Science.gov

Sample records for mouse digestive system

  1. Regions of the Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anatomy & Physiology » Digestive System » Regions of the Digestive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  2. Effects of Aging on the Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chronic Heartburn? Additional Content Medical News Effects of Aging on the Digestive System By Atenodoro R. Ruiz, ... Tract Large Intestine Rectum and Anus Effects of Aging on the Digestive System Because the digestive system ...

  3. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dual digestion system (DDS) was developed to provide stabilized, pathogen free sludge. DDS consists of a 1-day detention time, pure-oxygen, covered aerobic digester (Step I) followed by an 8-day detention time anaerobic reactor. The temperature in the Step I digester is contr...

  4. Manure digester and power generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Santina, P.F.; Chatterjee, A.K.

    1988-06-14

    A manure digester and power generating system is described comprising: a mixing tank for receiving manure, and for mixing water with the manure to produce a manure slurry of desired consistency; a closed anaerobic digester tank of fixed volume; the mixing tank being separate from and spaced from the digester tank; pumping and conduit means for transferring the contents of the mixing tank to the digester tank; automatic control means, associated with the pumping means, for monitoring and controlling temperature and volume of the contents of the mixing tank before transfer to the digester tank; means for discharging effluent by-products out the outflow end of the digester tank; a gas-fueled engine and a generator coupled to the engine, for generating electrical power; heater means; means for drawing off biogas from the digester tank and for conducting it to the engine as fuel, and wherein the manure slurry is heated sufficiently, prior to introduction into the digester tank and separately from the digester tank, to prevent temperature shock of already digesting slurry in the digester tank when the slurry is introduced into the digester tank.

  5. MOUSE UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The original MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty System) system was designed to deal with the problem of uncertainties in Environmental engineering calculations, such as a set of engineering cost or risk analysis equations. t was especially intended for use by individuals with li...

  6. Papain digestion of different mouse IgG subclasses as studied by electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, M; Gebler, J C; Wu, J

    2000-04-01

    On-line liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) has been utilized to monitor the papain digestion of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAb) of different subclasses (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3). The method is simple, rapid, sensitive, and allows for simultaneous determination of digestion products and the identification of microheterogenous fragments. The results provide important insight into the mechanism of papain digestion of mouse IgGs of different subclasses. PMID:10725455

  7. DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: ANAEROBIC DIGESTER MIXING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design information report discusses the current problems and potential solutions associated with the selection, design, and operation of anaerobic digester mixing systems. The report describes the four major types of mixing systems and presents their advantages and disadvanta...

  8. Adenylyl cyclases in the digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, Maria Eugenia; Gorelick, Fred; Glaser, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a group of widely distributed enzymes whose functions are very diverse. There are nine known transmembrane AC isoforms activated by Gαs. Each has its own pattern of expression in the digestive system and differential regulation of function by Ca2+ and other intracellular signals. In addition to the transmembrane isoforms, one AC is soluble and exhibits distinct regulation. In this review, the basic structure, regulation and physiological roles of ACs in the digestive system are discussed. PMID:24521753

  9. Adenylyl cyclases in the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Maria Eugenia; Gorelick, Fred; Glaser, Shannon

    2014-06-01

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a group of widely distributed enzymes whose functions are very diverse. There are nine known transmembrane AC isoforms activated by Gαs. Each has its own pattern of expression in the digestive system and differential regulation of function by Ca(2+) and other intracellular signals. In addition to the transmembrane isoforms, one AC is soluble and exhibits distinct regulation. In this review, the basic structure, regulation and physiological roles of ACs in the digestive system are discussed. PMID:24521753

  10. Kinetic properties of mouse pancreatic lipase-related protein-2 suggest the mouse may not model human fat digestion

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xunjun; Ross, Leah E.; Miller, Rita A.; Lowe, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically engineered mice have been employed to understand the role of lipases in dietary fat digestion with the expectation that the results can be extrapolated to humans. However, little is known about the properties of mouse pancreatic triglyceride lipase (mPTL) and pancreatic lipase-related protein-2 (mPLRP2). In this study, both lipases were expressed in Pichia Pastoris GS115, purified to near homogeneity, and their properties were characterized. Mouse PTL displayed the kinetics typical of PTL from other species. Like mPTL, mPLRP2 exhibited strong activity against various triglycerides. In contrast to mPTL, mPLRP2 was not inhibited by increasing bile salt concentration. Colipase stimulated mPLRP2 activity 2- to 4-fold. Additionally, mPTL absolutely required colipase for absorption to a lipid interface, whereas mPLRP2 absorbed fully without colipase. mPLRP2 had full activity in the presence of BSA, whereas BSA completely inhibited mPTL unless colipase was present. All of these properties of mPLRP2 differ from the properties of human PLRP2 (hPLRP2). Furthermore, mPLRP2 appears capable of compensating for mPTL deficiency. These findings suggest that the molecular mechanisms of dietary fat digestion may be different in humans and mice. Thus, extrapolation of dietary fat digestion in mice to humans should be done with care. PMID:21382969

  11. Delivery Systems for Distance Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamber, Linda

    This ERIC digest provides a brief overview of the video, audio, and computer technologies that are currently used to deliver instruction for distance education programs. The video systems described include videoconferencing, low-power television (LPTV), closed-circuit television (CCTV), instructional fixed television service (ITFS), and cable

  12. Student Teachers' Ways of Thinking and Ways of Understanding Digestion and the Digestive System in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çimer, Sabiha Odabasi; Ursavas, Nazihan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ways in which student teachers understand digestion and the digestive system and, subsequently, their ways of thinking, as reflected in their problem solving approaches and the justification schemes that they used to validate their claims. For this purpose, clinical interviews were conducted with 10…

  13. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivers them to the rest of the body. Waste products of digestion pass through the large intestine ... the rest of the body. Large intestine. The waste products of the digestive process include undigested parts ...

  14. Human and mouse tissue-engineered small intestine both demonstrate digestive and absorptive function.

    PubMed

    Grant, Christa N; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Sala, Frederic G; Hill, J Ryan; Levin, Daniel E; Speer, Allison L; Barthel, Erik R; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Zachos, Nicholas C; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2015-04-15

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a devastating condition in which insufficient small intestinal surface area results in malnutrition and dependence on intravenous parenteral nutrition. There is an increasing incidence of SBS, particularly in premature babies and newborns with congenital intestinal anomalies. Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a therapeutic alternative to the current standard treatment, intestinal transplantation, and has the potential to solve its biggest challenges, namely donor shortage and life-long immunosuppression. We have previously demonstrated that TESI can be generated from mouse and human small intestine and histologically replicates key components of native intestine. We hypothesized that TESI also recapitulates native small intestine function. Organoid units were generated from mouse or human donor intestine and implanted into genetically identical or immunodeficient host mice. After 4 wk, TESI was harvested and either fixed and paraffin embedded or immediately subjected to assays to illustrate function. We demonstrated that both mouse and human tissue-engineered small intestine grew into an appropriately polarized sphere of intact epithelium facing a lumen, contiguous with supporting mesenchyme, muscle, and stem/progenitor cells. The epithelium demonstrated major ultrastructural components, including tight junctions and microvilli, transporters, and functional brush-border and digestive enzymes. This study demonstrates that tissue-engineered small intestine possesses a well-differentiated epithelium with intact ion transporters/channels, functional brush-border enzymes, and similar ultrastructural components to native tissue, including progenitor cells, whether derived from mouse or human cells. PMID:25573173

  15. Dietary Sodium Suppresses Digestive Efficiency via the Renin-Angiotensin System

    PubMed Central

    Weidemann, Benjamin J.; Voong, Susan; Morales-Santiago, Fabiola I.; Kahn, Michael Z.; Ni, Jonathan; Littlejohn, Nicole K.; Claflin, Kristin E.; Burnett, Colin M.L.; Pearson, Nicole A.; Lutter, Michael L.; Grobe, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fats and sodium are both palatable and are hypothesized to synergistically contribute to ingestive behavior and thereby obesity. Contrary to this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice fed a 45% high fat diet exhibited weight gain that was inhibited by increased dietary sodium content. This suppressive effect of dietary sodium upon weight gain was mediated specifically through a reduction in digestive efficiency, with no effects on food intake behavior, physical activity, or resting metabolism. Replacement of circulating angiotensin II levels reversed the effects of high dietary sodium to suppress digestive efficiency. While the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan had no effect in mice fed low sodium, the AT2 receptor antagonist PD-123,319 suppressed digestive efficiency. Correspondingly, genetic deletion of the AT2 receptor in FVB/NCrl mice resulted in suppressed digestive efficiency even on a standard chow diet. Together these data underscore the importance of digestive efficiency in the pathogenesis of obesity, and implicate dietary sodium, the renin-angiotensin system, and the AT2 receptor in the control of digestive efficiency regardless of mouse strain or macronutrient composition of the diet. These findings highlight the need for greater understanding of nutrient absorption control physiology, and prompt more uniform assessment of digestive efficiency in animal studies of energy balance. PMID:26068176

  16. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION OF THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Full-scale performance and costs of an innovative sludge stabilization process were evaluated at the three plants. The DDS incorporates a 1-day-detention-time, pure oxygen aerobic digester followed in series by an 8-day-detention-time anaerobic digester. Heat of biological oxidat...

  17. Expert system for control of anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Pullammanappallil, P C; Svoronos, S A; Chynoweth, D P; Lyberatos, G

    1998-04-01

    Continuous anaerobic digesters are systems that present challenging control problems including the possibility that an unmeasured disturbance can change the sign of the steady-state process gain. An expert system is developed that recognizes changes in the sign of process gain and implements appropriate control laws. The sole on-line measured variable is the methane production rate, and the manipulated input is the dilution rate. The expert system changes the dilution rate according to one of four possible strategies: a constrained conventional set-point control law, a constant yield control law (CYCL) that is nearly optimal for the most common cause of change in the sign of the process gain, batch operation, or constant dilution rate. The algorithm uses a t test for determining when to switch to the CYCL and returns to the conventional set-point control law with bumpless transfer. The expert system has proved successful in several experimental tests: severe overload; mild, moderate, and severe underload; and addition of phenol in low and high levels. Phenol is an inhibitor that in high concentrations changes the sign of the process gain. PMID:10099257

  18. Digestive Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  19. Energy Integrated Dairy Farm digester and cogeneration system installation

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.C.; Walsh, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Georgia Tech finished in December, 1983 Phase II (system installation and startup) of its four year Energy Integrated Dairy Farm System (EIDFS) program. This paper outlines the selection and installation of the anaerobic digestion and cogeneration components of the EIDFS.

  20. Waste heat utilization in an anaerobic digestion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissevain, Brett

    Anaerobic digestion has great potential as an energy source. Not only does it provide an effective method for waste mitigation, but it has the potential to generate significant quantities of fuel and electricity. In order to ensure efficient digestion and biomass utilization, however, the system must be continuously maintained at elevated temperatures. It is technically feasible to supplement such a system with outside energy, but it is more cost effective to heat the system using only the produced biogas. While there is considerable literature covering the theory of anaerobic digestion, there are very few practical studies to show how heat utilization affects system operation. This study considers the effect of major design variables (i.e. heat exchanger efficiencies and biogas conditioning) on promoting a completely self-sustaining digestion system. The thesis considers a real world system and analyzes how it can be improved to avoid the need of an external energy source.

  1. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.

    PubMed

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian. PMID:24785191

  2. Role of microRNA-7 in digestive system malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wan-Qun; Hu, Ling; Chen, Geng-Xin; Deng, Hai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    There are several malignancies of the digestive system (including gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma), which are the most common types of cancer and a major cause of death worldwide. MicroRNA (miR)-7 is abundant in the pancreas, playing an important role in pancreatic development and endocrine function. Expression of miR-7 is downregulated in digestive system malignancies compared with normal tissue. Although there are contrasting results for miR-7 expression, almost all research reveals that miR-7 is a tumor suppressor, by targeting various genes in specific pathways. Moreover, miR-7 can target different genes simultaneously in different malignancies of the digestive system. By acting on many cytokines, miR-7 is also involved in many gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases as a significant carcinogenic factor. Consequently, miR-7 might be a biomarker or therapeutic target gene in digestive system malignancies. PMID:26798443

  3. Bile acid nuclear receptor FXR and digestive system diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lili; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao; Huang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are not only digestive surfactants but also important cell signaling molecules, which stimulate several signaling pathways to regulate some important biological processes. The bile-acid-activated nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), plays a pivotal role in regulating bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis as well as in regulating the inflammatory responses, barrier function and prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal tract. As expected, FXR is involved in the pathophysiology of a wide range of diseases of gastrointestinal tract, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the roles of FXR in physiology of the digestive system and the related diseases. Better understanding of the roles of FXR in digestive system will accelerate the development of FXR ligands/modulators for the treatment of digestive system diseases. PMID:26579439

  4. TRP channels in the digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Several of the 28 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed throughout the alimentary canal where they play important roles in taste, chemo- and mechanosensation, thermoregulation, pain and hyperalgesia, mucosal function and homeostasis, control of motility by neurons, interstitial cells of Cajal and muscle cells, and vascular function. While the implications of some TRP channels, notably TRPA1, TRPC4, TRPM5, TRPM6, TRPM7, TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPV6, have been investigated in much detail, the understanding of other TRP channels in their relevance to digestive function lags behind. The polymodal chemo- and mechanosensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPV1 and TRPV4 is particularly relevant to the alimentary canal whose digestive and absorptive function depends on the surveillance and integration of many chemical and physical stimuli. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 appear to be essential for the absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively, while TRPM7 appears to contribute to the pacemaker activity of the interstitial cells of Cajal, and TRPC4 transduces smooth muscle contraction evoked by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation. The implication of some TRP channels in pathological processes has raised enormous interest in exploiting them as a therapeutic target. This is particularly true for TRPV1, TRPV4 and TRPA1, which may be targeted for the treatment of several conditions of chronic abdominal pain. Consequently, blockers of these TRP channels have been developed, and their clinical usefulness has yet to be established. PMID:20932260

  5. Autogenerative high pressure digestion: anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system.

    PubMed

    Lindeboom, R E F; Fermoso, F G; Weijma, J; Zagt, K; van Lier, J B

    2011-01-01

    Conventional anaerobic digestion is a widely applied technology to produce biogas from organic wastes and residues. The biogas calorific value depends on the CH, content which generally ranges between 55 and 65%. Biogas upgrading to so-called 'green gas', with natural gas quality, generally proceeds with add-on technologies, applicable only for biogas flows > 100 m3/h. In the concept of autogenerative high pressure digestion (AHPD), methanogenic biomass builds up pressure inside the reactor. Since CO2 has a higher solubility than CH4, it will proportion more to the liquid phase at higher pressures. Therefore, AHPD biogas is characterised by a high CH4 content, reaching equilibrium values between 90 and 95% at a pressure of 3-90 bar. In addition, also H2S and NH3 are theoretically more soluble in the bulk liquid than CO2. Moreover, the water content of the already compressed biogas is calculated to have a dew point <--10 degrees C. Ideally, high-quality biogas can be directly used for electricity and heat generation, or injected in a local natural gas distribution net. In the present study, using sodium acetate as substrate and anaerobic granular sludge as inoculum, batch-fed reactors showed a pressure increase up to 90 bars, the maximum allowable value for our used reactors. However, the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of the sludge decreased on average by 30% compared to digestion at ambient pressure (1 bar). Other results show no effect of pressure exposure on the SMA assessed under atmospheric conditions. These first results show that the proposed AHPD process is a highly promising technology for anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system. PMID:22097043

  6. Student Science Teachers' Ideas of the Digestive System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardak, Osman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to reveal the levels of understanding of student science teachers regarding the digestive system. In this research, 116 student science teachers were tested by applying the drawing method. Upon the analysis of the drawings they made, it was found that some of them had misconceptions such as "the organs of the…

  7. Procedures for identifying infectious prions after passage through the digestive system of an avian species.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Justin W; Nichols, Tracy A; Phillips, Gregory E; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2013-01-01

    Infectious prion (PrP(Res)) material is likely the cause of fatal, neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases(1). Transmission of TSE diseases, such as chronic wasting disease (CWD), is presumed to be from animal to animal(2,3) as well as from environmental sources(4-6). Scavengers and carnivores have potential to translocate PrP(Res) material through consumption and excretion of CWD-contaminated carrion. Recent work has documented passage of PrP(Res) material through the digestive system of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a common North American scavenger(7). We describe procedures used to document passage of PrP(Res) material through American crows. Crows were gavaged with RML-strain mouse-adapted scrapie and their feces were collected 4 hr post gavage. Crow feces were then pooled and injected intraperitoneally into C57BL/6 mice. Mice were monitored daily until they expressed clinical signs of mouse scrapie and were thereafter euthanized. Asymptomatic mice were monitored until 365 days post inoculation. Western blot analysis was conducted to confirm disease status. Results revealed that prions remain infectious after traveling through the digestive system of crows and are present in the feces, causing disease in test mice. PMID:24300668

  8. Systemic vasculitides: a critical digest of the most recent literature.

    PubMed

    Stagnaro, C; Cioffi, E; Talarico, R; Della Rossa, A

    2015-01-01

    Herewith we provide our annual digest of the recent literature on systemic vasculitides. In this manuscript, we reviewed all the articles published during the last 12 months on large-, medium- and small-vessel vasculitis and selected the most relevant studies regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of systemic vasculitis. In particular, we focused the attention on giant cell arteritis, ANCA-associated vasculitis and cryoglobulinaemia. PMID:26016767

  9. Microscopic anatomy of pycnogonida: II. Digestive system. III. Excretory system.

    PubMed

    Fahrenbach, W H; Arango, Claudia P

    2007-11-01

    The digestive system of several species of sea spiders (Pycnogonida, Arthropoda) was studied by electron microscopy. It is composed of the foregut inside a long proboscis, a midgut and a hindgut. Lips near the three jaws at the tip of the proboscis receive several hundred ductules originating from salivary glands. These previously undetected glands open on the lips, a fluted, projecting ridge at the external hinge line of the jaws, i.e., to the outside of the mouth. This disposition suggests affinities to the chelicerate line. The trigonal esophagus within the proboscis contains a complex, setose filter device, operated by dedicated muscles, that serves to reduce ingested food to subcellular dimensions. The midgut has diverticula into the bases of all legs. Its cells differentiate from the basal layer and contain a bewildering array of secretion droplets, lysosomes and phagosomes. In the absence of a hepatopancreas, the midgut serves both digestive and absorptive functions. The cuticle-lined hindgut lies in the highly reduced, peg-like abdomen. Traditionally, pycnogonids have been claimed to have no excretory organ at all. Such a structure, however, has been located in at least one ammotheid, Nymphopsis spinosissima, in which a simple, but standard, excretory gland has been found in the scape of the chelifore. It consists of an end sac, a straight proximal tubule, a short distal tubule, and a raised nephropore. The end sac is a thin-walled and polygonal chamber, about 150 microm in cross section, suspended in the hemocoel of the appendage, its edges radially tethered to the cuticle at more than half a dozen locations. This wall consists of a filtration basement membrane, 1-4 microm thick, facing the hemocoel, and internally of a continuous carpet of podocytes and their pedicels. The podocytes, measuring maximally 10 by 15 microm, have complex contents, of which a labyrinthine system of connected intracellular channels stands out. These coated cisternae open into a central vacuole that often rivals the nucleus in size. The design of the organ closely approximates that of the primitive crustacean Hutchinsoniella macracantha. PMID:17786969

  10. The complexities of hydrolytic enzymes from the termite digestive system.

    PubMed

    Saadeddin, Anas

    2014-06-01

    The main challenge in second generation bioethanol production is the efficient breakdown of cellulose to sugar monomers (hydrolysis). Due to the recalcitrant character of cellulose, feedstock pretreatment and adapted hydrolysis steps are needed to obtain fermentable sugar monomers. The conventional industrial production process of second-generation bioethanol from biomass comprises several steps: thermochemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar fermentation. This process is undergoing continuous optimization in order to increase the bioethanol yield and reduce the economic cost. Therefore, the discovery of new enzymes with high lignocellulytic activity or new strategies is extremely important. In nature, wood-feeding termites have developed a sophisticated and efficient cellulose degrading system in terms of the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis and exploitation. This system, which represents a model for digestive symbiosis has attracted the attention of biofuel researchers. This review describes the termite digestive system, gut symbionts, termite enzyme resources, in vitro studies of isolated enzymes and lignin degradation in termites. PMID:23036053

  11. [Mental disorders in digestive system diseases - internist's and psychiatrist's insight].

    PubMed

    Kukla, Urszula; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Chronowska, Justyna; Krzystanek, Marek; Okopień, BogusŁaw

    2015-05-01

    Mental disorders accompanying digestive system diseases constitute interdisciplinary yet scarcely acknowledged both diagnostic and therapeutic problem. One of the mostly recognized examples is coeliac disease where patients endure the large spectrum of psychopathological symptoms, starting with attention deficit all the way down to the intellectual disability in extreme cases. It has not been fully explained how the pathomechanism of digestive system diseases affects patient's mental health, however one of the hypothesis suggests that it is due to serotonergic or opioid neurotransmission imbalance caused by gluten and gluten metabolites effect on central nervous system. Behavioral changes can also be invoked by liver or pancreatic diseases, which causes life-threatening abnormalities within a brain. It occurs that these abnormalities reflexively exacerbate the symptoms of primary somatic disease and aggravate its course, which worsens prognosis. The dominant mental disease mentioned in this article is depression which because of its effect on a hypothalamuspituitary- adrenal axis and on an autonomic nervous system, not only aggravates the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases but may accelerate their onset in genetically predisposed patients. Depression is known to negatively affects patients' ability to function in a society and a quality of their lives. Moreover, as far as children are concerned, the occurrence of digestive system diseases accompanied by mental disorders, may adversely affect their further physical and psychological development, which merely results in worse school performance. All those aspects of mental disorders indicate the desirability of the psychological care for patients with recognized digestive system disease. The psychological assistance should be provided immediately after diagnosis of a primary disease and be continued throughout the whole course of treatment. PMID:26039016

  12. Phenotypic flexibility of digestive system in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Blier, P U; Dutil, J-D; Lemieux, H; Bélanger, F; Bitetera, L

    2007-02-01

    This study examined the restoration of the digestive capacity of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus) following a long period of food deprivation. Fifty cod (48 cm, 1 kg) were food-deprived for 68 days and then fed in excess with capelin (Mallotus villosus Müller) on alternate days. Ten fish were sampled after 0, 2, 6, 14 and 28 days and the mass of the pyloric caeca, intestine and carcass determined. Two metabolic enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase) were assayed in white muscle, pyloric caeca and intestine, and trypsin activity was measured in the pyloric caeca. A delay of 14 days was required before body mass started to increase markedly, whereas most of the increase in mass of both the pyloric caeca and intestine relative to fish length occurred earlier in the experiment. By day 14, the activities of trypsin and citrate synthase in the pyloric caeca as well as citrate synthase in the intestine had reached maxima. The growth of the digestive tissues and restoration of their metabolic capacities thus occur early upon refeeding and are likely required for recovery growth to take place. The phenotypic flexibility of the cod digestive system is therefore remarkable: increases in trypsin activity and size of pyloric caeca resulted in a combined 29-fold increase in digestive capacity of the fish during the refeeding period. Our study suggests that Atlantic cod are able to cope with marked fluctuations in food availability in their environment by making a rapid adjustment of their digestive capacity as soon as food availability increases. PMID:17126579

  13. Systemic Education Reform. ERIC Digest, Number 90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James

    Economic forces and educational equity issues have combined to heighten calls for improved education for all students. Systemic reform calls for education to be reconceptualized from the ground up, beginning with the nature of teaching and learning, educational relationships, and school-community relationships. One of the assumptions made by…

  14. MPHASYS: a mouse phenotype analysis system

    PubMed Central

    Calder, R Brent; Beems, Rudolf B; van Steeg, Harry; Mian, I Saira; Lohman, Paul HM; Vijg, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background Systematic, high-throughput studies of mouse phenotypes have been hampered by the inability to analyze individual animal data from a multitude of sources in an integrated manner. Studies generally make comparisons at the level of genotype or treatment thereby excluding associations that may be subtle or involve compound phenotypes. Additionally, the lack of integrated, standardized ontologies and methodologies for data exchange has inhibited scientific collaboration and discovery. Results Here we introduce a Mouse Phenotype Analysis System (MPHASYS), a platform for integrating data generated by studies of mouse models of human biology and disease such as aging and cancer. This computational platform is designed to provide a standardized methodology for working with animal data; a framework for data entry, analysis and sharing; and ontologies and methodologies for ensuring accurate data capture. We describe the tools that currently comprise MPHASYS, primarily ones related to mouse pathology, and outline its use in a study of individual animal-specific patterns of multiple pathology in mice harboring a specific germline mutation in the DNA repair and transcription-specific gene Xpd. Conclusion MPHASYS is a system for analyzing multiple data types from individual animals. It provides a framework for developing data analysis applications, and tools for collecting and distributing high-quality data. The software is platform independent and freely available under an open-source license [1]. PMID:17553167

  15. Effect of Mouse Maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) Knockout on Starch Digestion to Glucose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digestion of starch requires activities provided by six different alpha-glucosidase enzymes. Two activities are luminal alpha-amylases (AMY). Four activities are mucosal activities described as maltases. Two of the activities are associated with sucrase-isomaltase (Si) activities. Two activities ...

  16. Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muller, Jennifer K.; Prather, D.R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.

    2003-01-01

    The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. City of Modesto digester-gas scrubber system (methane)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    A system is described that separates methane from sewage gas. To process the raw digester gas, it is first compressed and then injected into the base of a pressurized tower (scrubber tower). As the digester gas flows up the tower, a counter flow of water removes the contaminants leaving 98% pure methane with a heating value of about 1000 BTU's per cubic foot. The water from the bottom of the scrubber tower is piped to the top of a second tower (regenerator tower). In the regenerator tower the contaminants are removed from the water and are vented to the atmosphere. The water is recirculated. The methane can be used to propell autos by pumping it into pressure tanks, usually 2400 PSI pressure. A reasonable sized tank will hold 325 cubic feet of methane which is the equivalent to 3.25 gallons of gasoline. More than one tank may be mounted on a vehicle.

  18. Comparative study on open system digestion and microwave assisted digestion methods for metal determination in shrimp sludge compost.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Keivan; Abu Bakar, Nor Kartini; Bin Abas, Mhd Radzi; Sobhanzadeh, Elham; Low, Kah Hin

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate two different digestion methods for the determination of the total concentration of metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd) in shrimp sludge compost. The compost made from shrimp aquaculture sludge co-composted with organic materials (peat, crushed bark and manure) was used as an organic growing medium for crop. Open system digestion and microwave assisted digestion procedures were employed in sample preparation. Various combinations and volumes of hydrofluoric, nitric and hydrochloric acids were evaluated for the efficiency of both methods. A certified reference material (CRM 146) was used in the comparison of these two digestion methods. The results revealed a good agreement between both procedures and the certified valued. The best recoveries were found in the range between 95% and 99% for microwave assisted digestion with a mixture of 2 ml of HF, 6 ml of HNO(3) and 2 ml of HCl. This procedure was recommended as the method for digestion the compost herein based on the recovery analysis and time taken. PMID:20638781

  19. Integrated system for extraction, purification, and digestion of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiying; Yan, Guoquan; Gao, Mingxia; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2016-05-01

    An integrated system was developed for directly processing living cells into peptides of membrane proteins. Living cells were directly injected into the system and cracked in a capillary column by ultrasonic treatment. Owing to hydrophilicity for broken pieces of the cell membrane, the obtained membranes were retained in a well-designed bi-filter. While cytoplasm proteins were eluted from the bi-filter, the membranes were dissolved and protein released by flushing 4 % SDS buffer through the bi-filter. The membrane proteins were subsequently transferred into a micro-reactor and covalently bound in the reactor for purification and digestion. As the system greatly simplified the whole pretreatment processes and minimized both sample loss and contamination, it could be used to analyze the membrane proteome samples of thousand-cell-scales with acceptable reliability and stability. We totally identified 1348 proteins from 5000 HepG2 cells, 615 of which were annotated as membrane proteins. In contrast, with conventional method, only 233 membrane proteins were identified. It is adequately demonstrated that the integrated system shows promising practicability for the membrane proteome analysis of small amount of cells. Graphical Abstract The legend of online abstract figure is (a) schematic illustration of membrane proteins extraction, purification and digestion from living cells; (b) diagrammatic sketch of the automatic integrated membrane proteome analysis system. PMID:26922343

  20. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Richard G.; Blasewitz, Albert G.

    1982-01-01

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  1. Small scale units testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  2. [Digestive system manifestations in Steinert's disease. Analysis of 19 cases of which 10 with digestive symptoms].

    PubMed

    De Koninck, X; Fiasse, R; Jonard, P; Demelenne, J; Pringot, J; Dive, C

    1990-01-01

    We studied digestive manifestations occurring during follow-up of 19 cases of myotonic dystrophy. GI symptoms occurred in 10 patients (53%), mainly dysphagia (n = 7). In patients undergoing investigations (n = 7), their digestive troubles were probably or definitively related to the neurological disease in 6 cases. Upper GI endoscopy was normal in 5 dysphagic patients. The oesophageal manometry was abnormal in 3 of 4 patients. Complications developed in 3 cases (16%). One patient presented two episodes of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum. A second one developed a chronic colonic pseudo-obstruction with megacolon treated by subtotal colectomy. Manometric studies revealed oesophageal aperistalsis, low amplitude of gastro-jejunal contractions but persistence of migrating motor complexes and a normal recto-anal reflex. A third patient developed an acute pseudo-obstruction with ischemic colitis. In conclusion, myotonic dystrophy frequently disturbs digestive tract motility and may cause complications such as intestinal pseudo-obstruction. PMID:2368573

  3. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate. PMID:26776247

  4. Expression Patterns Suggest that Despite Considerable Functional Redundancy, Galectin-4 and -6 Play Distinct Roles in Normal and Damaged Mouse Digestive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Gomez, Edouard; Maurer, Marie; Netter, Pierre; Higuet, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The galectin-4 protein is mostly expressed in the digestive tract and is associated with lipid raft stabilization, protein apical trafficking, wound healing, and inflammation. While most mammalian species, including humans, have a single Lgals4 gene, some mice have two paralogues: Lgals4 and Lgals6. So far, their significant similarities have hindered the analysis of their respective expression and function. We took advantage of two antibodies that discriminate between the galectin-4 and galectin-6 proteins to document their patterns of expression in the normal and the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-damaged digestive tract in the mouse. In the normal digestive tract, their pattern of expression from tongue to colon is quite similar, which suggests functional redundancy. However, the presence of galectin-4, but not galectin-6, in the lamina propria of the DSS-damaged colon, its association with luminal colonic bacteria, and differences in subcellular localization of these proteins suggest that they also have distinct roles in the normal and the damaged mouse digestive tract. Our results provide a rare example of ancestral and derived functions evolving after tandem gene duplication. PMID:23360694

  5. Relationships between Digestive, Circulatory, and Urinary Systems in Portuguese Primary Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Graça S.; Clèment, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    In this study, 63 Portuguese primary schoolbooks (1920-2005) were analyzed. The analysis focused on text information (reference to blood absorption and association of the digestive system to other human systems) and on information from images (presence or absence of image "confusion" (when the sequence of the digestive tract is not…

  6. Is the food-entrainable circadian oscillator in the digestive system?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, A. J.; Poole, A. S.; Yamazaki, S.; Menaker, M.

    2003-01-01

    Food-anticipatory activity (FAA) is the increase in locomotion and core body temperature that precedes a daily scheduled meal. It is driven by a circadian oscillator but is independent of the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Recent results that reveal meal-entrained clock gene expression in rat and mouse peripheral organs raise the intriguing possibility that the digestive system is the site of the feeding-entrained oscillator (FEO) that underlies FAA. We tested this possibility by comparing FAA and Per1 rhythmicity in the digestive system of the Per1-luciferase transgenic rat. First, rats were entrained to daytime restricted feeding (RF, 10 days), then fed ad libitum (AL, 10 days), then food deprived (FD, 2 days). As expected FAA was evident during RF and disappeared during subsequent AL feeding, but returned at the correct phase during deprivation. The phase of Per1 in liver, stomach and colon shifted from a nocturnal to a diurnal peak during RF, but shifted back to nocturnal phase during the subsequent AL and remained nocturnal during food deprivation periods. Second, rats were entrained to two daily meals at zeitgeber time (ZT) 0400 and ZT 1600. FAA to both meals emerged after about 10days of dual RF. However, all tissues studied (all five liver lobes, esophagus, antral stomach, body of stomach, colon) showed entrainment consistent with only the night-time meal. These two results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that FAA arises as an output of rhythms in the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The results also highlight an interesting diversity among peripheral oscillators in their ability to entrain to meals and the direction of the phase shift after RF ends.

  7. Mouse Genome Editing Using the CRISPR/Cas System.

    PubMed

    Harms, Donald W; Quadros, Rolen M; Seruggia, Davide; Ohtsuka, Masato; Takahashi, Gou; Montoliu, Lluis; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B

    2014-01-01

    The availability of techniques to create desired genetic mutations has enabled the laboratory mouse as an extensively used model organism in biomedical research including human genetics. A new addition to this existing technical repertoire is the CRISPR/Cas system. Specifically, this system allows editing of the mouse genome much more quickly than the previously used techniques, and, more importantly, multiple mutations can be created in a single experiment. Here we provide protocols for preparation of CRISPR/Cas reagents and microinjection into one-cell mouse embryos to create knockout or knock-in mouse models. PMID:25271839

  8. Mouse Genome Editing using CRISPR/Cas System

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Donald W; Quadros, Rolen M; Seruggia, Davide; Ohtsuka, Masato; Takahashi, Gou

    2015-01-01

    The availability of techniques to create desired genetic mutations has enabled the laboratory mouse as an extensively used model organism in biomedical research including human genetics. A new addition to this existing technical repertoire is the CRISPR/Cas system. Specifically, this system allows editing of the mouse genome much faster than the previously used techniques and more importantly multiple mutations can be created in a single experiment. Here we provide protocols for preparation of CRISPR/Cas reagents and microinjection into one cell mouse embryos to create knockout or knock-in mouse models. PMID:25271839

  9. Volume ratios between the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters of a temperature-phased anaerobic digestion system affect their performance and microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wen; Zhang, Wenfei; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-25

    An experimental temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system, with the thermophilic digester operated at neutral pH and with a balanced acidogenesis and methanogenesis (referred to as NT-TPAD), was evaluated with respect to the microbial communities and population dynamics of methanogens when digesting dairy cattle manure at 15-day overall system hydraulic retention time (HRT). When fed a manure slurry of 10% total solid (TS), similar system performance, 36-38% volatile solid (VS) removal and 0.21-0.22 L methane g(-1) VS fed, was achieved between a 5-day and 7.5-day HRT for the thermophilic digester. However, the thermophilic digester achieved a greater volumetric biogas yield when operated at a 5-day RT than at a 7.5-day HRT (6.3 vs. 4.7 L/L/d), while the mesophilic digester had a stable volumetric biogas yield (about 1.0 L/L/d). Each of the digesters harbored distinct yet dynamic microbial populations, and some of the methanogens were significantly correlated with methane productions. Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta were the most important methanogenic genera in the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters, respectively. The microbiological findings may help understand the metabolism that underpins the anaerobic processes within each of the two digesters of TPAD systems when fed dairy manure. PMID:26232524

  10. Intermediate-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion system operational development

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.

    1995-02-01

    Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. Operation of the anaerobic digestion process at high solids reduces the level of process water and thereby the size and capital costs for the digester system. In addition, by virtue of the lack of available water, the microbial catalysts are more productive in feedstock polymer hydrolysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. Information gained from laboratory-scale digester research was used to develop die intermediate-scale digester system. This system represents a 50-fold scale-up of the original digester system and includes continuous feed addition and computer monitoring and control. During the first 1.15 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements -- which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using the NREL high-solids digester design -- are detailed in this report.

  11. Effect of organic loading on the microbiota in a temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system co-digesting dairy manure and waste whey.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Abraham, Christopher; Nelson, Michael C; Chen, Po-Hsu; Graf, Joerg; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-10-01

    Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) has gained increasing attention because it provides the flexibility to operate digesters under conditions that enhance overall digester performance. However, research on impact of organic overloading rate (OLR) to microbiota of TPAD systems was limited. In this study, we investigated the composition and successions of the microbiota in both the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters of a laboratory-scale TPAD system co-digesting dairy manure and waste whey before and during organic overloading. The thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters were operated at 50 and 35 C, respectively, with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days for each digester. High OLR (dairy manure with 5 % total solid and waste whey of ?60.4 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/l/day) resulted in decrease in pH and in biogas production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the thermophilic digester, while the mesophilic digester remained unchanged except a transient increase in biogas production. Both denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicons showed dramatic change in microbiota composition and profound successions of both bacterial and methanogenic communities. During the overloading, Thermotogae was replaced by Proteobacteria, while Methanobrevibacter and archaeon classified as WCHD3-02 grew in predominance at the expense of Methanoculleus in the thermophilic digester, whereas Methanosarcina dominated the methanogenic community, while Methanobacterium and Methanobrevibacter became less predominant in the mesophilic digester. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that digester temperature and pH were the most influential environmental factors that explained much of the variations of the microbiota in this TPAD system when it was overloaded. PMID:26084892

  12. Ontogeny of the digestive system of the Octopus bimaculatus paralarvae (Verril, 1883).

    PubMed

    López-Peraza, Diana Judith; Hernández-Rodríguez, Mónica; Barón-Sevilla, Benjamín

    2014-01-01

    The high mortalities registered in the larval stage during octopus culturing are mainly due to nutritional deficiencies of the food provided. To understand the cause of this problem, we studied the ontogenetic development of the digestive system of Octopus bimaculatus paralarvae. An egg batch was obtained from a gravid female collected in the Bay of Los Angeles, Baja California, Mexico, and it was incubated in the laboratory during the summer of 2011. We observed that the formation of the digestive system began at 33 days post-laying (DPL). The newly hatched paralarvae had already formed the organs involved in food ingestion and digestion, although it was not possible to know accurately their degree of maturity. The present research constitutes the first description at the histological level of the ontogenic development of the digestive system of the O. bimaculatus paralarvae. This serves as a basis for future studies of the digestive physiology of this species. PMID:24683531

  13. Effects of dietary components on cancer of the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Sara; Marzotto, Marta; Giovinazzo, Francesco; Bassi, Claudio; Bellavite, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in developed countries and poor diet and physical inactivity are major risk factors in cancer-related deaths. Therefore, interventions to reduce levels of smoking, improve diet, and increase physical activity must become much higher priorities in the general population's health and health care systems. The consumption of fruit and vegetables exerts a preventive effect towards cancer and in recent years natural dietary agents have attracted great attention in the scientific community and among the general public. Foods, such as tomatoes, olive oil, broccoli, garlic, onions, berries, soy bean, honey, tea, aloe vera, grapes, rosemary, basil, chili peppers, carrots, pomegranate, and curcuma contain active components that can influence the initiation and the progression of carcinogenesis, acting on pathways implied in cell proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis. The present review illustrates the main foods and their active components, including their antioxidant, cytotoxic, and pro-apoptotic properties, with a particular focus on the evidence related to cancers of the digestive system. PMID:24841279

  14. Structure and function of the digestive system of solen grandis dunker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiuzhen, Sheng; Wenbin, Zhan; Sulian, Ren

    2003-10-01

    Structure and function of the digestive system of a bivalve mollusc, Solen grandis, were studied using light microscopy and histochemical methods. The wall of digestive tube consists of four layers: the mucosal epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and fibrosa or serosa (only in the portion of rectum) from the inner to the outer. The ciliated columnar epithelial cells, dispersed by cup-shaped mucous cells, rest on a thin base membrane. There are abundant blood spaces in connective tissue layer. The digestive diverticula are composed of multi-branched duct and digestive tubules. The digestive tubules are lined with digestive and basophilic secretory cells, and surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissues. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, esterase and lipase are detected in the digestive cells, and the epithelia of stomach and intestine, suggesting that these cells are capable of intracellular digesting of food materials and absorbing. Besides, acid phosphatase and esterase activities are present in the posterior portion of esophagus. Phagocytes are abundant in blood spaces and the lumens of stomach and intestine, containing brown granules derived from the engulfed food materials. The present work indicates that phagocytes play important roles in ingestion and digestion of food materials, which is supported as well by the activities of acid phosphatase, esterase and lipase detected in blood spaces.

  15. [The aneurysms of digestive system arteries: three cases].

    PubMed

    Tijani, Y; Chtata, H; Elkaoui, H; Hatim, A; Drissi, M; Abissegue, Y; Taberkant, M

    2015-04-01

    The aneurysms of digestive arteries are a rare pathological entity, with a risk of rupture associated to a high mortality rate, often asymptomatic, then they are discovered incidentally during a exam for other diagnostic purposes. We report three cases of digestive aneurysms, one of celiac trunk, one of mesenteric artery on behçet disease, and one of splenic artery, which were treated surgically with success. PMID:24856656

  16. Computer-assisted diagnosis system in digestive endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Cauvin, Jean-Michel; Le Guillou, Clara; Solaiman, Basel; Robaszkiewicz, Michel; Le Beux, Pierre; Roux, Christian

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an intelligent atlas of indexed endoscopic lesions that could be used in computer-assisted diagnosis as reference data. The development of such a system requires a mix of medical and engineering skills for analyzing and reproducing the cognitive processes that underlie the medical decision-making process. The analysis of both endoscopists experience and endoscopic terminologies developed by professional associations shows that diagnostic reasoning in digestive endoscopy uses a scene-object approach. The objects correspond to the endoscopic findings and the medical context of examination and the scene to the endoscopic diagnosis. According to expert assessment, the classes of endoscopic findings and diagnoses, their primitive characteristics (or indices), and their relationships have been listed. Each class describes an endoscopic finding or diagnosis in an intensive way. The retrieval method is based on a similarity metric that estimates the membership value of the case under investigation and the prototype of the class. A simulation test with randomized objects demonstrates a good classification of endoscopic findings. The correct class is the unique response in 68% of the tested objects, the first of multiple responses in 28%. Four descriptors are shown to be of major importance in the classification algorithm: anatomic location, shape, color, and relief. At the present time, the application database contains approximately 150 endoscopic images and is accessible via Internet. Experiments are in progress with endoscopists for the validation of the system and for the understanding of the similarity between images. The next step will integrate the system in a learning tool for junior endoscopists. PMID:15000352

  17. Digestive system dysfunction in cystic fibrosis: challenges for nutrition therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn

    2014-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis can affect food digestion and nutrient absorption. The underlying mutation of the cystic fibrosis trans-membrane regulator gene depletes functional cystic fibrosis trans-membrane regulator on the surface of epithelial cells lining the digestive tract and associated organs, where Cl(-) secretion and subsequently secretion of water and other ions are impaired. This alters pH and dehydrates secretions that precipitate and obstruct the lumen, causing inflammation and the eventual degradation of the pancreas, liver, gallbladder and intestine. Associated conditions include exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, impaired bicarbonate and bile acid secretion and aberrant mucus formation, commonly leading to maldigestion and malabsorption, particularly of fat and fat-soluble vitamins. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is used to address this insufficiency. The susceptibility of pancreatic lipase to acidic and enzymatic inactivation and decreased bile availability often impedes its efficacy. Brush border digestive enzyme activity and intestinal uptake of certain disaccharides and amino acids await clarification. Other complications that may contribute to maldigestion/malabsorption include small intestine bacterial overgrowth, enteric circular muscle dysfunction, abnormal intestinal mucus, and intestinal inflammation. However, there is some evidence that gastric digestive enzymes, colonic microflora, correction of fatty acid abnormalities using dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and emerging intestinal biomarkers can complement nutrition management in cystic fibrosis. PMID:25053610

  18. Blocking c-myc and stat3 by E. coli expressed and enzyme digested siRNA in mouse melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Jie; Zhao Yingchun; Huang Weida . E-mail: whuang@fudan.edu.cn

    2006-09-22

    Tumour cells often show alteration in the signal-transduction pathways, leading to proliferation in response to external signals. Oncogene overexpression and constitutive expression is a common phenomenon in the development and progression of many human cancers. Therefore oncogenes provide potential targets for cancer therapy. RNA interference (RNAi), mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), silences genes with a high degree of specificity and potentially represents a general approach for molecularly targeted anti-cancer therapy. The data presented in this report evaluated the method of systemically administering combined esiRNAs to multiple targets as compared with the method of using a single kind of esiRNA to a single target. Our experimental data revealed that the mixed treatment of esiC-MYC and esiSTAT3 had a better inhibition effect than the single treatment of esiC-MYC or esiSTAT3 on mouse B16 melanoma.

  19. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Gracia; Bonmatí, August; Fernández, Belén

    2015-09-01

    The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20days. The SS-OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1kgCODm(-3)d(-1) (1.9kgVSm(-3)d(-1)), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20mm to 8mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system. PMID:26139136

  20. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size

    SciTech Connect

    Silvestre, Gracia; Bonmatí, August; Fernández, Belén

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Methane production rate increased between 56% and 208% during OFMSW–SS codigestion. • The OFMSW particle size reduction from 20 to 8 mm did not affect the methane yield. • OFMSW–SS codigestion promoted β-oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenic activity. • The evolution of specific activity was a feasible tool to control the process. - Abstract: The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20 days. The SS–OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1 kg{sub COD} m{sup −3} d{sup −1} (1.9 kg{sub VS} m{sup −3} d{sup −1}), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20 mm to 8 mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system.

  1. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system

    SciTech Connect

    Kheradmand, S.; Karimi-Jashni, A.; Sartaj, M.

    2010-06-15

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD{sub rem} for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

  2. Energize It! An Ecologically Integrated Approach to the Study of the Digestive System and Energy Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derting, Terry L.

    1992-01-01

    Develops a research-oriented method of studying the digestive system that integrates species' ecology with the form and function of this system. Uses problem-posing, problem-probing, and peer persuasion. Presents information for mammalian systems. (27 references) (MKR)

  3. Dissipation of bentazone, pyrimethanil and boscalid in biochar and digestate based soil mixtures for biopurification systems.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Santanu; Tappe, Wolfgang; Weihermueller, Lutz; Hofmann, Diana; Köppchen, Stephan; Laabs, Volker; Schroeder, Tom; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

    2016-02-15

    Biopurification systems, such as biofilters, are biotechnological tools to prevent point sources of pesticide pollution stemming from on-farm operations. For the purification processes pesticide sorption and mineralization and/or dissipation are essential and both largely depend on the type of filling materials and the pesticide in use. In this paper the mineralization and dissipation of three contrasting (14)C-labeled pesticides (bentazone, boscalid, and pyrimethanil) were investigated in laboratory incubation experiments using sandy soil, biochar produced from Pine woodchips, and/or digestate obtained from anaerobic digestion process using maize silage, chicken manure, beef and pig urine as feedstock. The results indicate that the addition of digestate increased pesticide mineralization, whereby the mineralization was not proportional to the digestate loads in the mixture, indicating a saturation effect in the turnover rate of pesticides. This effect was in correlation with the amount of water extractable DOC, obtained from the digestate based mixtures. Mixing biochar into the soil generally reduced total mineralization and led to larger sorption/sequestration of the pesticides, resulting in faster decrease of the extractable fraction. Also the addition of biochar to the soil/digestate mixtures reduced mineralization compared to the digestate alone mixture but mineralization rates were still higher as for the biochar/soil alone. In consequence, the addition of biochar to the soil generally decreased pesticide dissipation times and larger amounts of biochar led to high amounts of non-extractable residues of pesticide in the substrates. Among the mixtures tested, a mixture of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) gave optimal results with respect to mineralization and simultaneous sorption for all three pesticides. PMID:26657365

  4. Mouse vocal communication system: are ultrasounds learned or innate?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production. Here we discuss the available data to assess whether male mouse song behavior and the supporting brain circuits resemble those of known vocal non-learning or vocal learning species. Recent neurobiology studies have demonstrated that the mouse USV brain system includes motor cortex and striatal regions, and that the vocal motor cortex sends a direct sparse projection to the brainstem vocal motor nucleus ambiguous, a projection previously thought be unique to humans among mammals. Recent behavioral studies have reported opposing conclusions on mouse vocal plasticity, including vocal ontogeny changes in USVs over early development that might not be explained by innate maturation processes, evidence for and against a role for auditory feedback in developing and maintaining normal mouse USVs, and evidence for and against limited vocal imitation of song pitch. To reconcile these findings, we suggest that the trait of vocal learning may not be dichotomous but encompass a broad spectrum of behavioral and neural traits we call the continuum hypothesis, and that mice possess some of the traits associated with a capacity for limited vocal learning. PMID:23295209

  5. Mouse vocal communication system: are ultrasounds learned or innate?

    PubMed Central

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production. Here we discuss the available data to assess whether male mouse song behavior and the supporting brain circuits resemble those of known vocal non-learning or vocal learning species. Recent neurobiology studies have demonstrated that the mouse USV brain system includes motor cortex and striatal regions, and that the vocal motor cortex sends a direct sparse projection to the brainstem vocal motor nucleus ambiguous, a projection thought be unique to humans among mammals. Recent behavioral studies have reported opposing conclusions on mouse vocal plasticity, including vocal ontogeny changes in USVs over early development that might not be explained by innate maturation processes, evidence for and against a role for auditory feedback in developing and maintaining normal mouse USVs, and evidence for and against limited vocal imitation of song pitch. To reconcile these findings, we suggest that the trait of vocal learning may not be dichotomous but encompass a broad set of behavioral and neural traits we call the continuum hypothesis, and that mice possess some of the traits associated with a capacity for limited vocal learning. PMID:23295209

  6. Histological study on the digestive system development of Takifugu rubripes larvae and juvenile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zhenzhen; Gao, Tianxiang; Zhang, Xiumei; Chen, Chao; Yu, Changhong

    2006-01-01

    The digestive tract of Takifugu rubripes during early life stages was studied with light microscopy. At the beginning of hatching, the digestive tract is represented by a simple and undifferentiated straight tube and does not communicate with the exterior, as the mouth and anus are not open yet. At 2 d after hatching, a constriction between intestine and rectum that will become the intestino-rectal valve is visible. During the endogenous feeding phase, the yolk sac is resorbed and the digestive tract becomes functional and differentiated. The liver and pancreas also become apparent at this time. At onset of exogenous feeding (3 d after hatching), yolk sac resesves are not completely depleted, suggesting a period of mixed nutrition. The digestive tract differentiates fully into buccopharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestine and rectum. At 9 d after hatching, the yolk sac reserves are completely depleted. The most noticeable events occurring from 5 to 17 d after hatching are the transformation of the epithelia type, the differentiation of the pneumatic sac, the epithelial cell, gut convolution, mucosal fold increase, and the growth of liver and pancreas. From 18 to 27 d after hatching, the numbers of intestine folds and mucus cells increase progressively. From then on, morphological changes of digestive features are almost completed. At 27 d after hatching, the morphology and function of digestive system are similar to that of the adult.

  7. The effect of 1-week feed restriction on performance, digestibility of nutrients and digestive system development in the growing rabbit.

    PubMed

    Tůmová, E; Volek, Z; Chodová, D; Härtlová, H; Makovický, P; Svobodová, J; Ebeid, T A; Uhlířová, L

    2016-01-01

    A 3 to 4 week feed restriction of about 20% to 25% of the free intake is widely applied in rabbit breeding systems to reduce post-weaning digestive disorders. However, a short intensive feed restriction is described in few studies and can be beneficial for growing rabbits due to a longer re-alimentation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ad libitum (AL) and two restriction levels of feeding (50 and 65 g/rabbit per day) applied for 1 week on performance, gastrointestinal morphology and physiological parameters during the restriction and during the re-alimentation period. Rabbits were divided into three experimental groups: AL rabbits were fed AL, R1 rabbits were restricted from 42 to 49 days of age and received 50 g daily (29% of AL) and R2 rabbits were restricted at the same age and were fed 65 g of feed daily (37% of AL). In the 1(st) week after weaning and in the weeks after restriction, all the groups were fed AL. During the restriction period, daily weight gain (DWG) in R1 significantly dropped to 11% (experiment 1) and 5% (experiment 2) compared with rabbits in the AL group, although they were fed 29% of AL, whereas in the R2 group it decreased to 20% (experiment 1) and 10% (experiment 2). In the week following feed restriction, DWG in the restricted groups increased (P<0.001) to 166% and 148% in R1 and to 128% and 145% in R2. Restricted rabbits in both the experiments reached up to 90% to 93% of the final live weight (70 days) of the AL group. Over the entire experimental period, feed restriction significantly decreased feed intake to 85% to 88% of the AL group; however, the feed conversion ratio was lower (P<0.05) only in experiment 1 (-6% in R1 and -4% in R2). Digestibilities of CP and fat were not significantly higher during the restriction period and during the 1(st) week of re-alimentation compared with the AL group. Significant interactions between feeding regime and age revealed the shortest large intestine in the AL group at 49 days of age and the longest at 70 days in the AL and R1 groups. Small intestinal villi were significantly higher and the crypts were significantly deeper in the restricted groups. It could be concluded that short intensive feed restriction increased digestible area in the small and large intestines, including the height of villi and depth of crypts, which might be involved in the compensatory growth and defence mechanism. PMID:26677933

  8. AN IMPROVEMENT TO THE MOUSE COMPUTERIZED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The original MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty System) system was designed to deal with the problem of uncertainties in Environmental engineering calculations, such as a set of engineering cast or risk analysis equations. It was especially intended for use by individuals with l...

  9. Developmental expression and distribution of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in the canine digestive system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shudong; Zhou, Weijuan; Zhang, Xingwang; Wang, Dengfeng; Zhu, Hui; Hong, Meizhen; Gong, Yajing; Ye, Jing; Fang, Fugui

    2016-03-01

    Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 is a neuropeptide that plays important roles in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis. The distribution of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 protein and mRNA has not been investigated in the canine digestive system. The present study was conducted to evaluate the expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 protein and NUCB2 mRNA in the canine digestive organs (esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum, liver and pancreas). The tissues of the digestive system were collected from dogs at different developmental stages (infantile, juvenile, pubertal and adult). Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 protein localization in the organs of adult dogs was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of NUCB2 mRNA at the four developmental stages was analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 protein was distributed in the fundic gland region of the stomach, and the islet area and exocrine portions of the pancreas. However, NUCB2 mRNA was found in all digestive organs, although the expression levels in the pancreas and stomach were higher than those in liver, duodenum and other digestive tract tissues (P<0.05) at the four different developmental stages of the dogs. In this study, nesfatin-1/NUCB2 was found to be present at high levels in the stomach and pancreas at both the protein and mRNA levels; however, NUCB2 expression was found at lower levels in all of the digestive organs. These findings provide the basis of further investigations to elucidate the functions of nefatin-1 in the canine digestive system. PMID:26643216

  10. The role of hypoxia-inducible factor-2 in digestive system cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, J; Du, F; Shen, G; Zheng, F; Xu, B

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia is an all but ubiquitous phenomenon in cancers. Two known hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), HIF-1α and HIF-2α, primarily mediate the transcriptional response to hypoxia. Despite the high homology between HIF-1α and HIF-2α, emerging evidence suggests differences between both molecules in terms of transcriptional targets as well as impact on multiple physiological pathways and tumorigenesis. To date, much progress has been made toward understanding the roles of HIF-2α in digestive system cancers. Indeed, HIF-2α has been shown to regulate multiple aspects of digestive system cancers, including cell proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis, metabolism, metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. These findings make HIF-2α a critical regulator of this malignant phenotype. Here we summarize the function of HIF-2 during cancer development as well as its contribution to tumorigenesis in digestive system malignancies. PMID:25590810

  11. Effects of continuous addition of nitrate to a thermophilic anaerobic digestion system

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The biodegradation of complex organic matter is regulated partially by the ability to dump electrons which build up in the form of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). The effects of the continuous addition of the oxidant, nitrate, were investigated on a single-stage, thermophilic, anaerobic digester. The digester acclimated rapidly to nitrate addition. The continuous addition of nitrate resulted in a constant inhibition of total gas (30%) and methane production (36%). Reduction in total gas and methane production was accompanied by increases in sludge pH and acetate, propionate, and ammonium ion pools. Effluent particle size distribution revealed a shift to smaller particle sizes in the nitrate-pumped sludge. The continuous addition of nitrate resulted in lower numbers of methanogens and sulfate reducers in the sludge, with increases in nitrate-reducing and cellulose-degrading microorganisms. These findings indicate that added nitrate underwent dissimilatory reduction to ammonium ion, as determined from gas analysis, ammonium pools, and /sup 15/N-nitrate-label experiments. Continuous nitrate addition to a single-phase digestion system was determined to inhibit methane production from biomass and wastes. Thus for the single-stage digestion system in which maximum methane production is desired, the addition of nitrate is not recommended. However, in a multistage digestion system, the continuous addition of nitrate in the primary stage to increase the rate and extent of degradation of organic matter to volatile fatty acids, which then would serve as feed to a second stage, may be advantageous.

  12. 75 FR 82428 - VASRD Improvement Forum-Updating Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ...The Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) and Veterans Health Administration (VHA) will co-host the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Schedule for Rating Disabilities (VASRD) Improvement Forum-- Updating Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive System, Dental Conditions, and Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies. The purpose of the VASRD......

  13. The Digestive System [and] Instructor's Guide. Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This instructional modular unit wlth instructor's guide provides materials on important aspects of one of the major systems of the human body--the digestive system. Its purpose is to introduce the student to the structures and functions of the human digestive system--and the interrelationships of the two--and to familiarize the student with some…

  14. Anaerobic digestion of food waste: comparing leachate exchange rates in sequential batch systems digesting food waste and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Dearman, B; Bentham, R H

    2007-01-01

    Over 35,000 tonnes of food waste are generated from high concentration point sources (i.e., restaurants, hospitals and markets) in metropolitan Adelaide (Australia) each year. Anaerobic digestion is a preferred method of treatment to degrade highly putrescible waste streams such as food waste due its high methane potential. To maximise methane yield, a sequential batch anaerobic system was chosen as the most appropriate system. Two sets of sequential batch systems consisting of mature and start-up reactors in triplicate exchanged leachate. One set exchanged twice as much leachate by volume as the other set to determine the effects of different leachate exchange volumes. Results show that by increasing the leachate volume between mature and start-up reactors, the time to degrade feedstock decreases, but total methane generation yields did not markedly differ, being 229LCH4 kg(-1) VSadded and 214LCH4 kg(-1) VSadded. Process parameters used to determine when to cease leachate exchange in start-up reactors were a pH of 6.5 and methane generation rate of >0.5LCH4 kg(-1) VSadded day(-1). Changes in carbon dioxide and methane biogas composition in the mature reactors reflected process stress caused by the addition of leachate with high VFA concentrations from the start-up reactors and indicate there may be limits to leachate exchange rates and subsequent loading of mature reactors. PMID:17055238

  15. Intermediate-Scale High-Solids Anaerobic Digestion System Operational Development

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C. J.

    1995-02-01

    Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. During the first 1.5 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements, which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using ,the NREL high-solids digester design are detailed in this report.

  16. Digestive system development and study of acid and alkaline protease digestive capacities using biochemical and molecular approaches in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae.

    PubMed

    Galaviz, Mario A; López, Lus M; García Gasca, Alejandra; Álvarez González, Carlos Alfonso; True, Conal D; Gisbert, Enric

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to describe and understand the development of the digestive system in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae from hatching to 40 days post-hatch (dph) from morphological and functional perspectives. At hatch, the digestive system of totoaba was undifferentiated. The anus and the mouth opened at 4 and 5 dph, respectively. During exogenous feeding, development of the esophagus, pancreas, liver and intestine was observed with a complete differentiation of all digestive organs. Expression and activity of trypsin and chymotrypsin were observed as early as at 1 dph, and increments in their expression and activity coincided with changes in food items (live and compound diets) and morpho-physiological development of the accessory digestive glands. In contrast, pepsin was detected later during development, which includes the appearance of the gastric glands between 24 and 28 dph. One peak in gene expression was detected at 16 dph, few days before the initial development of the stomach at 20 dph. A second peak of pepsin expression was detected at day 35, followed by a peak of activity at day 40, coinciding with the change from live to artificial food. Totoaba larvae showed a fully morphologically developed digestive system between 24 and 28 dph, as demonstrated by histological observations. However, gene expression and activity of alkaline and acid proteases were detected earlier, indicating the functionality of the exocrine pancreas and stomach before the complete morphological development of the digestive organs. These results showed that integrative studies are needed to fully understand the development of the digestive system from a morphological and functional point of views, since the histological organization of digestive structures does not reflect their real functionality. These results indicate that the digestive system of totoaba develops rapidly during the first days post-hatch, especially for alkaline proteases, and the stomach becomes functional between 20 and 24 dph allowing the weaning process to begin at this age. PMID:25987008

  17. Evaluation of in vivo low-dose mouse irradiation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, S. J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H.; Kye, Y.-U.; Kim, J. K.; Son, T. G.; Lee, M. W.; Jeong, D. H.; Yang, K. M.; Nam, S.-H.; Kang, Y.-R.

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to develop a facility that can irradiate subjects with a desired low dose, which can be used to assess the biological effects of low-dose radiation. We develop a single-occupancy mouse-cage and shelf system with adjustable geometric parameters, such as the distances and angles of the cages relative to the collimator. We assess the irradiation-level accuracy using two measurement methods. First, we calculate the angle and distance of each mouse cage relative to the irradiator. We employ a Monte Carlo n-particle simulation for all of the cages at a given distance from the radiation source to calculate the air kerma and the relative absorbed dose in the in-house designed shelving system; these are found to be approximately 0.108 and 0.109 Gy, respectively. Second, we measure the relative absorbed dose using glass dosimeters inserted directly into the heads and bodies of the mice. For a conventional irradiation system, the irradiation measurements show a maximum discrepancy of 42% between the absorbed and desired doses, whereas a discrepancy of only 6% from the desired dose is found for the designed mouse apartment system. In addition, multi-mouse cages are shown to yield to significantly greater differences in the mouse head and body relative absorbed doses, compared to the discrepancies found for single-occupancy cages in the conventional irradiation system. Our findings suggest that the in-house shelving system has greater reliability for the biological analysis of the effects of low-dose radiation.

  18. Histological development of the digestive system of the Amazonian pimelodid catfish Pseudoplatystoma punctifer.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, E; Moreira, C; Castro-Ruiz, D; Oztürk, S; Fernández, C; Gilles, S; Nuñez, J; Duponchelle, F; Tello, S; Renno, J F; García-Dávila, C; Darias, M J

    2014-11-01

    The organogenesis of the digestive system was described in the Amazonian pimelodid catfish species Pseudoplatystoma punctifer from hatching (3.5 mm total length, TL) to 41 days post-fertilization (dpf) (58.1 mm TL) reared at 28°C. Newly hatched larvae showed a simple digestive tract, which appeared as a straight undifferentiated and unfolded tube lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells (future enterocytes). During the endogenous feeding period, comprised between 20 and 96 h post-fertilization (3.5 to 6.1 mm TL), the larval digestive system experienced a fast transformation with the almost complete development and differentiation of most of digestive organs (buccopahrynx, oesophagus, intestine, liver and exocrine pancreas). Yolk reserves were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (4 dpf, 6.1 mm TL), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 6 to 7 dpf (6.8 to 7.3 mm TL) when yolk was definitively exhausted. The stomach was the organ that latest achieved its complete differentiation, characterized by the development of abundant gastric glands in the fundic stomach between 10 and 15 dpf (10.9 to 15.8 mm TL) and the formation of the pyloric sphincter at the junction of the pyloric stomach and the anterior intestine at 15 dpf (15.8 mm TL). The above-mentioned morphological and histological features observed suggested the achievement of a digestive system characteristic of P. punctifer juveniles and adults. The ontogeny of the digestive system in P. punctifer followed the same general pattern as in most Siluriform species so far, although some species-specific differences in the timing of differentiation of several digestive structures were noted, which might be related to different reproductive guilds, egg and larval size or even different larval rearing practices. According to present findings on the histological development of the digestive system in P. punctifer, some recommendations regarding the rearing practices of this species are also provided in order to improve the actual larval rearing techniques of this fast-growing Neotropical catfish species. PMID:25045855

  19. The Effects of Swedish Knife Model on Students' Understanding of the Digestive System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerrah Ozsevgec, Lale; Artun, Huseyin; Unal, Melike

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of Swedish Knife Model on students' understanding of digestive system. A simple experimental design (pretest-treatment-posttest) was used in the study and internal comparison of the results of the one group was made. The sample consisted of 40 7th grade Turkish students whose ages range from 13 to 15.…

  20. Modification of digestive system microbiome of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine: effect on ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, ...

  1. The Effects of Swedish Knife Model on Students' Understanding of the Digestive System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerrah Ozsevgec, Lale; Artun, Huseyin; Unal, Melike

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of Swedish Knife Model on students' understanding of digestive system. A simple experimental design (pretest-treatment-posttest) was used in the study and internal comparison of the results of the one group was made. The sample consisted of 40 7th grade Turkish students whose ages range from 13 to 15.

  2. AN ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS TISSUE DIGESTION SYSTEM FOR A BSL-3-AG CONTAINMENT FACILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alkaline hydrolysis tissue digestion system was installed at the Arthropod-borne Animal Diseases Research Laboratory (ABADRL) Biosafety Level (BSL) 3-AG containment facility in 2000 to replace the antiquated pathologic waste incinerator because of significant costs for upgrading this incinerator ...

