedo of the surface may cause a slight darkening of the regolith. However, it is not expected that this change will be visible from the earth even with powerful telescopes. The release of lunar volatile gases and their effect on the lunar 'atmosphere' is expected to be both local and temporary (on the order of a few weeks from the time of release). The solution to solid waste disposal is to recycle as much as possible and to bury the nonrecyclable waste. The lack of wind and water means that the waste will stay localized indefinitely and cause no contamination of the environment. The positive benefits of using lunar He-3 in terrestrial fusion plants far outweigh the detrimental effects of mining. The reduction in radioactive waste, greenhouse and acid gases, and the reduction in terrestrial mining for fossil fuels could have a major impact on the quality of life in the 21st century.

  6. ARSENIC REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the state-of-art technology for removal of arsenic from drinking water. Presentation includes results of several EPA field studies on removal of arsenic from existing arsenic removal plants and key results from several EPA sponsored research studies. T...

  7. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  8. Plutonium mining for cleanup.

    PubMed

    Bramlitt, E T

    1988-08-01

    Cleanup is the act of making a contaminated site relatively free of Pu so it may be used without radiological safety restrictions. Contaminated ground is the focus of major cleanups. Cleanup traditionally involves determining Pu content of soil, digging up soil in which radioactivity exceeds guidelines, and relocating excised soil to a waste-disposal site. Alternative technologies have been tested at Johnston Atoll (JA), where there is as much as 100,000 m3 of Pu-contaminated soil. A mining pilot plant operated for the first 6 mo of 1986 and made 98% of soil tested "clean", from more than 40 kBq kg-1 (1000 pCi g-1) to less than about 500 Bq kg-1 (15 pCi g-1) by concentrating Pu in 2% of the soil. The pilot plant is now installed at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site for evaluating cleanup of other contaminated soils and refining cleanup effectiveness. A full-scale cleanup plant has been programmed for JA in 1988. In this paper, previous cleanups are reviewed, and the mining endeavor at JA is detailed. "True soil cleanup" is contrasted with the classical "soil relocation cleanup." The mining technology used for Pu cleanup has been in use for more than a century. Mining for cleanup, however, is unique. It is envisioned as being prominent for radiological and other cleanups in the future. PMID:3410718

  9. Mineral mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Monks, H.

    1980-11-25

    A mineral mining machine hauls itself along a working face by engaging a round link chain. The links of the chain are fed sequentially from link-retaining pockets in a track component arranged around the working face, around a driven sprocket assembly on the machine and returned to the pockets.

  10. Mining Your Own Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Maurice

    2014-05-01

    Conducting asteroid photometry frequently requires imaging one area of the sky for many hours. Apart from the asteroid being studied, there may be many other objects of interest buried in the data. The value of mining your own asteroid data is discussed, using examples from observations made by the author, primarily at the Preston Gott Observatory at Texas Tech University.

  11. Mining Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Inst. of Applied Science and Technology, Saskatoon.

    In fall 1988, the Board of Directors of the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) created a task force to study the training needs of the mining industry in the province and evaluate SIAST's responsiveness to those needs. After assessing the technological changes taking place in the industry, surveying manpower needs,…

  12. String Mining in Bioinformatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Ghanem, Moustafa

    Sequence analysis is a major area in bioinformatics encompassing the methods and techniques for studying the biological sequences, DNA, RNA, and proteins, on the linear structure level. The focus of this area is generally on the identification of intra- and inter-molecular similarities. Identifying intra-molecular similarities boils down to detecting repeated segments within a given sequence, while identifying inter-molecular similarities amounts to spotting common segments among two or multiple sequences. From a data mining point of view, sequence analysis is nothing but string- or pattern mining specific to biological strings. For a long time, this point of view, however, has not been explicitly embraced neither in the data mining nor in the sequence analysis text books, which may be attributed to the co-evolution of the two apparently independent fields. In other words, although the word “data-mining” is almost missing in the sequence analysis literature, its basic concepts have been implicitly applied. Interestingly, recent research in biological sequence analysis introduced efficient solutions to many problems in data mining, such as querying and analyzing time series [49,53], extracting information from web pages [20], fighting spam mails [50], detecting plagiarism [22], and spotting duplications in software systems [14].

  13. Contextual Text Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  14. Method for removal of methane from coalbeds

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.

    1976-01-01

    A method for removing methane gas from underground coalbeds prior to mining the coal which comprises drilling at least one borehole from the surface into the coalbed. The borehole is started at a slant rather than directly vertically, and as it descends, a gradual curve is followed until a horizontal position is reached where the desired portion of the coalbed is intersected. Approaching the coalbed in this manner and fracturing the coalbed in the major natural fraction direction cause release of large amounts of the trapped methane gas.

  15. Multisource causal data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Shallenberger, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Analysts are faced with mountains of data, and finding that relevant piece of information is the proverbial needle in a haystack, only with dozens of haystacks. Analysis tools that facilitate identifying causal relationships across multiple data sets are sorely needed. 21st Century Systems, Inc. (21CSi) has initiated research called Causal-View, a causal datamining visualization tool, to address this challenge. Causal-View is built on an agent-enabled framework. Much of the processing that Causal-View will do is in the background. When a user requests information, Data Extraction Agents launch to gather information. This initial search is a raw, Monte Carlo type search designed to gather everything available that may have relevance to an individual, location, associations, and more. This data is then processed by Data- Mining Agents. The Data-Mining Agents are driven by user supplied feature parameters. If the analyst is looking to see if the individual frequents a known haven for insurgents he may request information on his last known locations. Or, if the analyst is trying to see if there is a pattern in the individual's contacts, the mining agent can be instructed with the type and relevance of the information fields to look at. The same data is extracted from the database, but the Data Mining Agents customize the feature set to determine causal relationships the user is interested in. At this point, a Hypothesis Generation and Data Reasoning Agents take over to form conditional hypotheses about the data and pare the data, respectively. The newly formed information is then published to the agent communication backbone of Causal- View to be displayed. Causal-View provides causal analysis tools to fill the gaps in the causal chain. We present here the Causal-View concept, the initial research into data mining tools that assist in forming the causal relationships, and our initial findings.

  16. Relocating Mining-Induced Seismicity at the Trail Mountain Utah Coal Mine With a Three-Dimensional Seismic Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltz, M.; Pankow, K. L.; McCarter, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    Mining-induced seismicity (MIS) occurs when rock fractures as a result of stresses being redistributed when rock is removed. These events are usually small and are a common occurrence in most underground coal mines in Utah. Accurate locations of these events are helpful for mine planning, which may lead to improved mine safety. Unfortunately, getting accurate hypocenters for MIS is difficult. These events are shallow and generally small in magnitude. In an experiment conducted from October 2000 through April 2001 (Arabasz et al., 2002) a local array of 14 seismograph stations was deployed to locate MIS from the Trail Mountain mine (TMM), an underground longwall coal mine located in Emery County, Utah. The array included one underground station located at the level of mining and three stations located on the surface, but because of local topography, at elevations below mining. This local array was embedded within the larger-scale Utah Regional Seismic Network, and almost 2000 small MIS events were recorded during the 7-month extent of the experiment. At that time, the routine location code (Hypoinverse) could not properly use stations located below mining, and the four lower elevation stations were not used in generating locations. In this study, we reanalyze this dataset first with double-difference techniques and the same stations used in the original study, and then the exercise was repeated using the program Hypoellipse both with and without station corrections. The advantage of Hypoellipse is the ability to incorporate the full three-dimensional array. The initial study and the double-difference locations produced good epicentral locations, but had poor depth resolution. The relocations from Hypoellipse with the three-dimensional array significantly improved the depth resolution and revealed structure that was not seen previously. Many of the well-located seismic events appear to have occurred in the roof above the longwall panel in horizontal layers, which

  17. Mössbauer study of the inorganic sulfur removal from coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Caballero, F.; Martínez Ovalle, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS) was applied to study the occurrence and behavior of the iron-sulfur-containing minerals in coal and coal fractions obtained by different separation methods: hydrocyclonic, flotation and chemical removal process. Samples of one high sulfur coal from Guachinte mine (Valle, Colombia) and three low sulfur coals from the El Salitre zone (Paipa-Boyacá, Colombia) were analyzed. MS evidenced only the presence of pyrite in Esmeralda and Las Casitas coals, while it identified pyrite and siderite on Cerezo coal. MS and SEM- EDX confirm the inorganic sulfur removal on Guachinte coal submitted to hydrocyclonic removal process. MS of the precipitated coal fraction from Las Casitas mine obtained by flotation in water showed the presence of ferrous sulfate because of coal-weathering process. Treatment with hot diluted HNO3 equal to 27 acid on raw coal sample from Las Casitas mine showed that almost all of the pyrite in raw coal was removed.

