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1

Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... remove inflamed or damaged areas of the intestine. Celiac disease is a disorder in which the digestive system ... from breakfast cereal to pizza crust. People with celiac disease have difficulty digesting the nutrients from their food ...

2

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a section of an online Biology Textbook - developed by Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College - providing a concise overview of the digestive system. It describes the enzymes, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids involved in digestion and outlines the role that each part of the body plays from the mouth the large intestine.

Gregory, Michael

1969-12-31

3

A systematic quantification of carbonic anhydrase transcripts in the mouse digestive system  

PubMed Central

Background Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are physiologically important enzymes which participate in many gastrointestinal processes such as acid and bicarbonate secretion and metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis. The genomic data suggests that there are thirteen enzymatically active members of the mammalian CA isozyme family. In the present study, we systematically examined the mRNA expression levels of all known CA isozymes by quantitative real-time PCR in eight tissues of the digestive system of male and female mice. Results The CAs expressed in all tissues were Car5b, Car7, and Car15, among which Car5b showed moderate and Car7 and Car15 extremely low expression levels. Car3, Car12, Car13, and Car14 were detected in seven out of eight tissues and Car2 and Car4 were expressed in six tissues. Importantly, Car1, Car3, and Car13 showed very high expression levels in certain tissues as compared to the other CAs, suggesting that these low activity isozymes may also participate in physiological processes other than CA catalysis and high expression levels are required to fulfil their functions in the body. Conclusion A comprehensive mRNA expression profile of the 13 enzymatically active CAs in the murine gastrointestinal tract was produced in the present study. It contributes to a deeper understanding of the distribution of CA isozymes and their potential roles in the mouse digestive system.

Pan, Pei-wen; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Parkkila, Seppo

2007-01-01

4

Soybean protein fraction digested with neutral protease preparation, “Peptidase R”, produced by Rhizopus oryzae, stimulates innate cellular immune system in mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soybean protein fraction was prepared from defatted soybean seed flour and digested with 29 kinds of commercially available protease originating from preparations of animals, plants, and microorganisms. Some digests, in particular, Ro-digest prepared using a Rhizopus oryzae neutral protease preparation (Peptidase R), displayed strong mitogenic activity toward C3H\\/HeN mouse spleen cells. The number of spleen CD11b+, CD49b+, interleukin (IL)-12+CD11b+,

Shintaro Egusa; Hajime Otani

2009-01-01

5

Ruminating on the Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will review the functions of basic digestive organs, understand how diet affects digestion, understand how digestive tracks may differ, and then step outside to compare the digestive systems of the buffalo and the zebra in a lively demonstration. This lesson plan includes key vocabulary words, teacher background information, and is standards-based.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

6

Effects of Aging on the Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... Multimedia Table Index In This Topic Digestive Disorders Biology of the Digestive System Effects of Aging on ... Subjects Women's Health Issues Chapters in Digestive Disorders Biology of the Digestive System Symptoms of Digestive Disorders ...

7

Selective digestion of mouse chromosomes with restriction endonucleases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used X-ray microanalysis to study the changes induced in mouse metaphase chromosomes as a result of digestion with the restriction endonuclease Haelll. The phosphorus X-ray signal was used as a marker for DNA and the sulfur signal for protein. Calcium, iron, copper, and zinc were also detected. Haelll induced a loss of phosphorus from both the centromeres and chromosome

J. Gosálvez; R. Mezzanotte; C. López-Fernández; P. Del Castillo; J. C. Stockert; V. Goyanes; A. T. Sumner

1991-01-01

8

A rapid DNA digestion system.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel microfluidic DNA digestion system incorporating a high performance micro-mixer. Through the appropriate control of fixed and periodic switching DC electric fields, electrokinetic forces are established to mix the DNA and restriction enzyme samples and to drive them through the reaction column of the device. The experimental and numerical results show that a mixing performance of 98% can be achieved within a mixing channel of length 1.6 mm when a 150 V/cm driving voltage and a 5 Hz switching frequency are applied. The relationship between the mixing performance, switching frequency, and main applied electric field is derived. It is found that the optimal switching frequency depends upon the magnitude of the main applied electric field. The successful digestion of lambda-DNA using Eco RI restriction enzyme is demonstrated. The DNA-enzyme reaction is completed within 15 min in the proposed microfluidic system, compared to 50 min in a conventional large-scale system. Hence, the current device provides a valuable tool for rapid lambda-DNA digestion, while its mixer system delivers a simple yet effective solution for mixing problems in the micro-total-analysis-systems field. PMID:17195107

Fu, Lung-Ming; Lin, Che-Hsin

2007-04-01

9

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The dual digestion system (DDS) was developed to provide stabilized, pathogen free sludge. DDS consists of a 1-day detention time, pure-oxygen, covered aerobic digester (Step I) followed by an 8-day detention time anaerobic reactor. The temperature in the Step I digester is contr...

10

Digestion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digestion is a complex and miraculous process fundamental to our daily living. The complex nature of our digestive system, however, can also contribute to a variety of disorders. The following websites offer information and resources pertaining to the digestive system and digestive disorders. The first link leads to website for the American Gastroenterological Association which is an online resource for Association members as well as "other medical professionals with an interest in digestive diseases, patients and the general public." The site posts links to related news; and to sections for clinical resources, practice management, educational resources, and publications-to name a few (1). The second link leads to GastroLab, a long-standing online gastrointestinal resource specializing in digestive disorders. The site offers visitors a vast array of endoscopic images and video clips as well as a comprehensive dictionary of gastrointestinal terms (2). The third site presents the Gut Foundation, an organization that "provides professional and public education and promotes research into digestive disorders to improve gastrointestinal health." The Foundation website contains a variety of information about gastrointestinal conditions, diagnoses, medical research, membership, and more (3). The fourth website, from ViaHealth provides a brief overview of the digestive system; and information sections addressing common digestive disorders, rectal and colon cancer, diagnostic procedures, and online resources (4). From the ThinkQuest Library archives, the fifth site-titled La Casa de Comida-was created by a team of high school students for elementary school children. This section of the site offers a brief and basic comparison of digestive systems in birds, horses, insects, snakes, crustaceans, and mollusks (5). The sixth site contains a section of an online Biology Textbook-developed by Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College-providing a concise overview of the digestive system (6). The final link leads to a kid-friendly website from KidsHealth containing a short summary of the digestive system complete with a cartoony diagram illustrating all of the system's major parts (7).

11

DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: ANAEROBIC DIGESTER MIXING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The design information report discusses the current problems and potential solutions associated with the selection, design, and operation of anaerobic digester mixing systems. The report describes the four major types of mixing systems and presents their advantages and disadvanta...

12

Comparison of monitoring systems for anaerobic digesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deployment of modern smart grid technologies for distributed generation control offers numerous advantages over earlier control systems. Care needs to be taken to choose the correct protocol for the task at hand. This paper compares two systems used for the remote monitoring of anaerobic digesters including their relative costs, bandwidth requirements, implementation, and maintenance issues. The systems discussed are

Greg M. Linder; Stefan Grimberg

2010-01-01

13

Digestive System Involvement in Cystic Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease well known to paediatricians. Over recent years, its prevalence among the adult population has dramatically increased; thus becoming a disease increasingly seen in adult practice. Cystic fibrosis is a multi-organ disease, with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations involving many organs. The aim of this article is to review the digestive system manifestations of

I. Modolell; L. Guarner; J.-R. Malagelada

2002-01-01

14

Trypsin digest protocol to analyze the retinal vasculature of a mouse model.  

PubMed

Trypsin digest is the gold standard method to analyze the retinal vasculature (1-5). It allows visualization of the entire network of complex three-dimensional retinal blood vessels and capillaries by creating a two-dimensional flat-mount of the interconnected vascular channels after digestion of the non-vascular components of the retina. This allows one to study various pathologic vascular changes, such as microaneurysms, capillary degeneration, and abnormal endothelial to pericyte ratios. However, the method is technically challenging, especially in mice, which have become the most widely available animal model to study the retina because of the ease of genetic manipulations (6,7). In the mouse eye, it is particularly difficult to completely remove the non-vascular components while maintaining the overall architecture of the retinal blood vessels. To date, there is a dearth of literature that describes the trypsin digest technique in detail in the mouse. This manuscript provides a detailed step-by-step methodology of the trypsin digest in mouse retina, while also providing tips on troubleshooting difficult steps. PMID:23793268

Chou, Jonathan C; Rollins, Stuart D; Fawzi, Amani A

2013-06-13

15

Nutrition 1: Food and the Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the first of a three part series. Most of this lesson will focus on what nutrients are needed to do particular tasks for the body. More specifically, where the nutrients come from, their different forms, and then their importance for particular tasks in the body. Some of the lesson will focus on the overall digestive system in order to address the latter part of the benchmark-that undigested food is eliminated.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

16

Multiple-stage anaerobic digestion system  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to develop a new process for the stabilization of municipal sludge produced at the Allegheny County Sanitary Authority wastewater treatment plant in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. A multiple-stage digestion process is sought to provide good removal efficiency of high concentration of sludge and to perform high methane production. The process primarily consists of three stages of anaerobic digestion. Stage 1 is for hydrolysis and acidification and stage 2 is for acidification and methanation; both digesters are operated in the mesophilic temperature range. The last stage is for methanation which is controlled in the thermophilic range. The multiple-stage system (MS) was operated at different solids retention time (SRT) of 15, 9, and 20 days. For comparison to the performance of the multiple-stage system a conventional single-stage system (SS) was also operated at the same conditions. The COD removal, solids reduction, and the methane yield of the multiple-stage system were much greater than the single-stage system at all of the different SRT. Moreover, the results of the different SRT of the multiple-stage system study showed that a SRT of 15 days has the best performance. The maximum VS removal rates are 67% of MS and 50% of SS; and the methane yields are 6.72 SCF CH/sub 4//lb VS added of MS and 3.95 SCF CH/sub 4//lb VS added of SS with VS loading of 0.15 lb/ft/sup 3/-day at a 15 days SRT. These methane yields are equivalent to 89% and 67% biogas conversion from the removed VS (based on 75% of the sludge VS is biodegradable), respectively, for the multiple-stage and the single-stage systems.

Lin, L.Y.

1985-01-01

17

Electron microscopy and biochemical analysis of mouse metaphase chromosomes after digestion with restriction endonucleases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron microscopy (EM) of whole mounted mouse chromosomes, light microscopy (LM), and agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA were used to investigate the cytological effect on chromosomes of digestion with the restriction endonucleases (REs) AluI, HinfI, HaeIII and HpaII. Treatment with AluI produces C-banding as seen by LM, cuts DNA into small fragments, and reduces the density of centromeres and disperses

J. Gosfilvez; A. T. Sumner; C. López-Fernández; R. Rossino; V. Goyanes; R. Mezzanotte

1990-01-01

18

PATHOGEN AND INDICATOR ORGANISM DESTRUCTION BY THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The effectiveness of the dual digestion system (DDS) to destroy pathogenic microorganisms was evaluated at a full-scale treatment facility. The DDS incorporates a pure oxygen aerobic digester (1-day detention time) followed by an anaerobic digester (8-day detention time). Heat bi...

19

Vitamin D and the digestive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Target tissues of in vivo receptor binding and deposition of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and its oxygen analog OCT are reviewed in rats, mice, hamsters and zebra finch, identified with high-resolution microscopic\\u000a autoradiography. Throughout the digestive system numerous sites with nuclear receptor binding of3H-1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and3H-OCT exist: in the oral region, epithelial cells of the oral cavity, tongue and gingiva,

Walter E. Stumpf

2008-01-01

20

Vitamin D and the digestive system.  

PubMed

Target tissues of in vivo receptor binding and deposition of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and its oxygen analog OCT are reviewed in rats, mice, hamsters and zebra finch, identified with high-resolution microscopic autoradiography. Throughout the digestive system numerous sites with nuclear receptor binding of 3H-1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and 3H-OCT exist: in the oral region, epithelial cells of the oral cavity, tongue and gingiva, teeth odontoblast and ameloblast precursor pulp and stratum intermedium cells; in the parotid, submandibular and sublingual salivary glands, epithelial cells of striated ducts and granular convoluted tubules, intercalated ducts and acinar cells, as well as myoepithelial cells; in the stomach, neck mucous cells of gastric glands, endocrine cells of the antrum, and muscle cells of the pyloric sphincter; in the small and large intestine, absorptive and crypt epithelial cells; in the pancreas, predominantly islet B-cells. Perisinusoidal stellate (Ito) cells in the liver concentrate and retain variable amounts of radiolabeled compound in regions of their cytoplasm after administration of 3H-I,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and 3H-25(OH) vitamin D3, probably sites of specific storage, similar to vitamin A. Submucosa in stomach and intestine also retain variable amounts of radiolabel, however unspecific with all compounds studied. In pilot studies with 3H-25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and 3H-24,25(OH)2 vitamin D3, no nuclear concentration was detectable. The reviewed data for vitamin D and its oxygen analogue OCT indicate genomic effects on multiple target tissues of the digestive system that involve cell proliferation and differentiation, endo- and exocrine secretion, digestion and absorption for maintaining optimal functions, with potentials for health prophylaxis and therapies. PMID:18777944

Stumpf, Walter E

21

Rheostatic control of tryptic digestion in a microscale fluidic system.  

PubMed

Integrated fluidic systems that unite bottom-up and top-down proteomic approaches have the potential to deliver complete protein characterization. To circumvent fraction collection, as is conducted in current blended approaches, a technique to regulate digestion efficiency in a flow-through system is required. The present study examined the concept of regulating tryptic digestion in an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER), incorporating mixed solvent systems for digestion acceleration. Using ovalbumin, cytochrome c, and myoglobin as protein standards, we demonstrate that tryptic digestion can be efficiently regulated between complete digestion and no digestion extremes by oscillating between 45 and 0% acetonitrile in the fluid stream. Solvent composition was tuned using programmable solvent waveforms in a closed system consisting of the IMER, a sample delivery stream, a dual gradient pumping system and a mass spectrometer. Operation in this rheostatic digestion mode provides access to novel peptide mass maps (due to substrate unfolding hysteresis) as well as the intact protein, in a reproducible and stable fashion. Although cycle times were on the order of 90 s for testing purposes, we show that regulated digestion is sufficiently rapid to be limited by solvent switching efficiency and kinetics of substrate unfolding/folding. Thus, regulated digestion should be useful in blending bottom-up and top-down proteomics in a single closed fluidic system. PMID:19951757

Percy, Andrew J; Schriemer, David C

2009-10-26

22

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION OF THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Full-scale performance and costs of an innovative sludge stabilization process were evaluated at the three plants. The DDS incorporates a 1-day-detention-time, pure oxygen aerobic digester followed in series by an 8-day-detention-time anaerobic digester. Heat of biological oxidat...

23

Waste heat utilization in an anaerobic digestion system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anaerobic digestion has great potential as an energy source. Not only does it provide an effective method for waste mitigation, but it has the potential to generate significant quantities of fuel and electricity. In order to ensure efficient digestion and biomass utilization, however, the system must be continuously maintained at elevated temperatures. It is technically feasible to supplement such a system with outside energy, but it is more cost effective to heat the system using only the produced biogas. While there is considerable literature covering the theory of anaerobic digestion, there are very few practical studies to show how heat utilization affects system operation. This study considers the effect of major design variables (i.e. heat exchanger efficiencies and biogas conditioning) on promoting a completely self-sustaining digestion system. The thesis considers a real world system and analyzes how it can be improved to avoid the need of an external energy source.

Boissevain, Brett

24

Rheostatic control of tryptic digestion in a microscale fluidic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated fluidic systems that unite bottom-up and top-down proteomic approaches have the potential to deliver complete protein characterization. To circumvent fraction collection, as is conducted in current blended approaches, a technique to regulate digestion efficiency in a flow-through system is required. The present study examined the concept of regulating tryptic digestion in an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER), incorporating mixed solvent

Andrew J. Percy; David C. Schriemer

2010-01-01

25

Development of the Digestive System-Experimental Challenges and Approaches of Infant Lipid Digestion.  

PubMed

At least during the first 6 months after birth, the nutrition of infants should ideally consist of human milk which provides 40-60 % of energy from lipids. Beyond energy, human milk also delivers lipids with a specific functionality, such as essential fatty acids (FA), phospholipids, and cholesterol. Healthy development, especially of the nervous and digestive systems, depends fundamentally on these. Epidemiological data suggest that human milk provides unique health benefits during early infancy that extend to long-lasting benefits. Preclinical findings show that qualitative changes in dietary lipids, i.e., lipid structure and FA composition, during early life may contribute to the reported long-term effects. Little is known in this respect about the development of digestive function and the digestion and absorption of lipids by the newborn. This review gives a detailed overview of the distinct functionalities that dietary lipids from human milk and infant formula provide and the profound differences in the physiology and biochemistry of lipid digestion between infants and adults. Fundamental mechanisms of infant lipid digestion can, however, almost exclusively be elucidated in vitro. Experimental approaches and their challenges are reviewed in depth. PMID:23293684

Abrahamse, Evan; Minekus, Mans; van Aken, George A; van de Heijning, Bert; Knol, Jan; Bartke, Nana; Oozeer, Raish; van der Beek, Eline M; Ludwig, Thomas

2012-11-01

26

75 FR 82428 - VASRD Improvement Forum-Updating Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...System, Digestive System, Dental Conditions...Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and...System, Digestive System, Dental Conditions...Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and...following four body systems: (1) Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders...

2010-12-30

27

TRP channels in the digestive system  

PubMed Central

Several of the 28 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed throughout the alimentary canal where they play important roles in taste, chemo- and mechanosensation, thermoregulation, pain and hyperalgesia, mucosal function and homeostasis, control of motility by neurons, interstitial cells of Cajal and muscle cells, and vascular function. While the implications of some TRP channels, notably TRPA1, TRPC4, TRPM5, TRPM6, TRPM7, TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPV6, have been investigated in much detail, the understanding of other TRP channels in their relevance to digestive function lags behind. The polymodal chemo- and mechanosensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPV1 and TRPV4 is particularly relevant to the alimentary canal whose digestive and absorptive function depends on the surveillance and integration of many chemical and physical stimuli. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 appear to be essential for the absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively, while TRPM7 appears to contribute to the pacemaker activity of the interstitial cells of Cajal, and TRPC4 transduces smooth muscle contraction evoked by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation. The implication of some TRP channels in pathological processes has raised enormous interest in exploiting them as a therapeutic target. This is particularly true for TRPV1, TRPV4 and TRPA1, which may be targeted for the treatment of several conditions of chronic abdominal pain. Consequently, blockers of these TRP channels have been developed, and their clinical usefulness has yet to be established.

Holzer, Peter

2011-01-01

28

A novel fed-batch digestion system for biomethanation of plant biomasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant biomasses, which in the absence of adequate pretreatment pose serious operational problems in biogas production using conventional domestic flow-through digesters, can be successfully digested in a novel fedbatch digestion system that produces a steady rate of biogas. Basically, the system is a batch digestion operated with a regular input of a calculated amount of feed based on first order

Archana Sharma; Bala G. Unni; H. Devendra Singh

1999-01-01

29

An integrated baseball digest system using maximum entropy method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel system that is able to automatically detect and classify highlights from baseball game videos in TV broadcast. The digest system gives complete indexes of a baseball game which cover all of the status changes in a game. We achieve this by seamlessly integrating image, audio and speech clues using a maximum entropy based

Mei Han; Wei Hua; Wei Xu; Yihong Gong

2002-01-01

30

Your Digestive System and How It Works  

MedlinePLUS

... movement of organ walls can propel food and liquid through the system and also can mix the ... first major muscle movement occurs when food or liquid is swallowed. Although you are able to start ...

31

Preparation of centromeric heterochromatin by restriction endonuclease digestion of mouse L929 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

When L929 cells in metaphase are digested with either Eco RI or Alu I, chromatin containing about 85% of the DNA is released. DNA from the Alu I- and Eco RI-resistant chromatin is enriched 6.8- and 3.7-fold, respectively, in satellite sequences. Analysis by electron microscopy of these digests reveals the existence of structures containing condensed heterochromatin and kinetochores. When these

Lorraine Lica; Barbara Hamkalo

1983-01-01

32

System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material  

DOEpatents

An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01

33

Effect of Mouse Maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) Knockout on Starch Digestion to Glucose  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Digestion of starch requires activities provided by six different alpha-glucosidase enzymes. Two activities are luminal alpha-amylases (AMY). Four activities are mucosal activities described as maltases. Two of the activities are associated with sucrase-isomaltase (Si) activities. Two activities ...

34

MPHASYS: a mouse phenotype analysis system  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic, high-throughput studies of mouse phenotypes have been hampered by the inability to analyze individual animal data from a multitude of sources in an integrated manner. Studies generally make comparisons at the level of genotype or treatment thereby excluding associations that may be subtle or involve compound phenotypes. Additionally, the lack of integrated, standardized ontologies and methodologies for data exchange has inhibited scientific collaboration and discovery. Results Here we introduce a Mouse Phenotype Analysis System (MPHASYS), a platform for integrating data generated by studies of mouse models of human biology and disease such as aging and cancer. This computational platform is designed to provide a standardized methodology for working with animal data; a framework for data entry, analysis and sharing; and ontologies and methodologies for ensuring accurate data capture. We describe the tools that currently comprise MPHASYS, primarily ones related to mouse pathology, and outline its use in a study of individual animal-specific patterns of multiple pathology in mice harboring a specific germline mutation in the DNA repair and transcription-specific gene Xpd. Conclusion MPHASYS is a system for analyzing multiple data types from individual animals. It provides a framework for developing data analysis applications, and tools for collecting and distributing high-quality data. The software is platform independent and freely available under an open-source license [1].

Calder, R Brent; Beems, Rudolf B; van Steeg, Harry; Mian, I Saira; Lohman, Paul HM; Vijg, Jan

2007-01-01

35

Evolutionary steps of ecophysiological adaptation and diversification of ruminants: a comparative view of their digestive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is made of the ruminant digestive system in its morphophysiological variations and adaptations relating to foraging behaviour, digestive physiology, to interactions between plants and ruminants and to geographic and climatic diversity of ruminants' ecological niches. Evidence is provided for evolutionary trends from an extreme selectivity mainly for plant cell contents and dependence upon a fractionated fore- and hindgut

R. R. Hofmann

1989-01-01

36

Anaerobic Digestion: Principles and Practices for Biogas Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is part of a joint global research, development and demonstration effort of the United Nations Development Programme and the World Bank. It explores the history, technology, and applications of anaerobic digestion, the biological process by whi...

C. G. Gunnerson D. C. Stuckey

1986-01-01

37

The effects of trypsin digested globulin degradation products (TDPG) on the activity of central nervous system.  

PubMed

Studies on trypsin-digested globulin degradation products given to rats intraperitoneally or intraventricularly, revealed psychodepressive effects on the central nervous system. Peptides with a molecular weight of approximately 1,3000 were the most active. PMID:4456425

Wisniewski, K; Tarasiewicz, S; Ma?kowiak, J; Buczko, W; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, J

1974-01-01

38

77 FR 27009 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; The Digestive System; Withdrawal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...level of severity of gastroenterological conditions, including cirrhosis and, in particular, rectum and anal impairment of sphincter control. VA has determined that the proposed revision of the VASRD provisions concerning the Digestive System should...

2012-05-08

39

Hibiscus acid as an inhibitor of starch digestion in the Caco-2 cell model system.  

PubMed

Hibiscus acid, an alpha-amylase inhibitor isolated from roselle tea, and its derivatives were compared in an inhibition test for starch digestion. An alpha-amylase-added Caco-2 system was established as a useful model to evaluate the effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors on starch digestion. Hibiscus acid showed weak inhibition in this model system, and the methyl ester derivatives showed even weaker or no acitivity. PMID:11676026

Hansawasdi, C; Kawabata, J; Kasai, T

2001-09-01

40

Design of an Aerobic Thermophilic Sludge Digestion System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of an air operated full scale aerobic thermophilic sludge digester is described. Details of previous work, and general design aspects are followed by process specification and description of hardware in the present plant. The 420 cu m reactor i...

S. F. Morgan R. Winstanley M. H. Littlewood H. G. Gunson

1986-01-01

41

Evaluation of system performances and microbial communities of two temperature-phased anaerobic digestion systems treating dairy manure.  

PubMed

Two temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) systems, with the thermophilic digesters acidified by acidogenesis products (AT-TPAD) or operated at neutral pH and balanced hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis (NT-TPAD), were evaluated to treat high-strength dairy cattle manure. Despite similar methane productions (about 0.22 L/g VS fed), the NT-TPAD system removed significantly more VS (36%) than the AT-TPAD system (31%) and needed no pH adjustments. The thermophilic digester of the NT-TPAD system dominated the system performance and performed significantly better than that of the AT-TPAD system. The opposite held true for the mesophilic digesters. Differences of the thermophilic digesters between two TPAD systems affected the microbial communities of both local and downstream digesters. Each digester harbored distinctive microbial populations, some of which were significantly correlated with system performance. Methanosarcina was the most important methanogenic genus in both TPAD systems, while Methanosaeta only in the NT-TPAD system. Their populations were inversely related to VFA concentrations. PMID:23819980

Lv, Wen; Zhang, Wenfei; Yu, Zhongtang

2013-06-13

42

Innovative treatment system for digester liquor using anammox process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrated that partial nitritation using nitrifying activated sludge entrapped in a polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel carrier, as a pretreatment to anammox process, could be successfully applied to digester liquor of biogas plant at a nitrogen loading rate of 3.0kg-N\\/m3\\/d. The nitritation process produced an effluent with a NO2–N\\/NH4–N ratio between 1.0 and 1.4, which was found to be

Kenji Furukawa; Yasuhiko Inatomi; Sen Qiao; Lai Quan; Taichi Yamamoto; Kazuichi Isaka; Tatsuo Sumino

2009-01-01

43

A novel fed-batch digestion system for biomethanation of plant biomasses.  

PubMed

Plant biomasses, which in the absence of adequate pretreatment pose serious operational problems in biogas production using conventional domestic flow-through digesters, can be successfully digested in a novel fedbatch digestion system that produces a steady rate of biogas. Basically, the system is a batch digestion operated with a regular input of a calculated amount of feed based on first order decay kinetics in order to maintain a regular biogas production rate. For nearly three years the system was tested in a laboratory-scale fed-batch digester (10 l) using dried water hyacinth as feed providing the desired biogas production rate. A field-scale domestic digester of masonry construction with a working volume of 10 m3 was designed and tested for about 9 months by feeding a mixture of dried water hyacinth or banana stem along with sugarcane press mud, yielding an average biogas production of 90-100% of the expected rate calculated on the basis of the feed rate. PMID:16232537

Sharma, A; Unni, B G; Singh, H D

1999-01-01

44

Counseling Families from a Systems Perspective. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest briefly reviews theoretical models for counseling dysfunctional familes, then discusses the use of systems theory in counseling families. It lists the characteristics of a dysfunctional family, explains family systems intervention, discusses the goals of family treatment, and describes several family systems counseling techniques. (NB)

Anderson, Mary

45

Blocking c-myc and stat3 by E. coli expressed and enzyme digested siRNA in mouse melanoma  

SciTech Connect

Tumour cells often show alteration in the signal-transduction pathways, leading to proliferation in response to external signals. Oncogene overexpression and constitutive expression is a common phenomenon in the development and progression of many human cancers. Therefore oncogenes provide potential targets for cancer therapy. RNA interference (RNAi), mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), silences genes with a high degree of specificity and potentially represents a general approach for molecularly targeted anti-cancer therapy. The data presented in this report evaluated the method of systemically administering combined esiRNAs to multiple targets as compared with the method of using a single kind of esiRNA to a single target. Our experimental data revealed that the mixed treatment of esiC-MYC and esiSTAT3 had a better inhibition effect than the single treatment of esiC-MYC or esiSTAT3 on mouse B16 melanoma.

Hong Jie [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhao Yingchun [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Weida [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: whuang@fudan.edu.cn

2006-09-22

46

Collaborative Development of an Augmented Reality Application for Digestive and Circulatory Systems Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Augmented Reality (AR) appears as a promising technology to improve students motivation and interest and support the learning and teaching process in educational contexts. We present the collaborative development of an AR application to support the teaching of the digestive and circulatory systems. We developed this system with the support of a private Spanish school. The main objective of the

David C. Pérez López; Manuel Contero; Mariano Alcañiz Raya

2010-01-01

47

School-Wide Behavioral Management Systems. ERIC/OSEP Digest #E563.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest reviews and summarizes what is known about effective school-wide behavioral management systems. Emphasis in such systems is on consistency throughout the building and across classrooms with the entire staff, both professional and nonprofessional, uniformly implementing common strategies. Common features of school-wide behavioral…

Fitzsimmons, Mary K.