  3. Modeling a solar-heated anaerobic digester for the developing world using system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Johanna Lynn

    Much of the developing world lacks access to a dependable source of energy. Agricultural societies such as Mozambique and Papua New Guinea could sustain a reliable energy source through the microbacterial decomposition of animal and crop waste. Anaerobic digestion produces methane, which can be used directly for heating, cooking, and lighting. Adding a solar component to the digester provides a catalyst for bacteria activity, accelerating digestion and increasing biogas production. Using methane decreases the amount of energy expended by collecting and preparing firewood, eliminates hazardous health effects linked to inhalation of particles, and provides energy close to where it is needed. The purpose of this work is two fold: initial efforts focus on the development and validation of a computer-based system dynamics model that combines elements of the anaerobic digestion process in order to predict methane output; second, the model is flexed to explore how the addition of a solar component increases robustness of the design, examines predicted biogas generation as a function of varying input conditions, and determines how best to configure such systems for use in varying developing world environments. Therefore, the central components of the system: solar insolation, waste feedstock, bacteria population and consumption rates, and biogas production are related both conceptually and mathematically through a serious of equations, conversions, and a causal loop and feedback diagram. Given contextual constraints and initial assumptions for both locations, it was determined that solar insolation and subsequent digester temperature control, amount of waste, and extreme weather patterns had the most significant impact on the system as a whole. Model behavior was both reproducible and comparable to that demonstrated in existing experimental systems. This tool can thus be flexed to fit specific contexts within the developing world to improve the standard of living of many people, without significantly altering everyday activities.

  4. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  5. Cogeneration system using digester gas for Macon-Bibb county water and sewerage authority

    SciTech Connect

    Priester, D.C.

    1984-05-01

    With rise in energy cost, there is renewed focus on alternate energy sources, and especially sources that previously were not feasible to utilize, but were readily available. One of these is methane gas generated in biomass conversion in wastewater treatment plant anaerobic digestion process. The gas generated has been historically wasted and only used where it has been convenient. Now it is economically feasible to engineer systems to make the best use of the gas. The combination of cogeneration and digester gas utilization is particularly attractive for medium to large wastewater treatment plants. This paper describes the system designed for the Poplar Street Water Pollution Control Plant of the Macon-Bibb County Water and Sewerage Authority. The system consists of gas collection, cleaning and drying systems, storage vessel, and a utilization system of gas turbine generators.

  6. Comparative assessment of raw and digested pig slurry treatment in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, Míriam; Oliveras, Judit; Viñas, Marc; Bonmatí, August

    2016-08-01

    Both raw and anaerobically digested pig slurries were investigated in batch assays in two chambered bioelectrochemical systems (BES) run in Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) and Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) mode. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal, nitrogen recovery, cation transport and anode microbial population evolutions were assessed. The Anaerobic Digestion-MEC (AD-MEC) integrated system achieved the highest COD removal (60% in 48h); while the maximum NH4(+) removal efficiency (40%, with an ammonia flux of 8.86g N-NH4(+) d(-1)m(-2)) was achieved in MFC mode fed with digested pig slurry in 24h. On the other hand, the high pH (12.1) achieved in MEC mode (NaCl solution as catholyte), could favour ammonium recovery in a subsequent stripping and absorption process. Ammonia was the main cation involved in maintaining the electroneutrality between both compartments. Regarding microbial population, Desulfuromonadaceae, a known family of exoelectrogenic bacteria, was enriched under MEC mode, whereas hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic methanogen phylotypes belonging to Thermoplasmatales were also favoured against acetotrophic Methanosaetaceae. From these results, the integration of anaerobic digestion in BES seems to be an interesting alternative for the treatment of complex substrates, since a polished effluent can be obtained and ammonium can be simultaneously recovered for further reuse as fertilizer. PMID:27093494

  7. Systemic vasculitis: an annual critical digest of the most recent literature.

    PubMed

    Della Rossa, Alessandra; Cioffi, Elisa; Elefante, Elena; Ferro, Francesco; Parma, Alice; Vagelli, Roberta; Talarico, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Herewith we provide our annual digest of the recent literature on systemic vasculitis in which we reviewed all the articles published during the last 12 months on large-, medium- and small-vessel vasculitis, and selected the most relevant studies regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of systemic vasculitis. In particular, we focused the attention on giant cell arteritis, ANCA-associated vasculitis and cryoglobulinaemia. PMID:24854379

  8. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 mediates the toxicity of Paclobutrazol on the digestive system of zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Der; Chen, Guan-Ting; Hsu, Hwei-Jan; Wu, Chang-Yi

    2015-02-01

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ), a trazole-containing fungicide and plant growth retardant, has been widely used for over 30 years to regulate plant growth and promote early fruit setting. Long-term usage of PBZ in agriculture and natural environments has resulted in residual PBZ in the soil and water. Chronic exposure to waterborne PBZ can cause various physiological effects in fish, including hepatic steatosis, antioxidant activity, and disruption of spermatogenesis. We have previously shown that PBZ also affects the rates of zebrafish embryonic survival and hatching, and causes developmental failure of the head skeleton and eyes; here, we further show that PBZ has embryonic toxic effects on digestive organs of zebrafish, and describe the underlying mechanisms. PBZ treatment of embryos resulted in dose-dependent morphological and functional abnormalities of the digestive organs. Real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization were used to show that PBZ strongly induces cyp1a1 expression in the digestive system, and slightly induces ahr2 expression in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of ahr2 with morpholino oligonucleotides prevents PBZ toxicity. Thus, the toxic effect of PBZ on digestive organs is mediated by AhR2, as was previously reported for retene and TCDD. These findings have implications for understanding the potential toxicity of PBZ during embryogenesis, and thus the potential impact of fungicides on public health and the environment. PMID:25500619

  9. [Digestive system diseases and style of nutrition among secondary school students].

    PubMed

    Chemperek, E; Jeleniewski, M

    2001-03-01

    In the paper there was examined 246 pupils from secondary school. The auditorial survey including 23 questions was drawn up. The questions referred to digestive diseases occurrence among members of family, pupils under the survey, their style of nutrition, financial status of their family. It was interesting how kind of food, keeping regular hours, behaviour during eating is connected with frequency of digestive disease occurrence. 14.5% of pupils suffered from alimentary tract diseases especially constipation and peptic ulcer. A large percentage (46.2%) do not eat regularly, and 85% is in a hurry, doing something else during eating. 39.4% of examined use spices, ketchup, mustard every time, 17.5% do not eat vegetables, fruit at all, 45.9% eat sweets every day. Before leaving for school 45.9% pupils do not even eat breakfast. 69.1% of subjects claimed that stress is a reason of occurence their digestive disorders. In the paper abnormal style of nutrition is more frequent among pupils complaining of digestive system diseases. PMID:11398515

  10. Microbial distribution and abundance in the digestive system of five shipworm species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae).

    PubMed

    Betcher, Meghan A; Fung, Jennifer M; Han, Andrew W; O'Connor, Roberta; Seronay, Romell; Concepcion, Gisela P; Distel, Daniel L; Haygood, Margo G

    2012-01-01

    Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms) are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) of the gills (ctenidia). These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis). These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:23028923

  11. Microbial Distribution and Abundance in the Digestive System of Five Shipworm Species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Betcher, Meghan A.; Fung, Jennifer M.; Han, Andrew W.; O’Connor, Roberta; Seronay, Romell; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Distel, Daniel L.; Haygood, Margo G.

    2012-01-01

    Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms) are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) of the gills (ctenidia). These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis). These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:23028923

  12. [Digestive system disease as manifestation of the pleiotropic action of genes in mitochondrial dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Hrechanina, O Ia; Hrechanina, Iu B; Husar, V A; Molodan, L V

    2014-11-01

    Defined involvement lesions of the digestive system of clinical manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction associated with both point mutations and polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA. The nature of the clinical signs of mtDNA polymorphisms carriers--multi organical, a progressive, clinical polymorphism, genetic heterogeneity with predominant involvement of energotropic bodies (cerebrum, cordis, hepatic). Set individual nosological forms of mitochondrial dysfunctions--syndromes Leia, Leber, Cairns, Sarah, MERRF, MELAS, NARP, MNGIE confirmed by clinical and genetic, morphological, biochemical, enzymatic, molecular genetics methods. It was found that 84-88% of these syndromes involving the violation of the digestive system with varying degrees of injury. This damage will be the first in the complex chain signs recovery which determines the direction of early rehabilitation. PMID:25528830

  13. Efficient and Specific Trypsin Digestion of Microgram to Nanogram Quantities of Proteins in Organic-Aqueous Solvent Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Strader, Michael B; Tabb, Dave L; Hervey, IV, William Judson; Pan, Chongle; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B

    2006-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based identification of the components of multiprotein complexes often involves solution-phase proteolytic digestion of the complex. The affinity purification of individual protein complexes often yields nanogram to low-microgram amounts of protein, which poses several challenges for enzymatic digestion and protein identification. We tested different solvent systems to optimize trypsin digestions of samples containing limited amounts of protein for subsequent analysis by LC-MS-MS. Data collected from digestion of 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2- g portions of a protein standard mixture indicated that an organicaqueous solvent system containing 80% acetonitrile consistently provided the most complete digestion, producing more peptide identifications than the other solvent systems tested. For example, a 1-h digestion in 80% acetonitrile yielded over 52% more peptides than the overnight digestion of 1 g of a protein mixture in purely aqueous buffer. This trend was also observed for peptides from digested ribosomal proteins isolated from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In addition to improved digestion efficiency, the shorter digestion times possible with the organic solvent also improved trypsin specificity, resulting in smaller numbers of semitryptic peptides than an overnight digestion protocol using an aqueous solvent. The technique was also demonstrated for an affinityisolated protein complex, GroEL. To our knowledge, this report is the first using mass spectrometry data to show a linkage between digestion solvent and trypsin specificity. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a widely used method for studying proteins, protein complexes, and whole proteomes because of innovations in soft ionization techniques, bioinformatics, and chromatographic separation techniques.1-7 An example of a high-throughput mass spectrometry strategy commonly used for this purpose is a variation of the "shotgun" approach, involving in-solution digestion of a protein complex followed by onedimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) MS-MS.6-8 One of the applications of this method is for characterizing multiprotein complexes by identifying large numbers of proteins in a single data acquisition.9 Large-scale implementations of this strategy have been reported for yeast and Escherichia coli.10-12 To achieve a goal of characterizing large numbers of protein complexes13 isolated by affinity purification from Rhodopseudomonas palustris,14 an efficient protocol for digesting these complexes is required.

  14. Validation of a digestion system using a digester block/cold finger system for the determination of lead in vegetable foods by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Robson M; Junior, Mario M S; Matos, Geraldo D; Dos Santos, Ana M P; Ferreira, Sérgio L C

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the validation of a system for sample digestion using a digester block/cold finger to determine the lead content in vegetables by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). After mineralization, lead contents were determined by ETAAS using a calibration curve based on aqueous standards prepared in 2.60 M nitric acid solutions containing 5 microg ammonium phosphate as chemical modifier. A pyrolysis temperature of 900 degrees C and atomization temperature of 2000 degrees C were used. This method allowed the determination of lead with a characteristic mass of 35 pg; LOD and LOQ of 0.6 and 2 nglg, respectively, were found. The precision was investigated in terms of reproducibility and repeatability. Reproducibility was estimated by analysis of nine different portions of a certified reference material (CRM) of spinach leaves, and the repeatability was determined through the analysis of nine aliquots of the same solution. The reproducibility and repeatability were found to be 4.27 and 2.94% RSD, respectively. The accuracy was confirmed by analysis of whole meal flour, spinach leaves, and orchard leaves CRMs, all furnished by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Lead contents were measured using the newly developed technique in 11 different potato samples. The lead contents ranged from 12.80 to 69.27 ng/g, with an average value of 28.59 ng/g. These values were in agreement with data reported in the literature. PMID:21797023

  15. A proposed food breakdown classification system to predict food behavior during gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Ferrua, Maria J; Singh, R Paul

    2015-05-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has implemented the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), which is used to classify drug products based on their solubility and intestinal permeability. The BCS can help predict drug behavior in vivo, the rate-limiting mechanism of absorption, and the likelihood of an in vitro-in vivo correlation. Based on this analysis, we have proposed a Food Breakdown Classification System (FBCS) framework that can be used to classify solid foods according to their initial hardness and their rate of softening during physiological gastric conditions. The proposed FBCS will allow for prediction of food behavior during gastric digestion. The applicability of the FBCS framework in differentiating between dissimilar solid foods was demonstrated using four example foods: raw carrot, boiled potato, white rice, and brown rice. The initial hardness and rate of softening parameter (softening half time) were determined for these foods as well as their hypothesized FBCS class. In addition, we have provided future suggestions as to the methodological and analytical challenges that need to be overcome prior to widespread use and adoption of this classification system. The FBCS gives a framework that may be used to classify food products based on their material properties and their behavior during in vitro gastric digestion, and may also be used to predict in vivo food behavior. As consumer demand increases for functional and "pharma" food products, the food industry will need widespread testing of food products for their structural and functional performance during digestion. PMID:25847426

  16. Metabolic routes along digestive system of licorice: multicomponent sequential metabolism method in rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Haiyu; Liu, Yang; Dong, Honghuan; Lv, Beiran; Fang, Min; Zhao, Huihui

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to establish the multicomponent sequential metabolism (MSM) method based on comparative analysis along the digestive system following oral administration of licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., leguminosae), a traditional Chinese medicine widely used for harmonizing other ingredients in a formulae. The licorice water extract (LWE) dissolved in Krebs-Ringer buffer solution (1 g/mL) was used to carry out the experiments and the comparative analysis was performed using HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods. In vitro incubation, in situ closed-loop and in vivo blood sampling were used to measure the LWE metabolic profile along the digestive system. The incubation experiment showed that the LWE was basically stable in digestive juice. A comparative analysis presented the metabolic profile of each prototype and its corresponding metabolites then. Liver was the major metabolic organ for LWE, and the metabolism by the intestinal flora and gut wall was also an important part of the process. The MSM method was practical and could be a potential method to describe the metabolic routes of multiple components before absorption into the systemic blood stream. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26418123

  17. Prognostic Value of MACC1 in Digestive System Neoplasms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhenzhen; Zhou, Rui; Su, Yuqi; Sun, Li; Liao, Yulin; Liao, Wangjun

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1), a newly identified oncogene, has been associated with poor survival of cancer patients by multiple studies. However, the prognostic value of MACC1 in digestive system neoplasms needs systematic evidence to verify. Therefore, we aimed to provide further evidence on this topic by systematic review and meta-analysis. Literature search was conducted in multiple databases and eligible studies analyzing survival data and MACC1 expression were included for meta-analysis. Hazard ratio (HR) for clinical outcome was chosen as an effect measure of interest. According to our inclusion criteria, 18 studies with a total of 2,948 patients were identified. Pooled HRs indicated that high MACC1 expression significantly correlates with poorer OS in patients with digestive system neoplasms (HR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.49–2.53) as well as poorer relapse-free survival (HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.33–2.82). The results of subgroup studies categorized by methodology, anatomic structure, and cancer subtype for pooled OS were all consistent with the overall pooled HR for OS as well. No publication bias was detected according to test of funnel plot asymmetry and Egger's test. In conclusion, high MACC1 expression may serve as a prognostic biomarker to guide individualized management in clinical practice for digestive system neoplasms. PMID:26090393

  18. System parameters for erythropoiesis control model: Comparison of normal values in human and mouse model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The computer model for erythropoietic control was adapted to the mouse system by altering system parameters originally given for the human to those which more realistically represent the mouse. Parameter values were obtained from a variety of literature sources. Using the mouse model, the mouse was studied as a potential experimental model for spaceflight. Simulation studies of dehydration and hypoxia were performed. A comparison of system parameters for the mouse and human models is presented. Aside from the obvious differences expected in fluid volumes, blood flows and metabolic rates, larger differences were observed in the following: erythrocyte life span, erythropoietin half-life, and normal arterial pO2.

  19. Finger mouse system based on computer vision in complex backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Xiong

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a human-computer interaction system and realizes a real-time virtual mouse. Our system emulates the dragging and selecting functions of a mouse by recognizing bare hands, hence the control style is simple and intuitive. A single camera is used to capture hand images and a DSP chip is embedded as the image processing platform. To deal with complex backgrounds, particularly where skin-like or moving objects appear, we develop novel hand recognition algorithms. Hand segmentation is achieved by skin color cue and background difference. Each input image is corrected according to the luminance and then skin color is extracted by Gaussian model. We employ a Camshift tracking algorithm which receives feedbacks from the recognition module. In fingertip recognition, a method combining template matching and circle drawing is proposed. Our system has advantages of good real-time performance, easy integration and energy conservation. Experiments show that the system is robust to the scaling and rotation of hands.

  20. Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications may be used as well. Gastritis and peptic ulcers. Under normal conditions, the stomach and duodenum are ... stomach (a condition known as gastritis) or cause peptic ulcers, which are sores or holes that form in ...

  1. Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever, loss of appetite, and vomiting. Gastritis and peptic ulcers arise when a bacterium, Helicobacter pylori , or the ... the lining of the stomach (gastritis) or cause peptic ulcers, which are sores or holes in the lining ...

  2. Treatment of anaerobically digested dairy manure in a two-stage biofiltration system.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mengjing; Tao, Wendong; Wang, Ziyuan; Pei, Yuansheng

    2012-01-01

    High concentrations of ammonium and phosphate present a challenge to cost-effective treatment of anaerobically digested dairy manure. This study investigated the efficacy of a two-stage biofiltration system for passive treatment of digested dairy manure. The first stage pebble filters were batch loaded. When the slurry-like digested dairy manure was retained on pebble beds, soluble contaminants were removed before liquid infiltrated over 8-17 days. The pebble filters removed 70% of soluble chemical oxygen demand, 71% of soluble biochemical oxygen demand, 75% of ammonium, and 68% of orthophosphate. Nitrogen removal was attributed to the conventional nitrification - denitrification process and novel nitritation - anammox process. Aerobic ammonium oxidizing and anammox bacteria accounted for 25 and 23% of all bacteria, respectively, in the filtrate of the pebble filters. The longer it took for filtration, the greater the removal efficiency of soluble contaminants. The second stage sand filters had removal efficiencies of 17% for soluble chemical oxygen demand, 45% for soluble biochemical oxygen demand, 43% for ammonium, and 16% for orthophosphate during batch operations at a hydraulic retention time of 7 days. Aerobic ammonium oxidation and anammox were primarily responsible for nitrogen removal in the sand filters. Vegetation made an insignificant difference in treatment performance of the sand filters. PMID:22592467

  3. Immunoreactivity of the 14F7 Mab Raised against N-Glycolyl GM3 Ganglioside in Epithelial Malignant Tumors from Digestive System

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Rancés; Rengifo, Enrique; Cedeño, Mercedes; Rengifo, Charles E.; Alonso, Daniel F.; Carr, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    The limited expression of N-Glycolyl GM3 (NeuGcGM3) ganglioside in human normal tissues, as well as its presence in melanoma and breast carcinoma using 14F7 Mab (anti-NeuGcGM3), has been previously reported. In this work we evaluated for the first time the 14F7 Mab immunorecognition in some digestive system tumors. Immunohistochemical assays were made with 14F7, followed by anti-mouse biotinylated antibody and ABC/HRP system in normal and pathological human tissues were made. No immunoreaction was evidenced in normal tissues. The reactivity of 14F7 was detected in all adenocarcinomas of the stomach (12/12), colon (12/12), and pancreas (11/11). A finely granular immunorecognition in esophageal tumors (5/15), epidermoid carcinoma of the rectum (5/7), and basaloid carcinoma (4/5) of the latter as well as in hepatocellular carcinoma (13/14) was also observed. Our results are in agreement with the assumption that NeuGcGM3 ganglioside may be considered as target for passive and active immunotherapy in digestive system malignancies expressing this molecule. PMID:21991524

  4. In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems: calcium ions combine with fatty acids liberated from triglyceride rich lipid solutions to form soaps and reduce the solubilization capacity of colloidal digestion products.

    PubMed

    Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B; Mullertz, Anette; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W

    2013-01-30

    In vitro digestion testing is of practical importance to predict the fate of drugs administered in lipid-based delivery systems. Calcium ions are often added to digestion media to increase the extent of digestion of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), but the effects they have on phase behaviour of the products of digestion, and consequent drug solubilization, are not well understood. This study investigates the effect of calcium and bile salt concentrations on the rate and extent of in vitro digestion of soybean oil, as well as the solubilizing capacity of the digestion products for two poorly water-soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces the availability of liberated fatty acids to form mixed micelles and vesicles, thereby reducing drug solubilization. The use of high calcium concentrations does indeed force in vitro digestion of LCTs but may overestimate the extent of drug precipitation that occurs within the intestinal lumen. PMID:23178598

  5. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    SciTech Connect

    Stabnikova, O. Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y.

    2008-07-01

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

  6. Continuously-stirred anaerobic digester to convert organic wastes into biogas: system setup and basic operation.

    PubMed

    Usack, Joseph G; Spirito, Catherine M; Angenent, Largus T

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a bioprocess that is commonly used to convert complex organic wastes into a useful biogas with methane as the energy carrier. Increasingly, AD is being used in industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste(water) treatment applications. The use of AD technology allows plant operators to reduce waste disposal costs and offset energy utility expenses. In addition to treating organic wastes, energy crops are being converted into the energy carrier methane. As the application of AD technology broadens for the treatment of new substrates and co-substrate mixtures, so does the demand for a reliable testing methodology at the pilot- and laboratory-scale. Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations, including the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow (PF), and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) configurations. The CSTR is frequently used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations. However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with solids or settling of solids in tubing. For that scenario with continuous mixing requirements, lab-scale bioreactors are fed periodically and we refer to such configurations as continuously stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs). This article presents a general methodology for constructing, inoculating, operating, and monitoring a CSAD system for the purpose of testing the suitability of a given organic substrate for long-term anaerobic digestion. The construction section of this article will cover building the lab-scale reactor system. The inoculation section will explain how to create an anaerobic environment suitable for seeding with an active methanogenic inoculum. The operating section will cover operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting. The monitoring section will introduce testing protocols using standard analyses. The use of these measures is necessary for reliable experimental assessments of substrate suitability for AD. This protocol should provide greater protection against a common mistake made in AD studies, which is to conclude that reactor failure was caused by the substrate in use, when really it was improper user operation. PMID:22824993

  7. On the Morphology of the Digestive System of Two Monomorium Ant Species

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Daniel Russ; Rossi, Mônica Lanzoni; Fox, Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson; Nogueira, Neusa de Lima; Tanaka, Francisco André Ossamu; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2013-01-01

    The digestive system of adults and mature larvae of two ant species of Monomorium Mayr (Hymoneptera: Formicidae) were described with the aid of light and scanning electron microscopy, as there is a lack of studies in this area. These two ant species are recurrently found in urban habitats and are known as ‘tramp species,’ as they cause problems in households, businesses, and hospitals. The most interesting finds of the present study include the existence of spinules in the crop of adults, and the number of Malpighian tubules and rectal pads was constant among different castes, ages, and species. PMID:24224520

  8. On the morphology of the digestive system of two Monomorium ant species.

    PubMed

    Solis, Daniel Russ; Rossi, Mônica Lanzoni; Fox, Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson; Nogueira, Neusa de Lima; Tanaka, Francisco André Ossamu; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2013-01-01

    The digestive system of adults and mature larvae of two ant species of Monomorium Mayr (Hymoneptera: Formicidae) were described with the aid of light and scanning electron microscopy, as there is a lack of studies in this area. These two ant species are recurrently found in urban habitats and are known as 'tramp species,' as they cause problems in households, businesses, and hospitals. The most interesting finds of the present study include the existence of spinules in the crop of adults, and the number of Malpighian tubules and rectal pads was constant among different castes, ages, and species. PMID:24224520

  9. Membrane controlled anaerobic digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omstead, D. R.

    In response to general shortages of energy, examination of the anaerboic digestion process as a potential source of a combustible, methane-rich fuel has intensified in recent years. It has been suggested that orgaic intermediates (such as fatty acids), produced during digestion, might also be recovered for use as chemical feedstocks. This investigation has been concerned with combining ultrafiltration separation techniques with anaerobic digestion for the development of a process in which the total production of acetic acid (the most valuable intermediate in anaerobic digestion) and methane are optimized. Enrichment cultures, able to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source, were adapted from sewage digesting cultures using conventional techniques. An ultrafiltration system was constructed and coupled to an anaerobic digester culture vessel which contained the glucose enrichment. The membrane controlled anaerobic digester appears to show promise as a means of producing high rates of both methane gas and acetic acid.

  10. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as drug targets for diseases of the digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 20 of the 30 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed by specific neurons and cells within the alimentary canal. They subserve important roles in taste, chemesthesis, mechanosensation, pain and hyperalgesia and contribute to the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, absorptive and secretory processes, blood flow, and mucosal homeostasis. In a cellular perspective, TRP channels operate either as primary detectors of chemical and physical stimuli, as secondary transducers of ionotropic or metabotropic receptors, or as ion transport channels. The polymodal sensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPM8, TRPP2, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 enables the digestive system to survey its physical and chemical environment, which is relevant to all processes of digestion. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 contribute to the absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively. TRPM7 participates in intestinal pacemaker activity, and TRPC4 transduces muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation to smooth muscle contraction. Changes in TRP channel expression or function are associated with a variety of diseases/disorders of the digestive system, notably gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pain and hyperalgesia in heartburn, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, cholera, hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, esophageal, gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer, and polycystic liver disease. These implications identify TRP channels as promising drug targets for the management of a number of gastrointestinal pathologies. As a result, major efforts are put into the development of selective TRP channel agonists and antagonists and the assessment of their therapeutic potential. PMID:21420431

  11. Performance and stability improvements in anaerobic digestion of thermally hydrolyzed municipal biowaste by a biofilm system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hou, Huahua; Hu, Song; Gao, Xingbao

    2010-03-01

    In this present study, thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment improved the hydrolysis of organic solids and the solid-liquid separation ability of MB, making it possible to obtain a long solid retention time (SRT) and high degradation ratio in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). Biofilm carriers were introduced into ASBR to prolong the mean cell retention time (MCRT). The biofilm system operated at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.5-5 gVSL(reactor)(-1)day(-1) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 13.3 days. The biofilm carriers provided perfect conditions for microbe retention and growth, improving the digestion efficiency. The MCRT was 89-150 days and SRT was 24-36 days, with the methane yield of 330-370 mL g(-1)VS(added) and VS(d) of 62-70%. Meanwhile, due to the mass-transport resistance and high microbe density of the biofilm, the system show high stability. Therefore, the biofilm system provided an approach for a highly efficient anaerobic digestion of municipal biowaste. PMID:19910188

  12. LONGEVITY AND VIABILITY OF Taenia solium EGGS IN THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF THE BEETLE Ammophorus rubripes

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; P<0.001) and the calculated time to cero viability is 36 days. The eggs in the intestinal system of each beetle were counted and tested for viability. Taenia solium eggs were present in the beetle’s digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas. PMID:24728368

  13. [Mechanisms and risk factors for type 1 food allergies: the role of gastric digestion].

    PubMed

    Diesner, Susanne C; Pali-Schll, Isabella; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Untersmayr, Eva

    2012-12-01

    True food allergens are considered as digestion stable proteins, which are absorbed through the gastrointestinal epithelium in an intact form leading to sensitization and causing systemic symptoms. According to classifications, allergens, which are digestion-labile, cause local symptoms by their cross-reactivity towards inhalative allergens. Our recent studies revealed that digestion labile allergens can also have sensitizing capacity if gastric digestion is hindered. The increase of gastric pH via acid-suppression by proton pump inhibitors, sucralfate or antacids, interferes with protein digestion, and leads to sensitization and allergic reaction in mouse models as well as in human patients. Furthermore, the inhibition of digestion increases the risk for anaphylactic responses in sensitized individuals.Even though also other factors, such as sphingolipid metabolites, are associated with the development of food allergies, it is without any doubt that the stomach has an important gate keeping function against food allergies. PMID:23160973

  14. Validation of the TrichinEasy® digestion system for the detection of Anisakidae larvae in fish products.

    PubMed

    Cammilleri, Gaetano; Chetta, Michele; Costa, Antonella; Graci, Stefania; Collura, Rosaria; Buscemi, Maria Drussilla; Cusimano, Maria; Alongi, Angelina; Principato, Deborah; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Vella, Antonio; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    Anisakis and other parasites belonging to the Anisakidae family are organisms of interest for human health, because of their high zoonotic potential. Parasites belonging to this family can cause Anisakiasis, a parasitological disease caused by the ingestion of raw, infested fish products. Furthermore, evidence from the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority; EFSA 2010) has highlighted the allergological potential of nematodes belonging to the Anisakis genre. The detection and identification of Anisakidae larvae in fish products requires an initial visual inspection of the fish sample, as well as other techniques such as candling, UV illumination and artificial digestion. The digestion method consists of the simulation of digestive mechanics, which is made possible by the utilization of HCl and pepsin, according to EC Regulation 2075/2005. In this study, a new Anisakidae larvae detection method using a mechanical digestion system called Trichineasy® was developed. A total of 142 fish samples, belonging to 14 different species, were examined to validate the method. A reaction mixture with 100 g of sample, 10 g of pepsin (1:10000 NF) and 50 ml of 10% HCl at 36 ± 1°C for 20 minutes was evaluated to be the best condition for the digestion of fish samples. These parameters have also allowed the detection of viable larvae after digestion. The results confirm this instrumentation as a valuable and safe tool for the detection of Anisakidae larvae in fishery products. PMID:27078661

  15. Quiz Making Activities Using the Multi-Mouse Quiz System in an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Juan; Mori, Mikihiko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Kita, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Mouse Quiz System is an application used to treat quizzes in a classroom or other learning environment. The system comprises the Multi Mouse Quiz (MMQ) and MMQEditor. The MMQ is an application of Single Display Groupware (SDG), which enables multiple users to answer quizzes by connecting several mice to an ordinary computer. The

  16. Quiz Making Activities Using the Multi-Mouse Quiz System in an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Juan; Mori, Mikihiko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Kita, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Mouse Quiz System is an application used to treat quizzes in a classroom or other learning environment. The system comprises the Multi Mouse Quiz (MMQ) and MMQEditor. The MMQ is an application of Single Display Groupware (SDG), which enables multiple users to answer quizzes by connecting several mice to an ordinary computer. The…

  17. Influence of Chronic Social Defeat Stress on Digestive System Functioning in Rats.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Atsushi; Iio, Wataru; Matsukawa, Noriko; Tsukahara, Takamitsu

    2015-01-01

    Mental disorders are caused by chronic psychosocial stress, and can cause various symptoms related to the digestive system. We focused on the conjugation of intestinal absorptive and enzymatic mechanisms between chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model rats and healthy controls to obtain general biochemical data about the intestine of the model in this study. The small intestine was divided into three regions: proximal (PI), middle (MI), and distal (DI); mRNA expression associated with a nutrient absorption, glucose absorption activity, and activities of the digestive enzymes such as maltase, sucrase and lactase was measured. Expression of both sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (Sglt1) and glucose transporter 2 gene tended to be higher in the stress group compared to the control group in PI. Glucose absorption was also higher in PI of the CSDS group. Sglt1 and peptide transporter 1 gene expressions in the CSDS group were significantly higher than those in the control group in DI. Furthermore, in PI, expression of the aquaporin 1 gene was significantly higher in the CSDS group compared to the control group. Thus, absorption of some nutrients might be higher in the small intestine of the CSDS rat. PMID:26226967

  18. Effect of fasting in the digestive system: histological study of the small intestine in house sparrows.

    PubMed

    Funes, Samanta Celeste; Filippa, Vernica Palmira; Cid, Fabricio Damin; Mohamed, Fabin; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Chediack, Juan Gabriel

    2014-10-01

    In birds and mammals the metabolic response to fasting has been studied and can be characterized by three consecutive phases reflecting metabolic and physiological adjustments. An effective way to minimize energy expenditure during food scarcity is to decrease the mass of the organs. As the digestive system is metabolically expensive to maintain, the small intestine and the liver are the most affected organs. We evaluated the effects of phase III starvation on the mass of the different organs and histological parameters on house sparrows, a small non-migrant bird. In a short period of time (34 h) we observed a larger reduction in the digestive organ mass when compared to the mass of the body and non-alimentary tissues. Furthermore, the intestinal mass was proportionally more reduced than its length and nominal surface area. A reduction on the intestinal mucosal layer also resulted in a shortening of villus (length and thickness) and crypt depth. Moreover, the morphology of the enterocytes changed from cylindrical to cubical, suggesting that the surface exposed to the lumen was conserved. This may indicate an adaptive response to the moment of refeeding. The nominal surface area/body mass remained constant in both groups and several histological parameters were reduced, suggesting that starving induces the atrophy of the small intestine. However, the goblet cells were conserved after fasting indicating a protective tendency. PMID:25035101

  19. Mouse Vocal Communication System: Are Ultrasounds Learned or Innate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production.…

  20. Mouse Vocal Communication System: Are Ultrasounds Learned or Innate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production.

  1. Bioefficacy of tea catechins encapsulated in casein micelles tested on a normal mouse cell line (4D/WT) and its cancerous counterpart (D/v-src) before and after in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Haratifar, Sanaz; Meckling, Kelly A; Corredig, Milena

    2014-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that tea catechins form complexes with milk proteins, especially caseins. Much less work has been conducted to understand the metabolic conversions of tea-milk complexes during gastro-duodenal digestion. The objective of this study was to determine the significance of this association on the digestibility of the milk proteins and on the bioaccessibility of the tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). An in vitro digestion model mimicking the gastric and duodenal phases of the human gastrointestinal tract was employed to follow the fate of the milk proteins during digestion and determine the bioefficacy of EGCG isolated or encapsulated with the caseins. The samples, before and after digestion, were tested using two parallel colonic epithelial cell lines, a normal line (4D/WT) and its cancerous transformed counterpart (D/v-src). EGCG caused a decrease in proliferation of cancer cells, while in normal cells, neither isolated nor encapsulated EGCG affected cell proliferation, at concentrations <0.15 mg ml(-1). At higher concentrations, both isolated and encapsulated produced similar decreases in proliferation. On the other hand, the bioefficacy on the cancer cell line showed some differences at lower concentrations. The results demonstrated that regardless of the extent of digestion of the nanoencapsulated EGCG, the bioefficacy of EGCG was not diminished, confirming that casein micelles are an appropriate delivery system for polyphenols. PMID:24686838

  2. Immunohistochemical observations of methionine-enkephalin and delta opioid receptor in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Sha, Ailong; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan

    2013-02-01

    The study was designed to determine whether methionine-enkephalin (met-Enk) or delta opioid receptor was present in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus. The results showed that they were both in the bulbus oris, esophagus, crop, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, posterior salivary glands of O. ocellatus, one of them, met-Enk in the rectum, anterior salivary glands, digestive gland. And the distributions were extensive in the digestive system. Strong or general met-Enk immunoreactivity was observed in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, anterior salivary glands and the adventitia of the intestine and rectum, and so was the delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, and crop, however, they were weak in other parts. Combining with delta opioid receptor, met-Enk may be involved in the regulations of food intake, absorption, movement of gastrointestinal smooth muscle and secretion of digestive gland. The different densities of met-Enk and delta opioid receptor may be related to the different functions in the digestive system of O. ocellatus. PMID:22795872

  3. MOUSE (MODULAR ORIENTED UNCERTAINTY SYSTEM): A COMPUTERIZED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM. OPERATIONAL MANUAL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty SystEm) deals with the problem of uncertainties in models that consist of one or more algebraic equations. It was especially designed for use by those with little or no knowledge of computer languages or programming. It is compact (and thus can...

  4. Potential for direct interspecies electron transfer in an electric-anaerobic system to increase methane production from sludge digestion

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Wang, Liying; Quan, Xie

    2015-01-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between Geobacter species and Methanosaeta species is an alternative to interspecies hydrogen transfer (IHT) in anaerobic digester, which however has not been established in anaerobic sludge digestion as well as in bioelectrochemical systems yet. In this study, it was found that over 50% of methane production of an electric-anaerobic sludge digester was resulted from unknown pathway. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Geobacter species were significantly enriched with electrodes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) further confirmed that the dominant Geobacter species enriched belonged to Geobacter metallireducens. Together with Methanosaeta species prevailing in the microbial communities, the direct electron exchange between Geobacter species and Methanosaeta species might be an important reason for the “unknown” increase of methane production. Conductivity of the sludge in this electric-anaerobic digester was about 30% higher than that of the sludge in a control digester without electrodes. This study not only revealed for the first time that DIET might be the important mechanism on the methanogenesis of bioelectrochemical system, but also provided a new method to enhance DIET by means of bioelectric enrichment of Geobacter species. PMID:26057581

  5. Potential for direct interspecies electron transfer in an electric-anaerobic system to increase methane production from sludge digestion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Wang, Liying; Quan, Xie

    2015-01-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between Geobacter species and Methanosaeta species is an alternative to interspecies hydrogen transfer (IHT) in anaerobic digester, which however has not been established in anaerobic sludge digestion as well as in bioelectrochemical systems yet. In this study, it was found that over 50% of methane production of an electric-anaerobic sludge digester was resulted from unknown pathway. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Geobacter species were significantly enriched with electrodes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) further confirmed that the dominant Geobacter species enriched belonged to Geobacter metallireducens. Together with Methanosaeta species prevailing in the microbial communities, the direct electron exchange between Geobacter species and Methanosaeta species might be an important reason for the "unknown" increase of methane production. Conductivity of the sludge in this electric-anaerobic digester was about 30% higher than that of the sludge in a control digester without electrodes. This study not only revealed for the first time that DIET might be the important mechanism on the methanogenesis of bioelectrochemical system, but also provided a new method to enhance DIET by means of bioelectric enrichment of Geobacter species. PMID:26057581

  6. Interactions of killed Listeria monocytogenes with the mouse complement system.

    PubMed Central

    van Kessel, K P; Antonissen, A C; van Dijk, H; Rademaker, P M; Willers, J M

    1981-01-01

    Incubation of mouse serum with Listeria monocytogenes involved activation of the alternative complement pathway, resulting in depletion of both classical and alternative pathway activity. The activation process gave rise to reactive (calcium- and magnesium-independent) lysis of, specifically, rabbit erythrocytes, which become resistant to this form of hemolysis by sensitization with antibodies. The possible implications of these findings for L. monocytogenes as an intracellular parasite and for rabbit erythrocytes as target cells for mouse alternative complement pathway activity are discussed. PMID:6795123

  7. Heavy oil fractions induce negative influences on mouse immune system.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Sogo; Kanda, Kota; Yamawaki, Manami; Okabe, Masaaki; Akiyama, Koichi; Kakinuma, Yoshimi; Sugahara, Takuya

    2009-10-01

    It is well known that heavy oil such as pollutant caused serious influences on the marine ecosystem. We may suffer from various disorders in our body via intake of marine foods polluted with heavy oil. However the influences of heavy oil on our immune system have not yet been clarified. Here we show the effects of heavy oil extracts, water-soluble fraction (WSF), methanol-soluble fraction (MSF) and ethanol-soluble fraction (ESF), on immunoglobulin production of mouse splenocytes. All extracts increased IgA productivity of splenocytes. In oral administration, shrinkage of the immune organs such as spleen or thymus was observed in only WSF-administrated mice at least during 7 days. The amount of IgG production level in splenocytes cultured medium and sera were reduced by each extract administration. A flowcytometry method, to monitor splenocytes of WSF-administrated mice, has been set up using double staining with B and T cell-specific surface antibody. The results from cell population analysis indicated that B cells, including plasma cells producing antibody were reduced. The decrease in IgG level in sera was caused by reduction of plasma cells in spleen. Hence, it is suggested that reduction of Ig production was affected by the chemical compounds contained in WSF possibly such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through the estrogen receptor expressed in lymphocytes. PMID:19797854

  8. Marine biomass program: anaerobic digestion systems development and stability study. Final report 1 Feb-31 Dec 82

    SciTech Connect

    Fannin, K.F.; Srivastava, V.J.; Mensinger, J.D.; Chynoweth, D.P.

    1983-07-01

    Marine biomass represents a significant potential worldwide energy resource that can be converted to methane by anaerobic digestion. Through efficient biomass production, harvesting, and conversion techniques, competitive methane gas costs are achievable. The objective of this research project is to develop and define an anaerobic digestion process for producing methane from giant brown kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). Kelp continues to show superior performance as a feedstock for gas production when compared with other particulate biomass feedstocks. Further work on upflow solids reactors and two-phase reactor systems is expected to improve gas cost estimates over those made using other state-of-the-art reactors.

  9. A simple continuous culture system for rumen microbial digestion study and effects of defaunation and dilution rates.

    PubMed

    Fuchigami, M; Senshu, T; Horiguchi, M

    1989-11-01

    Ground substrates and a buffer solution were continuously supplied into 500 ml culture vessels in which the contents were mixed slowly by a stirrer (6 rpm) and the excess medium removed via a small outlet chamber (overflow) by a turning wing (30 rpm). This procedure resulted in the formation of three layers in the culture vessel with different local dilution rates. The top and bottom layers, with slower dilution rates, successfully served to harbor and thus maintain the slowly growing microbes that would otherwise wash out of the system. The effects of defaunation on the microbial digestion were studied with varying nominal dilution rates of .5, 1.5, 2.5, and 4.0/d. Dry matter and cellulose digestibilities and VFA production were depressed by defaunation, and the depressions were more pronounced at higher dilution rates, suggesting a favorable effect of protozoa on rumen microbial digestion in higher producing animals. PMID:2625496

  10. Modelling anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water and faecal matter in accumulation system.

    PubMed

    Elmitwalli, Tarek; Zeeman, Grietje; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model based on anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was developed for accumulation (AC) system treating concentrated black water and faecal matter at different temperatures. The AC system was investigated for the treatment of waste (water) produced from the following systems: vacuum toilet for black water (VBW), vacuum toilet for faeces with urine separation (VF), dry toilet (DT), dry toilets for faeces with urine separation (DF), separated faecal matter from conventional black water by filter bag (FB). For evaluation of the AC system treating the proposed waste (water) sources at 20 and 35 degrees C, two options were studied: (1) The filling period of the AC system was constant for all waste (water) sources (either 1, 3 or 6 months) and for each period, the seed sludge volume was varied; (2) The volume of the AC system was constant for all proposed waste (water) sources. The results showed that the filling period of the AC system was the main parameter affecting the system performance, followed by operational temperature, while the increase of the seed sludge volume slightly enhanced the performance of the system. The model results indicated that the filling period of the AC system should be higher than 150 days for obtaining a stable performance. It was found that the hydrolysis of biodegradable particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD) is the rate limiting step, as volatile fatty acid concentration is very low in all experimental conditions (< 200 mgCOD/L at 20 degrees C and < 100 mgCOD/L at 35 degrees C). Based on the results of the two options, it was found that the concentrated waste (water) sources have better performance than the diluted waste (water) sources, like VBW waste (water). Furthermore, smaller volume will be required for the AC system. PMID:21902047

  11. Anaerobic biodegradability and digestion in accumulation systems for concentrated black water and kitchen organic-wastes.

    PubMed

    Elmitwalli, T A; van Leeuwen, M; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Sanders, W; Zeeman, G

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of two accumulation-systems (AC) for anaerobic digestion and storage of concentrated black water with (AC1) or without (AC2) urine + kitchen organic-wastes was investigated. The waste(water) was collected by two vacuum toilet/transport systems. The influent-total COD of the AC2 (53,000 mg/L) was more concentrated by four times than that of the AC1. The suspended COD represented the major part (71-73%) of influent total COD of the two systems. The batch-experiments results showed a high anaerobic biodegradability of the waste(water) (> 85%). The AC systems demonstrated stable performance. There was no inhibition effect of NH4 and VFA concentration decreased in time. Total COD removal of 58% was achieved in both systems, after 105 days at 20 degrees C. Moreover, if only the supernatant in AC1 is withdrawn and the settled sludge stays for the next runs, only 20% of the influent total COD will be in the supernatant. In AC2, 74% of influent ortho-P was removed by precipitation. Therefore, the settled sludge in the AC2 had a high total-P concentration of 1,300 mg/L. The C:N:P ratios of the supernatant and the sludge were 26:13:1 and 35:4.5:1, respectively, in the AC1, and were 28:14:1 and 32:2.4:1, respectively, in AC2. PMID:16784201

  12. What Happens to the Food We Eat? Children's Conceptions of the Structure and Function of the Digestive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Francimar Martins

    2000-01-01

    Describes children's conceptions of the structure and function of the human digestive system based on an investigation carried out with children aged 4-10 (n=45). Finds that children possess biological knowledge as an independent knowledge domain from the age of four. Discusses acquisition of and barriers to scientific concepts related to human…

  13. The Journey of a Sandwich: Computer-Based Laboratory Experiments about the Human Digestive System in High School Biology Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorgo, Andrej; Hajdinjak, Zdravka; Briski, Darko

    2008-01-01

    Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school…

  14. What Happens to the Food We Eat? Children's Conceptions of the Structure and Function of the Digestive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Francimar Martins

    2000-01-01

    Describes children's conceptions of the structure and function of the human digestive system based on an investigation carried out with children aged 4-10 (n=45). Finds that children possess biological knowledge as an independent knowledge domain from the age of four. Discusses acquisition of and barriers to scientific concepts related to human

  15. The Journey of a Sandwich: Computer-Based Laboratory Experiments about the Human Digestive System in High School Biology Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorgo, Andrej; Hajdinjak, Zdravka; Briski, Darko

    2008-01-01

    Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school

  16. New issues about melatonin and its effects on the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Motilva, V; Cabeza, J; Alarcón de la Lastra, C

    2001-07-01

    In human beings, melatonin is secreted in a cyclic way by the pineal gland, although it has been detected in other tissues. Synthesis of melatonin takes place in the pinealocyte. It depends on adrenergic stimulation, and its secretion is related to the photoperiod in a circadian model of low activity during light phase and high activity at night time. Former studies aimed to establish the mechanisms by which melatonin carries out its biological function, proved the existance of high affinity binding sites. However, melatonin can pass through the plasmatic membrane; this property suggested a possible activity of the hormone inside the cell trough activation of nuclear receptors. Moreover, melatonin can act by itself as a potent oxygen-free-radical scavenger, which renders it a very strong antioxidant. It is currently accepted that melatonin plays an important role in numerous physiological processes. The gastrointestinal tract of numerous animal species contains melatonin, which is synthesized essentially by intestinal enterochrommaffin cells. Some investigations have revealed that its liberation follows also a circadian rhythm, although its secretion pattern might be influenced by nutritional factors. Receptors for melatonin have been identified in the digestive system, therefore the indolamine might play a leading role in different aspects of the vast digestive physiopathology. The hormone may interact with receptors and subsequently stimulate the synthesis of gastroprotective hormones and also exerts a direct defense on the epithelium, enhances submucosal blood flow and prevents the damage induced by ischemia followed by reperfusion. Moreover, studies have shown that treatment with melatonin reduces the severity of the lesions induced by NSAIDs on gastric mucosa suggesting a beneficial role of melatonin in preventing this gastropathy related to antiinflammatories. PMID:11472247

  17. The isolation and characterization of new C. thermocellum strains and the evaluation of multiple anaerobic digestion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Wen

    The overall objective of my research was to improve the efficiencies of bioconversions that produce renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass. To this end, my studies addressed issues important to two promising strategies: consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) and anaerobic digestion (AD). CBP achieves saccharolytic enzyme production, hydrolysis, and fermentation in a single step and is considered to be the most cost-effective model. Anaerobic bacteria that can be used in CBP are highly desirable. To that end, two thermophilic and cellulolytic bacterial strains were isolated and characterized (Chapter 3). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, both strains CS7 and CS8 are closely related to Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. However, they had significantly higher specific cellulase activities and ethanol/acetate ratios than C. thermocellum ATCC 27405. As a result, CS7 and CS8 are two new highly cellulolytic and ethanologenic C. thermocellum strains, with application potentials in research and development of CBP. As some of the most promising AD processes, two temperature-phased AD (TPAD) systems, in comparison with a thermophilic single-stage AD (TSAD) system and a mesophilic two-stage AD (MTAD) system, were studied in treating high-strength dairy cattle manure. The TPAD systems, with the thermophilic digesters acidified (AT-TPAD, Chapter 4) or operated at neutral pH (NT-TPAD, Chapter 5), were optimized at the thermophilic temperature of 50°C and a volume ratio between the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters of 1:2. Despite similar methane productions, the NT-TPAD system achieved significantly higher volatile solid (VS) removal than the AT-TPAD system and needed no external pH adjustments (Chapter 6). At the same overall OLR, the TSAD system achieved the highest performance, followed by the NT-TPAD and the MTAD systems (Chapter 7). Each digester harbored distinct yet dynamic microbial populations, some of which were significantly correlated or associated with system performances. Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium were the most important methanogenic genera in the digesters where intense hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis occurred, while Methanosaeta established itself in the mesophilic digesters with sufficient retention time and low concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA). The populations of all the quantified methanogen genera (Methanobacterium, Methanosarcina, Methanosaeta , and Methanoculleus) were inversely correlated or associated with high concentrations of VFA. The results of DGGE and qPCR were confirmed and improved by the pyrosequencing data (Chapter 8). Different operation conditions led to the development of different microbial communities that resulted in the functional differences among AD systems. The bacterial community tended to be more diverse in the digesters with more lenient conditions. Firmicutes was a major phylum in each AD system and might be associated with system performance. Chloroflexi was a major phylum in each thermophilic digester with balanced hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis, so it might be indicative of efficient operations of thermophilic digesters. Thermotogae only appeared as a major phylum in the AT-TPAD system and might be important to its performance. The results of my studies had impacts on the development of renewable bioenergy. On one hand, the two new thermophilic cellulolytic isolates may be further evaluated for development of CBP strains. On the other hand, the series of comparative and integrated studies of different AD systems provided new knowledge that may guide future research and development of AD systems, particularly TPAD systems. Furthermore, the correlation between system performances and microbial communities may help improve design and operation of AD in general.

  18. Fluorescence molecular imaging system with a novel mouse surface extraction method and a rotary scanning scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Dianwen; Baikejiang, Reheman; Li, Changqing

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a new fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) imaging system, in which we utilized a phase shifting method to extract the mouse surface geometry optically and a rotary laser scanning approach to excite fluorescence molecules and acquire fluorescent measurements on the whole mouse body. Nine fringe patterns with a phase shifting of 2π/9 are projected onto the mouse surface by a projector. The fringe patterns are captured using a webcam to calculate a phase map that is converted to the geometry of the mouse surface with our algorithms. We used a DigiWarp approach to warp a finite element mesh of a standard digital mouse to the measured mouse surface thus the tedious and time-consuming procedure from a point cloud to mesh is avoided. Experimental results indicated that the proposed method is accurate with errors less than 0.5 mm. In the FMT imaging system, the mouse is placed inside a conical mirror and scanned with a line pattern laser that is mounted on a rotation stage. After being reflected by the conical mirror, the emitted fluorescence photons travel through central hole of the rotation stage and the band pass filters in a motorized filter wheel, and are collected by a CCD camera. Phantom experimental results of the proposed new FMT imaging system can reconstruct the target accurately.

  19. Quantification of the main digestive processes in ruminants: the equations involved in the renewed energy and protein feed evaluation systems.

    PubMed

    Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of feeding systems for ruminants towards evaluation of diets in terms of multiple responses requires the updating of the calculation of nutrient supply to the animals to make it more accurate on aggregated units (feed unit, or UF, for energy and protein digestible in the intestine, or PDI, for metabolizable protein) and to allow prediction of absorbed nutrients. The present update of the French system is based on the building and interpretation through meta-analysis of large databases on digestion and nutrition of ruminants. Equations involved in the calculation of UF and PDI have been updated, allowing: (1) prediction of the out flow rate of particles and liquid depending on the level of intake and the proportion of concentrate, and the use of this in the calculation of ruminal digestion of protein and starch from in situ data; (2) the system to take into account the effects of the main factors of digestive interactions (level of intake, proportion of concentrate, rumen protein balance) on organic matter digestibility, energy losses in methane and in urine; (3) more accurate calculation of the energy available in the rumen and the efficiency of its use for the microbial protein synthesis. In this renewed model UF and PDI values of feedstuffs vary depending on diet composition, and intake level. Consequently, standard feed table values can be considered as being only indicative. It is thus possible to predict the nutrient supply on a wider range of diets more accurately and in particular to better integrate energy×protein interactions occurring in the gut. PMID:26696120

  20. The mouse genome database (MGD): new features facilitating a model system.

    PubMed

    Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2007-01-01

    The mouse genome database (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org/), the international community database for mouse, provides access to extensive integrated data on the genetics, genomics and biology of the laboratory mouse. The mouse is an excellent and unique animal surrogate for studying normal development and disease processes in humans. Thus, MGD's primary goals are to facilitate the use of mouse models for studying human disease and enable the development of translational research hypotheses based on comparative genotype, phenotype and functional analyses. Core MGD data content includes gene characterization and functions, phenotype and disease model descriptions, DNA and protein sequence data, polymorphisms, gene mapping data and genome coordinates, and comparative gene data focused on mammals. Data are integrated from diverse sources, ranging from major resource centers to individual investigator laboratories and the scientific literature, using a combination of automated processes and expert human curation. MGD collaborates with the bioinformatics community on the development of data and semantic standards, and it incorporates key ontologies into the MGD annotation system, including the Gene Ontology (GO), the Mammalian Phenotype Ontology, and the Anatomical Dictionary for Mouse Development and the Adult Anatomy. MGD is the authoritative source for mouse nomenclature for genes, alleles, and mouse strains, and for GO annotations to mouse genes. MGD provides a unique platform for data mining and hypothesis generation where one can express complex queries simultaneously addressing phenotypic effects, biochemical function and process, sub-cellular location, expression, sequence, polymorphism and mapping data. Both web-based querying and computational access to data are provided. Recent improvements in MGD described here include the incorporation of single nucleotide polymorphism data and search tools, the addition of PIR gene superfamily classifications, phenotype data for NIH-acquired knockout mice, images for mouse phenotypic genotypes, new functional graph displays of GO annotations, and new orthology displays including sequence information and graphic displays. PMID:17135206

  1. Pathogenesis of H5N1 influenza virus infections in mice and ferret models differ between respiratory and digestive system exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data suggests H5N1 influenza viruses are transmitted through and predominantly affect the respiratory system of mammals. Some data suggests digestive system involvement. However, direct evidence of alimentary transmission and infection in mammal...

  2. Spare capacity and phenotypic flexibility in the digestive system of a migratory bird: defining the limits of animal design

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Scott R.; Karasov, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible phenotypes enable animals to live in environments that change over space and time, and knowing the limits to and the required time scale for this flexibility provides insights into constraints on energy and nutrient intake, diet diversity and niche width. We quantified the level of immediate and ultimate spare capacity, and thus the extent of phenotypic flexibility, in the digestive system of a migratory bird in response to increased energy demand, and identified the digestive constraints responsible for the limits on sustained energy intake. Immediate spare capacity decreased from approximately 50% for birds acclimated to relatively benign temperatures to less than 20% as birds approached their maximum sustainable energy intake. Ultimate spare capacity enabled an increase in feeding rate of approximately 126% as measured in birds acclimated for weeks at −29°C compared with +21°C. Increased gut size and not tissue-specific differences in nutrient uptake or changes in digestive efficiency or retention time were primarily responsible for this increase in capacity with energy demand, and this change required more than 1–2 days. Thus, the pace of change in digestive organ size may often constrain energy intake and, for birds, retard the pace of their migration. PMID:24718764

  3. Gamma radiation consequences on desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forsk.) digestive system.

    PubMed

    Dushimirimana, S; Muratori, F; Damiens, D; Hance, T

    2010-01-01

    Schistocera gregaria (Forsk.) (Orthoptera, Acrididae) remains a major insect pest in Africa, more particularly in the Sahelian zone. Present control methods are only partially efficient. In a previous study, we tested the potentiality of a sterile insect technique (SIT). Males of S. gregaria appeared to be much radiosensitive as already a dose of 3 Gy limited their survival. Gamma-radiations are known to damages the epithelial tissue of midgut, which affects the alimentation in insects. In this work, we show how digestive system of S. gregaria males is affected when submitted to a dose of 4 gamma rays. Nutrition is affected as males stop feeding soon after irradiation and progressively lose weight. Histological analyses on the midgut showed important epithelium damages. The regenerative cells by which the epithelial cells are replaced were damaged on the first days following irradiation. Consequently, regenerative cells are unable to divide and replace the normal loss of midgut cell. After nine days, the entire midgut epithelium was destroyed and only longitudinal muscles layer remained intact. This indicates that low radiation doses should be used if SIT will be applied. PMID:21539264

  4. Long Noncoding RNAs in Digestive System Malignancies: A Novel Class of Cancer Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets?

    PubMed Central

    Kladi-Skandali, Athina; Michaelidou, Kleita; Scorilas, Andreas; Mavridis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    High throughput methodologies have revealed the existence of an unexpectedly large number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). The unconventional role of lncRNAs in gene expression regulation and their broad implication in oncogenic and tumor suppressive pathways have introduced lncRNAs as novel biological tumor markers. The most prominent example of lncRNAs application in routine clinical practice is PCA3, a FDA-approved biomarker for prostate cancer. Regarding digestive system malignancies, the oncogenic HOTAIR is one of the most widely studied lncRNAs in the preclinical level and has already been identified as a potent prognostic marker for major malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we provide an overview of recent findings regarding the emerging role of lncRNAs not only as key regulators of cancer initiation and progression in colon, stomach, pancreatic, liver, and esophageal cancers, but also as reliable tumor markers and therapeutic tools. lncRNAs can be easily, rapidly, and cost-effectively determined in tissues, serum, and gastric juice, making them highly versatile analytes. Taking also into consideration the largely unmet clinical need for early diagnosis and more accurate prognostic/predictive markers for gastrointestinal cancer patients, we comment upon the perspectives of lncRNAs as efficient molecular tools that could aid in the clinical management. PMID:26064090

  5. Expression, localization and possible functions of aquaporins 3 and 8 in rat digestive system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, G X; Dong, P P; Peng, R; Li, J; Zhang, D Y; Wang, J Y; Shen, X Z; Dong, L; Sun, J Y

    2016-05-01

    Although aquaporins (AQPs) play important roles in transcellular water movement, their precise quantification and localization remains controversial. We investigated expression levels and localizations of AQP3 and AQP8 and their possible functions in the rat digestive system using real-time polymerase chain reactions, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. We investigated the expression levels and localizations of AQP3 and AQP8 in esophagus, forestomach, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, proximal and distal colon, and liver. AQP3 was expressed in the basolateral membranes of stratified epithelia (esophagus and forestomach) and simple columnar epithelia (glandular stomach, ileum, and proximal and distal colon). Expression was particularly abundant in the esophagus, and proximal and distal colon. AQP8 was found in the subapical compartment of columnar epithelial cells of the jejunum, ileum, proximal colon and liver; the most intense staining occurred in the jejunum. Our results suggest that AQP3 and AQP8 play significant roles in intestinal function and/or fluid homeostasis and may be an important subject for future investigation of disorders that involve disruption of intestinal fluid homeostasis, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:26983346

  6. Multiple mouse biological loading and monitoring system for MRI.

    PubMed

    Dazai, Jun; Bock, Nicholas A; Nieman, Brian J; Davidson, Lorinda M; Henkelman, R Mark; Chen, X Josette

    2004-10-01

    The use of mice to study models of human disease has resulted in a surge of interest in developing mouse MRI. The ability to take 3D, high-resolution images of live mice allows significant insight into anatomy and function. However, with imaging times on the order of hours, high throughput of specimens has been problematic. To facilitate high throughput, concurrent imaging of multiple mice has been developed; however, this poses further complexities regarding the ease and rapidity of loading several animals. In this study, custom-built equipment was developed to streamline the preparation process and to safely maintain seven mice during a multiple-mouse imaging session. Total preparation time for seven mice was approximately 24 min. ECG and temperature were monitored throughout the scan and maintained by regulating anesthetic and heating. Proof of principle was demonstrated in a 3-h imaging session of seven mice. PMID:15389955

  7. Glycine receptor mouse mutants: model systems for human hyperekplexia

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Natascha; Langlhofer, Georg; Kluck, Christoph J; Villmann, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Human hyperekplexia is a neuromotor disorder caused by disturbances in inhibitory glycine-mediated neurotransmission. Mutations in genes encoding for glycine receptor subunits or associated proteins, such as GLRA1, GLRB, GPHN and ARHGEF9, have been detected in patients suffering from hyperekplexia. Classical symptoms are exaggerated startle attacks upon unexpected acoustic or tactile stimuli, massive tremor, loss of postural control during startle and apnoea. Usually patients are treated with clonazepam, this helps to dampen the severe symptoms most probably by up-regulating GABAergic responses. However, the mechanism is not completely understood. Similar neuromotor phenotypes have been observed in mouse models that carry glycine receptor mutations. These mouse models serve as excellent tools for analysing the underlying pathomechanisms. Yet, studies in mutant mice looking for postsynaptic compensation of glycinergic dysfunction via an up-regulation in GABAA receptor numbers have failed, as expression levels were similar to those in wild-type mice. However, presynaptic adaptation mechanisms with an unusual switch from mixed GABA/glycinergic to GABAergic presynaptic terminals have been observed. Whether this presynaptic adaptation explains the improvement in symptoms or other compensation mechanisms exist is still under investigation. With the help of spontaneous glycine receptor mouse mutants, knock-in and knock-out studies, it is possible to associate behavioural changes with pharmacological differences in glycinergic inhibition. This review focuses on the structural and functional characteristics of the various mouse models used to elucidate the underlying signal transduction pathways and adaptation processes and describes a novel route that uses gene-therapeutic modulation of mutated receptors to overcome loss of function mutations. PMID:23941355

  8. Ontogeny of the Digestive System of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) and Effects of Soybean Meal from Start-Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Sahlmann, Christian; Gu, Jinni; Kortner, Trond M.; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long history of rearing Atlantic salmon in hatcheries in Norway, knowledge of molecular and physiological aspects of juvenile development is still limited. To facilitate introduction of alternative feed ingredients and feed additives during early phases, increased knowledge regarding the ontogeny of the digestive apparatus in salmon is needed. In this study, we characterized the development of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs for five months following hatch by using histological, biochemical and molecular methods. Furthermore, the effects of a diet containing 16.7% soybean meal (SBM) introduced at start-feeding were investigated, as compared to a fishmeal based control diet. Salmon yolk sac alevins and fry were sampled at 18 time points from hatch until 144 days post hatch (dph). Histomorphological development was investigated at 7, 27, 46, 54 and 144 dph. Ontogenetic expression patterns of genes encoding key digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, gastrointestinal peptide hormones and T-cell markers were analyzed from 13 time points by qPCR. At 7 dph, the digestive system of Atlantic salmon alevins was morphologically distinct with an early stomach, liver, pancreas, anterior and posterior intestine. About one week before the yolk sac was internalized and exogenous feeding was started, gastric glands and developing pyloric caeca were observed, which coincided with an increase in gene expression of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and nutrient transporters. Thus, the observed organs seemed ready to digest external feed well before the yolk sac was absorbed into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to post-smolt Atlantic salmon, inclusion of SBM did not induce intestinal inflammation in the juveniles. This indicates that SBM can be used in compound feeds for salmon fry from start-feeding to at least 144 dph and/or 4-5 g body weight. PMID:25923375

  9. Ontogeny of the Digestive System of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) and Effects of Soybean Meal from Start-Feeding.

    PubMed

    Sahlmann, Christian; Gu, Jinni; Kortner, Trond M; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long history of rearing Atlantic salmon in hatcheries in Norway, knowledge of molecular and physiological aspects of juvenile development is still limited. To facilitate introduction of alternative feed ingredients and feed additives during early phases, increased knowledge regarding the ontogeny of the digestive apparatus in salmon is needed. In this study, we characterized the development of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs for five months following hatch by using histological, biochemical and molecular methods. Furthermore, the effects of a diet containing 16.7% soybean meal (SBM) introduced at start-feeding were investigated, as compared to a fishmeal based control diet. Salmon yolk sac alevins and fry were sampled at 18 time points from hatch until 144 days post hatch (dph). Histomorphological development was investigated at 7, 27, 46, 54 and 144 dph. Ontogenetic expression patterns of genes encoding key digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, gastrointestinal peptide hormones and T-cell markers were analyzed from 13 time points by qPCR. At 7 dph, the digestive system of Atlantic salmon alevins was morphologically distinct with an early stomach, liver, pancreas, anterior and posterior intestine. About one week before the yolk sac was internalized and exogenous feeding was started, gastric glands and developing pyloric caeca were observed, which coincided with an increase in gene expression of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and nutrient transporters. Thus, the observed organs seemed ready to digest external feed well before the yolk sac was absorbed into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to post-smolt Atlantic salmon, inclusion of SBM did not induce intestinal inflammation in the juveniles. This indicates that SBM can be used in compound feeds for salmon fry from start-feeding to at least 144 dph and/or 4-5 g body weight. PMID:25923375

  10. Insights into bread melanoidins: fate in the upper digestive tract and impact on the gut microbiota using in vitro systems.