  18. Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation

  19. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1997-11-11

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece are disclosed. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal. 5 figs.

  20. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Meyers, Kurt Edward; Kolsun, George J.

    1997-01-01

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece. he packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  1. Graphitic packing removal tool

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    Graphitic packing removal tools are described for removal of the seal rings in one piece from valves and pumps. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  2. Coal mining methods in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Continuous miner methods dominate underground while dragline stripping is today's and tomorrow's favored method on surface. Poor roof conditions in Australian underground mines and the need to operate more efficient surface mines in view of rising fuel costs are key factors in determining the mining methods for the country's premier cash commodity - coal. These and other new developments in underground and surface mining in Australia were discussed in detail at the Australian Coal Association's 1980 coal conference which was held last April in Surfers Paradise, Queensland. Two papers presented at the conference form the basis of this article; H.L. Pearce, general superintendent of the Steel Division Collieries of the Broken Hill Proprietary Company, described underground mining and K.J. Foots, manager of the Utah Development Company's Blackwater mine, talked about surface mining.

  3. Soil biochemical properties in brown and gray mine soils with and without hydroseeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Sexstone, A.; Skousen, J.

    2015-09-01

    Surface coal mining in the eastern USA disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year and removes valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. Reclamation involves restoring the landscape to approximate original contour, replacing the topsoil, and revegetating the site with trees and herbaceous species to a designated post-mining land use. Re-establishing an ecosystem of ecological and economic value as well as restoring soil quality on disturbed sites are the goals of land reclamation, and microbial properties of mine soils can be indicators of restoration success. Reforestation plots were constructed in 2007 using weathered brown sandstone or unweathered gray sandstone as topsoil substitutes to evaluate tree growth and soil properties at Arch Coal's Birch River mine in West Virginia, USA. All plots were planted with 12 hardwood tree species and subplots were hydroseeded with a herbaceous seed mix and fertilizer. After 6 years, the average tree volume index was nearly 10 times greater for trees grown in brown (3853 cm3) compared to gray mine soils (407 cm3). Average pH of brown mine soils increased from 4.7 to 5.0, while gray mine soils declined from 7.9 to 7.0. Hydroseeding doubled tree volume index and ground cover on both mine soils. Hydroseeding doubled microbial biomass carbon (MBC) on brown mine soils (8.7 vs. 17.5 mg kg-1), but showed no effect on gray mine soils (13.3 vs. 12.8 mg kg-1). Hydroseeding also increased the ratio of MBC to soil organic C in both soils and more than tripled the ratio for potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) to total N. Brown mine soils were a better growth medium than gray mine soils and hydroseeding was an important component of reclamation due to improved biochemical properties and microbial activity in mine soils.

  4. Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

    2009-01-01

    The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

  5. Mine ventilation and air conditioning. 3. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, H.L.; Mutmansky, J.M.; Ramani, R.V.; Wang, Y.J.

    1998-12-31

    This revised edition presents an engineering design approach to ventilation and air conditioning as part of the comprehensive environmental control of the mine atmosphere. It provides an in-depth look, for practitioners who design and operate mines, into the health and safety aspects of environmental conditions in the underground workplace. The contents include: Environmental control of the mine atmosphere; Properties and behavior of air; Mine air-quality control; Mine gases; Dusts and other mine aerosols; Mine ventilation; Airflow through mine openings and ducts; Mine ventilation circuits and networks; Natural ventilation; Fan application to mines; Auxiliary ventilation and controlled recirculation; Economics of airflow; Control of mine fires and explosions; Mine air conditioning; Heat sources and effect in mines; Mine air conditioning systems; Appendices; References; Answers to selected problems; and Index.

  6. Soil Quality of Bauxite Mining Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terezinha Gonçalves Bizuti, Denise; Dinarowski, Marcela; Casagrande, José Carlos; Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Henrique Santin Brancalion, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    The study on soil quality index (SQI) aims to assess the current state of the soil after use and estimating its recovery through sustainable management practices This type of study is being used in this work in order to check the efficiency of forest recovery techniques in areas that have been deeply degraded by bauxite mining process, and compare them with the area of native forest, through the determination of SQI. Treatments were newly mined areas, areas undergoing restoration (topsoil use with planting of native forest species), areas in rehabilitation (employment of the green carpet with topsoil and planting of native forest species) and areas of native forests, with six repetitions, in areas of ALCOA, in the municipality of Poços de Caldas/MG. To this end, we used the additive pondered model, establishing three functions: Fertility, water movement and root development, based on chemical parameters (organic matter, base saturation, aluminum saturation and calcium content); physical (macroporosity, soil density and clay content); and microbiological testing (basal respiration by the emission of CO2 ). The SQIs obtained for each treatment was 41%, 56%, 63% and 71% for newly mined areas, native forest, areas in restoration and rehabilitation, respectively. The recovering technique that most approximates the degraded soil to the soil of reference is the restoration, where there was no statistically significant difference of areas restored with native forest. It was found that for the comparison of the studied areas must take into account the nutrient cycling, that disappear with plant removal in mining areas, once the soil of native forest features low fertility and high saturation by aluminum, also taking in account recovering time.

  7. Automation of the longwall mining system

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, W.; Aster, R.; Harris, J.; High, J.

    1982-11-01

    The longwall automation study presented is the first phase of a study to evaluate mining automation opportunities. The objective was to identify cost-effective, safe, and technologically sound applications of automation technology to understand coal mining. The prime automation candidates resulting from the industry experience and survey were: (1) the shearer operation, (2) shield and conveyor pan-line advance, (3) a management information system to allow improved mine logistics support, and (4) component fault isolation and diagnostics to reduce untimely maintenance delays. A system network analysis indicated that a 40% improvement in productivity was feasible if system delays associated with all of the above four areas were removed. A technology assessment and conceptual system design of each of the four automation candidate areas showed that state-of-the-art digital computer, servomechanism, and actuator technologies could be applied to automate the longwall system. The final cost benefit analysis of all of the automation areas indicated a total net national benefit (profit) of roughly $200 million to the longwall mining industry if all automation candidates were installed. This cost benefit represented an approximate order of magnitude payback on the research and development (R and D) investment. In conclusion, it is recommended that the shearer operation be automated first because it provides a large number of other sensor inputs required for face alignment (i.e., shields and conveyor). Automation of the shield and conveyor pan-line advance is suggested as the next step since both the shearer and face alignment operations contributed the greatest time delays to the overall system downtime.

  8. A multi-isotope approach to characterize acid mine drainage in a hardrock alpine mine, Chaffe Co,Colorado.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordalis, D.; Williams, M. W.; Wireman, M.; Michel, R. L.; Manning, A.

    2004-12-01

    Here we present information from an innovative suite of stable, radiogenic, and cosmogenic isotopes to better understand groundwater flowpaths and groundwater-surface water interactions in an applied acid mine drainage system. Stable water isotopes, tritium, helium-tritium, sulfur-35, and uranium 234/238 ratios were analyzed from precipitation, groundwater wells, interior mine drainages, and surface waters at the Mary Murphy Mine in Colorado to determine hydrologic transport mechanisms responsible for contaminated zinc releases. Hydrometric measurements suggested a snowmelt-driven pulse of elevated zinc in adit outflow. However, mixing models using stable water isotopes showed a regional groundwater signal in the adit outflow. Tritium values of 11 to 13 TU showed a slight enrichment of bomb spike water compared to snow values of about 9 TU, suggesting an older water source as well. Helium/tritium ratios on a subset of groundwater wells suggested that average residence times of alluvial wells ranged from 2.5 to 8 years. The combination of stable water isotopes and sulfur-35 (half-life of 87 days), showed that zinc-rich waters within the mine derived from infiltrating snowmelt more than a year old. However, measurement of sulfur-35 using low-level scintillation counts was compromised at times by the presence of uranium. We were able to remove the uranium through wet chemistry procedures, improving the accuracy of S-35 measurements. The U234/U238 ratio shows promise in discriminating between acid mine drainage and acid rock drainage. Acid rock drainage shows an unaltered ratio of 1:1, while acid mine drainage is enriched relative to the 1:1 equilibrium ratio. The combination of cosmogenic and stable isotopes within and near the Mary Murphy Mine may provide a useful tool for studying interactions between groundwater and surfacewater in a fractured rock setting. Remediation techniques can be directed more appropriately, and cost effectively, by the characterization of

  9. Metal adsorption capabilities of clinoptilolite and selected strains of bacteria from mine water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamba, B. B.; Dlamini, N. P.; Nyembe, D. W.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.