48

The Digestive System [and] Instructor's Guide. Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This instructional modular unit wlth instructor's guide provides materials on important aspects of one of the major systems of the human body--the digestive system. Its purpose is to introduce the student to the structures and functions of the human digestive system--and the interrelationships of the two--and to familiarize the student with some…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

49

Evaluation of microwave digestion systems for mercury recovery in an oil matrix  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this document is to characterize three microwave systems developed by CEM Corporation. The purpose of this investigative work was to evaluate the performance of each system for dissolution qualities and the recovery of mercury in an oil based matrix. The microwave systems evaluated were the heavy duty vessel system (HDV), the advanced composite system (ACV), and the open vessel system (OVS). All three systems have automated features, but all systems are limited by one factor or another. EPA method 3051 was the procedure used for sample preparation for this project. This particular microwave digestion method can also be used for other metal analytes of interest. Of the three different systems, only the HDV (now UDV) demonstrated complete digestion of the oil based matrix in a one step process and acceptable mercury recoveries.

Whitaker, M.J.; Clymire, J.W.

1997-09-01

50

Validation of a new in vitro dynamic system to simulate infant digestion.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms of infant formula disintegration in the infant gastrointestinal tract is a key step for developing new formulas with health benefits for the neonate. For ethical reasons, the access to in vivo data obtained on infants is limited. The use of animal models can be an alternative but these experiments are labour intensive, expensive and results obtained show high inter-individual variability, making their interpretation difficult. The aim of this work was to develop a simple in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal digestion system, for studying infant formula digestion, and to validate it by comparing the kinetics of proteolysis obtained in vitro with in vivo data collected from piglets. Results showed a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo data and confirmed the rapid hydrolysis of caseins in gastric conditions, whereas whey proteins appeared more resistant to digestion. PMID:24128581

Ménard, Olivia; Cattenoz, Thomas; Guillemin, Hervé; Souchon, Isabelle; Deglaire, Amélie; Dupont, Didier; Picque, Daniel

2013-09-14

51

Biogasification of green and food wastes using anaerobic-phased solids digester system.  

PubMed

The performance of a laboratory-scale anaerobic-phased solid (APS) digester system treating food and green wastes was evaluated at thermophilic condition. The APS system comprised of four hydrolysis digesters and one biogasification reactor. The hydrolysis reactors were operated batchwised at a 12-day retention time, while the biogasification reactor was continuously operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRT). The biogas and methane yields from green waste were determined to be 0.438 and 0.252 L/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, with VS removal of 78%. The biogas and methane yields from food waste were 0.596 and 0.379 L/g VS, respectively, with VS removal of 85%. Hydrogen was produced from hydrolysis reactors during the digestion of food waste. Its content was 30.1% and 8.5% of the biogas produced on the first and second day of digestion, respectively. Hydrogen yield from the whole system was determined to be 0.029 L/g VS representing about 4.9% of the total biogas production from the system. The ratio between the volumes of biogasification and hydrolysis reactors (BR/HR) was found to be a factor that affects the process performance and stability. PMID:21842163

Liu, Guangqing; Zhang, Ruihong; El-Mashad, Hamed M; Dong, Renjie; Liu, Xiaoying

2011-08-13

52

The Effects of Swedish Knife Model on Students' Understanding of the Digestive System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to examine the effect of Swedish Knife Model on students' understanding of digestive system. A simple experimental design (pretest-treatment-posttest) was used in the study and internal comparison of the results of the one group was made. The sample consisted of 40 7th grade Turkish students whose ages range from 13 to 15.…

Cerrah Ozsevgec, Lale; Artun, Huseyin; Unal, Melike

2012-01-01

53

[Incidence and severity of the digestive system diseases in the armed forces of Ukraine].  

PubMed

The paper presents an analysis of the level and structure of morbidity Armed Forces of Ukraine diseases of the digestive system. The highest rates of total incidence of disease in the class XI 2008-2011, recorded among conscripts, the lowest--in the military under the contract. PMID:23356151

Rozhkov, H S

54

AN ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS TISSUE DIGESTION SYSTEM FOR A BSL-3-AG CONTAINMENT FACILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An alkaline hydrolysis tissue digestion system was installed at the Arthropod-borne Animal Diseases Research Laboratory (ABADRL) Biosafety Level (BSL) 3-AG containment facility in 2000 to replace the antiquated pathologic waste incinerator because of significant costs for upgrading this incinerator ...

55

Modeling a solar-heated anaerobic digester for the developing world using system dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the developing world lacks access to a dependable source of energy. Agricultural societies such as Mozambique and Papua New Guinea could sustain a reliable energy source through the microbacterial decomposition of animal and crop waste. Anaerobic digestion produces methane, which can be used directly for heating, cooking, and lighting. Adding a solar component to the digester provides a catalyst for bacteria activity, accelerating digestion and increasing biogas production. Using methane decreases the amount of energy expended by collecting and preparing firewood, eliminates hazardous health effects linked to inhalation of particles, and provides energy close to where it is needed. The purpose of this work is two fold: initial efforts focus on the development and validation of a computer-based system dynamics model that combines elements of the anaerobic digestion process in order to predict methane output; second, the model is flexed to explore how the addition of a solar component increases robustness of the design, examines predicted biogas generation as a function of varying input conditions, and determines how best to configure such systems for use in varying developing world environments. Therefore, the central components of the system: solar insolation, waste feedstock, bacteria population and consumption rates, and biogas production are related both conceptually and mathematically through a serious of equations, conversions, and a causal loop and feedback diagram. Given contextual constraints and initial assumptions for both locations, it was determined that solar insolation and subsequent digester temperature control, amount of waste, and extreme weather patterns had the most significant impact on the system as a whole. Model behavior was both reproducible and comparable to that demonstrated in existing experimental systems. This tool can thus be flexed to fit specific contexts within the developing world to improve the standard of living of many people, without significantly altering everyday activities.

Bentley, Johanna Lynn

56

MOUSE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in New York City, the MOUSE organization works to empower "underserved students to provide technology support and leadership in their schools, supporting their academic and career success." On their homepage, visitors can learn about their programs, learn about supporting the MOUSE organization, and read up on their resources. In the "Resources" area, visitors can learn about their outreach activities in New York City, Chicago, and California. Visitors working in educational outreach will appreciate the information offered here, including materials on how different groups can receive assistance from the MOUSE organization. Also, visitors can look over the "News" updates to learn about their new programs, their educational seminars, and their outreach activities.

57

Mouse vocal communication system: are ultrasounds learned or innate?  

PubMed

Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production. Here we discuss the available data to assess whether male mouse song behavior and the supporting brain circuits resemble those of known vocal non-learning or vocal learning species. Recent neurobiology studies have demonstrated that the mouse USV brain system includes motor cortex and striatal regions, and that the vocal motor cortex sends a direct sparse projection to the brainstem vocal motor nucleus ambiguous, a projection previously thought be unique to humans among mammals. Recent behavioral studies have reported opposing conclusions on mouse vocal plasticity, including vocal ontogeny changes in USVs over early development that might not be explained by innate maturation processes, evidence for and against a role for auditory feedback in developing and maintaining normal mouse USVs, and evidence for and against limited vocal imitation of song pitch. To reconcile these findings, we suggest that the trait of vocal learning may not be dichotomous but encompass a broad spectrum of behavioral and neural traits we call the continuum hypothesis, and that mice possess some of the traits associated with a capacity for limited vocal learning. PMID:23295209

Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D

2013-01-04

58

Establishment of Systemic Brucella melitensis Infection through the Digestive Tract Requires Urease, the Type IV Secretion System, and Lipopolysaccharide O Antigen?  

PubMed Central

Human brucellosis is caused mainly by Brucella melitensis, which is often acquired by ingesting contaminated goat or sheep milk and cheese. Bacterial factors required for food-borne infection of humans by B. melitensis are poorly understood. In this study, a mouse model of oral infection was characterized to assess the roles of urease, the VirB type IV secretion system, and lipopolysaccharide for establishing infection through the digestive tract. B. melitensis strain 16M was consistently recovered from the mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and liver beginning at 3 or 7 day postinfection (dpi). In the gut, persistence of the inoculum was observed up to 21 dpi. No inflammatory lesions were observed in the ileum or colon during infection. Mutant strains lacking the ureABC genes of the ure1 operon, virB2, or pmm encoding phosphomannomutase were constructed and compared to the wild-type strain for infectivity through the digestive tract. Mutants lacking the virB2 and pmm genes were attenuated in the spleen (P < 0.05) and MLN (P < 0.001), respectively. The wild-type and mutant strains had similar levels of resistance to low pH and 5 or 10% bile, suggesting that the reduced colonization of mutants was not the result of reduced resistance to acid pH or bile salts. In an in vitro lymphoepithelial cell (M-cell) model, B. melitensis transited rapidly through polarized enterocyte monolayers containing M-like cells; however, transit through monolayers containing only enterocytes was reduced or absent. These results indicate that B. melitensis is able to spread systemically from the digestive tract after infection, most likely through M cells of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.

Paixao, Tatiane A.; Roux, Christelle M.; den Hartigh, Andreas B.; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Dandekar, Satya; Santos, Renato L.; Tsolis, Renee M.

2009-01-01

59

Computer-Based Career Information Systems. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computer-based career information systems (CCIS) provide local labor market information. Guidance counselors frequently use CCIS in conjunction with clients, but youth and adults also access CCIS independently to obtain career information. The best known CCIS are the state-based career information delivery systems (CIDS). Although developed by a…

Imel, Susan

60

Marine Biomass System: Anaerobic Digestion and Production of Methane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two approaches to kelp conversion to methane are described. First, a large (10.56 mi exp 2 ) oceanic farm using an artificial substrate and an upwelling system to deliver nutrient-rich deep ocean water to the kelp bed is described. This system can yield a...

K. F. Haven M. Henriquez R. L. Ritschard

1979-01-01

61

A Two-Phased Anaerobic Digestion Process: Concept, Process Failure and Maximum System Loading Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research demonstrated the feasibility of a two-phase anaerobic sludge digestion process. Process failure and maximum system loading capacity were also investigated. Three-dimensional plots of chemical oxygen demand (sol), volatile fatty acids (VFA), and mixed liquor volatile suspended soils (MLVSS) profiles of both reactors during maximization and recovery periods (after failure) were made to evaluate the system feasibility. Hydrolysis-acidification and

P. Fongastitkul; D. S. Mavinic; K. V. Lo

1994-01-01

62

Morphology and Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Digestive System of Dermatophagoides farinae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The digestive system of Dermatophagoides farinae remains poorly documented. Methods: In this study, a three-dimensional (3-D) model of the alimentary canal of D. farinae was built for the first time based on hematoxylin-eosin staining, 76 cross-sections of the adult mite and 3-D reconstruction technology. Results: Spatially, the system included the prebuccal cavity, foregut, midgut, hindgut, anus and salivary gland.

Ying-Ying Zhang; Xin Sun; Zhi-Gang Liu

2008-01-01

63

[Role of hypophyseal-gonadal system in the genesis of functional pathologies of the digestive system in adolescents].  

PubMed

In different types of functional disorders of the digestive system in adolescents were revealed the same changes of the hormonal state of hypophisial-gonad system. It indicates on dominative role of neuroendocrinal mechanisms in pathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:23356144

Mociienko, H P

64

Evidence-based benefits of specific mixtures of non-digestible oligosaccharides on the immune system.  

PubMed

Non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) are natural constituents of many foods. They are mostly referred to as dietary fibre and are associated with many health benefits mostly connected to gut health. NDC have emerged as a promising nutritional concept to modulate immune function as well. In the world of immunology non-digestible carbohydrates are recognized now as key immunomodulating molecules. Both pharma and food industries realize the enormous potency of these immune active components. Although the mechanisms underlying the effects of NDC on the immune system are not totally clear yet many studies have reported beneficial effects on both mucosal and systemic immunity in humans. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence on the immune modulatory effects of specific mixtures of oligosaccharides. Both mechanistic in vitro and in vivo studies have been performed and will be discussed. Finally the potential use of these unique structures will be evaluated. PMID:23465928

Nauta, Alma J; Garssen, Johan

2012-02-19

65

Dual cellulose-digesting system of the wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of endo-?-1,4-glucanase (EG) components in the digestive system of the wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was investigated by zymogram analysis using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by N-terminal protein sequencing. EG components similar to glycoside hydrolase family (GHF) 9 members were restricted to the salivary glands, the foregut, and the midgut, whereas components similar to GHF7 members were confined

K Nakashima; H Watanabe; H Saitoh; G Tokuda; J.-I Azuma

2002-01-01

66

Experimental System Setup for HIFU under MRI for mouse experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an integrated system setup for HIFU and MRI thermometry for mouse experiments. The applications of such a system include MRI imaging and thermometry for evaluation and feedback during HIFU applications on mouse models of various diseases; and validation of temperature estimated by other methods, such as RF data. A 5 MHz geometrically focused (diameter of 16.1 mm, focal length 35 mm), MRI-compatible HIFU transducer is used, driven by a programmable signal generator and a power amplifier. The small animal MRI scanner has been programmed to acquire sequential phase information, which is used to determine frequency shift. Relative temperature rise is then calculated by proton resonance frequency (RPF) method. The current software development is done in C++ and Matlab. An integrated software is being developed to streamline the acquisition, analysis and visualization during HIFU delivery. Preliminary experiments have been performed using different phantoms. Performing HIFU (less than 100 watts) under MRI has had minimal interference for MRI data acquisition. The development is continuing for further characterizing and understanding the interference at the higher power level and accelerate data acquisition rate to achieve thermometry for a few frames per second. Further tissue experiments are under way with target of live mouse experiments. We present the overall design and discuss challenges encountered in the development of such system for experiments on mouse.

Long, Tao; Amin, Viren; Boska, Michael

2009-04-01

67

An automated spectrophotometric system for monitoring buffer capacity in anaerobic digestion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion is a suitable method for the treatment of wastewater and organic wastes, yielding biogas as a useful by-product. A common way of preventing instability problems and avoiding acidification in anaerobic digesters is to keep the organic load to the digester far below its maximum capacity. An improved way of operating digesters would be to use monitoring and control

Tor Gunnar Jantsch; Bo Mattiasson

2004-01-01

68

Intact Olfaction in a Mouse Model of Multiple System Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing evidence suggests that olfaction is largely preserved in multiple system atrophy while most patients with Parkinson's disease are hyposmic. Consistent with these observations, recent experimental studies demonstrated olfactory deficits in transgenic Parkinson's disease mouse models, but corresponding data are lacking for MSA models. Methods Olfactory function and underlying neuropathological changes were investigated in a transgenic multiple system atrophy mouse model based on targeted oligodendroglial overexpression of ?-synuclein as well as wild-type controls. The study was divided into (1) a pilot study investigating olfactory preference testing and (2) a long-term study characterizing changes in the olfactory bulb of aging transgenic multiple system atrophy mice. Results In our pilot behavioral study, we observed no significant differences in investigation time in the olfactory preference test comparing transgenic with wild-type animals. These findings were accompanied by unaffected tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cell numbers in the olfactory bulb. Similarly, although a significant age-related increase in the amount of ?-synuclein within the olfactory bulb was detected in the long-term study, progressive degeneration of the olfactory bulb could not be verified. Conclusions Our experimental data show preserved olfaction in a transgenic multiple system atrophy mouse model despite ?-synucleinopathy in the olfactory bulb. These findings are in line with the human disorder supporting the concept of a primary oligodendrogliopathy with variable neuronal involvement.

Krismer, Florian; Wenning, Gregor K.; Li, Yuntao; Poewe, Werner; Stefanova, Nadia

2013-01-01

69

Effects of the novel 5-HT3 agonist MKC-733 on the rat, mouse and guinea pig digestive tract.  

PubMed

The contractile activity of the novel 5-HT(3) receptor agonist MKC-733 was determined in intestinal tissues of rats, guinea pigs and mice. The potential influence of non-5-HT(3) receptors was removed by the inclusion of methysergide and GR125487. MKC-733 had a lower efficacy than 5-HT in the rat jejunum, ileum and distal colon; however, it had similar efficacy and potency to 5-HT in the rat proximal colon. The activity profile of MKC-733 was different in the guinea pig intestine where it exhibited greater potency and efficacy than 5-HT in all regions. MKC-733 showed little to no response in the regions of the mouse intestine. Responses to MKC-733 in the rat and guinea pig tissues were inhibited by ondansetron, confirming its action on 5-HT(3) receptors. These in vitro studies indicate that MKC-733 displays both regional and species specificities. PMID:17952012

Chetty, Navinisha; Irving, Helen R; Coupar, Ian M

2007-10-19

70

The cellular expression of SMCT2 and its comparison with other transporters for monocarboxylates in the mouse digestive tract.  

PubMed

SMCT1 (slc5a8) is a sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter expressed in the brush border of enterocytes. It regulates the uptake of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by bacterial fermentation in the large intestine. Another subtype, SMCT2 (slc5a12), is expressed abundantly in the small intestine, but its precise expression profile remains unknown. The present study using in situ hybridization method, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative PCR analysis examined the distribution and cellular localization of SMCT2 in the digestive tract of mice and compared the expression pattern with those of other transporters for monocarboxylates. While an abundant expression of SMCT2 was found in the jejunum, this was negligible in the duodenum, terminal ileum, and large intestine. In contrast, SMCT1 had predominant expression sites in the large bowel and terminal ileum. Subcellularly, SMCT2 was localized in the brush border of enterocytes in the intestinal villi-as is the case for SMCT1, suggesting its involvement in the uptake of food-derived monocarboxylates such as lactate and acetate. MCT (slc16) is a basolateral type transporter of the gut epithelium and conveys monocarboxylates in an H+-dependent manner. Since among the main subtypes of MCT family only MCT1 was expressed significantly in the small intestine, it is able to function as a counterpart to SMCT2 in this location. PMID:20834181

Teramae, Hiroki; Yoshikawa, Tohru; Inoue, Ryo; Ushida, Kazunari; Takebe, Kumiko; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

2010-08-01

71

Stem Cell Niche System in Mouse Spermatogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mammalian spermatogenesis endures on the persistent activity of stem cells, i.e., their self-renewal and production of differentiating\\u000a progeny. The normal functioning of stem cells explicitly requires a particular microenvironment within the tissue – the stem cell niche – as an indispensable element. While the mammalian spermatogenic stem cell niche system remains to be fully elucidated, recent\\u000a knowledge has improved our

Shosei Yoshida

72

Role of Galectin-1 in the Developing Mouse Olfactory System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary sensory olfactory neurons reside in a neuroepithelium lining the nasal cavity and project topographically onto the surface of the olfactory bulb, a rostral extension of the telencephalon. Galectin-1, a bivalent galactose-binding vertebrate lectin, is expressed in the developing rodent olfactory system. In the present study, the mouse olfactory neuron cell line 4.4.2 was used to examine the role of

A. C. Puche; F. Poirier; M. Hair; P. F. Bartlett

1996-01-01

73

In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems: calcium ions combine with fatty acids liberated from triglyceride rich lipid solutions to form soaps and reduce the solubilization capacity of colloidal digestion products.  

PubMed

In vitro digestion testing is of practical importance to predict the fate of drugs administered in lipid-based delivery systems. Calcium ions are often added to digestion media to increase the extent of digestion of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), but the effects they have on phase behaviour of the products of digestion, and consequent drug solubilization, are not well understood. This study investigates the effect of calcium and bile salt concentrations on the rate and extent of in vitro digestion of soybean oil, as well as the solubilizing capacity of the digestion products for two poorly water-soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces the availability of liberated fatty acids to form mixed micelles and vesicles, thereby reducing drug solubilization. The use of high calcium concentrations does indeed force in vitro digestion of LCTs but may overestimate the extent of drug precipitation that occurs within the intestinal lumen. PMID:23178598

Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B; Mullertz, Anette; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W

2012-11-23

74

A dynamic simulation of a two-phase anaerobic digestion system for solid wastes.  

PubMed

In this article, a two-phase system for the digestion of wastes with a high solid content is simulated. The solids are charged to the hydrolyzer and then leachate recirculation is activated until biodegradation is nearly complete. Several parameters are tested, namely moisture, leachate recirculation flow rate, and hydrolyzer-methanizer volume ratio. The results show that recirculation rate is an important parameter subject to optimization, with optimal values corresponding to hydrolyzer hydraulic retention times below 1 day. The quantity of recirculating water must be the highest possible. As a consequence, the organic load to the methanizer is reduced, making thus possible the use of a smaller methanizer volume. PMID:18581519

Mata-Alvarez, J

1987-11-01

75

Continuously-stirred anaerobic digester to convert organic wastes into biogas: system setup and basic operation.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a bioprocess that is commonly used to convert complex organic wastes into a useful biogas with methane as the energy carrier. Increasingly, AD is being used in industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste(water) treatment applications. The use of AD technology allows plant operators to reduce waste disposal costs and offset energy utility expenses. In addition to treating organic wastes, energy crops are being converted into the energy carrier methane. As the application of AD technology broadens for the treatment of new substrates and co-substrate mixtures, so does the demand for a reliable testing methodology at the pilot- and laboratory-scale. Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations, including the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow (PF), and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) configurations. The CSTR is frequently used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations. However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with solids or settling of solids in tubing. For that scenario with continuous mixing requirements, lab-scale bioreactors are fed periodically and we refer to such configurations as continuously stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs). This article presents a general methodology for constructing, inoculating, operating, and monitoring a CSAD system for the purpose of testing the suitability of a given organic substrate for long-term anaerobic digestion. The construction section of this article will cover building the lab-scale reactor system. The inoculation section will explain how to create an anaerobic environment suitable for seeding with an active methanogenic inoculum. The operating section will cover operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting. The monitoring section will introduce testing protocols using standard analyses. The use of these measures is necessary for reliable experimental assessments of substrate suitability for AD. This protocol should provide greater protection against a common mistake made in AD studies, which is to conclude that reactor failure was caused by the substrate in use, when really it was improper user operation. PMID:22824993

Usack, Joseph G; Spirito, Catherine M; Angenent, Largus T

2012-07-13

76

Computer Supported Remote Learning and Gaming Using Tele-Face Mouse System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new computer supported remote learn- ing and gaming method using Tele-Face Mouse system. The Tele-Face Mouse system is being developed as a teleconference system. It converts simple desktop computers to a teleconference system. The main advan- tage of the Tele-Face Mouse system is that it enables people to share a computer screen as a working space,

Sang Chul Ahn; Jin Hak Kim; Hyoung-gon Kim

2006-01-01

77

Morphological observations on a lipid-based drug delivery system during in vitro digestion.  

PubMed

The in vitro digestion of a self nano-emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) was visualized by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM). The dynamic lipolysis model, simulating the environment of the gastrointestinal tract in fasted conditions, was used for this purpose. The results revealed that micelles are present during the entire lipolysis process. Oil droplets from the self nano-emulsifying drug delivery system are transformed to spherical or elongated unilamellar vesicles as lipolysis progresses. Low numbers of bilamellar and open vesicles were detected. After 50% hydrolysis a decrease in the number of unilamellar vesicles and oil droplets was observed. Furthermore, the electrical properties of the oil droplets were investigated by measuring their zeta-potential values as a function of time. An increase (in absolute values) to the zeta-potential of the hydrolyzing SNEDDS droplets observed versus time implying (binding or incorporation) of the micelles to the surface. The current data emphasize that Cryo-TEM combined with the in vitro dynamic lipolysis model can offer useful information on the formation of the various colloid phases during in vitro digestion of lipid-based formulations. Furthermore, it can provide a better understanding of the in vivo behavior of these systems, as well the solubilization of lipophilic drug compounds, offering new insights for designing and optimizing oral lipid-based formulations and possibly predicting their in vivo behavior. Such methodology can be a useful tool for the strategic development of lipid-based formulations. PMID:17418543

Fatouros, Dimitrios G; Bergenstahl, Bjorn; Mullertz, Anette

2007-02-23

78

Membrane controlled anaerobic digestion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to general shortages of energy, examination of the anaerboic digestion process as a potential source of a combustible, methane-rich fuel has intensified in recent years. It has been suggested that orgaic intermediates (such as fatty acids), produced during digestion, might also be recovered for use as chemical feedstocks. This investigation has been concerned with combining ultrafiltration separation techniques with anaerobic digestion for the development of a process in which the total production of acetic acid (the most valuable intermediate in anaerobic digestion) and methane are optimized. Enrichment cultures, able to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source, were adapted from sewage digesting cultures using conventional techniques. An ultrafiltration system was constructed and coupled to an anaerobic digester culture vessel which contained the glucose enrichment. The membrane controlled anaerobic digester appears to show promise as a means of producing high rates of both methane gas and acetic acid.

Omstead, D. R.

79

Anaerobic digestion: principles and practices for biogas systems. World Bank technical paper  

SciTech Connect

The report is part of a joint global research, development, and demonstration effort of the United Nations Development Programme and the World Bank. It explores the history, technology, and applications of anaerobic digestion, the biological process by which organic materials are degraded in the absence of oxygen to produce a combustible gas, methane (CH/sub 4/), and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/). The process occurs naturally in wet, decaying organic matter (biomass) found in swamps, bottom muds of streams, and garbage dumps. Since about 1900, it has been used in engineered systems for treatment and stabilization of municipal or industrial sludges. Starting around 1920, systems have been operated so as to capture the biogas, identical to marsh gas which contains about 55-75 percent methane, as an energy source. In addition to producing a fuel substitute, benefits of digestion include reduction or elimination of pathogens in human and animal wastes and production of a stable, generally environmentally acceptable slurry or sludge that can be used as a fertilizer and soil conditioner.

Gunnerson, C.G.; Stuckey, D.C.

1986-01-01

80

A simulation study of a continuous two-phase dry digestion system.  

PubMed

In this article a two-phase system for the continuous digestion of wastes with a high solid content is simulated. The studied parameters are: (1) Recirculation from the methanizer to the hydrolyzer, (2) methanizer/hydrolyzer volume ratio, and (3) hydraulic retention time in the hydrolyzer (HRT). Results show that the recirculation ratio is an important operational factor with a large influence on the biodegradation yield, especially at low HRT. Optimum levels of this parameter are established. Some runs of the program have been carried out to test the stability of the system. This has proved to be very stable, especially at low recirculation ratios. The results also show that volume ratio does not appreciably affect the performance of the system, provided it is over a critical value, dictated by the allowable methanizer load. PMID:18588145

Mata-Alvarez, J

1989-08-20

81

Microbial ecology of autothermal thermophilic aerobic digester (ATAD) systems for treating waste activated sludge.  

PubMed

Despite their widespread use, our understanding of the microbial ecology of the autothermal thermophilic aerobic digesters (ATAD) used to dispose of sludge from wastewater treatment plants is poor. Applying both culture-dependent and molecular methods to two ATAD systems in Victoria, Australia treating different wastewaters revealed that their communities were highly specialized. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling suggested differences in their population compositions and both changed over time. However, both showed low level biodiversity, and contained several novel bacterial populations. 16S rRNA clone library data and FISH analyses showed that Thermus thermophilus dominated both communities and that of a third ATAD plant in NSW (more than 90% of the total bacterial biovolume in repeated samples taken from each of the three ATAD plants). Culture-dependent methods also showed Geobacillus spp. were present in both Victorian communities. Nevertheless, the ecophysiology of these populations and their putative roles in sludge digestion remain unclear. FISH/microautoradiographic studies did not provide conclusive data elucidating which substrate/s T. thermophilus might utilize in the ATAD reactors. PMID:21377821

Hayes, David; Izzard, Leonard; Seviour, Robert

2011-03-05

82

Immunohistochemical observations of methionine-enkephalin and delta opioid receptor in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus.  