    PubMed

    Helou, Cynthia; Denis, Sylvain; Spatz, Madeleine; Marier, David; Rame, Véronique; Alric, Monique; Tessier, Frédéric J; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale

    2015-12-01

    Bread melanoidins are heterogeneous, nitrogen-containing, brown macromolecules generated during the last stages of the Maillard reaction in bread. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact and fate of these bread melanoidins in the human gastrointestinal tract using in vitro systems. Batch systems as well as the TNO gastrointestinal tract were used for studying the digestion of various bread samples. These samples included bread crumb, bread crust and two bread-crust-simulating models: a fiber-free model (gluten, starch and glucose heated together) and its control, free of Maillard reaction products (gluten heated separately than starch and glucose). Furthermore, the impact of these two bread-crust-simulating models on the gut microbiota was assessed using a static anaerobic batch system. Bread melanoidins from bread crust and its model were shown to be partially digested by amylases and proteases, suggesting that these melanoidins have peptidic as well as glycosidic bonds in their skeleton. The impact of bread melanoidins from the bread-crust-simulating models and their digestion products on the gut microbiota revealed an individual-dependent response for most flora except for enterobacteria. This flora decreased by -22%, -48% & -100% depending on the individual. Thus, bread melanoidins seem to exert an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting enterobacteria. PMID:26364594

  11. Bisphosphonates as potential adjuvants for patients with cancers of the digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Celina; Doyle, Erin; Branch, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Best known for their anti-resorptive activity in bone, bisphosphonates (BPs) have generated interest as potential antineoplastic agents given their pleiotropic biological effects which include antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and immune-modulating properties. Clinical studies in multiple malignancies suggest that BPs may be active in the prevention or treatment of cancer. Digestive tract malignancies represent a large and heterogeneous disease group, and the activity of BPs in these cancers has not been extensively studied. Recent data showing that some BPs inhibit human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) signaling highlight a potential therapeutic opportunity in digestive cancers, many of which have alterations in the HER axis. Herein, we review the available evidence providing a rationale for the repurposing of BPs as a therapeutic adjunct in the treatment of digestive malignancies, especially in HER-driven subgroups. PMID:26811636

  12. Molecular Analysis of Atypical Family 18 Chitinase from Fujian Oyster Crassostrea angulata and Its Physiological Role in the Digestive System

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bingye; Zhang, Mingming; Li, Lingling; Pu, Fei; You, Weiwei; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-01-01

    Chitinolytic enzymes have an important physiological significance in immune and digestive systems in plants and animals, but chitinase has not been identified as having a role in the digestive system in molluscan. In our study, a novel chitinase homologue, named Ca-Chit, has been cloned and characterized as the oyster Crassostrea angulate. The 3998bp full-length cDNA of Ca-Chit consisted of 23bp 5-UTR, 3288 ORF and 688bp 3-UTR. The deduced amino acids sequence shares homologue with the chitinase of family 18. The molecular weight of the protein was predicted to be 119.389 kDa, with a pI of 6.74. The Ca-Chit protein was a modular enzyme composed of a glycosyl hydrolase family 18 domain, threonine-rich region profile and a putative membrane anchor domain. Gene expression profiles monitored by quantitative RT-PCR in different adult tissues showed that the mRNA of Ca-Chit expressed markedly higher visceral mass than any other tissues. The results of the whole mount in-situ hybridization displayed that Ca-Chit starts to express the visceral mass of D-veliger larvae and then the digestive gland forms a crystalline structure during larval development. Furthermore, the adult oysters challenged by starvation indicated that the Ca-Chit expression would be regulated by feed. All the observations made suggest that Ca-Chit plays an important role in the digestive system of the oyster, Crassostrea angulate. PMID:26046992

  13. Molecular Analysis of Atypical Family 18 Chitinase from Fujian Oyster Crassostrea angulata and Its Physiological Role in the Digestive System.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingye; Zhang, Mingming; Li, Lingling; Pu, Fei; You, Weiwei; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-01-01

    Chitinolytic enzymes have an important physiological significance in immune and digestive systems in plants and animals, but chitinase has not been identified as having a role in the digestive system in molluscan. In our study, a novel chitinase homologue, named Ca-Chit, has been cloned and characterized as the oyster Crassostrea angulate. The 3998bp full-length cDNA of Ca-Chit consisted of 23bp 5-UTR, 3288 ORF and 688bp 3-UTR. The deduced amino acids sequence shares homologue with the chitinase of family 18. The molecular weight of the protein was predicted to be 119.389 kDa, with a pI of 6.74. The Ca-Chit protein was a modular enzyme composed of a glycosyl hydrolase family 18 domain, threonine-rich region profile and a putative membrane anchor domain. Gene expression profiles monitored by quantitative RT-PCR in different adult tissues showed that the mRNA of Ca-Chit expressed markedly higher visceral mass than any other tissues. The results of the whole mount in-situ hybridization displayed that Ca-Chit starts to express the visceral mass of D-veliger larvae and then the digestive gland forms a crystalline structure during larval development. Furthermore, the adult oysters challenged by starvation indicated that the Ca-Chit expression would be regulated by feed. All the observations made suggest that Ca-Chit plays an important role in the digestive system of the oyster, Crassostrea angulate. PMID:26046992

  14. Adenosine transport systems on dissociated brain cells from mouse, guinea-pig, and rat

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, M.E.; Geiger, J.D. )

    1990-09-01

    The kinetics and sodium dependence of adenosine transport were determined using an inhibitor-stop method on dissociated cell body preparations obtained from mouse, guinea-pig and rat brain. Transport affinity (KT) values for the high affinity adenosine transport systems KT(H) were significantly different between these three species; mean +/- SEM values were 0.34 +/- 0.1 in mouse, 0.9 +/- 0.2 in rat, and 1.5 +/- 0.5 microM in guinea-pig. The KT values for the low affinity transport system KT(L) were not different between the three species. Brain cells from rat displayed a significantly greater maximal capacity to accumulate (3H)adenosine (Vmax) than did mouse or guinea-pig for the high affinity system, or than did mouse for the low affinity system. When sodium chloride was replaced in the transport medium with choline chloride, the KT(H) values for guinea-pig and rat were both increased by approximately 100%; only in rat did the change reach statistical significance. The sodium-dependence of adenosine transport in mouse brain was clearly absent. The differences between KT(H) values in mouse and those in guinea-pig or rat were accentuated in the absence of sodium. The differences in kinetic values, ionic requirements, and pharmacological characteristics between adenosine transporters in CNS tissues of mouse, guinea-pig and rat may help account for some of the variability noted among species in terms of their physiological responses to adenosine.

  15. Navigating wastewater energy recovery strategies: a life cycle comparison of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and conventional treatment systems with anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Cao, Ling; Love, Nancy G; Raskin, Lutgarde; Skerlos, Steven J

    2014-05-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate emerging anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology in comparison with conventional wastewater energy recovery technologies. Wastewater treatment process modeling and systems analyses were combined to evaluate the conditions under which AnMBR may produce more net energy and have lower life cycle environmental emissions than high rate activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (HRAS+AD), conventional activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (CAS+AD), and an aerobic membrane bioreactor with anaerobic digestion (AeMBR+AD). For medium strength domestic wastewater treatment under baseline assumptions at 15 °C, AnMBR recovered 49% more energy as biogas than HRAS+AD, the most energy positive conventional technology considered, but had significantly higher energy demands and environmental emissions. Global warming impacts associated with AnMBR were largely due to emissions of effluent dissolved methane. For high strength domestic wastewater treatment, AnMBR recovered 15% more net energy than HRAS+AD, and the environmental emissions gap between the two systems was reduced. Future developments of AnMBR technology in low energy fouling control, increased flux, and management of effluent methane emissions would make AnMBR competitive with HRAS+AD. Rapid advancements in AnMBR technology must continue to achieve its full economic and environmental potential as an energy recovery strategy for domestic wastewater. PMID:24742289

  16. The anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable waste and horse manure mixtures in a bench-scale, two-phase anaerobic digestion system.

    PubMed

    Smith, David B; Almquist, Catherine B

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the anaerobic digestion of mixtures of food waste (FW) and horse manure was investigated using a bench-scale two-phase reactor system. Both phases were maintained at 35 degrees C for the duration of the 30-day study period. The first phase reactors were prepared with biomass mixtures in deionized water such that each mixture had an initial total solids (TS) concentration of 6 wt%. The second phase reactors were inoculated with cow manure in water two weeks prior to the study period at 3 wt% TS. The biogas from all second phase reactors contained greater than 60 vol% methane in the biogas before they were used in the study, thus indicating the presence of active methanogens. Filtrate (5 mL) from the first phase was used as feed to the second phase reactor. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon, and volatile solids (VS) of the feed from Phase 1 increased with FW content in the biomass mixture, and so the organic loading rates (OLRs) to the Phase 2 reactors also increased. Accordingly, the volume ofbiogas and methane generated from Phase 2 also increased with FW content. The low OLR (<0.2 g VS/L/day), the use of a two-phase system, and the use of filtrate from Phase las feed to Phase 2 allowed for high utilization of the feed; the observed specific methane yields (mL/g COD) were greater than 80% of the theoretical yields for all mixtures. The methane yields were statistically similar to within a 95% confidence interval. PMID:24645468

  17. The organotelluride catalyst (PHTE)₂NQ prevents HOCl-induced systemic sclerosis in mouse.

    PubMed

    Marut, Wioleta K; Kavian, Niloufar; Servettaz, Amélie; Nicco, Carole; Ba, Lalla A; Doering, Mandy; Chéreau, Christiane; Jacob, Claus; Weill, Bernard; Batteux, Frédéric

    2012-04-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by skin and visceral fibrosis, microvascular damage, and autoimmunity. HOCl-induced mouse SSc is a murine model that mimics the main features of the human disease, especially the activation and hyperproliferation rate of skin fibroblasts. We demonstrate here the efficiency of a tellurium-based catalyst 2,3-bis(phenyltellanyl)naphthoquinone ((PHTE)(2)NQ) in the treatment of murine SSc, through its selective cytotoxic effects on activated SSc skin fibroblasts. SSc mice treated with (PHTE)(2)NQ displayed a significant decrease in lung and skin fibrosis and in alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in the skin compared with untreated mouse SSc animals. Serum concentrations of advanced oxidation protein products, nitrate, and anti-DNA topoisomerase I autoantibodies were increased in SSc mice, but were significantly reduced in SSc mice treated with (PHTE)(2)NQ. To assess the mechanism of action of (PHTE)(2)NQ, the cytotoxic effect of (PHTE)(2)NQ was compared in normal fibroblasts and in mouse SSc skin fibroblasts. ROS production is higher in mouse SSc fibroblasts than in normal fibroblasts, and was still increased by (PHTE)(2)NQ to reach a lethal threshold and kill mouse SSc fibroblasts. Therefore, the effectiveness of (PHTE)(2)NQ in the treatment of mouse SSc seems to be linked to the selective pro-oxidative and cytotoxic effects of (PHTE)(2)NQ on hyperproliferative fibroblasts. PMID:22277946

  18. An integrated UASB-sludge digester system for raw domestic wastewater treatment in temperate climates.

    PubMed

    Lew, Beni; Lustig, Irina; Beliavski, Michael; Tarre, Sheldon; Green, Michal

    2011-04-01

    To improve the performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating raw domestic wastewater under temperate climates conditions, the addition of a sludge digester to the process was investigated. With the decrease in temperature, the COD removal decreased from 78% at 28 °C to 42% at 10 °C for the UASB reactor operating alone at a hydraulic retention time of 6 h. The decrease was attributed to low hydrolytic activity at lower temperatures that reduced suspended matter degradation and resulted in solids accumulation in the top of the sludge blanket. Solids removed from the upper part of the UASB sludge were treated in an anaerobic digester. Based on sludge degradation kinetics at 30 °C, a digester of 0.66 l per liter of UASB reactor was design operating at a 3.20 days retention time. Methane produced by the sludge digester is sufficient to maintain the temperature at 30 °C. PMID:21316951

  19. An Audio Digest System for Communicating Career Education Information. Executive Summary. Technical Report [and Final Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Jurgen M.; And Others

    A study was conducted to develop a prototype audio digest to deliver in cassette tape format information concerning career education program design, basic concepts, and faculty training. The project focused on the following goals: increase the amount of career education information in an easily assimilated, high impact format; establish a delivery…

  20. Water as a leaching medium for hydrolysis of sorghum in anaerobic digestion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Egg, R.; Coble, C.G.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect of using water to leach hydrolysis products from sorghum used as an anaerobic digestion feedstock. The pH of the leachate had no effect on the cumulative COD measured in the leachate. Milling the sorghum with a three roll mill prior to leaching appeared to slightly increase the hydrolysis of structural carbohydrates in the sorghum.

  1. GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG WATERBORNE ASBESTOS, DIGESTIVE SYSTEM CANCER AND POPULATION DENSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five statistical procedures were used to partial the correlation between water-borne asbestos and digestive site cancer for the putative effects of population density. These include: analysis based on a data subset with roughly homogeneous population density; standard residual an...

  2. Recent developments on polyphenol–protein interactions: effects on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Ghosh, Amit K; Ghosh, Chandrasekhar

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee are widely consumed beverages across the world and they are rich sources of various polyphenols. Polyphenols are responsible for the bitterness and astringency of beverages and are also well known to impart antioxidant properties which is beneficial against several oxidative stress related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and aging. On the other hand, proteins are also known to display many important roles in several physiological activities. Polyphenols can interact with proteins through hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions, leading to the formation of soluble or insoluble complexes. According to recent studies, this complex formation can affect the bioavailability and beneficiary properties of both the individual components, in either way. For example, polyphenol-protein complex formation can reduce or enhance the antioxidant activity of polyphenols; similarly it can also affect the digestion ability of several digestive enzymes present in our body. Surprisingly, no review article has been published recently which has focused on the progress in this area, despite numerous articles having appeared in this field. This review summarizes the recent trends and patterns (2005 onwards) in polyphenol-protein interaction studies focusing on the characterization of the complex, the effect of this complex formation on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system. PMID:22465955

  3. The transcriptome of mouse central nervous system myelin.

    PubMed

    Thakurela, Sudhir; Garding, Angela; Jung, Ramona B; Müller, Christina; Goebbels, Sandra; White, Robin; Werner, Hauke B; Tiwari, Vijay K

    2016-01-01

    Rapid nerve conduction in the CNS is facilitated by insulation of axons with myelin, a specialized oligodendroglial compartment distant from the cell body. Myelin is turned over and adapted throughout life; however, the molecular and cellular basis of myelin dynamics remains elusive. Here we performed a comprehensive transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq) of myelin biochemically purified from mouse brains at various ages and find a surprisingly large pool of transcripts enriched in myelin. Further computational analysis showed that the myelin transcriptome is closely related to the myelin proteome but clearly distinct from the transcriptomes of oligodendrocytes and brain tissues, suggesting a highly selective incorporation of mRNAs into the myelin compartment. The mRNA-pool in myelin displays maturation-dependent dynamic changes of composition, abundance, and functional associations; however ageing-dependent changes after 6 months were minor. We suggest that this transcript pool enables myelin turnover and the local adaptation of individual pre-existing myelin sheaths. PMID:27173133

  4. [Professor Qiu Mao-Liang's theory of "three benefits" of acupuncture for diseases of digestive system].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhong-Chao; He, Chong

    2012-04-01

    Professor QIU Mao-Iiang is a famous Chinese physician of acupuncture and Chinese medicine in modern time and is one of representative figure of Chengijang acupuncture schools. The theory of "three benefits" of acupuncture for diseases of disgestive system is established according to pathogenesis. He holds that acupuncture is favorable in removing the stagnated liver qi, reinforcing the functions of the spleen and the stomach in treatment of gastroduodenal ulcer. For problems due to spleen deficiency, reinforcing method should be given to the main points, Back-shu points and Yuan-primary points, while reducing method should be given to Front-mu points. Deficiency type of chronic gastritis is much more seen than excessive type. Therefore, the treating principle of acupuncture shoujd be tonifying the spleen and dispeling the cold. Removing the liver qi and regulating qi circulation can be applied in phases. And for special cases, method of tonifying the stomach yin should be used. For gastroptosis, reinforcing qi in the middle jiao should be applied generally. For those with qi stagnation, qi in middle jiao should be regulated. For retention of food and dampness, treatment should focus on removing phlegm and dampness. And the following points can be selected to lift the stomach by long needle, Juque (CV 14), Liangmen (ST 21) and the acupoints around stomach. For treatment of diarrhea, toward the three pathological factors of dampness, heat and cold, treatment of removing dampness, clearing heat and dispelling cold, especially the first one should be applied, and others are selected by differentiation of syndromes. And for gallstone, treating principle should be established according to the theory of qi stagnation, disharmony between the gallbladder and the sto-mach as well as obstruction by substantial pathogens. And regulation of qi, relieving pain, regulating the functions of the gallbladder and the stomach should be applied so as to removing calculus. Professor QIU Mao-Iiang 's theory of "three benefits" of acupuncture for diseases of digestive system is formed on the analysis of the primary and secondary pathologies, the degree of symptoms, progress of the diseases, characteristics of the acupuncture techniques and aims of the treatment. Thus, his theory has great significance in the clinic. PMID:22734400

  5. Morphology and histology of the digestive system of the vector leafhopper Psammotettix striatus (L.) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangmei; Zhang, Chunni; Dai, Wu; Zhang, Yalin

    2012-06-01

    The vector leafhopper Psammotettix striatus (L.) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is an important economic pest that is a serious threat to wheat in Northwest China, causing great losses to agricultural production by transmitting wheat blue dwarf (WBD) in a persistent circulative manner. Studies on morphology and ultrastructure of the digestive system were made using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The gross morphology of the alimentary canal consists of esophagus (foregut), midgut, hindgut, and special filter chamber. The esophagus, a narrow and slender tube, runs through the whole thorax extending into the filter chamber and connecting with the anterior midgut. The midgut consists of three major regions, anterior, middle and posterior midgut. The anterior midgut is composed of exceptionally thick epithelial cells surrounding a large lumen. Numerous well-developed microvilli occur at the basal region of the epithelium. A large number of electron-lucent and lipid-like vesicles are observed under the microvilli. The posterior midgut is smaller than the anterior midgut in diameter. Numerous different concentric circular bodies are characteristic of the posterior midgut. The hindgut arises from the posterior midgut at the boundary of the filter chamber. It extends downward toward the anus where the hindgut enlarges to form the rectum. The rectum is formed by various cells typical of epithelium, whose nuclei are relatively smaller than those of the midgut. Relatively large muscle cells are present at the well-defined and thick basement membrane. There are two pairs of Malpighian tubules. Numerous mitochondria and lamellar rough endoplasmic reticulum in the cells of the anterior segment of the Malpighian tubules; the sub-anterior segment of the tubules resemble the distal segment which are wave-like, amount vesicles in the cells; numerous tightly packed large vesicles contain two types of brochosomes in the inflated segment of the Malpighian tubules. The salivary system of P. striatus contains one pair of salivary glands, which are made up of the principal and accessory gland. The principal glands are divided into anterior, mid- and posterior lobes. About nineteen acini are observed in the principal glands of P. striatus, and vary in structure and colour. Five cellular types are found in the principal glands by transmission electron microscopy, which are rich in secretory granules, modified in size, electron-dense and shape. Rough endoplasmic reticulum in the shape of vesicular and lamellar, mitochondria and Golgi complexes are observed. The accessory gland has only an oval or a rod-shaped acinus. PMID:22341338

  6. Illuminating Cancer Systems With Genetically-Engineered Mouse Models and Coupled Luciferase Reporters In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Brandon; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is a powerful non-invasive tool that has dramatically accelerated the in vivo interrogation of cancer systems and longitudinal analysis of mouse models of cancer over the past decade. Various luciferase enzymes have been genetically engineered into mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer which permit investigation of cellular and molecular events associated with oncogenic transcription, post-transcriptional processing, protein-protein interactions, transformation and oncogene addiction in live cells and animals. Luciferase-coupled GEMMs ultimately serve as a non-invasive, repetitive, longitudinal, and physiological means by which cancer systems and therapeutic responses can be investigated accurately within the autochthonous context of a living animal. PMID:23585416

  7. Digestion and dewatering characteristics of waste activated sludge treated by an anaerobic biofilm system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianfeng; Shao, Liming; Li, Tianshui; L, Fan; He, Pinjing

    2014-02-01

    Immobilization of microorganisms for sludge anaerobic digestion was investigated in this study. The effects of filler properties on anaerobic digestion and dewaterability of waste activated sludge were assessed at mesophilic temperature in batch mode. The results showed that the duration of the methanogenic stage of reactors without filler, with only filler, and with pre-incubated filler was 39days, 19days and 13days, respectively, during which time the protein was degraded by 45.0%, 29.4% and 30.0%, and the corresponding methane yield was 193.9, 107.2 and 108.2mL/g volatile suspended solids added, respectively. On day 39, the final protein degradation efficiency of the three reactors was 45.0%, 40.9% and 42.0%, respectively. The results of normalized capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration suggested that the reactor incorporating pre-incubated filler could improve the dewaterability of digested sludge, while the effect of the reactor incorporating only filler on sludge dewaterability was uncertain. PMID:24355503

  8. Microbiome response to controlled shifts in ammonium and LCFA levels in co-digestion systems.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Leticia; Carballa, Marta; Lema, Juan M

    2016-02-20

    Anaerobic co-digestion using protein-rich and lipid-rich co-substrates is limited by the accumulation of ammonia and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are important inhibitors of the anaerobic microorganisms. This work aimed to study the microbial community dynamics during gradual and abrupt increase in ammonium and LCFAs concentrations by applying several molecular techniques, as well as during gradual decrease. For this purpose, two anaerobic reactors co-digesting three agro-industrial wastes underwent abrupt and gradual changes of ammonium and LCFAs concentrations. Both variations provoked volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation, mainly acetic acid up to 4.5gL(-1). High ammonium levels were correlated to an increase in Pseudomonadaceae, Carnobacteriaceae and Clostridiadaceae families and to a drop in Syntrophomonadaceae. However, high LCFA levels provoked an increase in the Anaerobaculaceae and Peptococcaceae families. Both perturbations resulted in greater variations in the archaeal domain, going from Methanosaeta dominance in steady state to hydrogenotrophic pathway during the disturbance periods. During the abrupt changes, Bacteria domain experienced a minimal change, which indicates the adaptation bacterial populations to high ammonium and LCFAs levels. Species belonging to Porphyromonadaceae and Tissierellaceae families linked to VFAs consumption rose their presence during the recovery period. This study identifies a subset of microbial communities linked to high ammonia and LCFA concentrations, useful for optimizing the high-rate co-digestion processes dealing with lipid and protein-rich co-substrates. PMID:26778540

  9. Development of the mouse vestibular system in the absence of gravity perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael; Yuan Wang, Xiang; Wolgemuth, Debra J.; Murashov, Alexander K.

    2003-01-01

    The tilted mutant mouse, which lacks otoconia in the inner ear, was used to study development of the mouse vestibular system in the absence of gravity perception. Otoconia are dense particles composed of proteins and calcium carbonate crystals suspended in the gelatinous macular membrane. They enhance, and are largely responsible for, sensitivity to gravity. Morphometric analysis of the vestibular ganglion showed that the mutant developed more slowly than the normal controls, both in rate of development and cell number, particularly during the first week of post-natal development. The mutant ganglia also exhibited a reduction of cells during the first 6 days of post-natal development.

  10. MARS: a mouse atlas registration system based on planar x-ray projector and optical camera

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B; Taschereau, Richard; Gu, Zheng; Vu, Nam T; Prout, David L; Chatziioannou, Arion F

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a mouse atlas registration system (MARS), composed of a stationary top-view x-ray projector and a side-view optical camera, coupled to a mouse atlas registration algorithm. This system is using the x-ray and optical images to guide a fully automatic co-registration of a mouse atlas with each subject, in order to provide anatomical reference for small animal molecular imaging systems such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). To facilitate the registration, a statistical atlas that accounts for inter-subject anatomical variations was constructed based on 83 organ-labeled mouse micro-CT images. The statistical shape model and conditional Gaussian model techniques were used to register the atlas with the x-ray image and optical photo. The accuracy of the atlas registration was evaluated by comparing the registered atlas with the organ-labeled micro-CT images of the test subjects. The results showed excellent registration accuracy of the whole-body region, and good accuracy for the brain, liver, heart, lungs and kidneys. In its implementation, the MARS system was integrated with a preclinical PET scanner to deliver combined PET/MARS imaging, and to facilitate atlas-assisted analysis of the preclinical PET images. PMID:22968224

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTACT HEPATOCYTE ACTIVATION SYSTEM FOR ROUTINE USE WITH THE MOUSE LYMPHOMA ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a method for cocultivating primary rat hepatocytes with L5178Y/TK+/- 3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cells. The system should provide a means to simulate more closely in vivo metabolism compared to metabolism by liver homogenates, while still being useful for rou...

  12. Effect of microalgae inoculation on the start-up of microalgae-bacteria systems treating municipal, piggery and digestate wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Arango, Liz; Cuervo, Flor M; González-Sánchez, Armando; Buitrón, Germán

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the inoculation of a microalgae-bacteria system on the removal of nutrients and organic matter using municipal, piggery and digestate wastewaters was evaluated. Three conditions for each substrate were evaluated: (1) inoculation with activated sludge and illumination, (2) inoculation with activated sludge without illumination, and (3) inoculation with activated sludge plus a native microalgae consortium under illumination. The illuminated reactors that were inoculated only with activated sludge developed microalgae after 12 operation days. In these reactors, the formation of flocs was observed affecting the sedimentation of the biomass positively. The removal of chemical oxygen demand, ammonium and phosphorous reached 84%, 65% and 77%, respectively. PMID:26877054

  13. Application of super-twisting observers to the estimation of state and unknown inputs in an anaerobic digestion system.

    PubMed

    Sbarciog, M; Moreno, J A; Vande Wouwer, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the estimation of the unknown states and inputs of an anaerobic digestion system characterized by a two-step reaction model. The estimation is based on the measurement of the two substrate concentrations and of the outflow rate of biogas and relies on the use of an observer, consisting of three parts. The first is a generalized super-twisting observer, which estimates a linear combination of the two input concentrations. The second is an asymptotic observer, which provides one of the two biomass concentrations, whereas the third is a super-twisting observer for one of the input concentrations and the second biomass concentration. PMID:24473314

  14. The interplay of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase activities on the digestion of starch in in vitro enzymic systems.

    PubMed

    Warren, Frederick J; Zhang, Bin; Waltzer, Gina; Gidley, Michael J; Dhital, Sushil

    2015-03-01

    In vitro hydrolysis assays are a key tool in understanding differences in rate and extent of digestion of starchy foods. They offer a greater degree of simplicity and flexibility than dynamic in vitro models or in vivo experiments for quantifiable, mechanistic exploration of starch digestion. In the present work the influence of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase activities on the digestion of maize and potato starch granules was measured using both glucose and reducing sugar assays. Data were analysed through initial rates of digestion, and by 1st order kinetics, utilising logarithm of slope (LOS) plots. The rate and extent of starch digestion was dependent on the activities of both enzymes and the type of starch used. Potato required more enzyme than maize to achieve logarithmic reaction curves, and complete digestion. The results allow targeted design of starch digestion experiments through a thorough understanding of the contributions of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase to digestion rates. PMID:25498625

  15. Biodistribution and stability of CdSe core quantum dots in mouse digestive tract following per os administration: Advantages of double polymer/silica coated nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Loginova, Y.F.; Dezhurov, S.V.; Zherdeva, V.V.; Kazachkina, N.I.; Wakstein, M.S.; Savitsky, A.P.

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New QDs coated with combination of polythiol ligands and silica shell were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the QDs stability in digestive tract of mice after per os administration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymer/silica shell prevents QDs degradation and fluorescence quenching in vivo. -- Abstract: CdSe-core, ZnS-capped semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are of great potential for biomedical applications. However, applications in the gastrointestinal tract for in vivo imaging and therapeutic purposes are hampered by their sensitivity to acidic environments and potential toxicity. Here we report the use of coatings with a combination of polythiol ligands and silica shell (QDs PolyT-APS) to stabilize QDs fluorescence under acidic conditions. We demonstrated the stability of water-soluble QDs PolyT-APS both in vitro, in strong acidic solutions, and in vivo. The biodistribution, stability and photoluminescence properties of QDs in the gastrointestinal tract of mice after per os administration were assessed. We demonstrated that QDs coated with current traditional materials - mercapto compounds (QDs MPA) and pendant thiol group (QDs PolyT) - are not capable of protecting QDs from chemically induced degradation and surface modification. Polythiol ligands and silica shell quantum dots (QDs PolyT-APS) are suitable for biological and biomedical applications in the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater: A comparison of single and two-phase reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Borja, R.; Banks, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    The anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater, a complex substrate which includes milk proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, has received little attention. Work using an aerobic contact system showed that at a 7.5-d hydraulic retention time (HRT), with an organic loading rate of 1.7 g COD/Ld and influent TSS (total suspended solids) of 5870 mg/L, the effluent COD was 628 mg/L, BOD was 91 mg/L and TSS was 674. Anaerobic filters have also been used at organic loadings of 6 kg COD/m{sup 3}d applied at a HRT of 0.42 day, with COD removals of 80%. Goodwing showed that this waste was capable of being treated by the UASB process with granulation commencing after 60-70 days, and gas production ranging between 0.73 and 0.93 L CH{sub 4}/g COD removed with loading rates between 0.7 and 3.0 g TOC/Ld. Two-phase anaerobic digestion is an innovative fermentation mode that has recently received increased attention. The kinetically dissimilar fermentation phases, hydrolysis-acidification and acetogenesis-methanation are operated in two separate reactors; the first of which is maintained at a very short HRT. The effluent from the first, acid-forming, phase is used as the substrate for the methane-phase reactor which has a longer HRT or cell immobilization. The aim of this work was to compare the methane production capability and performance of a single-phase upflow fixed bed reactor with a two-phase digestion system. The two-phase digestion system consists of a completely mixed reactor for the acidogenic reaction and an upflow fixed bed reactor for the methanogenic reaction. Because of the high lipid content and COD of ice cream wastewater off site disposal has proved to be both expensive and poses problems to the receiving effluent treatment plant. For this reason the potential for a rapid anaerobic stabilization of the waste, with energy recovery in the form of methane gas, has been investigated in an attempt to minimize plant size and maximize gas production. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Two-phase (acidogenic-methanogenic) anaerobic thermophilic/mesophilic digestion system for producing Class A biosolids from municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Loza, L A; Noyola, A

    2010-01-01

    Two different arrangements of two-phase anaerobic sludge systems were operated treating a mixture of primary and secondary sludge. Two steady state periods were evaluated: the first acidogenic thermophilic phase was operated at hydraulic retention times of 3 and 2 days and the second methanogenic (mesophilic and thermophilic) phases at 13 and 10 days. The two-phase systems had an efficient removal of pathogens and parasites, achieving values lower than those specified for Class A biosolids, according to the Mexican Standard NOM-004-SEMARNAT-2002. The first thermophilic phase achieved almost complete destruction of pathogens and parasites by itself. During the second steady state period, volatile fatty acids accumulated in the second methanogenic phases (HRT of 10 days and an organic load of 3 kg VS/m(3)d) indicating that the systems were overloaded, mainly the mesophilic digester. In this case, the accumulation of propionic acid may be related to a deficiency of micronutrients. The results show that the two-phase thermophilic/mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion may be considered as an adequate option for the production of Class A biosolids. PMID:19766486

  18. Atmosphere stabilization and element recycle in an experimental mouse-algal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smernoff, David T.

    1986-01-01

    Life support systems based on bioregeneration rely on the control and manipulation of organisms. Experiments conducted with a gas-closed mouse-algal system designed to investigate principles of photosynthetic gas exchange focus primarily on observing gas exchange phenomena under varying algal environmental conditions and secondarily on studying element cycling through compartments of the experimental system. Inherent instabilities exit between the uptake and release of carbon dioxide CO2 and oxygen O2 by the mouse and algae. Variations in light intensity and cell density alter the photosynthetic rate of the algae and enable maintenance of physiologic concentrations of CO2 and O2. Different nitrogen sources (urea and nitrate) result in different algal assimilatory quotients (AQ). Combinations of photosynthetic rate and AQ ratio manipulations have been examined for their potential in stabilizing atmospheric gas concentrations in the gas-closed algal-mouse system. Elemental mass balances through the experimental systems compartments are being studied with the concurrent development of a mathematical simulation model. Element cycling experiments include quantification of elemental flows through system compartments and wet oxidation of system waste materials for use as an algal nutrient source. Oxidized waste products demonstrate inhibitory properties although dilution has been shown to allow normal growth.

  19. Human ZG16p recognizes pathogenic fungi through non-self polyvalent mannose in the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Hiroaki; Yabe, Rikio; Sato, Takashi; Shibazaki, Azusa; Shikanai, Toshihide; Gonoi, Tohru; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2012-02-01

    Human zymogen granule protein 16 (ZG16p) contains a Jacalin-like lectin domain, although its glycan-binding properties are not fully understood. Here, we screened the glycan-binding specificity of ZG16p by recently developed glycoconjugate microarray. ZG16p appeared to exhibit selective binding to α- and β-linked mannose-polyacrylamide-biotin probes. In more quantitative analysis using frontal affinity chromatography, dissociation constants to two types of polyvalent mannose, i.e. high-density mannose and yeast mannan, were determined to be 1.3 and 1.7 µM, respectively. Mutation of the evolutionarily conserved amino acid Asp151, which is involved in sugar binding among the Jacalin-related lectins (JRLs), abolished binding activity to mannose. By immunohistochemical staining, ZG16p was specifically detected in mucus-secreting cells of the digestive system such as serosanguineous acinar cells of the parotid gland, acinar cells of the pancreas and goblet cells of the intestine. Finally, we showed that ZG16p recognizes pathogenic Candida and Malassezia species in a polyvalent mannose-dependent manner. We propose that ZG16p is a novel member of mannose-specific JRLs, which recognizes pathogenic fungi through non-self polyvalent mannose in the digestive system. PMID:21893569

  20. Enhancement of Anaerobic Digestion to Treat Saline Sludge from Recirculating Aquaculture Systems.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guo-zhi; Ma, Niannian; Li, Ping; Tan, Hong-xin; Liu, Wenchang

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of carbohydrate addition and the use of ultrasonication as a pretreatment for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of saline aquacultural sludge was assessed. Analyses were conducted using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), which included stopped gas production attributed to the saline inhibition. After increasing the C : N ratio, gas production was observed, and the total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency increased from 75% to 80%. The TCOD removal efficiency of the sonication period was approximately 85%, compared to 75% for the untreated waste. Ultrasonication of aquaculture sludge was also found to enhance the gas production rate and the TCOD removal efficiency. The average volatile fatty acid (VFA) to alkalinity ratios ranged from 0.1 to 0.05, confirming the stability of the digesters. Furthermore, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), VFA, and PO4 (3-) concentrations increased in the effluents. There was a 114% greater gas generation during the ultrasonication period, with an average production of 0.08 g COD/L · day(-1). PMID:26301258

  1. Enhancement of Anaerobic Digestion to Treat Saline Sludge from Recirculating Aquaculture Systems

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Guo-zhi; Ma, Niannian; Li, Ping; Tan, Hong-xin; Liu, Wenchang

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of carbohydrate addition and the use of ultrasonication as a pretreatment for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of saline aquacultural sludge was assessed. Analyses were conducted using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), which included stopped gas production attributed to the saline inhibition. After increasing the C : N ratio, gas production was observed, and the total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency increased from 75% to 80%. The TCOD removal efficiency of the sonication period was approximately 85%, compared to 75% for the untreated waste. Ultrasonication of aquaculture sludge was also found to enhance the gas production rate and the TCOD removal efficiency. The average volatile fatty acid (VFA) to alkalinity ratios ranged from 0.1 to 0.05, confirming the stability of the digesters. Furthermore, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), VFA, and PO43− concentrations increased in the effluents. There was a 114% greater gas generation during the ultrasonication period, with an average production of 0.08 g COD/L·day−1. PMID:26301258

  2. Spatially and temporally regulated expression of specific heparan sulfate epitopes in the developing mouse olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Takatoh, Jun; Hanaoka, Kazunori

    2010-02-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) comprises a structurally diverse group of glycosaminoglycans present ubiquitously on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix. The spatially and temporally regulated expression of specific HS structures is essential for various developmental processes in the nervous system but their distributions in the mouse olfactory system have not been explored. Here, we examined the spatiotemporal distribution of particular HS species in the developing mouse olfactory system using three structure-specific monoclonal antibodies (HepSS-1, JM403 and NAH46). The major findings were as follows. (i) During olfactory bulb morphogenesis, the HepSS-1 epitope was strongly expressed in anterior telencephalic cells and coexpressed with fibroblast growth factor receptor 1. (ii) In early postnatal glomeruli, the JM403 epitope was expressed at different levels among individual glomeruli. The expression pattern and levels of the JM403 epitope were both associated with those of ephrin-A3. (iii) In the vomeronasal system, the JM403 epitope was expressed in all vomeronasal axons but became increasingly restricted to vomeronasal axons terminating in the anterior region of the accessory olfactory bulb by 3 weeks of age. Our results demonstrate that each HS epitope exhibits a unique expression pattern during the development of the mouse olfactory system. Thus, each HS epitope is closely associated with particular developmental processes of the olfactory system and might have a particular role in developmental events. PMID:20039927

  3. The estrogen receptor fusion system in mouse models: a reversible switch.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Jonathan; Littlewood, Trevor; Evan, Gerard I; Soucek, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Reversible regulatory mouse models have significantly contributed to our understanding of normal tissue and cancer biology, providing the opportunity to temporally control initiation, progression, and evolution of physiological and pathological events. The tamoxifen inducible system, one of the best-characterized "reversible switch" models, has a number of beneficial features. In this system, the hormone-binding domain of the mammalian estrogen receptor is used as a heterologous regulatory domain. Upon ligand binding, the receptor is released from its inhibitory complex and the fusion protein becomes functional. We summarize the advantages and drawbacks of the system, describe several mouse models that rely on it, and discuss potential improvements that could render it even more useful and versatile. PMID:25734072

  4. A model for gas and nutrient exchange in the chorionic vasculature system of the mouse placenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirbod, Parisa; Sled, John

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an analytical model for the oxygen and nutrient transport from the umbilical cord to the small villous capillaries. The nutrient and carbon dioxide removal from the fetal cotyledons in the mouse placental system has also been considered. This model describes the mass transfer between the fetal and the maternal red blood cells in the chorionic arterial vasculature system. The model reveals the detail fetal vasculature system and its geometry and the precise mechanisms of mass transfer through the placenta. The dimensions of the villous capillaries, the total length of the villous trees, the total villi surface area, and the total resistance to mass transport in the fetal villous trees has also been defined. This is the first effort to explain the reason why there are at least 7 lobules in the mouse placenta from the fluid dynamics point of view.

  5. Innovative ammonia stripping with an electrolyzed water system as pretreatment of thermally hydrolyzed wasted sludge for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the anaerobic digestion of thermally hydrolyzed wasted sludge (THWS) with a high concentration of ammonia was carried out through combining with an ammonia stripping and an electrolyzed water system (EWS). The EWS produced acidic water (pH 2-3) at the anode and alkaline water (pH 11-12) at the cathode with an electro-diaphragm between the electrodes that could be applied to ammonia stripping. The ammonia stripping efficiency was strongly dependent on the pH and aeration rate, and the ammonium ion removal rate followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. From the BMP test, the methane yield of THWS after ammonia stripping using the EWS was 2.8 times higher than that of the control process (raw THWS without ammonia stripping). Furthermore, both methane yield and ammonium removal efficiency were higher in this study than in previous studies. Since ammonia stripping with the EWS does not require any chemicals for pH control, no precipitated sludge is produced and anaerobic microorganisms are not inhibited by cations. Therefore, ammonia stripping using the EWS could be an effective method for digestion of wastewater with a high concentration of ammonium nitrogen. PMID:25462764

  6. Enhancement of biogas production by co-digestion of potato pulp with cow manure in a CSTR system.

    PubMed

    Sanaei-Moghadam, Akbar; Abbaspour-Fard, Mohammad Hossein; Aghel, Hasan; Aghkhani, Mohammad Hossein; Abedini-Torghabeh, Javad

    2014-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) process is a well-established method to generate energy from the organic wastes both from the environmental and economical perspectives. The purpose of present study is to evaluate energy production from potato wastes by incorporating cow manure into the process. Firstly, a laboratory pilot of one-stage biogas production was designed and built according to continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system. The setup was able to automatically control the environmental conditions of the process including temperature, duration, and rate of stirring. AD experiment was exclusively performed on co-digestion of potato peel (PP) and cow manure (CM) in three levels of mixing ratio including 20:80, 50:50, 80:20 (PP:CM), and 0:100 as control treatment based on the volatile solid (VS) weight without adding initial inoculums. After hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 days on average 193, 256, 348, and 149 norm liter (LN) (kg VS)(-1), methane was produced for different mixing ratios, respectively. Statistical analysis shows that these gas productions are significantly different. The average energy was determined based on the produced methane which was about 2.8 kWh (kg VS)(-1), implying a significant energy production potential. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of treatments was about 61%, showing that it can be leached significantly with high organic matter by the employed pilot. The energy efficiency of 92% of the process also showed the optimum control of the process by the pilot. PMID:24894660

  7. Editing of mouse and human immunoglobulin genes by CRISPR-Cas9 system

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Taek-Chin; Compagno, Mara; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to edit the genome have widely expanded to include DNA gene knock-out, deletions, chromosomal rearrangements, RNA editing and genome-wide screenings. Here we show the application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to edit the mouse and human immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. By delivering Cas9 and guide-RNA (gRNA) with retro- or lenti-virus to IgM+ mouse B cells and hybridomas, we induce class-switch recombination (CSR) of the IgH chain to the desired subclass. Similarly, we induce CSR in all human B cell lines tested with high efficiency to targeted IgH subclass. Finally, we engineer mouse hybridomas to secrete Fab′ fragments instead of the whole Ig. Our results indicate that Ig genes in mouse and human cells can be edited to obtain any desired IgH switching helpful to study the biology of normal and lymphoma B cells. We also propose applications that could transform the technology of antibody production. PMID:26956543

  8. Editing of mouse and human immunoglobulin genes by CRISPR-Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Taek-Chin; Compagno, Mara; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to edit the genome have widely expanded to include DNA gene knock-out, deletions, chromosomal rearrangements, RNA editing and genome-wide screenings. Here we show the application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to edit the mouse and human immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. By delivering Cas9 and guide-RNA (gRNA) with retro- or lenti-virus to IgM(+) mouse B cells and hybridomas, we induce class-switch recombination (CSR) of the IgH chain to the desired subclass. Similarly, we induce CSR in all human B cell lines tested with high efficiency to targeted IgH subclass. Finally, we engineer mouse hybridomas to secrete Fab' fragments instead of the whole Ig. Our results indicate that Ig genes in mouse and human cells can be edited to obtain any desired IgH switching helpful to study the biology of normal and lymphoma B cells. We also propose applications that could transform the technology of antibody production. PMID:26956543

  9. 1274 Full-Open Reading Frames of Transcripts Expressed in the Developing Mouse Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Bonaldo, Maria F.; Bair, Thomas B.; Scheetz, Todd E.; Snir, Einat; Akabogu, Ike; Bair, Jennifer L.; Berger, Brian; Crouch, Keith; Davis, Aja; Eyestone, Mari E.; Keppel, Catherine; Kucaba, Tamara A.; Lebeck, Mark; Lin, Jenny L.; de Melo, Anna I.R.; Rehmann, Joshua; Reiter, Rebecca S.; Schaefer, Kelly; Smith, Christina; Tack, Dylan; Trout, Kurtis; Sheffield, Val C.; Lin, Jim J-C.; Casavant, Thomas L.; Soares, Marcelo B.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the trans-National Institutes of Health (NIH) Mouse Brain Molecular Anatomy Project (BMAP), and in close coordination with the NIH Mammalian Gene Collection Program (MGC), we initiated a large-scale project to clone, identify, and sequence the complete open reading frame (ORF) of transcripts expressed in the developing mouse nervous system. Here we report the analysis of the ORF sequence of 1274 cDNAs, obtained from 47 full-length-enriched cDNA libraries, constructed by using a novel approach, herein described. cDNA libraries were derived from size-fractionated cytoplasmic mRNA isolated from brain and eye tissues obtained at several embryonic stages and postnatal days. Altogether, including the full-ORF MGC sequences derived from these libraries by the MGC sequencing team, NIH_BMAP full-ORF sequences correspond to ∼20% of all transcripts currently represented in mouse MGC. We show that NIH_BMAP clones comprise 68% of mouse MGC cDNAs ≥5 kb, and 54% of those ≥4 kb, as of March 15, 2004. Importantly, we identified transcripts, among the 1274 full-ORF sequences, that are exclusively or predominantly expressed in brain and eye tissues, many of which encode yet uncharacterized proteins. PMID:15489326

  10. A Novel, Real-Time, In Vivo Mouse Retinal Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Mark C.; Sullivan, Jack M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop an efficient, low-cost instrument for robust real-time imaging of the mouse retina in vivo, and assess system capabilities by evaluating various animal models. Methods Following multiple disappointing attempts to visualize the mouse retina during a subretinal injection using commercially available systems, we identified the key limitation to be inadequate illumination due to off axis illumination and poor optical train optimization. Therefore, we designed a paraxial illumination system for Greenough-type stereo dissecting microscope incorporating an optimized optical launch and an efficiently coupled fiber optic delivery system. Excitation and emission filters control spectral bandwidth. A color coupled-charged device (CCD) camera is coupled to the microscope for image capture. Although, field of view (FOV) is constrained by the small pupil aperture, the high optical power of the mouse eye, and the long working distance (needed for surgical manipulations), these limitations can be compensated by eye positioning in order to observe the entire retina. Results The retinal imaging system delivers an adjustable narrow beam to the dilated pupil with minimal vignetting. The optic nerve, vasculature, and posterior pole are crisply visualized and the entire retina can be observed through eye positioning. Normal and degenerative retinal phenotypes can be followed over time. Subretinal or intraocular injection procedures are followed in real time. Real-time, intravenous fluorescein angiography for the live mouse has been achieved. Conclusions A novel device is established for real-time viewing and image capture of the small animal retina during subretinal injections for preclinical gene therapy studies. PMID:26551329

  11. Distributed image reconstruction for an in-vivo mouse imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Chul; Han, Jae Yong; Chun, In Kon; Lee, Soo Yeol; Cho, Min Hyoung

    2003-06-01

    Mice have been widely used in various areas of biomedical research such as drug development and genetic engineering. To investigate drug effect or treatment efficacy in the mouse studies, in-vivo mouse imaging modalities have been recently developed. Among various kinds of imaging modalities, micro-CT is expected to be useful in many biological applications since it provides 3-dimensional high-resolution tomographic images. In this study, we have developed a high-resolution micro-CT system using a microfocus x-ray source and a flat panel detector. The flat panel detector contains a CsI scintillator plate, a 2-dimensional photodiode array, and a 12-bit ADC. The photodiode array consists of 2400 x 2400 pixels of 50μm size. In order to improve computing speed in the micro-CT, we have also developed a distributed parallel processing system using multiple computers. The computation-intensive cone-beam reconstruction process has been divided into multiple tasks in a way that each CPU takes care of similar amount of computations. We have linked four desktop computers with dual AMD Athlon processors by Ethernet and optimized the task allocations among them. The developed parallel processing system has shown to have about eight times faster reconstruction speed. It is expected that the distributed image reconstruction technique can be a low cost solution for the in-vivo mouse imaging system.

  12. Diversity of microbial communities correlated to physiochemical parameters in a digestion basin of a zero-discharge mariculture system.

    PubMed

    Cytryn, Eddie; Gelfand, Ilya; Barak, Yoram; van Rijn, Jaap; Minz, Dror

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial community structure and physiochemical parameters were examined in a sedimentation basin of a zero-discharge mariculture system. The system consisted of an intensively stocked fish basin from which water was recirculated through two separate treatment loops. Surface water from the basin was pumped over a trickling filter in one loop while bottom-water was recirculated through a sedimentation basin followed by a fluidized bed reactor in the other. Ammonia oxidation to nitrate in the trickling filter and organic matter digestion together with nitrate reduction in the sedimentation basin and fluidized bed reactor, allowed zero-discharge operation of the system. Relatively high concentrations of oxygen, nitrate, sulphate and organic matter detected simultaneously in the digestion basin suggested the potential for a wide range of microbially-mediated transformation processes. In this study, physiochemical parameters were correlated to bacterial diversity and distribution in horizontal and vertical profiles within this basin in an effort to obtain a basic understanding of the chemical and microbial processes in this system. Chemical activity and microbial diversity, the latter measured by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified 16S rDNA fragments, were higher in the sludge layer than in the overlying aqueous layer of the basin. Chemical parameters in sludge samples close to the basin inlet suggested enhanced microbial activity relative to other sampling areas with evidence of both nitrate and sulphate reduction. Four of the nine DGGE bands identified in this zone were affiliated with the Bacteroidetes phylum. Detected sequences closely related to sequences of organisms involved in the sulphur cycle included Desulfovibrio, Dethiosulfovibrio and apparent sulphur oxidizers from the gamma-proteobacteria. In addition, a number of sequences from the beta and alpha-proteobacteria were identified. PMID:12542713

  13. Electronic Networks. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnette, Cheryl Petty

    Electronic network systems, their components--terminal, microcomputer, or communications word processor; telephone, and modem (modulator-demodulator)--and their applications are explained for educators in this digest. Emphasis is on the characteristics and capabilities of: (1) electronic mail, which allows the transmission and reception of…

  14. Establishment of NOD/SCID mouse model of central nervous system leukemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongfang; Li, Pinggan; He, Zhanwen; Meng, Zhe; Luo, Xiangyang; Fang, Jianpei

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we successfully established a NOD/SCID mouse model of central nervous system leukemia by injection of acute monocytic leukemia cell line SHI-1 cells into the lateral ventricle. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect human leukocyte common antigen in brain slices. Nested PCR assay was used to detect MLL/AF6 fusion gene expression. After injection, the condition of the mice gradually progressed to cachexia and death (median survival time, 25 days). Leukemic cells were identified in the lung, bone marrow, and lymph node of one mouse. Brain tissue sections showed invasion into the subdural space, pia mater, arachnoid, along the Virchow-Robin space and into the deep brain parenchyma. In summary, a central nervous system leukemia (CNSL) model was established in NOD/SCID mice. PMID:24927394

  15. Vanadium Inhalation in a Mouse Model for the Understanding of Air-Suspended Particle Systemic Repercussion

    PubMed Central

    Fortoul, T. I.; Rodriguez-Lara, V.; Gonzalez-Villalva, A.; Rojas-Lemus, M.; Cano-Gutierrez, G.; Ustarroz-Cano, M.; Colin-Barenque, L.; Montaño, L. F.; García-Pelez, I.; Bizarro-Nevares, P.; Lopez-Valdez, N.; Falcon-Rodriguez, C. I.; Jimenez-Martínez, R. S.; Ruiz-Guerrero, M. L.; López-Zepeda, L. S.; Morales-Rivero, A.; Muñiz-Rivera-Cambas, A.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased concern about the health effects that air-suspended particles have on human health which have been dissected in animal models. Using CD-1 mouse, we explore the effects that vanadium inhalation produce in different tissues and organs. Our findings support the systemic effects of air pollution. In this paper, we describe our findings in different organs in our conditions and contrast our results with the literature. PMID:21716674

  16. Vanadium inhalation in a mouse model for the understanding of air-suspended particle systemic repercussion.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Fortoul TI; Rodriguez-Lara V; Gonzalez-Villalva A; Rojas-Lemus M; Cano-Gutierrez G; Ustarroz-Cano M; Colin-Barenque L; Montaño LF; García-Pelez I; Bizarro-Nevares P; Lopez-Valdez N; Falcon-Rodriguez CI; Jimenez-Martínez RS; Ruiz-Guerrero ML; López-Zepeda LS; Morales-Rivero A; Muñiz-Rivera-Cambas A

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased concern about the health effects that air-suspended particles have on human health which have been dissected in animal models. Using CD-1 mouse, we explore the effects that vanadium inhalation produce in different tissues and organs. Our findings support the systemic effects of air pollution. In this paper, we describe our findings in different organs in our conditions and contrast our results with the literature.

  17. Pumilio-2 function in the mouse nervous system.

    PubMed

    Siemen, Henrike; Colas, Damien; Heller, H Craig; Brüstle, Oliver; Pera, Renee A Reijo

    2011-01-01

    Coordinated mRNA translation at the synapse is increasingly recognized as a critical mechanism for neuronal regulation. Pumilio, a translational regulator, is known to be involved in neuronal homeostasis and memory formation in Drosophila. Most recently, the mammalian Pumilio homolog Pumilio-2 (Pum2) has been found to play a role in the mammalian nervous system, in particular in regulating morphology, arborization and excitability of neuronal dendrites, in vitro. However, the role of Pum2 in vivo remains unclear. Here, we report our investigation of the functional and molecular consequences of Pum2 disruption in vivo using an array of neurophysiology, behavioral and gene expression profiling techniques. We used Pum2-deficient mice to monitor in vivo brain activity using EEG and to study behavior traits, including memory, locomotor activity and nesting capacities. Because of the suspected role of Pum2 in neuronal excitability, we also examined the susceptibility to seizure induction. Finally, we used a quantitative gene expression profiling assay to identify key molecular partners of Pum2. We found that Pum2-deficient mice have abnormal behavioral strategies in spatial and object memory test. Additionally, Pum2 deficiency is associated with increased locomotor activity and decreased body weight. We also observed environmentally-induced impairment in nesting behavior. Most importantly, Pum2-deficient mice showed spontaneous EEG abnormalities and had lower seizure thresholds using a convulsing dosage of pentylenetetrazole. Finally, some genes, including neuronal ion channels, were differentially expressed in the hippocampus of Pum2-deficient mice. These findings demonstrate that Pum2 serves key functions in the adult mammalian central nervous system encompassing neuronal excitability and behavioral response to environmental challenges. PMID:22016787

  18. Pumilio-2 Function in the Mouse Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Heller, H. Craig; Brüstle, Oliver; Reijo Pera, Renee A.

    2011-01-01

    Coordinated mRNA translation at the synapse is increasingly recognized as a critical mechanism for neuronal regulation. Pumilio, a translational regulator, is known to be involved in neuronal homeostasis and memory formation in Drosophila. Most recently, the mammalian Pumilio homolog Pumilio-2 (Pum2) has been found to play a role in the mammalian nervous system, in particular in regulating morphology, arborization and excitability of neuronal dendrites, in vitro. However, the role of Pum2 in vivo remains unclear. Here, we report our investigation of the functional and molecular consequences of Pum2 disruption in vivo using an array of neurophysiology, behavioral and gene expression profiling techniques. We used Pum2-deficient mice to monitor in vivo brain activity using EEG and to study behavior traits, including memory, locomotor activity and nesting capacities. Because of the suspected role of Pum2 in neuronal excitability, we also examined the susceptibility to seizure induction. Finally, we used a quantitative gene expression profiling assay to identify key molecular partners of Pum2. We found that Pum2-deficient mice have abnormal behavioral strategies in spatial and object memory test. Additionally, Pum2 deficiency is associated with increased locomotor activity and decreased body weight. We also observed environmentally-induced impairment in nesting behavior. Most importantly, Pum2-deficient mice showed spontaneous EEG abnormalities and had lower seizure thresholds using a convulsing dosage of pentylenetetrazole. Finally, some genes, including neuronal ion channels, were differentially expressed in the hippocampus of Pum2-deficient mice. These findings demonstrate that Pum2 serves key functions in the adult mammalian central nervous system encompassing neuronal excitability and behavioral response to environmental challenges. PMID:22016787

  19. Multiparametric and semiquantitative scoring systems for the evaluation of mouse model histopathology - a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Histopathology has initially been and is still used to diagnose infectious, degenerative or neoplastic diseases in humans or animals. In addition to qualitative diagnoses semiquantitative scoring of a lesion`s magnitude on an ordinal scale is a commonly demanded task for histopathologists. Multiparametric, semiquantitative scoring systems for mouse models histopathology are a common approach to handle these questions and to include histopathologic information in biomedical research. Results Inclusion criteria for scoring systems were a first description of a multiparametric, semiquantiative scoring systems which comprehensibly describe an approach to evaluate morphologic lesion. A comprehensive literature search using these criteria identified 153 originally designed semiquantitative scoring systems for the analysis of morphologic changes in mouse models covering almost all organs systems and a wide variety of disease models. Of these, colitis, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, lupus nephritis and collagen induced osteoarthritis colitis were the disease models with the largest number of different scoring systems. Closer analysis of the identified scoring systems revealed a lack of a rationale for the selection of the scoring parameters or a correlation between scoring parameter value and the magnitude of the clinical symptoms in most studies. Conclusion Although a decision for a particular scoring system is clearly dependent on the respective scientific question this review gives an overview on currently available systems and may therefore allow for a better choice for the respective project. PMID:23800279

  20. Closeout final report on a demonstration test and evaluation of the Cannon Low-NOx Digester System

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Cannon Boiler Works Inc. has been investigating a system for removing NOx from the exhaust gases of furnaces, gas turbines, chemical reactors, incinerators, and boilers. Computer simulations, bench-scale and pilot plant tests have proved that the system is capable of removing substantially all of the NOx from natural gas fired equipment exhaust streams. Originally designated as the Cannon NOx Digester, it has recently been renamed the Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO) System for NOx and SOx Reduction. The principal elements in the system are a fan, heat exchanger, oxidation chamber, spray chamber acting as a gas/liquid absorber, demister, an ozone generator, liquid oxygen storage or dry air supply system for the ozonator, chemical storage and metering system for the caustic neutralizer, and a data acquisition and control system. Most of the ozone is consumed in converting NOx to N{sub 2}O{sub 5} which hydrates to nitric acid which is then scrubbed out of the gas as it passes through the absorber. CO also reacts with ozone to form CO{sub 2} which is subsequently scrubbed out with NaOH. A demonstration, planned for the Alta Dena Dairy located near Los Angeles and in violation of California`s air quality regulations for natural gas fired boilers, was started, delayed due to boiler modifications, and will be continued shortly with new funding. This paper describes the LTO process and presents results from the initial demonstration.

  1. Atmosphere behavior in gas-closed mouse-algal systems - An experimental and modelling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, M. M.; Moore, B., III; Bartholomew, I.; Wharton, R.

    1984-01-01

    A NASA-sponsored research program initiated using mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas-exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere is studied. The development of control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels is considered. A mathematical model simulating the behavior of a gas-closed mouse-algal system under varying environmental conditions is described. To verify and validate the model simulations, an analytical system with which algal growth and gas exchange characteristics can be manipulated and measured is designed, fabricated, and tested. The preliminary results are presented.

  2. Biotic and abiotic dynamics of a high solid-state anaerobic digestion box-type container system.

    PubMed

    Walter, Andreas; Probst, Maraike; Hinterberger, Stephan; Müller, Horst; Insam, Heribert

    2016-03-01

    A solid-state anaerobic digestion box-type container system for biomethane production was observed in 12 three-week batch fermentations. Reactor performance was monitored using physico-chemical analysis and the methanogenic community was identified using ANAEROCHIP-microarrays and quantitative PCR. A resilient community was found in all batches, despite variations in inoculum to substrate ratio, feedstock quality, and fluctuating reactor conditions. The consortia were dominated by mixotrophic Methanosarcina that were accompanied by hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium, Methanoculleus, and Methanocorpusculum. The relationship between biotic and abiotic variables was investigated using bivariate correlation analysis and univariate analysis of variance. High amounts of biogas were produced in batches with high copy numbers of Methanosarcina. High copy numbers of Methanocorpusculum and extensive percolation, however, were found to negatively correlate with biogas production. Supporting these findings, a negative correlation was detected between Methanocorpusculum and Methanosarcina. Based on these results, this study suggests Methanosarcina as an indicator for well-functioning reactor performance. PMID:26860425

  3. Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok

    2013-07-01

    Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

  4. Partial ablation of uropygial gland effects on growth hormone concentration and digestive system histometrical aspect of akar putra chicken.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Hasan S A; Lokman, I H; Z Zuki, A B; Kassim, A B

    2016-04-01

    Partial ablation of the uropygial gland is being used in the poultry industry as a new way to enhance body performance of chickens. However, limited data are available estimating the efficacy of partial uropygialectomy (PU) to improve body organ activity. The present study evaluated the effect of partial ablation of the uropygial gland on the serum growth hormone concentration level and digestive system histology of 120 Akar Putra chickens in 5 trials with 3 replicates per trial. The experimental treatments consisted of a control treatment T1; partial ablation of the uropygial gland was applied in the T2, T3, T4, and T5 treatments at 3, 4, 5, and 6 wk of age, respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. All treatment groups were provided the same diet. Venous blood samples were collected on wk 7, 10, and 12 to assay the levels of growth hormone concentration. On the last d of the experiment, 4 birds per replicate were randomly isolated and euthanized to perform the necropsy. Digestive system organs' cross sections were measured by a computerized image analyzer after being stained with haematoxylin and eosin. In comparison with the control group, surgical removal of the uropygial gland, especially at wk 3, had a greater (P< 0.01) effect on the total duodenum, jejunum, and ilium wall thickness. In addition, effects (P< 0.05) were observed on the wall thickness of males' cecum and colon. Moreover, the wall layers of the esophagus, proventriculus, gizzard, and rectum were not affected by the treatment. However, removing the uropygial gland showed significant impact (P< 0.05) in males' growth hormone concentration level at wk 7 and (P< 0.01) effects at wk 12 in both sexes. This study provides a novel and economic alternative to enhance the body performance of poultry in general and Akar Putra chickens particularly. PMID:26908881

  5. Anxiety and depression, cognitive coping strategies, and health locus of control in patients with digestive system cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kulpa, Marta; Kosowicz, Mariola; Kazalska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Contemporary psycho-oncology focuses on the study of the psychological determinants of the functioning of cancer patients. Among the psychological factors that significantly affect the functioning of the patients are anxiety and depressive disorders. Aim To assess the psychological functioning of patients with digestive system cancer in the cancer-treating process and to develop guidelines for psychological care dedicated to this group of patients based on the results of the study. Material and methods A total of 69 patients aged 23 to 91 (average 56) years with digestive system cancer treated in the Gastroenterology Cancer Clinic in the Institute of Oncology in Warsaw were examined using HADS, Mini-MAC, and MHLC. The results were analysed using statistical tests and correlation analysis. Another 532 patients from other wards formed the reference group. Results Measured HLC, anxiety, and depression did not differ significantly from the overall patient population. The investigation of the relationships between anxiety and depression and mental adjustment to cancer showed a positive correlation between anxiety and depression and anxious preoccupation and hopelessness-helplessness, and negative correlation between anxiety and depression and fighting spirit. Conclusions The obtained research results on the correlation of anxiety and depression with health locus of control show that the lower the severity of anxiety and depression, the higher the severity of internal health locus of control. The results confirm the necessity of psychological support forcancer patients showing evidence of destructive attitudes and external health locus of control, so that the severity of anxiety-depressive disorders can indirectly be reduced. PMID:25653727

  6. Two-phase anaerobic digestion within a solid waste/wastewater integrated management system

    SciTech Connect

    De Gioannis, G.; Diaz, L.F.; Muntoni, A. Pisanu, A.

    2008-07-01

    A two-phase, wet anaerobic digestion process was tested at laboratory scale using mechanically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) as the substrate. The proposed process scheme differs from others due to the integration of the MSW and wastewater treatment cycles, which makes it possible to avoid the recirculation of process effluent. The results obtained show that the supplying of facultative biomass, drawn from the wastewater aeration tank, to the solid waste acidogenic reactor allows an improvement of the performance of the first phase of the process which is positively reflected on the second one. The proposed process performed successfully, adopting mesophilic conditions and a relatively short hydraulic retention time in the methanogenic reactor, as well as high values of organic loading rate. Significant VS removal efficiency and biogas production were achieved. Moreover, the methanogenic reactor quickly reached optimal conditions for a stable methanogenic phase. Studies conducted elsewhere also confirm the feasibility of integrating the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW with that of wastewater.

  7. [Cloning of mouse adam10 gene promoter and construction and identification of dual luciferase reporter system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Chong; Zhang, Huan-Xin; Cao, Jiang; Sang, Wei; Wu, Qing-Yun; Zhao, Kai; Zang, Yu; Zeng, Ling-Yu; Xu, Kai-Lin

    2012-06-01

    This study was aimed to clone mouse adam10 gene promoter and construct its dual luciferase report vector, and to investigate its transcriptional activity. Total DNA was extracted from mouse brain and used for amplifying the fragment containing adam10 gene promoter by PCR. The amplified product was inserted into pGL-4.10 vector to construct pGL4.10-adam10. The pGL4.10-adam10 and control plasmid pGL4.74 were co-transfected into HEK293 FT cells by lipofectamine 2000. The activity of adam10 gene promoter was assayed by luciferase system. The results showed that the recombinant plasmid pGL4.10-adam10 containing promoter of mouse adam10 was correctly constructed. The method was optimized by changing ratio of two plasmids. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of pGL4.10-adam10 stimulated by ionomycin increased. It is concluded that the dual luciferase reporter system is successfully established, which is useful in bioluminescence imaging technology in vitro. The effect of ionomycin can enhance the transcriptional activity of adam10 gene promoter. PMID:22739193

  8. Linking susceptibility genes and pathogenesis mechanisms using mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Crampton, Steve P.; Morawski, Peter A.; Bolland, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) represents a challenging autoimmune disease from a clinical perspective because of its varied forms of presentation. Although broad-spectrum steroids remain the standard treatment for SLE, they have many side effects and only provide temporary relief from the symptoms of the disease. Thus, gaining a deeper understanding of the genetic traits and biological pathways that confer susceptibility to SLE will help in the design of more targeted and effective therapeutics. Both human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and investigations using a variety of mouse models of SLE have been valuable for the identification of the genes and pathways involved in pathogenesis. In this Review, we link human susceptibility genes for SLE with biological pathways characterized in mouse models of lupus, and discuss how the mechanistic insights gained could advance drug discovery for the disease. PMID:25147296

  9. In vitro digestion of short-dough biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system (2): Protein and starch hydrolyses.