    Small-scale mining has socio-economic advantages such as the reduction of unemployment and the general improvement of the economy. However, these operations if not properly managed or controlled have a potential to cause environmental damage, particularly with respect to the contamination of groundwater and water supplies that are not distant from where these mining activities take place. This paper focuses on metal removal from water contaminated by heavy metals emanating from small-scale mining operations using clinoptilolite and bacteria. Removal of As, Ni, Mn, Au, Co, Cu and Fe was carried out on mine water samples using original and HCl-activated (in 0.02 M and 0.04 M) natural clinoptilolite and bacterial strains (a mixed consortia of Bacillus strains ( Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus firmus, Bacillus fusiformis, Bacillus macroides and Bacillus licheniformis), Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella spp. and a mixed consortia of Acidithiobcillus caldus, Leptospirillum spp., Ferroplasma spp. and Sulphobacillus spp.). The purpose of the study was to compare the removal efficiencies of the bacterial strains versus natural clinoptilolite adsorbents for metal cations. The Bacillus consortia removed most of the metals up to 98% metal removal efficiency with the exception of nickel where clinoptilolite showed good removal efficiency. The 0.02 M HCl-activated clinoptilolite also demonstrated excellent removal capabilities with Cu, Co and Fe removal efficiency of up to 98%. Both clinoptilolite and bacteria demonstrated capabilities of removing Cu 2+, Co 2+, Fe 2+, Mn 2+, As 3+ and Au from solution which augurs well for metal recovery from mining and mineral processing solutions, as well as in water decontamination.

  10. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in

  11. Passive mine drainage treatment: an effective low-cost alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, J.D.

    1985-12-01

    Two prototype Passive Mine Drainage Treatment Systems have been designed and constructed in Colorado. These projects have addressed acid mine drainage from inactive coal mines. Metal removal for both systems is accomplished using simulated peat bogs composed of sphagnum moss and hypnum moss retained by loose rock check dams. Acid neutralization is accomplished using crushed limestone filled channels. Neutralization and aeration are enhanced with drop structures and waterfalls placed in the drainage channel. Preliminary water quality results show dramatic treatment effects with the PMDT system. This investigation presents cost data for design and construction of the two PMDT systems. Cost projections for periodic maintenance requirements are provided along with a suggested method for financing maintenance costs. Performance data for the first system installed are presented. 14 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  12. Mining industry and US government cooperative research: Lessons learned and benefits to mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W.; Phillips, W.S.; Martin, R.; Anderson, D.P.

    1997-09-01

    Since 1994, various mines in the US have cooperated with research scientists at the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories to address issues related to verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The CTBT requires that no country may conduct any nuclear explosion in the future. While the CTBT is a significant step toward reducing the global nuclear danger, verifying compliance with the treat requires that the monitoring system be able to detect, locate and identify much larger numbers of smaller amplitude seismic events than had been required previously. Large mining blasts conducted world-wide will be of sufficient amplitude to trigger the monitoring system at the lower threshold. It is therefore imperative that research into the range various blasting practices employed, the relationship of yield to seismic magnitude, and identification of anomalous blasting results be performed. This paper will describe a suite of experiments funded by the Department of Energy and conducted by the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories in cooperation with the US mining industry. Observations of cast blasting, underground long wall generated coal bumps, stoping, and explosively induced collapse of room and pillar panels will be presented. Results of these dual use experiments which are of interest to the mining community will be discussed. These include (1) variation of amplitude of seismic energy at various azimuths from cast blasts, (2) identification of the extent of back failure following explosive removal of pillars, and (3) the use of single fired shots for calibration of the monitoring system. The wealth of information and discovery described in this paper is a direct result of mutual cooperation between the US Government and the US Mining Industry.

  13. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of beach (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of beach sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of beach have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by beach sand mining include: destruction of natural beaches and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a

  14. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Mining with microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Rawlings., D.E.; Silver, S.

    1995-08-01

    Microbes are playing increasingly important roles in commercial mining operations, where they are being used in the {open_quotes}bioleaching{close_quotes} of copper, uranium, and gold ores. Direct leaching is when microbial metabolism changes the redox state of the metal being harvested, rendering it more soluble. Indirect leaching includes redox chemistry of other metal cations that are then coupled in chemical oxidation or reduction of the harvested metal ion and microbial attack upon and solubilization of the mineral matrix in which the metal is physically embedded. In addition, bacterial cells are used to detoxify the waste cyanide solution from gold-mining operations and as {open_quotes}absorbants{close_quotes} of the mineral cations. Bacterial cells may replace activated carbon or alternative biomass. With an increasing understanding of microbial physiology, biochemistry and molecular genetics, rational approaches to improving these microbial activities become possible. 40 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Principles of data mining.

    PubMed

    Hand, David J

    2007-01-01

    Data mining is the discovery of interesting, unexpected or valuable structures in large datasets. As such, it has two rather different aspects. One of these concerns large-scale, 'global' structures, and the aim is to model the shapes, or features of the shapes, of distributions. The other concerns small-scale, 'local' structures, and the aim is to detect these anomalies and decide if they are real or chance occurrences. In the context of signal detection in the pharmaceutical sector, most interest lies in the second of the above two aspects; however, signal detection occurs relative to an assumed background model, therefore, some discussion of the first aspect is also necessary. This paper gives a lightning overview of data mining and its relation to statistics, with particular emphasis on tools for the detection of adverse drug reactions. PMID:17604416

  17. Trends in underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    This article presents some of the recent equipments developments in underground mining. Recent improvements in the transmission and braking systems of electric load-haul-dumpers are increasing cycle times and lowering maintenance costs. Torque produced by electric motors increases in response to load. This results in very high stall torque and fast cycling machines. Some of the other features becoming available include: improved switch-gear and adjustable solid-state overload relays, the new motor across the line starter device has vacuum contactors, power factor correction capacitors, a DC operating coil to eliminate contact chatter at low voltage, remote radio control of LHDs in mine areas, water-cooled and air cooled engines and hydraulic braking systems. The advantages of hydraulic drifters and roof bolters are presented.

  18. Alchemy and mining: metallogenesis and prospecting in early mining books.

    PubMed

    Dym, Warren Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Historians have assumed that alchemy had a close association with mining, but exactly how and why miners were interested in alchemy remains unclear. This paper argues that alchemical theory began to be synthesised with classical and Christian theories of the earth in mining books after 1500, and served an important practical function. The theory of metals that mining officials addressed spoke of mineral vapours (Witterungen) that left visible markings on the earth's surface. The prospector searched for mineral ore in part by studying these indications. Mineral vapours also explained the functioning of the dowsing rod, which prospectors applied to the discovery of ore. Historians of early chemistry and mining have claimed that mining had a modernising influence by stripping alchemy of its theoretical component, but this paper shows something quite to the contrary: mining officials may have been sceptical of the possibility of artificial transmutation, but they were interested in a theory of the earth that could translate into prospecting knowledge. PMID:19244711

  19. Germany knows mining

    SciTech Connect

    2006-11-15

    Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.

  20. GROUNDWATER QUALITY MONITORING OF WESTERN COAL STRIP MINING: PRELIMINARY DESIGNS FOR ACTIVE MINE SOURCES OF POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three potential pollution source categories have been identified for Western coal strip mines. These sources include mine stockpiles, mine waters, and miscellaneous active mine sources. TEMPO's stepwise monitoring methodology (Todd et al., 1976) is used to develop groundwater qua...

  1. Longwall mining in Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, P.J.; Curth, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of shields has been a major factor contributing to adequate roof control in Illinois. Short spans of exposed roof, quickly applied support, stability of structure, and full shelter for face crews are some of the significant advantages that led to the adoption of shields. The successful application of shields that were designed to sustain high yield loads resulting in a mean load density of 862.2 KN/m/sup 2/ (9 tons/ft/sup 2/) has encouraged the growth of longwall mining in the Illinois coal basin from one face to six in less than 4 years. Double-drum shearers of 1.5 x 10/sup 8/ kg/m (400 hp), using 995-volt power, with chainless haulage and high capacity face conveyors and stage loaders are standard face equipment. New coal mines are being developed for longwall mining with panel blocks as large as limiting factors allow. They are projected to have two active longwall faces and as many continuous miner units as are required for development and extraction.

  2. Data Mining and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samms, Kevin O.

    2015-01-01

    The Data Mining project seeks to bring the capability of data visualization to NASA anomaly and problem reporting systems for the purpose of improving data trending, evaluations, and analyses. Currently NASA systems are tailored to meet the specific needs of its organizations. This tailoring has led to a variety of nomenclatures and levels of annotation for procedures, parts, and anomalies making difficult the realization of the common causes for anomalies. Making significant observations and realizing the connection between these causes without a common way to view large data sets is difficult to impossible. In the first phase of the Data Mining project a portal was created to present a common visualization of normalized sensitive data to customers with the appropriate security access. The tool of the visualization itself was also developed and fine-tuned. In the second phase of the project we took on the difficult task of searching and analyzing the target data set for common causes between anomalies. In the final part of the second phase we have learned more about how much of the analysis work will be the job of the Data Mining team, how to perform that work, and how that work may be used by different customers in different ways. In this paper I detail how our perspective has changed after gaining more insight into how the customers wish to interact with the output and how that has changed the product.