PubMed

The study was designed to determine whether methionine-enkephalin (met-Enk) or delta opioid receptor was present in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus. The results showed that they were both in the bulbus oris, esophagus, crop, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, posterior salivary glands of O. ocellatus, one of them, met-Enk in the rectum, anterior salivary glands, digestive gland. And the distributions were extensive in the digestive system. Strong or general met-Enk immunoreactivity was observed in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, anterior salivary glands and the adventitia of the intestine and rectum, and so was the delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, and crop, however, they were weak in other parts. Combining with delta opioid receptor, met-Enk may be involved in the regulations of food intake, absorption, movement of gastrointestinal smooth muscle and secretion of digestive gland. The different densities of met-Enk and delta opioid receptor may be related to the different functions in the digestive system of O. ocellatus. PMID:22795872

Sha, Ailong; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan

2012-07-15

83

Adaptive optics: optical coherence tomography system for in-vivo imaging of the mouse retina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a custom fourier domain optical coherence tomography imaging system for high resolution imaging of mouse retina. In order to overcome aberrations in the mouse eye, we incorporated an adaptive optics system into the sample arm of the OCT system. We used a refraction cancelling lens to minimize aberrations from the cornea, as well as reduce the specular back-reflection. Results of FDOCT images of mouse retina acquired in vivo with and without AO are presented.

Jian, Yifan; Issaei, Ali; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

2012-02-01

84

Influence of different manuring systems with and without biogas digestion on soil organic matter and nitrogen inputs, flows and budgets in organic cropping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) cycles are closely linked in organic farming systems. Use of residues for biogas digestion may\\u000a reduce N-losses and lead to higher farmland productivity. However, digestion is connected to large losses of organic C. It\\u000a is the purpose of this paper (1) to compare farming systems based on liquid slurry and solid farmyard manure regarding the

Kurt Möller

2009-01-01

85

The journey of a sandwich: computer-based laboratory experiments about the human digestive system in high school biology teaching.  

PubMed

Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school biology. Using a computer equipped with a commercially available data-acquisition system and a couple of sensors, it was possible to illustrate the basic underlying physical and chemical principles of digestion to the students. Students were able to investigate, through hands-on activities, the chewing force of the jaws, importance of the mechanical breakdown of food, enzymatic activity of pepsin and amylase, antibacterial activity of hydrochloric acid, and importance of the villi for absorption. Students found the experiments interesting and helpful for understanding the digestive process. Furthermore, the results from testing indicated that the students had a deeper understanding of the physiological processes. PMID:18334575

Sorgo, Andrej; Hajdinjak, Zdravka; Briski, Darko

2008-03-01

86

Parasitic helminths of the digestive system of wild boars bred in captivity.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify the parasites that inhabit the digestive system of Sus scrofa scrofa from a commercial breeding facility in southern Brazil, and reports the first occurrence of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in wild boars. The gastrointestinal tracts of 40 wild boars from a commercial breeding facility were collected and individualized during slaughter in a cold-storage slaughterhouse. Out of this total, 87.5% were parasitized by the helminths Ascaris suum, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis. T. colubriformis presented a prevalence of 45%, mean intensity of 28.4 and mean abundance of 12.8. The data from this study showed that T. colubriformis not only has a capacity to develop in the small intestines of wild boars, but also adapts well to animals raised in captivity, thus representing a possible cause of economic loss in commercial wild boar farming. PMID:24142179

Silva, Diego Silva da; Müller, Gertrud

87

Autolytic Changes in the Digestive System of Germfree, Escherichia coli Monocontaminated, and Conventional Baby Pigs  

PubMed Central

Tissues from three groups of pigs (germfree, Escherichia coli monocontaminated, and healthy conventional pigs) were collected at intervals between 24 minutes and 7 hours 12 minutes after death. Histological differences between the three groups were present in the alimentary mucosa and were most striking in the ileum and colon. Autolytic change was detected only in the digestive system and the sequence of autolytic events was similar in all groups. The time of onset and rate of progress differed markedly between groups and between segments of the alimentary canal. In the conventional group, autolysis started quickly and progressed rapidly. In the germfree group it was later in onset and slower in progress. The E. coli infected group was intermediate. The initial visible change occurred in the small intestine. The morphological differences and autolytic changes were described. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.

Cross, R. F.; Kohler, E. M.

1969-01-01

88

Determination and significance of a new carbohydrate antigen CA19-9 in digestive system cancers.  

PubMed

To assess the diagnostic significance of CA19-9, the serum levels in 225 healthy subjects, 201 patients with cancers, 423 patients with benign diseases and 21 pregnant women, were determined by RIA. The mean CA19-9 level of the healthy subjects was 11.2 +/- 0.4 U/ml (range, 6-100 U/ml). Only 3.1% of them were above 37 U/ml. The CA19-9 levels were elevated above 37 U/ml in 7.9% of 293 patients with non-carcinomatous diseases of the digestive system. Among digestive system cancers, elevated levels were found in 18.2% of 11 patients with esophageal cancer, 42.7% of 68 patients with gastric cancer, 39.1% of 23 patients with colorectal cancer, 27.8% of 18 patients with primary hepatic cancer, 71.4% of 35 patients with biliary cancer, and 75% of 20 patients with pancreatic cancer. Most of the patients with levels above 100 U/ml had carcinomatous diseases. The CA19-9 positive rates for patients with gastric cancer and colorectal cancer were extremely low at stages I, II and III, while in patients at stage IV and in patients with recurrent cancer, a tendency for rapid increase in the positive rates and concentrations of CA19-9 was noted. Based on combination assay of CA19-9, CEA and ferritin, in comparison with the positive rates for CA19-9 alone, it was found that the rates were raised to 42.7% in gastric cancer, to 39.1% in colorectal cancer, and to 71.4% in biliary cancer, suggesting the simultaneous determination with these tumor markers may serve to elevate their usefulness. PMID:3860677

Arakawa, Y; Ariga, H; Kano, M; Matsuo, Y; Honda, T; Morita, K

1985-05-01

89

A systematic quantification of carbonic anhydrase transcripts in the mouse digestive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are physiologically important enzymes which participate in many gastrointestinal processes such as acid and bicarbonate secretion and metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis. The genomic data suggests that there are thirteen enzymatically active members of the mammalian CA isozyme family. In the present study, we systematically examined the mRNA expression levels of all known CA isozymes

Pei-wen Pan; Alejandra Rodriguez; Seppo Parkkila

2007-01-01

90

Modelling anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water and faecal matter in accumulation system.  

PubMed

A dynamic mathematical model based on anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was developed for accumulation (AC) system treating concentrated black water and faecal matter at different temperatures. The AC system was investigated for the treatment of waste (water) produced from the following systems: vacuum toilet for black water (VBW), vacuum toilet for faeces with urine separation (VF), dry toilet (DT), dry toilets for faeces with urine separation (DF), separated faecal matter from conventional black water by filter bag (FB). For evaluation of the AC system treating the proposed waste (water) sources at 20 and 35 degrees C, two options were studied: (1) The filling period of the AC system was constant for all waste (water) sources (either 1, 3 or 6 months) and for each period, the seed sludge volume was varied; (2) The volume of the AC system was constant for all proposed waste (water) sources. The results showed that the filling period of the AC system was the main parameter affecting the system performance, followed by operational temperature, while the increase of the seed sludge volume slightly enhanced the performance of the system. The model results indicated that the filling period of the AC system should be higher than 150 days for obtaining a stable performance. It was found that the hydrolysis of biodegradable particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD) is the rate limiting step, as volatile fatty acid concentration is very low in all experimental conditions (< 200 mgCOD/L at 20 degrees C and < 100 mgCOD/L at 35 degrees C). Based on the results of the two options, it was found that the concentrated waste (water) sources have better performance than the diluted waste (water) sources, like VBW waste (water). Furthermore, smaller volume will be required for the AC system. PMID:21902047

Elmitwalli, Tarek; Zeeman, Grietje; Otterpohl, Ralf

2011-01-01

91

76 FR 1624 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel...Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers...Endocrinology and Metabolic Research; 93.848, Digestive Diseases and Nutrition...

2011-01-11

92

Cache Digests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Cache Digest, a novel protocol and optimization technique for cooperativeWeb caching. Cache Digest allows proxies to make information about their cache contentsavailable to peers in a compact form. A peer uses digests to identify neighbors that are likelyto have a given document. Cache Digest is a promising alternative to traditional per-requestquery\\/reply schemes such as ICP.We discuss the

Alex Rousskov; Duane Wessels

1998-01-01

93

Expression of Bis in the mouse gastrointestinal system  

PubMed Central

The Bcl-2 interacting death suppressor (Bis) protein is known to be involved in a variety of pathophysiological conditions. We recently generated bis-deficient mice, which exhibited early lethality with typical nutritional deprivation status. To further investigate the molecular basis for the malnutrition phenotype of bis deficient mice, we explored Bis expression in the digestive system of normal mice. Western blot analysis and quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that Bis expression is highest in the esophagus, followed by the stomach, colon, jejunum and ileum. Immunohistochemical data indicated that Bis expression is restricted to the stratified squamous epitheliums in the esophagus and forestomach, and was not notable in the columnar epitheliums in the stomach, small intestine and colon. In addition, strong Bis immunoreactivity was detected in the striated muscles surrounding the esophagus and smooth muscles at a lesser intensity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Ganglionated plexuses, located in submucous layers, as well as intermuscular layers, were specifically immunoreactive for Bis. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that Bis is co-localized in glial fibrillary acidic protein-expressing enteric glial cells. Immunostaining with neuron specific esterase antibodies indicate that Bis is also present in the cell bodies of ganglions in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Our findings indicate that Bis plays a role in regulating GI functions, such as motility and absorption, through modulating signal transmission between the ENS and smooth muscles or the intestinal epitheliums.

Lee, Young Dae; Yoon, Jung-Sook; Yoon, Hye Hyeon; Youn, Ho Joong; Kim, Jin

2012-01-01

94

The Journey of a Sandwich: Computer-Based Laboratory Experiments about the Human Digestive System in High School Biology Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school…

Sorgo, Andrej; Hajdinjak, Zdravka; Briski, Darko

2008-01-01

95

Relationship between nm23H1 genetic instability and clinical pathological characteristics in Chinese digestive system cancer patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the relationship between nm23H1 gene genetic instability and its clinical pathological characteristics in Chinese digestive system cancer patients. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) was used to analyze the microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Immunohistochemistry was employed to detect the expression of nm23H1. RESULTS: The MSI was higher in TNM stageI + II than in stage III + IV of gastric, colonic and gallbladder carcinomas. The LOH was higher in TNM stage III + IV than in stageI + II of gastric, colonic and hepatocellular carcinomas. Lymphatic metastasis was also observed. The expression of nm23H1 protein was lower in TNM stage III + IV than in stageI + II of these tumors and in patients with lymphatic metastasis.The nm23H1 protein expression was higher in the LOH negative group than in the LOH positive group. CONCLUSION: MSI and LOH may independently control the biological behaviors of digestive system cancers. MSI could serve as an early biological marker of digestive system cancers. Enhanced expression of nm23H1 protein could efficiently inhibit cancer metastasis and improve its prognosis. LOH mostly appears in late digestive system cancer.

Yang, Yue-Qin; Wu, Liang; Chen, Jin-Xing; Sun, Jian-Zhong; Li, Meng; Li, Dong-Mei; Lu, Hai-Ying; Su, Zhi-Hong; Lin, Xin-Qiu; Li, Ji-Cheng

2008-01-01

96

What Happens to the Food We Eat? Children's Conceptions of the Structure and Function of the Digestive System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes children's conceptions of the structure and function of the human digestive system based on an investigation carried out with children aged 4-10 (n=45). Finds that children possess biological knowledge as an independent knowledge domain from the age of four. Discusses acquisition of and barriers to scientific concepts related to human…

Teixeira, Francimar Martins

2000-01-01

97

Celanese improves anaerobic digester  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anaerobic digestion process, developed by Celanese for the disposal of petrochemical wastes, involves feeding some of the treated effluent back into the system to dilute toxic constituents and to lower the pH. Anaerobic digestion as a disposal technique has been a problem since toxic materials and high pH kill the bacteria needed for effective operation. Operation of the process

E. R. Witt; T. E. Roberts

1979-01-01

98

Optical Mapping System for Recording Action Potential Durations in Adult Mouse Left and Right Atrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing availability of murine models of the cardiovascular system has created a need for instrumentation and methods for assessing murine cardiovascular function. We have adapted an existing optical mapping system based on voltage-sensitive dyes to record from an isolated mouse atrial preparation. Initial results indicate that our approach is capable of recording action potentials from isolated mouse atria with

A. Nygren; A. E. Lomax; W. R. Giles

2004-01-01

99

[The rate and dynamics of prevalence of diseases of digestive system in north Caucasus federal okrug and Stavropolsky kray].  

PubMed

The article presents the results of analysis of digestive system morbidity during last decade among adult population of Stavropolsky kray as compared with North Caucasus federal okrug and Russia in general. The analysis according classes of diseases established that in the structure ofgeneral morbidity according the appealability data first place is for diseases of respiratory organs, second place is for diseases of circulatory system, third place is for diseases of urogenital system, fourth place is for diseases of musculoskeletal system, fifth place is for traumas, intoxications and other aftermath of external causes, sixth place is for diseases of digestive system and also pregnancy, delivery and puerperal period In Stavropolsky kray, gastritis and duodenitis are registered much more infrequently as compared with corresponding morbidity increase among adult population of Russia from 2001 to 2010. PMID:22611979

Muravyev, K A

100

Mouse Forward Genetics in the Study of the Peripheral Nervous System and Human Peripheral Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forward genetics, the phenotype-driven approach to investigating gene identity and function, has a long history in mouse genetics.\\u000a Random mutations in the mouse transcend bias about gene function and provide avenues towards unique discoveries. The study\\u000a of the peripheral nervous system is no exception; from historical strains such as the trembler mouse, which led to the identification of PMP22 as

Darlene S. Douglas; Brian Popko

2009-01-01

101

Mouse Vocal Communication System: Are Ultrasounds Learned or Innate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production.…

Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

2013-01-01

102

Mouse Vocal Communication System: Are Ultrasounds Learned or Innate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production.…

Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

2013-01-01

103

Anaerobic biodegradability and digestion in accumulation systems for concentrated black CD water and kitchen organic-wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of two accumulation-systems (AC) for anaerobic digestion and storage of concentrated black water with (A,Cl) or without (AC2) urine + kitchen organic-wastes was investigated. The waste(water) 0 was collected by two vacuum toilet\\/transport systems. The influent-total COD of the AC2 (53,000 mg\\/L) was more concentrated by four times than that of the AC1. The suspended COD represented the

T. A. Elmitwalli; M. van Leeuwen; K. Kujawa-Roeleveld; W. Sanders; G. Zeeman

2006-01-01

104

Kinetics of drug selection systems in mouse embryonic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Background Stable expression of transgenes is an important technique to analyze gene function. Various drug resistance genes, such as neo, pac, hph, zeo, bsd, and hisD, have been equally used as selection markers to isolate a transfectant without considering their dose-dependent characters. Results We quantitatively measured the variation of transgene expression levels in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells, using a series of bi-cistronic expression vectors that contain Egfp expression cassette linked to each drug resistant gene via IRES with titration of the selective drugs, and found that the transgene expression levels achieved in each system with this vector design are in order, in which pac and zeo show sharp selection of transfectants with homogenously high expression levels. We also showed the importance of the choice of the drug selection system in gene-trap or gene targeting according to this order. Conclusions The results of the present study clearly demonstrated that an appropriate choice of the drug resistance gene(s) is critical for a proper design of the experimental strategy.

2013-01-01

105

Biokinetic and molecular studies of methanogens in phased anaerobic digestion systems.  

PubMed

The influence of differing operational conditions of two-stage digesters on biokinetic characteristics and communities of methanogenic archaea was evaluated. Operating temperature of each phase influenced the archaeal communities significantly. Also, a strong correlation was observed between community composition and temperature and pH. The maximum specific substrate utilization rates (kmax) of acetoclastic methanogens in the mesophilic and thermophilic 1st phases were 11.4 and 22.0mgCODmgCOD(-1)d(-1), respectively, whereas significantly lower kmax values were estimated for the mesophilic and thermophilic 2nd-phase digesters which were 7.6 and 16.6mgCODmgCOD(-1)d(-1), respectively. It appeared that the biokinetic characteristics of the acetoclastic methanogen communities were reliant on digester loading rates. Also, higher temperature dependency coefficients (?) were observed for the long retention time digesters when compared to the values computed for the 1st-phase digesters. Accordingly, the implementation of two sets of biokinetic parameters for acetoclastic methanogen will improve modeling of phased anaerobic digesters. PMID:24125797

Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Parker, Wayne J; Verastegui, Yris; Neufeld, Josh D

2013-09-21

106

Dynamic expression of Dab2 in the mouse embryonic central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Dab2, one of two mammalian orthologs of Drosophila Disabled, has been shown to be involved in cell positioning and formation of visceral endoderm during mouse embryogenesis, but its role in neuronal development is not yet fully understood. In this report, we have examined the localization of the Dab2 protein in the mouse embryonic central nervous system (CNS) at different

Kwok-Kuen Cheung; Samuel C Mok; Payam Rezaie; Wood Yee Chan

2008-01-01

107

Gamma radiation consequences on desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forsk.) digestive system.  

PubMed

Schistocera gregaria (Forsk.) (Orthoptera, Acrididae) remains a major insect pest in Africa, more particularly in the Sahelian zone. Present control methods are only partially efficient. In a previous study, we tested the potentiality of a sterile insect technique (SIT). Males of S. gregaria appeared to be much radiosensitive as already a dose of 3 Gy limited their survival. Gamma-radiations are known to damages the epithelial tissue of midgut, which affects the alimentation in insects. In this work, we show how digestive system of S. gregaria males is affected when submitted to a dose of 4 gamma rays. Nutrition is affected as males stop feeding soon after irradiation and progressively lose weight. Histological analyses on the midgut showed important epithelium damages. The regenerative cells by which the epithelial cells are replaced were damaged on the first days following irradiation. Consequently, regenerative cells are unable to divide and replace the normal loss of midgut cell. After nine days, the entire midgut epithelium was destroyed and only longitudinal muscles layer remained intact. This indicates that low radiation doses should be used if SIT will be applied. PMID:21539264

Dushimirimana, S; Muratori, F; Damiens, D; Hance, T

2010-01-01

108

Heavy oil fractions induce negative influences on mouse immune system.  

PubMed

It is well known that heavy oil such as pollutant caused serious influences on the marine ecosystem. We may suffer from various disorders in our body via intake of marine foods polluted with heavy oil. However the influences of heavy oil on our immune system have not yet been clarified. Here we show the effects of heavy oil extracts, water-soluble fraction (WSF), methanol-soluble fraction (MSF) and ethanol-soluble fraction (ESF), on immunoglobulin production of mouse splenocytes. All extracts increased IgA productivity of splenocytes. In oral administration, shrinkage of the immune organs such as spleen or thymus was observed in only WSF-administrated mice at least during 7 days. The amount of IgG production level in splenocytes cultured medium and sera were reduced by each extract administration. A flowcytometry method, to monitor splenocytes of WSF-administrated mice, has been set up using double staining with B and T cell-specific surface antibody. The results from cell population analysis indicated that B cells, including plasma cells producing antibody were reduced. The decrease in IgG level in sera was caused by reduction of plasma cells in spleen. Hence, it is suggested that reduction of Ig production was affected by the chemical compounds contained in WSF possibly such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through the estrogen receptor expressed in lymphocytes. PMID:19797854

Nishimoto, Sogo; Kanda, Kota; Yamawaki, Manami; Okabe, Masaaki; Akiyama, Koichi; Kakinuma, Yoshimi; Sugahara, Takuya

2009-10-01

109

FGF signaling facilitates postinjury recovery of mouse hematopoietic system.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling promotes hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion in vitro. However, it is unknown whether FGF promotes HSPC expansion in vivo. Here we examined FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) expression and investigated its in vivo function in HSPCs. Conditional knockout (CKO) of Fgfr1 did not affect phenotypical number of HSPCs and homeostatic hematopoiesis, but led to a reduced engraftment only in the secondary transplantation. When treated with 5-fluorouracil (5FU), the Fgfr1 CKO mice showed defects in both proliferation and subsequent mobilization of HSPCs. We identified megakaryocytes (Mks) as a major resource for FGF production, and further discovered a novel mechanism by which Mks underwent FGF-FGFR signaling dependent expansion to accelerate rapid FGF production under stress. Within HSPCs, we observed an up-regulation of nuclear factor ?B and CXCR4, a receptor for the chemoattractant SDF-1, in response to bone marrow damage only in control but not in Fgfr1 CKO model, accounting for the corresponding defects in proliferation and migration of HSPCs. This study provides the first in vivo evidence that FGF signaling facilitates postinjury recovery of the mouse hematopoietic system by promoting proliferation and facilitating mobilization of HSPCs. PMID:22802336

Zhao, Meng; Ross, Jason T; Itkin, Tomer; Perry, John M; Venkatraman, Aparna; Haug, Jeffrey S; Hembree, Mark J; Deng, Chu-Xia; Lapidot, Tsvee; He, Xi C; Li, Linheng

2012-07-16

110

Poliovirus Induces Apoptosis in the Mouse Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Poliovirus (PV) is the etiological agent of human paralytic poliomyelitis. Paralysis results from the destruction of motoneurons, a consequence of PV replication. However, the PV-induced process leading to the death of motoneurons is not well known. We investigated whether PV-induced central nervous system (CNS) injury is associated with apoptosis by using mice as animal models. Transgenic mice expressing the human PV receptor were infected intracerebrally with either the neurovirulent PV-1 Mahoney strain or a paralytogenic dose of the attenuated PV-1 Sabin strain. Nontransgenic mice were infected with a mouse-adapted PV-1 Mahoney mutant. DNA fragmentation was demonstrated in CNS tissue from paralyzed mice by visualization of DNA oligonucleosomal laddering and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Viral antigens and DNA fragmentation detected by the in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling technique were colocalized in neurons of spinal cords from paralyzed mice. In addition, morphological changes characteristic of cells undergoing apoptosis were observed in motoneurons by electron microscopy. Thus, we show that PV multiplication and CNS injury during paralytic poliomyelitis are associated with apoptosis.

Girard, Sophie; Couderc, Therese; Destombes, Josette; Thiesson, Daniele; Delpeyroux, Francis; Blondel, Bruno

1999-01-01

111

FGF signaling facilitates postinjury recovery of mouse hematopoietic system  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling promotes hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion in vitro. However, it is unknown whether FGF promotes HSPC expansion in vivo. Here we examined FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) expression and investigated its in vivo function in HSPCs. Conditional knockout (CKO) of Fgfr1 did not affect phenotypical number of HSPCs and homeostatic hematopoiesis, but led to a reduced engraftment only in the secondary transplantation. When treated with 5-fluorouracil (5FU), the Fgfr1 CKO mice showed defects in both proliferation and subsequent mobilization of HSPCs. We identified megakaryocytes (Mks) as a major resource for FGF production, and further discovered a novel mechanism by which Mks underwent FGF-FGFR signaling dependent expansion to accelerate rapid FGF production under stress. Within HSPCs, we observed an up-regulation of nuclear factor ?B and CXCR4, a receptor for the chemoattractant SDF-1, in response to bone marrow damage only in control but not in Fgfr1 CKO model, accounting for the corresponding defects in proliferation and migration of HSPCs. This study provides the first in vivo evidence that FGF signaling facilitates postinjury recovery of the mouse hematopoietic system by promoting proliferation and facilitating mobilization of HSPCs.

Zhao, Meng; Ross, Jason T.; Itkin, Tomer; Perry, John M.; Venkatraman, Aparna; Haug, Jeffrey S.; Hembree, Mark J.; Deng, Chu-Xia; Lapidot, Tsvee; He, Xi C.

2012-01-01

112

CZE-ESI-MS/MS system for analysis of subnanogram amounts of tryptic digests of a cellular homogenate  

PubMed Central

We report the performance of capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with an electrokinetically pumped electrospray interface and an Orbitrap-Velos mass spectrometer for high sensitivity protein analysis. We first investigated the system for quantitation of the tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The system produced outstanding linearity with respect to peak height, number of peptide IDs, and spectral counts across the range of 12 nM to 750 nM (60 amol to 3.5 fmol) of BSA injected. One peptide produced a detection limit of 0.3 nM (1.5 amol) injected. We also analyzed 700 pg of a tryptic digest prepared from a RAW264.7 cell lysate; 10 proteins were identified in triplicate analyses after filtering the data with peptide confidence value as high. This sample size corresponds to the protein content of ~10 eukaryotic cells.

Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Li, Yihan; Wojcik, Roza; Yang, Ping; Dovichi, Norman J.

2013-01-01

113

Sulfide-induced nitrate reduction in the sludge of an anaerobic digester of a zero-discharge recirculating mariculture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic digester is a vital component in a zero-discharge mariculture system as therein most of the organic matter is mineralized and nitrogen-containing compounds are converted to gaseous N2. Although denitrification is a major respiratory process in this nitrate-rich treatment stage, also sulfate respiration takes place and may cause undesirable high sulfide concentrations in the effluent water. To examine the

Yonatan Sher; Kenneth Schneider; Carsten U. Schwermer; Jaap van Rijn

2008-01-01

114

Digestive system membranes: freeze-fracture evidence for differentiation and flow in Paramecium  

PubMed Central

Freeze-fractured membranes of digestive vacuoles of randomly feeding Paramecium caudatum exhibit dramatic differences in intramembrane particle (IMP) number and distribution on both E- and P-fracture faces. By pulse-feeding latex spheres to cells we have demonstrated that these differences are related to the age of the digestive vacuoles, and that the membranes of such vacuoles undergo a specific sequence of changes during the digestive cycle. Young digestive vacuoles (DV-I; less than or equal to 6 min), nascent vacuoles still connected to the cytopharynx, and discoidal vesicles, from which vacuole membrane is derived, all have a highly particulate E face and a less particulate P face. As early as 3 min after feeding, a second category of digestive vacuoles (DV-II) can be recognized, which are both considerably smaller in diameter and lack particles on their E face. These findings suggest that the endocytic removal of DV-I membrane material associated with the formation of DV-II vacuoles involves a concomitant and selective removal of E-face particles, as essentially no changes are seen in the density of P-face particles on the two types of vacuoles. Beginning at 10 min the first DV-III vacuoles are encountered. These are both larger than the DV-II vacuoles and possess very prominent E-face particles, which resemble those on the E face of the numerous lysosomes bordering the digestive vacuoles. DV-III vacuoles also exhibit a substantial increase in P-face particles. These membrane changes closely parallel, and are probably correlated with, the physiological events occurring within the vacuole lumen: concentration of food, killing of prey, and digestion. Calculations of the amount of membrane removed from DV-I to form DV-II and of the increase in membrane surface area during the transition from DV-II to DV-III indicate that as much as 90% of the initial phagosome (DV-I) membrane can be removed before digestion begins. The enlargment of DV-II must be caused by fusion with adjacent lysosomes which also contribute the new populations of IMPs to the DV- III membrane. The appearance of numerous endocytic structures on older DV-III vacuoles suggests that membrane is retrieved from DV-III before defecation.

1981-01-01

115

N-Squad Episode 1. Students learn misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, the role of the digestive system in processing alcohol, and liver histology.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In N-Squad Episode 1 students work with forensic scientists to solve an alcohol related crime. Along the way, they will learn about alcohol's interaction with the digestive system, misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, and liver histology.

Learning, Center F.

2008-01-01

116

[Morphofunctional changes in the digestive system of the nematode Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819) after use of the anthelmintics albendazole, fenbendazole, and ivermectin].  

PubMed

The paper presents the results of histological and electron microscopic studies of the tissues of the digestive system of the nematode Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819) after use of the anthelminthics albendazole, fenbendazole, and ivermectine. They demonstrate that albendazole and fenbendazole cause irreversible structural changes. Less pronounced destruction of different parts of the digestive system occurs after the use of ivermectine. All the drugs affect the mid-gut of Passalurus. PMID:12886591

Shirokova, E P; Chebyshev, N V

117

Anaerobic digestion: principles and practices for biogas systems. World Bank technical paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report is part of a joint global research, development, and demonstration effort of the United Nations Development Programme and the World Bank. It explores the history, technology, and applications of anaerobic digestion, the biological process by which organic materials are degraded in the absence of oxygen to produce a combustible gas, methane (CHâ), and carbon dioxide (COâ). The process

C. G. Gunnerson; D. C. Stuckey

1986-01-01

118

A replaceable microreactor for on-line protein digestion in a two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis system with tandem mass spectrometry detection  

PubMed Central

We describe a two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis system that incorporates a replaceable enzymatic microreactor for on-line protein digestion. In this system, trypsin is immobilized on magnetic beads. At the start of each experiment, old beads are flushed to waste and replaced with a fresh plug of beads, which is captured by a pair of magnets at the distal tip of the first capillary. For analysis, proteins are separated in the first capillary. A fraction is then parked in the reactor to create peptides. Digested peptides are periodically transferred to the second capillary for separation; a fresh protein fraction is simultaneously moved to the reactor for digestion. An electrospray interface is used to introduce peptides into a mass spectrometer for analysis. This procedure is repeated for several dozen fractions under computer control. The system was demonstrated by the separation and digestion of insulin chain b oxidized and ?-casein as model proteins.