    PubMed

    Villemejane, C; Denis, S; Marsset-Baglieri, A; Alric, M; Aymard, P; Michon, C

    2016-01-01

    The influence of protein and/or fibre enrichment on the nutritional properties of biscuits was studied in terms of proteolysis and amylolysis. Biscuits were digested using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system that simulates the main physiological digestive functions of the upper tract of healthy adult humans: the TIM-1. A control biscuit and three biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres were digested under the same conditions. Samples were collected in each compartment of the TIM-1 (stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum) at different times of digestion and analysed in terms of proteolysis and amylolysis. Results indicate that both formulation and processing impacted the digestive fate of the biscuits. Incorporating proteins or fibres in biscuits lowered or delayed proteolysis. Moreover a protein-plus-fibre additional or synergic effect was observed. Biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres displayed a higher amylolysis degree than the control biscuit, probably due to lower starch amounts and higher gelatinization degrees. PMID:26212956

  10. A Support System for Mouse Operations Using Eye-Gaze Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Kiyohiko; Nakayama, Yasuhiro; Ohi, Shoichi; Ohyama, Minoru

    We have developed an eye-gaze input system for people with severe physical disabilities, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. This system utilizes a personal computer and a home video camera to detect eye-gaze under natural light. The system detects both vertical and horizontal eye-gaze by simple image analysis, and does not require special image processing units or sensors. Our conventional eye-gaze input system can detect horizontal eye-gaze with a high degree of accuracy. However, it can only classify vertical eye-gaze into 3 directions (up, middle and down). In this paper, we propose a new method for vertical eye-gaze detection. This method utilizes the limbus tracking method for vertical eye-gaze detection. Therefore our new eye-gaze input system can detect the two-dimension coordinates of user's gazing point. By using this method, we develop a new support system for mouse operation. This system can move the mouse cursor to user's gazing point.

  11. Development and Function of the Mouse Vestibular System in the Absence of Gravity Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolgemuth, Debra J.

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that was tested in this research was that the absence of gravity perception, such as would occur in space, would affect the development and function of the vestibular and central nervous systems. Further, we postulated that these effects would be more significant at specific stages of post-natal development of the animal. We also proposed the use of molecular genetic approaches that would provide important information as to the hierarchy of gene function during the development and subsequent function of the vestibular system. The tilted (tlt) mutant mouse has been characterized as lacking the ability to provide sensory input to the gravity receptors. The tlt/tlt mutant mice were a particularly attractive model for the study of vestibular function since the primary defect was limited to the receptor part of the vestibular system, and there were no detectable abnormal phenotypes in other organ systems. The goal of the proposed studies was to assess immediate and delayed effects of the lack of gravity perception on the vestibular system. Particular attention was paid to characterizing primarily affected periods of vestibular morphogenesis, and to identifying downstream genetic pathways that are altered in the CNS of the tlt/tlt mutant mouse. The specific aims were: (1) to characterize the postnatal morphogenesis of the CNS in the tlt mutant mouse, using detailed morphometric analysis of isolated vestibular ganglia and brain tissue at different stages of postnatal development and assessment of apoptotic cell death; (2) to examine the expression of selected genes implicated by mutational analysis to be important in vestibular development or function by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry in the mutant mice; and (3) to identify other genes involved in vestibular development and function, using differential cloning strategies to isolate genes whose expression is changed in the mutant versus normal vestibular system.

  12. Personal Relationships and Digestive Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... with an Irritable Bowel How to Judge Health Reports in the Media Personal Stories Manage Your Health The Digestive System ... with an Irritable Bowel How to Judge Health Reports in the Media Personal Stories Evaluating Health Information Online Take Part ...

  13. An Automated Mouse Tail Vascular Access System by Vision and Pressure Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yen-Chi; Berry-Pusey, Brittany; Yasin, Rashid; Vu, Nam; Maraglia, Brandon; Chatziioannou, Arion X.; Tsao, Tsu-Chin

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops an automated vascular access system (A-VAS) with novel vision-based vein and needle detection methods and real-time pressure feedback for murine drug delivery. Mouse tail vein injection is a routine but critical step for preclinical imaging applications. Due to the small vein diameter and external disturbances such as tail hair, pigmentation, and scales, identifying vein location is difficult and manual injections usually result in poor repeatability. To improve the injection accuracy, consistency, safety, and processing time, A-VAS was developed to overcome difficulties in vein detection noise rejection, robustness in needle tracking, and visual servoing integration with the mechatronics system. PMID:26478693

  14. Pointright: a system to redirect mouse and keyboard control among multiple machines

    DOEpatents

    Johanson, Bradley E.; Winograd, Terry A.; Hutchins, Gregory M.

    2008-09-30

    The present invention provides a software system, PointRight, that allows for smooth and effortless control of pointing and input devices among multiple displays. With PointRight, a single free-floating mouse and keyboard can be used to control multiple screens. When the cursor reaches the edge of a screen it seamlessly moves to the adjacent screen and keyboard control is simultaneously redirected to the appropriate machine. Laptops may also redirect their keyboard and pointing device, and multiple pointers are supported simultaneously. The system automatically reconfigures itself as displays go on, go off, or change the machine they display.

  15. Maintenance of a fully functional digestive system during hibernation in the European hamster, a food-storing hibernator.

    PubMed

    Weitten, Mathieu; Oudart, Hugues; Habold, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Some small mammals limit energy expenditure during winter conditions through torpor bouts, which are characterized by a decrease in body temperature and metabolic rate. Individuals arise periodically from torpor to restore critical functions requiring euthermia. Although most of the species involved do not feed during hibernation and rely on body reserves to fulfil energy requirements (fat-storing species), others hoard food in a burrow (food-storing species) and can feed during interbout euthermy. Whereas fat-storing species undergo a marked atrophy of the digestive tract, food-storing species have to maintain a functional digestive system during hibernation. Our study aimed to evaluate the absorption capacities of a food-storing species, the European hamster, throughout the annual cycle. In vivo intestinal perfusions were conducted in different groups of hamsters (n=5) during the different life periods, namely before hibernation, in torpor, during interbout euthermy, and during summer rest. The triglyceride, non-esterified free fatty acid, starch, glucose and protein composition of the perfusate was evaluated before and after the 1h perfusion of a closed intestinal loop. Triglyceride, starch and protein hydrolysis rates were similar in hibernating (torpid and euthermic) and non-hibernating hamsters. Intestinal absorption of free fatty acid was also similar in all groups. However, glucose uptake rate was higher during hibernation than during the summer. In contrast with fat-storing species, the intestinal absorption capacities of food-storing species are fully maintained during hibernation to optimize nutrient assimilation during short interbout euthermy. In particular, glucose uptake rate is increased during hibernation to restore glycaemia and ensure glucose-dependent pathways. PMID:26774183

  16. Stability of free and encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in yogurt and in an artificial human gastric digestion system.

    PubMed

    Ortakci, F; Sert, S

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of encapsulation on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 (ATCC 4356) in yogurt and during artificial gastric digestion. Strain ATCC 4356 was added to yogurt either encapsulated in calcium alginate or in free form (unencapsulated) at levels of 8.26 and 9.47 log cfu/g, respectively, and the influence of alginate capsules (1.5 to 2.5mm) on the sensorial characteristics of yogurts was investigated. The ATCC 4356 strain was introduced into an artificial gastric solution consisting of 0.08 N HCl (pH 1.5) containing 0.2% NaCl or into artificial bile juice consisting of 1.2% bile salts in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth to determine the stability of the probiotic bacteria. When incubated for 2h in artificial gastric juice, the free ATCC 4356 did not survive (reduction of >7 log cfu/g). We observed, however, greater survival of encapsulated ATCC 4356, with a reduction of only 3 log cfu/g. Incubation in artificial bile juice (6 h) did not significantly affect the viability of free or encapsulated ATCC 4356. Moreover, statistically significant reductions (~1 log cfu/g) of both free and encapsulated ATCC 4356 were observed during 4-wk refrigerated storage of yogurts. The addition of probiotic cultures in free or alginate-encapsulated form did not significantly affect appearance/color or flavor/odor of the yogurts. However, significant deficiencies were found in body/texture of yogurts containing encapsulated ATCC 4356. We concluded that incorporation of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria did not substantially change the overall sensory properties of yogurts, and encapsulation in alginate using the extrusion method greatly enhanced the survival of probiotic bacteria against an artificial human gastric digestive system. PMID:23021757

  17. Mouse Embryonic Development in a Serum-free Whole Embryo Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Kalaskar, Vijay K.; Lauderdale, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Mid-gestation stage mouse embryos were cultured utilizing a serum-free culture medium prepared from commercially available stem cell media supplements in an oxygenated rolling bottle culture system. Mouse embryos at E10.5 were carefully isolated from the uterus with intact yolk sac and in a process involving precise surgical maneuver the embryos were gently exteriorized from the yolk sac while maintaining the vascular continuity of the embryo with the yolk sac. Compared to embryos prepared with intact yolk sac or with the yolk sac removed, these embryos exhibited superior survival rate and developmental progression when cultured under similar conditions. We show that these mouse embryos, when cultured in a defined medium in an atmosphere of 95% O2 / 5% CO2 in a rolling bottle culture apparatus at 37 °​C for 16-40 hr, exhibit morphological growth and development comparable to the embryos developing in utero. We believe this method will be useful for investigators needing to utilize whole embryo culture to study signaling interactions important in embryonic organogenesis. PMID:24637443

  18. Molecular and neuronal homology between the olfactory systems of zebrafish and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Luis R.; Ahuja, Gaurav; Ivandic, Ivan; Syed, Adnan S.; Marioni, John C.; Korsching, Sigrun I.; Logan, Darren W.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the two major olfactory organs of rodents, the olfactory mucosa (OM) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO), unraveled the molecular basis of smell in vertebrates. However, some vertebrates lack a VNO. Here we generated and analyzed the olfactory transcriptome of the zebrafish and compared it to the olfactory transcriptomes of mouse to investigate the evolutionary and molecular relationship between single and dual olfactory systems. Our analyses revealed a high degree of molecular conservation, with orthologs of mouse olfactory cell-specific markers and all but one of their chemosensory receptor classes expressed in the single zebrafish olfactory organ. Zebrafish chemosensory receptor genes are expressed across a large dynamic range and their RNA abundance correlates positively with the number of neurons expressing that RNA. Thus we estimate the relative proportions of neuronal sub-types expressing different chemosensory receptors. Receptor repertoire size drives the absolute abundance of different classes of neurons, but we find similar underlying patterns in both species. Finally, we identified novel marker genes that characterize rare neuronal populations in both mouse and zebrafish. In sum, we find that the molecular and cellular mechanisms underpinning olfaction in teleosts and mammals are similar despite 430 million years of evolutionary divergence. PMID:26108469

  19. A demonstration test and evaluation of the Cannon Low-NO{sub x} Digester System. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Since 1985, Cannon Boiler Works, Inc. has been carrying out research and development efforts to perfect a system for removing nitrogen oxides, NO{sub x}, from the exhaust gases of furnaces, gas turbines, chemical reactors, incinerators and boilers.Computer simulations, bench-scale tests and pilot plant testing have proved that the system is capable of removing substantially all of the NO{sub x} from natural gas-fired equipment exhaust streams. Furthermore when retrofit to industrial boilers, both capital costs and operating costs are lower than for competing processes, while performance is much better. The Cannon system for removing NO{sub x}, originally designated as the Cannon NO{sub x} Digester, has recently been renamed the Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO) System for NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} Reduction. It will be engineered and marketed by Cannon Technology, Inc, a wholly owned subsidiary of Cannon Boiler Works, Inc. Cannon has US patents for the process and for the associated equipment and has patent applications pending in Europe. Cannon`s Low Temperature Oxidation, LTO, process has proved effective for reducing the levels of NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and particulates from boiler flue gases.

  20. CWD prions remain infectious after passage through the digestive system of coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tracy A; Fischer, Justin W; Spraker, Terry R; Kong, Qingzhong; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a geographically expanding prion disease of wild and captive cervids in North America. Disease can be transmitted directly, animal to animal, or indirectly via the environment. CWD contamination can occur residually in the environment via soil, water, and forage following deposition of bodily fluids such as urine, saliva, and feces, or by the decomposition of carcasses. Recent work has indicated that plants may even take up prions into the stems and leaves. When a carcass or gut pile is present in the environment, a large number of avian and mammalian species visit and consume the carrion. Additionally, predators like coyotes, likely select for disease-compromised cervids. Natural cross-species CWD transmission has not been documented, however, passage of infectious prion material has been observed in the feces of crows. In this study we evaluated the ability of CWD-infected brain material to pass through the gastrointestinal tract of coyotes (Canis latrans) following oral ingestion, and be infectious in a cervidized transgenic mouse model. Results from this study indicate that coyotes can pass infectious prions via their feces for at least 3 days post ingestion, demonstrating that mammalian scavengers could contribute to the translocation and contamination of CWD in the environment. PMID:26636258

  1. The SCID mouse: relevance as an animal model system for studying human disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    The simultaneous description some 5 years ago of two methods for the partial reconstitution of a human immune system in severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice (collectively, human:SCID mice) was met with great enthusiasm. At the time, it was hoped that human:SCID mice would provide experimental animal model systems for studying human disease and the human immune system. Many of these hopes have been borne out. Importantly, the experimental results obtained from these chimeric human/animal studies appear to be relevant to human disease and immune function. In spite of these glowing achievements, the SCID mouse may not represent the optimal experimental system with which to address these questions. The incomplete penetrance ("leakiness") of the scid mutation and the recent discovery that the mutation is not lymphoid specific, but rather affects a general DNA repair pathway, will only serve to complicate the interpretation of already complex biological interactions. Recently other immune-deficient mice have been described that appear to overcome one or both of these problems and thus these mice could represent improved hosts for the adaptive transfer of a human immune system. The current status of the SCID mouse in light of these new findings is discussed. PMID:8256843

  2. Evaluation of a Piezoelectric System as an Alternative to Electroencephalogram/ Electromyogram Recordings in Mouse Sleep Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Graldine M.; Nicod, Jrme; Emmenegger, Yann; Donohue, Kevin D.; O'Hara, Bruce F.; Franken, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Traditionally, sleep studies in mammals are performed using electroencephalogram/electromyogram (EEG/EMG) recordings to determine sleep-wake state. In laboratory animals, this requires surgery and recovery time and causes discomfort to the animal. In this study, we evaluated the performance of an alternative, noninvasive approach utilizing piezoelectric films to determine sleep and wakefulness in mice by simultaneous EEG/EMG recordings. The piezoelectric films detect the animal's movements with high sensitivity and the regularity of the piezo output signal, related to the regular breathing movements characteristic of sleep, serves to automatically determine sleep. Although the system is commercially available (Signal Solutions LLC, Lexington, KY), this is the first statistical validation of various aspects of sleep. Design: EEG/EMG and piezo signals were recorded simultaneously during 48 h. Setting: Mouse sleep laboratory. Participants: Nine male and nine female CFW outbred mice. Interventions: EEG/EMG surgery. Measurements and Results: The results showed a high correspondence between EEG/EMG-determined and piezo-determined total sleep time and the distribution of sleep over a 48-h baseline recording with 18 mice. Moreover, the piezo system was capable of assessing sleep quality (i.e., sleep consolidation) and interesting observations at transitions to and from rapid eye movement sleep were made that could be exploited in the future to also distinguish the two sleep states. Conclusions: The piezo system proved to be a reliable alternative to electroencephalogram/electromyogram recording in the mouse and will be useful for first-pass, large-scale sleep screens for genetic or pharmacological studies. Citation: Mang GM, Nicod J, Emmenegger Y, Donohue KD, O'Hara BF, Franken P. Evaluation of a piezoelectric system as an alternative to electroencephalogram/electromyogram recordings in mouse sleep studies. SLEEP 2014;37(8):1383-1392. PMID:25083019

  3. What Are Educational Indicators and Indicator Systems? ERIC/TM Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavelson, Richard J.; And Others

    Educational indicator systems are similar to indicator systems used to monitor the economy, the criminal justice system, or other social systems. Governments recognize the value of statistics that provide current information and make trend analysis and forecasts possible. Education statistics will qualify as indicators only if they serve as…

  4. Merits of the fat-tailed Barbarine sheep raised in different production systems in Tunisia: digestive, productive and reproductive characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Hichem; Lassoued, Narjess; Rekik, Mourad

    2011-10-01

    Barbarine sheep is the dominant breed in Tunisia. This fat-tailed breed present in all production systems is characterised by metabolic and digestive adaptation to the contrasting environment conditions prevailing in the country (heat stress, water deprivation, salinity etc.). The fat tail (1.5 to 7 kg) is an energy reservoir that is used in periods of feed scarcity. Moreover, the rumen of this breed harbours a microflora enabling it to valorize low-quality roughages and native range vegetation. Barbarine sheep could make benefit from a wide range of local feed resources like fodder shrubs (e.g. cactus and oldman saltbushes), tannin-containing shrubs (e.g. Acacia cyanophylla) and agro-industrial by-products (e.g. olive cake, bran etc. conserved in the form of feed blocks or pellets). It has a very shallow anoestrous, the intensity of which is dependant upon nutrition conditions rather than day length as temperate breeds. Productive and reproductive performances of late pregnant-early suckling, pre-mating ewes and also rams of this breed are not affected when some alternative feed resources replace common feedstuffs which are expensive and cannot afford regularly to smallholders. In brief, the merits of the Barbarine sheep in the production systems and other main adaptive mechanisms of this breed are discussed in this paper. The prospective of Barbarine sheep husbandry in the system dynamics, climate change and the evolution of the socioeconomic context are also envisaged. PMID:21533615

  5. Comparison of single-stage and two-phase anaerobic sludge digestion systems - Performance and microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Maspolim, Yogananda; Zhou, Yan; Guo, Chenghong; Xiao, Keke; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-12-01

    This study compared reactor performance and the respective microbial community dynamics in the conventional single-stage and 2-phase anaerobic digestion (AD) systems, treating municipal sludge to generate methane. The 2-phase system's COD and VS reduction, and methane production could be maintained throughout the three HRTs tested (p=0.05), which was associated with an increase in organic loading (30d=1.5gCODL(-1)d(-1), 20d=2.2gCODL(-1)d(-1) and 10d=3.5gCODL(-1)d(-1)); but this was not so in the single-stage system where it deteriorated at HRT of 10d (p=0.05) due to impairment of particulate COD reduction. qPCR, DGGE and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that microbial adaptation occurred as the seed sludge formed a different community in each reactor at 30d HRT; however, no further significant microbial shift occurred at lower HRTs. The presence of specific hydrolytic and acidogenic Flavobacteriales and Clostriales in the acidogenic reactor may have allowed for enhanced hydrolysis and acidogenesis, leading to higher organic loading tolerance at 10d HRT. Methanogenic activity in the acidogenic reactor may have been performed by Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinaceae. Operation of the acidogenic reactor at neutral pH may have to be considered to ensure the cultivation of propionate oxidising bacteria, which could in turn, prevent reactor "souring" during high load conditions. PMID:25096961

  6. A pilot plant two-phase anaerobic digestion system for bioenergy recovery from swine wastes and garbage.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chuanping; Shimada, Sadoru; Zhang, Zhenya; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2008-01-01

    A pilot plant bioenergy recovery system from swine waste and garbage was constructed. A series of experiments was performed using swine feces (SF); a mixture of swine feces and urine (MSFU); a mixture of swine feces, urine and garbage (MSFUG); garbage and a mixture of urine and garbage (AUG). The system performed well for treating the source materials at a high organic loading rate (OLR) and short hydraulic retention time (HRT). In particular, the biogas production for the MSFUG was the highest, accounting for approximately 865-930 L kg(-1)-VS added at the OLR of 5.0-5.3 kg-VS m(-3) day(-1) and the HRT of 9 days. The removal of VS was 67-75%, and that of COD was 73-74%. Therefore, co-digestion is a promising method for the recovery of bioenergy from swine waste and garbage. Furthermore, the results obtained from this study provide fundamental information for scaling up a high-performance anaerobic system in the future. PMID:17904349

  7. Minimally invasive microendoscopy system for in vivo functional imaging of deep nuclei in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Jiang, Wan-Chen; Wang, Chen; Dudman, Joshua T; Ji, Na; Aponte, Yeka

    2015-11-01

    The ability to image neurons anywhere in the mammalian brain is a major goal of optical microscopy. Here we describe a minimally invasive microendoscopy system for studying the morphology and function of neurons at depth. Utilizing a guide cannula with an ultrathin wall, we demonstrated in vivo two-photon fluorescence imaging of deeply buried nuclei such as the striatum (2.5 mm depth), substantia nigra (4.4 mm depth) and lateral hypothalamus (5.0 mm depth) in mouse brain. We reported, for the first time, the observation of neuronal activity with subcellular resolution in the lateral hypothalamus and substantia nigra of head-fixed awake mice. PMID:26601017

  8. Minimally invasive microendoscopy system for in vivo functional imaging of deep nuclei in the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Jiang, Wan-chen; Wang, Chen; Dudman, Joshua T.; Ji, Na; Aponte, Yeka

    2015-01-01

    The ability to image neurons anywhere in the mammalian brain is a major goal of optical microscopy. Here we describe a minimally invasive microendoscopy system for studying the morphology and function of neurons at depth. Utilizing a guide cannula with an ultrathin wall, we demonstrated in vivo two-photon fluorescence imaging of deeply buried nuclei such as the striatum (2.5 mm depth), substantia nigra (4.4 mm depth) and lateral hypothalamus (5.0 mm depth) in mouse brain. We reported, for the first time, the observation of neuronal activity with subcellular resolution in the lateral hypothalamus and substantia nigra of head-fixed awake mice. PMID:26601017

  9. Energy conversion of biomass crops and agroindustrial residues by combined biohydrogen/biomethane system and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Corneli, Elisa; Dragoni, Federico; Adessi, Alessandra; De Philippis, Roberto; Bonari, Enrico; Ragaglini, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of ensiled giant reed, ensiled maize, ensiled olive pomace, wheat bran for combined systems (CS: dark fermentation+anaerobic digestion (AD)) producing hydrogen-rich biogas (biohythane), tested in batch under basic operational conditions (mesophilic temperatures, no pH control). Substrates were also analyzed under a single stage AD batch test, in order to investigate the effects of DF on estimated energy recovery (ER) in combined systems. In CS, maize and wheat bran exhibited the highest hydrogen potential (13.8 and 18.9NLkgVS(-1)) and wheat bran the highest methane potential (243.5NLkgVS(-1)). In one-stage AD, giant reed, maize and wheat bran showed the highest methane production (239.5, 267.3 and 260.0NLkgVS(-1)). Butyrate/acetate ratio properly described the dark fermentation, correlating with hydrogen production (r=0.92). Wheat bran proved to be a promising residue for CS in terms of hydrogen/methane potential and ER. PMID:27038259

  10. Non-steady peristaltic propulsion with exponential variable viscosity: a study of transport through the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Dharmendra; Pandey, S K; Siddiqui, Abdul; Bég, O Anwar

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented for transient peristaltic flow of an incompressible fluid with variable viscosity in a finite length cylindrical tube as a simulation of transport in physiological vessels and biomimetic peristaltic pumps. The current axisymmetric analysis is qualitatively similar to two-dimensional analysis but exhibits quantitative variations. The current analysis is motivated towards further elucidating the physiological migration of gastric suspensions (food bolus) in the human digestive system. It also applies to variable viscosity industrial fluid (waste) peristaltic pumping systems. First, an axisymmetric model is analysed in the limit of large wavelength ([Formula: see text]) and low Reynolds number ([Formula: see text]) for axial velocity, radial velocity, pressure, hydromechanical efficiency and stream function in terms of radial vibration of the wall ([Formula: see text]), amplitude of the wave ([Formula: see text]), averaged flow rate ([Formula: see text]) and variable viscosity ([Formula: see text]). Subsequently, the peristaltic flow of a fluid with an exponential viscosity model is examined, which is based on the analytical solutions for pressure, wall shear stress, hydromechanical efficiency and streamline patterns in the finite length tube. The results are found to correlate well with earlier studies using a constant viscosity formulation. This study reveals some important features in the flow characteristics including the observation that pressure as well as both number and size of lower trapped bolus increases. Furthermore, the study indicates that hydromechanical efficiency reduces with increasing magnitude of viscosity parameter. PMID:22817394

  11. Dosing time of ferric chloride to disinhibit the excessive volatile fatty acids in sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bao; Shan, Aidang; Zhang, Dongling; Lou, Ziyang; Yuan, Haiping; Huang, Xiaoting; Zhu, Nanwen; Hu, Xiaofang

    2015-01-01

    An investigation into the effect of ferric chloride (FeCl3) on the disinhibition of excessive volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) system was performed. The optimum dosing time of FeCl3 was tested with the time interval of 0 h, 36 h, 72 h, 108 h and 144 h. The maximum biogas production was obtained in the case of 72nd hour dosing group, and the biogas production potential was 293.13 ± 11.38 mL/gVS based on modified Gompertz predicted model with the maximum rate of 8.55 ± 0.38 mL/(gVS day), which was triple as that in the control group. More biodegradable organic matters were generated from sludge with FeCl3 additive and then consumed efficiently according to excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra analysis in the dissolved organic matter (DOM). Acetic acid was the main inhibitor and synthetic effects occurred for the disinhibition of excessive VFAs with the additive of FeCl3, except to direct removal of acetic acid in the system. PMID:25879183

  12. Developing a computer-controlled simulated digestion system to predict the concentration of metabolizable energy of feedstuffs for rooster.

    PubMed

    Zhao, F; Ren, L Q; Mi, B M; Tan, H Z; Zhao, J T; Li, H; Zhang, H F; Zhang, Z Y

    2014-04-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-controlled simulated digestion system (CCSDS) for predicting apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) using in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) content of feeds for roosters. In Exp. 1, the repeatability of the IVDE assay was tested in corn, wheat, rapeseed meal, and cottonseed meal with 3 assays of each sample and each with 5 replicates of the same sample. In Exp. 2, the additivity of IVDE concentration in corn, soybean meal, and cottonseed meal was tested by comparing determined IVDE values of the complete diet with values predicted from measurements on individual ingredients. In Exp. 3, linear models to predict AME and TME based on IVDE were developed with 16 calibration samples. In Exp. 4, the accuracy of prediction models was tested by the differences between predicted and determined values for AME or TME of 6 ingredients and 4 diets. In Exp. 1, the mean CV of IVDE was 0.88% (range = 0.20 to 2.14%) for corn, wheat, rapeseed meal, and cottonseed meal. No difference in IVDE was observed between 3 assays of an ingredient, indicating that the IVDE assay is repeatable under these conditions. In Exp. 2, minimal differences (<21 kcal/kg) were observed between determined and calculated IVDE of 3 complete diets formulated with corn, soybean meal, and cottonseed meal, demonstrating that the IVDE values are additive in a complete diet. In Exp. 3, linear relationships between AME and IVDE and between TME and IVDE were observed in 16 calibration samples: AME = 1.062 × IVDE - 530 (R(2) = 0.97, residual standard deviation [RSD] = 146 kcal/kg, P < 0.001) and TME = 1.050 × IVDE - 16 (R(2) = 0.97, RSD = 148 kcal/kg, P < 0.001). Differences of less than 100 kcal/kg were observed between determined and predicted values in 10 and 9 of the 16 calibration samples for AME and TME, respectively. In Exp. 4, differences of less than 100 kcal/kg between determined and predicted values were observed in 3 and 4 of the 6 ingredient samples for AME and TME, respectively, and all 4 diets showed the differences of less than 25 kcal/kg between determined and predicted AME or TME. Our results indicate that the CCSDS is repeatable and additive. This system accurately predicted AME or TME on 17 of the 26 samples and may be a promising method to predict the energetic values of feed for poultry. PMID:24663164

  13. Fertilization of Mouse Gametes in Vitro Using a Digital Microfluidic System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hong-Yuan; Shen, Hsien-Hua; Chung, Lung-Yuan; Chung, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Chih-Chen; Hsu, Chia-Hsien; Fan, Shih-Kang; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrated in vitro fertilization (IVF) using a digital microfluidic (DMF) system, so-called electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD). The DMF device was proved to be biocompatible and the DMF manipulation of a droplet was harmless to the embryos. This DMF platform was then used for the fertilization of mouse gametes in vitro and for embryo dynamic culture based on a dispersed droplet form. Development of the embryos was instantaneously recorded by a time-lapse microscope in an incubator. Our results indicated that increasing the number of sperms for IVF would raise the rate of fertilization. However, the excess of sperms in the 10 μL culture medium would more easily make the embryo dead during cell culture. Dynamic culture powered with EWOD can manipulate a single droplet containing mouse embryos and culture to the eight-cell stage. The fertilization rate of IVF demonstrated by DMF system was 34.8%, and about 25% inseminated embryos dynamically cultured on a DMF chip developed into an eight-cell stage. The results indicate that the DMF system has the potential for application in assisted reproductive technology. PMID:26529769

  14. Specification of the mouse cardiac conduction system in the absence of Endothelin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Lisa L.; Vedantham, Vasanth; Barnes, Ralston M.; Hu, Jianxin; Robinson, Ashley S.; Bressan, Michael; Srivastava, Deepak; Black, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated contraction of the heart is essential for survival and is regulated by the cardiac conduction system. Contraction of ventricular myocytes is controlled by the terminal part of the conduction system known as the Purkinje fiber network. Lineage analyses in chickens and mice have established that the Purkinje fibers of the peripheral ventricular conduction system arise from working myocytes during cardiac development. It has been proposed, based primarily on gain-of-function studies, that Endothelin signaling is responsible for myocyte-to-Purkinje fiber transdifferentiation during avian heart development. However, the role of Endothelin signaling in mammalian conduction system development is less clear, and the development of the cardiac conduction system in mice lacking Endothelin signaling has not been previously addressed. Here, we assessed the specification of the cardiac conduction system in mouse embryos lacking all Endothelin signaling. We found that mouse embryos that were homozygous null for both ednra and ednrb, the genes encoding the two Endothelin receptors in mice, were born at predicted Mendelian frequency and had normal specification of the cardiac conduction system and apparently normal electrocardiograms with normal QRS intervals. In addition, we found that ednra expression within the heart was restricted to the myocardium while ednrb expression in the heart was restricted to the endocardium and coronary endothelium. By establishing that ednra and ednrb are expressed in distinct compartments within the developing mammalian heart and that Endothelin signaling is dispensable for specification and function of the cardiac conduction system, this work has important implications for our understanding of mammalian cardiac development. PMID:25050930

  15. In vitro digestion of short-dough biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres, using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system (1): viscosity measurement and prediction.

    PubMed

    Villemejane, C; Wahl, R; Aymard, P; Denis, S; Michon, C

    2015-09-01

    The effects of biscuit composition on the viscosity generated during digestion were investigated. A control biscuit, one with proteins, one with fibres, and one with both proteins and fibres were digested under the same conditions, using the TNO intestinal model (TIM-1). The TIM-1 is a multi-compartmental and dynamic in vitro system, simulating digestion in the upper tract (stomach and small intestine) of healthy adult humans. Digesta were collected at different times, in the different compartments of the TIM-1 (stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and viscosity was measured with a dynamic rheometer. Results showed a marked effect of biscuit composition on chyme viscosity. Highest viscosity was obtained with biscuits containing viscous soluble fibres, followed by those enriched in both proteins and fibres, then by protein-enriched and control biscuits. The viscosity was maintained throughout the gut up to the ileal compartment. A prediction of the evolution of the chyme viscosity in each compartment of the TIM-1 was built, based on model curves describing the evolution of the viscosity as a function of biscuit concentration, and on dilution factors measured by spectrophotometry on a blank digestion. PMID:25842308

  16. Pressurized Pepsin Digestion in Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    López-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Robinson, Errol W.; Hixson, Kim K.; Tian, Zhixin; Lee, Jung Hwa; Lee, Sang-Won; Tolić, Nikola; Weitz, Karl K.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Integrated top-down bottom-up proteomics combined with on-line digestion has great potential to improve the characterization of protein isoforms in biological systems and is amendable to high throughput proteomics experiments. Bottom-up proteomics ultimately provides the peptide sequences derived from the tandem MS analyses of peptides after the proteome has been digested. Top-down proteomics conversely entails the MS analyses of intact proteins for more effective characterization of genetic variations and/or post-translational modifications. Herein, we describe recent efforts toward efficient integration of bottom-up and top-down LC-MS-based proteomics strategies. Since most proteomics separations utilize acidic conditions, we exploited the compatibility of pepsin (where the optimal digestion conditions are at low pH) for integration into bottom-up and top-down proteomics work flows. Pressure-enhanced pepsin digestions were successfully performed and characterized with several standard proteins in either an off-line mode using a Barocycler or an on-line mode using a modified high pressure LC system referred to as a fast on-line digestion system (FOLDS). FOLDS was tested using pepsin and a whole microbial proteome, and the results were compared against traditional trypsin digestions on the same platform. Additionally, FOLDS was integrated with a RePlay configuration to demonstrate an ultrarapid integrated bottom-up top-down proteomics strategy using a standard mixture of proteins and a monkey pox virus proteome. PMID:20627868

  17. Regulatable in vivo biotinylation expression system in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Wagner, Ryan T; Cooney, Austin J

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have several unique attributes, the two most important of which are they can differentiate into all cell types in the body and they can proliferate indefinitely. To study the regulation of these phenomena, we developed a regulatable in vivo biotinylation expression system in mouse ES cells. The E. coli biotin ligase gene BirA, whose protein product can biotinylate a 15-aa peptide sequence, called the AviTag, was cloned downstream of an IRES. The primary vector containing the doxycycline controlled transactivator gene tTA and IRES-BirA was knocked into the ROSA26 locus by homologous recombination. The secondary vector containing the AviTag tagged hKlf4 gene was exchanged into the ROSA26 locus using Cre recombinase. Western blot analysis showed that the doxycycline induced BirA protein can biotinylate the doxycycline induced AviTag tagged hKlf4 protein. The induction of hKlf4 repressed cell growth in the presence or absence of LIF. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using streptavidin beads showed that the AviTag tagged hKlf4 protein could enrich the Nanog enhancer. Our results suggested that the regulatable biotinylation system is promising for the gene function studies in mouse ES cells. PMID:23667633

  18. Dog and mouse: toward a balanced view of the mammalian olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Arthur W.; Sánchez-Quinteiro, Pablo; Salazar, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Although the most intensively studied mammalian olfactory system is that of the mouse, in which olfactory chemical cues of one kind or another are detected in four different nasal areas [the main olfactory epithelium (MOE), the septal organ (SO), Grüneberg's ganglion, and the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ (VNO)], the extraordinarily sensitive olfactory system of the dog is also an important model that is increasingly used, for example in genomic studies of species evolution. Here we describe the topography and extent of the main olfactory and vomeronasal sensory epithelia of the dog, and we report finding no structures equivalent to the Grüneberg ganglion and SO of the mouse. Since we examined adults, newborns, and fetuses we conclude that these latter structures are absent in dogs, possibly as the result of regression or involution. The absence of a vomeronasal component based on VR2 receptors suggests that the VNO may be undergoing a similar involutionary process. PMID:25309347

  19. Dog and mouse: toward a balanced view of the mammalian olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Arthur W; Sánchez-Quinteiro, Pablo; Salazar, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Although the most intensively studied mammalian olfactory system is that of the mouse, in which olfactory chemical cues of one kind or another are detected in four different nasal areas [the main olfactory epithelium (MOE), the septal organ (SO), Grüneberg's ganglion, and the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ (VNO)], the extraordinarily sensitive olfactory system of the dog is also an important model that is increasingly used, for example in genomic studies of species evolution. Here we describe the topography and extent of the main olfactory and vomeronasal sensory epithelia of the dog, and we report finding no structures equivalent to the Grüneberg ganglion and SO of the mouse. Since we examined adults, newborns, and fetuses we conclude that these latter structures are absent in dogs, possibly as the result of regression or involution. The absence of a vomeronasal component based on VR2 receptors suggests that the VNO may be undergoing a similar involutionary process. PMID:25309347

  20. Apparatus for the anaerobic digestion of natural organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, D.L.; Horton, R.; Stafford, D.A.

    1980-11-11

    The title system consists of a feed tank, from which sewage is provided to a digester tank at an adjustable continuous weight, in which the sewage is anaerobically digested. The gas produced in the anaerobic digester is collected at the top and pumped to a diffuser at the bottom of the digester. The supernatent from the treated sewage is transferred to an outlet tank, and sludge is removed from the bottom of the digester tank.

  1. Influence of the Biliary System on Biliary Bacteria Revealed by Bacterial Communities of the Human Biliary and Upper Digestive Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fuqiang; Shen, Hongzhang; Li, Zhen; Meng, Fei; Li, Lei; Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Ying; Bo, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Ni, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Biliary bacteria have been implicated in gallstone pathogenesis, though a clear understanding of their composition and source is lacking. Moreover, the effects of the biliary environment, which is known to be generally hostile to most bacteria, on biliary bacteria are unclear. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities of the biliary tract, duodenum, stomach, and oral cavity from six gallstone patients by using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We found that all observed biliary bacteria were detectable in the upper digestive tract. The biliary microbiota had a comparatively higher similarity with the duodenal microbiota, versus those of the other regions, but with a reduced diversity. Although the majority of identified bacteria were greatly diminished in bile samples, three Enterobacteriaceae genera (Escherichia, Klebsiella, and an unclassified genus) and Pyramidobacter were abundant in bile. Predictive functional analysis indicated enhanced abilities of environmental information processing and cell motility of biliary bacteria. Our study provides evidence for the potential source of biliary bacteria, and illustrates the influence of the biliary system on biliary bacterial communities. PMID:26930491

  2. Influence of the Biliary System on Biliary Bacteria Revealed by Bacterial Communities of the Human Biliary and Upper Digestive Tracts.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fuqiang; Shen, Hongzhang; Li, Zhen; Meng, Fei; Li, Lei; Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Ying; Bo, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Ni, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Biliary bacteria have been implicated in gallstone pathogenesis, though a clear understanding of their composition and source is lacking. Moreover, the effects of the biliary environment, which is known to be generally hostile to most bacteria, on biliary bacteria are unclear. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities of the biliary tract, duodenum, stomach, and oral cavity from six gallstone patients by using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We found that all observed biliary bacteria were detectable in the upper digestive tract. The biliary microbiota had a comparatively higher similarity with the duodenal microbiota, versus those of the other regions, but with a reduced diversity. Although the majority of identified bacteria were greatly diminished in bile samples, three Enterobacteriaceae genera (Escherichia, Klebsiella, and an unclassified genus) and Pyramidobacter were abundant in bile. Predictive functional analysis indicated enhanced abilities of environmental information processing and cell motility of biliary bacteria. Our study provides evidence for the potential source of biliary bacteria, and illustrates the influence of the biliary system on biliary bacterial communities. PMID:26930491

  3. Implantable Self-Powered Low-Level Laser Cure System for Mouse Embryonic Osteoblasts' Proliferation and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Tian, Jingjing; Zheng, Qiang; Yan, Lin; Wang, Jiangxue; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-08-25

    Bone remodeling or orthodontic treatment is usually a long-term process. It is highly desirable to speed up the process for effective medical treatment. In this work, a self-powered low-level laser cure system for osteogenesis is developed using the power generated by the triboelectric nanogenerator. It is found that the system significantly accelerated the mouse embryonic osteoblasts' proliferation and differentiation, which is essential for bone and tooth healing. The system is further demonstrated to be driven by a living creature's motions, such as human walking or a mouse's breathing, suggesting its practical use as a portable or implantable clinical cure for bone remodeling or orthodontic treatment. PMID:26161869

  4. Visualizing viral dissemination in the mouse nervous system, using a green fluorescent protein-expressing Borna disease virus vector.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Andreas; Guelzow, Timo; Staeheli, Peter; Schneider, Urs; Heimrich, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) frequently persists in the brain of infected animals. To analyze viral dissemination in the mouse nervous system, we generated a mouse-adapted virus that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP). This viral vector supported GFP expression for up to 150 days and possessed an extraordinary staining capacity, visualizing complete dendritic arbors as well as individual axonal fibers of infected neurons. GFP-positive cells were first detected in cortical areas from where the virus disseminated through the entire central nervous system (CNS). Late in infection, GFP expression was found in the sciatic nerve, demonstrating viral spread from the central to the peripheral nervous system. PMID:20219925

  5. Design and Economic Analysis of a Heating/Absorption Cooling System Operating with Municipal Solid Waste Digester: A Case Study of Gazi University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coşar, Gökhan; Pooyanfar, Mirparham; Amirabedin, Ehsan; Topal, Hüseyin

    2013-12-01

    Recovering energy from municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the most important issues of energy management in developed countries. This raises even more interest as world fossil fuel reserves diminish and fuel prices rise. Being one of main processes of waste disposal, anaerobic digestion can be used as a means to reduce fossil fuel and electricity consumption as well as reducing emissions. With growing demand for cooling in Turkey, especially during warm seasons and considering the energy costs, utilizing heat-driven absorption cooling systems coupled with an anaerobic digester for local cooling purposes is a potentially interesting alternative for electricity driven compression cooling. The aim of this article is to study the viability of utilizing biogas obtained from MSW anaerobic digestion as the main fuel for heating facilities of Gazi University, Turkey and also the energy source for an absorption cooling system designed for the central library of the aforementioned campus. The results prove that the suggested system is sustainably and financially appealing and has the potential to replace the conventional electricity driven cooling systems with a reasonable net present worth; moreover, it can notably reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  6. A microbial clock provides an accurate estimate of the postmortem interval in a mouse model system

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lauber, Christian L; Knights, Dan; Ackermann, Gail; Humphrey, Gregory C; Gebert, Matthew J; Van Treuren, Will; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Keepers, Kyle; Guo, Yan; Bullard, James; Fierer, Noah; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Establishing the time since death is critical in every death investigation, yet existing techniques are susceptible to a range of errors and biases. For example, forensic entomology is widely used to assess the postmortem interval (PMI), but errors can range from days to months. Microbes may provide a novel method for estimating PMI that avoids many of these limitations. Here we show that postmortem microbial community changes are dramatic, measurable, and repeatable in a mouse model system, allowing PMI to be estimated within approximately 3 days over 48 days. Our results provide a detailed understanding of bacterial and microbial eukaryotic ecology within a decomposing corpse system and suggest that microbial community data can be developed into a forensic tool for estimating PMI. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01104.001 PMID:24137541

  7. Peripheral nervous system defects in a mouse model for peroxisomal biogenesis disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, M. Gartz; Fregoso, Veronica; Vrana, Justin D.; Tucker, Chandra L.; Niswander, Lee A.

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are autosomal recessive disorders in humans characterized by skeletal, eye and brain abnormalities. Despite the fact that neurological deficits, including peripheral nervous system (PNS) defects, can be observed at birth in some PBD patients including those with PEX10 mutations, the embryological basis of the PNS defects is unclear. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified a mouse model for Pex10 deficiency that exhibits neurological abnormalities during fetal development. Homozygous Pex10 mutant mouse embryos display biochemical abnormalities related to a PBD deficiency. During late embryogenesis, Pex10 homozygous mutant mice experience progressive loss of movement and at birth they become cyanotic and die shortly thereafter. Homozygous Pex10 mutant fetuses display decreased integrity of axons and synapses, over-extension of axons in the diaphragm and decreased Schwann cell numbers. Our neuropathological, molecular and electrophysiological studies provide new insights into the embryological basis of the PNS deficits in a PBD model. Our findings identify PEX10 function, and likely other PEX proteins, as an essential component of the spinal locomotor circuit. PMID:25176044

  8. The MRL/lpr Mouse Strain as a Model for Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Gulinello, Maria; Putterman, Chaim

    2011-01-01

    To date, CNS disease and neuropsychiatric symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (NP-SLE) have been understudied compared to end-organ failure and peripheral pathology. In this review, we focus on a specific mouse model of lupus and the ways in which this model reflects some of the most common manifestations and potential mechanisms of human NP-SLE. The mouse MRL lymphoproliferation strain (a.k.a. MRL/lpr) spontaneously develops the hallmark serological markers and peripheral pathologies typifying lupus in addition to displaying the cognitive and affective dysfunction characteristic of NP-SLE, which may be among the earliest symptoms of lupus. We suggest that although NP-SLE may share common mechanisms with peripheral organ pathology in lupus, especially in the latter stages of the disease, the immunologically privileged nature of the CNS indicates that early manifestations of particularly mood disorders maybe derived from some unique mechanisms. These include altered cytokine profiles that can activate astrocytes, microglia, and alter neuronal function before dysregulation of the blood-brain barrier and development of clinical autoantibody titres. PMID:21331367

  9. Ontogeny and distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatases in the digestive system of California halibut larvae (Paralichthys californicus).

    PubMed

    Zacarias-Soto, Magali; Barón-Sevilla, Benjamín; Lazo, Juan P

    2013-10-01

    Studies aimed to assess the digestive physiology of marine fish larvae under culture conditions are important to further understand the functional characteristics and digestive capacities of the developing larvae. Most studies to date concentrate on intestinal lumen digestion and little attention to the absorption process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to histochemically detect and quantify some of the enzymes responsible for absorption and intracellular digestion of nutrients in the anterior and posterior intestine of California halibut larvae. Alkaline and acid phosphatases were detected from the first days post-hatch (dph). Alkaline phosphatase maintained a high level of activity during the first 20 dph in both intestinal regions. Thereafter, a clear intestinal regionalization of the activity was observed with the highest levels occurring in the anterior intestine. Acid phosphatase activity gradually increased in both intestinal regions during development, and a regionalization of the activity was not observed until late in development, once the ocular migration began. Highest levels were observed in the anterior intestine at the end of metamorphosis concomitant with the stomach development. The results from this study show some morphological and physiological changes are occurring during larval development and a clear regionalization of the absorption process as the larvae develops. These ontological changes must be considered in the elaboration of diets according to the digestive capacity of the larvae. PMID:23508366

  10. Jejunal and ileal absorption of oxprenolol in man: influence of nutrients and digestive secretions on jejunal absorption and systemic availability.

    PubMed Central

    Godbillon, J; Vidon, N; Palma, R; Pfeiffer, A; Franchisseur, C; Bovet, M; Gosset, G; Bernier, J J; Hirtz, J

    1987-01-01

    1 Study I evaluated the absorption of oxprenolol in the ileum, compared to jejunum, in healthy volunteers by an intestinal perfusion technique. Around 80 mg of drug were delivered as a saline solution directly in the small bowel. 2 Samples taken 30 cm distally to the site of perfusion showed that 63% of perfused oxprenolol was absorbed in the jejunum and 48% in the ileum; the differences were significant. 3 The plasma concentration-time profiles were similar for the two perfusions. The AUC and Cmax values of free and conjugated oxprenolol for the jejunal perfusion were significantly lower than those of ileum. They showed large but consistent intersubject variations in the two treatments. 4 Study II investigated, using the same technique, the influence of nutrients and digestive secretions on jejunal absorption and systemic availability of this drug. A saline (in treatments A and B) or a nutrient (in treatment C) solution containing oxprenolol was perfused into the jejunum below a balloon either inflated (A) or deflated (B and C). 5 The disappearance rate of oxprenolol from the jejunum was unaffected by endogenous secretions. The mean amount of drug absorbed along a 30-cm jejunal segment accounted for 52 (A) and 57% (B) of the total amount perfused. The intestinal absorption rate was markedly increased in the presence of nutrients (mean amount absorbed 96% for C). 6 The change in the rate of disappearance from the intestine had no effect on the systemic availability of oxprenolol (mean AUC values 8740, 8250 and 8020 nmol l-1 h for A, B and C, respectively) or its elimination from plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3663450

  11. Use of a Hierarchical Oligonucleotide Primer Extension Approach for Multiplexed Relative Abundance Analysis of Methanogens in Anaerobic Digestion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Hui-Ping; Hsu, Mao-Hsuan; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we established a rapid multiplex method to detect the relative abundances of amplified 16S rRNA genes from known cultivatable methanogens at hierarchical specificities in anaerobic digestion systems treating industrial wastewater and sewage sludge. The method was based on the hierarchical oligonucleotide primer extension (HOPE) technique and combined with a set of 27 primers designed to target the total archaeal populations and methanogens from 22 genera within 4 taxonomic orders. After optimization for their specificities and detection sensitivity under the conditions of multiple single-nucleotide primer extension reactions, the HOPE approach was applied to analyze the methanogens in 19 consortium samples from 7 anaerobic treatment systems (i.e., 513 reactions). Among the samples, the methanogen populations detected with order-level primers accounted for >77.2% of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes detected using an Archaea-specific primer. The archaeal communities typically consisted of 2 to 7 known methanogen genera within the Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales and displayed population dynamic and spatial distributions in anaerobic reactor operations. Principal component analysis of the HOPE data further showed that the methanogen communities could be clustered into 3 distinctive groups, in accordance with the distribution of the Methanosaeta, Methanolinea, and Methanomethylovorans, respectively. This finding suggested that in addition to acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, the methylotrophic methanogens might play a key role in the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrated that the HOPE approach is a specific, rapid, and multiplexing platform to determine the relative abundances of targeted methanogens in PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene products. PMID:24077716

  12. XPC Ala499Val and XPG Asp1104His polymorphisms and digestive system cancer risk: a meta-analysis based on model-free approach

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guangsheng; Wang, Jianlu; Dong, Jiahong; Liu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have reported the association between XPC Ala499Val and XPG Asp1104His polymorphisms and digestive system cancer susceptibility, but the results were inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis, using a comprehensive strategy based on the allele model and a model-free approach, to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between XPC Ala499Val and XPG Asp1104His polymorphisms with digestive system cancer risk. For XPC Ala499Val, no significant cancer risk was found in the allele model (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.11) and with model-free approach (ORG = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.83-1.13). For XPG Asp1104His, there was also no association between this polymorphism and cancer risk in the allele model (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.96-1.11) and with the model-free approach (ORG = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.95-1.14). Therefore, this meta-analysis suggests that the XPC Ala499Val and XPG Asp1104His polymorphisms were not associated with digestive system cancer risk. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26131294

  13. Biodegradable microparticles based on poly(D,L-lactide) as a protective transport system in ruminant digestion.

    PubMed

    Jay, Steven M; Peevy, Nolan J; Jenkins, Thomas C; Burg, Karen J L

    2006-01-01

    Despite its abundance in their diet, cattle are unable to directly digest cellulose. The bovine digestive tract overcomes this problem via the rumen, a portion of the stomach containing mixed anaerobic bacteria. These microbes, while breaking down foodstuffs, also perform undesirable processes such as biohydrogenation, in which unsaturated fatty acids become saturated, with deleterious cardiovascular effects. An approach to preventing this saturation entailing the use of polymeric microspheres to encapsulate feed supplements is proposed, with a single emulsion, solvent evaporation method used to formulate poly(D,L-lactide) microparticles for delivery of unsaturated fatty acids to ruminant abomasum. PMID:17101519

  14. Interactions between the neuromodulatory systems and the amygdala: exploratory survey using the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas.

    PubMed

    Zaldivar, Andrew; Krichmar, Jeffrey L

    2013-11-01

    Neuromodulatory systems originate in nuclei localized in the subcortical region of the brain and control fundamental behaviors by interacting with many areas of the central nervous system. An exploratory survey of the cholinergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic receptor expression energy in the amygdala, and in the neuromodulatory areas themselves was undertaken using the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas. The amygdala was chosen because of its importance in cognitive behavior and its bidirectional interaction with the neuromodulatory systems. The gene expression data of 38 neuromodulatory receptor subtypes were examined across 13 brain regions. The substantia innominata of the basal forebrain and regions of the amygdala had the highest amount of receptor expression energy for all four neuromodulatory systems examined. The ventral tegmental area also displayed high receptor expression of all four neuromodulators. In contrast, the locus coeruleus displayed low receptor expression energy overall. In general, cholinergic receptor expression was an order of magnitude greater than other neuromodulatory receptors. Since the nuclei of these neuromodulatory systems are thought to be the source of specific neurotransmitters, the projections from these nuclei to target regions may be inferred by receptor expression energy. The comprehensive analysis revealed many connectivity relations and receptor localization that had not been previously reported. The methodology presented here may be applied to other neural systems with similar characteristics, and to other animal models as these brain atlases become available. PMID:23143393

  15. Sulfide-induced nitrate reduction in the sludge of an anaerobic digester of a zero-discharge recirculating mariculture system.

    PubMed

    Sher, Yonatan; Schneider, Kenneth; Schwermer, Carsten U; van Rijn, Jaap

    2008-10-01

    The anaerobic digester is a vital component in a zero-discharge mariculture system as therein most of the organic matter is mineralized and nitrogen-containing compounds are converted to gaseous N(2). Although denitrification is a major respiratory process in this nitrate-rich treatment stage, also sulfate respiration takes place and may cause undesirable high sulfide concentrations in the effluent water. To examine the effect of sulfide on nitrate reduction, in situ depth profiles of inorganic nitrogen and sulfur compounds were determined. Additionally, nitrate reduction was examined as a function of ambient sulfide concentrations in sludge collected from different locations in the anaerobic reactor. Depth profiles showed high concentrations of nitrate and low concentrations of sulfide and ammonia in the aqueous layer of the reactor. A sharp decrease of nitrate and an increase in sulfide and ammonia concentrations was measured at the water-sludge interface. Nitrate reduction was highest in this interface zone with rates of up to 8.05+/-0.57 micromol NO(3)(-)h(-1)g((sludge))(-1). Addition of sulfide increased the nitrate reduction rate at all sludge depths, pointing to the important role of autotrophic denitrification in the anaerobic reactor. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) was found to be low in all sludge layers but was enhanced when sludge was incubated at high sulfide concentrations. Although nitrate reduction rates increased as a result of sulfide addition to sludge samples, no differences in nitrate reduction rates were observed between the samples incubated with different initial sulfide concentrations. This as opposed to sulfide oxidation rates, which followed Michaelis-Menten enzymatic kinetics. Partial oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur instead of a complete oxidation to sulfate, could explain the observed patterns of nitrate reduction and sulfide oxidation in sludge incubated with different initial sulfide concentrations. PMID:18718629

  16. Representation and transformation of sensory information in the mouse accessory olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Julian P; Arnson, Hannah A; Holy, Timothy E

    2010-06-01

    In mice, nonvolatile social cues are detected and analyzed by the accessory olfactory system (AOS). Here we provide a first view of information processing in the AOS with respect to individual chemical cues. 12 sulfated steroids, recently discovered mouse AOS ligands, caused widespread activity among vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs), yet VSN responses clustered into a small number of repeated functional patterns or processing streams. Downstream neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) responded to these ligands with enhanced signal/noise compared to VSNs. Although the dendritic connectivity of AOB mitral cells suggests the capacity for broad integration, most sulfated steroid responses were well-modeled by linear excitatory drive from just one VSN processing stream. However, a substantial minority demonstrated multi-stream integration. Most VSN excitation patterns were also observed in the AOB, but excitation by estradiol sulfate processing streams was rare, suggesting AOB circuit organization is specific to the biological relevance of sensed cues. PMID:20453853

  17. Fate of pathogen indicators in a domestic blend of food waste and wastewater through a two-stage anaerobic digestion system.

    PubMed

    Rounsefell, B D; O'Sullivan, C A; Chinivasagam, N; Batstone, D; Clarke, W P

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a viable on-site treatment technology for rich organic waste streams such as food waste and blackwater. In contrast to large-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants which are typically located away from the community, the effluent from any type of on-site system is a potential pathogenic hazard because of the intimacy of the system to the community. The native concentrations of the pathogen indicators Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and somatic coliphage were tracked for 30 days under stable operation (organic loading rate (OLR) = 1.8 kgCOD m(-3) day(-1), methane yield = 52% on a chemical oxygen demand (COD) basis) of a two-stage laboratory-scale digester treating a mixture of food waste and blackwater. E. coli numbers were reduced by a factor of 10(6.4) in the thermophilic stage, from 10(7.5±0.3) to 10(1.1±0.1) cfu 100 mL(-1), but regenerated by a factor of 10(4) in the mesophilic stage. Neither the thermophilic nor mesophilic stages had any significant impact on C. perfringens concentrations. Coliphage concentrations were reduced by a factor of 10(1.4) across the two stages. The study shows that anaerobic digestion only reduces pathogen counts marginally but that counts in effluent samples could be readily reduced to below detection limits by filtration through a 0.22 µm membrane, to investigate membrane filtration as a possible sanitation technique. PMID:23168637

  18. In vitro digestion-assisted development of a β-cryptoxanthin-rich functional beverage; in vivo validation using systemic response and faecal content.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Alvarez, E; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B; Sánchez-Siles, L M; Granado-Lorencio, F

    2016-10-01

    Bioavailability of carotenoids is low and significant amounts reach the colon where they may be biologically active. We aimed to optimize a previously developed beverage designed to improve cardiovascular and bone remodelling markers in post-menopausal women. By assessing different lipid emulsions (soy lecithin, milkfat globule membrane (MFGM) and olive oil) on the in vitro bioaccessibility of β-Cryptoxanthin and phytosterols, a MFGM containing beverage was selected and resulted stable over time (recovery >95%) under in vitro digestion and simulated anaerobic conditions. This beverage was tested in a randomized human trial (n=38) by evaluating systemic response and the colonic availability of β-Cryptoxanthin. Consumption for six weeks provoked an increment in serum β-Cryptoxanthin of 38.9μg/dl (CI 95%; 31.0, 46.8; p<0.001). In faeces, free β-Cryptoxanthin, tentatively identified β-Cryptoxanthin esters and the ratio cis-/trans-β-carotene approached the profile in the beverage and after in vitro digestion but it was different from serum. In conclusion, in vitro digestion-assisted approach appears adequate to develop functional foods although in vivo validation should consider both systemic response and the availability at the colon. PMID:27132819

  19. A novel method for somatic transgenesis of the mouse prostate using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Kimberly D.P.; Alsop, Jim; Buresh-Stiemke, Rita A.; Frantskevich, Katsiaryna; Malinowski, Rita; Roethe, Laura; Powers, Ginny L; Marker, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In vivo ectopic gene expression is a common approach for prostate research through the use of transgenes in germline transgenic mice. For some other organs, somatic transgenesis with the Sleeping Beauty transposon system has allowed in vivo ectopic gene expression with higher throughput and lower cost than germline transgenic approaches. METHODS Mouse e16 urogenital sinuses (UGSs) were co-injected with plasmids expressing the Sleeping Beauty transposase and plasmids with control or activated BRAF expressing transposons. Following electroporation, the transduced UGSs were grown as allografts in mouse hosts for 8 weeks, and the resulting allografts were evaluated for several endpoints. RESULTS Transposon-transduced UGS allografts developed into prostatic tissue with normal tissue structure and cellular differentiation. Integration of transposon vectors into the genomes of transduced allografts was confirmed using linker-mediated PCR, sequencing, and in situ PCR. Transduction of UGS allografts with transposons expressing activated BRAF resulted in ectopic BRAF expression that was detectable at both the mRNA and protein levels. Prostatic ducts over-expressing activated BRAF also had ectopic activation of the ERK1/2 mitogen activated kinases and increased epithelial cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS The Sleeping Beauty transposon system can be used to achieve somatic transgenesis of prostatic allografts. This new method for achieving ectopic gene expression in the prostate will complement other existing approaches such as ectopic gene expression in cell lines and in germline transgenic mice. Advantages of this new approach include preservation of stromal-epithelial interactions not possible with cell lines, and higher throughput and lower cost than traditional germline transgenic approaches. PMID:24647932

  20. MONICA: a compact, portable dual gamma camera system for mouse whole-body imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Choyke, Peter L.; Xia, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Kakareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.

    2010-04-01

    Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named "MONICA" for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed ?looking up? through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV?10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1 cm), 2.2 mm; sensitivity, 149 cps (counts per seconds)/MBq (5.5 cps/μCi); energy resolution (FWHM, full width at half maximum), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2=0.99 for 0?185 MBq (0?5 mCi) in the field of view (FOV); spatial uniformity, <3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-min images acquired throughout the 168-h study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g., limited imaging space, portability and, potentially, cost are important.

  1. Bioaccumulation, morphological changes, and induction of metallothionein gene expression in the digestive system of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense after exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Li, Yingjun; Lang, Xingping; Wang, Lan

    2015-08-01

    To study the responses of digestive system of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense to the exposure with cadmium (Cd), crabs were acutely exposed to 7.25, 14.50, and 29.00 mg/l Cd for 96 h and subchronically exposed to 0.725, 1.450, and 2.900 mg/l for 21 days. Cd bioaccumulation in the hepatopancreas and digestive tract (esophagus and intestine) was examined. Furthermore, histopathological alterations of the esophagus, midgut, hindgut, and hepatopancreas were assessed in animals from the 29.0 and 2.90 mg/l Cd treatment groups, and expression of metallothionein messenger RNA (MT mRNA) in the hepatopancreas and intestine was measured in all treatment groups. The results showed difference in the middle and high concentrations between acute and subchronic treatment groups. Cd content in digestive tract after acute 14.5 and 29.0 mg/l Cd exposure was significantly higher than that at subchronic 1.45 and 2.90 mg/l exposure, but Cd levels in hepatopancreas were not significantly different under the same condition. Acute exposure to Cd induced greater morphological damage than subchronic exposure: large areas of epithelial cells were necrotic in hepatopancreas and midgut, which detached from the basal lamina. Vacuolated muscle cells were observed in the hindgut of animals from the acute exposure group, but the changes of esophageal morphology were not obvious after acute or subchronic treatments. The expression of MT mRNA increased with increasing Cd concentration, and MT mRNA level in acute exposure groups was significantly lower when compared to the subchronic exposure groups. Higher Cd content and lower MT mRNA expression in the acutely exposed groups may be responsible for more severe damage of digestive system in these exposure groups. PMID:25843825

  2. Physiological significance of ghrelin revealed by studies using genetically engineered mouse models with modifications in the ghrelin system.

    PubMed

    Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Akamizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor (GHS-R or ghrelin receptor), is a 28-amino acid acylated peptide mainly produced in the stomach. The pharmacological administration of ghrelin is known to exert diverse effects, such as stimulating GH secretion, promoting food intake, and increasing adiposity. In recent years, genetically engineered mouse models have provided important insights into the physiology of various hormones. In this review, we discuss current knowledge regarding the physiological significance of ghrelin on the basis of studies using genetically engineered mouse models with modifications in the ghrelin system. PMID:26226836

  3. Incentives for Accountability. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    Policymakers and educators are taking a new look at incentives as they work to improve accountability systems. This ERIC Digest examines the role of rewards and sanctions in school reform and identifies key issues in implementing incentive systems. The new accountability is based on five components: carefully designed standards, assessments…

  4. Your Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... for these nutrients: the liver! And the leftover waste — parts of the food that your body can' ... processing. The liver filters out harmful substances or wastes, turning some of the waste into more bile. ...

  5. Development of an on-line SPR-digestion-nanoLC-MS/MS system for the quantification and identification of interferon-gamma in plasma.

    PubMed

    Stigter, E C A; de Jong, G J; van Bennekom, W P

    2009-03-15

    An automated, on-line system for protein quantification and identification, employing Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), enzymatic protein digestion, nanoLC and tandem-MS (MS/MS), has been developed. For the experiments recombinant human interferon-gamma (rhIFN-gamma) in buffer or diluted bovine plasma was used as a model protein. Upon injecting 90muL of a 1mugmL(-1) solution of rhIFN-gamma in diluted plasma at a flow rate of 10muLmin(-1), 320fmol of protein was reproducibly bound to the sensor surface. After desorption of the isolated protein from the SPR surface using 10mM glycine pH 1.3, on-line digestion, nanoLC and MS/MS analysis, rhIFN-gamma could be identified on basis of peptide masses and MS/MS fragmentation data. A sequence recovery of 66% was found when a pepsin micro reactor was used. For a trypsin micro reactor the sequence recovery was 50%. In the latter case, the desorbed protein solution was pH-tuned with a TRIS buffer for optimal enzyme activity. With the identified trypsin- and pepsin-produced peptides and because parts of their amino acid sequences overlap, the protein sequence can be largely elucidated showing the potential for the analysis of unknown proteins. The SPR-digestion-nanoLC-MS/MS platform provides unattended analysis of a sample within 60min. PMID:19157843

  6. Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse in an accumulation system within the DESAR (decentralized sanitation and reuse) concept.