  3. Organizational Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemati, Hamid R.; Barko, Christopher D.

    Many organizations today possess substantial quantities of business information but have very little real business knowledge. A recent survey of 450 business executives reported that managerial intuition and instinct are more prevalent than hard facts in driving organizational decisions. To reverse this trend, businesses of all sizes would be well advised to adopt Organizational Data Mining (ODM). ODM is defined as leveraging Data Mining tools and technologies to enhance the decision-making process by transforming data into valuable and actionable knowledge to gain a competitive advantage. ODM has helped many organizations optimize internal resource allocations while better understanding and responding to the needs of their customers. The fundamental aspects of ODM can be categorized into Artificial Intelligence (AI), Information Technology (IT), and Organizational Theory (OT), with OT being the key distinction between ODM and Data Mining. In this chapter, we introduce ODM, explain its unique characteristics, and report on the current status of ODM research. Next we illustrate how several leading organizations have adopted ODM and are benefiting from it. Then we examine the evolution of ODM to the present day and conclude our chapter by contemplating ODM's challenging yet opportunistic future.

  4. Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

    Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

  5. Acoustic bubble removal method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid.

  6. Methods of urolith removal.

    PubMed

    Langston, Cathy; Gisselman, Kelly; Palma, Douglas; McCue, John

    2010-06-01

    Multiple techniques exist to remove uroliths from each section of the urinary tract. Minimally invasive methods for removing lower urinary tract stones include voiding urohydropropulsion, retrograde urohydropropulsion followed by dissolution or removal, catheter retrieval, cystoscopic removal, and cystoscopy-assisted laser lithotripsy and surgery. Laparoscopic cystotomy is less invasive than surgical cystotomy. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can be used for nephroliths and ureteroliths. Nephrotomy, pyelotomy, or urethrotomy may be recommended in certain situations. This article discusses each technique and gives guidance for selecting the most appropriate technique for an individual patient. PMID:20949423

  7. OPTIMIZING ARSENIC REMOVAL DURING IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Many groundwaters that have arsenic in their source water also have iron in their water. As a result, arsenic treatment at these sites will most likely b...

  8. 30 CFR 75.203 - Mining methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mining methods. 75.203 Section 75.203 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.203 Mining methods. (a) The method of mining... used to maintain the projected direction of mining in entries, rooms, crosscuts and pillar splits....

  9. 30 CFR 75.203 - Mining methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mining methods. 75.203 Section 75.203 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.203 Mining methods. (a) The method of mining... used to maintain the projected direction of mining in entries, rooms, crosscuts and pillar splits....

  10. 30 CFR 75.203 - Mining methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mining methods. 75.203 Section 75.203 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.203 Mining methods. (a) The method of mining... used to maintain the projected direction of mining in entries, rooms, crosscuts and pillar splits....

  11. Analysis on Underground Coal Mining Subsidence Using Small Baseline InSAR in Yunjialing Mining Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dapeng; Yang, Jin; Zeng, Qiming

    2013-01-01

    66.6 percent of China's energy production come from underground coal mining (fig. 1.) Hundreds of mining cities were affected by mining subsidence. Long-term underground mining activities ,which results in large areas of mined areas, are threatening the local ecological environment and people property.Coal mining development has become a major factor of restricting local economic and threatening the safety of future mine production. The research on mining subsidence takes a important practical significance.

  12. Economics of mining law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  13. Lunar site characterization and mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar mining requirements do not appear to be excessively demanding in terms of volume of material processed. It seems clear, however, that the labor-intensive practices that characterize terrestrial mining will not suffice at the low-gravity, hard-vacuum, and inaccessible sites on the Moon. New research efforts are needed in three important areas: (1) to develop high-speed, high-resolution through-rock vision systems that will permit more detailed and efficient mine site investigation and characterization; (2) to investigate the impact of lunar conditions on our ability to convert conventional mining and exploration equipment to lunar prototypes; and (3) to develop telerobotic or fully robotic mining systems for operations on the Moon and other bodies in the inner solar system. Other aspects of lunar site characterization and mining are discussed.

  14. Ground control for highwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    Zipf, R.K.; Mark, C.

    2007-09-15

    Perhaps the greatest risk to both equipment and personnel associated with highwall mining is from ground control. The two most significant ground control hazards are rock falls from highwall and equipment entrapment underground. In the central Appalachians, where the majority of highwall mining occurs in the USA, hillseams (or mountain cracks) are the most prominent structure that affects highwall stability. The article discusses measures to minimise the risk of failure associated with hillstreams. A 'stuck' or trapped highwall miner, and the ensuring retrieval or recovery operation, can be extremely disruptive to the highwall mining process. Most entrapment, are due to roof falls in the hole. The options for recovery are surface retrieval, surface excavation or underground recovery. Proper pillar design is essential to maintain highwall stability and prevent entrapments. NIOSH has developed the Analysis of Retreat Mining Pillar stability-Highwall Mining (ARMPS-HWM) computer program to help mine planners with this process. 10 figs.

  15. The ABCs of pump selection for mine dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, S.E.

    2008-10-15

    Choosing the right type of pump for removing water from mine operations can provide significant benefits in overall performance and cost of operation. The article describes the types of pump most commonly used: vertical turbine pumps, electric and hydraulic submersible pumps, horizontal multistage centrifugal pumps and horizontal single-stage centrifugal pumps. It gives points to consider when selecting a suitable pump, including solids handling capacity and acid content, portability, automatic operation, easy maintenance and parts availability. 1 photo.

  16. Soil biochemical properties after six years in amended brown and gray mine soils in West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Sexstone, A.; Skousen, J.

    2015-06-01

    Surface coal mining in the eastern USA disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year and removes valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. Reclamation involves restoring the landscape to approximate original contour, replacing the topsoil, and revegetating the site with trees and herbaceous species to a designated post-mining land use. Re-establishing an ecosystem of ecological and economic value as well as restoring soil quality on disturbed sites are the goals of land reclamation, and microbial properties of mine soils can be indicators of restoration success. Reforestation plots were constructed in 2007 using weathered brown sandstone or unweathered gray sandstone as topsoil substitutes to evaluate tree growth and soil properties at Arch Coal's Birch River Mine in West Virginia, USA. All plots were planted with 12 hardwood tree species and subplots were hydroseeded with an herbaceous seed mix and fertilizer. After six years, average tree volume index was nearly ten times greater for trees grown in brown (3853 cm3) compared to gray mine soils (407 cm3). Average pH of brown mine soils increased from 4.7 to 5.0, while gray mine soils declined from 7.9 to 7.0. Hydroseeding doubled tree volume index and ground cover on both mine soils. Hydroseeding doubled microbial biomass carbon (MBC) on brown mine soils (8.7 vs. 17.5 mg kg-1), but showed no effect on gray (13.3 vs. 12.8 mg kg-1). Hydroseeding also increased the ratio of MBC to soil organic C in both soils and more than tripled the ratio for potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) to total N. Brown mine soils were a better growth medium than gray mine soils and hydroseeding was an important component of reclamation due to improved biochemical properties and microbial activity in mine soils.

  17. Citation-related reliability analysis for a pilot sample of underground coal mines.

    PubMed

    Kinilakodi, Harisha; Grayson, R Larry

    2011-05-01

    The scrutiny of underground coal mine safety was heightened because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-2007, and more recently in 2010. In the aftermath of the 2006 incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address various issues related to emergency preparedness and response, escape from an emergency situation, and protection of miners. The National Mining Association-sponsored Mine Safety Technology and Training Commission study highlighted the role of risk management in identifying and controlling major hazards, which are elements that could come together and cause a mine disaster. In 2007 MSHA revised its approach to the "Pattern of Violations" (POV) process in order to target unsafe mines and then force them to remediate conditions in their mines. The POV approach has certain limitations that make it difficult for it to be enforced. One very understandable way to focus on removing threats from major-hazard conditions is to use citation-related reliability analysis. The citation reliability approach, which focuses on the probability of not getting a citation on a given inspector day, is considered an analogue to the maintenance reliability approach, which many mine operators understand and use. In this study, the citation reliability approach was applied to a stratified random sample of 31 underground coal mines to examine its potential for broader application. The results clearly show the best-performing and worst-performing mines for compliance with mine safety standards, and they highlight differences among different mine sizes. PMID:21376896

  18. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Derzon, Dora K.; Nelson, Jill S.; Rand, Peter B.