Li, Yihan; Wojcik, Roza; Dovichi, Norman J.

2010-01-01

119

Real-time gating system for mouse cardiovascular MR imaging.  

PubMed

Mouse cardiac MR gating using ECG is affected by the hostile MR environment. It requires appropriate signal processing and correct QRS detection, but gating software methods are currently limited. In this study we sought to demonstrate the feasibility of digital real-time automatically updated gating methods, based on optimizing a signal-processing technique for different mouse strains. High-resolution MR images of mouse hearts and aortic arches were acquired using a chain consisting of ECG signal detection, digital signal processing, and gating signal generation modeled using Simulink (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA). The signal-processing algorithms used were respectively low-pass filtering, nonlinear passband, and wavelet decomposition. Both updated and nonupdated gating signal generation methods were tested. Noise reduction was assessed by comparison of the ECG signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) before and after each processing step. Gating performance was assessed by measuring QRS detection accuracy before and after online trigger-level adjustments. Low-pass filtering with trigger-level adjustment gave the best performance for mouse cardiovascular imaging using gradient-echo (GE), spin-echo (SE), and fast SE (FSE) sequences with minimum induced delay and maximum gating efficiency (99% sensitivity and R-peak detection). This simple digital gating interface will allow various gating strategies to be optimized for cardiovascular MR explorations in mice. PMID:17152077

Sabbah, Maher; Alsaid, Hasan; Fakri-Bouchet, Latifa; Pasquier, Cédric; Briguet, André; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle; Fokapu, Odette

2007-01-01

120

Modified mouse peripheral blood lymphocyte culture system for cytogenetic analysis  

SciTech Connect

A detailed methodology is presented for culturing mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated on density gradients and stimulated to divide using either phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, or lipopolysaccharide. The techniques described yield more than sufficient numbers of mitotic cells for analyzing sister chromatid exchange, chromosome, aberrations, and micronuclei following in vitro or in vivo exposure to chemicals or radiation.

Erexson, G.L.; Kligerman, A.D.

1987-01-01

121

SEWP Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The SEWP Digest is a newsletter from the National Bureau of Economic Research's Science and Engineering Workforce Project. This issue features articles on nanotechnology. Covered topics include jobs in nanotechnology, nanotechnology safety, and other developments in the field.

2012-10-10

122

In Vitro Digestion of Proteins and Growth Factors in a Bovine Whey Protein Extract as Determined Using a Computer-Controlled Dynamic Gastrointestinal System (TIM1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digestion of major whey proteins\\/peptides, transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-?2) and insulin-like growth factor-I\\u000a (IGF-I) in a bovine whey protein extract (BWPE) was investigated in vitro using a dynamic gastrointestinal digestion system\\u000a (TIM-1). ?-lactoglobulin and glycomacropeptide were the whey components most resistant to 3 h of gastric digestion (pepsin)\\u000a and were also the last to be cleared from the gastric compartment.

Samira Nabil; Sylvie F. Gauthier; Réjean Drouin; Patrice E. Poubelle; Yves Pouliot

123

Application of the Fuel-Linked Energy Resources and Tasks (FLERT) approach to rural household and community-scale anaerobic-digestion systems  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of anaerobic digesters into rural households and communities in Asia and the Pacific has often been unsuccessful due to the failure to assess not only local energy needs and resources, but also the social and environmental appropriateness of the new technology. The Fuel-Linked Energy Resources and Tasks (FLERT) approach presented here provides a well-defined and replicative framework for examining the physical, social, and environmental resources used and the products generated by anaerobic digesters and for predicting whether digesters will or will not be appropriate in specific situations. With limited data derived from literature review, the anaerobic digestion system is analyzed in terms of construction, operations and maintenance, management of feedstock raw materials and of residues, and energy distribution and use. Three types of digesters are included in the analysis - floating-dome, fixed-dome, and bag-type digesters. Tasks that might be promoted in rural areas by the energy and other products provided by digesters are appraised and some implications of using these products are discussed, based on actual experiences. A model for comparing condensed sets of data from alternative energy technologies is presented. A five-page bibliography (1956-80) is included.

Santerre, M.T.; Smith, K.R.

1980-09-01

124

Determination of mercury in dry-fish samples by microwave digestion and flow injection analysis system cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow injection analysis system cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FIAS-CV-AAS) preceded by a wet digestion in a microwave oven, as a method for measuring mercury in fish was studied. The digestion process and conditions of the FIAS (carrier concentration: HCl 3% vv; reducing agent: SnCl2 2% wv: filling and injection times: 8 and 25 min, respectively; and sample volumes) were

L. Aduna de Paz; A. Alegría; R. Barberá; R. Farré; M. J. Lagarda

1997-01-01

125

Effects of different manuring systems with and without biogas digestion on nitrogen cycle and crop yield in mixed organic dairy farming systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were carried out between 2002 and 2005 to investigate the effects of biogas digestion in a mixed organic dairy\\u000a farming system with arable land and grassland on nutrient cycling, nitrogen (N) uptake and crop yields within a cropping system\\u000a comprising a whole crop rotation. Five treatments were carried out: (i) solid farmyard manure, (ii) undigested liquid slurry,\\u000a (iii)

Kurt Möller; Walter Stinner; Arno Deuker; Günter Leithold

2008-01-01

126

Glycine receptor mouse mutants: model systems for human hyperekplexia.  

PubMed

Human hyperekplexia is a neuromotor disorder caused by disturbances in inhibitory glycine-mediated neurotransmission. Mutations in genes encoding for glycine receptor subunits or associated proteins, such as GLRA1, GLRB, GPHN and ARHGEF9, have been detected in patients suffering from hyperekplexia. Classical symptoms are exaggerated startle attacks upon unexpected acoustic or tactile stimuli, massive tremor, loss of postural control during startle and apnoea. Usually patients are treated with clonazepam, this helps to dampen the severe symptoms most probably by up-regulating GABAergic responses. However, the mechanism is not completely understood. Similar neuromotor phenotypes have been observed in mouse models that carry glycine receptor mutations. These mouse models serve as excellent tools for analysing the underlying pathomechanisms. Yet, studies in mutant mice looking for postsynaptic compensation of glycinergic dysfunction via an up-regulation in GABAA receptor numbers have failed, as expression levels were similar to those in wild-type mice. However, presynaptic adaptation mechanisms with an unusual switch from mixed GABA/glycinergic to GABAergic presynaptic terminals have been observed. Whether this presynaptic adaptation explains the improvement in symptoms or other compensation mechanisms exist is still under investigation. With the help of spontaneous glycine receptor mouse mutants, knock-in and knock-out studies, it is possible to associate behavioural changes with pharmacological differences in glycinergic inhibition. This review focuses on the structural and functional characteristics of the various mouse models used to elucidate the underlying signal transduction pathways and adaptation processes and describes a novel route that uses gene-therapeutic modulation of mutated receptors to overcome loss of function mutations. PMID:23941355

Schaefer, Natascha; Langlhofer, Georg; Kluck, Christoph J; Villmann, Carmen

2013-11-01

127

THE USE OF FORMALDEHYDE-TREATED ¹³¹I-ALBUMIN IN THE STUDY OF DIGESTIVE VACUOLES AND SOME PROPERTIES OF THESE PARTICLES FROM MOUSE LIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity released during incubation of mouse liver particles containing intravenously injected formaldehyde-treated 131I-albumin consisted almost entirely of 131I-iodotyrosine. The material was shown to be excreted into the medium and was not due to disruption of the particles by acid. Triton X-100 or the absence of sucrose in the medium inhibited hydrolysis of the particle-associated labeled protein. This

JOHN L. MEGO; FRANCISCO BERTINI; J. D. McQueen

1967-01-01

128

In vitro starch digestion correlates well with rate and extent of starch digestion in broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current feed evaluation systems for poultry are based on digested components (fat, protein and nitrogen-free extracts). Digestible starch is the most important energy source in broiler chicken feeds and is part of the nitrogen-free extract fraction. Digestible starch may be predicted using an in vitro method that mimics digestive processes in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens. An experiment was

Roelof E. Weurding; R. Veldman; Willem A. G. Veen; Aar van der P. J; Martin W. A. Verstegen

2001-01-01

129

Relationship between Protein Deficiency in the Ration of Rats during Early Ontogeny and Function of Enzyme Systems of Digestive and Non-Digestive Organs in Adult Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low protein content in the ration of rat pups during transfer from mixed to definitive nutrition (days 21-30 of life) has a negative impact on digestive function of the small intestine and trophic and barrier functions of the large intestine, liver, and kidneys and increases (sucrase, glycyl-L-leucin dipeptidase) or decreases (alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase M, glycyl-L-leucine dipeptidase) enzyme activities in these

N. M. Timofeeva; A. A. Nikitina; V. V. Egorova; L. A. Gordova

2004-01-01

130

Functioning of Enzyme Systems of Digestive and Non-Digestive Organs in Adult Rats Depends on Quality of Nutrition in Early Ontogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is revealed that restriction of protein in nutrition of rat pups in early ontogenesis, at the period of transition from\\u000a the mixed to the definitive nutrition, produces change of structural parameters and functioning of digestive enzymes in various\\u000a parts of small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) and in large intestine as well as of these hydrolases in liver and

V. V. Egorova; A. A. Nikitina; N. M. Timofeeva

2005-01-01

131

Relationship between protein deficiency in the ration of rats during early ontogeny and function of enzyme systems of digestive and non-digestive organs in adult life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low protein content in the ration of rat pups during transfer from mixed to definitive nutrition (days 21–30 of life) has\\u000a a negative impact on digestive function of the small intestine and trophic and barrier functions of the large intestine, liver,\\u000a and kidneys and increases (sucrase, glycyl-L-leucin dipeptidase) or decreases (alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase M, glycyl-L-leucine\\u000a dipeptidase) enzyme activities in these

N. M. Timofeeva; A. A. Nikitina; V. V. Egorova; L. A. Gordova

2004-01-01

132

Nonruminant Nutrition Symposium: Involvement of gut neural and endocrine systems in pathological disorders of the digestive tract.  

PubMed

The functioning of the gastrointestinal tract is under the control of the most extensive system of peripheral neurons in the body, the enteric nervous system, and the largest endocrine system of the body, the GEP endocrine system. The enteric nervous system in large mammals contains 500 million neurons, and the GEP endocrine system produces more than 30 hormones. Numerous enteric neuropathies affecting both humans and animals have been described and digestive disorders affect commercially important species, such as horses and cattle. The most severe enteric neuropathies (e.g., lethal white syndrome in horses or Hirschsprung's disease in humans) can be fatal. Also, horses with ileus or other digestive disorders are commonly euthanized. In this review we discuss examples of enteric neuropathies that affect agricultural animals and humans: prion disease, postoperative ileus, distal enteric aganglionosis, and infective diarrhea. Enteric neurons and glia are a location of prion proteins and are involved in transmission of the infection from gut to brain and brain to gut. Postoperative ileus is a complex disorder involving the local inhibitory effects of sympathetic nervous system activation and the release of opioids, presumably from enteric neurons. Intestinal inflammation, especially of the external muscle that includes enteric ganglia, also occurs in ileus. Congenital distal bowel aganglionosis, responsible for lethal white syndrome in horses, Hirschsprung's disease in humans, and similar conditions in mice and rats, is a fatal condition if untreated. Mutations of the same genes can cause the condition in each of these species. The only effective current treatment is surgical removal of the aganglionic bowel. Infectious diarrheas involve activation of enteric secretomotor neurons by pathogens and the toxins they produce, which causes substantial fluid loss. Strategies to target enteric neurons in the treatment of secretory diarrheas have not been developed. Disorders of enteroendocrine cells, other than GEP endocrine tumors, are less well documented. However, evidence for the involvement of gut endocrine cells in a subset of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, and in the symptomology of celiac disease, has been demonstrated. Further investigation of the involvement of enteric neural and endocrine signaling systems in digestive disorders, especially in agricultural and companion animals, may lead to diagnostic and therapeutic advances. PMID:22178854

Furness, J B; Poole, D P

2011-12-16

133

Study on EEG-based mouse system by using brain-computer interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aimed to design an EEG-based mouse system by using brain-computer interface (BCI) to move a cursor on a computer display. This system to provide an alternative communication or control channel for patients with severe motor disabilities. Such patients might become able to select target on a computer monitor by moving a cursor through mental activity. The user could

Dong Ming; Yuhuan Zhu; Hongzhi Qi; Baikun Wan; Yong Hu; K. D. K. Luk

2009-01-01

134

Neuroendocrine system of the digestive tract in Rhamdia quelen juvenile: an immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

In this work, an immunohistochemical study was performed to determine the distribution and relative frequencies of some neuromodulators of the digestive tract of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The digestive tract of silver catfish was divided into six portions; the oesophagus, stomach, intestine (ascendant, descendant and convoluted segments), and rectum. Immunohistochemical method using a pool of specific antisera against-gastrin, -cholecystokinin-8, -leu-enkephalin, -neuropeptide Y, -calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and -vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was employed. Immunoreactivity to all antisera was identified in neuroendocrine cells (NECs) localized in the gut epithelium, although no reaction was observed in the oesophagus or stomach. The morphology of NECs immunopositive to each antibody was similar. They were slender in shape, with basally located nucleus, and their main axis perpendicular to the basement membrane. The number of NECs immunoreactive to all antisera was higher in the ascendant and descendant intestine, exhibiting a decreasing trend toward distal segments of the gut. In addition, immunoreactivity to CGRP and VIP was observed in the myenteric plexus and nerve fibers distributed in the mucosal, submucosal and muscular layers. The higher number of immunopositive NECs in the ascendant and descendant intestine may indicate the primary role of these segments in the control of food intake by means of orexigenic and anorexigenic peripheral signals. PMID:22537686

Hernández, D R; Vigliano, F A; Sánchez, S; Bermúdez, R; Domitrovic, H A; Quiroga, M I

2012-04-24

135

Agricultural Anaerobic Digesters: Design and Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following are discussed: microbial and chemical processes, design and function of the digester system, operational procedure, storage and use of biogas and effluent, and costs of anaerobic digestion and biogas production from dairy barn manure.

S. P. E. Persson H. D. Bartlett A. E. Branding R. W. Regan

1979-01-01

136

77 FR 38075 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Health National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases...Committee: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Type 1 Diabetes Mouse Resource. Date: July...

2012-06-26

137

Illuminating cancer systems with genetically engineered mouse models and coupled luciferase reporters in vivo.  

PubMed

Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is a powerful noninvasive tool that has dramatically accelerated the in vivo interrogation of cancer systems and longitudinal analysis of mouse models of cancer over the past decade. Various luciferase enzymes have been genetically engineered into mouse models (GEMM) of cancer, which permit investigation of cellular and molecular events associated with oncogenic transcription, posttranslational processing, protein-protein interactions, transformation, and oncogene addiction in live cells and animals. Luciferase-coupled GEMMs ultimately serve as a noninvasive, repetitive, longitudinal, and physiologic means by which cancer systems and therapeutic responses can be investigated accurately within the autochthonous context of a living animal. PMID:23585416

Kocher, Brandon; Piwnica-Worms, David

2013-04-12

138

Effect of ?-aminobutyric acid on cell-free protein synthesizing systems from mouse brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  GABA stimulates the amino acid incorporating activity of cell-free protein synthesizing systems from mouse brain within a concentration range between 1 M and 1 mM. This stimulating effect can be measured in systems with free and membrane-bound polysomes as well as in systems with mitochondria or synaptosomes. There is, however, no GABA effect on cell-free systems with polysomes or mitochondria

B. Goertz

1979-01-01

139

Exceptionally Preserved Cambrian Trilobite Digestive System Revealed in 3D by Synchrotron-Radiation X-Ray Tomographic Microscopy  

PubMed Central

The Cambrian ‘Orsten’ fauna comprises exceptionally preserved and phosphatised microscopic arthropods. The external morphology of these fossils is well known, but their internal soft-tissue anatomy has remained virtually unknown. Here, we report the first non-biomineralised tissues from a juvenile polymerid trilobite, represented by digestive structures, glands, and connective strands harboured in a hypostome from the Swedish ‘Orsten’ fauna. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy enabled three-dimensional internal recordings at sub-micrometre resolution. The specimen provides the first unambiguous evidence for a J-shaped anterior gut and the presence of a crop with a constricted alimentary tract in the Trilobita. Moreover, the gut is Y-shaped in cross section, probably due to a collapsed lumen of that shape, another feature which has not previously been observed in trilobites. The combination of anatomical features suggests that the trilobite hypostome is functionally analogous to the labrum of euarthropods and that it was a sophisticated element closely integrated with the digestive system. This study also briefly addresses the preservational bias of the ‘Orsten’ fauna, particularly the near-absence of polymerid trilobites, and the taphonomy of the soft-tissue-harbouring hypostome.

Eriksson, Mats E.; Terfelt, Fredrik

2012-01-01

140

Microalgal system for treatment of effluent from poultry litter anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

The potential of mixotrophic microalgae to utilize poultry litter anaerobic digester (AD) effluent (PLDE) as nutritional growth medium was evaluated. Three algal strains viz. Chlorella minutissima, Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus bijuga and their consortium showed significant biomass productivity in 6% (v/v) concentration of PLDE in deionized water. Multiple booster dosage of PLDE supported better growth relative to a single dose PLDE. The maximum biomass productivity of 76 mg L(-1) d(-1) was recorded. The biomass was rich in protein (39% w/w) and carbohydrates (22%) while lipids (<10%) were low, making it most suitable as an animal feed supplement. The mixotrophic algae showed sustainable growth against variations in PLDE composition in different AD batches, thus proving to be a suitable candidate for large scale wastewater treatment with concomitant production of renewable biomass feedstock for animal feed and bioenergy applications. PMID:21967714

Singh, Manjinder; Reynolds, David L; Das, Keshav C

2011-09-16

141

A graphical analysis of the interrelationships among waterborne asbestos, digestive system cancer and population density.  

PubMed

Five statistical procedures were used to partial the correlation between waterborne asbestos and digestive site cancer for the putative effects of population density. These include: analysis based on a data subset with roughly homogeneous population density; standard residual analysis (partial correlation); conditional probability integral transformation; analysis based upon ranked data, and use of logarithmic transformation. Nonparametric regression graphical techniques are applied to examine the nature or shape of the asbestos-cancer dose-response curve. Evidence is presented that suggests that there is considerable difference between analyses involving nonhigh-density tracts and non-San Francisco tracts. Evidence is also presented that the modal-type nonparametric regression curve forks or bifurcates when adjustment is made for population density. PMID:6662097

Tarter, M E; Cooper, R C; Freeman, W R

1983-11-01

142

Ecoengineering high rate anaerobic digestion systems: analysis of improved syntrophic biomethanation catalysts.  

PubMed

High performance biomethanation granules with operational specific COD removal rates of 7 kg COD removed/kg SS/d were obtained by ecoengineering conventional, granular, UASB digester sludge using a designed protocol of starvation and selection on a defined volatile fatty acid (VFA) based mineral medium. Addition of low (0.15 mM) sulfate levels to this VFA medium increased the maximum shock-load COD removal rate of the ecoengineered biomethanation granules to 9 kg COD/kg SS/d with specific acetate, propionate, and butyrate removal rates of 111, 28, and 64 mol/g SS/d. Addition of moderate (26 mM) calcium levels inhibited growth and altered the structure of granules. The general cellular, growth, stability, and performance features of these ecoengineered granules are described and discussed in relation to their use as improved biomethanation starter cultures. PMID:18588244

Thiele, J H; Wu, W M; Jain, M K; Zeikus, J G

1990-04-25

143

Bibliography on anaerobic digestion  

SciTech Connect

The priority assigned to biogas systems by participants in A.I.D's Energy for Rural Development Program spurred the compilation of this 373-item bibliography on anaerobic digestion. The materials focus on energy technologies that are especially suited to the social, economic, and institutional concerns of rural Asia and the Pacific. Entries are presented in two sections. The first presents largely non-technical reports on anaerobic digesters in South and Southeast Asia, for the years 1956-80, with emphasis on the period 1970-80. The second section, which includes both technical and non-technical references, is a condensation of a computerized search of the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Research Abstracts published during the period 1977-80. The search revealed a lack of reliable data, pointing to the need for further research on the technology and potential of anaerobic digestion.

Ramakrishna, J.; Pruett, D.M.; Santerre, M.T.; Toyoshiba, T.S.

1980-09-01

144

Cell Surface Antigens of Human Malignant Melanoma: Definition of Six Antigenic Systems with Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen mouse monoclonal antibodies were selected for reactivity with cell surface antigens of the immunizing human melanoma cell line SK-MEL-28. Six distinct antigenic systems were defined by direct serological assays and absorption tests with a panel of 41 cell lines derived from normal and malignant human tissues. Biochemical analysis indicated that two of the antigens are glycoproteins with molecular sizes

Wolfgang G. Dippold; Kenneth O. Lloyd; Lucy T. C. Li; Hisami Ikeda; Herbert F. Oettgen; Lloyd J. Old

1980-01-01

145

Systemic vasculopathy with altered vasoreactivity in a transgenic mouse model of scleroderma  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Vasculopathy, including altered vasoreactivity and abnormal large vessel biomechanics, is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, the pathogenic link with other aspects of the disease is less clear. To assess the potential role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) overactivity in driving these cardiovascular abnormalities, we studied a novel transgenic mouse model characterized by ligand-dependent activation of TGF-?

Emma C Derrett-Smith; Audrey Dooley; Korsa Khan; Xu Shi-wen; David J Abraham; Christopher P Denton

2010-01-01

146

MARS: a mouse atlas registration system based on planar x-ray projector and optical camera  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces a mouse atlas registration system (MARS), composed of a stationary top-view x-ray projector and a side-view optical camera, coupled to a mouse atlas registration algorithm. This system is using the x-ray and optical images to guide a fully automatic co-registration of a mouse atlas with each subject, in order to provide anatomical reference for small animal molecular imaging systems such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). To facilitate the registration, a statistical atlas that accounts for inter-subject anatomical variations was constructed based on 83 organ-labeled mouse micro-CT images. The statistical shape model and conditional Gaussian model techniques were used to register the atlas with the x-ray image and optical photo. The accuracy of the atlas registration was evaluated by comparing the registered atlas with the organ-labeled micro-CT images of the test subjects. The results showed excellent registration accuracy of the whole-body region, and good accuracy for the brain, liver, heart, lungs and kidneys. In its implementation, the MARS system was integrated with a preclinical PET scanner to deliver combined PET/MARS imaging, and to facilitate atlas-assisted analysis of the preclinical PET images.

Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B; Taschereau, Richard; Gu, Zheng; Vu, Nam T; Prout, David L; Chatziioannou, Arion F

2012-01-01

147

Perinatal changes of transport systems for amino acids in slices of mouse brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perinatal changes in the uptake of amino acids were measured in slices of fetal (15- and 19-day) and newborn (4-, 24-, and 48-hr-old) mouse brain. Uptake increased with age; smaller changes occurred with basic and neutral amino acid transport systems, and the largest changes occurred in fetal brain with amino acids of putative neurotransmitter function (taurine, glycine, GABA, and the

Henry Sershen; Abel Lajtha

1976-01-01

148

The lac operator-repressor system is functional in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the successful transfer of a fully functional lac operator-repressor gene regulatory system to the mouse. The key component is a lac repressor transgene that resembles a typical mammalian gene both in codon usage and structure and expresses functional levels of repressor protein in the animal. We used the repressor to regulate the expression of a mammalian reporter gene

Carolyn A. Cronin; Wendy Gluba; Heidi Scrable

2001-01-01

149

Effects of temperature on post?methanation of digested dairy cow manure in a farm?scale biogas production system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A post?methanation process that could be adopted at farm?scale, operating at temperatures prevailing in farm manure digester post?storage tanks, was evaluated. Digested manure samples from a farm digester (35 °C) and post?storage tank (5–10 °C) were incubated in parallel batches at 5–20 °C and as reference at 35 and 55 °C. Specific methane yields (kg\\

P. L. N. Kaparaju; J. A. Rintala

2003-01-01

150

Eosinophilic Digestive Disease (EDD) and Allergic Bronchial Asthma; Two Diseases or Expression of One Disease in Two Systems?  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic digestive disease (EDD) includes a broad spectrum of clinical presentations due to eosinophilic inflammation involving anywhere from the esophagus to the rectum. The heterogeneity in the clinical presentations of EDD is determined by the site and depth of eosinophilic infiltration. The sites of inflammation determine the nomenclature for EDD. The most well characterized of these, eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG), and eosinophilic colitis or enterocolitis. While the depth of esosinophilic infiltration through the three main layers (mucosa, musculosa and serosa) determines the prominent clinical manifestation. The recent advances in gastrointestinal endoscopy and the increasing awareness and diagnosis of EDD, in my viewpoint, can be of help to add to our understanding of the heterogeneous clinical syndrome under the broad title bronchial asthma. Here I present my viewpoint that EDD and the allergic bronchial asthma can be regarded as two clinical expressions of one disease in two different but related anatomical systems.

2011-01-01

151

The physiology of digestion in fish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The acquisition, digestion, and assimilation of food is critical for the growth and survival of fish larvae; a fish larva either grows or it perishes. Fish larvae are characterized by digestive systems and diets that differ from adults. Larvae undergo a pattern of trophic ontogeny, changing diet with increasing size, and these changes result in differences in digestive requirements.

John J. Govoni; George W. Boehlert; Yoshirou Watanabej

1986-01-01

152

Enhanced ammonium removal from liquid anaerobic digestion residuals in an advanced sequencing batch reactor system.  

PubMed

When treating effluents from anaerobic processing of organic wastes, the challenge lies in the large quantity of recalcitrant COD and in the high nitrogen content. The data presented in this study illustrate an advanced SBR concept that is able to significantly reduce the organic load. It was found that undigested mashed bio-waste bypassing the anaerobic digestion is highly suitable as an external carbon source to compensate deficiencies of readily biodegradable BOD required for denitrification. In order to utilize the carbon source as efficiently as possible, the SBR was operated in a mode by which nitrification/denitrification is achieved by a shortcut process using nitrite. This procedure reduced the requirement of an external carbon source to only 5% (v/v). Moreover, through an optimized SBR sequence for an influent concentration of 14,000 mg COD/l and 3,800 mg TN/l, nearly complete removal of nitrogen (>95%) was achieved. The average removal rates for COD and BOD were 83% and 86%, respectively. The applied hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the SBR was 6.8 days. The elevated temperature of 30-41 degrees C in the reactor as a result of the high biological activity was advantageous in terms of enhanced reaction kinetics and also provided better process stability. PMID:19809127

Mayer, M; Smeets, W; Braun, R; Fuchs, W

2009-01-01

153

Enterochromaffin cells of the digestive system: cellular source of guanylin, a guanylate cyclase-activating peptide.  

PubMed Central

Guanylin, a bioactive peptide, has recently been isolated from the intestine; this peptide activates intestinal guanylate cyclase (i.e., guanylate cyclase C) and thus is potentially involved in the regulation of water/electrolyte transport in the gastrointestinal mucosa. As yet, the cells involved in synthesis, storage, or secretion of guanylin have not been identified by immunocytochemistry. We raised antisera against guanylin and investigated the entire gastrointestinal tract of guinea pigs by light and electron microscopical immunocytochemistry. Extracts of various intestinal segments and plasma analyzed on a Western blot revealed a peptide band corresponding to the molecular mass of guanylin. Localization studies in the entire digestive tract showed that guanylin is exclusively confined to enterochromaffin (EC) cells. Remarkably, most EC cells contacted the gut lumen by cell processes that were highly immunoreactive for guanylin. In addition to the well known secretion in an endocrine fashion, EC cells by circumstantial evidence may release guanylin into the gut lumen to activate guanylate cyclase C that is immediately located on the brush border of adjacent enterocytes. The unique localization of guanylin in EC cells may indicate that these cells are involved in the regulation of fluid secretion in the gastrointestinal mucous membrane. Images

Cetin, Y; Kuhn, M; Kulaksiz, H; Adermann, K; Bargsten, G; Grube, D; Forssmann, W G

1994-01-01

154

Two-phase anaerobic digestion within a solid waste/wastewater integrated management system.  