    PubMed

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Elmitwalli, T; Gaillard, A; van Leeuwen, M; Zeeman, G

    2003-01-01

    Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse within the DESAR concept was the objective of this pilot research. The digestion took place in two, non-mixed accumulation reactors (AC1 and AC2) inoculated with digested primary sludge from a WWTP at a temperature of 20 degrees C for a period of around 150 days. Reactor AC1 was fed with a mixture of faeces, urine and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that one individual generates per day. The AC2 was fed with a mixture of faeces and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that two individuals produce per day. Some contribution of urine to AC2 was not to be avoided. Detailed characterisation of waste(water) was performed. The performance of the stratified reactor was followed by monitoring the reactor content for several reactors' heights as well as being based on the biogas production. In general the system exposed good process stability. The methanisation of 34 and 61% was obtained for AC1 and AC2 respectively. The biogas yield was 26.5 and 50.8 L/p/d for the respective reactors. Proper choice of inoculum as well as good buffering capacity did not lead to accumulation of VFA and an inhibitive effect due to relatively high ammonium concentration. The chosen process is a promising technology showing good process stability especially for high strength influent. PMID:14531430

  7. Informatics center for mouse genomics: the dissection of complex traits of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Glenn D; La Porte, Nathan T; Diechtiareff, Boris; Pung, Christopher J; Nissanov, Jonathan; Gustafson, Carl; Bertrand, Louise; Gefen, Smadar; Fan, Yingli; Tretiak, Oleh J; Manly, Kenneth F; Park, Melburn R; Williams, Alexander G; Connolly, Michael T; Capra, John A; Williams, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an explosion in the number of tools and techniques available to researchers interested in exploring the genetic basis of all aspects of central nervous system (CNS) development and function. Here, we exploit a powerful new reductionist approach to explore the genetic basis of the very significant structural and molecular differences between the brains of different strains of mice, called either complex trait or quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Our specific focus has been to provide universal access over the web to tools for the genetic dissection of complex traits of the CNS--tools that allow researchers to map genes that modulate phenotypes at a variety of levels ranging from the molecular all the way to the anatomy of the entire brain. Our website, The Mouse Brain Library (MBL; http://mbl.org) is comprised of four interrelated components that are designed to support this goal: The Brain Library, iScope, Neurocartographer, and WebQTL. The centerpiece of the MBL is an image database of histologically prepared museum-quality slides representing nearly 2000 mice from over 120 strains--a library suitable for stereologic analysis of regional volume. The iScope provides fast access to the entire slide collection using streaming video technology, enabling neuroscientists to acquire high-magnification images of any CNS region for any of the mice in the MBL. Neurocartographer provides automatic segmentation of images from the MBL by warping precisely delineated boundaries from a 3D atlas of the mouse brain. Finally, WebQTL provides statistical and graphical analysis of linkage between phenotypes and genotypes. PMID:15043219

  8. Joint development of evidence-based medical record by doctors and patients through integrated Chinese and Western medicine on digestive system diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Gao, Hong-Yang; Gao, Rui; Zhao, Ying-Pan; Li, Qing-Na; Zhao, Yang; Tang, Xu-Dong; Shang, Hong-Cai

    2016-02-01

    Building the clinical therapeutic evaluation system by combing the evaluation given by doctors and patients can form a more comprehensive and objective evaluation system. A literature search on the practice of evidence-based evaluation was conducted in key biomedical databases, i.e. PubMed, Excerpt Medica Database, China Biology Medicine disc and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. However, no relevant study on the subjects of interest was identified. Therefore, drawing on the principles of narrative medicine and expert opinion from systems of Chinese medicine and Western medicine, we propose to develop and pilot-test a novel evidence-based medical record format that captures the perspectives of both patients and doctors in a clinical trial. Further, we seek to evaluate a strategic therapeutic approach that integrates the wisdom of Chinese medicine with the scientific basis of Western medicine in the treatment of digestive system disorders. Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of remedies under the system of Chinese medicine is an imperative ongoing research. The present study intends to identify a novel approach to assess the synergistic benefits achievable from an integrated therapeutic approach combining Chinese and Western system of medicine to treat digestive system disorders. PMID:26688179

  9. MARS: a mouse atlas registration system based on a planar x-ray projector and an optical camera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B; Taschereau, Richard; Gu, Zheng; Vu, Nam T; Prout, David L; Chatziioannou, Arion F

    2012-10-01

    This paper introduces a mouse atlas registration system (MARS), composed of a stationary top-view x-ray projector and a side-view optical camera, coupled to a mouse atlas registration algorithm. This system uses the x-ray and optical images to guide a fully automatic co-registration of a mouse atlas with each subject, in order to provide anatomical reference for small animal molecular imaging systems such as positron emission tomography (PET). To facilitate the registration, a statistical atlas that accounts for inter-subject anatomical variations was constructed based on 83 organ-labeled mouse micro-computed tomography (CT) images. The statistical shape model and conditional Gaussian model techniques were used to register the atlas with the x-ray image and optical photo. The accuracy of the atlas registration was evaluated by comparing the registered atlas with the organ-labeled micro-CT images of the test subjects. The results showed excellent registration accuracy of the whole-body region, and good accuracy for the brain, liver, heart, lungs and kidneys. In its implementation, the MARS was integrated with a preclinical PET scanner to deliver combined PET/MARS imaging, and to facilitate atlas-assisted analysis of the preclinical PET images. PMID:22968224

  10. Mouse embryo motion and embryonic development from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage using mechanical vibration systems.

    PubMed

    Asano, Yuka; Matsuura, Koji

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of mechanical stimuli on mouse embryonic development from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage to evaluate physical factors affecting embryonic development. Shear stress (SS) applied to embryos using two mechanical vibration systems (MVSs) was calculated by observing microscopic images of moving embryos during mechanical vibration (MV). The MVSs did not induce any motion of the medium and the diffusion rate using MVSs was the same as that under static conditions. Three days of culture using MVS did not improve embryonic development. MVS transmitted MV power more efficiently to embryos than other systems and resulted in a significant decrease in development to the morula or blastocyst stage after 2 days. Comparison of the results of embryo culture using dynamic culture systems demonstrated that macroscopic diffusion of secreted materials contributes to improved development of mouse embryos to the blastocyst stage. These results also suggest that the threshold of SS and MV to induce negative effects for mouse embryos at stages earlier than the blastocyst may be lower than that for the blastocyst, and that mouse embryos are more sensitive to physical and chemical stimuli than human or pig embryos because of their thinner zona pellucida. PMID:23697534

  11. MARS: a mouse atlas registration system based on a planar x-ray projector and an optical camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B.; Taschereau, Richard; Gu, Zheng; Vu, Nam T.; Prout, David L.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

    2012-10-01

    This paper introduces a mouse atlas registration system (MARS), composed of a stationary top-view x-ray projector and a side-view optical camera, coupled to a mouse atlas registration algorithm. This system uses the x-ray and optical images to guide a fully automatic co-registration of a mouse atlas with each subject, in order to provide anatomical reference for small animal molecular imaging systems such as positron emission tomography (PET). To facilitate the registration, a statistical atlas that accounts for inter-subject anatomical variations was constructed based on 83 organ-labeled mouse micro-computed tomography (CT) images. The statistical shape model and conditional Gaussian model techniques were used to register the atlas with the x-ray image and optical photo. The accuracy of the atlas registration was evaluated by comparing the registered atlas with the organ-labeled micro-CT images of the test subjects. The results showed excellent registration accuracy of the whole-body region, and good accuracy for the brain, liver, heart, lungs and kidneys. In its implementation, the MARS was integrated with a preclinical PET scanner to deliver combined PET/MARS imaging, and to facilitate atlas-assisted analysis of the preclinical PET images.

  12. Novel domains of expression for orphan receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2 in the human and mouse reproductive system

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ripla; Altman, Eran; Tran, Nam D; Laird, Diana J

    2014-01-01

    Background The non-canonical Wnt receptor and tyrosine kinase Ror2 has been associated with Recessive Robinow syndrome (RRS) and dominant Brachydactyly type B1. The phenotypes of mouse mutants implicate Ror2 in the development of the heart, lungs, bone and craniofacial structures, which are affected in RRS. Following a recently identified role of Ror2 in the migration of mouse primordial germ cells, we extensively characterized its expression throughout the fetal internal reproductive system and the postnatal ductal system. Results We show that Ror2 gene products are present in the germ cells and somatic cells of the testis and the ovary of both the mouse and human fetus. In reproductive tract structures, we find that Ror2 is expressed in the mesonephros, developing Wolffian and Mllerian ducts and later in their derivatives, the epididymal epithelium and uterine epithelium. Conclusion This study sets the stage to explore function for this tyrosine kinase receptor in novel regions of expression in the developing reproductive system in both mouse and human. PMID:24753105

  13. Editing the Mouse Genome Using the CRISPR-Cas9 System.

    PubMed

    Williams, Adam; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Flavell, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    The ability to modify the murine genome is perhaps one of the most important developments in modern biology. However, traditional methods of genomic engineering are costly and relatively clumsy in their approach. The use of programmable nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases significantly improved the precision of genome-editing technology, but the design and use of these nucleases remains cumbersome and prohibitively expensive. The CRISPR-Cas9 system is the next installment in the line of programmable nucleases; it provides highly efficient and precise genome-editing capabilities using reagents that are simple to design and inexpensive to generate. Furthermore, with the CRISPR-Cas9 system, it is possible to move from a hypothesis to an in vivo mouse model in less than a month. The simplicity, cost effectiveness, and speed of the CRISPR-Cas9 system allows researchers to tackle questions that otherwise would not be technically or financially viable. In this introduction, we discuss practical considerations for the use of Cas9 in genome engineering in mice. PMID:26832693

  14. Type II fuzzy systems for amyloid plaque segmentation in transgenic mouse brains for Alzheimer's disease quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademi, April; Hosseinzadeh, Danoush

    2014-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid plaques (AP). Using animal models, AP loads have been manually measured from histological specimens to understand disease etiology, as well as response to treatment. Due to the manual nature of these approaches, obtaining the AP load is labourious, subjective and error prone. Automated algorithms can be designed to alleviate these challenges by objectively segmenting AP. In this paper, we focus on the development of a novel algorithm for AP segmentation based on robust preprocessing and a Type II fuzzy system. Type II fuzzy systems are much more advantageous over the traditional Type I fuzzy systems, since ambiguity in the membership function may be modeled and exploited to generate excellent segmentation results. The ambiguity in the membership function is defined as an adaptively changing parameter that is tuned based on the local contrast characteristics of the image. Using transgenic mouse brains with AP ground truth, validation studies were carried out showing a high degree of overlap and low degree of oversegmentation (0.8233 and 0.0917, respectively). The results highlight that such a framework is able to handle plaques of various types (diffuse, punctate), plaques with varying Aβ concentrations as well as intensity variation caused by treatment effects or staining variability.

  15. Correction of CNS defects in the MPSII mouse model via systemic enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Polito, Vinicia Assunta; Abbondante, Serena; Polishchuk, Roman S; Nusco, Edoardo; Salvia, Rosaria; Cosma, Maria Pia

    2010-12-15

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII), or Hunter syndrome, is a devastating disorder associated with a shortened life expectancy. Patients affected by MPSII have a variety of symptoms that affect all organs of the body and may include progressive cognitive impairment. MPSII is due to inactivity of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS), which results in the accumulation of storage material in the lysosomes, such as dermatan and heparan sulfates, with consequent cell degeneration in all tissues including, in the severe phenotype, neurodegeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). To date, the only treatment available is systemic infusion of IDS, which ameliorates exclusively certain visceral defects. Therefore, it is important to simultaneously treat the visceral and CNS defects of the MPSII patients. Here, we have developed enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) protocols in a mouse model that allow the IDS to reach the brain, with the substantial correction of the CNS phenotype and of the neurobehavioral features. Treatments were beneficial even in adult and old MPSII mice, using relatively low doses of infused IDS over long intervals. This study demonstrates that CNS defects of MPSII mice can be treated by systemic ERT, providing the potential for development of an effective treatment for MPSII patients. PMID:20876612

  16. A new grading system based on magnetic resonance imaging in a mouse model of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Egashira, Yusuke; Shishido, Hajime; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F.; Xi, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose A grading system for experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that does not require animal euthanasia is currently unavailable. We proposed a new grading system based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and evaluated the feasibility of this method in a mouse model of SAH. Methods SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in adult male C57BL/6 mice. Mice underwent MRI 24 hours after SAH, and were categorized into the following five grades based on T2*-weighted imaging: Grade 0, no visible SAH or intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH); Grade 1, minimal/localized SAH without IVH; Grade 2, minimal/localized SAH with IVH; Grade 3, thick/diffuse SAH without IVH; Grade 4, thick/diffuse SAH with IVH. Neurological deficits were then assessed and the mice euthanized for conventional SAH grading. Results Among a total of 47 mice, 4% were scored as grade 0, 30% as grade 1, 11% as grade 2, 30% as grade 3, and 36% as grade 4. This MRI grading had excellent interobserver reliability (weighted κ value = 0.94), and there were strong correlations between the MRI grading and the conventional grading (r = 0.85; P < 0.001), or between MRI grade and neurological scores (r = −0.46; P < 0.01). Conclusions The new MRI grading correlated well with conventional grading, and enabled in-vivo evaluation of SAH severity. This grading system may offer advantages in future studies of experimental SAH. PMID:25550373

  17. Video Games: Research, Ratings, Recommendations. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This Digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The Digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders played at least one…

  18. Building Databases for Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Jane A.

    This digest provides a brief explanation of what a database is; explains how a database can be used; identifies important factors that should be considered when choosing database management system software; and provides citations to sources for finding reviews and evaluations of database management software. The digest is concerned primarily with…

  19. Establishment of a specific cell death induction system in Bombyx mori by a transgene with the conserved apoptotic regulator, mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein (mouse Bax).

    PubMed

    Sumitani, M; Sakurai, T; Kasashima, K; Kobayashi, S; Uchino, K; Kanzaki, R; Tamura, T; Sezutsu, H

    2015-12-01

    The induction of apoptosis in vivo is a useful tool for investigating the functions and importance of particular tissues. B-cell leukaemia/lymphoma 2-associated X protein (Bax) functions as a pro-apoptotic factor and induces apoptosis in several organisms. The Bax-mediated apoptotic system is widely conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. In order to establish a tissue-specific cell death system in the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori, we constructed a transgenic silkworm that overexpressed mouse Bax (mBax) in particular tissues by the Gal4-upstream activation sequence system. We found that the expression of mBax induced specific cell death in the silk gland, fat body and sensory cells. Fragmentation of genomic DNA was observed in the fat body, which expressed mBax, thereby supporting apoptotic cell death in this tissue. Using this system, we also demonstrated that specific cell death in sensory cells attenuated the response to the sex pheromone bombykol. These results show that we successfully established a tissue-specific cell death system in vivo that enabled specific deficiencies in particular tissues. The inducible cell death system may provide useful means for industrial applications of the silkworm and possible utilization for other species. PMID:26426866

  20. A Throughput-Optimized Array System for Multiple-Mouse MRI

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Marc S.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Bankson, James A.

    2012-01-01

    MRI is a versatile tool for systematically assessing anatomical and functional changes in small animal models of human disease. Its noninvasive nature makes MRI an ideal candidate for longitudinal evaluations of disease progression, but relatively long scan times limit the number of observations that can be made in a given interval of time, imposing restrictions on experiment design and potentially compromising statistical power. Methods that reduce the overall time that is required to scan multiple cohorts of animals in distinct experimental groups are therefore highly desirable. Multiple-mouse MRI, in which several animals are simultaneously scanned in a common MRI system, has been successfully used to improve study throughput. However, to best utilize the next generation of small-animal MRI systems that will be equipped with an increased number of receive channels, a paradigm shift from simultaneously scanning as many animals as possible to scanning a more manageable number, at a faster rate, must be considered. This work explores the tradeoffs between the number of animals to scan at once and the number of array elements dedicated to each animal, to maximize throughput in systems with 16 receive channels. An array system consisting of 15 receive and five transmit coils allows acceleration by a combination of multi-animal and parallel imaging techniques. The array system was designed and fabricated for use on a 7.0-T/30-cm Bruker Biospec MRI system, and tested for high-throughput imaging performance in phantoms and live mice. Results indicate that up to a ninefold throughput improvement of a single sequence is possible compared to an unaccelerated single-animal acquisition. True data throughput of a contrast-enhanced anatomical study is estimated to be improved by just over six-fold. PMID:22887122

  1. [Possible evolutionary scenarios in the parasitengona mites (Acariformes: Parasitengona) based on anatomical peculiarities of their digestive system].

    PubMed

    Shatrov, A B

    2010-01-01

    Five possible evolutionary scenarios of the higher acariform mites from the cohort Parasitengona are proposed on the basis of the detailed examination of anatomy of the excretory organ and midgut in the representatives of terrestrial mite families Trombiculidae and Microtrombidiidae, and in freshwater mite families Teutoniidae and Pionidae, on different developmental stages including parasitic larva. These scenarios explain possible ways of evolutionary transformation within the Parasitengona from one or several ancestor with the open digestive tract. PMID:21427964

  2. Digestive Organ in the Female Reproductive Tract Borrows Genes from Multiple Organ Systems to Adopt Critical Functions

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Camille; Plakke, Melissa S.; Deutsch, Aaron B.; Small, Brandon S.; Morehouse, Nathan I.; Clark, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent adaptive challenges are often met with the evolution of novel physiological traits. Although there are specific examples of single genes providing new physiological functions, studies on the origin of complex organ functions are lacking. One such derived set of complex functions is found in the Lepidopteran bursa copulatrix, an organ within the female reproductive tract that digests nutrients from the male ejaculate or spermatophore. Here, we characterized bursa physiology and the evolutionary mechanisms by which it was equipped with digestive and absorptive functionality. By studying the transcriptome of the bursa and eight other tissues, we revealed a suite of highly expressed and secreted gene products providing the bursa with a combination of stomach-like traits for mechanical and enzymatic digestion of the male spermatophore. By subsequently placing these bursa genes in an evolutionary framework, we found that the vast majority of their novel digestive functions were co-opted by borrowing genes that continue to be expressed in nonreproductive tissues. However, a number of bursa-specific genes have also arisen, some of which represent unique gene families restricted to Lepidoptera and may provide novel bursa-specific functions. This pattern of promiscuous gene borrowing and relatively infrequent evolution of tissue-specific duplicates stands in contrast to studies of the evolution of novelty via single gene co-option. Our results suggest that the evolution of complex organ-level phenotypes may often be enabled (and subsequently constrained) by changes in tissue specificity that allow expression of existing genes in novel contexts, such as reproduction. The extent to which the selective pressures encountered in these novel roles require resolution via duplication and sub/neofunctionalization is likely to be determined by the need for specialized reproductive functionality. Thus, complex physiological phenotypes such as that found in the bursa offer important opportunities for understanding the relative role of pleiotropy and specialization in adaptive evolution. PMID:25725432

  3. A Novel Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion System for Biogas Production and In Situ Methane Enrichment from Coconut Shell Pyroligneous.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Rong; Liu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Zhi-Yi; Zhang, You-Sheng; Zhang, Ye-Hui

    2016-04-01

    A novel mesophilic anaerobic digestion process with detoxification-treated coconut shell pyroligneous was established, exhibiting an effective advantage in biogas production. The pyroligneous collected contained 166.2 g l(-1) acetic acid, indicating great potential for biogas production. Detoxification was an effective way of simultaneously enriching biodegradable ingredients and removing inhibitors (mainly as phenols and organic acids) for digestion process. The digestion process lasted 96 h and fermentation characteristics (chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal ratio, volatile fatty acid (VFA) consumptions, pH, total gas, methane yield, and phenol removal efficiency) were measured. The experiments successfully explored the optimum detoxification parameters, oxidized with 10 % H2O2 followed by overliming, and demonstrated 89.3 % COD removal, 91.4 % methane content, 0.305 LCH4/g COD removed CH4 yield, and 88.81 % phenol removal ratio. This study provided clues to overcome the negative effects of inhibitors in pyroligneous on biogas production. The findings could contribute to significant process in detoxified pretreatment of pyroligneous and develop an economically feasible technology for treating pyroligneous after producing charcoal. PMID:26638211

  4. Axonal regeneration of cultured mouse hippocampal neurons studied by an optical nano-surgery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difato, F.; Tsushima, H.; Pesce, M.; Guiggiani, A.; Benfenati, F.; Blau, A.; Basso, M.; Vassalli, M.; Chieregatti, E.

    2012-02-01

    During development, the axons of neurons in the mammalian central nervous system lose their ability to regenerate after injury. In order to study the regeneration process, we developed a system integrating an optical tweezers and a laser dissector to manipulate the sample. A sub-nanosecond pulsed UVA laser was used to inflict a partial damage to the axon of mouse hippocampal neurons at early days in vitro. Partial axonal transections were performed in a highly controlled and reproducible way without affecting the regeneration process. Force spectroscopy measurements, during and after the ablation of the axon, were performed by optical tweezers with a bead attached to the neuronal membrane. Thus, the release of tension in the neurite could be analyzed in order to quantify the inflicted damage. After dissection, we monitored the viscoelastic properties of the axonal membrane, the cytoskeleton reorganization, and the dynamics of the newly formed growth cones during regeneration. In order to follow cytoskeleton dynamics in a long time window by tracking a bead attached to the neuron, we developed a real-time control of the microscope stage position with sub-millisecond and nanometer resolution. Axonal regeneration was documented by long-term (24-48 hours) bright-field live imaging using an optical microscope equipped with a custom-built cell culture incubator.

  5. Hippocampal Damage in Mouse and Human Forms of Systemic Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ballok, David A.; Woulfe, John; Sur, Monalisa; Cyr, Michael; Sakic, Boris

    2006-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is frequently accompanied by neuropsychiatric (NP) and cognitive deficits of unknown etiology. By using autoimmune MRL-lpr mice as an animal model of NP-SLE, we examine the relationship between autoimmunity, hippocampal damage, and behavioral dysfunction. Fluoro Jade B (FJB) staining and anti-ubiquitin (anti-Ub) immunocytochemistry were used to assess neuronal damage in young (asymptomatic) and aged (diseased) mice, while spontaneous alternation behavior (SAB) was used to estimate the severity of hippocampal dysfunction. The causal relationship between autoimmunity and neuropathology was tested by prolonged administration of the immunosuppressive drug cyclophosphamide (CY). In comparison to congenic MRL +/+ controls, SAB acquisition rates and performance in the “reversal” trial were impaired in diseased MRL-lpr mice, suggesting limited use of the spatial learning strategy. FJB-positive neurons and anti-Ub particles were frequent in the CA3 region. Conversely, CY treatment attenuated the SAB deficit and overall FJB staining. Similarly to mouse brain, the hippocampus from a patient who died from NP-SLE showed reduced neuronal density in the CA3 region and dentate gyrus, as well as increased FJB positivity in these regions. Gliosis and neuronal loss were observed in the gray matter, and T lymphocytes and stromal calcifications were common in the choroid plexus. Taken together, these results suggest that systemic autoimmunity induces significant hippocampal damage, which may underlie affective and cognitive deficits in NP-SLE. PMID:15301441

  6. Distribution of EphA5 receptor protein in the developing and adult mouse nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Margaret A.; Crockett, David P.; Nowakowski, Richard S.; Gale, Nicholas W.; Zhou, Renping

    2009-01-01

    The EphA5 receptor tyrosine kinase plays key roles in axon guidance during development. However, the presence of EphA5 protein in the nervous system has not been fully characterized. To better examine EphA5 localization, mutant mice, in which the EphA5 cytoplasmic domain was replaced with β-galactosidase, were analyzed for both temporal and regional changes in the distribution of EphA5 protein in the developing and adult nervous system. During embryonic development, high levels of EphA5 protein were found in the retina, olfactory bulb, cerebral neocortex, hippocampus, pretectum, tectum, cranial nerve nuclei, and the spinal cord. Variations in intensity were observed as development proceeded. Staining of pretectal nuclei, tectal nuclei, and other areas of the mesencephalon became more diffuse after maturity whereas the cerebral neocortex gained more robust intensity. In the adult, receptor protein continued to be detected in many areas including the olfactory nuclei, neocortex, piriform cortex, induseum griseum, hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, hypothalamus and septum. In addition, EphA5 protein was found in the claustrum, stria terminalis, barrel cortex, striatal patches, and along discrete axon tracts within the corpus callosum of the adult. These observations suggest that EphA5 function is not limited to the developing mouse brain and may play a role in synaptic plasticity in the adult. PMID:19326470

  7. Growth Arrest Specific 1 (GAS1) Is Abundantly Expressed in the Adult Mouse Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Zarco, Natanael; Bautista, Elizabeth; Cullar, Manola; Vergara, Paula; Flores-Rodriguez, Paola; Aguilar-Roblero, Ral

    2013-01-01

    Growth arrest specific 1 (GAS1) is a pleiotropic protein that induces apoptosis and cell arrest in different tumors, but it is also involved in the development of the nervous system and other tissues and organs. This dual ability is likely caused by its capacity to interact both by inhibiting the intracellular signaling cascade induced by glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor and by facilitating the activity of the sonic hedgehog pathway. The presence of GAS1 mRNA has been described in adult mouse brain, and here we corroborated this observation. We then proceeded to determine the distribution of the protein in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We detected, by western blot analysis, expression of GAS1 in olfactory bulb, caudate-putamen, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, mesencephalon, medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and cervical spinal cord. To more carefully map the expression of GAS1, we performed double-label immunohistochemistry and noticed expression of GAS1 in neurons in all brain areas examined. We also observed expression of GAS1 in astroglial cells, albeit the pattern of expression was more restricted than that seen in neurons. Briefly, in the present article, we report the widespread distribution and cellular localization of the GAS1 native protein in adult mammalian CNS. PMID:23813868

  8. A robust and high-throughput Cre reporting and characterization system for the whole mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Madisen, Linda; Zwingman, Theresa A.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Oh, Seung Wook; Zariwala, Hatim A.; Gu, Hong; Ng, Lydia L.; Palmiter, Richard D.; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Jones, Allan R.; Lein, Ed S.; Zeng, Hongkui

    2009-01-01

    The Cre/lox system is widely used in mice to achieve cell-type-specific gene expression. However, a strong and universal responding system to express genes under Cre control is still lacking. We have generated a set of Cre reporter mice with strong, ubiquitous expression of fluorescent proteins of different spectra. The robust native fluorescence of these reporters enables direct visualization of fine dendritic structures and axonal projections of the labeled neurons, which is useful in mapping neuronal circuitry, imaging and tracking specific cell populations in vivo. Using these reporters and a high-throughput in situ hybridization platform, we are systematically profiling Cre-directed gene expression throughout the mouse brain in a number of Cre-driver lines, including novel Cre lines targeting different cell types in the cortex. Our expression data are displayed in a public online database to help researchers assess the utility of various Cre-driver lines for cell-type-specific genetic manipulation. PMID:20023653

  9. IL-13 Overexpression in Mouse Lungs Triggers Systemic Genotoxicity in Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Aaron M.; Malkin, Daniel J.; Camacho, Jessica; Schiestl, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a common heterogeneous disease with both genetic and environmental factors that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Activated type 2 helper T cells secrete a panel of cytokines, including IL-13, a central immune regulator of many of the hallmark type 2 disease characteristics found in asthma. IL-13 has been directly implicated as a potent stimulator of asthma induced airway remodeling. Although IL-13 is known to play a major role in the development and persistence of asthma, the complex combination of environmental and genetic origin of the disease obfuscate the solitary role of IL-13 in the disease. We therefore, used a genetically modified mouse model which conditionally overexpresses IL-13 in the lungs to study the independent role of IL-13 in the progression of asthma. Our results demonstrate IL-13 is associated with a systemic induction of genotoxic parameters such as oxidative DNA damage, single and double DNA strand breaks, micronucleus formation, and protein nitration. Furthermore we show that inflammation induced genotoxicity found in asthma extends beyond the primary site of the lung to circulating leukocytes and erythroblasts in the bone marrow eliciting systemic effects driven by IL-13 over-expression. PMID:25400503

  10. Partial neurorescue effects of DHA following a 6-OHDA lesion of the mouse dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Coulombe, Katherine; Saint-Pierre, Martine; Cisbani, Giulia; St-Amour, Isabelle; Gibrat, Claire; Giguère-Rancourt, Ariane; Calon, Frédéric; Cicchetti, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Pre-clinical data collected in mouse models of Parkinson's disease (PD) support the neuroprotective potential of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA)-enriched diet on the dopaminergic (DAergic) system. In this study, we investigated the effects of an n-3 PUFA-rich diet using a neurorescue/neurorestorative paradigm. C57BL/6 adult mice were submitted to a striatal stereotaxic injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to induce striatal DAergic denervation and subsequent nigral DAergic cell loss. Three weeks post-lesion, mice received either a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched or a control diet for a period of 6 weeks. HPLC analyses revealed a 111% post-lesion increase in striatal dopamine levels in the DHA-fed animals compared to controls (ctrl, P<0.05), although no improvement in the motor behavior was observed. DHA treatment led to a 89% rise in tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive terminals within the striatum (P<0.05) in lesioned animals. Despite the fact that DHA did not change the number of TH+ neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), morphological analyses revealed an increased in perimeters (+7%) and areas (+21%) of DAergic cell bodies in treated animals. Collectively, our results suggest that DHA induces a partial neurorescue/neurorestoration of the DAergic system and support further studies to investigate the potential of a diet-based intervention, or at least the combination of such approach, to current treatments in PD. PMID:27012630

  11. Rapid generation of mouse models with defined point mutations by the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Inui, Masafumi; Miyado, Mami; Igarashi, Maki; Tamano, Moe; Kubo, Atsushi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Asahara, Hiroshi; Fukami, Maki; Takada, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a point mutation is a fundamental method used to demonstrate the roles of particular nucleotides or amino acids in the genetic elements or proteins, and is widely used in in vitro experiments based on cultured cells and exogenously provided DNA. However, the in vivo application of this approach by modifying genomic loci is uncommon, partly due to its technical and temporal demands. This leaves many in vitro findings un-validated under in vivo conditions. We herein applied the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate mice with point mutations in their genomes, which led to single amino acid substitutions in proteins of interest. By microinjecting gRNA, hCas9 mRNA and single-stranded donor oligonucleotides (ssODN) into mouse zygotes, we introduced defined genomic modifications in their genome with a low cost and in a short time. Both single gRNA/WT hCas9 and double nicking set-ups were effective. We also found that the distance between the modification site and gRNA target site was a significant parameter affecting the efficiency of the substitution. We believe that this is a powerful technique that can be used to examine the relevance of in vitro findings, as well as the mutations found in patients with genetic disorders, in an in vivo system. PMID:24953798

  12. Pannexin-1 expression in developing mouse nervous system: new evidence for expression in sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Raslan, Abdulrahman; Hainz, Nadine; Beckmann, Anja; Tschernig, Thomas; Meier, Carola

    2016-04-01

    Pannexin1 (Panx1) is one of three members of the pannexin protein family. The expression of Panx1 mRNA has been extensively investigated from late embryonic to adult stages. In contrast, expression during early embryonic development is largely unknown. Our aim is to examine the temporal and spatial expression of Panx1 in mouse embryonic development by focusing on embryonic days (E) 9.5 to 12.5. Whole embryos are investigated in order to provide a comprehensive survey. Analyses were performed at the mRNA level by using reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction and whole-mount in situ hybridization. Panx1 mRNA was detected in the heads and bodies of embryos at all developmental stages investigated (E9.5, E10.5, E11.5, E12.5). In particular, the nervous system expressed Panx1 at an early time point. Interestingly, Panx1 expression was found in afferent ganglia of the cranial nerves and spinal cord. This finding is of particular interest in the context of neuropathic pain and other Panx1-related neurological disorders. Our study shows, for the first time, that Panx1 is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system during early developmental stages. The consequences of Panx1 deficiency or inhibition in a number of experimental paradigms might therefore be predicated on changes during early development. PMID:26453396

  13. Ghrelin-related peptides do not modulate vasodilator nitric oxide production or superoxide levels in mouse systemic arteries.

    PubMed

    Ku, Jacqueline M; Sleeman, Mark W; Sobey, Christopher G; Andrews, Zane B; Miller, Alyson A

    2016-04-01

    The ghrelin gene is expressed in the stomach where it ultimately encodes up to three peptides, namely, acylated ghrelin, des-acylated ghrelin and obestatin, which all have neuroendocrine roles. Recently, the authors' reported that these peptides have important physiological roles in positively regulating vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) production in the cerebral circulation, and may normally suppress superoxide production by the pro-oxidant enzyme, Nox2-NADPH oxidase. To date, the majority of studies using exogenous peptides infer that they may have similar roles in the systemic circulation. Therefore, this study examined whether exogenous and endogenous ghrelin-related peptides modulate NO production and superoxide levels in mouse mesenteric arteries and/or thoracic aorta. Using wire myography, it was found that application of exogenous acylated ghrelin, des-acylated ghrelin or obestatin to mouse thoracic aorta or mesenteric arteries failed to elicit a vasorelaxation response, whereas all three peptides elicited vasorelaxation responses of rat thoracic aorta. Also, none of the peptides modulated mouse aortic superoxide levels as measured by L-012-enhanced chemiluminescence. Next, it was found that NO bioactivity and superoxide levels were unaffected in the thoracic aorta from ghrelin-deficient mice when compared with wild-type mice. Lastly, using novel GHSR-eGFP reporter mice in combination with double-labelled immunofluorescence, no evidence was found for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR1a) in the throracic aorta, which is the only functional ghrelin receptor identified to date. Collectively these findings demonstrate that, in contrast to systemic vessels of other species (e.g. rat and human) and mouse cerebral vessels, ghrelin-related peptides do not modulate vasodilator NO production or superoxide levels in mouse systemic arteries. PMID:26800483

  14. The natural organosulfur compound dipropyltetrasulfide prevents HOCl-induced systemic sclerosis in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to test the naturally occurring organosulfur compound dipropyltetrasulfide (DPTTS), found in plants, which has antibiotic and anticancer properties, as a treatment for HOCl-induced systemic sclerosis in the mouse. Methods The prooxidative, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic effects of DPTTS were evaluated ex vivo on fibroblasts from normal and HOCl mice. In vivo, the antifibrotic and immunomodulating properties of DPTTS were evaluated in the skin and lungs of HOCl mice. Results H2O2 production was higher in fibroblasts derived from HOCl mice than in normal fibroblasts (P?mouse through the selective killing of diseased fibroblasts and its immunomodulating properties. DPTTS may be a potential treatment for systemic sclerosis. PMID:24286210

  15. Differences in Pathogenesis for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the Mouse Versus the Swine Model Identify Bacterial Gene Products Required for Systemic but not Gastrointestinal Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last several decades, the mouse model of Typhoid fever has been an extremely productive model to investigate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium pathogenesis. The mouse is the paradigm for investigating systemic disease due to infection by Salmonella; however, the swine model of gastro...

  16. Production Response and Digestive Enzymatic Activity of the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) Intensively Pregrown in Microbial Heterotrophic and Autotrophic-Based Systems

    PubMed Central

    Becerra-Dórame, Manuel J.; Martínez-Porchas, Marcel; Martínez-Córdova, Luis R.; Rivas-Vega, Martha E.; Lopez-Elias, José A.; Porchas-Cornejo, Marco A.

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp postlarvae were reared into different microcosm systems without water exchange; a traditional system based on simple fertilization to improve microalgae concentration (control), an autotrophic system (AS) based on the promotion of biofloc and biofilm by the addition of fertilizer and artificial substrates and a heterotrophic system (HS) based on the promotion of heterotrophic bacteria by the addition of nitrogenous and carbonaceous sources and artificial substrates. Better growth performance and survival were registered in shrimp from the AS and HS compared to the control. Feed conversion ratios were below 0.7 for all treatments, but AS and HS were significantly lower than the control. Regarding digestive performance, no significant differences were observed for trypsin, amylase and lipase activities among AS and control shrimp; however, shrimp from HS showed a higher trypsin and amylase activities, suggesting a higher digestive activity caused by the presence of microbial bioflocs. The presence of biofilm and bioflocs composed by either autotrophic or heterotrophic organisms in combination with formulated feed improved the growth performance and survival of shrimp. Apparently, such combination fits the nutritional requirements of shrimp. PMID:22649317

  17. A Compartmentalized Mathematical Model of the β1-Adrenergic Signaling System in Mouse Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bondarenko, Vladimir E.

    2014-01-01

    The β1-adrenergic signaling system plays an important role in the functioning of cardiac cells. Experimental data shows that the activation of this system produces inotropy, lusitropy, and chronotropy in the heart, such as increased magnitude and relaxation rates of [Ca2+]i transients and contraction force, and increased heart rhythm. However, excessive stimulation of β1-adrenergic receptors leads to heart dysfunction and heart failure. In this paper, a comprehensive, experimentally based mathematical model of the β1-adrenergic signaling system for mouse ventricular myocytes is developed, which includes major subcellular functional compartments (caveolae, extracaveolae, and cytosol). The model describes biochemical reactions that occur during stimulation of β1-adrenoceptors, changes in ionic currents, and modifications of Ca2+ handling system. Simulations describe the dynamics of major signaling molecules, such as cyclic AMP and protein kinase A, in different subcellular compartments; the effects of inhibition of phosphodiesterases on cAMP production; kinetics and magnitudes of phosphorylation of ion channels, transporters, and Ca2+ handling proteins; modifications of action potential shape and duration; magnitudes and relaxation rates of [Ca2+]i transients; changes in intracellular and transmembrane Ca2+ fluxes; and [Na+]i fluxes and dynamics. The model elucidates complex interactions of ionic currents upon activation of β1-adrenoceptors at different stimulation frequencies, which ultimately lead to a relatively modest increase in action potential duration and significant increase in [Ca2+]i transients. In particular, the model includes two subpopulations of the L-type Ca2+ channels, in caveolae and extracaveolae compartments, and their effects on the action potential and [Ca2+]i transients are investigated. The presented model can be used by researchers for the interpretation of experimental data and for the developments of mathematical models for other species or for pathological conditions. PMID:24586529

  18. Immune System Modifications Induced in a Mouse Model of Chronic Exposure to (90)Sr.

    PubMed

    Synhaeve, Nicholas; Musilli, Stefania; Stefani, Johanna; Nicolas, Nour; Delissen, Olivia; Dublineau, Isabelle; Bertho, Jean-Marc

    2016-03-01

    Strontium 90 ((90)Sr) remains in the environment long after a major nuclear disaster occurs. As a result, populations living on contaminated land are potentially exposed to daily ingesting of low quantities of (90)Sr. The potential long-term health effects of such chronic contamination are unknown. In this study, we used a mouse model to evaluate the effects of (90)Sr ingestion on the immune system, the animals were chronically exposed to (90)Sr in drinking water at a concentration of 20 kBq/l, for a daily ingestion of 80-100 Bq/day. This resulted in a reduced number of CD19(+) B lymphocytes in the bone marrow and spleen in steady-state conditions. In contrast, the results from a vaccine experiment performed as a functional test of the immune system showed that in response to T-dependent antigens, there was a reduction in IgG specific to tetanus toxin (TT), a balanced Th1/Th2 response inducer antigen, but not to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), a strong Th2 response inducer antigen. This was accompanied by a reduction in Th1 cells in the spleen, consistent with the observed reduction in specific IgG concentration. The precise mechanisms by which (90)Sr acts on the immune system remain to be elucidated. However, our results suggest that (90)Sr ingestion may be responsible for some of the reported effects of internal contamination on the immune system in civilian populations exposed to the Chernobyl fallout. PMID:26930377

  19. Quantification, distribution, and possible source of bacterial biofilm in mouse automated watering systems.

    PubMed

    Meier, Thomas R; Maute, Carrie J; Cadillac, Joan M; Lee, Ji Young; Righter, Daniel J; Hugunin, Kelly M S; Deininger, Rolf A; Dysko, Robert C

    2008-03-01

    The use of automated watering systems for providing drinking water to rodents has become commonplace in the research setting. Little is known regarding bacterial biofilm growth within the water piping attached to the racks (manifolds). The purposes of this project were to determine whether the mouse oral flora contributed to the aerobic bacterial component of the rack biofilm, quantify bacterial growth in rack manifolds over 6 mo, assess our rack sanitation practices, and quantify bacterial biofilm development within sections of the manifold. By using standard methods of bacterial identification, the aerobic oral flora of 8 strains and stocks of mice were determined on their arrival at our animal facility. Ten rack manifolds were sampled before, during, and after sanitation and monthly for 6 mo. Manifolds were evaluated for aerobic bacterial growth by culture on R2A and trypticase soy agar, in addition to bacterial ATP quantification by bioluminescence. In addition, 6 racks were sampled at 32 accessible sites for evaluation of biofilm distribution within the watering manifold. The identified aerobic bacteria in the oral flora were inconsistent with the bacteria from the manifold, suggesting that the mice do not contribute to the biofilm bacteria. Bacterial growth in manifolds increased while they were in service, with exponential growth of the biofilm from months 3 to 6 and a significant decrease after sanitization. Bacterial biofilm distribution was not significantly different across location quartiles of the rack manifold, but bacterial levels differed between the shelf pipe and connecting elbow pipes. PMID:18351724

  20. The endocannabinoid system and pivotal role of the CB2 receptor in mouse spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Paola; Orlando, Pierangelo; Di Siena, Sara; Lolicato, Francesca; Petrosino, Stefania; Bisogno, Tiziana; Geremia, Raffaele; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    The exact role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) during spermatogenesis has not been clarified. We used purified germ cell fractions representative of all phases of spermatogenesis and primary cultures of spermatogonia. This approach allowed the precise quantification of the cannabinoid receptor ligands, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and of the expression at transcriptional and transductional levels of their metabolic enzymes and receptors. Our data indicate that male mouse germ cells possess an active and complete ECS, which is modulated during meiosis, and suggest the presence of an autocrine endocannabinoid signal during spermatogenesis. Mitotic cells possess higher levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, which decrease in spermatocytes and spermatids. Accordingly, spermatogonia express higher and lower levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol biosynthetic and degrading enzymes, respectively, as compared to meiotic and postmeiotic cells. This endocannabinoid likely plays a pivotal role in promoting the meiotic progression of germ cells by activating CB2 receptors. In fact, we found that the selective CB2 receptor agonist, JWH133, induced the Erk 1/2 MAPK phosphorylation cascade in spermatogonia and their progression toward meiosis, because it increased the number of cells positive for SCP3, a marker of meiotic prophase, and the expression of early meiotic prophase genes. PMID:19541620

  1. Design of a Miniature Tissue Culture System to Culture Mouse Heart Valves

    PubMed Central

    Lieber, Samuel C.; Kruithof, Boudewijn P. T.; Aubry, Nadine; Vatner, Stephen F.; Gaussin, Vinciane

    2010-01-01

    Valvular heart disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in adults but little is known about the underlying etiology. A better understanding of the genetic and hemodynamic mechanisms involved in growth and remodeling of heart valves during physiological and pathological conditions is needed for a better understanding of valvular heart disease. Here, we report the design of a miniature tissue culture system (MTCS) that allows the culture of mitral valves from perinatal to adult mice. The design of the MTCS is novel in that fine positioning and cannulation can be conducted with hearts of different sizes (perinatal to adult). Perfusion of the heart and hence, culture of the mitral valve in its natural position, occurs in a hydraulically sealed culture bath environment. Using the MTCS, we successfully cultured the mitral valve of adult mouse hearts for 3 days. Histological analysis indicated that the cultured valves remained viable and their extracellular matrix organization was similar to age-matched native valves. Gene expression could also be modified in cultured valves by perfusion with medium containing beta-galactosidase-expressing adenovirus. Thus, the MTCS is a new tool to study the genetic and hemodynamic mechanisms underlying the three-dimensional organization of the heart valves, which could provide insights in the pathology of valvular heart disease and be used in animal models for the development of tissue-engineered heart valves. PMID:20099034

  2. Quantification, Distribution, and Possible Source of Bacterial Biofilm in Mouse Automated Watering Systems

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Thomas R; Maute, Carrie J; Cadillac, Joan M; Lee, Ji Young; Righter, Daniel J; Hugunin, Kelly MS; Deininger, Rolf A; Dysko, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    The use of automated watering systems for providing drinking water to rodents has become commonplace in the research setting. Little is known regarding bacterial biofilm growth within the water piping attached to the racks (manifolds). The purposes of this project were to determine whether the mouse oral flora contributed to the aerobic bacterial component of the rack biofilm, quantify bacterial growth in rack manifolds over 6 mo, assess our rack sanitation practices, and quantify bacterial biofilm development within sections of the manifold. By using standard methods of bacterial identification, the aerobic oral flora of 8 strains and stocks of mice were determined on their arrival at our animal facility. Ten rack manifolds were sampled before, during, and after sanitation and monthly for 6 mo. Manifolds were evaluated for aerobic bacterial growth by culture on R2A and trypticase soy agar, in addition to bacterial ATP quantification by bioluminescence. In addition, 6 racks were sampled at 32 accessible sites for evaluation of biofilm distribution within the watering manifold. The identified aerobic bacteria in the oral flora were inconsistent with the bacteria from the manifold, suggesting that the mice do not contribute to the biofilm bacteria. Bacterial growth in manifolds increased while they were in service, with exponential growth of the biofilm from months 3 to 6 and a significant decrease after sanitization. Bacterial biofilm distribution was not significantly different across location quartiles of the rack manifold, but bacterial levels differed between the shelf pipe and connecting elbow pipes. PMID:18351724

  3. Systemic multicompartmental effects of the gut microbiome on mouse metabolic phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Sandrine P; Tsang, Tsz M; Wang, Yulan; Cloarec, Olivier; Skordi, Eleni; Martin, François-Pierre; Rezzi, Serge; Ross, Alastair; Kochhar, Sunil; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2008-01-01

    To characterize the impact of gut microbiota on host metabolism, we investigated the multicompartmental metabolic profiles of a conventional mouse strain (C3H/HeJ) (n=5) and its germ-free (GF) equivalent (n=5). We confirm that the microbiome strongly impacts on the metabolism of bile acids through the enterohepatic cycle and gut metabolism (higher levels of phosphocholine and glycine in GF liver and marked higher levels of bile acids in three gut compartments). Furthermore we demonstrate that (1) well-defined metabolic differences exist in all examined compartments between the metabotypes of GF and conventional mice: bacterial co-metabolic products such as hippurate (urine) and 5-aminovalerate (colon epithelium) were found at reduced concentrations, whereas raffinose was only detected in GF colonic profiles. (2) The microbiome also influences kidney homeostasis with elevated levels of key cell volume regulators (betaine, choline, myo-inositol and so on) observed in GF kidneys. (3) Gut microbiota modulate metabotype expression at both local (gut) and global (biofluids, kidney, liver) system levels and hence influence the responses to a variety of dietary modulation and drug exposures relevant to personalized health-care investigations. PMID:18854818

  4. Deletion of mouse FXR gene disturbs multiple neurotransmitter systems and alters neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fei; Wang, Tingting; Lan, Yunyi; Yang, Li; Pan, Weihong; Zhu, Yonghui; Lv, Boyang; Wei, Yuting; Shi, Hailian; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Beibei; Wang, Jie; Duan, Xiaofeng; Hu, Zhibi; Wu, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in bile acid synthesis and homeostasis. Dysfunction of FXR is involved in cholestasis and atherosclerosis. FXR is prevalent in liver, gallbladder, and intestine, but it is not yet clear whether it modulates neurobehavior. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that mouse FXR deficiency affects a specific subset of neurotransmitters and results in an unique behavioral phenotype. The FXR knockout mice showed less depressive-like and anxiety-related behavior, but increased motor activity. They had impaired memory and reduced motor coordination. There were changes of glutamatergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, and norepinephrinergic neurotransmission in either hippocampus or cerebellum. FXR deletion decreased the amount of the GABA synthesis enzyme GAD65 in hippocampus but increased GABA transporter GAT1 in cerebral cortex. FXR deletion increased serum concentrations of many bile acids, including taurodehydrocholic acid, taurocholic acid, deoxycholic acid (DCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), tauro-α-muricholic acid, tauro-ω-muricholic acid, and hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA). There were also changes in brain concentrations of taurocholic acid, taurodehydrocholic acid, tauro-ω-muricholic acid, tauro-β-muricholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and lithocholic acid (LCA). Taken together, the results from studies with FXR knockout mice suggest that FXR contributes to the homeostasis of multiple neurotransmitter systems in different brain regions and modulates neurobehavior. The effect appears to be at least partially mediated by bile acids that are known to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) inducing potential neurotoxicity. PMID:25870546

  5. A system in mouse liver for the repair of O6-methylguanine lesions in methylated DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Bogden, J M; Eastman, A; Bresnick, E

    1981-01-01

    An activity from mouse liver with catalyzes the disappearance of O6-methylguanine from DNA methylated with methylnitrosourea has been partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and DNA-cellulose chromatography. The activity does not require divalent metal ions and is not affected by EDTA. It is specific for the repair of O6-methylguanine lesions and does not affect the removal of 7-methylguanine, 7-methyladenine or 3-methyladenine. The disappearance of O6-methylguanine is linear with respect to the concentration of protein and is dependent on incubation temperature. The kinetics and substrate dependence experiments suggest that the protein factor is product-inactivated. Amino acid analysis of hydrolysates of protein obtained after incubation of methylated DNA with the protein factor indicates the presence of radiolabeled S-methyl-L-cysteine, suggesting that during the repair of O6-methylguanine from methylated DNA, the methyl group is transferred to a sulfhydryl of a cysteine residue of a protein. This represents the first such demonstration in a mammalian system. PMID:7279663

  6. Selective oxidation of DNA topoisomerase 1 induces systemic sclerosis in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Servettaz, Amélie; Goulvestre, Claire; Kavian, Niloufar; Nicco, Carole; Guilpain, Philippe; Chéreau, Christiane; Vuiblet, Vincent; Guillevin, Loïc; Mouthon, Luc; Weill, Bernard; Batteux, Frédéric

    2009-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder of great clinical heterogeneity. Its pathophysiology remains unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the relative roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of the immune system using an original model of SSc. BALB/c and immunodeficient BALB/c SCID mice were injected s.c. with prooxidative agents (hydroxyl radicals, hypochlorous acid, peroxynitrites, superoxide anions), bleomycin, or PBS everyday for 6 wk. Skin and lung fibrosis were assessed by histological and biochemical methods. Autoantibodies were detected by ELISA. The effects of mouse sera on H(2)O(2) production by endothelial cells and on fibroblast proliferation, and serum concentrations in advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were compared with sera from patients with limited or diffuse SSc. We observed that s.c. peroxynitrites induced skin fibrosis and serum anti-CENP-B Abs that characterize limited SSc, whereas hypochlorite or hydroxyl radicals induced cutaneous and lung fibrosis and anti-DNA topoisomerase 1 autoantibodies that characterize human diffuse SSc. Sera from hypochlorite- or hydroxyl radical-treated mice and of patients with diffuse SSc contained high levels of AOPP that triggered endothelial production of H(2)O(2) and fibroblast hyperproliferation. Oxidized topoisomerase 1 recapitulated the effects of whole serum AOPP. SCID mice developed an attenuated form of SSc, demonstrating the synergistic role of the immune system with AOPP in disease propagation. We demonstrate a direct role for ROS in SSc and show that the nature of the ROS dictates the form of SSc. Moreover, this demonstration is the first that shows the specific oxidation of an autoantigen directly participates in the pathogenesis of an autoimmune disease. PMID:19380834

  7. Optimization of high-rate TN removal in a novel constructed wetland integrated with microelectrolysis system treating high-strength digestate supernatant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Luchen; He, Keli; Wu, Shubiao; Sun, Hao; Wang, Yanfei; Huang, Xu; Dong, Renjie

    2016-08-01

    The potential of high-rate TN removal in three aerated horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands to treat high-strength anaerobic digestate supernatant was evaluated. Different strategies of intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation were applied to compare their effect on nitrogen depuration performance. Additional glucose supply and iron-activated carbon based post-treatment systems were established and examined, respectively, to further remove nitrate that accumulated in the effluents from aerated wetlands. The results showed that intermittent aeration (1 h on:1 h off) significantly improved nitrification with ammonium removal efficiency of 90% (18.1 g/(m(2)·d)), but limited TN removal efficiency (53%). Even though effluent recirculation (a ratio of 1:1) increased TN removal from 53% to 71%, the effluent nitrate concentration was still high. Additional glucose was used as a post-treatment option and further increased the TN removal to 82%; however, this implementation caused additional organic pollution. Furthermore, the iron-activated carbon system stimulated with a microelectrolysis process achieved greater than 85% effluent nitrate removal and resulted in 86% TN removal. Considering the high TN removal rate, aerated constructed wetlands integrated with a microelectrolysis-driven system show great potential for treating high-strength digestate supernatant. PMID:27136616

  8. Enhanced methane production in an anaerobic digestion and microbial electrolysis cell coupled system with co-cultivation of Geobacter and Methanosarcina.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qi; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Zhan, Guoqiang; Bo, Tao; Yang, Yanfei; Tao, Yong; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping; Yan, Zhiying

    2016-04-01

    The anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) coupled system has been proved to be a promising process for biomethane production. In this paper, it was found that by co-cultivating Geobacter with Methanosarcina in an AD-MEC coupled system, methane yield was further increased by 24.1%, achieving to 360.2mL/g-COD, which was comparable to the theoretical methane yield of an anaerobic digester. With the presence of Geobacter, the maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate (216.8mg COD/(L·hr)) and current density (304.3A/m(3)) were both increased by 1.3 and 1.8 fold compared to the previous study without Geobacter, resulting in overall energy efficiency reaching up to 74.6%. Community analysis demonstrated that Geobacter and Methanosarcina could coexist together in the biofilm, and the electrochemical activities of both were confirmed by cyclic voltammetry. Our study observed that the carbon dioxide content in total gas generated from the AD reactor with Geobacter was only half of that generated from the same reactor without Geobacter, suggesting that Methanosarcina may obtain the electron transferred from Geobacter for the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane. Taken together, Geobacter not only can improve the performance of the MEC system, but also can enhance methane production. PMID:27090713

  9. Evidence Suggesting a Role of Iron in a Mouse Model of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Chhanda; Megyesi, Judit K.; Shah, Sudhir V.; Hiatt, Kim M.; Hall, Kimberly A.; Karaduta, Oleg; Swaminathan, Sundararaman

    2015-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is associated with gadolinium contrast exposure in patients with reduced kidney function and carries high morbidity and mortality. We have previously demonstrated that gadolinium contrast agents induce in vivo systemic iron mobilization and in vitro differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells into ferroportin (iron exporter)-expressing fibrocytic cells. In the present study we examined the role of iron in a mouse model of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Chronic kidney disease was induced in 8-week-old male Balb/C mice with a two-step 5/6 nephrectomy surgery. Five groups of mice were studied: control (n = 5), sham surgery control (n = 5), chronic kidney disease control (n = 4), chronic kidney disease injected with 0.5 mmol/kg body weight of Omniscan 3 days per week, for a total of 10 injections (n = 8), and chronic kidney disease with Omniscan plus deferiprone, 125 mg/kg, in drinking water (n = 9). Deferiprone was continued for 16 weeks until the end of the experiment. Mice with chronic kidney disease injected with Omniscan developed skin changes characteristic of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis including hair loss, reddening, ulceration, and skin tightening by 10 to 16 weeks. Histopathological sections demonstrated dermal fibrosis with increased skin thickness (0.25±0.06 mm, sham; 0.34±+0.3 mm, Omniscan-injected). Additionally, we observed an increase in tissue infiltration of ferroportin-expressing, fibrocyte-like cells accompanied by tissue iron accumulation in the skin of the Omniscan-treated mice. The deferiprone-treated group had significantly decreased skin thickness (p<0.05) and significantly decreased dermal fibrosis compared to the Omniscan-only group. In addition, iron chelation prevented tissue infiltration of ferroportin-expressing, fibrocyte-like cells. Our in vitro experiments demonstrated that exposure to Omniscan resulted in the release of catalytic iron and this was prevented by the iron chelator deferiprone. Deferiprone inhibited the differentiation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into ferroportin-expressing cells by immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis. Our studies support an important role of iron in the pathophysiology of gadolinium chelate toxicity and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. PMID:26305890

  10. Evidence Suggesting a Role of Iron in a Mouse Model of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bose, Chhanda; Megyesi, Judit K; Shah, Sudhir V; Hiatt, Kim M; Hall, Kimberly A; Karaduta, Oleg; Swaminathan, Sundararaman

    2015-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is associated with gadolinium contrast exposure in patients with reduced kidney function and carries high morbidity and mortality. We have previously demonstrated that gadolinium contrast agents induce in vivo systemic iron mobilization and in vitro differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells into ferroportin (iron exporter)-expressing fibrocytic cells. In the present study we examined the role of iron in a mouse model of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Chronic kidney disease was induced in 8-week-old male Balb/C mice with a two-step 5/6 nephrectomy surgery. Five groups of mice were studied: control (n = 5), sham surgery control (n = 5), chronic kidney disease control (n = 4), chronic kidney disease injected with 0.5 mmol/kg body weight of Omniscan 3 days per week, for a total of 10 injections (n = 8), and chronic kidney disease with Omniscan plus deferiprone, 125 mg/kg, in drinking water (n = 9). Deferiprone was continued for 16 weeks until the end of the experiment. Mice with chronic kidney disease injected with Omniscan developed skin changes characteristic of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis including hair loss, reddening, ulceration, and skin tightening by 10 to 16 weeks. Histopathological sections demonstrated dermal fibrosis with increased skin thickness (0.25±0.06 mm, sham; 0.34±+0.3 mm, Omniscan-injected). Additionally, we observed an increase in tissue infiltration of ferroportin-expressing, fibrocyte-like cells accompanied by tissue iron accumulation in the skin of the Omniscan-treated mice. The deferiprone-treated group had significantly decreased skin thickness (p<0.05) and significantly decreased dermal fibrosis compared to the Omniscan-only group. In addition, iron chelation prevented tissue infiltration of ferroportin-expressing, fibrocyte-like cells. Our in vitro experiments demonstrated that exposure to Omniscan resulted in the release of catalytic iron and this was prevented by the iron chelator deferiprone. Deferiprone inhibited the differentiation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into ferroportin-expressing cells by immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis. Our studies support an important role of iron in the pathophysiology of gadolinium chelate toxicity and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. PMID:26305890

  11. Systemic interleukin 12 displays anti-tumour activity in the mouse central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Kishima, H.; Shimizu, K.; Miyao, Y.; Mabuchi, E.; Tamura, K.; Tamura, M.; Sasaki, M.; Hakakawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    In various systemic cancers, interleukin 12 (IL-12) induces anti-tumour immunity mediated by T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. To determine whether IL-12 has anti-tumour activity against malignant gliomas in the central nervous system (CNS), which is considered to be an immunologically privileged site, we treated mice with meningeal gliomatosis by intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intrathecal (i.t.) administration of recombinant murine IL-12. Although untreated mice revealed symptoms, such as body weight loss or paraplegia as a result of the meningeal gliomatosis within 8 days after tumour inoculation, 80% of the mice treated with IL-12 at 0.5 microg i.p. were cured. Many lymphocytes, mostly CD4+ and CD8+ cells, infiltrated to the tumours of IL-12-treated mice. The numbers of these cells increased in the cervical lymph nodes, into which the cerebrospinal fluid drains, and there they secreted a considerable amount of interferon-gamma. Mice cured by IL-12 rejected subcutaneous or i.t. rechallenge with their original glioma cells, but the same mice were not able to reject other syngeneic tumour cells. These results indicate that the immune system recognizes malignant glioma cells in the subarachnoid space of the CNS and that systemic IL-12 may produce effective anti-tumour activity and long-lasting tumour-specific immunity. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:9716025

  12. Digestive Diseases Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... Image Library Digestive Disease, Nutrition, and Weight-control Materials Healthy eating, physical activity, and weight control materials available from NIDDK's Weight-control Information Network(WIN) ...

  13. 77 FR 38075 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney... Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Type 1 Diabetes Mouse Resource. Date: July 23, 2012. Time: 1 p.m....gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases...

  14. 3D mouse shape reconstruction based on phase-shifting algorithm for fluorescence molecular tomography imaging system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Dianwen; Baikejiang, Reheman; Li, Changqing

    2015-11-10

    This work introduces a fast, low-cost, robust method based on fringe pattern and phase shifting to obtain three-dimensional (3D) mouse surface geometry for fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) imaging. We used two pico projector/webcam pairs to project and capture fringe patterns from different views. We first calibrated the pico projectors and the webcams to obtain their system parameters. Each pico projector/webcam pair had its own coordinate system. We used a cylindrical calibration bar to calculate the transformation matrix between these two coordinate systems. After that, the pico projectors projected nine fringe patterns with a phase-shifting step of 2π/9 onto the surface of a mouse-shaped phantom. The deformed fringe patterns were captured by the corresponding webcam respectively, and then were used to construct two phase maps, which were further converted to two 3D surfaces composed of scattered points. The two 3D point clouds were further merged into one with the transformation matrix. The surface extraction process took less than 30 seconds. Finally, we applied the Digiwarp method to warp a standard Digimouse into the measured surface. The proposed method can reconstruct the surface of a mouse-sized object with an accuracy of 0.5 mm, which we believe is sufficient to obtain a finite element mesh for FMT imaging. We performed an FMT experiment using a mouse-shaped phantom with one embedded fluorescence capillary target. With the warped finite element mesh, we successfully reconstructed the target, which validated our surface extraction approach. PMID:26560789

  15. Poultry waste digester. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.C.H.

    1983-01-01

    A simple and low-cost poultry waste digester (PWD) was constructed at North Carolina State University's Poultry Research Farm at Raleigh, N.C. The PWD system was designed to process a daily output of 600 kg of manure from 4000 caged laying hens. The system consisted of two digesters connected in series, a heating system, a hot water tank, and other metering equipment. The primary and secondary digesters were horizontal cylinders located partially below ground level. They were made of Red Mud plastic lining, supported in the insulated trenches, and covered with insulated roofs. The primary digester volume was 15 m/sup 3/ with an 8 m/sup 3/ liquid volume and a gas head-space above the liquid. The secondary digester volume was 30 m/sup 3/ with a 16 m/sup 3/ liquid volume. The temperature (50/sup 0/C) of the primary digester was maintained by the hot dilution water added with manure and a SolaRoll heating mat laid underneath the plastic lining. The design, operation, performance, energy balance, and economics of the digester are discussed and evaluated in this final progress report.