    1995-01-01

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications.

  19. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Derzon, D.K.; Nelson, J.S.; Rand, P.B.

    1995-07-11

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications. 1 fig.

  20. New Equipment for Mine Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    While planning for the space shuttle, Bendix Corporation with the help of Johnson Space Center expanded the anthropometric data base for aerospace and nonaerospace use in clothing, workplace, etc. The result was the Anthropometric Source Book which was later utilized by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in designing advanced mining systems. The book was particularly valuable in the design of a remote cab used in mining.

  1. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to mining. 77.1712 Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... prior to mining. Prior to reopening any surface coal mine after it has been abandoned or declared... an authorized representative of the Secretary before any mining operations in such mine...

  3. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  4. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  5. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  6. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  7. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.3 Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. (a) If an underground...

  8. 30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions. 49.4 Section 49.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.4 Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions. (a) If an...

  9. The White Pine Mine explosively induced, controlled collapse experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W.; Phillips, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    On September 3, 1995, the White Pine Mine, which is owned by Copper Range Company, conducted the first of a planned series of explosive removal of existing pillars in their underground mining operations. The purpose of this operation is to evaluate the effectiveness of pillar rubbilization and roof collapse for planned in-situ leaching of the copper ore from the rock mass. This type of seismic source is unique in that a large, delay fired, explosive source was expected to be followed by collapse of the rock immediately above the explosion into the void created. Characterization of this type of mining source is of interest to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Seismic Program due to its unique properties. These include the controlled nature of the source in time, location, and magnitude, the fact that the source is located in an active region of underground mining, and that natural collapse of large portions of this mine have occurred in the recent past. The Mine operator is concerned with the characterization of the vibration induced by both the explosive and implosive components of the procedure and determination of the depth to which chimneying of the roof proceeded. This report will document: The reasons for conducting both the explosively induced collapse and the Los Alamos National Laboratory CTBT R&D Experimental Field Program experiment; The local and regional seismic, acoustic, and videographic data acquired; Analysis of the explosion/collapse seismic signal generated; Analysis and location of the aftershocks associated with the collapse; and Conclusions made concerning this type of mining explosion in relation to verification of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  10. Viable and robust system for infrared detection of buried land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilgore, Roger; Swinehart, Steve

    1999-08-01

    An IR mine detection system has been developed which reliably detects buried land miens in certain environmental conditions. The system uses two commercial IR cameras, one using the 3-5 micron band and the other using the 8-12 micron band. The cameras are mounted above a HMMWV and are tilted down to look 2.5 to 7 meters ahead of the vehicle, covering almost a four meter wide swath. Software algorithms are used to de-warp the raw images to remove keystoning and lens curvature effects, producing rectilinear images of the terrain. The mines are observed in the images as cool spots or hot spots on the surface of the soil, with temperatures depending upon the mine type, the recent temperature history of the soil, and the moisture content and soil type. Raw video images are presented which show some of these effects, including when the contrast is so low to be visibly hidden in the background. Filtering algorithms are utilized to perform background identification and removal, producing an equalized image, which enhances the contrast of the buried mines. Statistical order filters are employed that further enhance the mines, with examples again shown. Threshold and object detection algorithms have been developed that autonomously detect mine-like objects in the images without operator intervention. Feature extraction algorithms then search for features that distinguish the mines sought, including such features as size and shape. The objects are classified as a mine or a non-mine and this decision passed on to the registration and hi-level inference detection subsystems of the mine detection platform.

  11. An affordable humanitarian mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Dittmer, Jon

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the further development of the MINETECT affordable humanitarian mine detector produced by ERA Technology with sponsorship from the UK Department for International Development. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs in terms of the man machine interface, MINETECT offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Following trials in 2002 and reported at SPIE 2002, further development work including research on classifying mines, based on data from planned trials in the United Kingdom, is presented. MINETECT has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers a considerable improvement in hand-held mine detection.

  12. Data Mining for Financial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalerchuk, Boris; Vityaev, Evgenii

    This chapter describes Data Mining in finance by discussing financial tasks, specifics of methodologies and techniques in this Data Mining area. It includes time dependence, data selection, forecast horizon, measures of success, quality of patterns, hypothesis evaluation, problem ID, method profile, attribute-based and relational methodologies. The second part of the chapter discusses Data Mining models and practice in finance. It covers use of neural networks in portfolio management, design of interpretable trading rules and discovering money laundering schemes using decision rules and relational Data Mining methodology.

  13. Data mining applications in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hian Chye; Tan, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Data mining has been used intensively and extensively by many organizations. In healthcare, data mining is becoming increasingly popular, if not increasingly essential. Data mining applications can greatly benefit all parties involved in the healthcare industry. For example, data mining can help healthcare insurers detect fraud and abuse, healthcare organizations make customer relationship management decisions, physicians identify effective treatments and best practices, and patients receive better and more affordable healthcare services. The huge amounts of data generated by healthcare transactions are too complex and voluminous to be processed and analyzed by traditional methods. Data mining provides the methodology and technology to transform these mounds of data into useful information for decision making. This article explores data mining applications in healthcare. In particular, it discusses data mining and its applications within healthcare in major areas such as the evaluation of treatment effectiveness, management of healthcare, customer relationship management, and the detection of fraud and abuse. It also gives an illustrative example of a healthcare data mining application involving the identification of risk factors associated with the onset of diabetes. Finally, the article highlights the limitations of data mining and discusses some future directions. PMID:15869215

  14. Mining's impact on groundwater assessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detailed studies have indicated that groundwater is contaminated in the immediate vicinity of many mines in the eastern United States. However, no underground mines and very few refuse disposal areas have monitoring systems that can provide adequate warning of impending threats to groundwater quality.This was one of the conclusions of a 3-year study by Geraghty & Miller, Inc., a firm of consulting groundwater geologists and hydrologists based in Syosset, New York. The study focused on mines east of the 100th meridian. These mines will produce an estimated 1.1 billion tons of coal and 200 million tons of waste by 1985.

  15. Device for removing blackheads

    DOEpatents

    Berkovich, Tamara

    1995-03-07

    A device for removing blackheads from pores in the skin having a elongated handle with a spoon shaped portion mounted on one end thereof, the spoon having multiple small holes piercing therethrough. Also covered is method for using the device to remove blackheads.

  16. Characterization of Manganese Oxide Precipitates from Appalachian Coal Mine Mine Drainage Treatment Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, H.; Zhang, G; Heaney, P; Webb, S; Burgos, W

    2010-01-01

    The removal of Mn(II) from coal mine drainage (CMD) by chemical addition/active treatment can significantly increase treatment costs. Passive treatment for Mn removal involves promotion of biological oxidative precipitation of manganese oxides (MnO{sub x}). Manganese(II) removal was studied in three passive treatment systems in western Pennsylvania that differed based on their influent Mn(II) concentrations (20-150 mg/L), system construction ({+-}inoculation with patented Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria), and bed materials (limestone vs. sandstone). Manganese(II) removal occurred at pH values as low as 5.0 and temperatures as low as 2 C, but was enhanced at circumneutral pH and warmer temperatures. Trace metals such as Zn, Ni and Co were removed effectively, in most cases preferentially, into the MnO{sub x} precipitates. Based on synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and Mn K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, the predominant Mn oxides at all sites were poorly crystalline hexagonal birnessite, triclinic birnessite and todorokite. The surface morphology of the MnOx precipitates from all sites was coarse and 'sponge-like' composed of nm-sized lathes and thin sheets. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), MnO{sub x} precipitates were found in close proximity to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The greatest removal efficiency of Mn(II) occurred at the one site with a higher pH in the bed and a higher influent total organic C (TOC) concentration (provided by an upstream wetland). Biological oxidation of Mn(II) driven by heterotrophic activity was most likely the predominant Mn removal mechanism in these systems. Influent water chemistry and Mn(II) oxidation kinetics affected the relative distribution of MnOx mineral assemblages in CMD treatment systems.

  17. Tribology of earthmoving, mining, and minerals processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Wilson, Rick D.