PubMed

A two-phase, wet anaerobic digestion process was tested at laboratory scale using mechanically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) as the substrate. The proposed process scheme differs from others due to the integration of the MSW and wastewater treatment cycles, which makes it possible to avoid the recirculation of process effluent. The results obtained show that the supplying of facultative biomass, drawn from the wastewater aeration tank, to the solid waste acidogenic reactor allows an improvement of the performance of the first phase of the process which is positively reflected on the second one. The proposed process performed successfully, adopting mesophilic conditions and a relatively short hydraulic retention time in the methanogenic reactor, as well as high values of organic loading rate. Significant VS removal efficiency and biogas production were achieved. Moreover, the methanogenic reactor quickly reached optimal conditions for a stable methanogenic phase. Studies conducted elsewhere also confirm the feasibility of integrating the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW with that of wastewater. PMID:18191559

De Gioannis, G; Diaz, L F; Muntoni, A; Pisanu, A

2008-01-10

155

Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste composed of food waste, wastepaper, and plastic in a single-stage system: Performance and microbial community structure characterization.  

PubMed

The performance of municipal organic solid waste anaerobic digestion was investigated using a single-stage bioreactor, and the microbial community structures were characterized during the digestion. The results showed that the biogas and methane production rates were 592.4 and 370.1L/kg with volatile solid added at the ratio of 2:1:1 for food waste, wastepaper, and plastic based on dry weight. The methane volume concentration fluctuated between 44.3% and 75.4% at steady stage. Acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid were the major volatile fatty acids produced during the digestion process. The anaerobic process was not inhibited by the accumulation of ammonia and free ammonia. The bacterial community was found to consist of at least 21 bands of bacteria and 12 bands of archaea at the steady state. All of the results indicated that the mixture of food waste, wastepaper, and plastic could be efficiently co-digested using the anaerobic digestion system. PMID:23974214

Wan, Shungang; Sun, Lei; Douieb, Yaniv; Sun, Jian; Luo, Wensui

2013-08-06

156

Mathematical Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From e-MATH, the Website of the American Mathematical Society, Mathematical Digest provides short summaries of news articles about mathematics (or mathematicians) that have appeared in the popular press. As some articles have a distinctly popular flavor, content will also be of interest to those curious about the culture's (and the media's) perception of math. The table of contents features summaries for articles dating from this summer back to 1995. The brief summaries of articles gleaned from magazines and newspapers (such as Nature, Discover, and The New York Times) also include the date the article appeared and the page number, for easy reference.

157

A new self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for poorly soluble drugs: Characterization, dissolution, in vitro digestion and incorporation into solid pellets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was the development of a new pellet based self-emulsifying (SE) drug delivery system for the oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate the influence of physiological dilution media and enzymatic digestion on the solubilization capacity of the formulation for the model drug Progesterone.Lipid mixtures composed of Solutol® HS 15 and

Ahmed Abdalla; Sandra Klein; Karsten Mäder

2008-01-01

158

Stability of free and encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in yogurt and in an artificial human gastric digestion system.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of encapsulation on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 (ATCC 4356) in yogurt and during artificial gastric digestion. Strain ATCC 4356 was added to yogurt either encapsulated in calcium alginate or in free form (unencapsulated) at levels of 8.26 and 9.47 log cfu/g, respectively, and the influence of alginate capsules (1.5 to 2.5mm) on the sensorial characteristics of yogurts was investigated. The ATCC 4356 strain was introduced into an artificial gastric solution consisting of 0.08 N HCl (pH 1.5) containing 0.2% NaCl or into artificial bile juice consisting of 1.2% bile salts in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth to determine the stability of the probiotic bacteria. When incubated for 2h in artificial gastric juice, the free ATCC 4356 did not survive (reduction of >7 log cfu/g). We observed, however, greater survival of encapsulated ATCC 4356, with a reduction of only 3 log cfu/g. Incubation in artificial bile juice (6 h) did not significantly affect the viability of free or encapsulated ATCC 4356. Moreover, statistically significant reductions (~1 log cfu/g) of both free and encapsulated ATCC 4356 were observed during 4-wk refrigerated storage of yogurts. The addition of probiotic cultures in free or alginate-encapsulated form did not significantly affect appearance/color or flavor/odor of the yogurts. However, significant deficiencies were found in body/texture of yogurts containing encapsulated ATCC 4356. We concluded that incorporation of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria did not substantially change the overall sensory properties of yogurts, and encapsulation in alginate using the extrusion method greatly enhanced the survival of probiotic bacteria against an artificial human gastric digestive system. PMID:23021757

Ortakci, F; Sert, S

2012-09-26

159

A transgenic mouse model of the ubiquitin\\/proteasome system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impairment of the ubiquitin\\/proteasome system has been proposed to play a role in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Although recent studies confirmed that some disease-related proteins block proteasomal degradation, and despite the existence of excellent animal models of both diseases, in vivo data about the system are lacking. We have developed a model for in vivo analysis

Kristina Lindsten; Victoria Menéndez-Benito; Maria G Masucci; Nico P Dantuma

2003-01-01

160

Mouse Adenovirus Type 1 Infection in SCID Mice: an Experimental Model for Antiviral Therapy of Systemic Adenovirus Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of human adenovirus infections in immunocompromised patients urges for new and ade- quate antiadenovirus compounds. Since human adenoviruses are species specific, animal models for systemic adenovirus infections rely on a nonhuman adenovirus. We established mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) infection of BALB\\/c SCID mice as a model for the evaluation of antiadenovirus therapy. In vitro studies with mouse

L. Lenaerts; E. Verbeken; E. De Clercq; L. Naesens

2005-01-01

161

What Are Educational Indicators and Indicator Systems? ERIC/TM Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational indicator systems are similar to indicator systems used to monitor the economy, the criminal justice system, or other social systems. Governments recognize the value of statistics that provide current information and make trend analysis and forecasts possible. Education statistics will qualify as indicators only if they serve as…

Shavelson, Richard J.; And Others

162

Merits of the fat-tailed Barbarine sheep raised in different production systems in Tunisia: digestive, productive and reproductive characteristics.  

PubMed

Barbarine sheep is the dominant breed in Tunisia. This fat-tailed breed present in all production systems is characterised by metabolic and digestive adaptation to the contrasting environment conditions prevailing in the country (heat stress, water deprivation, salinity etc.). The fat tail (1.5 to 7 kg) is an energy reservoir that is used in periods of feed scarcity. Moreover, the rumen of this breed harbours a microflora enabling it to valorize low-quality roughages and native range vegetation. Barbarine sheep could make benefit from a wide range of local feed resources like fodder shrubs (e.g. cactus and oldman saltbushes), tannin-containing shrubs (e.g. Acacia cyanophylla) and agro-industrial by-products (e.g. olive cake, bran etc. conserved in the form of feed blocks or pellets). It has a very shallow anoestrous, the intensity of which is dependant upon nutrition conditions rather than day length as temperate breeds. Productive and reproductive performances of late pregnant-early suckling, pre-mating ewes and also rams of this breed are not affected when some alternative feed resources replace common feedstuffs which are expensive and cannot afford regularly to smallholders. In brief, the merits of the Barbarine sheep in the production systems and other main adaptive mechanisms of this breed are discussed in this paper. The prospective of Barbarine sheep husbandry in the system dynamics, climate change and the evolution of the socioeconomic context are also envisaged. PMID:21533615

Ben Salem, Hichem; Lassoued, Narjess; Rekik, Mourad

2011-04-30

163

1274 Full-Open Reading Frames of Transcripts Expressed in the Developing Mouse Nervous System  

PubMed Central

As part of the trans-National Institutes of Health (NIH) Mouse Brain Molecular Anatomy Project (BMAP), and in close coordination with the NIH Mammalian Gene Collection Program (MGC), we initiated a large-scale project to clone, identify, and sequence the complete open reading frame (ORF) of transcripts expressed in the developing mouse nervous system. Here we report the analysis of the ORF sequence of 1274 cDNAs, obtained from 47 full-length-enriched cDNA libraries, constructed by using a novel approach, herein described. cDNA libraries were derived from size-fractionated cytoplasmic mRNA isolated from brain and eye tissues obtained at several embryonic stages and postnatal days. Altogether, including the full-ORF MGC sequences derived from these libraries by the MGC sequencing team, NIH_BMAP full-ORF sequences correspond to ?20% of all transcripts currently represented in mouse MGC. We show that NIH_BMAP clones comprise 68% of mouse MGC cDNAs ?5 kb, and 54% of those ?4 kb, as of March 15, 2004. Importantly, we identified transcripts, among the 1274 full-ORF sequences, that are exclusively or predominantly expressed in brain and eye tissues, many of which encode yet uncharacterized proteins.

Bonaldo, Maria F.; Bair, Thomas B.; Scheetz, Todd E.; Snir, Einat; Akabogu, Ike; Bair, Jennifer L.; Berger, Brian; Crouch, Keith; Davis, Aja; Eyestone, Mari E.; Keppel, Catherine; Kucaba, Tamara A.; Lebeck, Mark; Lin, Jenny L.; de Melo, Anna I.R.; Rehmann, Joshua; Reiter, Rebecca S.; Schaefer, Kelly; Smith, Christina; Tack, Dylan; Trout, Kurtis; Sheffield, Val C.; Lin, Jim J-C.; Casavant, Thomas L.; Soares, Marcelo B.

2004-01-01

164

An Inducible and Reversible Mouse Genetic Rescue System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inducible and reversible regulation of gene expression is a powerful approach for uncovering gene function. We have established a general method to efficiently produce reversible and inducible gene knockout and rescue in mice. In this system, which we named iKO, the target gene can be turned on and off at will by treating the mice with doxycycline. This method combines

Hongkui Zeng; Kyoji Horie; Linda Madisen; Maria N. Pavlova; Galina Gragerova; Alex D. Rohde; Brian A. Schimpf; Yuqiong Liang; Ethan Ojala; Farah Kramer; Patricia Roth; Olga Slobodskaya; Io Dolka; Eileen A. Southon; Lino Tessarollo; Karin E. Bornfeldt; Alexander Gragerov; George N. Pavlakis; George A. Gaitanaris

2008-01-01

165

Poliovirus Induces Apoptosis in the Mouse Central Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poliovirus (PV) is the etiological agent of human paralytic poliomyelitis. Paralysis results from the destruc- tion of motoneurons, a consequence of PV replication. However, the PV-induced process leading to the death of motoneurons is not well known. We investigated whether PV-induced central nervous system (CNS) injury is associated with apoptosis by using mice as animal models. Transgenic mice expressing the

SOPHIE GIRARD; THERESE COUDERC; JOSETTE DESTOMBES; DANIELE THIESSON; FRANCIS DELPEYROUX; BRUNO BLONDEL

1999-01-01

166

A high bandwidth fully implantable mouse telemetry system for chronic ECG measurement.  

PubMed

We report on the development of a novel system that enables the wireless transmission of high-bandwidth physiological data from a freely moving mouse. The system employs inductive power transfer (IPT) to continuously power a battery-less transmitter using an array of overlapping planar coils placed under the animal. This arrangement provides a minimum of 20 mW at all locations and orientations across the mouse cage by selecting a coil which will sufficiently power the transmitter. Coil selection is performed by feedback control across the 2.4 GHz wireless link. A device was constructed utilizing this novel IPT system and was used to capture high-fidelity electrocardiogram (ECG) signal sampled at 2 kHz in mice. Various attributes of the ECG signal such as QT, QRS, and PR intervals could be obtained with a high degree of accuracy. This system potentially provides lifetime continuous high bandwidth measurement of physiological signals from a fully implanted telemeter in a freely moving mouse. PMID:22256114

Russell, David M; McCormick, Daniel; Taberner, Andrew J; Malpas, Simon C; Budgett, David M

2011-01-01

167

A systematic evaluation of hybridization-based mouse exome capture system  

PubMed Central

Background Exome sequencing is increasingly used to search for phenotypically-relevant sequence variants in the mouse genome. All of the current hybridization-based mouse exome capture systems are designed based on the genome reference sequences of the C57BL/6 J strain. Given that the substantial sequence divergence exists between C57BL/6 J and other distantly-related strains, the impact of sequence divergence on the efficiency of such capture systems needs to be systematically evaluated before they can be widely applied to the study of those strains. Results Using the Agilent SureSelect mouse exome capture system, we performed exome sequencing on F1 generation hybrid mice that were derived by crossing two divergent strains, C57BL/6 J and SPRET/EiJ. Our results showed that the C57BL/6 J-based probes captured the sequences derived from C57BL/6 J alleles more efficiently and that the bias was higher for the target regions with greater sequence divergence. At low sequencing depths, the bias also affected the efficiency of variant detection. However, the effects became negligible when sufficient sequencing depth was achieved. Conclusion Sufficient sequence depth needs to be planned to match the sequence divergence between C57BL/6 J and the strain to be studied, when the C57BL/6 J–based Agilent SureSelect exome capture system is to be used.

2013-01-01

168

Contrasting Quiescent G0 Phase with Mitotic Cell Cycling in the Mouse Immune System  

PubMed Central

A transgenic mouse line expressing Fucci (fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator) probes allows us to monitor the cell cycle in the hematopoietic system. Two populations with high and low intensities of Fucci signals for Cdt1(30/120) accumulation were identified by FACS analysis, and these correspond to quiescent G0 and cycling G1 cells, respectively. We observed the transition of immune cells between quiescent and proliferative phases in lymphoid organs during differentiation and immune responses.

Takase-Utsugi, Mitsuyo; Hata, Akihiro; Ohtawa, Kenji; Kanagawa, Osami; Miyawaki, Atsushi

2013-01-01

169

Avoiding digester upset.  

PubMed

The acetate uptake bioassay (AUB) is a predictive measure for determining the stability of anaerobic digesters, but its use is rare due to the limited availability of gas chromatography equipment at wastewater treatment facilities. A water displacement system was compared and evaluated as an alternative to gas chromatography analysis for conducting the AUB. Results indicated that methane generation rates measured by the two methods were statistically the same. Precision of the method varied by less than 5%. Accuracy was quantified by measuring near stoichiometric volumes of carbon dioxide gas production from abiotic tests using sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. The method detection limit (MDL) was 0.6 mL. The effective use of a water displacement system as a surrogate for gas chromatography analysis could make the adoption of the AUB for predicting digester stability a practical option for treatment facilities. PMID:23697236

Thompson, Phillip L; Jiencke, Frederick W; Reinhart, Shawn W; Reha, Meghan E; Byrne, Samuel S

2013-04-01

170

Abstracting Continuous System Behaviours into Timed Automata: Application to Diagnosis of an Anaerobic Digestion Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstracting 'continuous' system behaviours into discrete-event representations (i.e., timed automata) for diagnosis purposes is demonstrated in this paper. As complex system dynamics are often partially known, the resulting imprecision on continuous variables is represented by means of intervals partitioning the state space according to landmarks defined by expert knowledge. Based on a continuous model simulation, an algorithm assigns discrete labels

Arnaud Hélias; François Guerrin; Jean-Philippe Steyer

171

Establishment of a transport system for mouse epididymal sperm at refrigerated temperatures.  

PubMed

The exchange of genetically engineered mouse strains between research facilities requires transporting fresh mouse sperm under refrigerated temperatures. Although sperm generally maintains fertility for 48 h at cold temperatures, in vitro fertilization rates of C57BL/6 mouse sperm are low after 48-h cold storage. Furthermore, 48 h is often not sufficient for the specimens to reach their destinations. To increase the availability of this technology, we aimed to extend the cold storage period while maintaining sperm fertility. In this study, we determined the optimal medium for sperm preservation and evaluated the effect of reduced glutathione in the fertilization medium on sperm fertility after cold storage. We found that higher fertility levels were maintained after 72-h cold storage in the preservation medium Lifor compared with storage in paraffin oil, M2 medium, or CPS-1 medium. In addition, 1.0 mM glutathione enhanced sperm fertility. After transporting sperm from Asahikawa Medical University to our laboratory, embryos were efficiently produced from the cold-stored sperm. After transfer, these embryos developed normally into live pups. Finally, we tested the transport system using genetically engineered mouse strains and obtained similar high fertilization rates with all specimens. In summary, we demonstrated that cold storage of sperm in Lifor maintains fertility, and glutathione supplementation increased the in vitro fertilization rates of sperm after up to 96 h of cold storage. This improved protocol provides a simple alternative to transporting live animals or cryopreserved samples for the exchange of genetically engineered mouse strains among research facilities. PMID:22722060

Takeo, Toru; Tsutsumi, Aki; Omaru, Taichi; Fukumoto, Kiyoko; Haruguchi, Yukie; Kondo, Tomoko; Nakamuta, Yuko; Takeshita, Yumi; Matsunaga, Hiroko; Tsuchiyama, Shuuji; Sakoh, Kazuhito; Nakao, Satohiro; Yoshimoto, Hidetaka; Shimizu, Norihiko; Nakagata, Naomi

2012-06-18

172

Pumilio-2 Function in the Mouse Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Coordinated mRNA translation at the synapse is increasingly recognized as a critical mechanism for neuronal regulation. Pumilio, a translational regulator, is known to be involved in neuronal homeostasis and memory formation in Drosophila. Most recently, the mammalian Pumilio homolog Pumilio-2 (Pum2) has been found to play a role in the mammalian nervous system, in particular in regulating morphology, arborization and excitability of neuronal dendrites, in vitro. However, the role of Pum2 in vivo remains unclear. Here, we report our investigation of the functional and molecular consequences of Pum2 disruption in vivo using an array of neurophysiology, behavioral and gene expression profiling techniques. We used Pum2-deficient mice to monitor in vivo brain activity using EEG and to study behavior traits, including memory, locomotor activity and nesting capacities. Because of the suspected role of Pum2 in neuronal excitability, we also examined the susceptibility to seizure induction. Finally, we used a quantitative gene expression profiling assay to identify key molecular partners of Pum2. We found that Pum2-deficient mice have abnormal behavioral strategies in spatial and object memory test. Additionally, Pum2 deficiency is associated with increased locomotor activity and decreased body weight. We also observed environmentally-induced impairment in nesting behavior. Most importantly, Pum2-deficient mice showed spontaneous EEG abnormalities and had lower seizure thresholds using a convulsing dosage of pentylenetetrazole. Finally, some genes, including neuronal ion channels, were differentially expressed in the hippocampus of Pum2-deficient mice. These findings demonstrate that Pum2 serves key functions in the adult mammalian central nervous system encompassing neuronal excitability and behavioral response to environmental challenges.

Heller, H. Craig; Brustle, Oliver; Reijo Pera, Renee A.

2011-01-01

173

MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTER?CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental plant was constituted for an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor with an active volume of 25.5 m and two horizontal constructed wetlands of 75 m each. The first wetland was a superficial flow (SF) system and the second a subsurface flow (SSF) system. The UASB reactor was fed with 60–73 m3 d of raw domestic wastewater from

I. Ruiz; J. A. Álvarez; M. A. Díaz; L. Serrano; M. Soto

2008-01-01

174

Nestling Digestive Physiology and Begging  

Microsoft Academic Search

As birds grow, increases in food intake rate are matched by increases in mass of the alimentary system and\\/or mass-specific\\u000a enzyme activity. In overfed nestlings, digesta retention time seems to decline and food is digested less efficiently. These\\u000a observations are consistent with the idea that digestive capacity limits food intake and thus growth. When this is so, successful\\u000a information transfer

William H. Karasov; Jonathan Wright

175

A new self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for poorly soluble drugs: characterization, dissolution, in vitro digestion and incorporation into solid pellets.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was the development of a new pellet based self-emulsifying (SE) drug delivery system for the oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate the influence of physiological dilution media and enzymatic digestion on the solubilization capacity of the formulation for the model drug Progesterone. Lipid mixtures composed of Solutol HS 15 and medium chain glycerides were optimized with respect to their self-emulsifying properties. The liquid SE lipid was mixed with microcrystalline cellulose and transformed into pellets by extrusion/spheronization. The pellets were characterized for size, shape, surface characteristics and friability. In vitro dissolution and digestion experiments were carried out using physiological dissolution media. The droplet diameter of the dispersed SE mixtures was largely affected by changing the oil to Solutol HS 15 ratio. Moreover, digestion of SE mixtures changed the solubilization capacity for Progesterone. Pellets with good properties (size, shape and friability) have been produced through the incorporation of a selected SE mixture into MCC. In conclusion, extrusion/spheronization is a suitable process to produce solid self-emulsifying pellets with up to 40% load of a liquid SE mixture. Digestion induces a change in lipid composition which affects the solubilization capacity of the lipid phase. PMID:18940249

Abdalla, Ahmed; Klein, Sandra; Mäder, Karsten

2008-10-01

176

Feeding of pellets rich in digestible neutral detergent fiber to lactating cows in an automatic milking system.  

PubMed

If the milking frequency in an automatic milking system (AMS) is increased, the intake of concentrated pellets in the robot may be raised accordingly. Consumption of a large quantity of starchy grains within a short time can impair the appetite, decrease voluntary visits to the milking stall, and lower intakes of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Therefore, the hypothesis to be tested in this study was whether conventional starchy pellets fed in the AMS could be replaced with pellets rich in digestible NDF without impairing the cows' motivation to visit a milking stall voluntarily. Fifty-four cows were paired according to age, milk yield, and days in milk, and were fed a basic mixture along the feeding lane (19.9 kg of DM/cow per d), plus a pelleted additive (approximately 5.4 kg of DM/cow per d) that they obtained in the milking stall and in the concentrate self-feeder that they could enter only after passing through the milking stall. The 2 feeding regimens differed only in the composition of the pelleted additive, which, for the control group, contained 49% starchy grain, and for the experimental group contained 25% starchy grain plus soy hulls and gluten feed as replacement for part of the grain and other low-digestible, NDF-rich feeds. Both diets resulted in similar rates of voluntary milkings (3.31 vs. 3.39 visits/cow per d). Average yields of milk and percentages of milk protein were also similar in the 2 groups. The results suggest that an alternative pellet composition can be allocated in the AMS in conjunction with basic mixture in the feeding lane, without any negative effect on appetite, milk yield, milk composition, or milking frequency of the cows. It also opens the opportunity to increase yields of milk and milk solids by increasing the amount of pelleted concentrates that can be allocated to selected high-yielding cows via the AMS, because this can be done while maintaining a high frequency of voluntary milkings. PMID:16840642

Halachmi, I; Shoshani, E; Solomon, R; Maltz, E; Miron, J

2006-08-01

177

Regeneration and characterization of adult mouse hippocampal neurons in a defined in vitro system.  

PubMed

Although the majority of human illnesses occur during adulthood, most of the available in vitro disease models are based upon cells obtained from embryonic/fetal tissues because of the difficulties involved with culturing adult cells. Development of adult mouse neuronal cultures has a special significance because of the abundance of transgenic disease models that use this species. In this study a novel cell culture method has been developed that supports the long-term survival and physiological regeneration of adult mouse hippocampal cells in a serum-free defined environment. In this well-defined, controlled system, adult mouse hippocampal cells survived for up to 21 days in culture. The cultured cells exhibited typical hippocampal neuronal morphology and electrophysiological properties after recovery from the trauma of dissociation, and stained positive for the expected neuronal markers. This system has great potential as an investigative tool for in vitro studies of adult diseases, the aging brain or transgenic models of age-associated disorders. PMID:18955083

Varghese, Kucku; Das, Mainak; Bhargava, Neelima; Stancescu, Maria; Molnar, Peter; Kindy, Mark S; Hickman, James J

2008-10-07

178

A Support System for Mouse Operations Using Eye-Gaze Input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an eye-gaze input system for people with severe physical disabilities, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. This system utilizes a personal computer and a home video camera to detect eye-gaze under natural light. The system detects both vertical and horizontal eye-gaze by simple image analysis, and does not require special image processing units or sensors. Our conventional eye-gaze input system can detect horizontal eye-gaze with a high degree of accuracy. However, it can only classify vertical eye-gaze into 3 directions (up, middle and down). In this paper, we propose a new method for vertical eye-gaze detection. This method utilizes the limbus tracking method for vertical eye-gaze detection. Therefore our new eye-gaze input system can detect the two-dimension coordinates of user's gazing point. By using this method, we develop a new support system for mouse operation. This system can move the mouse cursor to user's gazing point.

Abe, Kiyohiko; Nakayama, Yasuhiro; Ohi, Shoichi; Ohyama, Minoru

179

The characteristics of DNA methylation in an in vitro DNA synthesizing system from mouse fibroblasts.  

PubMed Central

An in vitro DNA synthesizing system from mouse fibroblasts has been used to study DNA methylation. DNA methylation occurs in two phases, one at the replication fork and the other farther behind it. Although 4% of the dCMP residues in mouse cell DNA are mdCMP, only 1.7% of the total [alpha 32P]dCMP in newly replicated DNA is methylated in vitro. No methylation of Okazaki fragments was detected. Nearest neighbor analysis of the newly replicated DNA revealed that, although 40% of the CpG dinucleotides were methylated, significant amounts of cytosine methylation were also found in CpC, CpT, and CpA dinucleotides.

Grafstrom, R H; Yuan, R; Hamilton, D L

1985-01-01

180

Spontaneous mutations in the mouse Sharpin gene result in multiorgan inflammation, immune system dysregulation and dermatitis.  

PubMed

Homologues of the SHARPIN (SHANK-associated RH domain-interacting protein) gene have been identified in the human, rat and mouse genomes. SHARPIN and its homologues are expressed in many tissues. SHARPIN protein forms homodimers and associates with SHANK in the post-synaptic density of excitatory neurotransmitters in the brain. SHARPIN is hypothesized to have roles in the crosslinking of SHANK proteins and in enteric nervous system function. We demonstrate that two independently arising spontaneous mutations in the mouse Sharpin gene, cpdm and cpdm(Dem), cause a chronic proliferative dermatitis phenotype, which is characterized histologically by severe inflammation, eosinophilic dermatitis and defects in secondary lymphoid organ development. These are the first examples of disease-causing mutations in the Sharpin gene and demonstrate the importance of SHARPIN protein in normal immune development and control of inflammation. PMID:17538631

Seymour, R E; Hasham, M G; Cox, G A; Shultz, L D; Hogenesch, H; Roopenian, D C; Sundberg, J P

2007-05-31

181

MADM-ML, a Mouse Genetic Mosaic System with Increased Clonal Efficiency.  

PubMed

Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM) is a mouse genetic system that allows simultaneous gene knockout and fluorescent labeling of sparse, clonally-related cells within an otherwise normal mouse, thereby circumventing embryonic lethality problems and providing single-cell resolution for phenotypic analysis in vivo. The clonal efficiency of MADM is intrinsically low because it relies on Cre/loxP-mediated mitotic recombination between two homologous chromosomes rather than within the same chromosome, as in the case of conditional knockout (CKO). Although sparse labeling enhances in vivo resolution, the original MADM labels too few or even no cells when a low-expressing Cre transgene is used or a small population of cells is studied. Recently, we described the usage of a new system, MADM-ML, which contains three mutually exclusive, self-recognizing loxP variant sites as opposed to a single loxP site present in the original MADM system (referred to as MADM-SL in this paper). Here we carefully compared the recombination efficiency between MADM-SL and MADM-ML using the same Cre transgene, and found that the new system labels significantly more cells than the original system does. When we established mouse medulloblastoma models with both the original and the new MADM systems, we found that, while the MADM-SL model suffered from varied tumor progression and incomplete penetrance, the MADM-ML model had consistent tumor progression and full penetrance of tumor formation. Therefore MADM-ML, with its higher recombination efficiency, will broaden the applicability of MADM for studying many biological questions including normal development and disease modeling at cellular resolution in vivo. PMID:24143253

Henner, Astra; Ventura, P Britten; Jiang, Ying; Zong, Hui

2013-10-15

182

MADM-ML, a Mouse Genetic Mosaic System with Increased Clonal Efficiency  

PubMed Central

Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM) is a mouse genetic system that allows simultaneous gene knockout and fluorescent labeling of sparse, clonally-related cells within an otherwise normal mouse, thereby circumventing embryonic lethality problems and providing single-cell resolution for phenotypic analysis in vivo. The clonal efficiency of MADM is intrinsically low because it relies on Cre/loxP-mediated mitotic recombination between two homologous chromosomes rather than within the same chromosome, as in the case of conditional knockout (CKO). Although sparse labeling enhances in vivo resolution, the original MADM labels too few or even no cells when a low-expressing Cre transgene is used or a small population of cells is studied. Recently, we described the usage of a new system, MADM-ML, which contains three mutually exclusive, self-recognizing loxP variant sites as opposed to a single loxP site present in the original MADM system (referred to as MADM-SL in this paper). Here we carefully compared the recombination efficiency between MADM-SL and MADM-ML using the same Cre transgene, and found that the new system labels significantly more cells than the original system does. When we established mouse medulloblastoma models with both the original and the new MADM systems, we found that, while the MADM-SL model suffered from varied tumor progression and incomplete penetrance, the MADM-ML model had consistent tumor progression and full penetrance of tumor formation. Therefore MADM-ML, with its higher recombination efficiency, will broaden the applicability of MADM for studying many biological questions including normal development and disease modeling at cellular resolution in vivo.