  16. Chronic hydroxychloroquine improves endothelial dysfunction and protects kidney in a mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, Manuel; Jiménez, Rosario; Romero, Miguel; Sánchez, Manuel; Zarzuelo, María José; Gómez-Morales, Mercedes; O'Valle, Francisco; López-Farré, Antonio José; Algieri, Francesca; Gálvez, Julio; Pérez-Vizcaino, Francisco; Sabio, José Mario; Duarte, Juan

    2014-08-01

    Hydroxychloroquine has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus. Hydroxychloroquine-treated lupus patients showed a lower incidence of thromboembolic disease. Endothelial dysfunction, the earliest indicator of the development of cardiovascular disease, is present in lupus. Whether hydroxychloroquine improves endothelial function in lupus is not clear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of hydroxychloroquine on hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and renal injury in a female mouse model of lupus. NZBWF1 (lupus) and NZW/LacJ (control) mice were treated with hydroxychloroquine 10 mg/kg per day by oral gavage, or with tempol and apocynin in the drinking water, for 5 weeks. Hydroxychloroquine treatment did not alter lupus disease activity (assessed by plasma double-stranded DNA autoantibodies) but prevented hypertension, cardiac and renal hypertrophy, proteinuria, and renal injury in lupus mice. Aortae from lupus mice showed reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and enhanced contraction to phenylephrine, which were normalized by hydroxychloroquine or antioxidant treatments. No differences among all experimental groups were found in both the relaxant responses to acetylcholine and the contractile responses to phenylephrine in rings incubated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester. Vascular reactive oxygen species content and mRNA levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits NOX-1 and p47(phox) were increased in lupus mice and reduced by hydroxychloroquine or antioxidants. Chronic hydroxychloroquine treatment reduced hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and organ damage in severe lupus mice, despite the persistent elevation of anti-double-stranded DNA, suggesting the involvement of new additional mechanisms to improve cardiovascular complications. PMID:24842914

  17. Loss of Pgc-1α expression in aging mouse muscle potentiates glucose intolerance and systemic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sczelecki, Sarah; Besse-Patin, Aurèle; Abboud, Alexandra; Kleiner, Sandra; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Wrann, Christiane D.; Ruas, Jorge L.; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes risk increases significantly with age and correlates with lower oxidative capacity in muscle. Decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and target gene pathways involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are associated with muscle insulin resistance, but a causative role has not been established. We sought to determine whether a decline in Pgc-1α and oxidative gene expression occurs during aging and potentiates the development of age-associated insulin resistance. Muscle-specific Pgc-1α knockout (MKO) mice and wild-type littermate controls were aged for 2 yr. Genetic signatures of skeletal muscle (microarray and mRNA expression) and metabolic profiles (glucose homeostasis, mitochondrial metabolism, body composition, lipids, and indirect calorimetry) of mice were compared at 3, 12, and 24 mo of age. Microarray and gene set enrichment analysis highlighted decreased function of the electron transport chain as characteristic of both aging muscle and loss of Pgc-1α expression. Despite significant reductions in oxidative gene expression and succinate dehydrogenase activity, young mice lacking Pgc-1α in muscle had lower fasting glucose and insulin. Consistent with loss of oxidative capacity during aging, Pgc-1α and Pgc-1β expression were reduced in aged wild-type mouse muscle. Interestingly, the combination of age and loss of muscle Pgc-1α expression impaired glucose tolerance and led to increased fat mass, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers in white adipose and liver tissues. Therefore, loss of Pgc-1α expression and decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity contribute to worsening glucose tolerance and chronic systemic inflammation associated with aging. PMID:24280126

  18. Bladder Dysfunction in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Boudes, Mathieu; Uvin, Pieter; Pinto, Silvia; Voets, Thomas; Fowler, Clare J.; Wenning, Gregor K.; De Ridder, Dirk; Stefanova, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder presenting with motor impairment and autonomic dysfunction. Urological function is altered in the majority of MSA patients, and urological symptoms often precede the motor syndrome. To date, bladder function and structure have never been investigated in MSA models. We aimed to test bladder function in a transgenic MSA mouse featuring oligodendroglial α-synucleinopathy and define its applicability as a preclinical model to study urological failure in MSA. Experiments were performed in proteolipid protein (PLP)–human α-synuclein (hαSyn) transgenic and control wild-type mice. Diuresis, urodynamics, and detrusor strip contractility were assessed to characterize the urological phenotype. Bladder morphology and neuropathology of the lumbosacral intermediolateral column and the pontine micturition center (PMC) were analyzed in young and aged mice. Urodynamic analysis revealed a less efficient and unstable bladder in MSA mice with increased voiding contraction amplitude, higher frequency of nonvoiding contractions, and increased postvoid residual volume. MSA mice bladder walls showed early detrusor hypertrophy and age-related urothelium hypertrophy. Transgenic hαSyn expression was detected in Schwann cells ensheathing the local nerve fibers in the lamina propria and muscularis of MSA bladders. Early loss of parasympathetic outflow neurons and delayed degeneration of the PMC accompanied the urological deficits in MSA mice. PLP-hαSyn mice recapitulate major urological symptoms of human MSA that may be linked to αSyn-related central and peripheral neuropathology and can be further used as a preclinical model to decipher pathomechanisms of MSA. PMID:23426727

  19. Bladder dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Boudes, Mathieu; Uvin, Pieter; Pinto, Silvia; Voets, Thomas; Fowler, Clare J; Wenning, Gregor K; De Ridder, Dirk; Stefanova, Nadia

    2013-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder presenting with motor impairment and autonomic dysfunction. Urological function is altered in the majority of MSA patients, and urological symptoms often precede the motor syndrome. To date, bladder function and structure have never been investigated in MSA models. We aimed to test bladder function in a transgenic MSA mouse featuring oligodendroglial α-synucleinopathy and define its applicability as a preclinical model to study urological failure in MSA. Experiments were performed in proteolipid protein (PLP)-human α-synuclein (hαSyn) transgenic and control wild-type mice. Diuresis, urodynamics, and detrusor strip contractility were assessed to characterize the urological phenotype. Bladder morphology and neuropathology of the lumbosacral intermediolateral column and the pontine micturition center (PMC) were analyzed in young and aged mice. Urodynamic analysis revealed a less efficient and unstable bladder in MSA mice with increased voiding contraction amplitude, higher frequency of nonvoiding contractions, and increased postvoid residual volume. MSA mice bladder walls showed early detrusor hypertrophy and age-related urothelium hypertrophy. Transgenic hαSyn expression was detected in Schwann cells ensheathing the local nerve fibers in the lamina propria and muscularis of MSA bladders. Early loss of parasympathetic outflow neurons and delayed degeneration of the PMC accompanied the urological deficits in MSA mice. PLP-hαSyn mice recapitulate major urological symptoms of human MSA that may be linked to αSyn-related central and peripheral neuropathology and can be further used as a preclinical model to decipher pathomechanisms of MSA. PMID:23426727

  20. Mild systemic inflammation and moderate hypoxia transiently alter neuronal excitability in mouse somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Mordel, Jérôme; Sheikh, Aminah; Tsohataridis, Simeon; Kanold, Patrick O; Zehendner, Christoph M; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2016-04-01

    During the perinatal period, the brain is highly vulnerable to hypoxia and inflammation, which often cause white matter injury and long-term neuronal dysfunction such as motor and cognitive deficits or epileptic seizures. We studied the effects of moderate hypoxia (HYPO), mild systemic inflammation (INFL), or the combination of both (HYPO+INFL) in mouse somatosensory cortex induced during the first postnatal week on network activity and compared it to activity in SHAM control animals. By performing in vitro electrophysiological recordings with multi-electrode arrays from slices prepared directly after injury (P8-10), one week after injury (P13-16), or in young adults (P28-30), we investigated how the neocortical network developed following these insults. No significant difference was observed between the four groups in an extracellular solution close to physiological conditions. In extracellular 8mM potassium solution, slices from the HYPO, INFL, and HYPO+INFL group were more excitable than SHAM at P8-10 and P13-16. In these two age groups, the number and frequency of spontaneous epileptiform events were significantly increased compared to SHAM. The frequency of epileptiform events was significantly reduced by the NMDA antagonist D-APV in HYPO, INFL, and HYPO+INFL, but not in SHAM, indicating a contribution of NMDA receptors to this pathophysiological activity. In addition, the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist CNQX suppressed the remaining epileptiform activity. Electrical stimulation evoked prominent epileptiform activity in slices from HYPO, INFL and HYPO+INFL animals. Stimulation threshold to elicit epileptiform events was lower in these groups than in SHAM. Evoked events spread over larger areas and lasted longer in treated animals than in SHAM. In addition, the evoked epileptiform activity was reduced in the older (P28-30) group indicating that cortical dysfunction induced by hypoxia and inflammation was transient and compensated during early development. PMID:26763603

  1. A metabolomic and systems biology perspective on the brain of the Fragile X syndrome mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Davidovic, Laetitia; Navratil, Vincent; Bonaccorso, Carmela M.; Catania, Maria Vincenza; Bardoni, Barbara; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the first cause of inherited intellectual disability, due to the silencing of the X-linked Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 gene encoding the RNA-binding protein FMRP. While extensive studies have focused on the cellular and molecular basis of FXS, neither human Fragile X patients nor the mouse model of FXS—the Fmr1-null mouse—have been profiled systematically at the metabolic and neurochemical level to provide a complementary perspective on the current, yet scattered, knowledge of FXS. Using proton high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HR-MAS NMR)-based metabolic profiling, we have identified a metabolic signature and biomarkers associated with FXS in various brain regions of Fmr1-deficient mice. Our study highlights for the first time that Fmr1 gene inactivation has profound, albeit coordinated consequences in brain metabolism leading to alterations in: (1) neurotransmitter levels, (2) osmoregulation, (3) energy metabolism, and (4) oxidative stress response. To functionally connect Fmr1-deficiency to its metabolic biomarkers, we derived a functional interaction network based on the existing knowledge (literature and databases) and show that the FXS metabolic response is initiated by distinct mRNA targets and proteins interacting with FMRP, and then relayed by numerous regulatory proteins. This novel “integrated metabolome and interactome mapping” (iMIM) approach advantageously unifies novel metabolic findings with previously unrelated knowledge and highlights the contribution of novel cellular pathways to the pathophysiology of FXS. These metabolomic and integrative systems biology strategies will contribute to the development of potential drug targets and novel therapeutic interventions, which will eventually benefit FXS patients. PMID:21900387

  2. Nonlinear optical techniques for imaging and manipulating the mouse central nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, Matthew John

    The spinal cord of vertebrates serves as the conduit for somatosensory information and motor control, as well as being the locus of neural circuits that govern fast reflexes and patterned behaviors, such as walking in mammals or swimming in fish. Consequently, pathologies of the spinal cord -such as spinal cord injury (SCI)- lead to loss of motor control and sensory perception, with accompanying decline in life expectancy and quality of life. Despite the devastating effects of these diseases, few therapies exist to substantially ameliorate patient outcome. In part, studies of spinal cord pathology have been limited by the inability to perform in vivo imaging at the level of cellular processes. The focus of this thesis is to present the underlying theory for and demonstration of novel multi-photon microscopy (MPM) and optical manipulation techniques as they apply to studies the mouse central nervous system (CNS), with an emphasis on the spinal cord. The scientific findings which have resulted from the implementation of these techniques are also presented. In particular, we have demonstrated that third harmonic generation is a dye-free method of imaging CNS myelin, a fundamental constituent of the spinal cord that is difficult to label using exogenous dyes and/or transgenic constructs. Since gaining optical access to the spinal cord is a prerequisite for spinal cord imaging, we review our development of a novel spinal cord imaging chamber and surgical procedure which allowed us to image for multiple weeks following implantation without the need for repeated surgeries. We also have used MPM to characterize spinal venous blood flow before and after point occlusions. We review a novel nonlinear microscopy technique that may serve to show optical interfaces in three dimensions inside scattering tissue. Finally, we discuss a model and show results of optoporation, a means of transfecting cells with genetic constructs. Brief reviews of MPM and SCI are also presented.

  3. Integration of Ecogpt and SV40 early region sequences into human chromosome 17: a dominant selection system in whole cell and microcell human-mouse hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Tunnacliffe, A; Parkar, M; Povey, S; Bengtsson, B O; Stanley, K; Solomon, E; Goodfellow, P

    1983-01-01

    The dominant selectable gene, Ecogpt, has been introduced, by the calcium phosphate precipitation technique, into normal human fibroblasts, along with the SV40 early region genes. In one transfectant clone, integration of these sequences into human chromosome 17 was demonstrated by the construction of human-mouse somatic cell hybrids, selected for by growth in medium containing mycophenolic acid and xanthine. A whole cell hybrid, made between the human transfectant and a mouse L cell, was used as donor of the Ecogpt-carrying human chromosome 17 to 'tribrids' growing in suspension, made by whole cell fusion between a mouse thymoma cell line, and to microcell hybrids made with a mouse teratocarcinoma cell line. Two tribrids contained karyotypically normal human chromosomes 17 and a small number of other human chromosomes, while a third tribrid had a portion of the long arm of chromosome 17 translocated to mouse as its only human genetic material. Two independent microcell hybrids contained a normal chromosome 17 and no other human chromosome on a mouse teratocarcinoma background. These experiments demonstrate the ability to construct human-mouse somatic cell hybrids using a dominant selection system. By applying this approach it should be possible to select for a wide range of different human chromosomes in whole cell and microcell hybrids. In particular, transfer of single human chromosomes to mouse teratocarcinoma cells will allow examination of developmentally regulated human gene sequences after differentiation of such hybrids. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:11892815

  4. The transcobalamin receptor knockout mouse: a model for vitamin B12 deficiency in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shao-Chiang; Nakayama, Yasumi; Sequeira, Jeffrey M; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J; Cabrera, Robert M; Finnell, Richard H; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Quadros, Edward V

    2013-06-01

    The membrane receptor (TCblR/CD320) for transcobalamin (TC)-bound cobalamin (Cbl) facilitates the cellular uptake of Cbl. A genetically modified mouse model involving ablation of the CD320 gene was generated to study the effects on cobalamin homeostasis. The nonlethal nature of this knockout and the lack of systemic cobalamin deficiency point to other mechanisms for cellular Cbl uptake in the mouse. However, severe cobalamin depletion in the central nervous system (CNS) after birth (P<0.01) indicates that TCblR is the only receptor responsible for Cbl uptake in the CNS. Metabolic Cbl deficiency in the brain was evident from the increased methylmalonic acid (P<0.01-0.04), homocysteine (P<0.01), cystathionine (P<0.01), and the decreased S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosyl homocysteine ratio (P<0.01). The CNS pathology of Cbl deficiency seen in humans may not manifest in this mouse model; however, it does provide a model with which to evaluate metabolic pathways and genes affected. PMID:23430977

  5. Thermophilic co-digestion of pig manure and crude glycerol: process performance and digestate stability.

    PubMed

    Astals, S; Nolla-Ardvol, V; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2013-07-10

    Anaerobic co-digestion has been widely used to enhance biogas production of digesters and, therefore, to improve the anaerobic plants economic feasibility. In the present study, glycerol, a by-product of the biodiesel industry, was used as a co-substrate for pig manure. The results showed that the thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure supplemented with 3% of glycerol, on weight basis, was satisfactory. The specific biogas production of the co-digester was 180% higher than the one obtained by the reference digester, which was only fed with pig manure. The improvement was related to the double of the organic loading rate, the high biodegradability of the crude glycerol, the slight reduction of the free ammonia concentration and the optimisation of the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Moreover, the analysis of the organic matter (protein, lipids, carbohydrates and fibers) of the influent and the effluent of both digesters together with their biogas flow rates indicated that the microorganisms in the co-digester obtained large amounts of nutrients from the glycerol, whereas the microorganisms of the reference digester mainly produced biogas from the particulate matter. However, the digestate obtained from the co-digester cannot be directly applied as soil fertiliser or conditioner due to the presence of high levels of biodegradable matter, which may exert negative impacts on the plant-soil system. Thus, a longer hydraulic retention time, a reduction of the glycerol concentration and/or a post-treatment is required if the digestate is to be used as soil fertiliser or conditioner. In contrast, pig manure digestate can be directly applied on land. PMID:23685137

  6. Anaerobic digestion and milking frequency as mitigation strategies of the environmental burden in the milk production system.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Lovarelli, Daniela; Sandrucci, Anna; Tamburini, Alberto; Fiala, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, through a cradle to farm gate Life Cycle Assessment, different mitigation strategies of the potential environmental impacts of milk production at farm level. The environmental performances of a conventional intensive dairy farm in Northern Italy (baseline scenario) were compared with the results obtained: from the introduction of the third daily milking and from the adoption of anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal slurry in a consortium AD plant. The AD plant, fed only with animal slurries coming also from nearby farms. Key parameters concerning on-farm activities (forage production, energy consumptions, agricultural machines maintenance, manure and livestock management), off-farm activities (production of fertilizers, pesticides, bedding materials, purchased forages, purchased concentrate feed, replacement animals, agricultural machines manufacturing, electricity, fuel) and transportation were considered. The functional unit was 1kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) leaving the farm gate. The selected environmental impact categories were: global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and non-renewable energy use. The production of 1kg of FPCM caused, in the baseline scenario, the following environmental impact potentials: global warming potential 1.12kg CO2 eq; acidification 15.5g SO2 eq; eutrophication 5.62g PO4(3-) eq; photochemical oxidation 0.87g C2H4 eq/kg FPCM; energy use 4.66MJeq. The increase of milking frequency improved environmental performances for all impact categories in comparison with the baseline scenario; in particular acidification and eutrophication potentials showed the largest reductions (-11 and -12%, respectively). In anaerobic digestion scenario, compared to the baseline one, most of the impact potentials were strongly reduced. In particular the most important advantages were in terms of acidification (-29%), global warming (-22%) and eutrophication potential (-18%). The AD of cow slurry is confirmed as an effective strategy to mitigate the environmental impact of milk production at farm level. PMID:26383852

  7. The Antifibrotic Effect of α2AP Neutralization in Systemic Sclerosis Dermal Fibroblasts and Mouse Models of Systemic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Yosuke; Shu, En; Kanoh, Hiroyuki; Seishima, Mariko

    2016-04-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease of autoimmune origin characterized by the fibrosis of skin and visceral organs, and peripheral circulatory disturbance. We recently demonstrated that α2-antiplasmin (α2AP), which is the physiological inhibitor of plasmin, is associated with the development of fibrosis. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of α2AP in the pathogenesis of SSc. The administration of α2AP in mice induced profibrotic changes, such as increased dermal thickness, collagen production, and myofibroblast differentiation. Conversely, the α2AP neutralization prevented not only profibrotic changes, but also the production of autoantibodies in bleomycin-induced mouse models of SSc. The expression of α2AP was elevated in dermal fibroblasts obtained from patients with SSc. Furthermore, α2AP treatment promoted profibrotic changes in human normal dermal fibroblasts, and α2AP neutralization reversed a profibrotic phenotype of SSc dermal fibroblasts, in the absence of plasmin. Our findings demonstrated that α2AP has a profibrotic effect probably not by the action as a plasmin inhibitor, and that the blocking of α2AP exerts an antifibrotic effect in humans and mice with SSc. PMID:26743600

  8. Nanobiocatalysis for protein digestion in proteomic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jungbae; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-02-01

    The process of protein digestion is a critical step for successful protein identification in the bottom-up proteomic analysis. To substitute the present practice of in-solution protein digestion, which is long, tedious, and difficult to automate, a lot of efforts have been dedicated for the development of a rapid, recyclable and automated digestion system. Recent advances of nanobiocatalytic approaches have improved the performance of protein digestion by using various nanomaterials such as nanoporous materials, magnetic nanoparticles, and polymer nanofibers. Especially, the unprecedented success of trypsin stabilization in the form of trypsin-coated nanofibers, showing no activity decrease under repeated uses for one year and retaining good resistance to proteolysis, has demonstrated its great potential to be employed in the development of automated, high-throughput, and on-line digestion systems. This review discusses recent developments of nanobiocatalytic approaches for the improved performance of protein digestion in speed, detection sensitivity, recyclability, and trypsin stability. In addition, we also introduce the protein digestions under unconventional energy inputs for protein denaturation and the development of microfluidic enzyme reactors that can benefit from recent successes of these nanobiocatalytic approaches.

  9. Mouse neuropathogenic poliovirus strains cause damage in the central nervous system distinct from poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Gromeier, M; Lu, H H; Wimmer, E

    1995-04-01

    Poliomyelitis as a consequence of poliovirus infection is observed only in primates. Despite a host range restricted to primates, experimental infection of rodents with certain genetically well defined poliovirus strains produces neurological disease. The outcome of infection of mice with mouse-adapted poliovirus strains has been described previously mainly in terms of paralysis and death, and it was generally assumed that these strains produce the same disease syndromes in normal mice and in mice transgenic for the human poliovirus receptor (hPVR-tg mice). We report a comparison of the clinical course and the histopathological features of neurological disease resulting from intracerebral virus inoculation in normal mice with those of murine poliomyelitis in hPVR-tg mice. The consistent pattern of clinical deficits in poliomyelitic transgenic mice contrasted with highly variable neurologic disease that developed in mice infected with different mouse-adapted polioviruses. Histopathological analysis showed a diffuse encephalomyelitis induced by specific poliovirus serotype 2 isolates in normal mice, that affected neuronal cell populations without discrimination, whereas in hPVR-tg animals, damage was restricted to spinal motor neurons. Mouse neurovirulent strains of poliovirus type 2 differed from mouse neurovirulent poliovirus type 1 derivatives in their ability to induce CNS lesions. Our findings indicate that the characteristic clinical appearance and highly specific histopathological features of poliomyelitis are mediated by the hPVR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7476091

  10. A Novel System To Accelerate The Progression of Nerve Degeneration In Transgenic Mouse Models of Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Ewaleifoh, Osefame; Trinh, Minh; Griffin, John W.; Nguyen, Thien

    2012-01-01

    Axon degeneration is a common hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. There is now an abundance of spontaneous and genetically engineered mice available to study the mechanisms of axonal degeneration and to screen for axonal protective agents. However, many of these mouse models exhibit slow progressive axonal loss which can span over many months. Consequently, there is a pressing need to accelerate the pace of axonal loss over a short interval for high-throughput screening of pharmacological and genetic therapies. Here, we present a novel technique using acrylamide, an axonal neurotoxin, to provoke rapid axonal degeneration in murine models of neuropathies. The progressive axonal loss which typically occurs over 8 months was reproduced within 7 to 10 days of the acrylamide intoxication. This approach was successfully applied to Myelin Associated Glycoprotein knockout (MAG−/−) mouse and Trembler-J mouse, a popular murine model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT-1). Acrylamide intoxication in transgenic mouse models offers a novel experimental approach to accelerate the rate of axonal loss over short intervals for timely in vivo studies of nerve degeneration. This report also provides for the first time an animal model for medication or toxin induced exacerbation of pre-existing neuropathies, a phenomenon widely reported in patients with neuropathies. PMID:22688009

  11. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE L5178Y/TK+/- YIELDS TK-/- MOUSE LYMPHOMA MUTAGENESIS ASSAY SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The L5178Y/TK t/- TK-/- mouse lymphoma mutagen assay, which allows selection of forward mutations at the autosomal thymidine kinase (TK) locus, uses a TK t/- heterozygous cell line, TK t/- 3.7.2C Quantitation of colonies of mutant TK-/- cells in the assay forms the basis for calc...

  12. The IRP/IRE system in vivo: insights from mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Nicole; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2014-01-01

    Iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2) post-transcriptionally control the expression of several mRNAs encoding proteins of iron, oxygen and energy metabolism. The mechanism involves their binding to iron responsive elements (IREs) in the untranslated regions of target mRNAs, thereby controlling mRNA translation or stability. Whereas IRP2 functions solely as an RNA-binding protein, IRP1 operates as either an RNA-binding protein or a cytosolic aconitase. Early experiments in cultured cells established a crucial role of IRPs in regulation of cellular iron metabolism. More recently, studies in mouse models with global or localized Irp1 and/or Irp2 deficiencies uncovered new physiological functions of IRPs in the context of systemic iron homeostasis. Thus, IRP1 emerged as a key regulator of erythropoiesis and iron absorption by controlling hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF2α) mRNA translation, while IRP2 appears to dominate the control of iron uptake and heme biosynthesis in erythroid progenitor cells by regulating the expression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2) mRNAs, respectively. Targeted disruption of either Irp1 or Irp2 in mice is associated with distinct phenotypic abnormalities. Thus, Irp1−/− mice develop polycythemia and pulmonary hypertension, while Irp2−/− mice present with microcytic anemia, iron overload in the intestine and the liver, and neurologic defects. Combined disruption of both Irp1 and Irp2 is incombatible with life and leads to early embryonic lethality. Mice with intestinal- or liver-specific disruption of both Irps are viable at birth but die later on due to malabsorption or liver failure, respectively. Adult mice lacking both Irps in the intestine exhibit a profound defect in dietary iron absorption due to a “mucosal block” that is caused by the de-repression of ferritin mRNA translation. Herein, we discuss the physiological function of the IRE/IRP regulatory system. PMID:25120486

  13. Light microscopic autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, A.S.; Goodman, R.R.

    1984-05-01

    Much work has been done on opioid systems in the rat CNS. Although the mouse is widely used in pharmacological studies of opioid action, little has been done to characterize opioid systems in this species. In the present study the distribution of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse CNS was examined using a quantitative in vitro autoradiography procedure. Tritiated dihydromorphine was used to visualize mu sites and (3H-d-Ala2-d-Leu5)enkephalin with a low concentration of morphine was used to visualize delta sites. Mu and delta site localizations in the mouse are very similar to those previously described in the rat (Goodman, R.R., S.H. Snyder, M.J. Kuhar, and W.S. Young, 3d (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:6239-6243), with certain exceptions and additions. Mu and delta sites were observed in sensory processing areas, limbic system, extrapyramidal motor system, and cranial parasympathetic system. Differential distributions of mu and delta sites were noted in many areas. Mu sites were prominent in laminae I, IV, and VI of the neocortex, in patches in the striatum, and in the ventral pallidum, nucleus accumbens, medial and midline thalamic nuclei, medial habenular nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, and laminae I and II of the spinal cord. In contrast, delta sites were prominent in all laminae of the neocortex, olfactory tubercle, diffusely throughout the striatum, and in the basal, lateral, and cortical nuclei of the amygdala. The determination of the differential distributions of opioid binding sites should prove useful in suggesting anatomical substrates for the actions of opiates and opioids.

  14. Developmental and maintenance defects in Rett syndrome neurons identified by a new mouse staging system in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Baj, Gabriele; Patrizio, Angela; Montalbano, Alberto; Sciancalepore, Marina; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability, mainly caused by loss-of-function mutations in the MECP2 gene. RTT brains display decreased neuronal size and dendritic arborization possibly caused by either a developmental failure or a deficit in the maintenance of dendritic arbor structure. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, the development of Mecp2-knockout mouse hippocampal neurons was analyzed in vitro. Since a staging system for the in vitro development of mouse neurons was lacking, mouse and rat hippocampal neurons development was compared between 1–15 days in vitro (DIV) leading to a 6-stage model for both species. Mecp2-knockout hippocampal neurons displayed reduced growth of dendritic branches from stage 4 (DIV4) onwards. At stages 5–6 (DIV9-15), synapse number was lowered in Mecp2-knockout neurons, suggesting increased synapse elimination. These results point to both a developmental and a maintenance setback affecting the final shape and function of neurons in RTT. PMID:24550777

  15. Biomethanization of sugar beet byproduct by semi-continuous single digestion and co-digestion with cow manure.

    PubMed

    Aboudi, Kaoutar; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Romero-García, Luis Isidoro

    2016-01-01

    Dried pellet of exhausted sugar beet cossettes were digested alone and combined with cow manure as co-substrate in a mesophilic semi-continuous anaerobic system. In single digestion assay, the stable biogas production and stable reactor operation was observed at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20days (OLR: 3.26gVS/Lreactord) which was the minimum HRT tolerated by the system. However, co-digestion with cow manure allowed to decrease the HRT until 15days (OLR: 4.97gVS/Lreactord) with 32% higher biogas generation and efficient reactor operation. Propionic acid was the predominant VFA observed during single digestion assay failure, while acetic acid accumulation was observed in the co-digestion assay. In both single and co-digestion assays, the recovery of digesters was possible by ceasing the feeding and re-inoculation with a well-adapted inoculum. PMID:26512853

  16. Distinct human and mouse membrane trafficking systems for sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system. PMID:25029362

  17. Distinct Human and Mouse Membrane Trafficking Systems for Sweet Taste Receptors T1r2 and T1r3

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system. PMID:25029362

  18. Ibuprofen slows migration and inhibits bowel colonization by enteric nervous system precursors in zebrafish, chick and mouse.

    PubMed

    Schill, Ellen Merrick; Lake, Jonathan I; Tusheva, Olga A; Nagy, Nandor; Bery, Saya K; Foster, Lynne; Avetisyan, Marina; Johnson, Stephen L; Stenson, William F; Goldstein, Allan M; Heuckeroth, Robert O

    2016-01-15

    Hirschsprung Disease (HSCR) is a potentially deadly birth defect characterized by the absence of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in distal bowel. Although HSCR has clear genetic causes, no HSCR-associated mutation is 100% penetrant, suggesting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions determine HSCR occurrence. To test the hypothesis that certain medicines might alter HSCR risk we treated zebrafish with medications commonly used during early human pregnancy and discovered that ibuprofen caused HSCR-like absence of enteric neurons in distal bowel. Using fetal CF-1 mouse gut slice cultures, we found that ibuprofen treated enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCDC) had reduced migration, fewer lamellipodia and lower levels of active RAC1/CDC42. Additionally, inhibiting ROCK, a RHOA effector and known RAC1 antagonist, reversed ibuprofen effects on migrating mouse ENCDC in culture. Ibuprofen also inhibited colonization of Ret+/- mouse bowel by ENCDC in vivo and dramatically reduced bowel colonization by chick ENCDC in culture. Interestingly, ibuprofen did not affect ENCDC migration until after at least three hours of exposure. Furthermore, mice deficient in Ptgs1 (COX 1) and Ptgs2 (COX 2) had normal bowel colonization by ENCDC and normal ENCDC migration in vitro suggesting COX-independent effects. Consistent with selective and strain specific effects on ENCDC, ibuprofen did not affect migration of gut mesenchymal cells, NIH3T3, or WT C57BL/6 ENCDC, and did not affect dorsal root ganglion cell precursor migration in zebrafish. Thus, ibuprofen inhibits ENCDC migration in vitro and bowel colonization by ENCDC in vivo in zebrafish, mouse and chick, but there are cell type and strain specific responses. These data raise concern that ibuprofen may increase Hirschsprung disease risk in some genetically susceptible children. PMID:26586201

  19. A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) system to use arbitrary Windows applications by directly controlling mouse and keyboard.

    PubMed

    Spuler, Martin

    2015-08-01

    A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) allows to control a computer by brain activity only, without the need for muscle control. In this paper, we present an EEG-based BCI system based on code-modulated visual evoked potentials (c-VEPs) that enables the user to work with arbitrary Windows applications. Other BCI systems, like the P300 speller or BCI-based browsers, allow control of one dedicated application designed for use with a BCI. In contrast, the system presented in this paper does not consist of one dedicated application, but enables the user to control mouse cursor and keyboard input on the level of the operating system, thereby making it possible to use arbitrary applications. As the c-VEP BCI method was shown to enable very fast communication speeds (writing more than 20 error-free characters per minute), the presented system is the next step in replacing the traditional mouse and keyboard and enabling complete brain-based control of a computer. PMID:26736454

  20. Effects of flaxseed and chia seed on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and long-chain fatty acid flow in a dual-flow continuous culture system.

    PubMed

    Silva, L G; Bunkers, J; Paula, E M; Shenkoru, T; Yeh, Y; Amorati, B; Holcombe, D; Faciola, A P

    2016-04-01

    Flaxseed (FS) and chia seed (CS) are oilseeds rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which may change meat and milk composition when added to ruminants' diets and may have health benefits for humans. Literature on the effects of CS supplementation on ruminal metabolism is nonexistent. A dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system consisting of 6 fermenters was used to assess the effect of FS and CS supplementation in an alfalfa hay-based diet on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and long-chain fatty acid flow. Diets were randomly assigned to fermenters in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, with 3 consecutive periods of 10 d each, consisting of 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection. Each fermenter was fed a total of 72 g of DM/d divided in 6 equal portions. Treatments were 1) alfalfa hay + calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid (MEG; 69.3 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 2.7 g DM/d of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid), 2) alfalfa hay + FS (FLAX; 68.4 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.6 g DM/d of ground FS), and 3) alfalfa hay + CS (CHIA; 68.04 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.96 g DM/d of ground CS). Dietary treatments had similar amounts of total fat, and fat supplements were ground to 2-mm diameter. Effluents from the last 3 d of incubation were composited for analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Ruminal apparent and true nutrient digestibility of all nutrients did not differ ( > 0.05) among treatments. Compared with MEG, FLAX and CHIA increased the flows of C18:3 -3, C20:4 -6, and total PUFA ( < 0.01). Both CHIA and FLAX treatments had greater ruminal concentrations of C18:0, indicating that both CS and FS fatty acids were extensively biohydrogenated in the rumen. The NH-N concentration, microbial N flow, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not affected ( > 0.05) by treatments. Lastly, there were no differences ( > 0.05) among diets for total VFA concentration and molar proportions of individual VFA. Results from this study indicate that FS and CS supplementation did not impair ruminal fermentation, digestibility, microbial efficiency, and ruminal N metabolism. Overall, CS appears to be as effective as FS as a fat source when added to ruminants' diets using a dual-flow continuous culture system. PMID:27136019

  1. Immature and neurally differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells do not express a functional Fas/Fas ligand system.

    PubMed

    Brunlid, Gabriella; Pruszak, Jan; Holmes, Benjamin; Isacson, Ole; Sonntag, Kai-Christian

    2007-10-01

    The potential of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells to develop into functional cells or tissue provides an opportunity in the development of new therapies for many diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. The survival of implanted cells usually requires systemic immunosuppression, however, which severely compromises the host immune system, leading to complications in clinical transplantation. An optimal therapy would therefore be the induction of specific tolerance to the donor cells, while otherwise preserving functional immune responses. Fas ligand (FasL) is expressed in activated lymphocytes as well as cells in "immune-privileged" sites including the central nervous system. Its receptor, Fas, is expressed on various immune-reactive cell types, such as activated natural killer and T cells, monocytes, and polymorphic mononucleocytes, which can undergo apoptosis upon interaction with FasL. To render transplanted cells tolerant to host cellular immune responses, we genetically engineered mouse ES cells to express rat FasL (rFasL). The rFasL-expressing ES cells were analyzed for survival during in vitro neurodifferentiation and after transplantation to the rat brain without further immunosuppression. Although control transfected HEK-293T cells expressed functional rFasL, immature and differentiated mouse ES cells did not express the recombinant rFasL surface protein. Furthermore, there was no evidence for functional endogenous Fas and FasL expression on either ES cells or on neural cells after in vitro differentiation. Moreover, implanted rFasL-engineered ES cells did not survive in the rat brains in the absence of the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A. Our results indicate that immature and differentiated mouse ES cells do not express a functional Fas/FasL system. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article. PMID:17615270

  2. Mouse genome database 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  3. Comparative study of the xenobiotic metabolising system in the digestive gland of the bivalve molluscs in different aquatic ecosystems and in aquaria experiments.

    PubMed

    Petushok, N; Gabryelak, T; Pałecz, D; Zavodnik, L; Szollosi Varga, I; Deér, K A

    2002-11-13

    A comparative study has been performed on populations of Unionidae from the Lake Suszek and Brda river situated in the centre of Tucholski Landscape Park, around which there are no factories and the Pilica river--affected by the influence of the nearby town agglomeration. Mussels collected from Suszek were also treated (72 h) with various concentrations of dichlorophenol (DCP; 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 ppm) and paraquat (PQ; 1, 5, 10 ppm) in laboratory conditions (aquarium). The activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system (NAD(P)H ferricyanide reductase, NAD(P)H cytochrome c reductase), cytochrome P450 content and b(5) in microsomal and cytosolic fractions of digestive gland were investigated. The differences in enzyme activities between groups of mussels, which were exposed to various concentrations of chemical pollutants, as well as the dependence on geographical distribution in Poland, were observed. In experiments with DCP the dose-dependent increase in GST activity was found, but no changes after PQ treatment were observed. Results, in experiments with DCP and PQ, have varied from no change to increase or decrease in the measured monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 content. Increases have been recorded in two cases (NADPH ferricyanide reductase and cytochrome P450) after exposure to DCP and in the case of NADH ferricyanide reductase following the exposure to PQ. NAD(P)H cytochrome c reductase activity and content of P450 decreased considerably in 5 and 10 ppm PQ-treated mussels. Thus, the treatment with DCP and PQ in water changed the properties of the mussels digestive gland cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system. These changes may be used as a bioindicator, at the molecular level, of exposure to those xenobiotics not only in controlled experiments (aquaria) but also in the natural environment. PMID:12297371

  4. Outlining microbial community dynamics during temperature drop and subsequent recovery period in anaerobic co-digestion systems.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Leticia; Carballa, Marta; Lema, Juan M

    2014-12-20

    To improve the stability of anaerobic reactors, more knowledge is required about how the different communities react against operating perturbations and which specific ones respond better. The objective of this work was to monitor the changes in microbial community structure of an anaerobic digester during a temperature drop by applying different complementary molecular techniques. Temperature decrease led to an increase of Bacteroidales order, Porphyromonadaceae family and Bacteroides genus and a decrease in Syntrophomonas and Clostridium genera. Once the temperature was restored, the reactor recovered the steady state performance without requiring any modification in operational conditions or in the microbiome. During the recovery period, Sedimentibacter genus and Porphyromonadaceae family played an important role in the degradation of the accumulated volatile fatty acids. The hydrogenotrophic methanogens appeared to be the keystone archaeal population at low temperatures as well as in the recovery period. This study stands out that the understanding of microbial community dynamics during temperature drop could be utilized to develop strategies for the mitigation of temperature change consequences and speed up the recovery of stable reactor performance. PMID:25450643

  5. LIFE QUALITY RELATED TO SPIRITUAL HEALTH AND FACTORS AFFECTING IT IN PATIENTS AFFLICTED BY DIGESTIVE SYSTEM METASTATIC CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Jabbar; Jafari, Hedayat; Janbabaei, Ghasem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Spiritual health is of the basic elements in chronic patients. This concept can be considered as an important approach in promoting physical & spiritual health & life quality Goal: The present study has been planned aiming to study life quality related to metastatic phase gastrointestinal (digestive) cancer referring to Mazandaran Medical Science University Educational Center in Iran. Material and Methods: This research has been done by descriptive-analytical method with 250 patients through available sampling method. The data has been collected via spiritual health & life quality questionnaire. The data analysis has been performed by calculating X², T Test, variance analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The mean & standard deviation of the patients were 12.56 ±94/47. The highest relationship between age & spirituality was related to ages over 60. There was a meaningful statistical relationship between spirituality & life quality scale (p<0.001), between spirituality & respiratory disorder (p<0.047), anorexia (p<0.004), exhaustion (p<0.006), financial problems (p<0.006). Conclusion: regarding the results, we can perceive the necessity behind improving spiritual health aspect as an influencing factor on the patients’ life quality. Through enhancing spiritual beliefs, it is possible to help the patients’ spiritual quality get promoted. PMID:26622196

  6. Simulated Microgravity Using a Rotary Culture System Compromises the In Vitro Development of Mouse Preantral Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonggen; Lin, Wei; Chen, Zaichong; Meng, Luhe; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Growing cells in simulated weightlessness condition might be a highly promising new technique to maintain or generate tissue constructs in a scaffold-free manner. There is limited evidence that microgravity condition may affect development of ovarian follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of simulated microgravity on the in vitro development of mouse preantral follicles. Methods and Results Ovarian tissue from 14-day-old mice, or preantral follicles mechanically isolated from 14-day-old mouse ovaries were cultured at a simulated microgravity condition generated using a rotating wall vessel apparatus. Follicle survival was assessed quantitatively using H&E staining. Follicle diameter and oocyte diameter were measured under an inverted microscope. Ultrastructure of oocytes was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. We observed that simulated microgravity compromised follicle survival in vitro, downregulated PCNA and GDF-9 expressions, and caused ultrastructural abnormalities in oocytes. Conclusion This study showed for the first time that three-dimensional culture condition generated by simulated microgravity is detrimental to the initial stage development of mouse preantral follicles in vitro. The experimental setup provides a model to further investigate the mechanisms involved in the in vitro developmental processes of oocytes/granulosa cells under the microgravity condition. PMID:26963099

  7. Mouse tales from Kresge: the deafness mouse.

    PubMed

    Drury, Stacy S; Keats, Bronya J B

    2003-08-01

    Mouse models for human deafness have not only proven instrumental in the identification of genes for hereditary hearing loss, but are excellent model systems in which to examine gene function as well as the resulting pathophysiology. One mouse model for human nonsyndromic deafness is the deafness (dn) mouse, a spontaneous mutation in the curly-tail (ct) stock. The dn gene is on mouse Chromosome 19 and it was recently shown to be a novel gene called Tmc1. A mutation in Tmc1 is also found in Beethoven (Bth), which is another deaf mouse mutant. In humans, one autosomal dominant form of nonsyndromic hearing loss (DFNA36) and two autosomal recessive forms (DFNB7 and DFNB11) are associated with mutations in TMC1, the human homologue of Tmc1. The transmembrane protein encoded by this gene is required for normal cochlear hair cell function and the mouse models will facilitate the elucidation of the molecular pathway that is disrupted when mutations are present. PMID:14552423

  8. Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuross, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

  9. Pheno-Pub: a total support system for the publication of mouse phenotypic data on the web.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Furuse, Tamio; Yamada, Ikuko; Motegi, Hiromi; Kozawa, Yasuyo; Masuya, Hiroshi; Wakana, Shigeharu

    2013-12-01

    We have developed an open-source database system named "Pheno-Pub" to support a series of data-handling and publication tasks, including statistical analyses, data review, and web site construction, for mouse phenotyping experiments. This system is composed of three applications. "Mou-Stat" provides semiautomatic statistical analyses for a batch of phenotypic data, including a variety of conditions for group comparisons (e.g., different scales of measurement parameters). "Genotype Viewer" and "Strain Viewer" provide representation of genotype-driven and measurement parameter-driven views of phenotypic data; they highlight significant differences in genotypes and between strains, respectively. Direct links from the Strain Viewer web site to the Genotype Viewer web site provide flexible navigation in the exploration of phenotypic data. With these publication tools, phenotypic data can be made available on the Internet by simple operations. This system is expandable for a wide range of uses in phenotypic comparative analyses, including comparisons among different genotypes and strains and comparisons among groups exposed to different environmental conditions. Finally, Pheno-Pub provides advanced usability for both producers of experimental data and consumers of phenotypic information. Therefore, Pheno-Pub contributes significantly to the publication of data in various fields of phenotyping research and to broad data sharing, thereby promoting the understanding of the functions of the entire mouse genome. PMID:24220852

  10. Using mushroom farm and anaerobic digestion wastewaters as supplemental fertilizer sources for growing container nursery stock in a closed system.

    PubMed

    Chong, C; Purvis, P; Lumis, G; Holbein, B E; Voroney, R P; Zhou, H; Liu, H-W; Alam, M Z

    2008-04-01

    Wastewaters from farm and composting operations are often rich in select nutrients that potentially can be reutilized in crop production. Liners of silverleaf dogwood (Cornus alba L. 'Argenteo-marginata'), common ninebark [Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.], and Anthony Waterer spirea (Spiraeaxbumalda Burvénich 'Anthony Waterer') were grown in 6L containers filled with a bark-based commercial mix. Plants were fertigated daily via a computer-controlled multi-fertilizer injector with three recirculated fertilizer treatments: (1) a stock (control) solution with complete macro- and micro-nutrients, electrical conductivity (EC) 2.2 dS m(-1); (2) wastewater from a mushroom farm; and (3) process wastewater from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. The wastewaters used in both treatments 2 and 3 were diluted with tap water, and the computer was programmed to amend, dispense and recirculate nutrients based on the same target EC as in treatment 1. For comparison, there was a traditional controlled-release fertilizer treatment [Nutryon 17-5-12 (17N-2P-10K) plus micro-nutrients topdressed at a rate of 39 g/plant, nutrients not recirculated]. All three species responded similarly to the three recirculated fertilizer treatments. Growth with the recirculated treatments was similar and significantly higher than that obtained with controlled-release fertilizer. Throughout the study, the EC measured in wastewater-derived nutrient solutions, and also in the container substrate, were similar or close to those of the control treatment, although there were small to large differences among individual major nutrients. There was no sign of nutrient deficiency or toxicity symptoms to the plants. Small to moderate excesses in concentrations of SO(4), Na, and/or Cl were physiologically tolerable to the species. PMID:17481890

  11. Effects of biofloc on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and liver histology of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings in zero-water exchange system.

    PubMed

    Najdegerami, Ebrahim H; Bakhshi, Farideh; Lakani, Forouzan Bagherzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Biofloc technology is considered as a method that degrades organic waste by microorganisms and produces microbial flocs. A 30-day experiment was performed to investigate the effects of partial replacement of daily feeding intake with biofloc on the growth performances, digestive enzymes activity and liver histology of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. fingerlings. Two hundred and eight healthy fingerlings (58.6 ± 0.2 g) were randomly distributed in 12 tanks (30 L) at a density of 25.4 kg m(-3) and fed experimental treatments (100 % daily feeding rate as a control, biofloc + 75 % daily feeding rate, biofloc + 50 % daily feeding rate, biofloc + 25 % daily feeding rate). At the end of experiment, the results indicated that the highest weight gain was observed in the fish fed BFT 75 % and control which differed significantly from those fed BFT 25 % (P < 0.05). Diet BFT 75 % improved total protease and pepsin activity compared with BFT 25 and 50 % (P > 0.05). No significant difference was observed in case of lipase, amylase and alkaline phosphatase activity between the treatments. In the liver, histological alterations were found in the treatments, and feeding the fish with BFT 75 % significantly improved hepatocellular quantification and qualification than the other groups. The results obtained in this experiment suggest that the biofloc improves growth performances, digestive enzyme activity and liver condition of the common carp fingerlings when 25 % of daily feeding rate (BFT 75 %) was replaced with one carbohydrate such as molasses in zero-water exchange system. PMID:26530301

  12. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  13. Problems Digesting Dairy Products?

    MedlinePlus

    ... with milk allergies are allergic to the milk protein, which is still pres- ent when the lactose ... More Information Protect Your Health Joint FDA/WebMD resource www.webmd.com/fda Lactose Intolerance http://digestive. ...

  14. Steam Digest: Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  15. Steam Digest Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  16. Definitions of Digestive Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... the abdominal wall, allowing the diversion of fecal waste. Commensals Non-pathogenic microorganisms that become part of ... digestion and the muscle contractions that eliminate solid waste. Enteritis An irritation of the small intestine. Enterocele ...

  17. Effect of the amino acid histidine on the uptake of cadmium from the digestive system of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus

    SciTech Connect

    Pecon, J.; Powell, E.N.

    1981-07-01

    The digestive tract functions in the storage, metabolism, and excretion of heavy metals in invertebrates. The importance of the digestive tract and the processes governing digestion and absorption of nutrients in heavy metal uptake is becoming increasingly clear. The results of this study suggest that in order to understand the processes controlling heavy metal uptake in invertebrates, it will be necessary to investigate the role that digestion and absorption play in determining the transport rate of metals across the gut wall into the blood. For example, some amino acids increase metal absorption rates, whereas other compounds, such as phytate, decrease metal absorption rates. The results also suggest that experimental designs to investigate metal absorption must include an appreciation of the significant role that the feeding state of the animal (e.g. fed or starved) and the role chelators, particularly those produced by the organisms themselves during digestion, may play in the observed uptake rates of metal ions.

  18. Galled by the Gallbladder?: Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ

    MedlinePlus

    ... among the most common and costly of all digestive system diseases. By some estimates, up to 20 million ... gallbladder may not be the star of the digestive system, it still plays an important role. Treat it ...

  19. Isolation of Mouse Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Luo, Yi; Dorf, Martin E; Lionakis, Michail S

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils represent the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Indeed, patients with inherited and acquired qualitative and quantitative neutrophil defects are at high risk for developing bacterial and fungal infections and suffering adverse outcomes from these infections. Therefore, research aiming at defining the molecular factors that modulate neutrophil effector function under homeostatic conditions and during infection is essential for devising strategies to augment neutrophil function and improve the outcome of infected individuals. This unit describes a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol that can be applied in any laboratory to harvest large numbers of highly enriched and highly viable neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice both at the steady state and following infection with Candida albicans as described in UNIT. In another protocol, we also present a method that combines gentle enzymatic tissue digestion with a positive immunomagnetic selection technique or Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to harvest highly pure and highly viable preparations of neutrophils directly from mouse tissues such as the kidney, the liver or the spleen. Finally, methods for isolating neutrophils from mouse peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood are included. Mouse neutrophils isolated by these protocols can be used for examining several aspects of cellular function ex vivo including pathogen binding, phagocytosis and killing, neutrophil chemotaxis, oxidative burst, degranulation and cytokine production, and for performing neutrophil adoptive transfer experiments. PMID:26237011

  20. Utilizing past and present mouse systems to engineer more relevant pancreatic cancer models

    PubMed Central

    DeCant, Brian T.; Principe, Daniel R.; Guerra, Carmen; Pasca di Magliano, Marina; Grippo, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    The study of pancreatic cancer has prompted the development of numerous mouse models that aim to recapitulate the phenotypic and mechanistic features of this deadly malignancy. This review accomplishes two tasks. First, it provides an overview of the models that have been used as representations of both the neoplastic and carcinoma phenotypes. Second, it presents new modeling schemes that ultimately will serve to more faithfully capture the temporal and spatial progression of the human disease, providing platforms for improved understanding of the role of non-epithelial compartments in disease etiology as well as evaluating therapeutic approaches. PMID:25538623

  1. A detailed analysis of the erythropoietic control system in the human, squirrel, monkey, rat and mouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordheim, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The erythropoiesis modeling performed in support of the Body Fluid and Blood Volume Regulation tasks is described. The mathematical formulation of the species independent model, the solutions to the steady state and dynamic versions of the model, and the individual species specific models for the human, squirrel monkey, rat and mouse are outlined. A detailed sensitivity analysis of the species independent model response to parameter changes and how those responses change from species to species is presented. The species to species response to a series of simulated stresses directly related to blood volume regulation during space flight is analyzed.

  2. Utilizing past and present mouse systems to engineer more relevant pancreatic cancer models.

    PubMed

    DeCant, Brian T; Principe, Daniel R; Guerra, Carmen; Pasca di Magliano, Marina; Grippo, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The study of pancreatic cancer has prompted the development of numerous mouse models that aim to recapitulate the phenotypic and mechanistic features of this deadly malignancy. This review accomplishes two tasks. First, it provides an overview of the models that have been used as representations of both the neoplastic and carcinoma phenotypes. Second, it presents new modeling schemes that ultimately will serve to more faithfully capture the temporal and spatial progression of the human disease, providing platforms for improved understanding of the role of non-epithelial compartments in disease etiology as well as evaluating therapeutic approaches. PMID:25538623

  3. Development of a cell system for siRNA screening of pathogen responses in human and mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Sun, Jing; Benet, Zachary L; Wang, Ze; Al-Khodor, Souhaila; John, Sinu P; Lin, Bin; Sung, Myong-Hee; Fraser, Iain D C

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play a critical role in the innate immune response to pathogen infection, but few tools exist for systematic dissection of these responses using modern genome-wide perturbation methods. To develop an assay platform for high-throughput analysis of macrophage activation by pathogenic stimuli, we generated reporter systems in human and mouse macrophages with dynamic readouts for NF-κB and/or TNF-α responses. These reporter cells show responsiveness to a broad range of TLR ligands and to gram-negative bacterial infection. There are significant challenges to the use of RNAi in innate immune cells, including efficient small RNA delivery and non-specific immune responses to dsRNA. To permit the interrogation of the macrophage pathogen response pathways with RNAi, we employed the stably expressed reporter genes to develop efficient siRNA delivery protocols for maximal target gene silencing with minimal activation of the innate macrophage response to nucleic acids. We demonstrate the utility of these macrophage cell systems for siRNA screening of pathogen responses by targeting components of the human and mouse TLR pathways, and observe species-specific perturbation of signaling and cytokine responses. Our approach to reporter cell development and siRNA delivery optimization provides an experimental paradigm with significant potential for developing genetic screening platforms in mammalian cells. PMID:25831078

  4. A side-by-side comparison of two systems of sequencing coupled reactors for anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana M; Pérez-Hernández, Antonino; Nevarez-Morillón, Virginia G; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemí

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the performance of two laboratory-scale, mesophilic systems aiming at the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW). The first system consisted of two coupled reactors packed with OFMSW (PBR1.1-PBR1.2) and the second system consisted of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor (UASB) coupled to a packed reactor (UASB2.1-PBR2.2). For the start-up phase, both reactors PBR 1.1 and the UASB 2.1 (also called leading reactors) were inoculated with a mixture of non-anaerobic inocula and worked with leachate and effluent full recirculation, respectively. Once a full methanogenic regime was achieved in the leading reactors, their effluents were fed to the fresh-packed reactors PBR1.2 and PBR2.2, respectively. The leading PBR 1.1 reached its full methanogenic regime after 118 days (Tm, time to achieve methanogenesis) whereas the other leading UASB 2.1 reactor reached its full methanogenesis regime after only 34 days. After coupling the leading reactors to the corresponding packed reactors, it was found that both coupled anaerobic systems showed similar performances regarding the degradation of the OFMSW. Removal efficiencies of volatile solids and cellulose and the methane pseudo-yield were 85.95%, 80.88% and 0.109 NL CH4 g(-1) VS(fed) in the PBR-PBR system; and 88.75%, 82.61% and 0.115 NL CH4 g(-1) VS(fed0 in the UASB-PBR system [NL, normalized litre (273 degrees K, 1 ata basis)]. Yet, the second system UASB-PBR system showed a faster overall start-up. PMID:15988946

  5. A transgenic mouse line for collecting ribosome-bound mRNA using the tetracycline transactivator system

    PubMed Central

    Drane, Laurel; Ainsley, Joshua A.; Mayford, Mark R.; Reijmers, Leon G.

    2014-01-01

    Acquiring the gene expression profiles of specific neuronal cell-types is important for understanding their molecular identities. Genome-wide gene expression profiles of genetically defined cell-types can be acquired by collecting and sequencing mRNA that is bound to epitope-tagged ribosomes (TRAP; translating ribosome affinity purification). Here, we introduce a transgenic mouse model that combines the TRAP technique with the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) system by expressing EGFP-tagged ribosomal protein L10a (EGFP-L10a) under control of the tetracycline response element (tetO-TRAP). This allows both spatial control of EGFP-L10a expression through cell-type specific tTA expression, as well as temporal regulation by inhibiting transgene expression through the administration of doxycycline. We show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic mice expressing tTA under the Camk2a promoter (Camk2a-tTA) results in offspring with cell-type specific expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed that EGFP-L10a integrates into a functional ribosomal complex. In addition, collection of ribosome-bound mRNA from the hippocampus yielded the expected enrichment of genes expressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons, as well as a depletion of genes expressed in other hippocampal cell-types. Finally, we show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic Fos-tTA mice enables the expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons that are activated during a fear conditioning trial. The tetO-TRAP mouse can be combined with other tTA mouse lines to enable gene expression profiling of a variety of different cell-types. PMID:25400545

  6. Antidepressants reduce neuroinflammatory responses and astroglial alpha-synuclein accumulation in a transgenic mouse model of Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Elvira; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the pathological accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) within oligodendroglial cells. This accumulation is accompanied by neuroinflammation with astrogliosis and microgliosis, that leads to neuronal death and subsequent parkinsonism and dysautonomia. Antidepressants have been explored as neuroprotective agents as they normalize neurotrophic factor levels, increase neurogenesis and reduce neurodegeneration, but their anti-inflammatory properties have not been fully characterized. We analyzed the anti-inflammatory profiles of three different antidepressants (fluoxetine, olanzapine and amitriptyline) in the MBP1-hα-syn transgenic (tg) mouse model of MSA. We observed that antidepressant treatment decreased the number of α-syn-positive cells in the basal ganglia of 11-month old tg animals. This reduction was accompanied with a similar decrease in the colocalization of α-syn with astrocyte markers in this brain structure. Consistent with these results, antidepressants reduced astrogliosis in the hippocampus and basal ganglia of the MBP1-hα-syn tg mice, and modulated the expression levels of key cytokines that were dysregulated in the tg mouse model, such as IL-1β. In vitro experiments in the astroglial cell line C6 confirmed that antidepressants inhibited NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and reduced IL-1β protein levels. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory properties of antidepressants in the MBP1-hα-syn tg mouse model of MSA might be related to their ability to inhibit α-syn propagation from oligodendrocytes to astroglia and to regulate transcription factors involved in cytokine expression. Our results suggest that antidepressants might be of interest as anti-inflammatory and α-syn-reducing agents for MSA and other α-synucleinopathies. PMID:24310907

  7. Functional promiscuity in a mammalian chemosensory system: extensive expression of vomeronasal receptors in the main olfactory epithelium of mouse lemurs.

    PubMed

    Hohenbrink, Philipp; Dempewolf, Silke; Zimmermann, Elke; Mundy, Nicholas I; Radespiel, Ute

    2014-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is functional in most terrestrial mammals, though progressively reduced in the primate lineage, and is used for intraspecific communication and predator recognition. Vomeronasal receptor (VR) genes comprise two families of chemosensory genes (V1R and V2R) that have been considered to be specific for the VNO. However, recently a large number of VRs were reported to be expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of mice, but there is little knowledge of the expression of these genes outside of rodents. To explore the function of VR genes in mammalian evolution, we analyzed and compared the expression of 64 V1R and 2 V2R genes in the VNO and the MOE of the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), the primate with the largest known VR repertoire. We furthermore compared expression patterns in adults of both sexes and seasons, and in an infant. A large proportion (83-97%) of the VR loci was expressed in the VNO of all individuals. The repertoire in the infant was as rich as in adults, indicating reliance on olfactory communication from early postnatal development onwards. In concordance with mice, we also detected extensive expression of VRs in the MOE, with proportions of expressed loci in individuals ranging from 29 to 45%. TRPC2, which encodes a channel protein crucial for signal transduction via VRs, was co-expressed in the MOE in all individuals indicating likely functionality of expressed VR genes in the MOE. In summary, the large VR repertoire in mouse lemurs seems to be highly functional. Given the differences in the neural pathways of MOE and VNO signals, which project to higher cortical brain centers or the limbic system, respectively, this raises the intriguing possibility that the evolution of MOE-expression of VRs enabled mouse lemurs to adaptively diversify the processing of VR-encoded olfactory information. PMID:25309343

  8. A Systems Biology Approach Utilizing a Mouse Diversity Panel Identifies Genetic Differences Influencing Isoniazid-Induced Microvesicular Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Susan J.; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Kurtz, Catherine L.; Pletcher, Mathew T.; Eaddy, John S.; Pandher, Karamjeet; Singer, Monica; Batheja, Ameesha; Watkins, Paul B.; Harrill, Alison H.

    2014-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH), the mainstay therapeutic for tuberculosis infection, has been associated with rare but serious hepatotoxicity in the clinic. However, the mechanisms underlying inter-individual variability in the response to this drug have remained elusive. A genetically diverse mouse population model in combination with a systems biology approach was utilized to identify transcriptional changes, INH-responsive metabolites, and gene variants that contribute to the liver response in genetically sensitive individuals. Sensitive mouse strains developed severe microvesicular steatosis compared with corresponding vehicle control mice following 3 days of oral treatment with INH. Genes involved in mitochondrial dysfunction were enriched among liver transcripts altered with INH treatment. Those associated with INH treatment and susceptibility to INH-induced steatosis in the liver included apolipoprotein A-IV, lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1, and choline phosphotransferase 1. These alterations were accompanied by metabolomic changes including reduced levels of glutathione and the choline metabolites betaine and phosphocholine, suggesting that oxidative stress and reduced lipid export may additionally contribute to INH-induced steatosis. Finally, genome-wide association mapping revealed that polymorphisms in perilipin 2 were linked to increased triglyceride levels following INH treatment, implicating a role for inter-individual differences in lipid packaging in the susceptibility to INH-induced steatosis. Taken together, our data suggest that INH-induced steatosis is caused by not one, but multiple events involving lipid retention in the livers of genetically sensitive individuals. This work also highlights the value of using a mouse diversity panel to investigate drug-induced responses across a diverse population. PMID:24848797

  9. Functional promiscuity in a mammalian chemosensory system: extensive expression of vomeronasal receptors in the main olfactory epithelium of mouse lemurs

    PubMed Central

    Hohenbrink, Philipp; Dempewolf, Silke; Zimmermann, Elke; Mundy, Nicholas I.; Radespiel, Ute

    2014-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is functional in most terrestrial mammals, though progressively reduced in the primate lineage, and is used for intraspecific communication and predator recognition. Vomeronasal receptor (VR) genes comprise two families of chemosensory genes (V1R and V2R) that have been considered to be specific for the VNO. However, recently a large number of VRs were reported to be expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of mice, but there is little knowledge of the expression of these genes outside of rodents. To explore the function of VR genes in mammalian evolution, we analyzed and compared the expression of 64 V1R and 2 V2R genes in the VNO and the MOE of the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), the primate with the largest known VR repertoire. We furthermore compared expression patterns in adults of both sexes and seasons, and in an infant. A large proportion (83–97%) of the VR loci was expressed in the VNO of all individuals. The repertoire in the infant was as rich as in adults, indicating reliance on olfactory communication from early postnatal development onwards. In concordance with mice, we also detected extensive expression of VRs in the MOE, with proportions of expressed loci in individuals ranging from 29 to 45%. TRPC2, which encodes a channel protein crucial for signal transduction via VRs, was co-expressed in the MOE in all individuals indicating likely functionality of expressed VR genes in the MOE. In summary, the large VR repertoire in mouse lemurs seems to be highly functional. Given the differences in the neural pathways of MOE and VNO signals, which project to higher cortical brain centers or the limbic system, respectively, this raises the intriguing possibility that the evolution of MOE-expression of VRs enabled mouse lemurs to adaptively diversify the processing of VR-encoded olfactory information. PMID:25309343

  10. Expression of social behaviors of C57BL/6J versus BTBR inbred mouse strains in the visible burrow system

    PubMed Central

    Pobbe, Roger L. H.; Pearson, Brandon L.; Defensor, Erwin B.; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Mouse models with behavioral phenotypes relevant to these core symptoms offer an experimental approach to advance the investigation of genes associated with ASD. Previous findings demonstrate that BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of ASD. In the present study, we investigated the expression of social behaviors in a semi-natural visible burrow system (VBS), during colony formation and maintenance in groups comprising three adult male mice of the same strain, either C57BL/6J (B6) or BTBR. For comparative purposes, an extensively investigated three-chambered test was subsequently used to assess social approach in both strains. The effects of strain on these two situations were consistent and highly significant. In the VBS, BTBR mice showed reductions in all interactive behaviors: approach (front and back), flight, chase/follow, allo-grooming and huddling, along with increases in self-grooming and alone, as compared to B6. These results were corroborated in the three-chambered test: in contrast to B6, male BTBR mice failed to spend more time in the side of the test box containing the unfamiliar CD-1 mouse. Overall, the present data indicates that the strain profile for BTBR mice, including consistent social deficits and high levels of repetitive self-grooming, models multiple components of the ASD phenotype. PMID:20600340

  11. Recent advances in transport of water-soluble vitamins in organs of the digestive system: a focus on the colon and the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Said, Hamid M

    2013-11-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) transport in the large intestine and pancreas, two important organs of the digestive system that have only recently received their fair share of attention. WSV, a group of structurally unrelated compounds, are essential for normal cell function and development and, thus, for overall health and survival of the organism. Humans cannot synthesize WSV endogenously; rather, WSV are obtained from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption. The intestine is exposed to two sources of WSV: a dietary source and a bacterial source (i.e., WSV generated by the large intestinal microbiota). Contribution of the latter source to human nutrition/health has been a subject of debate and doubt, mostly based on the absence of specialized systems for efficient uptake of WSV in the large intestine. However, recent studies utilizing a variety of human and animal colon preparations clearly demonstrate that such systems do exist in the large intestine. This has provided strong support for the idea that the microbiota-generated WSV are of nutritional value to the host, and especially to the nutritional needs of the local colonocytes and their health. In the pancreas, WSV are essential for normal metabolic activities of all its cell types and for its exocrine and endocrine functions. Significant progress has also been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in the uptake of WSV and the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on the uptake processes. PMID:23989008

  12. A new mouse model of Canavan leukodystrophy displays hearing impairment due to central nervous system dysmyelination

    PubMed Central

    Carpinelli, Marina R.; Voss, Anne K.; Manning, Michael G.; Perera, Ashwyn A.; Cooray, Anne A.; Kile, Benjamin T.; Burt, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Canavan disease is a leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the ASPA gene. This gene encodes the enzyme that converts N-acetylaspartate into acetate and aspartic acid. In Canavan disease, spongiform encephalopathy of the brain causes progressive mental retardation, motor deficit and death. We have isolated a mouse with a novel ethylnitrosourea-induced mutation in Aspa. This mutant, named deaf14, carries a c.516T>A mutation that is predicted to cause a p.Y172X protein truncation. No full-length ASPA protein is produced in deaf14 brain and there is extensive spongy degeneration. Interestingly, we found that deaf14 mice have an attenuated startle in response to loud noise. The first auditory brainstem response peak has normal latency and amplitude but peaks II, III, IV and V have increased latency and decreased amplitude in deaf14 mice. Our work reveals a hitherto unappreciated pathology in a mouse model of Canavan disease, implying that auditory brainstem response testing could be used in diagnosis and to monitor the progression of this disease. PMID:24682784

  13. Anaerobic digestion of red and chum salmon wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    This report is on the second and final phase of a project designed to investigate the feasibility of digesting fish wastes to reduce pollution and recover useable oils, solids, and liquids. The first part of the project was a literature search to determine which of two digestion methods, enzymatic or anaerobic, was the most feasible for fish wastes. The results indicated that anaerobic digestion, with production of combustible gases, was the more feasible process. Accordingly, a bench-scale system was set up to determine the potential of fish waste digestion, as the second phase. This report is on the results of that study. The study shows that anaerobic digestion will initiate utilizing salmon wastes; completion of digestion would be dependent upon the COD:N:P ratio of the wastes and their carbonate buffering capacity. The nutrient ratio would depend on the type of processing while the buffering capacity would depend on the carbonate content of the processing water. Both of these factors would be plant specific. From the data the feasibility of utilizing anaerobic digestion in that processing plant could be determined. The ratio might indicate that a small amount of fertilizer or carbonate addition would facilitate digestion. Because total digestion did not occur, we were not able to complete the part of the study dealing with the potential use of digested salmon wastes as fertilizer and animal feed supplement. The most likely factor for the failure to complete digestion was the low percentage of nitrogen and phosphorus in the wastes. Since digestion and methane production were initiated, the wastes should be capable of digestion if they were fertilized with nitrogen and phosphorus. The system also needs to be buffered to maintain the proper pH range. 14 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Molecular and Functional Diversity of GABA-A Receptors in the Enteric Nervous System of the Mouse Colon

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Mohsen; Brown, James F.; Mills, Jeremy; Bhandari, Pradeep; Belelli, Delia; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Rudolph, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) provides the intrinsic neural control of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and regulates virtually all GI functions. Altered neuronal activity within the ENS underlies various GI disorders with stress being a key contributing factor. Thus, elucidating the expression and function of the neurotransmitter systems, which determine neuronal excitability within the ENS, such as the GABA-GABAA receptor (GABAAR) system, could reveal novel therapeutic targets for such GI disorders. Molecular and functionally diverse GABAARs modulate rapid GABAergic-mediated regulation of neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. However, the cellular and subcellular GABAAR subunit expression patterns within neurochemically defined cellular circuits of the mouse ENS, together with the functional contribution of GABAAR subtypes to GI contractility remains to be determined. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that immunoreactivity for the GABAAR gamma (γ) 2 and alphas (α) 1, 2, 3 subunits was located on somatodendritic surfaces of neurochemically distinct myenteric plexus neurons, while being on axonal compartments of submucosal plexus neurons. In contrast, immunoreactivity for the α4–5 subunits was only detected in myenteric plexus neurons. Furthermore, α-γ2 subunit immunoreactivity was located on non-neuronal interstitial cells of Cajal. In organ bath studies, GABAAR subtype-specific ligands had contrasting effects on the force and frequency of spontaneous colonic longitudinal smooth muscle contractions. Finally, enhancement of γ2-GABAAR function with alprazolam reversed the stress-induced increase in the force of spontaneous colonic contractions. The study demonstrates the molecular and functional diversity of the GABAAR system within the mouse colon providing a framework for developing GABAAR-based therapeutics in GI disorders. PMID:25080596

  15. Application of a fuzzy logic control system for continuous anaerobic digestion of low buffered, acidic energy crops as mono-substrate.

    PubMed

    Scherer, P; Lehmann, K; Schmidt, O; Demirel, B

    2009-02-15

    A fuzzy logic control (FLC) system was developed at the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW Hamburg) for operation of biogas reactors running on energy crops. Three commercially available measuring parameters, namely pH, the methane (CH4) content, and the specific gas production rate (spec. GPR = m(3)/kg VS/day) were included. The objective was to avoid stabilization of pH with use of buffering supplements, like lime or manure. The developed FLC system can cover most of all applications, such as a careful start-up process and a gentle recovery strategy after a severe reactor failure, also enabling a process with a high organic loading rate (OLR) and a low hydraulic retention time (HRT), that is, a high throughput anaerobic digestion process with a stable pH and CH4 content. A precondition for a high load process was the concept of interval feeding, for example, with 8 h of interval. The FLC system was proved to be reliable during the long term fermentation studies over 3 years in one-stage, completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with acidic beet silage as mono-input (pH 3.3-3.4). During fermentation of the fodder beet silage (FBS), a stable HRT of 6.0 days with an OLR of up to 15 kg VS/m(3)/day and a volumetric GPR of 9 m(3)/m(3)/day could be reached. The FLC enabled an automatic recovery of the digester after two induced severe reactor failures. In another attempt to prove the feasibility of the FLC, substrate FBS was changed to sugar beet silage (SBS), which had a substantially lower buffering capacity than that of the FBS. With SBS, the FLC accomplished a stable fermentation at a pH level between 6.5 and 6.6, and a volatile fatty acid level (VFA) below 500 mg/L, but the FLC had to interact and to change the substrate dosage permanently. In a further experiment, the reactor temperature was increased from 41 to 50 degrees C. Concomitantly, the specific GPR, pH and CH4 dropped down. Finally, the FLC automatically enabled a complete recovery in 16 days. PMID:18988261

  16. Teaching and Learning about the Earth. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyonyong

    This ERIC Digest investigates the earth and space science guidelines of the National Science Education Standards. These guidelines are frequently referred to as the earth system and include components such as plate tectonics, the water cycle, and the carbon cycle. This Digest describes the development of earth systems science and earth systems…

  17. Advantages of using the CRISPR/Cas9 system of genome editing to investigate male reproductive mechanisms using mouse models.