    2001-01-01

    Earthmoving, mining, and minerals processing each involve frequent, and often severe, mechanical interactions between metals, and between metals and abrasive nonmetallic and metallic materials (i.e., mineral bearing ores). The abrasive nature of ores causes significant wear to extracting, handling, and processing equipment. Consequently, wear in earthmoving, mining, and minerals processing operations results in the removal of large amounts of material from the wear surfaces of scraping, digging, and ore processing equipment. From an energy point of view, material wear of this nature is classified as an indirect tribological loss (Imhoff et al., 1985). Additionally, a significant amount of energy is expended to overcome frictional forces in the operation of all earthmoving, mining, and minerals processing machinery (i.e., a direct tribological loss). However, in these particular processes, wear losses are more than five times those of frictional losses. In general, the amount of material lost from a particular component in these operations, before it becomes unserviceable, is far greater than that which can be tolerated in typical metal-to-metal wear situations (e.g., lubricated bearing-shaft wear couples in machinery). Consequently, much of the equipment used in earthmoving, mining, and ore processing makes use of easily replaceable or repairable, and preferably low-cost, wear components. The mechanisms by which metal-to-metal and abrasive wear occurs, and the relationships between material properties and wear behavior, are reasonably well-understood in general terms. However, the specific wear mechanisms/wear material interactions that occur during earthmoving, digging, and the processing of ore are more complex, and depend on the wear material, and on the nature of abrasive, the type of loading, and the environment. As a result of this general knowledge, reliable predictions can be made regarding the performance of particular materials under a range of in

  18. Haneş and Valea Vinului (Romania) closed mines Acid Mine Drainages (AMDs)--actual condition and passive treatment remediation proposal.

    PubMed

    Măicăneanu, Andrada; Bedelean, Horea; Ardelean, Marius; Burcă, Silvia; Stanca, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Acid Mine Drainages (AMDs) from Haneş and Valea Vinului (Romania) closed mines were considered for characterization and treatment using a local zeolitic volcanic tuff, ZVT, (Măcicaş, Cluj County, Romania). Water samples were collected from two locations, before and after discharging point in case of Haneş mine, and on three horizons in case of Valea Vinului mine. Physico-chemical (pH, total solid, heavy metal ions concentration) analyses showed that the environment is strongly affected by these AMD discharges even if the mines were closed years ago. Iron, manganese and zinc were the main pollutants identified in Haneş mine AMD, while zinc is the one mainly present in case of Valea Vinului AMD. A batch technique (no stirring) in which the ZVT was put in contact with the AMD sample was proposed as a passive remediation technique. ZVT successfully remove heavy metal ion from AMD. According to heavy metal ion concentrations, removal efficiencies are reaching 100%, varying as follows, Fe(2+)>Zn(2+)>Mn(2+). When the ZVT was compared with two cationic resins (strong, SAR and weak acid, WAR) the following series was depicted, SAR>ZVT>WAR. PMID:23899925

  19. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM - UNDERGROUND MINE SOURCE CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results of the Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 8, Underground Mine Source Control Demonstration Project implemented and funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U. S. Department of E...

  20. Web data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibonele, Kasanda J.; Zhang, Yanqing

    2002-03-01

    A web data mining system using granular computing and ASP programming is proposed. This is a web based application, which allows web users to submit survey data for many different companies. This survey is a collection of questions that will help these companies develop and improve their business and customer service with their clients by analyzing survey data. This web application allows users to submit data anywhere. All the survey data is collected into a database for further analysis. An administrator of this web application can login to the system and view all the data submitted. This web application resides on a web server, and the database resides on the MS SQL server.

  1. Noise in longwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    Antel, J.W.

    1983-03-01

    A series of full-shift noise surveys conducted on longwall sections of six randomly selected coal mines has indicated that the potential exists for 58 percent of the total number of longwall operators surveyed (i.e. shearer operators, headgate and tailgate operators) to be overexposed according to limits set forth in the Code of Federal Regulation; Title 30, Subpart F, Part 70.510. A breakdown by occupation shows that 50 percent of the headgate operators surveyed and 67 percent of the shearer operators surveyed potentially failed to comply with the noise standards.

  2. Airflow obstruction and mining

    SciTech Connect

    Stenton, S.C.; Hendrick, D.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Bronchitis and emphysema have long been described as diseases of miners, but the precise contribution of occupational exposures to coal and other mine dusts in causing these disorders, as opposed to cofactors such as social class, environmental pollution, and cigarette smoking, has not been fully defined. Epidemiologic studies have attempted, with varying degrees of success, to determine the incidence and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in miners as compared to the general population. The results from these studies, and those in other nonmining industries with dust exposures, are examined. 98 refs.

  3. Continuous mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, A.G. Jr.; Plumley, R.D.

    1987-06-02

    This patent describes a power operated endless track assembly for use in transporting underground mining equipment comprising: a pair of separate transversely spaced parallel power driven endless track units; each of the endless track units including an endless track frame carrying forward and rearward sprocket wheels thereon and an endless track extending around the frame and the forward and rearward sprocket wheels; a carriage structure between the pair of endless track units; and a generally horizontally disposed mounting arm assembly extending transversely outwardly from each side of the carriage structure to the associated endless track unit.

  4. Mining the Home Environment

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Diane J.; Krishnan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend a majority of their time in their home or workplace and for many, these places are our sanctuaries. As society and technology advance there is a growing interest in improving the intelligence of the environments in which we live and work. By filling home environments with sensors and collecting data during daily routines, researchers can gain insights on human daily behavior and the impact of behavior on the residents and their environments. In this article we provide an overview of the data mining opportunities and challenges that smart environments provide for researchers and offer some suggestions for future work in this area. PMID:25506128

  5. Mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Plevak, L.; Weirich, W.

    1982-04-20

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a longwall conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side at the goaf side of the conveyor. The hydraulic appliances of the roof support units, such as their hydraulic props, hydraulic advance rams and hydraulic control valves, are supplied with pressurized hydraulic fluid from hydraulic supply lines which run along the goaf side of the conveyor. A plurality of flat, platelike intermediate members are provided at the goaf side of the conveyor. These intermediate members are formed with internal ducts for feeding the hydraulic fluid from the supply lines to the hydraulic appliances of the roof support units.

  6. Environmental noise from surface mining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Staiano, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A sample of five mines were observed as part of a study to determine the magnitude and sources of environmental noise from surface mining operations and to identify noise abatement methods. These mining operations consisted of: a Minnesota iron ore mine, Midwestern and Appalachian coal mines, a Missouri clay pit operation, and a Texas limestone quarry. These operations are typical of Eastern and Midwestern mining activities. This paper highlights the findings of the noise measurement portion of that study.

  7. Removal of broken hardware.

    PubMed

    Hak, David J; McElvany, Matthew

    2008-02-01

    Despite advances in metallurgy, fatigue failure of hardware is common when a fracture fails to heal. Revision procedures can be difficult, usually requiring removal of intact or broken hardware. Several different methods may need to be attempted to successfully remove intact or broken hardware. Broken intramedullary nail cross-locking screws may be advanced out by impacting with a Steinmann pin. Broken open-section (Küntscher type) intramedullary nails may be removed using a hook. Closed-section cannulated intramedullary nails require additional techniques, such as the use of guidewires or commercially available extraction tools. Removal of broken solid nails requires use of a commercial ratchet grip extractor or a bone window to directly impact the broken segment. Screw extractors, trephines, and extraction bolts are useful for removing stripped or broken screws. Cold-welded screws and plates can complicate removal of locked implants and require the use of carbide drills or high-speed metal cutting tools. Hardware removal can be a time-consuming process, and no single technique is uniformly successful. PMID:18252842

  8. Finding Gold in Data Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Data-mining systems provide a variety of opportunities for school district personnel to streamline operations and focus on student achievement. This article describes the value of data mining for school personnel, finance departments, teacher evaluations, and in the classroom. It suggests that much could be learned about district practices if one…

  9. Data Mining for Intrusion Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Anoop; Jajodia, Sushil

    Data Mining Techniques have been successfully applied in many different fields including marketing, manufacturing, fraud detection and network management. Over the past years there is a lot of interest in security technologies such as intrusion detection, cryptography, authentication and firewalls. This chapter discusses the application of Data Mining techniques to computer security. Conclusions are drawn and directions for future research are suggested.

  10. Education Roadmap for Mining Professionals

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-12-01

    This document represents the roadmap for education in the U.S. mining industry. It was developed based on the results of an Education Roadmap Workshop sponsored by the National Mining Association in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies. The Workshop was held February 23, 2002 in Phoenix, Arizona.