Henner, Astra; Ventura, P. Britten; Jiang, Ying; Zong, Hui

2013-01-01

183

The selective recognition of antibody IgY for digestive system cancers.  

PubMed

Biological methods for cancer therapies are very important. A small and efficient target carrier is the key component for anti-cancer drugs. In our laboratory, the antibody IgY was extracted from egg yolk of a SPF hen. The SPF hen was immunized with an antigene of P110 protein which was purified from human stomach cancer MGC-803 cells. Results indicated that the antibody IgY can specifically recognize gastrointestinal system cancers. It may become an important carrier for antitumorigenic drugs. PMID:9343706

Yang, J; Jin, Z; Yu, Q; Yang, T; Wang, H; Liu, L

1997-01-01

184

Ontogeny and distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatases in the digestive system of California halibut larvae (Paralichthys californicus).  

PubMed

Studies aimed to assess the digestive physiology of marine fish larvae under culture conditions are important to further understand the functional characteristics and digestive capacities of the developing larvae. Most studies to date concentrate on intestinal lumen digestion and little attention to the absorption process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to histochemically detect and quantify some of the enzymes responsible for absorption and intracellular digestion of nutrients in the anterior and posterior intestine of California halibut larvae. Alkaline and acid phosphatases were detected from the first days post-hatch (dph). Alkaline phosphatase maintained a high level of activity during the first 20 dph in both intestinal regions. Thereafter, a clear intestinal regionalization of the activity was observed with the highest levels occurring in the anterior intestine. Acid phosphatase activity gradually increased in both intestinal regions during development, and a regionalization of the activity was not observed until late in development, once the ocular migration began. Highest levels were observed in the anterior intestine at the end of metamorphosis concomitant with the stomach development. The results from this study show some morphological and physiological changes are occurring during larval development and a clear regionalization of the absorption process as the larvae develops. These ontological changes must be considered in the elaboration of diets according to the digestive capacity of the larvae. PMID:23508366

Zacarias-Soto, Magali; Barón-Sevilla, Benjamín; Lazo, Juan P

2013-03-19

185

Hypothalamic neurosecretory and circadian vasopressinergic neuronal systems in the blind cone-rod homeobox knockout mouse (crx(-/-) ) and the 129sv wild-type mouse.  

PubMed

Vasopressin (AVP) is both a neuroendocrine hormone located in magnocellular neurosecretory neurons of the hypothalamus of mammals but also a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the parvocellular suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN is the endogenous clock of the brain and exhibits a prominent circadian AVP rhythm. We have in this study of the brown 129sv mouse and the visual blind cone-rod homeobox gene knock out mouse (Crx(-/-) ) with degeneration of the retinal rods and cones, but a preserved non-image forming optic system, studied the temporal Avp expression in both the neurosecretory magnocellular and parvocellular vasopressinergic systems in both genotypes. We here present a detailed mapping of all classical hypothalamopituitary and accessory magnocellular nuclei and neurons in the hypothalamus by use of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in both genotypes. Semiquantitative in situ hybridization revealed a very high expression of Avp mRNA in all the magnocellular nuclei compared with a much lower level in the parvocellular suprachiasmatic nucleus. In a series of mice killed every 4 hours, the Avp mRNA expression in the SCN showed a significant daily rhythm with a zenith at late day time and nadir during the dark in both the Crx(-/-) and the wild type mouse. None of the magnocellular neurosecretory neurons exhibited a diurnal vasopressin expression. Light stimulation of both genotypes during the dark period did not change the Avp expression in the SCN. This shows that Avp expression in the mouse SCN is independent of Crx-regulated photoreceptor systems. J. Comp. Neurol. 521:4061-4074, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23784879

Rovsing, Louise; Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Møller, Morten

2013-12-01

186

Fate of pathogen indicators in a domestic blend of food waste and wastewater through a two-stage anaerobic digestion system.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion is a viable on-site treatment technology for rich organic waste streams such as food waste and blackwater. In contrast to large-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants which are typically located away from the community, the effluent from any type of on-site system is a potential pathogenic hazard because of the intimacy of the system to the community. The native concentrations of the pathogen indicators Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and somatic coliphage were tracked for 30 days under stable operation (organic loading rate (OLR) = 1.8 kgCOD m(-3) day(-1), methane yield = 52% on a chemical oxygen demand (COD) basis) of a two-stage laboratory-scale digester treating a mixture of food waste and blackwater. E. coli numbers were reduced by a factor of 10(6.4) in the thermophilic stage, from 10(7.5±0.3) to 10(1.1±0.1) cfu 100 mL(-1), but regenerated by a factor of 10(4) in the mesophilic stage. Neither the thermophilic nor mesophilic stages had any significant impact on C. perfringens concentrations. Coliphage concentrations were reduced by a factor of 10(1.4) across the two stages. The study shows that anaerobic digestion only reduces pathogen counts marginally but that counts in effluent samples could be readily reduced to below detection limits by filtration through a 0.22 µm membrane, to investigate membrane filtration as a possible sanitation technique. PMID:23168637

Rounsefell, B D; O'Sullivan, C A; Chinivasagam, N; Batstone, D; Clarke, W P

2013-01-01

187

Effect of immune system stimulation and divergent selection for residual feed intake on digestive capacity of the small intestine in growing pigs.  

PubMed

Little is known of the consequences of divergent selection for residual feed intake (RFI) on intestinal digestion capacity, particularly during immune system stimulation (ISS). Our objective was to evaluate the impact of ISS and divergent selection for RFI on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent fecal digestibility (AFD) of nutrients and intestinal nutrient active transport and barrier function. Twenty-eight gilts (63 ± 4 kg BW) from low RFI (LRFI; n = 14) and high RFI (HRFI; n = 14) Yorkshire lines were randomly selected from the Iowa State University RFI herd. Following adaptation, 8 pigs in each line were injected intramuscularly and every 48 h for 7 d with increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+). Remaining pigs were injected with saline (ISS-). Pigs were then euthanized and ileal digesta was collected for measuring AID of nutrients. Fecal samples were collected on a daily basis and pooled for measuring AFD of nutrients. A segment of ileum was used to measure nutrient transport and transepithelial resistance (TER) and/or barrier integrity by Ussing chambers. No effects of line or its interaction with ISS on AID of CP (N × 6.25) and OM, TER, and active nutrients transport were observed. However, ISS decreased (P < 0.05) and tended to (P < 0.1) decrease AID of CP and OM, respectively. Decrease in AFD of CP as result of ISS was greater in the LRFI line compared to the HRFI line (P < 0.05). Relative to ISS-, active glucose and P transport was greater in ISS+ pigs (P < 0.05). Genetic selection for LRFI increases the AFD but has no effect on AID of nutrients. It also reduces the total tract digestive capacity of growing pigs during ISS. Immune system stimulation affects both AID and AFD of dietary CP. PMID:23365340

Rakhshandeh, A; Dekkers, J C M; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; English, J; Gabler, N K

2012-12-01

188

Your Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... ih-SOF-eh-guss) is like a stretchy pipe that's about 10 inches (25 centimeters) long. It ... so your body can absorb all the vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates , and fats. The grilled chicken on ...

189

Incentives for Accountability. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policymakers and educators are taking a new look at incentives as they work to improve accountability systems. This ERIC Digest examines the role of rewards and sanctions in school reform and identifies key issues in implementing incentive systems. The new accountability is based on five components: carefully designed standards, assessments…

Lashway, Larry

190

Development of an on-line SPR-digestion-nanoLC-MS/MS system for the quantification and identification of interferon-gamma in plasma.  

PubMed

An automated, on-line system for protein quantification and identification, employing Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), enzymatic protein digestion, nanoLC and tandem-MS (MS/MS), has been developed. For the experiments recombinant human interferon-gamma (rhIFN-gamma) in buffer or diluted bovine plasma was used as a model protein. Upon injecting 90muL of a 1mugmL(-1) solution of rhIFN-gamma in diluted plasma at a flow rate of 10muLmin(-1), 320fmol of protein was reproducibly bound to the sensor surface. After desorption of the isolated protein from the SPR surface using 10mM glycine pH 1.3, on-line digestion, nanoLC and MS/MS analysis, rhIFN-gamma could be identified on basis of peptide masses and MS/MS fragmentation data. A sequence recovery of 66% was found when a pepsin micro reactor was used. For a trypsin micro reactor the sequence recovery was 50%. In the latter case, the desorbed protein solution was pH-tuned with a TRIS buffer for optimal enzyme activity. With the identified trypsin- and pepsin-produced peptides and because parts of their amino acid sequences overlap, the protein sequence can be largely elucidated showing the potential for the analysis of unknown proteins. The SPR-digestion-nanoLC-MS/MS platform provides unattended analysis of a sample within 60min. PMID:19157843

Stigter, E C A; de Jong, G J; van Bennekom, W P

2008-12-06

191

Establishment of an exogenous LIF-free culture system for mouse embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) have played a key role in the newly emerging fields of stem cell research. The traditional derivation and culture of mESCs have been based on the use of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) treated with exogenous leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). However, the rapid senescence of MEFs, coupled with the high cost of LIF, has significantly hampered the widespread use of mESCs in stem cell research. Thus, we present a novel exogenous LIF-free culture system for general mESCs applications, comprising fibroblast-like cells derived from the rabbit spleen (RSFs). We demonstrated that mESCs cultured on RSFs (mESCs-RSFs) maintained all mESC features after prolonged LIF-free culture, including alkaline phosphatase, cell surface markers (SSEA-1), molecular markers (OCT-4, NANOG, TERT, REX-1), karyotype, and pluripotency. The high expression level of both LIF and WNT3A in the RSFs may account for their ability to maintain mESCs without exogenous LIF. Moreover, this exogenous LIF-free culture system was verified to be of microbiological quality through analysis with electron transmission microscopy. PMID:19751113

Feng, Shumei; Mo, Lijuan; Wu, Rongrong; Chen, Xiaopan; Zhang, Ming

2009-09-01

192

Toward a Systems Biology of Mouse Inner Ear Organogenesis: Gene Expression Pathways, Patterns and Network Analysis  

PubMed Central

We describe the most comprehensive study to date on gene expression during mouse inner ear (IE) organogenesis. Samples were microdissected from mouse embryos at E9–E15 in half-day intervals, a period that spans all of IE organogenesis. These included separate dissections of all discernible IE substructures such as the cochlea, utricle, and saccule. All samples were analyzed on high density expression microarrays under strict statistical filters. Extensive confirmatory tests were performed, including RNA in situ hybridizations. More than 5000 genes significantly varied in expression according to developmental stage, tissue, or both and defined 28 distinct expression patterns. For example, upregulation of 315 genes provided a clear-cut “signature” of early events in IE specification. Additional, clear-cut, gene expression signatures marked specific structures such as the cochlea, utricle, or saccule throughout late IE development. Pathway analysis identified 53 signaling cascades enriched within the 28 patterns. Many novel pathways, not previously implicated in IE development, including ?-adrenergic, amyloid, estrogen receptor, circadian rhythm, and immune system pathways, were identified. Finally, we identified positional candidate genes in 54 uncloned nonsyndromic human deafness intervals. This detailed analysis provides many new insights into the spatial and temporal genetic specification of this complex organ system.

Sajan, Samin A.; Warchol, Mark E.; Lovett, Michael

2007-01-01

193

Comparison of mouse embryo development in open and microdrop co-culture systems.  

PubMed

Co-culture with numerous cell lines has been shown to improve in-vitro embryo development. It is usually performed in open culture without an oil overlay, or in relatively large volumes of medium (e.g. 0.5 ml) under oil. We compared the efficacy of open and microdrop co-culture systems using human endometrial and tubal cell lines and mouse zygotes. Although the mean pH values of the media from the tubal cell cultures (both open and oil-covered) decreased significantly over 5 days of culture, this did not appear to impair embryo development. Both co-culture and microdrop culture significantly improved blastocyst and hatching blastocyst formation rates. The combination of the two techniques (microdrop and co-culture) demonstrated the highest blastocyst formation and hatching blastocyst formation rates, as well as the highest mean cell numbers in hatching blastocysts. Co-culture in a microdrop is a superior system for mouse embryo culture. PMID:8943534

Sherbahn, R; Frasor, J; Radwanska, E; Binor, Z; Wood-Molo, M; Hibner, M; Mack, S; Rawlins, R G

1996-10-01

194

Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor are increased and correlate with malnutrition, immunosuppression involving MDSCs and systemic inflammation in patients with cancer of the digestive system  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) reportedly has an important role in the progression of malignant neoplasms and has been reported to induce myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that appear in cancer and inflammation. In the present study, serum concentrations of VEGF were measured in patients with digestive system cancer and the correlations with nutritional damage, immune suppression and systemic inflammation were analyzed. A significant increase in VEGF serum levels was observed in patients with esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers compared with healthy volunteers. Levels of VEGF were inversely correlated with the serum concentrations of albumin, prealbumin and retinol-binding protein. The serum concentrations of VEGF were inversely correlated with the production of interleukin (IL)-12 and correlated with MDSC counts. VEGF levels were also correlated with neutrophil and neutrophil/lymphocyte counts and inversely correlated with lymphocyte count. Serum VEGF levels were divided at a cutoff of 500 pg/ml, with levels of prealbumin and retinol-binding protein significantly decreased in patients with higher VEGF levels. The stimulation index and IL-12 production were significantly decreased in the group with higher VEGF levels and MDSC counts tended to be higher in this group. These results demonstrated that increased production of VEGF was correlated with systemic inflammation, nutritional impairment and the inhibition of cell-mediated immunity involving MDSCs.

NAKAMURA, IZUMI; SHIBATA, MASAHIKO; GONDA, KENJI; YAZAWA, TAKASHI; SHIMURA, TATSUO; ANAZAWA, TAKAYUKI; SUZUKI, SATOSHI; SAKURAI, KENICHI; KOYAMA, YOSHIHISA; OHTO, HITOSHI; TOMITA, RYOUICHI; GOTOH, MITSUKAZU; TAKENOSHITA, SEIICHI

2013-01-01

195

Accelerating discovery for complex neurological and behavioral disorders through systems genetics and integrative genomics in the laboratory mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in systems genetics and integrative functional genomics have greatly improved the study of complex neurological and behavioral traits. The methods developed for the integrated characterization of new, high-resolution mouse genetic reference populations and systems genetics enable behavioral geneticists an unprecedented opportunity to address questions of the molecular basis of neurological and psychiatric disorders and their comorbidities. Integrative genomics

Jason A Bubier; Elissa J Chesler

2012-01-01

196

A microbial clock provides an accurate estimate of the postmortem interval in a mouse model system.  

PubMed

Establishing the time since death is critical in every death investigation, yet existing techniques are susceptible to a range of errors and biases. For example, forensic entomology is widely used to assess the postmortem interval (PMI), but errors can range from days to months. Microbes may provide a novel method for estimating PMI that avoids many of these limitations. Here we show that postmortem microbial community changes are dramatic, measurable, and repeatable in a mouse model system, allowing PMI to be estimated within approximately 3 days over 48 days. Our results provide a detailed understanding of bacterial and microbial eukaryotic ecology within a decomposing corpse system and suggest that microbial community data can be developed into a forensic tool for estimating PMI. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01104.001. PMID:24137541

Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lauber, Christian L; Knights, Dan; Ackermann, Gail; Humphrey, Gregory C; Gebert, Matthew J; Van Treuren, Will; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Keepers, Kyle; Guo, Yan; Bullard, James; Fierer, Noah; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

2013-10-15

197

A microbial clock provides an accurate estimate of the postmortem interval in a mouse model system  

PubMed Central

Establishing the time since death is critical in every death investigation, yet existing techniques are susceptible to a range of errors and biases. For example, forensic entomology is widely used to assess the postmortem interval (PMI), but errors can range from days to months. Microbes may provide a novel method for estimating PMI that avoids many of these limitations. Here we show that postmortem microbial community changes are dramatic, measurable, and repeatable in a mouse model system, allowing PMI to be estimated within approximately 3 days over 48 days. Our results provide a detailed understanding of bacterial and microbial eukaryotic ecology within a decomposing corpse system and suggest that microbial community data can be developed into a forensic tool for estimating PMI. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01104.001

Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lauber, Christian L; Knights, Dan; Ackermann, Gail; Humphrey, Gregory C; Gebert, Matthew J; Van Treuren, Will; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Keepers, Kyle; Guo, Yan; Bullard, James; Fierer, Noah; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

2013-01-01

198

[Possible evolutionary scenarios in the parasitengona mites (Acariformes: Parasitengona) based on anatomical peculiarities of their digestive system].  

PubMed

Five possible evolutionary scenarios of the higher acariform mites from the cohort Parasitengona are proposed on the basis of the detailed examination of anatomy of the excretory organ and midgut in the representatives of terrestrial mite families Trombiculidae and Microtrombidiidae, and in freshwater mite families Teutoniidae and Pionidae, on different developmental stages including parasitic larva. These scenarios explain possible ways of evolutionary transformation within the Parasitengona from one or several ancestor with the open digestive tract. PMID:21427964

Shatrov, A B

199

Seasonal variation in the antioxidant defence systems of gill and digestive gland of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in the level of glutathione (GSH) and in the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18), GSH-peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) in both the gill and digestive gland of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) sampled from Cork harbour were evaluated. GSH peroxidase activities are generally lowest in the period February–April. Catalase activity did not vary greatly

Aisling Power; David Sheehan

1996-01-01

200

Video Games: Research, Ratings, Recommendations. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The Digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders played at least one…

Cesarone, Bernard

201

Functional analysis of dopaminergic systems in a DYT1 knock-in mouse model of dystonia.  

PubMed

The dystonias are a group of disorders characterized by involuntary twisting movements and abnormal posturing. The most common of the inherited dystonias is DYT1 dystonia, which is due to deletion of a single GAG codon (?E) in the TOR1A gene that encodes torsinA. Since some forms of dystonia have been linked with dysfunction of brain dopamine pathways, the integrity of these pathways was explored in a knock-in mouse model of DYT1 dystonia. In DYT1(?E) knock-in mice, neurochemical measures revealed only small changes in the content of dopamine or its metabolites in tissue homogenates from caudoputamen or midbrain, but microdialysis studies revealed robust decreases in baseline and amphetamine-stimulated extracellular dopamine in the caudoputamen. Quantitative stereological methods revealed no evidence for striatal or midbrain atrophy, but substantia nigra neurons immunopositive for tyrosine hydroxylase were slightly reduced in numbers and enlarged in size. Behavioral studies revealed subtle abnormalities in gross motor activity and motor coordination without overt dystonia. Neuropharmacological challenges of dopamine systems revealed normal behavioral responses to amphetamine and a minor increase in sensitivity to haloperidol. These results demonstrate that this DYT1(?E) knock-in mouse model of dystonia harbors neurochemical and structural changes of the dopamine pathways, as well as motor abnormalities. PMID:22659308

Song, Chang-Hyun; Fan, Xueliang; Exeter, Cicely J; Hess, Ellen J; Jinnah, H A

2012-05-31

202

Gastrointestinal cancer studies in the human to nude mouse heterotransplant system.  

PubMed

Human gastrointestinal cancer xenografts were established in the nude mouse. Grafts were accomplished with gastric adenocarcinomas, gastric leiomyosarcoma, histiocytic lymphoma of the stomach and gallbladder, pancreatic tumors, colonic cancers and cell lines of duodenal (HUTU-80) and pancreatic (HS-766-T) cancers, melanoma (SK-Mel-5), and murine metastasizing Lewis lung carcinoma. The rate of successful xenografting of these tumors varied from virtually 100% with colon and duodenal cancer, 50% for a pancreatic cancer (P-1), to only 17% for gastric adenocarcinoma. Pancreas and colon adenocarcinomas have been maintained by successive xenotransplantation over 16 and 19 months, respectively. Human xenografts retained morphological identity with tissues of origin through several transplant generations and shared some of their ultrastructural characteristics but did not metastasize. Rodent xenografts, of heterogenous origin were characterized by differences in the duration of the latent period and in the rate of their initial development as described by the average doubling times and average slopes (B) of their growth curves. Differences between B of the Lewis lung carcinoma and all of the human xenografts and between B of a pancreatic adenocarcinoma and three other neoplasms were significant (P less than 0.05 to 0.04). Labeling indices determined for 14 cancer transplants were in the range of previously reported data for similar neoplasms in patients or other xenograft systems. These findings suggest that the nude mouse model can be used to evaluate endogenous properties of gastrointestinal cancers and their responses to exogenous agents. PMID:321290

Schmidt, M; Deschner, E E; Thaler, H T; Clements, L; Good, R A

1977-05-01

203

Developmental study of tripeptidyl peptidase I activity in the mouse central nervous system and peripheral organs.  

PubMed

Tripeptidyl peptidase I (TPPI) - a lysosomal serine protease - is encoded by the CLN2 gene, mutations that cause late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL) connected with profound neuronal loss, severe clinical symptoms and early death at puberty. Developmental studies of TPPI activity levels and distribution have been done in the human and rat central nervous systems (CNS) and visceral organs. Similar studies have not been performed in mouse. In this paper, we follow up on the developmental changes in the enzyme activity and localization pattern in the CNS and visceral organs of mouse over the main periods of life - embryonic, neonate, suckling, infantile, juvenile, adult and aged - using biochemical assays and enzyme histochemistry. In the studied peripheral organs (liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas and lung) TPPI is present at birth but further its pattern is not consistent in different organs over different life periods. TPPI activity starts to be expressed in the brain at the 10th embryonic day but in most neuronal types it appears at the early infantile period, increases during infancy, reaches high activity levels in the juvenile period and is highest in adult and aged animals. Thus, in mice TPPI activity becomes crucial for the neuronal functions later in development (juvenile period) than in humans and does not decrease with aging. These results are essential as a basis for comparison between normal and pathological TPPI patterns in mice. They can be valuable in view of the use of animal models for studying LINCL and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21996941

Dimitrova, Mashenka; Deleva, Denislava; Pavlova, Velichka; Ivanov, Ivaylo

2011-10-14

204

Myeloperoxidase inhibition ameliorates multiple system atrophy-like degeneration in a transgenic mouse model.  

PubMed

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare and fatal ?-synucleinopathy characterized by a distinctive oligodendrogliopathy with glial cytoplasmic inclusions and associated neuronal multisystem degeneration. The majority of patients presents with a rapidly progressive parkinsonian disorder and atypical features such as early autonomic failure and cerebellar ataxia. We have previously reported that complete MSA pathology can be modeled in transgenic mice overexpressing oligodendroglial ?-synuclein under conditions of oxidative stress induced by 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) including striatonigral degeneration, olivopontocerebellar atrophy, astrogliosis, and microglial activation. Here, we show that myeloperoxidase (MPO), a key enzyme involved in the production of reactive oxygen species by phagocytic cells, is expressed in both human and mouse MSA brains. We also demonstrate that in the MSA mouse model, MPO inhibition reduces motor impairment and rescues vulnerable neurons in striatum, substantia nigra pars compacta, cerebellar cortex, pontine nuclei, and inferior olives. MPO inhibition is associated with suppression of microglial activation but does not affect 3-NP induced astrogliosis in the same regions. Finally, MPO inhibition results in reduced intracellular aggregates of ?-synuclein. This study suggests that MPO inhibition may represent a novel candidate treatment strategy against MSA-like neurodegeneration acting through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. PMID:22161470

Stefanova, Nadia; Georgievska, Biljana; Eriksson, Håkan; Poewe, Werner; Wenning, Gregor K

2011-12-08

205

Functional Analysis of Dopaminergic Systems in a DYT1 Knock-in Mouse Model of Dystonia  

PubMed Central

The dystonias are a group of disorders characterized by involuntary twisting movements and abnormal posturing. The most common of the inherited dystonias is DYT1 dystonia, which is due to deletion of a single GAG codon (?E) in the TOR1A gene that encodes torsinA. Since some forms of dystonia have been linked with dysfunction of brain dopamine pathways, the integrity of these pathways was explored in a knock-in mouse model of DYT1 dystonia. In DYT1(?E) knock-in mice, neurochemical measures revealed only small changes in the content of dopamine or its metabolites in tissue homogenates from caudoputamen or midbrain, but microdialysis studies revealed robust decreases in baseline and amphetamine-stimulated extracellular dopamine in the caudoputamen. Quantitative stereological methods revealed no evidence for striatal or midbrain atrophy, but substantia nigra neurons immunopositive for tyrosine hydroxylase were slightly reduced in numbers and enlarged in size. Behavioral studies revealed subtle abnormalities in gross motor activity and motor coordination without overt dystonia. Neuropharmacological challenges of dopamine systems revealed normal behavioral responses to amphetamine and a minor increase in sensitivity to haloperidol. These results demonstrate that this DYT1(?E) knock-in mouse model of dystonia harbors neurochemical and structural changes of the dopamine pathways, as well as motor abnormalities.

Song, Chang-Hyun; Fan, Xueliang; Exeter, Cicely J.; Hess, Ellen J.; Jinnah, H. A.

2012-01-01

206

Production response and digestive enzymatic activity of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) intensively pregrown in microbial heterotrophic and autotrophic-based systems.  

PubMed

Shrimp postlarvae were reared into different microcosm systems without water exchange; a traditional system based on simple fertilization to improve microalgae concentration (control), an autotrophic system (AS) based on the promotion of biofloc and biofilm by the addition of fertilizer and artificial substrates and a heterotrophic system (HS) based on the promotion of heterotrophic bacteria by the addition of nitrogenous and carbonaceous sources and artificial substrates. Better growth performance and survival were registered in shrimp from the AS and HS compared to the control. Feed conversion ratios were below 0.7 for all treatments, but AS and HS were significantly lower than the control. Regarding digestive performance, no significant differences were observed for trypsin, amylase and lipase activities among AS and control shrimp; however, shrimp from HS showed a higher trypsin and amylase activities, suggesting a higher digestive activity caused by the presence of microbial bioflocs. The presence of biofilm and bioflocs composed by either autotrophic or heterotrophic organisms in combination with formulated feed improved the growth performance and survival of shrimp. Apparently, such combination fits the nutritional requirements of shrimp. PMID:22649317

Becerra-Dórame, Manuel J; Martínez-Porchas, Marcel; Martínez-Córdova, Luis R; Rivas-Vega, Martha E; Lopez-Elias, José A; Porchas-Cornejo, Marco A

2012-05-02

207

Production Response and Digestive Enzymatic Activity of the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) Intensively Pregrown in Microbial Heterotrophic and Autotrophic-Based Systems  

PubMed Central

Shrimp postlarvae were reared into different microcosm systems without water exchange; a traditional system based on simple fertilization to improve microalgae concentration (control), an autotrophic system (AS) based on the promotion of biofloc and biofilm by the addition of fertilizer and artificial substrates and a heterotrophic system (HS) based on the promotion of heterotrophic bacteria by the addition of nitrogenous and carbonaceous sources and artificial substrates. Better growth performance and survival were registered in shrimp from the AS and HS compared to the control. Feed conversion ratios were below 0.7 for all treatments, but AS and HS were significantly lower than the control. Regarding digestive performance, no significant differences were observed for trypsin, amylase and lipase activities among AS and control shrimp; however, shrimp from HS showed a higher trypsin and amylase activities, suggesting a higher digestive activity caused by the presence of microbial bioflocs. The presence of biofilm and bioflocs composed by either autotrophic or heterotrophic organisms in combination with formulated feed improved the growth performance and survival of shrimp. Apparently, such combination fits the nutritional requirements of shrimp.