    PubMed

    Young, Samantha A M; Aitken, R John; Ikawa, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    Gene disruption technology has long been beneficial for the study of male reproductive biology. However, because of the time and cost involved, this technology was not a viable method except in specialist laboratories. The advent of the CRISPR/Cas9 system of gene disruption has ushered in a new era of genetic investigation. Now, it is possible to generate gene-disrupted mouse models in very little time and at very little cost. This Highlight article discusses the application of this technology to study the genetics of male fertility and looks at some of the future uses of this system that could be used to reveal the essential and nonessential genetic components of male reproductive mechanisms. PMID:25994645

  18. Transcytosis in the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier of the mouse brain with an engineered receptor/ligand system

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Gómez, Héctor R; Galera-Prat, Albert; Meyers, Craig; Chen, Weijun; Singh, Jasbir; Carrión-Vázquez, Mariano; Muzyczka, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Crossing the blood–brain and the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barriers (BCSFB) is one of the fundamental challenges in the development of new therapeutic molecules for brain disorders because these barriers prevent entry of most drugs from the blood into the brain. However, some large molecules, like the protein transferrin, cross these barriers using a specific receptor that transports them into the brain. Based on this mechanism, we engineered a receptor/ligand system to overcome the brain barriers by combining the human transferrin receptor with the cohesin domain from Clostridium thermocellum, and we tested the hybrid receptor in the choroid plexus of the mouse brain with a dockerin ligand. By expressing our receptor in choroidal ependymocytes, which are part of the BCSFB, we found that our systemically administrated ligand was able to bind to the receptor and accumulate in ependymocytes, where some of the ligand was transported from the blood side to the brain side. PMID:26491705

  19. Role of peptidases of the intestinal microflora and prey in temperature adaptations of the digestive system in planktivorous and benthivorous fish.

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, V V; Skvortsova, E G; Shalygin, M V; Kovalenko, K E

    2015-12-01

    Many fish enzymatic systems possess limited adaptations to low temperature; however, little data are available to judge whether enzymes of fish prey and intestinal microbiota can mitigate this deficiency. In this study, the activity of serine peptidases (casein-lytic, mainly trypsin and hemoglobin-lytic, mainly chymotrypsin) of intestinal mucosa, chyme and intestinal microflora in four species of planktivorous (blue bream) and benthivorous (roach, crucian carp, perch) was investigated across a wide temperature range (0-70 °C) to identify adaptations to low temperature. At 0 °C, the relative activity of peptidases of intestinal mucosa (<13%) and usually intestinal microflora (5-12.6%) is considerably less than that of chyme peptidases (up to 40% of maximal activity). The level of peptidase relative activity in crucian carp intestinal microflora was 45% of maximal activity. The shape of t°-function curves of chyme peptidase also differs in fish from different biotopes. Fish from the littoral group are characterized by a higher degree of adaptation of chyme casein-lytic peptidases to functioning at low temperatures as compared to fish from the pelagic group. The role of intestinal microbiota and prey peptidases in digestive system adaptations of planktivorous and benthivorous fish to low temperatures is discussed. PMID:26251288

  20. Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the anaerobic co-digestion of agro-industrial wastes in a two-stage CSTR system.

    PubMed

    Dareioti, Margarita Andreas; Kornaros, Michael

    2014-09-01

    A two-stage anaerobic digestion system consisting of two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) operating at mesophilic conditions (37°C) were used to investigate the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on hydrogen and methane production. The acidogenic reactor was fed with a mixture consisting of olive mill wastewater, cheese whey and liquid cow manure (in a ratio 55:40:5, v/v/v) and operated at five different HRTs (5, 3, 2, 1 and 0.75 d) aiming to evaluate hydrogen productivity and operational stability. The highest system efficiency was achieved at HRT 0.75 d with a maximum hydrogen production rate of 1.72 L/LRd and hydrogen yield of 0.54 mol H2/mol carbohydrates consumed. The methanogenic reactor was operated at HRTs 20 and 25 d with better stability observed at HRT 25 d, whereas accumulation of volatile fatty acids took place at HRT 20 d. The methane production rate at the steady state of HRT 25 d reached 0.33 L CH4/LRd. PMID:25000396

  1. Development of Food-Grade Curcumin Nanoemulsion and its Potential Application to Food Beverage System: Antioxidant Property and In Vitro Digestion.

    PubMed

    Joung, Hee Joung; Choi, Mi-Jung; Kim, Jun Tae; Park, Seok Hoon; Park, Hyun Jin; Shin, Gye Hwa

    2016-03-01

    Curcumin nanoemulsions (Cur-NEs) were developed with various surfactant concentrations by using high pressure homogenization and finally applied to the commercial milk system. Characterization of Cur-NEs was performed by measuring the droplet size and polydispersity index value at different Tween 20 concentrations. The morphology of the Cur-NEs was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Antioxidant activity and in vitro digestion ability were tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, pH-stat method, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays. Cur-NEs were found to be physically stable for 1 mo at room temperature. The surfactant concentration affects particle formation and droplet size. The mean droplet size decreased from 122 to 90 nm when surfactant concentration increased 3 times. Cur-NEs had shown an effective oxygen scavenging activity. Cur-NEs-fortified milk showed significantly lower lipid oxidation than control (unfortified) milk and milk containing curcumin-free nanoemulsions. These properties make Cur-NEs suitable systems for the beverage industry. PMID:26807662

  2. Development of a natural treatment system consisting of red ball earth and alfalfa for the post-treatment of anaerobically digested livestock wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochen; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2014-01-01

    With the objective of developing a post-treatment process for anaerobically digested livestock wastewater, an innovative natural treatment system composed of two units is proposed. The first trickling filter unit further reduced biochemical oxygen demand and achieved a certain degree of nitrification. The second soil-plant unit was targeted at the removal and recovery of nutrients N, P and K. For the feasibility study, a bench-scale soil column test was carried out, in which red ball earth and alfalfa were utilized for treating synthetic nutrient-enriched wastewater. Through long-term operation, the nitrification function was well established in the top layers, especially the top 20 cm, although a supplementary denitrification process was still required before discharge. P and K were retained by the soil through different mechanisms, and their plant-available forms that remained in the soil were considered suitable for indirect nutrient reuse. As for alfalfa, with wastewater application it fixed more N from the atmosphere, and directly recovered 6% of P and 4% of K input from wastewater. More importantly, alfalfa was verified to have an indispensable role in stimulating the soil nitrifying microorganisms by sustaining their abundance during substrate (NH3) and oxygen scarcity, and enhancing cell-specific nitrification potential during substrate (NH3) and oxygen sufficiency. The proposed system is expected to be further improved, and adopted as a sound countermeasure for livestock wastewater pollution. PMID:25225925

  3. Development of natural treatment system consisting of black soil and Kentucky bluegrass for the post-treatment of anaerobically digested strong wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochen; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2016-03-01

    To develop a sound post-treatment process for anaerobically-digested strong wastewater, a novel natural treatment system comprising two units is put forward. The first unit, a trickling filter, provides for further reduction of biochemical oxygen demand and adjustable nitrification. The subsequent soil-plant unit aims at removing and recovering the nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). As a lab-scale feasibility study, a soil column test was conducted, in which black soil and valuable Kentucky bluegrass were integrated to treat artificial nutrient-enriched wastewater. After a long-term operation, the nitrification function was well established in the top layers, despite the need for an improved denitrification process prior to discharge. P and K were retained by the soil through distinct mechanisms. Since they either partially or totally remained in plant-available forms in the soil, indirect nutrient reuse could be achieved. As for Kentucky bluegrass, it displayed better growth status when receiving wastewater, with direct recovery of 8%, 6% and 14% of input N, P and K, respectively. Furthermore, the indispensable role of Kentucky bluegrass for better treatment performance was proved, as it enhanced the cell-specific nitrification potential of the soil nitrifying microorganisms inhabiting the rhizosphere. After further upgrade, the proposed system is expected to become a new solution for strong wastewater pollution. PMID:26969049

  4. Mouse model systems to study sex chromosome genes and behavior: relevance to humans.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kimberly H; Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F

    2014-10-01

    Sex chromosome genes directly influence sex differences in behavior. The discovery of the Sry gene on the Y chromosome (Gubbay et al., 1990; Koopman et al., 1990) substantiated the sex chromosome mechanistic link to sex differences. Moreover, the pronounced connection between X chromosome gene mutations and mental illness produces a strong sex bias in these diseases. Yet, the dominant explanation for sex differences continues to be the gonadal hormones. Here we review progress made on behavioral differences in mouse models that uncouple sex chromosome complement from gonadal sex. We conclude that many social and cognitive behaviors are modified by sex chromosome complement, and discuss the implications for human research. Future directions need to include identification of the genes involved and interactions with these genes and gonadal hormones. PMID:24388960

  5. Mouse model systems to study sex chromosome genes and behavior: relevance to humans

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Kimberly H.; Bonthuis, Paul J.; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2014-01-01

    Sex chromosome genes directly influence sex differences in behavior. The discovery of the Sry gene on the Y chromosome (Gubbay et al., 1990; Koopman et al., 1990) substantiated the sex chromosome mechanistic link to sex differences. Moreover, the pronounced connection between X chromosome gene mutations and mental illness produces a strong sex bias in these diseases. Yet, the dominant explanation for sex differences continues to be the gonadal hormones. Here we review progress made on behavioral differences in mouse models that uncouple sex chromosome complement from gonadal sex. We conclude that many social and cognitive behaviors are modified by sex chromosome complement, and discuss the implications for human research. Future directions need to include identification of the genes involved and interactions with these genes and gonadal hormones. PMID:24388960

  6. A comparative study of experimental mouse models of central nervous system demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Dumitrascu, Oana M.; Mott, Kevin R.; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2014-01-01

    Several mouse models of multiple sclerosis (MS) are now available. We have established a mouse model, in which ocular infection with a recombinant HSV-1 that expresses murine IL-2 constitutively (HSV-IL-2) causes CNS demyelination in different strains of mice. This model differs from most other models in that it represents a mixture of viral and immune triggers. In the present study, we directly compared MOG35–55, MBP35–47, and PLP190–209 models of EAE with our HSV-IL-2-induced MS model. Mice with HSV-IL-2-induced and MOG-induced demyelinating diseases demonstrated a similar pattern and distribution of demyelination in their brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. In contrast, no demyelination was detected in the optic nerves of MBP- and PLP-injected mice. IFN-β injections significantly reduced demyelination in brains of all groups, in the spinal cords of the MOG and MBP groups, and completely blocked it in the spinal cords of the PLP and HSV-IL-2 groups as well as in optic nerves of MOG and HSV-IL-2 groups. In contrast to IFN-β treatment, IL-12p70 protected the HSV-IL-2 group from demyelination, while IL-4 was not effective at all in preventing demyelination. MOG-injected mice showed clinical signs of paralysis and disease-related mortality whereas mice in the other treatment groups did not. Collectively, the results indicate that the HSV-IL-2 model and the MOG model complement each other and, together, provide unique insights into the heterogeneity of human MS. PMID:24718267

  7. Changes in chemical composition and digestibility of three maize stover components digested by white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J P; O'Kiely, P; Murphy, R; Doyle, E M

    2014-08-01

    Maize stover (total stem and leaves) is not considered a ruminant feed of high nutritive value. Therefore, an improvement in its digestibility may increase the viability of total forage maize production systems in marginal growth regions. The objective of this study was to describe the changes in chemical composition during the storage of contrasting components of maize stover (leaf, upper stem and lower stem) treated with either of two lignin degrading white-rot fungi (WRF; Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor). Three components of maize stover (leaf, upper stem and lower stem), harvested at a conventional maturity for silage production, were digested with either of two WRF for one of four digestion durations (1-4 months). Samples taken prior to fungal inoculation were used to benchmark the changes that occurred. The degradation of acid detergent lignin was observed in all sample types digested with P. ostreatus; however, the loss of digestible substrate in all samples inoculated with P. ostreatus was high, and therefore, P. ostreatus-digested samples had a lower dry matter digestibility than samples prior to inoculation. Similarly, T. veriscolor-digested leaf underwent a non-selective degradation of the rumen-digestible components of fibre. The changes in chemical composition of leaf, upper stem and lower stem digested with either P. ostreatus or T. veriscolor were not beneficial to the feed value of the forage, and incurred high DM losses. PMID:24112093

  8. Directed Neural Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Is a Sensitive System for the Identification of Novel Hox Gene Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Bami, Myrto; Episkopou, Vasso; Gavalas, Anthony; Gouti, Mina

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Hox family of homeodomain transcription factors plays fundamental roles in regulating cell specification along the anterior posterior axis during development of all bilaterian animals by controlling cell fate choices in a highly localized, extracellular signal and cell context dependent manner. Some studies have established downstream target genes in specific systems but their identification is insufficient to explain either the ability of Hox genes to direct homeotic transformations or the breadth of their patterning potential. To begin delineating Hox gene function in neural development we used a mouse ES cell based system that combines efficient neural differentiation with inducible Hoxb1 expression. Gene expression profiling suggested that Hoxb1 acted as both activator and repressor in the short term but predominantly as a repressor in the long run. Activated and repressed genes segregated in distinct processes suggesting that, in the context examined, Hoxb1 blocked differentiation while activating genes related to early developmental processes, wnt and cell surface receptor linked signal transduction and cell-to-cell communication. To further elucidate aspects of Hoxb1 function we used loss and gain of function approaches in the mouse and chick embryos. We show that Hoxb1 acts as an activator to establish the full expression domain of CRABPI and II in rhombomere 4 and as a repressor to restrict expression of Lhx5 and Lhx9. Thus the Hoxb1 patterning activity includes the regulation of the cellular response to retinoic acid and the delay of the expression of genes that commit cells to neural differentiation. The results of this study show that ES neural differentiation and inducible Hox gene expression can be used as a sensitive model system to systematically identify Hox novel target genes, delineate their interactions with signaling pathways in dictating cell fate and define the extent of functional overlap among different Hox genes. PMID:21637844

  9. The digestive system of 1-week-old Jersey calves is well suited to digest, absorb, and incorporate protein and energy into tissue growth even when calves are fed a high plane of milk replacer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu; Carroll, Jeffery A; Ballou, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, organic matter, ash, and energy as well as investigate the nitrogen retention of calves fed different planes of milk replacer nutrition during the first week of life. Twelve Jersey calves were blocked by body weight at birth and randomly assigned to either a high plane of nutrition (HPN) or low plane of nutrition (LPN) treatment. The HPN calves were offered 19.2g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 28% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. The LPN calves were fed 11.6g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 20% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. All calves were given 3L of pooled colostrum within 1h of birth after which they were assigned to treatments; no starter was offered during the study. Calves were given 1 d to adapt to their treatments and environment, so calves were 30 to 36h old at the start of data collection. The study was divided into two 72-h periods. Total collection of feces occurred over each 72h period, and total urine was collected for the last 24h of each period. Peripheral blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of each period and analyzed for plasma glucose and urea nitrogen concentrations. Data are reported as HPN vs. LPN, respectively. Fecal scores were greater for HPN calves during both periods; however, no difference was found in the dry matter percentage of feces (30.9 vs. 31.9±0.06). No differences were found between treatments in either digestible or metabolizable energy efficiencies, which averaged 93.3 and 83.7%, respectively. A treatment × period interaction was found on the percentage of intake nitrogen retained, in which calves fed the HPN had a greater percentage of intake nitrogen retained during period 1 (87.9 vs. 78.4±1.79%), but was not different from calves fed the LPN during period 2 (85.4 vs. 84.9±1.79%). From these data therefore, we conclude that healthy neonatal calves have the capability to digest and absorb the additional nutrients with a higher plane of nutrition during the first week of postnatal life. PMID:26723121

  10. Predictive Dose-Based Estimation of Systemic Exposure Multiples in Mouse and Monkey Relative to Human for Antisense Oligonucleotides With 2′-O-(2-Methoxyethyl) Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rosie Z; Grundy, John S; Henry, Scott P; Kim, Tae-Won; Norris, Daniel A; Burkey, Jennifer; Wang, Yanfeng; Vick, Andrew; Geary, Richard S

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of species differences and systemic exposure multiples (or ratios) in toxicological animal species versus human is an ongoing exercise during the course of drug development. The systemic exposure ratios are best estimated by directly comparing area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUCs), and sometimes by comparing the dose administered, with the dose being adjusted either by body surface area (BSA) or body weight (BW). In this study, the association between AUC ratio and the administered dose ratio from animals to human were studied using a retrospective data-driven approach. The dataset included nine antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) with 2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl) modifications, evaluated in two animal species (mouse and monkey) following single and repeated parenteral administrations. We found that plasma AUCs were similar between ASOs within the same species, and are predictable to human exposure using a single animal species, either mouse or monkey. Between monkey and human, the plasma exposure ratio can be predicted directly based on BW-adjusted dose ratios, whereas between mouse and human, the exposure ratio would be nearly fivefold lower in mouse compared to human based on BW-adjusted dose values. Thus, multiplying a factor of 5 for the mouse BW-adjusted dose would likely provide a reasonable AUC exposure estimate in human at steady-state. PMID:25602582

  11. Immunomodulatory activity of enzymatically synthesized glycogen and its digested metabolite in a co-culture system consisting of differentiated Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Michiko; Furuyashiki, Takashi; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Kakutani, Ryo; Takata, Hiroki; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2013-09-01

    Previously, we developed enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) from starch, and showed its immunomodulatory and dietary fiber-like activities. In this study, we investigated the metabolism of ESG and its immunomodulatory activity using differentiated Caco-2 cells as a model of the intestinal barrier. In a co-culture system consisting of differentiated Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages, mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1? and BAFF cytokines was up-regulated in Caco-2 cells and IL-8 production in basolateral medium was induced after 24 h apical treatment with 5 mg ml(-1) of ESG. The mRNA level of iNOS was also up-regulated in RAW264.7 macrophages. After characterization of the binding of anti-glycogen monoclonal antibodies (IV58B6 and ESG1A9) to ESG and its digested metabolite resistant glycogen (RG), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system was developed to quantify ESG and RG. Using this system, we investigated the metabolism of ESG in differentiated Caco-2 cells. When ESG (7000 kDa, 5 mg ml(-1)) was added to the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers, ESG disappeared and RG (about 3000 kDa, 3.5 mg ml(-1)) appeared in the apical solution during a 24 h incubation. Neither ESG nor RG was detected in the basolateral solution. In addition, both ESG and RG were bound to TLR2 in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, we suggest that ESG is metabolized to a RG-like structure in the intestine, and this metabolite activates the immune system via stimulation of the intestinal epithelium, although neither ESG nor its metabolite could permeate the intestinal cells under our experimental conditions. These results provide evidence for the beneficial function of ESG as a food ingredient. PMID:23872795

  12. A Common Origin for Immunity and Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Nichole A.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the digestive and immune systems were viewed and studied as separate entities. However, there are remarkable similarities and shared functions in both nutrient acquisition and host defense. Here, I propose a common origin for both systems. This association provides a new prism for viewing the emergence and evolution of host defense mechanisms. PMID:25745424

  13. Comparative effectiveness of the tumour diagnostics, CA 19-9, CA 125 and carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with diseases of the digestive system.

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, K; Haga, Y; Yoshimura, R; Egami, H; Yokoyama, Y; Akagi, M

    1987-01-01

    Serum concentrations of CA 19-9, CA 125 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in 145 patients with gastrointestinal carcinomas and 89 with non-neoplastic diseases were determined to compare the clinical usefulness of these tumour markers. Significantly fewer positive cases were obtained with serum CA 19-9 (9%) and CA 125 (8%) tests than the CEA test (22%) (both p less than 0.05) in patients with benign diseases, while comparable sensitivities were achieved with the CA 19-9 (44%) test, the CA 125 (41%) test and the CEA test (47%) in those with a carcinoma. High incidences of raised concentrations of serum CA 19-9 and CA 125 were observed in case of cancer of the pancreas (CA 19-9: 87%, CA 125: 67%) and biliary tract (CA 19-9: 63%, CA 125: 48%). Combined tests of CA 19-9 and CA 125 revealed increments in the sensitivity (61%) and provided a higher specificity (87%) than that of the single CEA test (78%). These combined tests were most useful for a differential diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma (97% positive) and biliary tract carcinoma (74%) from chronic pancreatitis (4%) and cholelithiasis (0%), respectively. Studies on the relations of clinical staging and serum concentrations of CA 19-9 and CA 125 revealed significant rises in cases of disseminated carcinoma. These results clearly show that serum CA 19-9 and CA 125 tests are most pertinent for diagnosing advanced carcinomas of organs in the digestive system. PMID:3471687

  14. Effect of electrode position on azo dye removal in an up-flow hybrid anaerobic digestion reactor with built-in bioelectrochemical system

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Min-Hua; Cui, Dan; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Liang, Bin; Wang, Ai-Jie; Cheng, Hao-Yi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two modes of hybrid anaerobic digestion (AD) bioreactor with built-in BESs (electrodes installed in liquid phase (R1) and sludge phase (R2)) were tested for identifying the effect of electrodes position on azo dye wastewater treatment. Alizarin yellow R (AYR) was used as a model dye. Decolorization efficiency of R1 was 90.41 ± 6.20% at influent loading rate of 800 g-AYR/ m3·d, which was 39% higher than that of R2. The contribution of bioelectrochemical reduction to AYR decolorization (16.23 ± 1.86% for R1 versus 22.24 ± 2.14% for R2) implied that although azo dye was mainly removed in sludge zone, BES further improved the effluent quality, especially for R1 where electrodes were installed in liquid phase. The microbial communities in the electrode biofilms (dominant by Enterobacter) and sludge (dominant by Enterococcus) were well distinguished in R1, but they were similar in R2. These results suggest that electrodes installed in liquid phase in the anaerobic hybrid system are more efficient than that in sludge phase for azo dye removal, which give great inspirations for the application of AD-BES hybrid process for various refractory wastewaters treatment. PMID:27121278

  15. Role of the PhoP-PhoQ gene regulatory system in adaptation of Yersinia pestis to environmental stress in the flea digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Vadyvaloo, Viveka; Viall, Austin K; Jarrett, Clayton O; Hinz, Angela K; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Joseph Hinnebusch, B

    2015-06-01

    The Yersinia pestis PhoPQ gene regulatory system is induced during infection of the flea digestive tract and is required to produce adherent biofilm in the foregut, which greatly enhances bacterial transmission during a flea bite. To understand the in vivo context of PhoPQ induction and to determine PhoP-regulated targets in the flea, we undertook whole-genome comparative transcriptional profiling of Y. pestis WT and ΔphoP strains isolated from infected fleas and from temperature-matched in vitro planktonic and flow-cell biofilm cultures. In the absence of PhoP regulation, the gene expression program indicated that the bacteria experienced diverse physiological stresses and were in a metabolically less active state. Multiple stress response genes, including several toxin-antitoxin loci and YhcN family genes responsible for increased acid tolerance, were upregulated in the phoP mutant during flea infection. The data implied that PhoPQ was induced by low pH in the flea gut, and that PhoP modulated physiological adaptation to acid and other stresses encountered during infection of the flea. This adaptive response, together with PhoP-dependent modification of the bacterial outer surface that includes repression of pH 6 antigen fimbriae, supports stable biofilm development in the flea foregut. PMID:25804213

  16. Role of the PhoP–PhoQ gene regulatory system in adaptation of Yersinia pestis to environmental stress in the flea digestive tract

    PubMed Central

    Viall, Austin K.; Jarrett, Clayton O.; Hinz, Angela K.; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Joseph Hinnebusch, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Yersinia pestis PhoPQ gene regulatory system is induced during infection of the flea digestive tract and is required to produce adherent biofilm in the foregut, which greatly enhances bacterial transmission during a flea bite. To understand the in vivo context of PhoPQ induction and to determine PhoP-regulated targets in the flea, we undertook whole-genome comparative transcriptional profiling of Y. pestis WT and ΔphoP strains isolated from infected fleas and from temperature-matched in vitro planktonic and flow-cell biofilm cultures. In the absence of PhoP regulation, the gene expression program indicated that the bacteria experienced diverse physiological stresses and were in a metabolically less active state. Multiple stress response genes, including several toxin–antitoxin loci and YhcN family genes responsible for increased acid tolerance, were upregulated in the phoP mutant during flea infection. The data implied that PhoPQ was induced by low pH in the flea gut, and that PhoP modulated physiological adaptation to acid and other stresses encountered during infection of the flea. This adaptive response, together with PhoP-dependent modification of the bacterial outer surface that includes repression of pH 6 antigen fimbriae, supports stable biofilm development in the flea foregut. PMID:25804213

  17. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of coffee grounds with and without waste activated sludge as co-substrate using a submerged AnMBR: system amendments and membrane performance.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wei; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Shofie, Mohammad; Niu, Qigui; Yu, Han Qing; Li, Yu-You

    2013-12-01

    Coffee grounds are deemed to be difficult for degradation by thermophilic anaerobic process. In this research, a 7 L AnMBR accepting coffee grounds was operated for 82 days and failed with pH dropping to 6.6. The deficiency of micronutrients in the reactor was identified. The system was recovered by supplying micronutrient, pH adjustment and influent ceasing for 22 days. In the subsequent 160 days of co-digestion experiment, waste activated sludge (15% in the mixture) was mixed into coffee grounds. The COD conversion efficiency of 67.4% was achieved under OLR of 11.1 kg-COD/m(3) d and HRT of 20 days. Tannins was identified affecting protein degradation by a batch experiment. Quantitative supplements of NH4HCO3 (0.12 g-N/g-TSin) were effective to maintain alkalinity and pH. The solid concentration in the AnMBR reached 75 g/L, but it did not significantly affect membrane filtration under a flux of 5.1 L/m(2) h. Soluble carbohydrate, lipid and protein were partially retained by the membrane. PMID:24177158

  18. Effect of electrode position on azo dye removal in an up-flow hybrid anaerobic digestion reactor with built-in bioelectrochemical system.

    PubMed

    Cui, Min-Hua; Cui, Dan; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Liang, Bin; Wang, Ai-Jie; Cheng, Hao-Yi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two modes of hybrid anaerobic digestion (AD) bioreactor with built-in BESs (electrodes installed in liquid phase (R1) and sludge phase (R2)) were tested for identifying the effect of electrodes position on azo dye wastewater treatment. Alizarin yellow R (AYR) was used as a model dye. Decolorization efficiency of R1 was 90.41 ± 6.20% at influent loading rate of 800 g-AYR/ m(3)·d, which was 39% higher than that of R2. The contribution of bioelectrochemical reduction to AYR decolorization (16.23 ± 1.86% for R1 versus 22.24 ± 2.14% for R2) implied that although azo dye was mainly removed in sludge zone, BES further improved the effluent quality, especially for R1 where electrodes were installed in liquid phase. The microbial communities in the electrode biofilms (dominant by Enterobacter) and sludge (dominant by Enterococcus) were well distinguished in R1, but they were similar in R2. These results suggest that electrodes installed in liquid phase in the anaerobic hybrid system are more efficient than that in sludge phase for azo dye removal, which give great inspirations for the application of AD-BES hybrid process for various refractory wastewaters treatment. PMID:27121278

  19. A Nonlinear Model for Mouse Pointing Task Movement Time Analysis Based on Both System and Human Effects.

    PubMed

    Almanji, Amur; Payne, Alex R; Amor, Robert; Davies, T Claire

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides a detailed model for analyzing movement time performance during rapid goal-directed point- and-click motions with a computer mouse. Twelve typically developed individuals and eleven youths with cerebral palsy conducted point and click computer tasks from which the model was developed. The proposed model is nonlinear and based on both system (target width and movement amplitude) and human effects (erroneous clicks, number of submovements, number of slip-offs, curvature index, and average speed). To ensure successful targeting by youths with cerebral palsy, the index of difficulty was limited to a range of 1.58 - 3.0 bits. For consistency, the same range was used with both groups. The most significant contributing human effect to movement time was found to be the curvature index for both typically developed individuals and individuals with cerebral palsy. This model will assist in algorithm development to improve cursor speed and accuracy for youths with cerebral palsy. PMID:25532208

  20. Hexokinase 2 is required for tumor initiation and maintenance and its systemic deletion is therapeutic in mouse models of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Krushna C.; Miller, Luke; Wang, Zebin; Wheaton, Will; Chandel, Navdeep; Laakso, Markku; Muller, William J.; Allen, Eric L.; Jha, Abhishek K.; Smolen, Gromoslaw A.; Clasquin, Michelle F.; Robey, Brooks; Hay, Nissim

    2013-01-01

    Summary Accelerated glucose metabolism is a common feature of cancer cells. Hexokinases catalyze the first committed step of glucose metabolism. Hexokinase 2 (HK2) is expressed at high level in cancer cells, but only in a limited number of normal adult tissues. Using Hk2 conditional knockout mice, we showed that HK2 is required for tumor initiation and maintenance in mouse models of KRas-driven lung cancer, and ErbB2-driven breast cancer, despite continued HK1 expression. Similarly HK2 ablation inhibits the neoplastic phenotype of human lung and breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Systemic Hk2 deletion is therapeutic in mice bearing lung tumors without adverse physiological consequences. Hk2 deletion in lung cancer cells suppressed glucose-derived ribonucleotides and impaired glutamine-derived carbon utilization in anaplerosis. PMID:23911236

  1. Digestive Diseases A-Z

    MedlinePlus

    ... diarrhea available from National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Diarrhea, Chronic, in Children Chronic Diarrhea in Children Digestion ... of dumping syndrome. Duodenal Ulcers Peptic Ulcer Disease Dysentery What I need to know about Diarrhea Dyspepsia ...

  2. Microbial community analysis in a combined anaerobic and aerobic digestion system for treatment of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lili; Yu, Yanling; Zhu, Zebing; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Haiman; Ambuchi, John J; Feng, Yujie

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the microbial diversity established in a combined system composed of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater. Excellent wastewater treatment performance was obtained in the combined system, which showed a high chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 95.8% and completely eliminated most complex organics revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed differences in the microbial community structures of the three reactors. Further identification of the microbial populations suggested that the presence of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in CSTR played an active role in the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The most diverse microorganisms with analogous distribution patterns of different layers were observed in the EGSB reactor, and bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Synergistetes, and Thermotogae were associated with production of acetate and carbon dioxide/hydrogen, while all acetoclastic methanogens identified belonged to Methanosaetaceae. Overall, microorganisms associated with the ability to degrade cellulose, hemicellulose, and other biomass-derived organic carbons were observed in the combined system. The results presented herein will facilitate the development of an improved cellulosic ethanol production wastewater treatment system. PMID:26160121

  3. Carbohydrate digestion and absorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of simple and complex carbohydrates are present in human diets. Food carbohydrates include the sugars, starches, and fibers found mainly in fruits, vegetables, grains, and milk products. Small amounts of digestible carbohydrates come from non-plant sources (e.g., trehalose in insects and...

  4. Supervisee Resistance. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Gould, L. J.

    This digest focuses on issues of supervisee resistance, defined as defensive behaviors of the supervisee that serve to reduce supervision-induced anxiety. It describes resistant behavior and identifies ways to counteract it, while noting that supervisee resistance is common. The purposes and goals of supervisee resistance, as manifested in verbal…

  5. Preventing Bullying. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda

    Students who are the target of bullying episodes commonly suffer serious, long-term academic, physical, and emotional consequences. Unfortunately, school personnel often minimize, underestimate, tolerate, or ignore the extent of bullying and the harm it can cause. This digest examines the problem of bullying and some of its effects, and discusses…

  6. College-Bound Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    The college admissions process and the college selection process are complex and much debated procedures which confront more than 50% of high school seniors in the United States. The purpose of this digest is to help students explore options available in choosing a suitable postsecondary education. For example the advantages of large or small…

  7. Interracial Digest, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Interracial Books for Children, Inc., New York, NY.

    This is a digest of articles which originally appeared in the bulletin, "Interracial Books for Children." Its purpose is to evaluate trade and textbooks with special concern for racist and sexist content and to suggest alternative materials for home and classroom. Included are the following articles: Doctor Dolittle--The Great White Father,…

  8. Defining Giftedness. 1985 Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Elizabeth

    The digest examines conceptions of giftedness. A brief historical review notes L. Terman's work and impetus for increasingly broadened definitions since the 1940's. The 1969 Marland Report is cited and its definition of giftedness is presented. Current response to that definition's inclusion of six achievement areas (general academic ability,…

  9. Electronic Networking. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Susan

    This digest discusses several aspects of electronic networking, including network functions, implementation, and applications in education. Electronic networking is defined as including the four basic services of electronic mail (E-mail), electronic "bulletin boards," teleconferencing, and online databases, and an overview of these four functions…

  10. Bibliotherapy. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Mardziah Hayati

    This digest suggests that bibliotherapy is a potentially powerful method for school teachers and counselors to use on many levels and in every school grade. It begins with a brief review of the history of bibliotherapy; continues with a discussion of some approaches to bibliotherapy (interactive, clinical, and developmental); then addresses the…

  11. Principal Mentoring. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Robert J.

    To help new principals succeed, school districts are capitalizing on senior administrators' expertise by adding mentor programs to the practical training programs for beginning principals. This digest examines the nature of mentorships and discusses how they can prepare principals for the next stage of their careers. Although mentoring has existed…

  12. Strategy Instruction. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Pat

    This digest discusses using strategy instruction to assist students with learning disabilities. It begins by describing strategy instruction as teaching students about strategies, teaching them how and when to use strategies, helping students identify personally effective strategies, and encouraging students to make strategic behaviors part of…

  13. A Novel Polysaccharide in Insects Activates the Innate Immune System in Mouse Macrophage RAW264 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Takashi; Ido, Atsushi; Kusano, Kie; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named “dipterose”, with a molecular weight of 1.01×106 and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose was synthesized in the melon fly itself at the pupal stage. The NO-producing activity of dipterose was approximately equal to that of lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulator. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) led to the suppression of NO production by dipterose. Furthermore, dipterose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon β (IFNβ) and promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in macrophages, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in RAW264 cells via the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that dipterose activates the innate immune response against various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. This is the first identification of an innate immune-activating polysaccharide from an animal. PMID:25490773

  14. Rapid Screening of Gene Function by Systemic Delivery of Morpholino Oligonucleotides to Live Mouse Embryos

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Kathryn S.; Wainwright, Elanor N.; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Traditional gene targeting methods in mice are complex and time consuming, especially when conditional deletion methods are required. Here, we describe a novel technique for assessing gene function by injection of modified antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) into the heart of mid-gestation mouse embryos. After allowing MOs to circulate through the embryonic vasculature, target tissues were explanted, cultured and analysed for expression of key markers. We established proof-of-principle by partially phenocopying known gene knockout phenotypes in the fetal gonads (Stra8, Sox9) and pancreas (Sox9). We also generated a novel double knockdown of Gli1 and Gli2, revealing defects in Leydig cell differentiation in the fetal testis. Finally, we gained insight into the roles of Adamts19 and Ctrb1, genes of unknown function in sex determination and gonadal development. These studies reveal the utility of this method as a means of first-pass analysis of gene function during organogenesis before committing to detailed genetic analysis. PMID:25629157

  15. Continuous systemic secretion of a lysosomal enzyme by genetically modified mouse skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Moullier, P; Maréchal, V; Danos, O; Heard, J M

    1993-08-01

    Lysosomal enzymes secreted or externally supplied into the extracellular medium can be internalized by cells and targeted to lysosomes after binding to specific membrane receptors. This process allows for the replacement of the missing enzyme activity in deficient cells. Using a retroviral vector, we have introduced the human beta-glucuronidase cDNA into primary mouse skin fibroblasts. The genetically modified cells were then engrafted into neo-organs that had been previously implanted into the peritoneal cavity of syngeneic recipient mice. The hypervascularized structures, made of collagen and basic fibroblast growth factor-coated synthetic fibers embedded into extracellular matrix gel, allowed in vivo survival of engrafted fibroblasts that expressed the human beta-glucuronidase cDNA for at least 3 months. The human enzyme was detected in the liver, lung, and spleen of experimental animals, but became undetectable after removal of the neo-organ. This observation indicated that the human enzyme was secreted into the serum and then captured by distant organs. The use of genetically modified fibroblasts implanted into neo-organs may, therefore, represent a convenient approach to enzyme replacement therapy in lysosomal storage diseases. PMID:8356601

  16. Osteoarthritis: Pathology, Mouse Models, and Nanoparticle Injectable Systems for Targeted Treatment.

    PubMed

    Holyoak, Derek T; Tian, Ye F; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H; Singh, Ankur

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive, degenerative disease of articulating joints that not only affects the elderly, but also involves younger, more active individuals with prolonged participation in high physical-demand activities. Thus, effective therapies that are easy to adopt clinically are critical in limiting the societal burden associated with OA. This review is focused on intra-articular injectable regimens and provides a comprehensive look at existing in vivo models of OA that might be suitable for developing, testing, and finding a cure for OA by intra-articular injections. We first discuss the pathology, molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation and progression of OA, and challenges associated with disease-specific targeting of OA. We proceed to discuss available animal models of OA and provide a detailed perspective on the use of mouse models in studies of experimental OA. We finally provide a closer look at intra-articular injectable treatments for OA, focusing on biomaterials-based nanoparticles, and provide a comprehensive overview of the various nanometer-size ranges studied. PMID:27044450

  17. Ultrastructural Pathology of Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection in Cultured Mouse Nervous System Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Willson, Nicholas J.; Schneider, Joseph F.; Rosen, Moshe; Belisle, Elizabeth H.

    1974-01-01

    Mouse spinal cord-ganglia cultures were innoculated with murine cytomegalo-virus 14 days after explantation. Intranuclear virus was first observed 4 days after infection. The viruses, which occurred in four forms, were observed in increasing numbers during the ensuing 4 days. Differences were noted in the relative prevalence of certain of these forms in older as compared to younger cultures. This suggests that variations in virus form are related to virus maturation. Cytoplasmic viruses were occasionally observed, but their site of origin is not certain. A variety of cytoplasmic inclusions were seen, particularly in the older cultures. It seems likely that they represent specific cell responses to the presence of the virus. They were not observed in the control cultures, even though some of the latter did show severe degenerative changes. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Figs 3-4p[477]-dFig 8Fig 9Fig 10Figs 11-12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Figs 17-18Fig 19 PMID:4360827

  18. Chronic administration of an HDAC inhibitor treats both neurological and systemic Niemann-Pick type C disease in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Suhail; Getz, Michelle; Haldar, Kasturi

    2016-02-17

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are approved for treating rare cancers and are of interest as potential therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. We evaluated a triple combination formulation (TCF) comprising the pan-HDACi vorinostat, the caging agent 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) for treating a mouse model (the Npc1(nmf164) mouse) of Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, a difficult-to-treat cerebellar disorder. Vorinostat alone showed activity in cultured primary cells derived from Npc1(nmf164) mice but did not improve animal survival. However, low-dose, once-weekly intraperitoneal injections of the TCF containing vorinostat increased histone acetylation in the mouse brain, preserved neurites and Purkinje cells, delayed symptoms of neurodegeneration, and extended mouse life span from 4 to almost 9 months. We demonstrate that the TCF boosted the ability of HDACi to cross the blood-brain barrier and was not toxic even when used long term. Further, the TCF enabled dose reduction, which has been a major challenge in HDACi therapy. TCF simultaneously treats neurodegenerative and systemic symptoms of Niemann-Pick type C disease in a mouse model. PMID:26888431

  19. Acid phase digestion phenomena. Final report, February 1983-February 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Forro, J.R.

    1984-02-01

    A review of the microbiology and biochemistry of anaerobic digestion of biomass to methane gas is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on the degradation of mono- and polysaccharides that are found in marine macrophytes. Specific research on the control and mechanisms of algin and mannitol degradation in some important microbial strains isolated from a Macrocystis-fed digester system is described.

  20. TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...

  1. Susceptibility of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) peel proteins to digestive enzymes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet potato proteins have been shown to possess antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in vivo. The ability of a protein to exhibit systemic effects is somewhat unusual as proteins are typically susceptible to digestive enzymes. This study was undertaken to better understand how digestive enzymes ...

  2. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  3. The transformation of synaptic to system plasticity in motor output from the sacral cord of the adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mingchen C; Elbasiouny, Sherif M; Collins, William F; Heckman, C J

    2015-09-01

    Synaptic plasticity is fundamental in shaping the output of neural networks. The transformation of synaptic plasticity at the cellular level into plasticity at the system level involves multiple factors, including behavior of local networks of interneurons. Here we investigate the synaptic to system transformation for plasticity in motor output in an in vitro preparation of the adult mouse spinal cord. System plasticity was assessed from compound action potentials (APs) in spinal ventral roots, which were generated simultaneously by the axons of many motoneurons (MNs). Synaptic plasticity was assessed from intracellular recordings of MNs. A computer model of the MN pool was used to identify the middle steps in the transformation from synaptic to system behavior. Two input systems that converge on the same MN pool were studied: one sensory and one descending. The two synaptic input systems generated very different motor outputs, with sensory stimulation consistently evoking short-term depression (STD) whereas descending stimulation had bimodal plasticity: STD at low frequencies but short-term facilitation (STF) at high frequencies. Intracellular and pharmacological studies revealed contributions from monosynaptic excitation and stimulus time-locked inhibition but also considerable asynchronous excitation sustained from local network activity. The computer simulations showed that STD in the monosynaptic excitatory input was the primary driver of the system STD in the sensory input whereas network excitation underlies the bimodal plasticity in the descending system. These results provide insight on the roles of plasticity in the monosynaptic and polysynaptic inputs converging on the same MN pool to overall motor plasticity. PMID:26203107

  4. Expression of Sarco (Endo) plasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase (SERCA) system in normal mouse cardiovascular tissues, heart failure and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lipskaia, Larissa; Keuylian, Zela; Blirando, Karl; Mougenot, Nathalie; Jacquet, Adeline; Rouxel, Clotilde; Sghairi, Haifa; Elaib, Ziane; Blaise, Regis; Adnot, Serge; Hajjar, Roger J.; Chemaly, Elie R.; Limon, Isabelle; Bobe, Regis

    2014-01-01

    The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPases (SERCA) system, a key regulator of calcium cycling and signaling, is composed of several isoforms. We aimed to characterize the expression of SERCA isoforms in mouse cardiovascular tissues and their modulation in cardiovascular pathologies (heart failure and/or atherosclerosis). Five isoforms (SERCA2a, 2b, 3a, 3b and 3c) were detected in the mouse heart and thoracic aorta. Absolute mRNA quantification revealed SERCA2a as the dominant isoform in the heart (~99%). Both SERCA2 isoforms co-localized in cardiomyocytes (CM) longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), SERCA3b was located at the junctional SR. In the aorta, SERCA2a accounted for ~91% of total SERCA and SERCA2b for ~5%. Among SERCA3, SERCA3b was the most expressed (~3.3%), mainly found in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), along with SERCA2a and 2b. In failing CM, SERCA2a was down-regulated by 2-fold and re-localized from longitudinal to junctional SR. A strong down-regulation of SERCA2a was also observed in atherosclerotic vessels containing mainly synthetic VSMCs. The proportion of both SERCA2b and SERCA3b increased to 9.5% and 8.3%, respectively. In conclusion: 1) SERCA2a is the major isoform in both cardiac and vascular myocytes; 2) the expression of SERCA2a mRNA is ~30 fold higher in the heart compared to vascular tissues; 3) nearly half the amount of SERCA2a mRNA is measured in both failing cardiomyocytes and synthetic VSMCs compared to healthy tissues, with a relocation of SERCA2a in failing cardiomyocytes. Thus, SERCA2a is the principal regulator of excitation-contraction coupling in both CMs and contractile VSMCs. PMID:25110346

  5. Colitis Promotes Adaptation of an Intestinal Nematode: A Heligmosomoides Polygyrus Mouse Model System

    PubMed Central

    Donskow-Łysoniewska, Katarzyna; Bien, Justyna; Brodaczewska, Klaudia; Krawczak, Katarzyna; Doligalska, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The precise mechanism of the very effective therapeutic effect of gastrointestinal nematodes on some autoimmune diseases is not clearly understood and is currently being intensively investigated. Treatment with living helminths has been initiated to reverse intestinal immune-mediated diseases in humans. However, little attention has been paid to the phenotype of nematodes in the IBD-affected gut and the consequences of nematode adaptation. In the present study, exposure of Heligmosomoides polygyrus larvae to the changed cytokine milieu of the intestine during colitis reduced inflammation in an experimental model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)- induced colitis, but increased nematode establishment in the moderate-responder BALB/c mouse strain. We used mass spectrometry in combination with two-dimensional Western blotting to determine changes in protein expression and changes in nematode antigens recognized by IgG1 in mice with colitis. We show that nematode larvae immunogenicity is changed by colitis as soon as 6 days post-infection; IgG1 did not recognize highly conserved proteins Lev-11 (isoform 1 of tropomyosin α1 chain), actin-4 isoform or FTT-2 isoform a (14-3-3 family) protein. These results indicate that changes in the small intestine provoked by colitis directly influence the nematode proteome. The unrecognized proteins seem to be key antigenic epitopes able to induce protective immune responses. The proteome changes were associated with weak immune recognition and increased larval adaptation and worm growth, altered localization in the intestine and increased survival of males but reduced worm fecundity. In this report, the mechanisms influencing nematode survival and the consequences of changed immunogenicity that reflect the immune response at the site colonized by the parasite in mice with colitis are described. The results are relevant to the use of live parasites to ameliorate IBD. PMID:24167594

  6. Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) in the mouse central nervous system: A neuroprotective role?

    SciTech Connect

    Giordano, Gennaro; Cole, Toby B.; Dept. of Medicine , University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Dept. of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA ; Furlong, Clement E.; Dept. of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA ; Costa, Lucio G.

    2011-11-15

    The aims of this study were to characterize the expression of paraoxonase 2 (PON2) in mouse brain and to assess its antioxidant properties. PON2 levels were highest in the lung, intestine, heart and liver, and lower in the brain; in all tissues, PON2 expression was higher in female than in male mice. PON2 knockout [PON2{sup -/-}] mice did not express any PON2, as expected. In the brain, the highest levels of PON2 were found in the substantia nigra, the nucleus accumbens and the striatum, with lower levels in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and brainstem. A similar regional distribution of PON2 activity (measured by dihydrocoumarin hydrolysis) was also found. PON3 was not detected in any brain area, while PON1 was expressed at very low levels, and did not show any regional difference. PON2 levels were higher in astrocytes than in neurons isolated from all brain regions, and were highest in cells from the striatum. PON2 activity and mRNA levels followed a similar pattern. Brain PON2 levels were highest around birth, and gradually declined. Subcellular distribution experiments indicated that PON2 is primarily expressed in microsomes and in mitochondria. The toxicity in neurons and astrocytes of agents known to cause oxidative stress (DMNQ and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was higher in cells from PON2{sup -/-} mice than in the same cells from wild-type mice, despite similar glutathione levels. These results indicate that PON2 is expressed in the brain, and that higher levels are found in dopaminergic regions such as the striatum, suggesting that this enzyme may provide protection against oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity.

  7. Correlating behaviour and gene expression endpoints in the dopaminergic system after modafinil administration in mouse.

    PubMed

    De Ron, P; Dremier, S; Winlow, P; Jenkins, A; Hanon, E; Nogueira da Costa, A

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms of action of modafinil continue to be poorly characterised and its potential for abuse in preclinical models remains controverted. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the mechanism of action of modafinil, through a potential behavioural and molecular association in the mouse. A conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was implemented to investigate the rewarding properties of modafinil. Whole genome expression and qRT-PCR analysis were performed on the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of modafinil-treated and control animals. Modafinil administration (65mg/kg) induced an increase in locomotor activity, an increase in the change of preference for the drug paired side after a conditioning period as well as changes to gene expression profiles in the VTA (120 genes), NAC (23 genes) and PFC (19 genes). A molecular signature consisting of twelve up-regulated genes was identified as common to the three brain regions. Multiple linear correlation analysis showed a strong correlation (R(2)>0.70) between the behavioural and molecular endpoints in the three brain regions. We show that modafinil had a concomitant effect on CPP, locomotor activity, and up-regulation of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) regulated genes (Gbp2, Gbp3, Gbp10, Cd274, Igtp), while correlating the latter set of genes with behaviour changes evaluated through the CPP. A potential association can be proposed based on the dysregulation of p47 family genes and Gbp family of IFN-γ induced GTPases. In conclusion, these findings suggest a link between the behavioural and molecular events in the context of modafinil administration. PMID:26875113

  8. Simultaneous submicrometric 3D imaging of the micro-vascular network and the neuronal system in a mouse spinal cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratini, Michela; Bukreeva, Inna; Campi, Gaetano; Brun, Francesco; Tromba, Giuliana; Modregger, Peter; Bucci, Domenico; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Spanò, Raffaele; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Requardt, Herwig; Giove, Federico; Bravin, Alberto; Cedola, Alessia

    2015-02-01

    Faults in vascular (VN) and neuronal networks of spinal cord are responsible for serious neurodegenerative pathologies. Because of inadequate investigation tools, the lacking knowledge of the complete fine structure of VN and neuronal system represents a crucial problem. Conventional 2D imaging yields incomplete spatial coverage leading to possible data misinterpretation, whereas standard 3D computed tomography imaging achieves insufficient resolution and contrast. We show that X-ray high-resolution phase-contrast tomography allows the simultaneous visualization of three-dimensional VN and neuronal systems of ex-vivo mouse spinal cord at scales spanning from millimeters to hundreds of nanometers, with nor contrast agent nor sectioning and neither destructive sample-preparation. We image both the 3D distribution of micro-capillary network and the micrometric nerve fibers, axon-bundles and neuron soma. Our approach is very suitable for pre-clinical investigation of neurodegenerative pathologies and spinal-cord-injuries, in particular to resolve the entangled relationship between VN and neuronal system.

  9. Simultaneous submicrometric 3D imaging of the micro-vascular network and the neuronal system in a mouse spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Fratini, Michela; Bukreeva, Inna; Campi, Gaetano; Brun, Francesco; Tromba, Giuliana; Modregger, Peter; Bucci, Domenico; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Span, Raffaele; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Requardt, Herwig; Giove, Federico; Bravin, Alberto; Cedola, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Faults in vascular (VN) and neuronal networks of spinal cord are responsible for serious neurodegenerative pathologies. Because of inadequate investigation tools, the lacking knowledge of the complete fine structure of VN and neuronal system represents a crucial problem. Conventional 2D imaging yields incomplete spatial coverage leading to possible data misinterpretation, whereas standard 3D computed tomography imaging achieves insufficient resolution and contrast. We show that X-ray high-resolution phase-contrast tomography allows the simultaneous visualization of three-dimensional VN and neuronal systems of ex-vivo mouse spinal cord at scales spanning from millimeters to hundreds of nanometers, with nor contrast agent nor sectioning and neither destructive sample-preparation. We image both the 3D distribution of micro-capillary network and the micrometric nerve fibers, axon-bundles and neuron soma. Our approach is very suitable for pre-clinical investigation of neurodegenerative pathologies and spinal-cord-injuries, in particular to resolve the entangled relationship between VN and neuronal system. PMID:25686728

  10. Activation of the factor XII-driven contact system in Alzheimer's disease patient and mouse model plasma.

    PubMed

    Zamolodchikov, Daria; Chen, Zu-Lin; Conti, Brooke A; Renné, Thomas; Strickland, Sidney

    2015-03-31

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by accumulation of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ), which likely contributes to disease via multiple mechanisms. Increasing evidence implicates inflammation in AD, the origins of which are not completely understood. We investigated whether circulating Aβ could initiate inflammation in AD via the plasma contact activation system. This proteolytic cascade is triggered by the activation of the plasma protein factor XII (FXII) and leads to kallikrein-mediated cleavage of high molecular-weight kininogen (HK) and release of proinflammatory bradykinin. Aβ has been shown to promote FXII-dependent cleavage of HK in vitro. In addition, increased cleavage of HK has been found in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with AD. Here, we show increased activation of FXII, kallikrein activity, and HK cleavage in AD patient plasma. Increased contact system activation is also observed in AD mouse model plasma and in plasma from wild-type mice i.v. injected with Aβ42. Our results demonstrate that Aβ42-mediated contact system activation can occur in the AD circulation and suggest new pathogenic mechanisms, diagnostic tests, and therapies for AD. PMID:25775543

  11. Atmosphere Behavior in Gas-Closed Mouse-Algal Systems: An Experimental and Modelling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, M. M.; Moore, B., III; Bartholomew, I.; Wharton, R.

    1985-01-01

    A dual approach of mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere was initiated. The development of control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels is examined. A mathematical model simulating the atmospheric behavior in these systems was developed and an experimental gas closed system was constructed. These systems are described and preliminary results are presented.

  12. Isolation and physiological analysis of mouse cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Roth, Gretchen M; Bader, David M; Pfaltzgraff, Elise R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes, the workhorse cell of the heart, contain exquisitely organized cytoskeletal and contractile elements that generate the contractile force used to pump blood. Individual cardiomyocytes were first isolated over 40 years ago in order to better study the physiology and structure of heart muscle. Techniques have rapidly improved to include enzymatic digestion via coronary perfusion. More recently, analyzing the contractility and calcium flux of isolated myocytes has provided a vital tool in the cellular and sub-cellular analysis of heart failure. Echocardiography and EKGs provide information about the heart at an organ level only. Cardiomyocyte cell culture systems exist, but cells lack physiologically essential structures such as organized sarcomeres and t-tubules required for myocyte function within the heart. In the protocol presented here, cardiomyocytes are isolated via Langendorff perfusion. The heart is removed from the mouse, mounted via the aorta to a cannula, perfused with digestion enzymes, and cells are introduced to increasing calcium concentrations. Edge and sarcomere detection software is used to analyze contractility, and a calcium binding fluorescent dye is used to visualize calcium transients of electrically paced cardiomyocytes; increasing understanding of the role cellular changes play in heart dysfunction. Traditionally used to test drug effects on cardiomyocytes, we employ this system to compare myocytes from WT mice and mice with a mutation that causes dilated cardiomyopathy. This protocol is unique in its comparison of live cells from mice with known heart function and known genetics. Many experimental conditions are reliably compared, including genetic or environmental manipulation, infection, drug treatment, and more. Beyond physiologic data, isolated cardiomyocytes are easily fixed and stained for cytoskeletal elements. Isolating cardiomyocytes via perfusion is an extremely versatile method, useful in studying cellular changes that accompany or lead to heart failure in a variety of experimental conditions. PMID:25225886

  13. Digestibility index and factors affecting rate of starch digestion in vitro in conventional food preparation.

    PubMed

    Urooj, A; Puttraj, S

    1999-02-01

    The rate of starch hydrolysis in ten cereal-based food preparations was studied using an in vitro dialysis system. The foods were incubated with human saliva and porcine pancreatin. The sugars released after 3 h digestion were expressed as digestibility index (DI), the percentage starch digested was determined and correlated with the degree of gelatinization (DG). Granule morphology was also investigated and related with starch availability for hydrolysis. Significant differences were observed in the in vitro starch digestibility of the 10 foods (P < 0.05). The DI ranged from 53 for chapathi to 78 for rice flakes. DI was inversely related to the protein (r = -0.79, P < 0.01), fat (r = -0.63, P < 0.05) and energy (r = -0.61, P < 0.01). Percent starch digested was inversely related to the insoluble (r = -0.49, P < 0.05) and total dietary fiber (r = -0.63, P < 0.01) content of the foods. The SEM results provided a better understanding of granular morphology on cooking and the effect of protein on limiting DG. The results suggest that carbohydrate foods of potential use in the therapeutic diets may be identified by their in vitro digestion characteristics. PMID:10079465

  14. Migrant Farmworkers and Their Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip

    This digest reviews the population characteristics of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their children. Since the 1960s, federal programs for migrant workers and their families have multiplied. However, these programs have differing definitions for "migrant and seasonal farmworker," and no current data system provides a reliable count or…

  15. Looping: Adding Time, Strengthening Relationships. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Daniel L.

    "Looping" is an essentially simple concept: a teacher moves with his or her students to the next grade level, rather than sending them to another teacher at the end of the school year. This Digest explores the practitioners' perspectives on looping, the experience of European school systems, and research on looping. Practitioners report positive…

  16. Hypertext: Behind the Hype. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevilacqua, Ann F.

    This digest begins by defining the concept of hypertext and describing the two types of hypertext--static and dynamic. Three prototype applications are then discussed: (1) Intermedia, a large-scale multimedia system at Brown University; (2) the Perseus Project at Harvard University, which is developing interactive courseware on classical Greek…

  17. Refeeding biogas digester solids

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Biosolid, the digester residue from a biogas plant, must be of economical use to ensure the financial feasibility of biogas facilities. This paper sumarizes work performed for a Department of Energy study in the Imperial Valley of California. Feeding trials show that biosolid can only be used as a small proportion of feed rations. Apart from bacterial debris, biosolid is composed larely of non-nutritive residues. 5 refs.

  18. Production and sale of energy and nutrients from a multi-farm digester

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Howard, K.; Orrett, E.

    1986-01-01

    An investor-owned anaerobic digestion system was designed to process the wastes from several dairy farms totalling 900 cows. The resulting biogas will fuel a 97 KW engine-generator producing both electricity for sale to the utility, and waste heat for digester heating and supplemental greenhouse heating. The digested solids and liquids will be marketed as nursery soil and fertilizer, respectively.

  19. The Effect of Enzyme Addition on Anaerobic Digestion of Jose Tall Wheat Grass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of the addition of enzyme products containing cellulase, hemicellulase, and Beta-glucosidase to anaerobic digestion systems were studied. Anaerobic digestion tests were performed using batch reactors operated at 35°C. The application of enzyme products in three digestion configurations w...

  20. Effect of temperature on methane production from field-scale anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature is a critical factor affecting anaerobic digestion because it influences both system heating requirements and methane production. Temperatures of 35-37°C are typically suggested for manure digestion, yet in temperate climate digesters, require a considerable amount of additional heat en...

  1. Comparative Digestive Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Karasov, William H.; Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, morphological and functional features of gastrointestinal (GI) tracts generally reflect food chemistry, such as content of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and material(s) refractory to rapid digestion (e.g., cellulose). The expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters approximately matches the dietary load of their respective substrates, with relatively modest excess capacity. Mechanisms explaining differences in hydrolase activity between populations and species include gene copy number variations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional adjustments mediate phenotypic changes in the expression of hydrolases and transporters in response to dietary signals. Many species respond to higher food intake by flexibly increasing digestive compartment size. Fermentative processes by symbiotic microorganisms are important for cellulose degradation but are relatively slow, so animals that rely on those processes typically possess special enlarged compartment(s) to maintain a microbiota and other GI structures that slow digesta flow. The taxon richness of the gut microbiota, usually identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, is typically an order of magnitude greater in vertebrates than invertebrates, and the interspecific variation in microbial composition is strongly influenced by diet. Many of the nutrient transporters are orthologous across different animal phyla, though functional details may vary (e.g., glucose and amino acid transport with K+ rather than Na+ as a counter ion). Paracellular absorption is important in many birds. Natural toxins are ubiquitous in foods and may influence key features such as digesta transit, enzymatic breakdown, microbial fermentation, and absorption PMID:23720328

  2. Expression of an Innate Immune Element (Mouse Hepcidin-1) in Baculovirus Expression System and the Comparison of Its Function with Synthetic Human Hepcidin-25

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Yaghoub; Sadeghi, Hamid; Alimohammadian, Mohammad; Andalib, Alireza; Moazen, Fatemeh; Rezaei, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Hepcidin is an innate immune element which decreases the iron absorption from diet and iron releasing from macrophage cell. In contrast to the chemical iron chelators, there has been limited effort applied to the specific use of hepcidin as a new drug for decreasing the iron overload. Hepcidin is produced in different biological systems. For instance, E-coli is used for human hepcidin expression, however, post-translational modification is impaired. We have used a simple baculovirus expression system (BES) to improve the hepcidin folding and activity. Hepcidin Messenger Ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was isolated from mouse liver cells and its complementary Deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) was produced and amplified. PFastBac HTB vector was used for recombinant bacmid production. Recombinant baculovirus was produced using SF-9 cell line. The mouse hepcidin-1 protein was expressed in a large quantity and functional tests were performed for this recombinant peptide. The yield of hepcidin in BES was 20 μg/mL and anti-histidine (anti-His) tag antibody was used for the confirmation of hepcidin on western blot nitrocellulose paper. Functional tests showed that mouse hepcidin accumulates iron in the macrophage cell line J774A.1 up to 63%. In addition, our data showed that the mouse hepcidin-1 has less toxicity compared to the synthetic human hepcidin-25 (p = 0.000). PMID:24250389

  3. Intracerebroventricular enzyme infusion corrects central nervous system pathology and dysfunction in a mouse model of metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Stroobants, Stijn; Gerlach, Debora; Matthes, Frank; Hartmann, Dieter; Fogh, Jens; Gieselmann, Volkmar; D'Hooge, Rudi; Matzner, Ulrich

    2011-07-15

    Arylsulfatase A (ASA) catalyzes the desulfation of sulfatide, a major lipid component of myelin. Inherited functional deficiencies of ASA cause the lysosomal storage disease (LSD) metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), which is characterized by intralysosomal accumulation of sulfatide, progressive neurological symptoms and early death. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) using intravenous injection of active enzyme is a treatment option for many LSDs as exogenous lysosomal enzymes are delivered to lysosomes of patient's cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Efficient treatment of MLD and other LSDs with central nervous system (CNS) involvement is, however, hampered by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which limits transfer of therapeutic enzymes from the circulation to the brain parenchyma. To bypass the BBB, we infused recombinant human ASA (rhASA) by implanted miniature pumps into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a conventional and a novel, genetically aggravated ASA knockout mouse model of MLD. rhASA continuously delivered to the lateral ventricle for 4 weeks penetrated the brain parenchyma and was targeted to the lysosomes of brain cells. Histological analysis revealed complete reversal of lysosomal storage in the infused hemisphere. rhASA concentrations and sulfatide clearance declined with increasing distance from the infusion site. Correction of the ataxic gait indicated reversal of central nervous system dysfunctions. The profound histopathological and functional improvements, the requirement of low enzyme doses and the absence of immunological side effects suggest intracerebroventricular ERT to be a promising treatment option for MLD and other LSDs with prevailing CNS disease. PMID:21515587

  4. Conditional ablation of orexin/hypocretin neurons: a new mouse model for the study of narcolepsy and orexin system function.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Sawako; Tsunematsu, Tomomi; Black, Sarah W; Tominaga, Makoto; Maruyama, Megumi; Takagi, Kazuyo; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Sakurai, Takeshi; Kilduff, Thomas S; Yamanaka, Akihiro

    2014-05-01

    The sleep disorder narcolepsy results from loss of hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons. Although narcolepsy onset is usually postpubertal, current mouse models involve loss of either orexin peptides or orexin neurons from birth. To create a model of orexin/hypocretin deficiency with closer fidelity to human narcolepsy, diphtheria toxin A (DTA) was expressed in orexin neurons under control of the Tet-off system. Upon doxycycline removal from the diet of postpubertal orexin-tTA;TetO DTA mice, orexin neurodegeneration was rapid, with 80% cell loss within 7 d, and resulted in disrupted sleep architecture. Cataplexy, the pathognomic symptom of narcolepsy, occurred by 14 d when ∼5% of the orexin neurons remained. Cataplexy frequency increased for at least 11 weeks after doxycycline. Temporary doxycycline removal followed by reintroduction after several days enabled partial lesion of orexin neurons. DTA-induced orexin neurodegeneration caused a body weight increase without a change in food consumption, mimicking metabolic aspects of human narcolepsy. Because the orexin/hypocretin system has been implicated in the control of metabolism and addiction as well as sleep/wake regulation, orexin-tTA; TetO DTA mice are a novel model in which to study these functions, for pharmacological studies of cataplexy, and to study network reorganization as orexin input is lost. PMID:24806676

  5. Characterization of a conditional interleukin-1 receptor 1 mouse mutant using the Cre/LoxP system.

    PubMed

    Abdulaal, Wesam H; Walker, Catherine R; Costello, Ryan; Redondo-Castro, Elena; Mufazalov, Ilgiz A; Papaemmanouil, Athina; Rothwell, Nancy J; Allan, Stuart M; Waisman, Ari; Pinteaux, Emmanuel; Müller, Werner

    2016-04-01

    IL-1 is a key cytokine known to drive chronic inflammation and to regulate many physiological, immunological, and neuroimmunological responses via actions on diverse cell types of the body. To determine the mechanisms of IL-1 actions as part of the inflammatory response in vivo, we generated a conditional IL-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1) mouse mutant using the Cre/LoxP system (IL-1R1(fl/fl) ). In the mutant generated, exon 5, which encodes part of the extracellular-binding region of the receptor, is flanked by LoxP sites, thereby inactivating the two previously described functional IL-1R1 gene transcripts after Cre-mediated recombination. Using keratin 14-Cre driver mice, new IL-1R1 deficient (-/-) mice were subsequently generated, in which all signaling IL-1 receptor isoforms are deleted ubiquitously. Furthermore, using vav-iCre driver mice, we deleted IL-1 receptor isoforms in the hematopoietic system. In these mice, we show that both the IL-17 and IL-22 cytokine response is reduced, when mice are challenged by the helminth Trichuris muris. We are currently crossing IL-1R1(fl/fl) mice with different Cre-expressing mice in order to study mechanisms of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26692072

  6. Visualization of specific DNA sequences in living mouse embryonic stem cells with a programmable fluorescent CRISPR/Cas system

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Tobias; Bultmann, Sebastian; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Markaki, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Labeling and tracing of specific sequences in living cells has been a major challenge in studying the spatiotemporal dynamics of native chromatin. Here we repurposed the prokaryotic CRISPR/Cas adaptive immunity system to specifically detect endogenous genomic loci in mouse embryonic stem cells. We constructed a catalytically inactive version of the Cas9 endonuclease, fused it with eGFP (dCas9-eGFP) and co-expressed small guide RNAs (gRNAs) to target pericentric, centric, and telomeric repeats, which are enriched in distinct nuclear structures. With major satellite specific gRNAs we obtained a characteristic chromocenter (CC) pattern, while gRNAs targeting minor satellites and telomeres highlighted smaller foci coinciding with centromere protein B (CENP-B) and telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2), respectively. DNA sequence specific labeling by gRNA/dCas9-eGFP complexes was directly shown with 3D-fluorescent in situ hybridization (3D-FISH). Structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) of gRNA/dCas9-eGFP expressing cells revealed chromatin ultrastructures and demonstrated the potential of this approach for chromatin conformation studies by super resolution microscopy. This programmable dCas9 labeling system opens new perspectives to study functional nuclear architecture. PMID:24637835

  7. [A quick and efficient method to generate hemophilia B mouse models by the CRISPR/Cas system].