  11. Process Mining Online Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Trcka, Nikola; Vasilyeva, Ekaterina; van der Aalst, Wil; De Bra, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Traditional data mining techniques have been extensively applied to find interesting patterns, build descriptive and predictive models from large volumes of data accumulated through the use of different information systems. The results of data mining can be used for getting a better understanding of the underlying educational processes, for…

  12. Preoperative hair removal.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, H W; Hamilton, K R; Lone, F J

    1977-05-01

    This study compares the efficiency, safety and cost of hair removal before surgery, with a safety razor, an electric clipper and a depilatory. It was found that both the razor and the clipper damaged the surface of the skin, while the depilatory caused a mild lymphocytic reaction in the upper dermis. The depilatory was expensive and may cause sensitivity reactions in a few individuals, but was found to be the easiest and most efficient method of removing hair. It was concluded that if hair has to be removed a depilatory is the agent of choice. PMID:870157

  13. The impact of coal mining on water quality in Claybank creek, northern Missouri, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Piepenburg, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    Abandoned and unreclaimed shaft and strip mines are the source of sediments and selected, solute ionic species polluting the North Fork of Claybank Creek in north-central Missouri. Coal was mined by shaft and strip techniques in this drainage basin from the 1860's to the 1950's. Coal has been removed from under approximately 1167 hectares of the basin and an additional 114 hectares have been surface mined. The lower Pennsylvanian Bevier-Wheeler coal has a high sulfur content and is bituminous. The dominant sulfur form is pyritic, and the oxidation of the pyrite in the abandoned shaft mines and associated spoil piles and in the strip mine spoil results in acidic discharges from the mining sites to the stream system. Water samples were collected monthly for one year at twelve locations in the drainage basin and from two control streams in the region. Spatial separation of shaft and strip mines within the basin and variable water quality in the stream suggest a relationship between the technique of mining and the intensity of pollution in different portions of the stream. The relationship could not be statistically identified through interpretation of bivariate, multiple, and stepwise regressions.

  14. Escondida Mine, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Full resolution visible and near-infrared image (1.4 MB) Full resolution shortwave infrared image (1.6 MB) This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image covers 30 by 23 km (full images 30 x 37 km) in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida copper, gold, and silver open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and began operations in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold, and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentrate of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9-inch pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. The top image is a conventional 3-2-1 (near infrared, red, green) RGB composite. The bottom image displays shortwave infrared bands 4-6-8 (1.65um, 2.205um, 2.33um) in RGB, and highlights the different rock types present on the surface, as well as the changes caused by mining. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  15. Data mining and education.

    PubMed

    Koedinger, Kenneth R; D'Mello, Sidney; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A; Pardos, Zachary A; Rosé, Carolyn P

    2015-01-01

    An emerging field of educational data mining (EDM) is building on and contributing to a wide variety of disciplines through analysis of data coming from various educational technologies. EDM researchers are addressing questions of cognition, metacognition, motivation, affect, language, social discourse, etc. using data from intelligent tutoring systems, massive open online courses, educational games and simulations, and discussion forums. The data include detailed action and timing logs of student interactions in user interfaces such as graded responses to questions or essays, steps in rich problem solving environments, games or simulations, discussion forum posts, or chat dialogs. They might also include external sensors such as eye tracking, facial expression, body movement, etc. We review how EDM has addressed the research questions that surround the psychology of learning with an emphasis on assessment, transfer of learning and model discovery, the role of affect, motivation and metacognition on learning, and analysis of language data and collaborative learning. For example, we discuss (1) how different statistical assessment methods were used in a data mining competition to improve prediction of student responses to intelligent tutor tasks, (2) how better cognitive models can be discovered from data and used to improve instruction, (3) how data-driven models of student affect can be used to focus discussion in a dialog-based tutoring system, and (4) how machine learning techniques applied to discussion data can be used to produce automated agents that support student learning as they collaborate in a chat room or a discussion board. PMID:26263424

  16. Proceedings, 26th international conference on ground control in mining

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.; Mark, C.; Finfinger, G.

    2007-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following topic headings: multiple-seam mining, surface subsidence, coal pillar, bunker and roadway/entry supports, mine design and highwall mining, longwall, roof bolting, stone and hardrock mining, rock mechanics and mine seal.

  17. Introduction to Space Resource Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    There are vast amounts of resources in the solar system that will be useful to humans in space and possibly on Earth. None of these resources can be exploited without the first necessary step of extra-terrestrial mining. The necessary technologies for tele-robotic and autonomous mining have not matured sufficiently yet. The current state of technology was assessed for terrestrial and extraterrestrial mining and a taxonomy of robotic space mining mechanisms was presented which was based on current existing prototypes. Terrestrial and extra-terrestrial mining methods and technologies are on the cusp of massive changes towards automation and autonomy for economic and safety reasons. It is highly likely that these industries will benefit from mutual cooperation and technology transfer.

  18. Measuring mine roof bolt strains

    DOEpatents

    Steblay, Bernard J.

    1986-01-01

    A mine roof bolt and a method of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts of this type are disclosed. According to the method, a flat portion on the head of the mine roof bolt is first machined. Next, a hole is drilled radially through the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head. After installation of the mine roof bolt and loading, the strain of the mine roof bolt is measured by generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion. The time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole is measured. This time of travel is a function of the distance from the flat portion to the hole and increases as the bolt is loaded. Consequently, the time measurement is correlated to the strain in the bolt. Compensation for various factors affecting the travel time are also provided.

  19. Research on One Borehole Hydraulic Coal Mining System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    XIA, Bairu; ZENG, Xiping; MAO, Zhixin

    The Borehole Hydraulic Coal Mining System (BHCMS) causes fragmentation of coal seams and removes coal slump through a drilled hole using high-pressure water jet. Then the mixture of coal and water as slurry are driven out of the borehole by hydraulic or air-lifting method, and are separated at the surface. This paper presents a case study of hydraulic borehole coal mining. The three key techniques of the BHCMS, namely, hydraulic lift of jet pump, air lift, and water jet disintegration are discussed and analyzed in this paper based on theoretical analysis and field experiments. Some useful findings have been obtained: (1) The design of jet pump, air lift system, and water jet has to be integrated appropriately in order to improve mining efficiency and coal recovery rate, and to decrease energy consumption. The design of hydraulic lift jet pump must meet the requirement of the minimum floating speed of coal particles. The optimization of nondimensional parameters and prevention of cavitation have to be considered in the design; (2) With regard to selecting the nozzle types of jet pump, center nozzle or annular nozzle can be selected according to the size of the removed particles; (3) Through air-lift and back pressure, the water head can be decreased to improve the lift capacity of jet pump and decrease the power loss. The air lift has great limitation if it is used solely to extract coal, but if it is employed in conjunction with jet pump, the lift capacity of jet pump can be increased greatly; (4) With water jets, the air lift can improve the fragmentation radius and capacity. The main factors that affect the effect of water jet are the submergible status of jet, jet pressure, and flowrate. The ideal jet of the monitor in the borehole hydraulic coal-mining system is a nonsubmergible free jet. Through air lift, the nonsubmergible free jet can be set up in the mining hole.

  20. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-08-02

    The April-June 2004 quarter was dedicated to the establishment of monitoring systems for all the new research areas. Hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas as does weather data pertinent to the research. Studies assessing specific questions pertaining to carbon flux has been established and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals is being quantified. The approval of two experimental practices associated with this research by the United States Office of Surface Mining was a major accomplishment during this period of time. These experimental practices will eventually allow for tree planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and for the use of loose dumped spoil on mountain top removal areas with no grading in the final layer of rooting material for tree establishment.

  1. @Note: a workbench for biomedical text mining.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Anália; Carreira, Rafael; Carneiro, Sónia; Maia, Paulo; Glez-Peña, Daniel; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Ferreira, Eugénio C; Rocha, Isabel; Rocha, Miguel

    2009-08-01

    Biomedical Text Mining (BioTM) is providing valuable approaches to the automated curation of scientific literature. However, most efforts have addressed the benchmarking of new algorithms rather than user operational needs. Bridging the gap between BioTM researchers and biologists' needs is crucial to solve real-world problems and promote further research. We present @Note, a platform for BioTM that aims at the effective translation of the advances between three distinct classes of users: biologists, text miners and software developers. Its main functional contributions are the ability to process abstracts and full-texts; an information retrieval module enabling PubMed search and journal crawling; a pre-processing module with PDF-to-text conversion, tokenisation and stopword removal; a semantic annotation schema; a lexicon-based annotator; a user-friendly annotation view that allows to correct annotations and a Text Mining Module supporting dataset preparation and algorithm evaluation. @Note improves the interoperability, modularity and flexibility when integrating in-home and open-source third-party components. Its component-based architecture allows the rapid development of new applications, emphasizing the principles of transparency and simplicity of use. Although it is still on-going, it has already allowed the development of applications that are currently being used. PMID:19393341

  2. Paint removal using lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Katherine; Garmire, Elsa

    1995-07-01

    Experiments to investigate the potential for practical laser graffiti-removal systems are reported. A universal engineering curve for the time needed for removal of paint from nonconductive substrates that was valid over a range of 107 in intensity was measured with a variety of lasers. Comparable times were measured for conductive substrates, when pulses shorter than the thermal conduction times were used. Analysis suggests that Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers may be the most efficient means for removing graffiti and other unwanted paint. An 1-m2 area of paint 14 mu m thick can be removed in approximately 10 min with a 50-Hz laser system of 15-W average power.