Becerra-Dorame, Manuel J.; Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.; Rivas-Vega, Martha E.; Lopez-Elias, Jose A.; Porchas-Cornejo, Marco A.

2012-01-01

208

Expression of mouse ovarian insulin growth factor system components during follicular development and atresia.  

PubMed

Insulin growth factor I (IGF-I) appears necessary for the completion of follicular development in mice. However, little is known about changes in the IGF system components during follicular development and luteinization. This study determined the relation between gene expression of specific IGF system components and follicular growth, survival, or atresia in mice. Immature mice from three different strains (129, C57, and MF1), with or without gonadotropin treatment (2.5 IU PMSG/2.5 IU human CG (hCG)], were used. The strains were similar in all parameters measured. Apoptosis, as detected by in situ labeling of nicked DNA, preceded the appearance of morphological signs of atresia. In healthy follicles, IGF-I transcripts were low during the primary follicular stage but increased to a maximum in the late preantral and early antral stages (P < 0.001) irrespective of hormone treatment. Occasionally, IGF-I transcripts were also detected in apoptotic follicles but decreased (P < 0.05) as a function of atresia as assessed by morphological criteria. IGF binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in granulosa cells was restricted to apoptotic and atretic follicles (P < 0.001). IGFBP-5 transcript levels, on the other hand, were elevated in granulosa cells of healthy primary and secondary follicles but decreased in subsequent follicular stages and in atretic follicles (P < 0.001). Conversely, IGFBP-2 mRNA was constitutively expressed in granulosa cells. PMSG/hCG treatment induced the appearance of IGFBP-2 transcripts in the ovarian interstitium. Following PMSG/hCG-induced ovulation, IGFBP-2 and -4 and IGF type-I receptor mRNAs were strongly expressed in virtually all luteal cells, whereas IGFBP-3 and -5 transcripts were selectively localized to some cell types in the corpus luteum. Conversely, IGF-I mRNA was essentially undetectable in the corpus luteum. This study represents the most comprehensive and detailed analysis of the physiology and anatomy of the mouse ovarian IGF system, and shows that 1) IGFBP-5-is linked to the survival of the slow growing and immature preantral follicles; 2) IGF-I is associated with the growth and survival of the rapidly growing large preantral and antral follicles; 3) IGFBP-4 is an atretogenic candidate for mouse ovarian follicles; 4) ovulatory doses of PMSG/hCG up-regulate IGFBP-2 mRNA expression in the ovarian interstitium; and 5) transcripts of IGF type-I receptor and IGFBP-2 through -5, but not those of IGF-I are highly expressed in the mouse corpus luteum. PMID:9832461

Wandji, S A; Wood, T L; Crawford, J; Levison, S W; Hammond, J M

1998-12-01

209

Interactions between the neuromodulatory systems and the amygdala: exploratory survey using the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas.  

PubMed

Neuromodulatory systems originate in nuclei localized in the subcortical region of the brain and control fundamental behaviors by interacting with many areas of the central nervous system. An exploratory survey of the cholinergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic receptor expression energy in the amygdala, and in the neuromodulatory areas themselves was undertaken using the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas. The amygdala was chosen because of its importance in cognitive behavior and its bidirectional interaction with the neuromodulatory systems. The gene expression data of 38 neuromodulatory receptor subtypes were examined across 13 brain regions. The substantia innominata of the basal forebrain and regions of the amygdala had the highest amount of receptor expression energy for all four neuromodulatory systems examined. The ventral tegmental area also displayed high receptor expression of all four neuromodulators. In contrast, the locus coeruleus displayed low receptor expression energy overall. In general, cholinergic receptor expression was an order of magnitude greater than other neuromodulatory receptors. Since the nuclei of these neuromodulatory systems are thought to be the source of specific neurotransmitters, the projections from these nuclei to target regions may be inferred by receptor expression energy. The comprehensive analysis revealed many connectivity relations and receptor localization that had not been previously reported. The methodology presented here may be applied to other neural systems with similar characteristics, and to other animal models as these brain atlases become available. PMID:23143393

Zaldivar, Andrew; Krichmar, Jeffrey L

2012-11-13

210

Expression of cadherin-8 mRNA in the developing mouse central nervous system.  

PubMed

The expression of cadherin-8 was mapped by in situ hybridization in the embryonic and postnatal mouse central nervous system (CNS). From embryonic day 18 (E18) to postnatal day 6 (P6), cadherin-8 expression is restricted to a subset of developing brain nuclei and cortical areas in all major subdivisions of the CNS. The anlagen of some of the cadherin-8-positive structures also express this molecule at earlier developmental stages (E12.5-E16). The cadherin-8-positive neuroanatomical structures are parts of several functional systems in the brain. In the limbic system, cadherin-8-positive regions are found in the septal region, habenular nuclei, amygdala, interpeduncular nucleus, raphe nuclei, and hippocampus. Cerebral cortex shows expression in several limbic areas at P6. In the basal ganglia and related nuclei, cadherin-8 is expressed by parts of the striatum, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, entopeduncular nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, zona incerta, and pedunculopontine nuclei. A third group of cadherin-8-positive gray matter structures has functional connections with the cerebellum (superior colliculus, anterior pretectal nucleus, red nucleus, nucleus of posterior commissure, inferior olive, pontine, pontine reticular, and vestibular nuclei). The cerebellum itself shows parasagittal stripes of cadherin-8 expression in the Purkinje cell layer. In the hindbrain, cadherin-8 is expressed by several cranial nerve nuclei. Results from this study show that cadherin-8 expression in the embryonic and postnatal mouse brain is restricted to specific developing gray matter structures. These data support the idea that cadherins are a family of molecules whose expression provides a molecular code for the regionalization of the developing vertebrate brain. PMID:9336230

Korematsu, K; Redies, C

1997-10-20

211

Antibiotic therapy and fat digestion and absorption in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

Antibiotic therapy in the cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse model has been shown to result in reduced bacterial load of the intestine and significant body mass gain. The effect was suggested to be linked to the improvement of intestinal digestion and absorption. Therefore, we aimed to assess the influence of routinely applied antibiotic therapy in CF patients on fat assimilation. Twenty-four CF patients aged 6 to 30 years entered the study. Inclusion criteria comprised confirmed exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and bronchopulmonary exacerbation demanding antibiotic therapy. Exclusion criteria comprised: antibiotic therapy six weeks prior to the test, liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, oxygen dependency, the use of systemic corticosteroids. In all enrolled CF subjects, (13)C-labelled mixed triglyceride breath test ((13)C MTG-BT) was performed to assess lipid digestion and absorption, before and after antibiotic therapy. Sixteen subjects were treated intravenously with ceftazidime and amikacin, eight patients orally with ciprofloxacin. Cumulative percentage dose recovery (CPDR) was considered to reflect digestion and absorption of lipids. The values are expressed as means (medians). The values of CPDR before and after antibiotic therapy did not differ in the whole studied group [4.6(3.3) % vs. 5.7(5.3) %, p = 0.100] as well as in the subgroup receiving them intravenously [4.6(3.2) % vs. 5.7(5.3) %, p = 0.327] or in that with oral drug administration [4.6(3.4) % vs. 5.7(5.4) %, p = 0.167]. In conclusion, antibiotic therapy applied routinely in the course of pulmonary exacerbation in CF patients does not seem to result in an improvement of fat digestion and absorption. PMID:21738905

Lisowska, Aleksandra; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Oracz, Grzegorz; Skorupa, Wojciech; Cofta, Szczepan; Szyd?owski, Jaros?aw; Socha, Jerzy; Walkowiak, Jaros?aw

2011-07-07

212

Cloning, central nervous system expression and chromosomal mapping of the mouse PAK-1 and PAK-3 genes.  

PubMed

Two cDNAs encoding PAK kinases were isolated from a mouse embryo library by screening with a PCR-generated probe derived from the kinase domain of a rat PAK kinase. These cDNAs, designated PAK-1 and PAK-3, encode mouse PAK kinases of 545 and 544 amino acids, respectively. Both proteins possess an N-terminal Cdc42/Rac interacting binding domain (CRIB) and a C-terminal serine/threonine kinase domain. Comparison of the two mouse PAK kinases revealed that the proteins show 87% amino acid identity. Northern analysis of a multiple mouse tissue blot with a PAK-1 probe detected a 3.0kb transcript that was almost exclusively expressed in the brain and spinal cord compared to other tissues such as lung, liver and kidney. A similar pattern of central nervous system tissue expression of PAK-3 transcripts of 3.6 and 8kb was also observed. Analysis of two multilocus genetic crosses localized Pak1 and Pak3 to a position on chromosome 7 and X, respectively. The high level of PAK-1 and PAK-3 kinase expression in the mouse brain and spinal cord suggests a potentially important role for these kinases in the control of the cellular architecture and/or signaling in the central nervous system. PMID:10352232

Burbelo, P D; Kozak, C A; Finegold, A A; Hall, A; Pirone, D M

1999-05-31

213

China's Vocational Universities. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This ERIC Digest describes the development and characteristics of vocational universities (VUs) in China. In response to the demand for increased numbers of trained technical workers in the 1980's, VUs developed and the higher vocational education system in China was reformed. Currently, 101 vocational universities are in existence in China.…

Ding, Anning

214

Carbohydrate digestion in Penaeus monodon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using crude homogenates from the digestive system of pond-cultured Penaeus monodon, carbohydrase activity was demonstrated toward a wide variety of substrates differing in sources and complexity. The largest concentration of this activity was found to be localised within the midgut gland. Multiple pH optima for the hydrolysis of starch suggested the presence of more than one amylase, which was confirmed

J. M. Wigglesworth; D. R. W. Griffith

1994-01-01

215

Conservation and divergence in the transcriptional programs of the human and mouse immune systems.  

PubMed

Much of the knowledge about cell differentiation and function in the immune system has come from studies in mice, but the relevance to human immunology, diseases, and therapy has been challenged, perhaps more from anecdotal than comprehensive evidence. To this end, we compare two large compendia of transcriptional profiles of human and mouse immune cell types. Global transcription profiles are conserved between corresponding cell lineages. The expression patterns of most orthologous genes are conserved, particularly for lineage-specific genes. However, several hundred genes show clearly divergent expression across the examined cell lineages, and among them, 169 genes did so even with highly stringent criteria. Finally, regulatory mechanisms--reflected by regulators' differential expression or enriched cis-elements--are conserved between the species but to a lower degree, suggesting that distinct regulation may underlie some of the conserved transcriptional responses. PMID:23382184

Shay, Tal; Jojic, Vladimir; Zuk, Or; Rothamel, Katherine; Puyraimond-Zemmour, David; Feng, Ting; Wakamatsu, Ei; Benoist, Christophe; Koller, Daphne; Regev, Aviv

2013-02-04

216

Different timings of Dicer deletion affect neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the developing mouse central nervous system  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs, processed by the RNAase III enzyme Dicer, are ~22 nucleotide endogenous noncoding small RNAs. The function of Dicer in the mouse central nervous system (CNS) development is not well understood. Here we show that specifically deleting Dicer expression in the CNS and in the cerebral cortex using two Cre lines results in reduced progenitor numbers, abnormal neuronal differentiation and thinner cortical wall. Incomplete Dicer deletion during early embryonic stages contributes to normal development of early-born neurons in the cortex and motor neurons in the spinal cord. However, at late embryonic stages when Dicer is completely ablated in the CNS, the migration of late-born neurons in the cortex and oligodendrocyte precursor expansion and differentiation in the spinal cord are greatly affected. Our studies of different timings of Dicer deletion demonstrate the importance of the Dicer-mediated microRNA pathway in regulating distinct phases of neurogenesis and gliogenesis during the CNS development.

Kawase-Koga, Yoko; Otaegi, Gaizka; Sun, Tao

2009-01-01

217

Different timings of Dicer deletion affect neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the developing mouse central nervous system.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs, processed by the RNAase III enzyme Dicer, are approximately 22 nucleotide endogenous noncoding small RNAs. The function of Dicer in the mouse central nervous system (CNS) development is not well understood. Here, we show that specifically deleting Dicer expression in the CNS and in the cerebral cortex using two Cre lines results in reduced progenitor numbers, abnormal neuronal differentiation, and thinner cortical wall. Incomplete Dicer deletion during early embryonic stages contributes to normal development of early-born neurons in the cortex and motor neurons in the spinal cord. However, at late embryonic stages when Dicer is completely ablated in the CNS, the migration of late-born neurons in the cortex and oligodendrocyte precursor expansion and differentiation in the spinal cord are greatly affected. Our studies of different timings of Dicer deletion demonstrate the importance of the Dicer-mediated microRNA pathway in regulating distinct phases of neurogenesis and gliogenesis during the CNS development. PMID:19806666

Kawase-Koga, Yoko; Otaegi, Gaizka; Sun, Tao

2009-11-01

218

Regional Expression of MTG Genes in the Developing Mouse Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Myeloid translocation gene (MTG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that are highly conserved across species. We studied the expression of three members of this gene family, MTGR1, MTG8, and MTG16 in developing mouse central nervous system by in situ hybridization. All of these genes are detected as early as embryonic day 11.5. Because these genes are known to be induced by proneural genes during neurogenesis, we analyzed the expression of MTG genes in relation to two proneural genes, Neurog2 (also known as Ngn2 or Neurogenin 2) and Ascl1 (also known as Mash1). While MTGR1 are generally expressed in regions that also express Neurog2, MTG8 and MTG16 expression is associated more tightly with that of Ascl1-expressing neural progenitor cells. These results suggest the possibility that expression of MTG genes is differentially controlled by specific proneural genes during neurogenesis.

Alishahi, Amin; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Nakagawa, Yasushi

2009-01-01

219

Regional expression of MTG genes in the developing mouse central nervous system.  

PubMed

Myeloid translocation gene (MTG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that are highly conserved across species. We studied the expression of three members of this gene family, MTGR1, MTG8, and MTG16 in developing mouse central nervous system by in situ hybridization. All of these genes are detected as early as embryonic day 11.5. Because these genes are known to be induced by proneural genes during neurogenesis, we analyzed the expression of MTG genes in relation to two proneural genes, Neurog2 (also known as Ngn2 or Neurogenin 2) and Ascl1 (also known as Mash1). While MTGR1 are generally expressed in regions that also express Neurog2, MTG8 and MTG16 expression is associated more tightly with that of Ascl1-expressing neural progenitor cells. These results suggest the possibility that expression of MTG genes is differentially controlled by specific proneural genes during neurogenesis. PMID:19618476

Alishahi, Amin; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Nakagawa, Yasushi

2009-08-01

220

Conservation and divergence in the transcriptional programs of the human and mouse immune systems  

PubMed Central

Much of the knowledge about cell differentiation and function in the immune system has come from studies in mice, but the relevance to human immunology, diseases, and therapy has been challenged, perhaps more from anecdotal than comprehensive evidence. To this end, we compare two large compendia of transcriptional profiles of human and mouse immune cell types. Global transcription profiles are conserved between corresponding cell lineages. The expression patterns of most orthologous genes are conserved, particularly for lineage-specific genes. However, several hundred genes show clearly divergent expression across the examined cell lineages, and among them, 169 genes did so even with highly stringent criteria. Finally, regulatory mechanisms—reflected by regulators’ differential expression or enriched cis-elements—are conserved between the species but to a lower degree, suggesting that distinct regulation may underlie some of the conserved transcriptional responses.

Shay, Tal; Jojic, Vladimir; Zuk, Or; Rothamel, Katherine; Puyraimond-Zemmour, David; Feng, Ting; Wakamatsu, Ei; Benoist, Christophe; Koller, Daphne; Regev, Aviv

2013-01-01

221

MONICA: a compact, portable dual gamma camera system for mouse whole-body imaging  

SciTech Connect

Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named "MONICA" for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed ?looking up? through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV?10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1 cm), 2.2 mm; sensitivity, 149 cps (counts per seconds)/MBq (5.5 cps/μCi); energy resolution (FWHM, full width at half maximum), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2=0.99 for 0?185 MBq (0?5 mCi) in the field of view (FOV); spatial uniformity, <3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-min images acquired throughout the 168-h study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g., limited imaging space, portability and, potentially, cost are important.

Choyke, Peter L.; Xia, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Kakareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.

2010-04-01

222

MONICA: A Compact, Portable Dual Gamma Camera System for Mouse Whole-Body Imaging  

PubMed Central

Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named “MONICA” for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed “looking up” through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV ± 10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1-cm), 2.2-mm; sensitivity, 149 cps/MBq (5.5 cps/?Ci); energy resolution (FWHM), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2 = 0.99 for 0–185 MBq (0–5 mCi) in the field-of-view (FOV); spatial uniformity, < 3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-minute images acquired throughout the 168-hour study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g. limited imaging space, portability, and, potentially, cost are important.

Xi, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Karkareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.; Choyke, Peter L.

2009-01-01

223

Role of Catecholamine Signaling in Brain and Nervous System Functions: New Insights from Mouse Molecular Genetic Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catecholamines, including dopamine and norepinephrine, are the principal neurotransmitters that mediate a variety of the central nervous system functions, such as motor control, cognition, emotion, memory processing, and endocrine modulation. Dysfunctions in catecholamine neurotransmission are implicated in some neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent mouse molecular genetic approaches provide genetic evidence for an important role of catecholamines in brain functions. In

Kazuto Kobayashi

2001-01-01

224

Initial reaction kinetics of succinate dehydrogenase in mouse liver studied with a real-time image analyser system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial reaction kinetics of succinate dehydrogenase in situ were investigated in sections of mouse unfixed liver using an ARGUS-100 image analyser system. The sections were incubated on substrate-containing agarose gel films. Images of a section, illuminated with monochromatic light (584 nm), were captured with the image analyser in real time at intervals of 10 s during the incubation. The

Y. Nakae; P. J. Stoward

1992-01-01

225

The role of co-culture systems on developmental competence of preimplantation mouse embryos against pH fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To determine the effect of pH fluctuations of culture media, and the role of co-culture systems on embryo development.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Mouse embryos were incubated in phosphate buffered solutions (PBSs) with different pH for various lengths of time. After 3 h\\u000a incubation of embryos at various pH, the embryos were transferred into four media with human (HEF) and mouse (MEF) embryonic\\u000a fibroblast cells,

Seyed Noureddin Nematollahi-mahani; Amirmehdi Nematollahi-mahani; Ghazaleh Moshkdanian; Zhinoosossadat Shahidzadehyazdi; Fatemeh Labibi

2009-01-01

226

Gene targeting using a mouse HPRT minigene/HPRT-deficient embryonic stem cell system: inactivation of the mouse ERCC-1 gene.  

PubMed

A convenient system for gene targeting that uses hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) minigenes as the selectable marker in HPRT-deficient mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells is described. Improvements to the expression of HPRT minigenes in ES cells were achieved by promoter substitution and the provision of a strong translational initiation signal. The use of minigenes in the positive-negative selection strategy for gene targeting was evaluated and the smaller minigenes were found to be as effective as a more conventional marker--the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. Minigenes were used to target the DNA repair gene ERCC-1 in ES cells. A new HPRT-deficient ES cell line was developed that contributes with high frequency to the germ line of chimeric animals. The ability to select for and against HPRT minigene expression in the new HPRT-deficient ES cell line will make this system useful for a range of gene-targeting applications. PMID:1440055

Selfridge, J; Pow, A M; McWhir, J; Magin, T M; Melton, D W

1992-07-01

227

A metabolomic and systems biology perspective on the brain of the fragile X syndrome mouse model.  

PubMed

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the first cause of inherited intellectual disability, due to the silencing of the X-linked Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 gene encoding the RNA-binding protein FMRP. While extensive studies have focused on the cellular and molecular basis of FXS, neither human Fragile X patients nor the mouse model of FXS--the Fmr1-null mouse--have been profiled systematically at the metabolic and neurochemical level to provide a complementary perspective on the current, yet scattered, knowledge of FXS. Using proton high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H HR-MAS NMR)-based metabolic profiling, we have identified a metabolic signature and biomarkers associated with FXS in various brain regions of Fmr1-deficient mice. Our study highlights for the first time that Fmr1 gene inactivation has profound, albeit coordinated consequences in brain metabolism leading to alterations in: (1) neurotransmitter levels, (2) osmoregulation, (3) energy metabolism, and (4) oxidative stress response. To functionally connect Fmr1-deficiency to its metabolic biomarkers, we derived a functional interaction network based on the existing knowledge (literature and databases) and show that the FXS metabolic response is initiated by distinct mRNA targets and proteins interacting with FMRP, and then relayed by numerous regulatory proteins. This novel "integrated metabolome and interactome mapping" (iMIM) approach advantageously unifies novel metabolic findings with previously unrelated knowledge and highlights the contribution of novel cellular pathways to the pathophysiology of FXS. These metabolomic and integrative systems biology strategies will contribute to the development of potential drug targets and novel therapeutic interventions, which will eventually benefit FXS patients. PMID:21900387

Davidovic, Laetitia; Navratil, Vincent; Bonaccorso, Carmela M; Catania, Maria Vincenza; Bardoni, Barbara; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel

2011-09-07

228

Informatics center for mouse genomics: the dissection of complex traits of the nervous system.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been an explosion in the number of tools and techniques available to researchers interested in exploring the genetic basis of all aspects of central nervous system (CNS) development and function. Here, we exploit a powerful new reductionist approach to explore the genetic basis of the very significant structural and molecular differences between the brains of different strains of mice, called either complex trait or quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Our specific focus has been to provide universal access over the web to tools for the genetic dissection of complex traits of the CNS--tools that allow researchers to map genes that modulate phenotypes at a variety of levels ranging from the molecular all the way to the anatomy of the entire brain. Our website, The Mouse Brain Library (MBL; http://mbl.org) is comprised of four interrelated components that are designed to support this goal: The Brain Library, iScope, Neurocartographer, and WebQTL. The centerpiece of the MBL is an image database of histologically prepared museum-quality slides representing nearly 2000 mice from over 120 strains--a library suitable for stereologic analysis of regional volume. The iScope provides fast access to the entire slide collection using streaming video technology, enabling neuroscientists to acquire high-magnification images of any CNS region for any of the mice in the MBL. Neurocartographer provides automatic segmentation of images from the MBL by warping precisely delineated boundaries from a 3D atlas of the mouse brain. Finally, WebQTL provides statistical and graphical analysis of linkage between phenotypes and genotypes. PMID:15043219

Rosen, Glenn D; La Porte, Nathan T; Diechtiareff, Boris; Pung, Christopher J; Nissanov, Jonathan; Gustafson, Carl; Bertrand, Louise; Gefen, Smadar; Fan, Yingli; Tretiak, Oleh J; Manly, Kenneth F; Park, Melburn R; Williams, Alexander G; Connolly, Michael T; Capra, John A; Williams, Robert W

2003-01-01

229

A metabolomic and systems biology perspective on the brain of the Fragile X syndrome mouse model  

PubMed Central

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the first cause of inherited intellectual disability, due to the silencing of the X-linked Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 gene encoding the RNA-binding protein FMRP. While extensive studies have focused on the cellular and molecular basis of FXS, neither human Fragile X patients nor the mouse model of FXS—the Fmr1-null mouse—have been profiled systematically at the metabolic and neurochemical level to provide a complementary perspective on the current, yet scattered, knowledge of FXS. Using proton high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HR-MAS NMR)-based metabolic profiling, we have identified a metabolic signature and biomarkers associated with FXS in various brain regions of Fmr1-deficient mice. Our study highlights for the first time that Fmr1 gene inactivation has profound, albeit coordinated consequences in brain metabolism leading to alterations in: (1) neurotransmitter levels, (2) osmoregulation, (3) energy metabolism, and (4) oxidative stress response. To functionally connect Fmr1-deficiency to its metabolic biomarkers, we derived a functional interaction network based on the existing knowledge (literature and databases) and show that the FXS metabolic response is initiated by distinct mRNA targets and proteins interacting with FMRP, and then relayed by numerous regulatory proteins. This novel “integrated metabolome and interactome mapping” (iMIM) approach advantageously unifies novel metabolic findings with previously unrelated knowledge and highlights the contribution of novel cellular pathways to the pathophysiology of FXS. These metabolomic and integrative systems biology strategies will contribute to the development of potential drug targets and novel therapeutic interventions, which will eventually benefit FXS patients.

Davidovic, Laetitia; Navratil, Vincent; Bonaccorso, Carmela M.; Catania, Maria Vincenza; Bardoni, Barbara; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel

2011-01-01

230

(Methane digester). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the grant was to construct and operate a methane digester for dairy manure involving the latest state-of-the-art technics. The first step taken was to empty out the existing digester to evaluate its performance and to gain ideas of how to build the next digester so it would operate more efficiently. Next, the design criteria was set up in order to eliminate some problems involved with the first digester and also new ideas as to how to build the next one without a protective building and testing simplified construction technics. After this the digester construction was started with the completion date in late January. The digester was then filled and operated at different temperatures attempting to achieve the optimum operating range.

Waybright, R.C.

1981-01-01

231

MARS: a mouse atlas registration system based on a planar x-ray projector and an optical camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a mouse atlas registration system (MARS), composed of a stationary top-view x-ray projector and a side-view optical camera, coupled to a mouse atlas registration algorithm. This system uses the x-ray and optical images to guide a fully automatic co-registration of a mouse atlas with each subject, in order to provide anatomical reference for small animal molecular imaging systems such as positron emission tomography (PET). To facilitate the registration, a statistical atlas that accounts for inter-subject anatomical variations was constructed based on 83 organ-labeled mouse micro-computed tomography (CT) images. The statistical shape model and conditional Gaussian model techniques were used to register the atlas with the x-ray image and optical photo. The accuracy of the atlas registration was evaluated by comparing the registered atlas with the organ-labeled micro-CT images of the test subjects. The results showed excellent registration accuracy of the whole-body region, and good accuracy for the brain, liver, heart, lungs and kidneys. In its implementation, the MARS was integrated with a preclinical PET scanner to deliver combined PET/MARS imaging, and to facilitate atlas-assisted analysis of the preclinical PET images.

Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B.; Taschereau, Richard; Gu, Zheng; Vu, Nam T.; Prout, David L.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

2012-10-01

232

MARS: a mouse atlas registration system based on a planar x-ray projector and an optical camera.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a mouse atlas registration system (MARS), composed of a stationary top-view x-ray projector and a side-view optical camera, coupled to a mouse atlas registration algorithm. This system uses the x-ray and optical images to guide a fully automatic co-registration of a mouse atlas with each subject, in order to provide anatomical reference for small animal molecular imaging systems such as positron emission tomography (PET). To facilitate the registration, a statistical atlas that accounts for inter-subject anatomical variations was constructed based on 83 organ-labeled mouse micro-computed tomography (CT) images. The statistical shape model and conditional Gaussian model techniques were used to register the atlas with the x-ray image and optical photo. The accuracy of the atlas registration was evaluated by comparing the registered atlas with the organ-labeled micro-CT images of the test subjects. The results showed excellent registration accuracy of the whole-body region, and good accuracy for the brain, liver, heart, lungs and kidneys. In its implementation, the MARS was integrated with a preclinical PET scanner to deliver combined PET/MARS imaging, and to facilitate atlas-assisted analysis of the preclinical PET images. PMID:22968224

Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B; Taschereau, Richard; Gu, Zheng; Vu, Nam T; Prout, David L; Chatziioannou, Arion F

2012-09-12

233

Mapping of the mouse olfactory system with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging.  