    PubMed

    Qihan, Wang; Cong, Huai; Ruilin, Sun; Hua, Zhuang; Hongyan, Chen; Jian, Fei; Daru, Lu

    2015-11-01

    Hemophilia B, or the Christmas disease, is a common human disease caused by coagulation factor Ⅸ (FⅨ) deficiency. It is an X-linked recessive hereditary disease. Here we obtained FⅨ-knockout mouse strains with phenotype of hemophilia B with the CRISPR/Cas system efficiently. We chose the 8th exon as the target locus, and co-injected codon-optimized Cas9 mRNA with sgRNA of FⅨ into C57BL/6 mice zygotes. We obtained 60 mice in total and genotyped them by high resolution melting (HRM) and sequencing. The results showed the mutation rate was 85.0% in total, and 79.5% and 95.2% in males and females, respectively. No off-targets were detected in the similar locus by HRM. We future measured the FⅨ activity of each mice. The FⅨ: C of mutant mice were significantly below the normal level and reduced to 6.82% of wild-type mice. The activity assay demonstrated that all the mutant mice were lack of FⅨ. In summary, we have generated hemophilia B model mice with extreme efficiency, using the RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease gene editing system. PMID:26582528

  8. The Coadministration of N-Acetylcysteine Ameliorates the Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on the Male Mouse Genital System

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Raquel Frenedoso; Borges, Cibele dos Santos; Villela e Silva, Patrícia; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo Almeida; Pupo, André Sampaio; Barbosa Junior, Fernando; Anselmo-Franci, Janete Aparecida; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has shown effectiveness in treatment of leukemia but is also associated with reproductive toxicity. Since remediation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may mitigate the adverse effects caused by exposure, we assessed the effects of As2O3 and its potential reversibility after exposure cessation or coadministration of NAC. Animals received 0.3 or 3.0 mg/Kg/day of As2O3 subcutaneously and 40 mM of NAC in tap water. As2O3 treatment impaired spermatogenesis and sperm motility and decreased seminal vesicle weight and testosterone serum levels; after suspension of treatment, these parameters remained altered. When NAC was administered, animals showed improvement in sperm parameters and seminal vesicle weight. In vitro epididymal contractility was increased in As2O3-treated animals. We concluded that As2O3 is toxic to the male mouse genital system by compromising sperm quality and quantity; these effects persisted even after suspension of the treatment. However, the coadministration of NAC ameliorates the harmful effects of the drug on the male genital system. PMID:26839632

  9. Chemical composition, ensiling characteristics, and apparent digestibility of summer annual forages in a subtropical double-cropping system with annual ryegrass.

    PubMed

    Ward, J D; Redfearn, D D; McCormick, M E; Cuomo, G J

    2001-01-01

    A 2-yr study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and digestibility of silages made from forage sorghum, pearl millet, and tropical corn managed to optimize forage quality. Silages were ensiled in upright concrete silos lined with plastic and fed to heifers to determine in vivo apparent digestibility. Samples were collected before and after ensiling to determine ensiling characteristics and forage quality. After ensiling, tropical corn had the greatest dry matter (DM), the lowest crude protein, and the greatest water-soluble concentrations. Tropical corn silage had a pH of 3.96. The pH of forage sorghum silage was 4.09, and pearl millet had a pH of 4.50. Pearl millet had the lowest concentration of preensiled water-soluble carbohydrate, which likely caused the high pH in the silage. There were no differences among the forages in DM loss during ensiling in yr 2. Heifers fed pearl millet silage consumed more DM, but digestible DM intake was not different among the three groups of heifers. The results of this experiment indicate that pearl millet would be less desirable as a crop intended solely for silage production. Both forage sorghum and tropical corn could be grown specifically for ensiling based on DM digestibility. The decision on which crop to use should be based on factors such as production costs, forage yields, and local growing conditions rather than silage quality. PMID:11210031

  10. Effect of simulated processing on the antioxidant capacity and in vitro protein digestion of fruit juice-milk beverage model systems.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiyong; Yuan, Bo; Zeng, Maomao; Tao, Guanjun; Chen, Jie

    2015-05-15

    The effects of simulated processing (pH adjustment and thermal treatment) on the antioxidant capacity and in vitro protein digestion of fruit juice-milk beverage (FJMB) models consisting of whey protein (WP), and chlorogenic acid (CHA) or catechin (CAT) were investigated. Results indicated that CAT was more susceptible to processing than CHA, and showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in ABTS and FRAP after sterilization (121°C/10 min) and pH adjustment to 6.8. WP addition had different effects (none, masking, synergetic effect) on the antioxidant activity of FJMB. Pasteurization (63°C/30 min) and pH adjustment (pH 3.7 or pH 6.8) had either non-significant or slight effects on FJMB's antioxidant capacity, while sterilization significantly (p<0.05) increased or decreased its ABTS and FRAP depending on the different models. In vitro digestion of WP in FJMB was obviously (p < 0.05) inhibited by phenolics to varying degrees, and little influenced (p>0.05) by pasteurization, whereas sterilization initially accelerated WP digestion but did not change its overall digestibility. PMID:25577106

  11. COMPARISON OF SYSTEMIC AND MUCOSAL ROUTES OF SENSITIZATION TO OVALBUMIN ANTIGEN IN THREE MOUSE STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several studies have shown strain differences in allergic lung responses following ovalbumin (OVA) antigen sensitization and challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these differences were maintained between systemic and mucosal sensitization routes, and to ...

  12. Effect of temperature on methane production from field-scale anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Lansing, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    Temperature is a critical factor affecting anaerobic digestion because it influences both system heating requirements and methane production. Temperatures of 35-37°C are typically suggested for manure digestion. In temperate climates, digesters require a considerable amount of additional heat energy to maintain temperatures at these levels. In this study, the effects of lower digestion temperatures (22 and 28°C), on the methane production from dairy digesters were evaluated and compared with 35°C using duplicate replicates of field-scale (FS) digesters with a 17-day hydraulic retention time. After acclimation, the FS digesters were operated for 12weeks using solids-separated manure at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.4kgVSm(-3)d(-1) and then for 8weeks using separated manure amended with manure solids at an OLR of 2.6kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Methane production values of the FS digesters at 22 and 28°C were about 70% and 87%, respectively, of the values from FS digesters at 35°C. The results suggest that anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure at 28°C were nearly as efficient as digesters operated at 35°C, with 70% of total methane achievable at 22°C. These results are relevant to small farms interested in anaerobic digestion for methane reduction without heat recovery from generators or for methane recovery from covered lagoon digesters. PMID:26101200

  13. Development of a database system for mapping insertional mutations onto the mouse genome with large-scale experimental data

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Insertional mutagenesis is an effective method for functional genomic studies in various organisms. It can rapidly generate easily tractable mutations. A large-scale insertional mutagenesis with the piggyBac (PB) transposon is currently performed in mice at the Institute of Developmental Biology and Molecular Medicine (IDM), Fudan University in Shanghai, China. This project is carried out via collaborations among multiple groups overseeing interconnected experimental steps and generates a large volume of experimental data continuously. Therefore, the project calls for an efficient database system for recording, management, statistical analysis, and information exchange. Results This paper presents a database application called MP-PBmice (insertional mutation mapping system of PB Mutagenesis Information Center), which is developed to serve the on-going large-scale PB insertional mutagenesis project. A lightweight enterprise-level development framework Struts-Spring-Hibernate is used here to ensure constructive and flexible support to the application. The MP-PBmice database system has three major features: strict access-control, efficient workflow control, and good expandability. It supports the collaboration among different groups that enter data and exchange information on daily basis, and is capable of providing real time progress reports for the whole project. MP-PBmice can be easily adapted for other large-scale insertional mutation mapping projects and the source code of this software is freely available at http://www.idmshanghai.cn/PBmice. Conclusion MP-PBmice is a web-based application for large-scale insertional mutation mapping onto the mouse genome, implemented with the widely used framework Struts-Spring-Hibernate. This system is already in use by the on-going genome-wide PB insertional mutation mapping project at IDM, Fudan University. PMID:19958505

  14. Yersinia enterocolitica Targets Cells of the Innate and Adaptive Immune System by Injection of Yops in a Mouse Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Köberle, Martin; Klein-Günther, Annegret; Schütz, Monika; Fritz, Michaela; Berchtold, Susanne; Tolosa, Eva; Autenrieth, Ingo B.; Bohn, Erwin

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye) evades the immune system of the host by injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) via a type three secretion system into host cells. In this study, a reporter system comprising a YopE-β-lactamase hybrid protein and a fluorescent staining sensitive to β-lactamase cleavage was used to track Yop injection in cell culture and in an experimental Ye mouse infection model. Experiments with GD25, GD25-β1A, and HeLa cells demonstrated that β1-integrins and RhoGTPases play a role for Yop injection. As demonstrated by infection of splenocyte suspensions in vitro, injection of Yops appears to occur randomly into all types of leukocytes. In contrast, upon infection of mice, Yop injection was detected in 13% of F4/80+, 11% of CD11c+, 7% of CD49b+, 5% of Gr1+ cells, 2.3% of CD19+, and 2.6% of CD3+ cells. Taking the different abundance of these cell types in the spleen into account, the highest total number of Yop-injected cells represents B cells, particularly CD19+CD21+CD23+ follicular B cells, followed by neutrophils, dendritic cells, and macrophages, suggesting a distinct cellular tropism of Ye. Yop-injected B cells displayed a significantly increased expression of CD69 compared to non-Yop-injected B cells, indicating activation of these cells by Ye. Infection of IFN-γR (receptor)- and TNFRp55-deficient mice resulted in increased numbers of Yop-injected spleen cells for yet unknown reasons. The YopE-β-lactamase hybrid protein reporter system provides new insights into the modulation of host cell and immune responses by Ye Yops. PMID:19680448

  15. Inquiring into the Digestive System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Teaching science by means of inquiry-based projects has the potential to transform the science lab into a place of debate and discovery, but teachers run the risk of either leaving students to work too independently or forcing them to be too dependent on our guidance. To counter these challenges, the author implemented changes in the way topics…

  16. Problems of the Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... for instance) • Consuming dairy products (if you are lactose intolerant ), caffeine, artificial sweeteners, or certain additives • Taking ... dairy products, soda, and juices. They may contain lactose, caffeine, or sugar, which may make diarrhea worse. ...

  17. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet, and Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials Smoking affects the entire body, increasing the risk of many life-threatening diseases—including lung cancer, emphysema, and heart disease. Smoking also contributes ...

  18. Imaging of pharmacokinetic rates of indocyanine green in mouse liver with a hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography/x-ray computed tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guanglei; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Bin; He, Yun; Luo, Jianwen; Bai, Jing

    2013-04-01

    Pharmacokinetic rates have the potential to provide quantitative physiological and pathological information for biological studies and drug development. Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is an attractive imaging tool for three-dimensionally resolving fluorophore distribution in small animals. In this letter, pharmacokinetic rates of indocyanine green (ICG) in mouse liver are imaged with a hybrid FMT and x-ray computed tomography (XCT) system. A recently developed FMT method using structural priors from an XCT system is adopted to improve the quality of FMT reconstruction. In the in vivo experiments, images of uptake and excretion rates of ICG in mouse liver are obtained, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate liver function. The accuracy of the results is validated by a fiber-based fluorescence measurement system.

  19. Prenatal methylmercury exposure hampers glutathione antioxidant system ontogenesis and causes long-lasting oxidative stress in the mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Stringari, James; Nunes, Adriana K.C.; Franco, Jeferson L.; Bohrer, Denise; Garcia, Solange C.; Dafre, Alcir L.; Milatovic, Dejan; Souza, Diogo O.; Rocha, Joao B.T.; Aschner, Michael; Farina, Marcelo

    2008-02-15

    During the perinatal period, the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely sensitive to metals, including methylmercury (MeHg). Although the mechanism(s) associated with MeHg-induced developmental neurotoxicity remains obscure, several studies point to the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system as an important molecular target for this toxicant. To extend our recent findings of MeHg-induced GSH dyshomeostasis, the present study was designed to assess the developmental profile of the GSH antioxidant system in the mouse brain during the early postnatal period after in utero exposure to MeHg. Pregnant mice were exposed to different doses of MeHg (1, 3 and 10 mg/l, diluted in drinking water, ad libitum) during the gestational period. After delivery, pups were killed at different time points - postnatal days (PND) 1, 11 and 21 - and the whole brain was used for determining biochemical parameters related to the antioxidant GSH system, as well as mercury content and the levels of F{sub 2}-isoprostane. In control animals, cerebral GSH levels significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period; gestational exposure to MeHg caused a dose-dependent inhibition of this developmental event. Cerebral glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period in control animals; gestational MeHg exposure induced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both developmental phenomena. These adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure were corroborated by marked increases in cerebral F{sub 2}-isoprostanes levels at all time points. Significant negative correlations were found between F{sub 2}-isoprostanes and GSH, as well as between F{sub 2}-isoprostanes and GPx activity, suggesting that MeHg-induced disruption of the GSH system maturation is related to MeHg-induced increased lipid peroxidation in the pup brain. In utero MeHg exposure also caused a dose-dependent increase in the cerebral levels of mercury at birth. Even though the cerebral mercury concentration decreased to nearly basal levels at postnatal day 21, GSH levels, GPx and GR activities remained decreased in MeHg-exposed mice, indicating that prenatal exposure to MeHg affects the cerebral GSH antioxidant systems by inducing biochemical alterations that endure even when mercury tissue levels decrease and become indistinguishable from those noted in pups born to control dams. This study is the first to show that prenatal exposure to MeHg disrupts the postnatal development of the glutathione antioxidant system in the mouse brain, pointing to an additional molecular mechanism by which MeHg induces pro-oxidative damage in the developing CNS. Moreover, our experimental observation corroborates previous reports on the permanent functional deficits observed after prenatal MeHg exposure.

  20. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This is the twenty-ninth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It is a double issue covering two issues of the Soviet Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine Journal. Issue 29 contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A review of a book on environmental hygiene and a list of papers presented at a Soviet conference on space biology and medicine are also included. The materials in this issue were identified as relevant to 28 areas of space biology and medicine. The areas are: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, digestive system, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, space biology and medicine, and the economics of space flight.

  1. Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of the sea hare, Aplysia kurodai: Unique properties of two α-amylases and two α-glucosidases

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Ohshima, Miki; Maniwa, Saori; Kuwamura, Shuji; Shiraishi, Masataka; Yuasa, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa) is a nuisance species of green algae that is found all over the world. East-Asian species of the marine gastropod, the sea hare Aplysia kurodai, shows a clear feeding preference for sea lettuce. Compared with cellulose, sea lettuce contains a higher amount of starch as a storage polysaccharide. However, the entire amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai has not been studied in detail. We purified α-amylases and α-glucosidases from the digestive fluid of A. kurodai and investigated the synergistic action of these enzymes on sea lettuce. A. kurodai contain two α-amylases (59 and 80 kDa) and two α-glucosidases (74 and 86 kDa). The 59-kDa α-amylase, but not the 80-kDa α-amylase, was markedly activated by Ca2+ or Cl−. Both α-amylases degraded starch and maltoheptaose, producing maltotriose, maltose, and glucose. Glucose production from starch was higher with 80-kDa α-amylase than with 59-kDa α-amylase. Kinetic analysis indicated that 74-kDa α-glucosidase prefers short α-1,4-linked oligosaccharide, whereas 86-kDa α-glucosidase prefers large α-1,6 and α-1,4-linked polysaccharides such as glycogen. When sea lettuce was used as a substrate, a 2-fold greater amount of glucose was released by treatment with 59-kDa α-amylase and 74-kDa α-glucosidase than by treatment with 45-kDa cellulase and 210-kDa β-glucosidase of A. kurodai. Unlike mammals, sea hares efficiently digest sea lettuce to glucose by a combination of two α-amylases and two α-glucosidases in the digestive fluids without membrane-bound maltase–glucoamylase and sucrase–isomaltase complexes. PMID:25161866

  2. TonB-Dependent Systems of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Aerobactin and Heme Transport and TonB Are Required for Virulence in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Alfredo G.; Redford, Peter; Welch, Rodney A.; Payne, Shelley M.

    2001-01-01

    The uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073 has multiple iron acquisition systems, including heme and siderophore transporters. A tonB mutant derivative of CFT073 failed to use heme as an iron source or to utilize the siderophores enterobactin and aerobactin, indicating that transport of these compounds in CFT073 is TonB dependent. The TonB− derivative showed reduced virulence in a mouse model of urinary tract infection. Virulence was restored when the tonB gene was introduced on a plasmid. To determine the importance of the individual TonB-dependent iron transport systems during urinary tract infections, mutants defective in each of the CFT073 high-affinity iron transport systems were constructed and tested in the mouse model. Mouse virulence assays indicated that mutants defective in a single iron transport system were able to infect the kidney when inoculated as a pure culture but were unable to efficiently compete with the wild-type strain in mixed infections. These results indicate a role for TonB-dependent systems in the virulence of uropathogenic E. coli strains. PMID:11553558

  3. Methane production during storage of anaerobically digested municipal organic waste.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Sommer, Svend G; Gabriel, Søren; Christensen, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of source-separated municipal organic waste is considered feasible in Denmark. The limited hydraulic retention in the biogas reactor (typically 15 d) does not allow full degradation of the organic waste. Storage of anaerobically digested municipal organic waste can therefore be a source of methane (CH4) emission that may contribute significantly to the potential global warming impact from the waste treatment system. This study provides a model for quantifying the CH4 production from stored co-digested municipal organic waste and estimates the production under typical Danish climatic conditions, thus quantifying the potential global warming impact from storage of the digested municipal organic waste before its use on agricultural land. Laboratory batch tests on CH4 production as well as temperature measurements in eight full-scale storage tanks provided data for developing a model estimating the CH4 production in storage tanks containing digested municipal organic waste. The temperatures measured in separate storage tanks on farms receiving digested slurry were linearly correlated with air temperature. In storage tanks receiving slurry directly from biogas reactors, significantly higher temperatures were measured due to the high temperatures of the effluent from the reactor. Storage tanks on Danish farms are typically emptied in April and have a constant inflow of digested material. During the warmest months the content of digested material is therefore low, which limits the yearly CH4 production from storage. PMID:16585626

  4. Definition of the locus responsible for systemic carnitine deficiency within a 1.6-cM region of mouse chromosome 11 by detailed linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Okita, Kohei; Tokino, Takashi; Nishimori, Hiroyuki

    1996-04-15

    Carnitine is an essential cofactor for oxidation of mitochondrial fatty acids. Carnitine deficiency results in failure of energy production by mitochondria and leads to metabolic encephalopathy, lipid-storage myopathy, and cardiomyopathy. The juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse, an animal model of systemic carnitine deficiency, inherits the JVS phenotype in autosomal recessive fashion, through a mutant allele mapped to mouse chromosome 11. As a step toward identifying the gene responsible for JVS by positional cloning, we attempted to refine the jvs locus in the mouse by detailed linkage analysis with 13 microsatellite markers, using 190 backcross progeny. Among the 13 loci tested, 5 (defined by markers D11Mit24, D11Mit111,D11Nds9, D11Mit86, and D11Mit23) showed no recombination, with a maximum lod score of 52.38. Our results implied that the jvs gene can be sought on mouse chromosome 11 within a genetic distance no greater than about 1.6 cM. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Glutamate-system defects behind psychiatric manifestations in a familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 disease-mutation mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bøttger, Pernille; Glerup, Simon; Gesslein, Bodil; Illarionova, Nina B; Isaksen, Toke J; Heuck, Anders; Clausen, Bettina H; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Gramsbergen, Jan B; Gunnarson, Eli; Aperia, Anita; Lauritzen, Martin; Lambertsen, Kate L; Nissen, Poul; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a complex brain disorder, and understanding the complexity of this prevalent disease could improve quality of life for millions of people. Familial Hemiplegic Migraine type 2 (FHM2) is a subtype of migraine with aura and co-morbidities like epilepsy/seizures, cognitive impairments and psychiatric manifestations, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). FHM2 disease-mutations locate to the ATP1A2 gene encoding the astrocyte-located α2-isoform of the sodium-potassium pump (α2Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase). We show that knock-in mice heterozygous for the FHM2-associated G301R-mutation (α2(+/G301R)) phenocopy several FHM2-relevant disease traits e.g., by mimicking mood depression and OCD. In vitro studies showed impaired glutamate uptake in hippocampal mixed astrocyte-neuron cultures from α2(G301R/G301R) E17 embryonic mice, and moreover, induction of cortical spreading depression (CSD) resulted in reduced recovery in α2(+/G301R) male mice. Moreover, NMDA-type glutamate receptor antagonists or progestin-only treatment reverted specific α2(+/G301R) behavioral phenotypes. Our findings demonstrate that studies of an in vivo relevant FHM2 disease knock-in mouse model provide a link between the female sex hormone cycle and the glutamate system and a link to co-morbid psychiatric manifestations of FHM2. PMID:26911348

  6. Histology atlas of the developing mouse hepatobiliary system with emphasis on embryonic days 9.5-18.5.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Laura Wilding; Foley, Julie F; Elmore, Susan A

    2010-10-01

    Animal model phenotyping, in utero exposure toxicity studies, and investigation into causes of embryonic, fetal, or perinatal deaths have required pathologists to recognize and diagnose developmental disorders in spontaneous and engineered mouse models of disease. In mammals, the liver is the main site of hematopoiesis during fetal development, has endocrine and exocrine functions important for maintaining homeostasis in fetal and adult life; and performs other functions including waste detoxification, production and removal of glucose, glycogen storage, triglyceride and fatty acid processing, and serum protein production. Due to its role in many critical functions, alterations in the size, morphology, or function(s) of the liver often lead to embryonic lethality. Many publications and websites describe individual aspects of hepatobiliary development at defined stages. However, no single resource provides a detailed histological evaluation of H&E-stained sections of the developing murine liver and biliary systems using high-magnification and high-resolution color images. The work herein provides a histology atlas of hepatobiliary development between embryonic days 9.5-18.5. Although the focus of this work is normal hepatobiliary development, common defects in liver development are also described as a reference for pathologists who may be asked to phenotype mice with congenital, inherited, or treatment-related hepatobiliary defects. Authors' note: All digital images can be viewed online at https://niehsimagesepl-inc.com with the username "ToxPathLiver" and the password "embryolivers." PMID:20805319

  7. Oxidative stress regulates the ubiquitin-proteasome system and immunoproteasome functioning in a mouse model of X-adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Launay, Nathalie; Ruiz, Montserrat; Fourcade, Stéphane; Schlüter, Agatha; Guilera, Cristina; Ferrer, Isidre; Knecht, Erwin; Pujol, Aurora

    2013-03-01

    Oxidative damage is a pivotal aetiopathogenic factor in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. This is a neurometabolic disease characterized by the accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids owing to the loss of function of the peroxisomal transporter Abcd1. Here, we used the X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mouse model and patient's fibroblasts to detect malfunctioning of the ubiquitin-proteasome system resulting from the accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins, some involved in bioenergetic metabolism. Furthermore, the immunoproteasome machinery appears upregulated in response to oxidative stress, in the absence of overt inflammation. i-Proteasomes are recruited to mitochondria when fibroblasts are exposed to an excess of very-long-chain fatty acids in response to oxidative stress. Antioxidant treatment regulates proteasome expression, prevents i-proteasome induction and translocation of i-proteasomes to mitochondria. Our findings support a key role of i-proteasomes in quality control in mitochondria during oxidative damage in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and perhaps in other neurodegenerative conditions with similar pathogeneses. PMID:23436506

  8. Promoting Myelination in an In Vitro Mouse Model of the Peripheral Nerve System: The Effect of Wine Ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Stettner, Mark; Wolffram, Kathleen; Mausberg, Anne K.; Albrecht, Philipp; Derksen, Angelika; Methner, Axel; Dehmel, Thomas; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Dietrich, Helmut; Kieseier, Bernd C.

    2013-01-01

    Protective properties of moderate wine consumption against cancers, cardiovascular, metabolic and degenerative diseases have been reported in various clinical studies. Here, we analysed the effect of red wine (RW) and white wine (WW) on myelination using an in vitro embryonic co-culture mouse model. The total amount of myelin was found to be significantly increased after RW and WW treatment, while only RW significantly increased the number of internodes. Both types of wine increased rat Schwann cell- (rSC) expression of the NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-two-homolog 2 (Sirt2), a protein known to be involved in myelination. Detailed chemical analysis of RW revealed a broad spectrum of anthocyanins, piceids, and phenolics, including resveratrol (RSV). In our assay system RSV in low concentrations induced myelination. Furthermore RSV raised intracellular glutathione concentrations in rSCs and in co-cultures and therefore augmented antioxidant capacity. We conclude that wine promotes myelination in a rodent in vitro model by controlling intracellular metabolism and SC plasticity. During this process, RSV exhibits protective properties; however, the fostering effect on myelinaton during exposure to wine appears to be a complex interaction of various compounds. PMID:23762469

  9. Expression of Crip2, a LIM-domain-only protein, in the mouse cardiovascular system under physiological and pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Hui-Yu; Lu, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Ming; You, Li-Ru

    2011-10-01

    LIM domain-containing proteins mediate protein-protein interactions and play regulatory roles in various physiopathological processes. The mRNA of Crip2, a LIM-only gene, has been detected abundantly in developing and adult hearts but its cell-type specific expression profile has not been well characterized. In this study, we showed that Crip2 is highly expressed in the myocardium, moderately expressed in the endocardium and absent from the epicardium of the developing mouse heart. Interestingly, Crip2 expression is present in the endocardial cells that line both endocardial cushions, whereas it is markedly reduced in the cushion mesenchymes during valve leaflet formation. In the developing vascular system, Crip2 is detected in the endothelial cells of both blood and lymphatic vessels. Consistent with the expression pattern observed in embryos, Crip2 is also highly expressed in the myocardium, endocardium and coronary vascular endothelial cells of the adult heart. In the cardiomyocytes, Crip2 is colocalized with cardiac troponin T in the thin-filaments of sarcomeres. Nonetheless, experimental studies revealed that the expression level of Crip2 is not altered in the isoproterenol (ISO) induced hypertrophic heart. Moreover, Crip2 is detected in endothelial cells of the neovasculature during wound healing and tumor growth. The persistence of Crip2 expression in cardiovascular tissues implies that Crip2 might exert an important impact on the cardiovascular development, maintenance and homeostasis. PMID:21601656

  10. Histology Atlas of the Developing Mouse Hepatobiliary System with Emphasis on Embryonic Days 9.5-18.5

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Laura Wilding; Foley, Julie F.; Elmore, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Animal model phenotyping, in utero exposure toxiciy studies, and investigation into causes of embryonic, fetal, or perinatal deaths have required pathologists to recognize and diagnose developmental disorders in spontaneous and engineered mouse models of disease. In mammals, the liver is the main site of hematopoiesis during fetal development, has endocrine and exocrine functions important for maintaining homeostasis in fetal and adult life; and performs other functions including waste detoxification, production and removal of glucose, glycogen storage, triglyceride and fatty acid processing, and serum protein production. Due to its role in many critical functions, alterations in the size, morphology, or function(s) of the liver often lead to embryonic lethality. Many publications and websites describe individual aspects of hepatobiliary development at defined stages. However, no single resource provides a detailed histological evaluation of H&E-stained sections of the developing murine liver and biliary systems using high-magnification and high-resolution color images. The work herein provides a histology atlas of hepatobiliary development between embryonic days 9.5-18.5. Although the focus of this work is normal hepatobiliary development, common defects in liver development are also described as a reference for pathologists who may be asked to phenotype mice with congenital, inherited, or treatment-related hepatobiliary defects. PMID:20805319

  11. Neuroprotective Effect of a DJ-1 Based Peptide in a Toxin Induced Mouse Model of Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Glat, Micaela Johanna; Ben-Zur, Tali; Barhum, Yael; Offen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and dysautonomia, in various combinations. In MSA with parkinsonism (MSA-P), the degeneration is mainly restricted to the substantia nigra pars compacta and putamen. Studies have identified alterations in DJ-1 (PARK7), a key component of the anti-oxidative stress response, in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and MSA patients. Previously we have shown that a short DJ-1-based peptide named ND-13, protected cultured cells against neurotoxic insults and improved behavioral outcome in animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this study, we used the 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced mouse model of MSA and treated the animals with ND-13 in order to evaluate its therapeutic effects. Our results show that ND-13 protects cultured cells against oxidative stress generated by the mitochondrial inhibitor, 3-NP. Moreover, we show that ND-13 attenuates nigrostriatal degeneration and improves performance in motor-related behavioral tasks in 3-NP-treated mice. Our findings suggest a rationale for using ND-13 as a promising therapeutic approach for treatment of MSA. PMID:26901405

  12. Glutamate-system defects behind psychiatric manifestations in a familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 disease-mutation mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bøttger, Pernille; Glerup, Simon; Gesslein, Bodil; Illarionova, Nina B.; Isaksen, Toke J.; Heuck, Anders; Clausen, Bettina H.; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Gramsbergen, Jan B.; Gunnarson, Eli; Aperia, Anita; Lauritzen, Martin; Lambertsen, Kate L.; Nissen, Poul; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a complex brain disorder, and understanding the complexity of this prevalent disease could improve quality of life for millions of people. Familial Hemiplegic Migraine type 2 (FHM2) is a subtype of migraine with aura and co-morbidities like epilepsy/seizures, cognitive impairments and psychiatric manifestations, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). FHM2 disease-mutations locate to the ATP1A2 gene encoding the astrocyte-located α2-isoform of the sodium-potassium pump (α2Na+/K+-ATPase). We show that knock-in mice heterozygous for the FHM2-associated G301R-mutation (α2+/G301R) phenocopy several FHM2-relevant disease traits e.g., by mimicking mood depression and OCD. In vitro studies showed impaired glutamate uptake in hippocampal mixed astrocyte-neuron cultures from α2G301R/G301R E17 embryonic mice, and moreover, induction of cortical spreading depression (CSD) resulted in reduced recovery in α2+/G301R male mice. Moreover, NMDA-type glutamate receptor antagonists or progestin-only treatment reverted specific α2+/G301R behavioral phenotypes. Our findings demonstrate that studies of an in vivo relevant FHM2 disease knock-in mouse model provide a link between the female sex hormone cycle and the glutamate system and a link to co-morbid psychiatric manifestations of FHM2. PMID:26911348

  13. Fiber optic light-scattering measurement system for evaluation of embryo viability: light-scattering characteristics from live mouse embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Harumi; Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1997-06-01

    We measured angular distribution of the light scattering from live mouse embryo with 632.8nm in wavelength to evaluate the embryo viability. We aim to measure the mitochondrial density in human embryo which have relation to the embryo viability. We have constructed the light scattering measurement system to detect the mitochondrial density non-invasively. We have employed two optical fibers for the illumination and sensing to change the angle between these fibers. There were two dips on the scattering angular distribution from the embryo. These dips existed on 30 and 85 deg. We calculated the scattering angular pattern by Mie theory to fit the measured scattering estimated scattering size and density. The best fitting was obtained when the particle size and density were 0.9 micrometers and 1010 particles per ml, respectively. These values coincided with the approximated values of mitochondrial in the embryo. The measured light scattering may mainly originated from mitochondria in spite of the existence of the various scattering particles in the embryo. Since our simple scattering measurement may offer the mitochondrial density in the embryo, it might become the practical method of human embryo on in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

  14. Inhibition of poliovirus RNA synthesis as a molecular mechanism contributing to viral persistence in the mouse central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Couderc, T; Girard, S; Pelletier, I; Gosselin, A S; Destombes, J; Thiesson, D; Colbère-Garapin, F; Blondel, B

    2001-01-01

    Many survivors of poliomyelitis, several decades after the acute phase of the disease, develop a set of new muscle symptoms called post-polio syndrome. The persistence of poliovirus (PV) in the central nervous system (CNS) may be involved in the aetiology of this syndrome. By using a mouse model, we have shown that PV persists in the CNS of paralysed mice for over a year after the acute disease. Detection of PV plus- and minus-strand RNAs in the spinal cord of paralysed mice suggested continuous PV RNA replication in the CNS. However, infectious PV particles could not be recovered from homogenates of CNS from paralysed mice beyond 20 days post-paralysis, indicating that PV replication was restricted. In an attempt to identify the molecular mechanism by which PV replication was limited, PV plus- and minus-strand RNA levels were estimated in the CNS of persistently infected mice by a semi-quantitative RT-nested PCR method. Results revealed that RNA replication was inhibited at the level of plus-strand RNA synthesis during persistent infection. Similar results were obtained in neuroblastoma IMR-32 cell cultures persistently infected with PV Restriction of PV RNA synthesis could be involved in persistence by limiting PV replication. PMID:11763332

  15. Impact of early life ovariectomy on blood pressure and body composition in a female mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Emily L.

    2014-01-01

    Because of the preponderance of women affected by the chronic autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), estrogen is thought to contribute to SLE disease progression. This is supported by evidence from experimental animal models of SLE showing that removal of estrogen in young female mice delays autoantibody production and renal injury and lengthens survival. Blood pressure and changes in body composition are important cardiovascular risk factors that can be regulated by estrogens. Because cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with SLE, we used an established female mouse model of SLE (NZBWF1) to test whether early life removal of estrogen impacts the development of hypertension and changes in body composition commonly associated with SLE. Eight-week-old female SLE and control mice (NZW/LacJ) underwent either a sham operation or ovariectomy. Body weight, body composition (fat and lean masses), and renal injury (albuminuria) were monitored until mice reached 34 wk of age, at which time mean arterial pressure was assessed in conscious animals by a carotid catheter. Early life removal of the ovaries delayed the onset of autoantibody production and albuminuria while causing an increase in body weight and fat mass. Blood pressure in the adult was not altered by early life removal of the ovaries. These data suggest that estrogens may have a permissive role for the development of SLE while helping to maintain normal body weight and composition, which is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. PMID:25324553

  16. AUTOMOUSE: AN IMPROVEMENT TO THE MOUSE COMPUTERIZED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM OPERATIONAL MANUAL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under a mandate of national environmental laws, the agency strives to formulate and implement actions leading to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life. The Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory is responsible ...

  17. Differential visual system organization and susceptibility to experimental models of optic neuropathies in three commonly used mouse strains.

    PubMed

    De Groef, Lies; Dekeyster, Eline; Geeraerts, Emiel; Lefevere, Evy; Stalmans, Ingeborg; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Moons, Lieve

    2016-04-01

    Mouse disease models have proven indispensable in glaucoma research, yet the complexity of the vast number of models and mouse strains has also led to confusing findings. In this study, we evaluated baseline intraocular pressure, retinal histology, and retinofugal projections in three mouse strains commonly used in glaucoma research, i.e. C57Bl/6, C57Bl/6-Tyr(c), and CD-1 mice. We found that the mouse strains under study do not only display moderate variations in their intraocular pressure, retinal architecture, and retinal ganglion cell density, also the retinofugal projections to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and the superior colliculus revealed striking differences, potentially underlying diverging optokinetic tracking responses and visual acuity. Next, we reviewed the success rate of three models of (glaucomatous) optic neuropathies (intravitreal N-methyl-d-aspartic acid injection, optic nerve crush, and laser photocoagulation-induced ocular hypertension), looking for differences in disease susceptibility between these mouse strains. Different genetic backgrounds and albinism led to differential susceptibility to experimentally induced retinal ganglion cell death among these three mouse strains. Overall, CD-1 mice appeared to have the highest sensitivity to retinal ganglion cell damage, while the C57Bl/6 background was more resistant in the three models used. PMID:26791081

  18. OMR-arena: automated measurement and stimulation system to determine mouse visual thresholds based on optomotor responses.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Friedrich; Kretschmer, Viola; Kunze, Vincent P; Kretzberg, Jutta

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the optomotor response is a common way to determine thresholds of the visual system in animals. Particularly in mice, it is frequently used to characterize the visual performance of different genetically modified strains or to test the effect of various drugs on visual performance. Several methods have been developed to facilitate the presentation of stimuli using computer screens or projectors. Common methods are either based on the measurement of eye movement during optokinetic reflex behavior or rely on the measurement of head and/or body-movements during optomotor responses. Eye-movements can easily and objectively be quantified, but their measurement requires invasive fixation of the animals. Head movements can be observed in freely moving animals, but until now depended on the judgment of a human observer who reported the counted tracking movements of the animal during an experiment. In this study we present a novel measurement and stimulation system based on open source building plans and software. This system presents appropriate 360° stimuli while simultaneously video-tracking the animal's head-movements without fixation. The on-line determined head gaze is used to adjust the stimulus to the head position, as well as to automatically calculate visual acuity. Exemplary, we show that automatically measured visual response curves of mice match the results obtained by a human observer very well. The spatial acuity thresholds yielded by the automatic analysis are also consistent with the human observer approach and with published results. Hence, OMR-arena provides an affordable, convenient and objective way to measure mouse visual performance. PMID:24260105

  19. Highly selective localization of leukotriene C4 synthase in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic vasopressin systems of mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Shimada, A; Satoh, M; Chiba, Y; Saitoh, Y; Kawamura, N; Keino, H; Hosokawa, M; Shimizu, T

    2005-01-01

    While leukotriene C4 (LTC4) was originally identified as a potent bronchoconstrictor, the compound has versatile biological activities besides inflammatory reactions. Although the high content of LTC4 has been reported in the hypothalamus and median eminence, the precise localization of the compound remained obscure. To elucidate its possible functions in the neuroendocrine systems, we determined immunohistochemical localization of LTC4 synthase, a key enzyme to produce LTC4 using mouse brains. Light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that LTC4 synthase was selectively localized in the vasopressinergic magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular, supraoptic and suprachiasmatic nuclei and in the retrochiasmatic area, as well as in axons that emanated from these neurons to the pars nervosa of the pituitary gland. At subcellular level, however, LTC4 synthase and arginine vasopressin appeared to localize differently within individual neurons. LTC4 synthase immunoreactivity was also observed in the axons of the extrahypothalamic system including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral habenular nucleus, midbrain central gray, medial amygdaloid nucleus and ventral septal area, although this immunoreactivity was relatively minor. The other brain regions did not contain LTC4 synthase immunoreactivity. The distribution of LTC4 synthase did not overlap with that of either oxytocin or luteinizing hormone releasing hormone. Therefore, LTC4 is considered to be involved in neural functions of the brain magnocellular vasopressinergic system such as water retention. LTC4 may also be involved in extrahypothalamic vasopressinergic neural functions including the regulation of learning and memory, social recognition memory, sexual and aggressive behavior, etc. PMID:15730873

  20. Role of β1 integrins and bacterial adhesins for Yop injection into leukocytes in Yersinia enterocolitica systemic mouse infection.

    PubMed

    Deuschle, Eva; Keller, Birgit; Siegfried, Alexandra; Manncke, Birgit; Spaeth, Tanja; Köberle, Martin; Drechsler-Hake, Doreen; Reber, Julia; Böttcher, Ralph T; Autenrieth, Stella E; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Bohn, Erwin; Schütz, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into host cells by a type III secretion system is an important immune evasion mechanism of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye). In this process Ye invasin (Inv) binds directly while Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) binds indirectly via extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to β1 integrins on host cells. Although leukocytes turned out to be an important target of Yop injection by Ye, it was unclear which Ye adhesins and which leukocyte receptors are required for Yop injection. To explain this, we investigated the role of YadA, Inv and β1 integrins for Yop injection into leukocytes and their impact on the course of systemic Ye infection in mice. Ex vivo infection experiments revealed that adhesion of Ye via Inv or YadA is sufficient to promote Yop injection into leukocytes as revealed by a β-lactamase reporter assay. Serum factors inhibit YadA- but not Inv-mediated Yop injection into B and T cells, shifting YadA-mediated Yop injection in the direction of neutrophils and other myeloid cells. Systemic Ye mouse infection experiments demonstrated that YadA is essential for Ye virulence and Yop injection into leukocytes, while Inv is dispensable for virulence and plays only a transient and minor role for Yop injection in the early phase of infection. Ye infection of mice with β1 integrin-depleted leukocytes demonstrated that β1 integrins are dispensable for YadA-mediated Yop injection into leukocytes, but contribute to Inv-mediated Yop injection. Despite reduced Yop injection into leukocytes, β1 integrin-deficient mice exhibited an increased susceptibility for Ye infection, suggesting an important role of β1 integrins in immune defense against Ye. This study demonstrates that Yop injection into leukocytes by Ye is largely mediated by YadA exploiting, as yet unknown, leukocyte receptors. PMID:26718660

  1. OMR-Arena: Automated Measurement and Stimulation System to Determine Mouse Visual Thresholds Based on Optomotor Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Friedrich; Kretschmer, Viola; Kunze, Vincent P.; Kretzberg, Jutta

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the optomotor response is a common way to determine thresholds of the visual system in animals. Particularly in mice, it is frequently used to characterize the visual performance of different genetically modified strains or to test the effect of various drugs on visual performance. Several methods have been developed to facilitate the presentation of stimuli using computer screens or projectors. Common methods are either based on the measurement of eye movement during optokinetic reflex behavior or rely on the measurement of head and/or body-movements during optomotor responses. Eye-movements can easily and objectively be quantified, but their measurement requires invasive fixation of the animals. Head movements can be observed in freely moving animals, but until now depended on the judgment of a human observer who reported the counted tracking movements of the animal during an experiment. In this study we present a novel measurement and stimulation system based on open source building plans and software. This system presents appropriate 360 stimuli while simultaneously video-tracking the animal's head-movements without fixation. The on-line determined head gaze is used to adjust the stimulus to the head position, as well as to automatically calculate visual acuity. Exemplary, we show that automatically measured visual response curves of mice match the results obtained by a human observer very well. The spatial acuity thresholds yielded by the automatic analysis are also consistent with the human observer approach and with published results. Hence, OMR-arena provides an affordable, convenient and objective way to measure mouse visual performance. PMID:24260105

  2. Interaction of CRF and kappa opioid systems on GABAergic neurotransmission in the mouse central amygdala.

    PubMed

    Kang-Park, Maenghee; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Roberts, Amanda J; Siggins, George R; Moore, Scott D

    2015-11-01

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) systems are both implicated in stress-related behaviors and drug dependence. Although previous studies suggest that antagonism of each system blocks aspects of experimental models of drug dependence, the possible interaction between these systems at the neuronal level has not been completely examined. We used an in vitro brain slice preparation to investigate the interaction of these two peptide systems on inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Application of exogenous CRF increased the mean frequency of GABAergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) by 20.2%, suggesting an increase in presynaptic GABA release. Although the pharmacological blockade of KORs by norBNI alone did not significantly affect mIPSC frequency, it significantly enhanced the effect of CRF (by 43.9%, P = 0.02). Similarly, the CRF effects in slices from KOR knockout (KO) mice (84.0% increase) were significantly greater than in wild-type (WT) mice (24.6%, P = 0.01), although there was no significant difference in baseline mIPSC frequency between slices from KOR KO and WT mice. The increase in CRF action in the presence of norBNI was abolished by a CRF-1 receptor antagonist but was unaffected by a CRF-2 receptor antagonist. We hypothesize that CRF facilitates the release of an endogenous ligand for KORs and that subsequent activation of KOR receptors modulates presynaptic effects of CRF in CeA. These results suggest that potential pharmacotherapies aimed at neurobehavioral and addictive disorders may need to involve both the KOR/dynorphin and the CRF systems in CeA. PMID:26350161

  3. Enzyme replacement improves nervous system pathology and function in a mouse model for metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Matzner, Ulrich; Herbst, Eva; Hedayati, Kerstin Khalaj; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Wessig, Carsten; Schröder, Stephan; Eistrup, Carl; Möller, Christer; Fogh, Jens; Gieselmann, Volkmar

    2005-05-01

    A deficiency of arylsulfatase A (ASA) causes the lysosomal storage disease metachromatic leukodystrophy, which is characterized by accumulation of the sphingolipid 3-O-sulfogalactosylceramide (sulfatide). Sphingolipid storage results in progressive demyelination and severe neurologic symptoms. The disease is lethal, and curative therapy is not available. To assess the therapeutic potential of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), ASA knockout mice were treated by intravenous injection of recombinant human ASA. Plasma levels of ASA declined with a half-time of approximately 40 min, and enzyme was detectable in tissues within minutes after injection. The uptake of injected enzyme was high into liver, moderate into peripheral nervous system (PNS) and kidney and very low into brain. The apparent half-life of endocytosed enzyme was approximately 4 days. A single injection led to a time- and dose-dependent decline of the excess sulfatide in PNS and kidney by up to 70%, but no reduction was seen in brain. Four weekly injections with 20 mg/kg body weight not only reduced storage in peripheral tissues progressively, but also were surprisingly effective in reducing sulfatide storage in brain and spinal cord. The histopathology of kidney and central nervous system was ameliorated. Improved neuromotor coordination capabilities and normalized peripheral compound motor action potential demonstrate the benefits of ERT on the nervous system function. Enzyme replacement may therefore be a promising therapeutic option in this devastating disease. PMID:15772092

  4. Systemic inflammation is associated with a reduction in Synaptopodin expression in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Strehl, Andreas; Lenz, Maximilian; Itsekson-Hayosh, Zeev; Becker, Denise; Chapman, Joab; Deller, Thomas; Maggio, Nicola; Vlachos, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Systemic inflammation is known to affect memory function through the activation of immune cells and the release of inflammatory cytokines. However, the neuronal targets by which inflammatory signaling pathways affect synaptic plasticity remain not well understood. Here, we addressed the question of whether systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation influences the expression of Synaptopodin (SP). SP is an actin-binding protein, which is considered to control the ability of neurons to express synaptic plasticity by regulating the actin-cytoskeleton and/or intracellular Ca(2+) stores. This makes SP an interesting target molecule in the context of inflammation-induced alterations in synaptic plasticity. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR)-analysis and immunohistochemistry we here demonstrate that intraperitoneal LPS-injection in two-month old male Balb/c mice leads to a reduction in hippocampal SP-levels (area CA1; 24h after injection). These changes are accompanied by a defect in the ability to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) of Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, similar to what is observed in SP-deficient mice. We therefore propose that systemic inflammation could exert its effects on neural plasticity, at least in part, through the down-regulation of SP in vivo. PMID:24837317

  5. A novel mouse model for stable engraftment of a human immune system and human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Strick-Marchand, Helene; Dusséaux, Mathilde; Darche, Sylvie; Huntington, Nicholas D; Legrand, Nicolas; Masse-Ranson, Guillemette; Corcuff, Erwan; Ahodantin, James; Weijer, Kees; Spits, Hergen; Kremsdorf, Dina; Di Santo, James P

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic infections by hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Plasmodium parasites leading to acute or chronic diseases constitute a global health challenge. The species tropism of these hepatotropic pathogens is restricted to chimpanzees and humans, thus model systems to study their pathological mechanisms are severely limited. Although these pathogens infect hepatocytes, disease pathology is intimately related to the degree and quality of the immune response. As a first step to decipher the immune response to infected hepatocytes, we developed an animal model harboring both a human immune system (HIS) and human hepatocytes (HUHEP) in BALB/c Rag2-/- IL-2Rγc-/- NOD.sirpa uPAtg/tg mice. The extent and kinetics of human hepatocyte engraftment were similar between HUHEP and HIS-HUHEP mice. Transplanted human hepatocytes were polarized and mature in vivo, resulting in 20-50% liver chimerism in these models. Human myeloid and lymphoid cell lineages developed at similar frequencies in HIS and HIS-HUHEP mice, and splenic and hepatic compartments were humanized with mature B cells, NK cells and naïve T cells, as well as monocytes and dendritic cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that HIS-HUHEP mice can be stably (> 5 months) and robustly engrafted with a humanized immune system and chimeric human liver. This novel HIS-HUHEP model provides a platform to investigate human immune responses against hepatotropic pathogens and to test novel drug strategies or vaccine candidates. PMID:25782010

  6. Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

  7. HIPEC in controversial digestive tumors.

    PubMed

    Tentes, Antonios-Apostolos K

    2015-05-01

    Local-regional and peritoneal metastases still develop despite improvements in surgical techniques. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy has been proved to be effective in reducing the rate of local-regional and peritoneal metastases in many malignancies. There is adequate evidence that intraperitoneal perioperative chemotherapy after aggressive resection of locally advanced tumors of the digestive system may be helpful in decreasing the rate of local-regional and peritoneal metastases. Prospective trials and meta-analyses have shown that patients with locally advanced gastric or colorectal carcinomas are offered significant survival benefit and develop reduced number of local-regional metastases with surgery combined with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. In pancreatic cancer the preliminary results have shown that these patients do not develop local-regional recurrences with R0 resection in combination with hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Further studies are required to document these findings. PMID:26051333

  8. Nanoemulsion delivery systems for oil-soluble vitamins: Influence of carrier oil type on lipid digestion and vitamin D3 bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Bengu; Argin, Sanem; Ozilgen, Mustafa; McClements, David Julian

    2015-11-15

    The influence of carrier oil type on the bioaccessibility of vitamin D3 encapsulated within oil-in-water nanoemulsions prepared using a natural surfactant (quillaja saponin) was studied using a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model: mouth; stomach; small intestine. The rate of free fatty acid release during lipid digestion decreased in the following order: medium chain triglycerides (MCT) > corn oil ≈ fish oil > orange oil > mineral oil. Conversely, the measured bioaccessibility of vitamin D3 decreased in the following order: corn oil ≈ fish oil > orange oil > mineral oil > MCT. These results show that carrier oil type has a considerable impact on lipid digestion and vitamin bioaccessibility, which was attributed to differences in the release of bioactives from lipid droplets, and their solubilization in mixed micelles. Nanoemulsions prepared using long chain triglycerides (corn or fish oil) were most effective at increasing vitamin bioaccessibility. PMID:25977056

  9. Alterations in the cholinergic system of brain stem neurons in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oginsky, Max F.; Cui, Ningren; Zhong, Weiwei; Johnson, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome is an autism-spectrum disorder resulting from mutations to the X-linked gene, methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), which causes abnormalities in many systems. It is possible that the body may develop certain compensatory mechanisms to alleviate the abnormalities. The norepinephrine system originating mainly in the locus coeruleus (LC) is defective in Rett syndrome and Mecp2-null mice. LC neurons are subject to modulation by GABA, glutamate, and acetylcholine (ACh), providing an ideal system to test the compensatory hypothesis. Here we show evidence for potential compensatory modulation of LC neurons by post- and presynaptic ACh inputs. We found that the postsynaptic currents of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChR) were smaller in amplitude and longer in decay time in the Mecp2-null mice than in the wild type. Single-cell PCR analysis showed a decrease in the expression of α3-, α4-, α7-, and β3-subunits and an increase in the α5- and α6-subunits in the mutant mice. The α5-subunit was present in many of the LC neurons with slow-decay nAChR currents. The nicotinic modulation of spontaneous GABAA-ergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents in LC neurons was enhanced in Mecp2-null mice. In contrast, the nAChR manipulation of glutamatergic input to LC neurons was unaffected in both groups of mice. Our current-clamp studies showed that the modulation of LC neurons by ACh input was reduced moderately in Mecp2-null mice, despite the major decrease in nAChR currents, suggesting possible compensatory processes may take place, thus reducing the defects to a lesser extent in LC neurons. PMID:25009110

  10. Pheromone-induced expression of immediate early genes in the mouse vomeronasal sensory system.

    PubMed

    Haga-Yamanaka, Sachiko; Touhara, Kazushige

    2013-01-01

    Immediate early genes (IEGs) are powerful tools for visualizing activated neurons and extended circuits that are stimulated by sensory input. Several kinds of IEGs (e.g., c-fos, egr-1) have been utilized for detecting activated receptor neurons in the pheromone sensory organ called the vomeronasal organ (VNO), as well as for mapping the neurons within the central nervous system (CNS) excited by pheromones.In this chapter, we describe the procedure for the detection of pheromone-induced neural activation in the VNO and CNS using the c-Fos immunostaining technique. PMID:24014367

  11. COMPARATIVE GUT PHYSIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Comparative physiology of digestion.

    PubMed

    Furness, J B; Cottrell, J J; Bravo, D M

    2015-02-01

    The digestive systems of all species have been shaped by environmental pressures over long evolutionary time spans. Nevertheless, all digestive systems must achieve the same end points, the ingestion of biological material and its conversion to molecules that serve as energy substrates and structural components of tissues. A range of strategies to extract nutrients, including for animals reliant primarily on foregut fermentation, hindgut fermentation, and enzymatic degradation, have evolved. Moreover, animals have adapted to different foodstuffs as herbivores (including frugivores, folivores, granivores, etc.), carnivores, and omnivores. We present evidence that humans have diverged from other omnivores because of the long history of consumption of cooked or otherwise prepared food. We consider them to be cucinivores. We present examples to illustrate that the range of foodstuffs that can be efficiently assimilated by each group or species is limited and is different from that of other groups or species. Differences are reflected in alimentary tract morphology. The digestive systems of each group and of species within the groups are adaptable, with constraints determined by individual digestive physiology. Although overall digestive strategies and systems differ, the building blocks for digestion are remarkably similar. All vertebrates have muscular tubular tracts lined with a single layer of epithelial cells for most of the length, use closely related digestive enzymes and transporters, and control the digestive process through similar hormones and similarly organized nerve pathways. Extrapolations among species that are widely separated in their digestive physiologies are possible when the basis for extrapolation is carefully considered. Divergence is greatest at organ or organismal levels, and similarities are greatest at the cell and molecular level. PMID:26020739

  12. Tert-butylhydroquinone attenuates scrotal heat-induced damage by regulating Nrf2-antioxidant system in the mouse testis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yansen; Cao, Yun; Wang, Fei; Pu, Shaoxia; Zhang, Yonghui; Li, ChunMei

    2014-11-01

    Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a widely used nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activator, was always employed to investigate the potential protective role of Nrf2 activation. In this study, to elucidate the effect of tBHQ on scrotal heat-induced damage and Nrf2-antioxidant system in mouse testes, eight-week-old mice were administrated with or without dietary tBHQ (1%w/w) for 1week and afterward subjected to a single scrotal heat treatment (42C for 25min). Trunk blood and testes were collected 3h or 1, 2, or 7days later. Mice displayed less germ cell loss in testes, higher relative testis weight and lower testosterone concentration on day 2 in tBHQ treatment group. Before heat treatment, there were significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in tBHQ treatment group. After heat treatment, mice in tBHQ treatment group showed lower MDA concentration than those in non-tBHQ treatment group. In addition, both tBHQ pretreatment and scrotal heat treatment induced markedly increased Nrf2 protein expression in cytoplasm and nuclei of interstitial cells, accompanying with elevated mRNA expression of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulated genes in mice testes. Our data indicated that pretreatment to tBHQ induced a mild oxidative stress, and further enhanced the cellular antioxidative ability to protect testicular cells against scrotal heat-induced damage via a mechanism that might involve the Nrf2-antioxidant system in mice testes. PMID:25260249

  13. Proliferative and nonproliferative lesions of the rat and mouse male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Creasy, Dianne; Bube, Axel; de Rijk, Eveline; Kandori, Hitoshi; Kuwahara, Maki; Masson, Regis; Nolte, Thomas; Reams, Rachel; Regan, Karen; Rehm, Sabine; Rogerson, Petrina; Whitney, Katharine

    2012-08-01

    The INHAND Project (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP), and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature and differential diagnosis for classifying microscopic lesions observed in the male reproductive system of laboratory rats and mice, with color microphotographs illustrating examples of some lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available for society members electronically on the Internet (http://goreni.org). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous and aging lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test materials. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature for lesions of the male reproductive system in laboratory animals will decrease confusion among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists. PMID:22949412

  14. Chronic ethanol intake modifies renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities in mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Mayas, M D; Ramírez-Expósito, M J; García, M J; Carrera, M P; Cobo, M; Camacho, B; Martínez Martos, J M

    2005-04-01

    In developing cerebellum, where critical periods of vulnerability have been established for several basic substances, it has been extensively studied the wide array of abnormalities induced by exposure to ethanol (EtOH). However, little is known about the effects of EtOH consumption on cerebellar functions in adult individuals. Several studies show participation in cognitive activities to be concentrated in the lateral cerebellum (hemispheres), whereas basic motor functions such as balance and coordination are represented in the medial parts of the cerebellum (vermis and paravermis). In addition to the circulating renin angiotensin system (RAS), a local system has been postulated in brain. The effector peptides of the RAS are formed via the activity of several aminopeptidases (AP). The present work analyses the effect of chronic EtOH intake on the RAS-regulating AP activities in the soluble and membrane-bound fractions of two cerebellar locations: the hemispheres and the vermis. We hypothesize that cerebellar RAS is involved in basic motor functions rather than in cognitive activities. PMID:15752539

  15. A juvenile mouse pheromone inhibits sexual behaviour through the vomeronasal system.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, David M; Moeller, Lisa M; Osakada, Takuya; Horio, Nao; Li, Qian; Roy, Dheeraj S; Cichy, Annika; Spehr, Marc; Touhara, Kazushige; Liberles, Stephen D

    2013-10-17

    Animals display a repertoire of different social behaviours. Appropriate behavioural responses depend on sensory input received during social interactions. In mice, social behaviour is driven by pheromones, chemical signals that encode information related to age, sex and physiological state. However, although mice show different social behaviours towards adults, juveniles and neonates, sensory cues that enable specific recognition of juvenile mice are unknown. Here we describe a juvenile pheromone produced by young mice before puberty, termed exocrine-gland secreting peptide 22 (ESP22). ESP22 is secreted from the lacrimal gland and released into tears of 2- to 3-week-old mice. Upon detection, ESP22 activates high-affinity sensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ, and downstream limbic neurons in the medial amygdala. Recombinant ESP22, painted on mice, exerts a powerful inhibitory effect on adult male mating behaviour, which is abolished in knockout mice lacking TRPC2, a key signalling component of the vomeronasal organ. Furthermore, knockout of TRPC2 or loss of ESP22 production results in increased sexual behaviour of adult males towards juveniles, and sexual responses towards ESP22-deficient juveniles are suppressed by ESP22 painting. Thus, we describe a pheromone of sexually immature mice that controls an innate social behaviour, a response pathway through the accessory olfactory system and a new role for vomeronasal organ signalling in inhibiting sexual behaviour towards young. These findings provide a molecular framework for understanding how a sensory system can regulate behaviour. PMID:24089208

  16. Central nervous system gene expression changes in a transgenic mouse model for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression analysis has proven to be a very useful tool to gain knowledge of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, particularly in the initial or preclinical stages. With the aim of finding new data on the events occurring in the Central Nervous System in animals affected with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, a comprehensive genome wide gene expression study was conducted at different time points of the disease on mice genetically modified to model the bovine species brain in terms of cellular prion protein. An accurate analysis of the information generated by microarray technique was the key point to assess the biological relevance of the data obtained in terms of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy pathogenesis. Validation of the microarray technique was achieved by RT-PCR confirming the RNA change and immunohistochemistry techniques that verified that expression changes were translated into variable levels of protein for selected genes. Our study reveals changes in the expression of genes, some of them not previously associated with prion diseases, at early stages of the disease previous to the detection of the pathological prion protein, that might have a role in neuronal degeneration and several transcriptional changes showing an important imbalance in the Central Nervous System homeostasis in advanced stages of the disease. Genes whose expression is altered at early stages of the disease should be considered as possible therapeutic targets and potential disease markers in preclinical diagnostic tool development. Genes non-previously related to prion diseases should be taken into consideration for further investigations. PMID:22035425

  17. A Sensitive Assay System To Test Antisense Oligonucleotides for Splice Suppression Therapy in the Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Villar, Lorena; Viecelli, Hiu Man; Pérez, Belén; Harding, Cary O; Ugarte, Magdalena; Thöny, Beat; Desviat, Lourdes R

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated the efficacy of antisense therapy for splicing defects in cellular models of metabolic diseases, suppressing the use of cryptic splice sites or pseudoexon insertions. To date, no animal models with these defects are available. Here, we propose exon skipping of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (Pah) gene expressed in liver and kidney to generate systemic hyperphenylalaninemia in mice as a sensitive in vivo assay to test splice suppression. Systemic elevation of blood L-Phe can be quantified using tandem MS/MS. Exon 11 and/or 12 skipping for the normal PAH gene was validated in hepatoma cells for comparing two oligonucleotide chemistries, morpholinos and locked nucleic acids. Subsequently, Vivo-morpholinos (VMO) were tested in wild-type and in phenotypically normal Pahenu2/+ heterozygous mice to target exon 11 and/or 12 of the murine Pah gene using different VMO dosing, mode of injection and treatment regimes. Consecutive intravenous injections of VMO resulted in transient hyperphenylalaninemia correlating with complete exon skipping and absence of PAH protein and enzyme activity. Sustained effect required repeated injection of VMOs. Our results provide not only a sensitive in vivo assay to test for splice-modulating antisense oligonucleotides, but also a simple method to generate murine models for genetic liver diseases. PMID:25226162

  18. Mouse lymphotoxin.

    PubMed

    Trivers, G; Braungart, D; Leonard, E J

    1976-07-01

    The addition of PHA to C3H mouse spleen cells in tissue culture led to the production of lymphotoxin (LT). Cytotoxicity was assayed by addition of the culture fluids to syngeneic target cells labeled with tritiated thymidine; after an incubation period of 72 hr the amount of radioactivity released into the supernatant was measured. The LT activity in unfractionated culture fluids survived lyophilization, remained unchanged for many weeks at 4 degrees C, and progressively decreased on heating at 56 degrees C for periods from 1 to 9 hr. Based on the G-200 Sephadex distribution coefficients for several preparations, the m.w. of mouse lymphotoxin was about 41,000 daltons. Lymphotoxin from three different spleen cell production runs was recovered from isoelectric focusing columns in sharply focused peaks, the pH of which ranged from 4.4 to 4.8. PMID:1084362

  19. Whole mouse cryo-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, David; Roy, Debashish; Steyer, Grant; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Stone, Meredith; McKinley, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    The Case cryo-imaging system is a section and image system which allows one to acquire micron-scale, information rich, whole mouse color bright field and molecular fluorescence images of an entire mouse. Cryo-imaging is used in a variety of applications, including mouse and embryo anatomical phenotyping, drug delivery, imaging agents, metastastic cancer, stem cells, and very high resolution vascular imaging, among many. Cryo-imaging fills the gap between whole animal in vivo imaging and histology, allowing one to image a mouse along the continuum from the mouse -> organ -> tissue structure -> cell -> sub-cellular domains. In this overview, we describe the technology and a variety of exciting applications. Enhancements to the system now enable tiled acquisition of high resolution images to cover an entire mouse. High resolution fluorescence imaging, aided by a novel subtraction processing algorithm to remove sub-surface fluorescence, makes it possible to detect fluorescently-labeled single cells. Multi-modality experiments in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cryo-imaging of a whole mouse demonstrate superior resolution of cryo-images and efficiency of registration techniques. The 3D results demonstrate the novel true-color volume visualization tools we have developed and the inherent advantage of cryo-imaging in providing unlimited depth of field and spatial resolution. The recent results continue to demonstrate the value cryo-imaging provides in the field of small animal imaging research.

  20. Lasers in digestive endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetaud, Jean Marc; Maunoury, Vincent; Cochelard, Dominique

    1997-01-01

    Lasers were introduced in digestive endoscopy to stop active gastroduodenal hemorrhages. Their use spread progressively to the treatment of chronic hemorrhages from vascular malformations and sessile tumors. Laser face competition from other endoscopic techniques such as electrocoagulation, injection techniques, dilation, stents, and brachytherapy. Many series have reported the efficacy of lasers in digestive endoscopy used for their thermal or photochemical effects. However, they were gradually abandoned for the treatment of hemorrhages because of competition from nonlaser techniques. Lasers are still used for ablation of sessile tumors, but their true impact is difficult to evaluate. Modern methods of technology assessment did not allow gastroenterologists to clearly define the place of lasers among surgery, radio-chemotherapy, and other endoscopic techniques, and data on the daily use of lasers are not available. Therefore, the conclusion can only be subjective. The best current application of thermal lasers appears to be in the treatment of rectosigmoid villous adenomas in elderly patients. Small superficial rectal cancers may also become a good subject due to the impact of endoscopic ultrasonography. Early lesions with multifocal or diffuse disease such as early esophageal cancers could be the most promising subject of application for photodynamic therapy in the future.