  3. Paint removal using lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, K; Garmire, E

    1995-07-20

    Experiments to investigate the potential for practical laser graffiti-removal systems are reported. A universal engineering curve for the time needed for removal of paint from nonconductive substrates that was valid over a range of 10(7) in intensity was measured with a variety of lasers. Comparable times were measured for conductive substrates, when pulses shorter than the thermal conduction times were used. Analysis suggests that Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers may be the most efficient means for removing graffiti and other unwanted paint. An 1-m(2) area of paint 14 µm thick can be removed in approximately 10 min with a 50-Hz laser system of 15-W average power. PMID:21052275

  4. Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Login Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy) Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Version Find a SAGES Surgeon What ... 2017 Meeting Information Healthy Sooner: Patient Information Contact SAGES Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons 11300 ...

  5. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery to remove part or all of your thyroid gland. This operation is called thyroidectomy . You probably ... in just a few weeks. If you had thyroid cancer, you may need to have radioactive iodine ...

  6. Gallbladder removal - open

    MedlinePlus

    ... and kidney tests) Chest x-ray or electrocardiogram ( EKG ), for some patients Several x-rays of the ... Procedure You may stay in the hospital for 3 to 5 days after open gallbladder removal. During ...

  7. Hardware removal - extremity

    MedlinePlus

    Surgeons use hardware such as pins, plates, or screws to help fix a broken bone or to correct an abnormality in ... of pain or other problems related to the hardware, you may have surgery to remove the hardware. ...

  8. Removing Hair Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin, and into the hair follicle. An electric current travels down the wire and destroys the hair ... a period of time. Tweezer epilators also use electric current to remove hair. The tweezers grasp the hair ...

  9. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... adrenal tumors that appear malignant. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  10. Hardware removal - extremity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007644.htm Hardware removal - extremity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Surgeons use hardware such as pins, plates, or screws to help ...

  11. Reactor for removing ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Luo, Weifang; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2009-11-17

    Disclosed is a device for removing trace amounts of ammonia from a stream of gas, particularly hydrogen gas, prepared by a reformation apparatus. The apparatus is used to prevent PEM "poisoning" in a fuel cell receiving the incoming hydrogen stream.

  12. Gallbladder removal - laparoscopic

    MedlinePlus

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 55. Read More Acute cholecystitis Chronic cholecystitis Gallbladder removal - open Gallstones Patient Instructions Bland diet Surgical wound care - open When you have nausea and vomiting ...

  13. BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three proprietary biological phosphorus removal processes are reviewed. The paper presents the description and development status of these technologies. The paper is a summary of the emerging technology assessment report published by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1984. ...

  14. Asbestos Removal Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Stanley J.

    1986-01-01

    The engineer for a California school district describes the asbestos removal from the ceilings of El Camino High School. Discusses forming a design team, use of consultants, specifications, relations with contractors, and staff notification. (MLF)

  15. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Jon

    2006-01-01

    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  16. Laser hair removal pearls.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal. PMID:18330794

  17. Treatment of mining acidic leachates with indigenous limestone, Zimapan Mexico.

    PubMed

    Labastida, I; Armienta, M A; Lara-Castro, R H; Aguayo, A; Cruz, O; Ceniceros, N

    2013-11-15

    An experimental study to evaluate the potential of using indigenous limestones in a passive system to treat acid mine drainage, at a mining zone of Mexico was carried out. Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of four types of native rocks (KIT1, KIT2, KSS, QZ) showed distinct CaCO3 contents. Synthetic aqueous leachates from an old tailings impoundment had a pH of 2.18, 34 mg/L As, 705 mg/L Fetotal, and 3975 mg/L SO4(2-). To evaluate dissolution behavior of rocks, kinetic batch experiments with an acid Fe-rich solution were performed. Decaying kinetic constants adjusting H(+) concentration to a first order exponential process were: KIT1 (k = 2.89), KIT2 (k = 0.89) and KSS (k = 0.47). Infrared spectrum and XRD of precipitates showed schwertmannite formation. To determine As and heavy metals (Fe, Cd, Zn, Al) removal from the synthetic leachates, batch experiments using KIT1 were developed. Arsenic decreased from 34.00 mg/L to 0.04 mg/L, Fe and Al were totally removed, and concentrations of Zn and Cd decreased 88% and 91% respectively. Analyses by IR and SEM-EDS indicate that co-precipitation with Fe-Hydroxides formed upon leachate interaction with limestone is the main As removal process. Chamosite, identified by XRD may participate in the removal of Al, SiO2 and a fraction of Fe. PMID:22819958

  18. Power mine door system

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.R.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1993-06-29

    A mine door system for installation in a passageway in a mine is described, comprising a door frame adapted to be installed in the passageway to define a generally rectangular doorway, said door frame having a top and opposite sides, a mine door comprising a pair of door leaf hinged on opposite sides of the door frame to permit passage through the doorway, each door leaf being generally rectangular in shape with a top horizontal edge, a bottom horizontal edge, a generally vertical hinged side edge adjacent a respective side of the door frame, a generally vertical free side edge opposite the hinged side edge, a first leaf face facing away from the top of the door frame when the door leaf is closed, a second leaf face facing toward the top of the door frame when the door leaf is closed, the door leaf being so dimensioned that there is a substantial vertical gap between the door leaf when they are closed to accommodate convergence of side walls of the passageway, a relatively wide vertical sealing member secured to said first face of one of said door leaf adjacent its free side edge and projecting laterally therefrom for overlapping the first face of the other door leaf adjacent its free side edge thereby to cover said gap between the door leaf when the door leaf are closed, said door leaf having upper corner regions relieved to provide notch-like recesses adjacent the gap on opposite sides of the gap extending from the first leaf faces of the door leaf to the second leaf faces of the door leaf, said sealing member having an inclined upper end portion configured so that, when the door leaf are closed, it slopes upwardly through said recesses and said gap for substantially the full depth of the gap, said inclined upper end portion terminating in a tip engageable with the top of the door frame when the door leaf are closed thereby to inhibit the passage of air through the gap at a location adjacent the top of the door frame.

  19. Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cactus Queen Mine is located in the western Mojave Desert in Kern County, California. The Cactus Queen gold-silver (Au-Ag) deposit is similar to other Au-Ag deposits hosted in Miocene volcanic rocks that consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions. The volcanic rocks were emplaced onto a basement of Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks. A part of the Cactus Queen Mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Staff from the BLM initially sampled the mine area and documented elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in tailings and sediment. BLM then requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure and characterize As and other geochemical constituents in sediment, tailings, and waters on the part of the mine on Federal lands. This report is made in response to the request by the BLM, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the potential removal of As-contaminated mine waste from the Cactus Queen Mine as a means of reducing As release and exposure to humans and biota. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of sediments, mine tailings, and surface waters at the Cactus Queen Mine on January 27, 2008. Our results provide a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  20. Assessment of mercury and methylmercury in water, sediment, and biota in Sulphur Creek in the vicinity of the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, Colusa County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, Roger L.; Rytuba, James J.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we performed a study during April–July 2010 to characterize mercury (Hg), monomethyl mercury (MMeHg), and other geochemical constituents in sediment, water, and biota at the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, located in neighboring subwatersheds of Sulphur Creek, Colusa County, California. This study was in support of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act - Removal Site Investigation. The investigation was in response to an abatement notification from the California Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board to evaluate the release of Hg from the Clyde and Elgin mines. Samples of water, sediment, and biota (aquatic macroinvertebrates) were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the two mine sites to evaluate the level of Hg contamination contributed by each mine to the aquatic ecosystem. Physical parameters, as well as dissolved organic carbon, total Hg (HgT), and MMeHg were analyzed in water and sediment. Other relevant geochemical constituents were analyzed in sediment, filtered water, and unfiltered water. Samples of aquatic macroinvertebrates from each mine were analyzed for HgT and MMeHg. The presence of low to moderate concentrations of HgT and MMeHg in water, sediment, and biota from the Freshwater Branch of Sulphur Creek, and the lack of significant increases in these concentrations downstream from the Clyde Mine indicated that this mine is not a significant source of Hg to the watershed during low flow conditions. Although concentrations of HgT and MMeHg were generally higher in samples of sediment and water from the Elgin Mine compared to the Clyde Mine, concentrations in comparable biota from the two mine areas were similar. It is likely that highly saline effluent from nearby hot springs contribute more Hg to the West Fork of Sulphur Creek than the mine waste material at the Elgin Mine.