PubMed

As the power of studying mouse genetics and behavior advances, research tools to examine systems level connectivity in the mouse are critically needed. In this study, we compared statistical mapping of the olfactory system in adult mice using manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with probabilistic tractography. The primary goal was to determine whether these complementary techniques can determine mouse olfactory bulb (OB) connectivity consistent with known anatomical connections. For MEMRI, 3D T1-weighted images were acquired before and after bilateral nasal administration of MnCl(2) solution. Concomitantly, high-resolution diffusion-tensor images were obtained ex vivo from a second group of mice and processed with a probabilistic tractography algorithm originating in the OB. Incidence maps were created by co-registering and overlaying data from the two scan modalities. The resulting maps clearly show pathways between the OB and amygdala, piriform cortex, caudate putamen, and olfactory cortex in both the DTI and MEMRI techniques that are consistent with the known anatomical connections. These data demonstrate that MEMRI and DTI are complementary, high-resolution neuroimaging tools that can be applied to mouse genetic models of olfactory and limbic system connectivity. PMID:22527121

Gutman, David A; Magnuson, Matthew; Majeed, Waqas; Keifer, Orion P; Davis, Michael; Ressler, Kerry J; Keilholz, Shella

2012-04-24

234

Correction of CNS defects in the MPSII mouse model via systemic enzyme replacement therapy  

PubMed Central

Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII), or Hunter syndrome, is a devastating disorder associated with a shortened life expectancy. Patients affected by MPSII have a variety of symptoms that affect all organs of the body and may include progressive cognitive impairment. MPSII is due to inactivity of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS), which results in the accumulation of storage material in the lysosomes, such as dermatan and heparan sulfates, with consequent cell degeneration in all tissues including, in the severe phenotype, neurodegeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). To date, the only treatment available is systemic infusion of IDS, which ameliorates exclusively certain visceral defects. Therefore, it is important to simultaneously treat the visceral and CNS defects of the MPSII patients. Here, we have developed enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) protocols in a mouse model that allow the IDS to reach the brain, with the substantial correction of the CNS phenotype and of the neurobehavioral features. Treatments were beneficial even in adult and old MPSII mice, using relatively low doses of infused IDS over long intervals. This study demonstrates that CNS defects of MPSII mice can be treated by systemic ERT, providing the potential for development of an effective treatment for MPSII patients.

Polito, Vinicia Assunta; Abbondante, Serena; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Nusco, Edoardo; Salvia, Rosaria; Cosma, Maria Pia

2010-01-01

235

Targeted Skipping of Human Dystrophin Exons in Transgenic Mouse Model Systemically for Antisense Drug Development  

PubMed Central

Antisense therapy has recently been demonstrated with great potential for targeted exon skipping and restoration of dystrophin production in cultured muscle cells and in muscles of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) patients. Therapeutic values of exon skipping critically depend on efficacy of the drugs, antisense oligomers (AOs). However, no animal model has been established to test AO targeting human dystrophin exon in vivo systemically. In this study, we applied Vivo-Morpholino to the hDMD/mdx mouse, a transgenic model carrying the full-length human dystrophin gene with mdx background, and achieved for the first time more than 70% efficiency of targeted human dystrophin exon skipping in vivo systemically. We also established a GFP-reporter myoblast culture to screen AOs targeting human dystrophin exon 50. Antisense efficiency for most AOs is consistent between the reporter cells, human myoblasts and in the hDMD/mdx mice in vivo. However, variation in efficiency was also clearly observed. A combination of in vitro cell culture and a Vivo-Morpholino based evaluation in vivo systemically in the hDMD/mdx mice therefore may represent a prudent approach for selecting AO drug and to meet the regulatory requirement.

Lu, Peijuan; Cloer, Caryn; Zillmer, Allen; Shaban, Mona; Lu, Qi Long

2011-01-01

236

A throughput-optimized array system for multiple-mouse MRI.  

PubMed

MRI is a versatile tool for the systematic assessment of anatomical and functional changes in small-animal models of human disease. Its noninvasive nature makes it an ideal candidate for longitudinal evaluations of disease progression, but relatively long scan times limit the number of observations that can be made in a given interval of time, imposing restrictions on experimental design and potentially compromising statistical power. Methods that reduce the overall time required to scan multiple cohorts of animals in distinct experimental groups are therefore highly desirable. Multiple-mouse MRI, in which several animals are simultaneously scanned in a common MRI system, has been successfully used to improve study throughput. However, to best utilize the next generation of small-animal MRI systems that will be equipped with an increased number of receive channels, a paradigm shift from the simultaneous scanning of as many animals as possible to the scanning of a more manageable number, at a faster rate, must be considered. This work explores the tradeoffs between the number of animals to scan at once and the number of array elements dedicated to each animal, to maximize throughput in systems with 16 receive channels. An array system consisting of 15 receive and five transmit coils allows acceleration by a combination of multi-animal and parallel imaging techniques. The array system was designed and fabricated for use on a 7.0-T/30-cm Bruker Biospec MRI system, and tested for high-throughput imaging performance in phantoms and live mice. Results indicate that up to a nine-fold throughput improvement of a single sequence is possible compared with an unaccelerated single-animal acquisition. True data throughput of a contrast-enhanced anatomical study is estimated to be improved by just over six-fold. PMID:22887122

Ramirez, Marc S; Lai, Stephen Y; Bankson, James A

2012-08-10

237

Poultry waste digester. Final progress report  

SciTech Connect

A simple and low-cost poultry waste digester (PWD) was constructed at North Carolina State University's Poultry Research Farm at Raleigh, N.C. The PWD system was designed to process a daily output of 600 kg of manure from 4000 caged laying hens. The system consisted of two digesters connected in series, a heating system, a hot water tank, and other metering equipment. The primary and secondary digesters were horizontal cylinders located partially below ground level. They were made of Red Mud plastic lining, supported in the insulated trenches, and covered with insulated roofs. The primary digester volume was 15 m/sup 3/ with an 8 m/sup 3/ liquid volume and a gas head-space above the liquid. The secondary digester volume was 30 m/sup 3/ with a 16 m/sup 3/ liquid volume. The temperature (50/sup 0/C) of the primary digester was maintained by the hot dilution water added with manure and a SolaRoll heating mat laid underneath the plastic lining. The design, operation, performance, energy balance, and economics of the digester are discussed and evaluated in this final progress report.

Shih, J.C.H.

1983-01-01

238

Differential growth of the cell production systems in the lateral wall of the developing mouse telencephalon.  

PubMed Central

Three major cell production systems were identified in the lateral wall of the mouse telencephalon. These were morphologically evident as the medial and lateral elevations and the pallial crescent. Each was originally derived from a small, circumscribed, subset of ventricular cells. These formed the parent populations of large and proliferatively complex precursor pools which gave rise to the large numbers and considerable variety of neuron populations of the telencephalon. An attempt was made to identify the major neuron groups derived from each system by using the ventricular cell processes as a guide to the site of neuron origin. The proliferative changes occurring in the two elevations, the variety of their neuronal output, the early loss of a radial structure and the diversity of the final adult configurations were considered to represent a more complex series of changes than the corresponding events in the cortical tissue, which was generated from the pallial crescent where neurons accumulate within an adaptation of the original radial structure. It was considered that the number and complexity of the changes in the genome required to produce and organise such subcortical diversity was of a greater order of magnitude than those evident in the cortical areas. It was suggested that the genesis of the mammalian basal telencephalon should be considered as one of the major evolutionary achievements in the conglomerate of changes which occurred during the transition from the reptilian to the mammalian grade of organisation in the forebrain. Images Figs. 5-6 Fig. 8

Smart, I H

1985-01-01

239

Influence of mouse genotype on passive systemic anaphylaxis by immune complexes.  

PubMed Central

The influence of mouse genotype on passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA) by immune complexes was studied. PSA was induced by using Brucella abortus endotoxin as the antigen and rabbit anti-Brucella endotoxin antisera. Experiments using syngeneic mice as well as mice congenic for H-2 showed that the H-2 haplotype influenced the sensitivity of mice to PSA. Among the H-2 haplotypes studied, H-2b was the most sensitive, followed by H-2k and H-2d. Experiments using passive transfer of serum as well as the complement inhibitors suramin and flufenamic acid indicated that variations in complement levels under control of H-2 may be responsible for the effects described. Cyproheptadine, a blocker of serotonin and histamine receptors, and imidazol-alpha-ketoglutarate, an inhibitor of thromboxane synthesis, inhibited PSA, indicating that platelet aggregation, possibly mediated by activated components of the complement cascade, is an important feature in the development of PSA reactions in this system. Differences between strains for protection by cyproheptadine and for the effect of complement inhibitors indicated a role of early components of the classical pathway in this model.

Portoles, A; Rojo, J M; Diaz, R

1986-01-01

240

Axonal regeneration of cultured mouse hippocampal neurons studied by an optical nano-surgery system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During development, the axons of neurons in the mammalian central nervous system lose their ability to regenerate after injury. In order to study the regeneration process, we developed a system integrating an optical tweezers and a laser dissector to manipulate the sample. A sub-nanosecond pulsed UVA laser was used to inflict a partial damage to the axon of mouse hippocampal neurons at early days in vitro. Partial axonal transections were performed in a highly controlled and reproducible way without affecting the regeneration process. Force spectroscopy measurements, during and after the ablation of the axon, were performed by optical tweezers with a bead attached to the neuronal membrane. Thus, the release of tension in the neurite could be analyzed in order to quantify the inflicted damage. After dissection, we monitored the viscoelastic properties of the axonal membrane, the cytoskeleton reorganization, and the dynamics of the newly formed growth cones during regeneration. In order to follow cytoskeleton dynamics in a long time window by tracking a bead attached to the neuron, we developed a real-time control of the microscope stage position with sub-millisecond and nanometer resolution. Axonal regeneration was documented by long-term (24-48 hours) bright-field live imaging using an optical microscope equipped with a custom-built cell culture incubator.

Difato, F.; Tsushima, H.; Pesce, M.; Guiggiani, A.; Benfenati, F.; Blau, A.; Basso, M.; Vassalli, M.; Chieregatti, E.

2012-02-01

241

Primo vascular system in the subarachnoid space of a mouse brain.  

PubMed

Objective. Recently, a novel circulatory system, the primo vascular system (PVS), was found in the brain ventricles and in the central canal of the spinal cord of a rat. The aim of the current work is to detect the PVS along the transverse sinuses between the cerebrum and the cerebellum of a mouse brain. Materials and Methods. The PVS in the subarachnoid space was analyzed after staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and phalloidin in order to identify the PVS. With confocal microscopy and polarization microscopy, the primo vessel underneath the sagittal sinus was examined. The primo nodes under the transversal sinuses were observed after peeling off the dura and pia maters of the brain. Results. The primo vessel underneath the superior sagittal sinus was observed and showed linear optical polarization, similarly to the rabbit and the rat cases. The primo nodes were observed under the left and the right transverse sinuses at distances of 3,763? ? m and 5,967? ? m. The average size was 155? ? m?×?248? ? m. Conclusion. The observation of primo vessels was consistent with previous observations in rabbits and rats, and primo nodes under the transverse sinuses were observed for the first time in this work. PMID:23781258

Moon, Sang-Ho; Cha, Richard; Lee, Geo-Lyong; Lim, Jae-Kwan; Soh, Kwang-Sup

2013-05-28

242

Mechanisms of intracerebral lymphoma growth delineated in a syngeneic mouse model of central nervous system lymphoma.  

PubMed

Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system (PCNSL) is defined as lymphoma of the diffuse large B-cell type confined to the CNS. To understand the effects of the CNS microenvironment on the malignant B cells and their interactions with the cells of the target organ, we analyzed a syngeneic mouse model. Transplantation of BAL17 cells into the frontal white matter of syngeneic BALB/c mice induced lymphomas with major clinical and neuropathologic features that parallel those of human PCNSL, including an angiocentric growth pattern in the brain parenchyma and tropism for the inner and outer ventricular system. Seven cycles of repeated isolation of lymphoma cells from the CNS and their intracerebral reimplantation induced genotypic and phenotypic alterations in resulting BAL17VII cells; the affected genes regulate apoptosis and are of the JAK/STAT pathway. Because lymphoma growth of BAL17VII cells was significantly accelerated, that is, shortening the time to death of the mice, these data indicate that prolonged stay of the lymphoma cells in the CNS was associated with worse outcome. These findings suggest that the CNS microenvironment fosters aggressiveness of lymphoma cells, thereby accelerating the lethal course of PCNSL. PMID:23481709

Montesinos-Rongen, Manuel; Sánchez-Ruiz, Mónica; Brunn, Anna; Hong, Ke; Bens, Susanne; Perales, Sandra Rodriguez; Cigudosa, Juan C; Siebert, Reiner; Deckert, Martina

2013-04-01

243

Growth Arrest Specific 1 (GAS1) Is Abundantly Expressed in the Adult Mouse Central Nervous System.  

PubMed

Growth arrest specific 1 (GAS1) is a pleiotropic protein that induces apoptosis and cell arrest in different tumors, but it is also involved in the development of the nervous system and other tissues and organs. This dual ability is likely caused by its capacity to interact both by inhibiting the intracellular signaling cascade induced by glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor and by facilitating the activity of the sonic hedgehog pathway. The presence of GAS1 mRNA has been described in adult mouse brain, and here we corroborated this observation. We then proceeded to determine the distribution of the protein in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We detected, by western blot analysis, expression of GAS1 in olfactory bulb, caudate-putamen, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, mesencephalon, medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and cervical spinal cord. To more carefully map the expression of GAS1, we performed double-label immunohistochemistry and noticed expression of GAS1 in neurons in all brain areas examined. We also observed expression of GAS1 in astroglial cells, albeit the pattern of expression was more restricted than that seen in neurons. Briefly, in the present article, we report the widespread distribution and cellular localization of the GAS1 native protein in adult mammalian CNS. PMID:23813868

Zarco, Natanael; Bautista, Elizabeth; Cuéllar, Manola; Vergara, Paula; Flores-Rodriguez, Paola; Aguilar-Roblero, Raúl; Segovia, José

2013-06-27

244

Primo Vascular System in the Subarachnoid Space of a Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

Objective. Recently, a novel circulatory system, the primo vascular system (PVS), was found in the brain ventricles and in the central canal of the spinal cord of a rat. The aim of the current work is to detect the PVS along the transverse sinuses between the cerebrum and the cerebellum of a mouse brain. Materials and Methods. The PVS in the subarachnoid space was analyzed after staining with 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and phalloidin in order to identify the PVS. With confocal microscopy and polarization microscopy, the primo vessel underneath the sagittal sinus was examined. The primo nodes under the transversal sinuses were observed after peeling off the dura and pia maters of the brain. Results. The primo vessel underneath the superior sagittal sinus was observed and showed linear optical polarization, similarly to the rabbit and the rat cases. The primo nodes were observed under the left and the right transverse sinuses at distances of 3,763??m and 5,967??m. The average size was 155??m?×?248??m. Conclusion. The observation of primo vessels was consistent with previous observations in rabbits and rats, and primo nodes under the transverse sinuses were observed for the first time in this work.

Moon, Sang-Ho; Cha, Richard; Lim, Jae-Kwan; Soh, Kwang-Sup

2013-01-01

245

Full Scale Conversion of Anaerobic Digesters to Heated Aerobic Digesters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Full plant scale experiments were made to determine the effect of heated aerobic digesters on digestion of waste water treatment plant sludge. Existing heated, floating cover equipped, anaerobic digesters, which had failed under excessive paper mill waste...

1972-01-01

246

Differences in Pathogenesis for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the Mouse Versus the Swine Model Identify Bacterial Gene Products Required for Systemic but not Gastrointestinal Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the last several decades, the mouse model of Typhoid fever has been an extremely productive model to investigate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium pathogenesis. The mouse is the paradigm for investigating systemic disease due to infection by Salmonella; however, the swine model of gastro...

247

Efficacy of oral cochleate-amphotericin B in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis.  

PubMed

Amphotericin B (AMB) remains the principal therapeutic choice for deep mycoses. However, its application is limited by toxicity and a route of administration requiring slow intravenous injection. An oral formulation of this drug is desirable to treat acute infections and provide prophylactic therapy for high-risk patients. Cochleates are a novel lipid-based delivery system that have the potential for oral administration of hydrophobic drugs. They are stable phospholipid-cation crystalline structures consisting of a spiral lipid bilayer sheet with no internal aqueous space. Cochleates containing AMB (CAMB) inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, and the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of CAMB administered orally was evaluated in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. The results indicate that 100% of the mice treated at all CAMB doses, including a low dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight/day, survived the experimental period (16 days). In contrast, 100% mortality was observed with untreated mice by day 12. The fungal tissue burden in kidneys and lungs was assessed in parallel, and a dose-dependent reduction in C. albicans from the kidneys was observed, with a maximum 3.5-log reduction in total cell counts at 2.5 mg/kg/day. However, complete clearance of the organism from the lungs, resulting in more than a 4-log reduction, was observed at the same dose. These results were comparable to a deoxycholate AMB formulation administered intraperitoneally at 2 mg/kg/day (P < 0.05). Overall, these data demonstrate that cochleates are an effective oral delivery system for AMB in a model of systemic candidiasis. PMID:10952579

Santangelo, R; Paderu, P; Delmas, G; Chen, Z W; Mannino, R; Zarif, L; Perlin, D S

2000-09-01

248

Efficacy of Oral Cochleate-Amphotericin B in a Mouse Model of Systemic Candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Amphotericin B (AMB) remains the principal therapeutic choice for deep mycoses. However, its application is limited by toxicity and a route of administration requiring slow intravenous injection. An oral formulation of this drug is desirable to treat acute infections and provide prophylactic therapy for high-risk patients. Cochleates are a novel lipid-based delivery system that have the potential for oral administration of hydrophobic drugs. They are stable phospholipid-cation crystalline structures consisting of a spiral lipid bilayer sheet with no internal aqueous space. Cochleates containing AMB (CAMB) inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, and the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of CAMB administered orally was evaluated in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. The results indicate that 100% of the mice treated at all CAMB doses, including a low dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight/day, survived the experimental period (16 days). In contrast, 100% mortality was observed with untreated mice by day 12. The fungal tissue burden in kidneys and lungs was assessed in parallel, and a dose-dependent reduction in C. albicans from the kidneys was observed, with a maximum 3.5-log reduction in total cell counts at 2.5 mg/kg/day. However, complete clearance of the organism from the lungs, resulting in more than a 4-log reduction, was observed at the same dose. These results were comparable to a deoxycholate AMB formulation administered intraperitoneally at 2 mg/kg/day (P < 0.05). Overall, these data demonstrate that cochleates are an effective oral delivery system for AMB in a model of systemic candidiasis.

Santangelo, Rosaria; Paderu, Padmaja; Delmas, Guillaume; Chen, Zi-Wei; Mannino, Raphael; Zarif, Leila; Perlin, David S.

2000-01-01

249

Nanobiocatalysis for protein digestion in proteomic analysis  

SciTech Connect

The process of protein digestion is a critical step for successful protein identification in the bottom-up proteomic analysis. To substitute the present practice of in-solution protein digestion, which is long, tedious, and difficult to automate, a lot of efforts have been dedicated for the development of a rapid, recyclable and automated digestion system. Recent advances of nanobiocatalytic approaches have improved the performance of protein digestion by using various nanomaterials such as nanoporous materials, magnetic nanoparticles, and polymer nanofibers. Especially, the unprecedented success of trypsin stabilization in the form of trypsin-coated nanofibers, showing no activity decrease under repeated uses for one year and retaining good resistance to proteolysis, has demonstrated its great potential to be employed in the development of automated, high-throughput, and on-line digestion systems. This review discusses recent developments of nanobiocatalytic approaches for the improved performance of protein digestion in speed, detection sensitivity, recyclability, and trypsin stability. In addition, we also introduce the protein digestions under unconventional energy inputs for protein denaturation and the development of microfluidic enzyme reactors that can benefit from recent successes of these nanobiocatalytic approaches.

Kim, Jungbae; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Smith, Richard D.

2010-02-01

250

Ultrasound assisted microwave digestion.  

PubMed

Simultaneous microwave and ultrasound irradiation is shown as a new technique for digestion of solid and liquid samples suitable for chemical and food analysis. Its application in analytical chemistry has been shown by decreases in digestion time: determination of copper in edible oils and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. PMID:14624979

Chemat, Smain; Lagha, Ahcene; Ait Amar, Hamid; Chemat, Farid

2004-01-01

251

A validated Trichinella digestion assay and an associated sampling and quality assurance system for use in testing pork and horse meat.  

PubMed

A revised digestion method, developed for efficiency and quality assurance, was validated for the detection of Trichinella larvae in pork and horse meat to meet requirements for food safety testing and facilitate access to international markets. The method consisted of a tissue homogenization step and a spin bar digestion procedure conducted at 45 degrees C to free larvae from muscle tissue, followed by two sequential separatory funnel steps to concentrate the larvae for detection using a stereomicroscope. Critical control points were determined for the method and monitored during testing. Under conditions of a defined protocol, test capacity was suitable for industrial applications, since multiples of up to 100 g of tissue could be analyzed at one time. The overall sensitivity of the test system depended on the size and origin of the sample taken from individual infected carcasses. Data from swine indicated that the currently accepted sample size of 1 g from individual carcasses consistently detected larval loads of > or =3 larvae per gram. Larval loads of 1.0 to 1.9 larvae per gram required 3- to 5-g samples of muscle tissue for reliable detection. Five-gram samples were considered optimal, because they consistently detected more tissues than 3-g samples, although the difference was not statistically significant. Tissue localization studies in experimental pigs indicated that the tongue and diaphragm were the tissues of choice for the most sensitive larval recovery. A system of analyst training, laboratory certification based on ISO guide 25, and on-site proficiency panel testing was used to ensure that external laboratories would consistently produce reliable test results. The system developed for pork was successfully modified for the testing of horse meat. PMID:10571321

Forbes, L B; Gajadhar, A A

1999-11-01

252

A comparison study on the high-rate co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste using a temperature-phased anaerobic sequencing batch reactor system.  

PubMed

Assessing contemporary anaerobic biotechnologies requires proofs on reliable performance in terms of renewable bioenergy recovery such as methane (CH(4)) production rate, CH(4) yield while removing volatile solid (VS) effectively. This study, therefore, aims to evaluate temperature-phased anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (TPASBR) system that is a promising approach for the sustainable treatment of organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW). TPASBR system is compared with a conventional system, mesophilic two-stage anaerobic sequencing batch reactor system, which differs in operating temperature of 1st-stage. Results demonstrate that TPASBR system can obtain 44% VS removal from co-substrate of sewage sludge and food waste while producing 1.2m(3)CH(4)/m(3)(system)/d (0.2m(3)CH(4)/kgVS(added)) at organic loading rate of 6.1gVS/L/d through the synergy of sequencing-batch operation, co-digestion, and temperature-phasing. Consequently, the rapid and balanced anaerobic metabolism at thermophilic stage makes TPASBR system to afford high organic loading rate showing superior performance on OFMSW stabilization. PMID:21600764

Kim, Hyun-Woo; Nam, Joo-Youn; Shin, Hang-Sik

2011-04-30

253

Impact of Repeated Topical-Loaded Manganese-Enhanced MRI on the Mouse Visual System  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Optic nerve degeneration in diseases such as glaucoma and multiple sclerosis evolves in months to years. The use of Mn2+-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MEMRI) in a time-course study may provide new insights into the disease progression. Previously, we demonstrated the feasibility of using a topical administration for Mn2+ delivery to the visual system. This study is to evaluate the impact of biweekly or monthly repeated Mn2+ topical administration and the pH levels of the Mn2+ solutions for MEMRI on the mouse visual pathway. Methods. Using groups of mice, the MEMRI with an acidic or pH neutralized 1 M MnCl2 solution was performed. To evaluate the feasibility of repeated MEMRIs, topical-loaded MEMRI was conducted biweekly seven times or monthly three times. The enhancement of MEMRI in the visual system was quantified. After repeated MEMRIs, the corneas were examined by optical coherence tomography. The retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and optic nerves were examined by histology. Results. All mice exhibited consistent enhancements along the visual system following repeated MEMRIs. The acidic Mn2+ solution induced a greater MEMRI enhancement as compared with a neutral pH Mn2+ solution. Significant 20% RGC loss was found after three biweekly Mn2+ inductions, but no RGC loss was found after three monthly Mn2+ treatments. The corneal thickness was found increased after seven biweekly topical-loaded MEMRI. Conclusions. Acidic Mn2+ solutions enhanced the uptake of Mn2+ observed on the MEMRI. Increasing the time intervals of repeated Mn2+ topical administration reduced the adverse effects caused by MEMRI.

Sun, Shu-Wei; Thiel, Tiffany; Liang, Hsiao-Fang

2012-01-01

254

AAV6-mediated Systemic shRNA Delivery Reverses Disease in a Mouse Model of Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Treatment of dominantly inherited muscle disorders remains a difficult task considering the need to eliminate the pathogenic gene product in a body-wide fashion. We show here that it is possible to reverse dominant muscle disease in a mouse model of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). FSHD is a common form of muscular dystrophy associated with a complex cascade of epigenetic events following reduction in copy number of D4Z4 macrosatellite repeats located on chromosome 4q35. Several 4q35 genes have been examined for their role in disease, including FRG1. Overexpression of FRG1 causes features related to FSHD in transgenic mice and the FRG1 mouse is currently the only available mouse model of FSHD. Here we show that systemic delivery of RNA interference expression cassettes in the FRG1 mouse, after the onset of disease, led to a dose-dependent long-term FRG1 knockdown without signs of toxicity. Histological features including centrally nucleated fibers, fiber size reduction, fibrosis, adipocyte accumulation, and inflammation were all significantly improved. FRG1 mRNA knockdown resulted in a dramatic restoration of muscle function. Through RNA interference (RNAi) expression cassette redesign, our method is amenable to targeting any pathogenic gene offering a viable option for long-term, body-wide treatment of dominant muscle disease in humans.

Bortolanza, Sergia; Nonis, Alessandro; Sanvito, Francesca; Maciotta, Simona; Sitia, Giovanni; Wei, Jessica; Torrente, Yvan; Di Serio, Clelia; Chamberlain, Joel R; Gabellini, Davide

2011-01-01

255

Increased blood-brain barrier vulnerability to systemic inflammation in an Alzheimer disease mouse model.  

PubMed

Behavioral and psychological problems are often observed in patients with dementia such as that associated with Alzheimer disease, and these noncognitive symptoms place an extremely heavy burden on the family and caregivers. Although it is well know that these symptoms often are triggered by infection of peripheral organs, the underlying mechanisms for these pathological conditions are still unclear. In this study, using an Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP)-transgenic mouse, we analyzed behavioral changes and brain inflammatory response induced by peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide. Application of a unique in vivo microdialysis system revealed that the increase in brain inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6) level was significantly higher in APP-Tg than in wild-type mice after peripheral lipopolysaccharide injection, which was associated with more severe sickness behaviors. The blood-brain barrier became more permeable in APP-Tg mice during peripherally evoked inflammation, suggesting the increased vulnerability of the blood-brain barrier to inflammation in this animal model of Alzheimer's disease. These findings might provide insight into the pathogenesis of noncognitive symptoms in dementia and a basis to develop new therapeutic treatments for them. PMID:23561508

Takeda, Shuko; Sato, Naoyuki; Ikimura, Kazuko; Nishino, Hirohito; Rakugi, Hiromi; Morishita, Ryuichi

2013-04-02

256

Deletion of Pten in the mouse enteric nervous system induces ganglioneuromatosis and mimics intestinal pseudoobstruction  

PubMed Central

Intestinal ganglioneuromatosis is a benign proliferation of nerve ganglion cells, nerve fibers, and supporting cells of the enteric nervous system (ENS) that can result in abnormally large enteric neuronal cells (ENCs) in the myenteric plexus and chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO). As phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a phosphatase that is critical for controlling cell growth, proliferation, and death, we investigated the role of PTEN in the ENS by generating mice with an embryonic, ENC-selective deletion within the Pten locus. Mutant mice died 2 to 3 weeks after birth, with clinical signs of CIPO and hyperplasia and hypertrophy of ENCs resulting from increased activity of the PI3K/PTEN-AKT-S6K signaling pathway. Further analysis revealed that PTEN was only expressed in developing mouse embryonic ENCs from E15.5 and that the rate of ENC proliferation decreased once PTEN was expressed. Specific deletion of the Pten gene in ENCs therefore induced hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the later stages of embryogenesis. This phenotype was reversed by administration of a pharmacological inhibitor of AKT. In some human ganglioneuromatosis forms of CIPO, PTEN expression was found to be abnormally low and S6 phosphorylation increased. Our study thus reveals that loss of PTEN disrupts development of the ENS and identifies the PI3K/PTEN-AKT-S6K signaling pathway as a potential therapeutic target for ganglioneuromatosis forms of CIPO.

Puig, Isabel; Champeval, Delphine; De Santa Barbara, Pascal; Jaubert, Francis; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Larue, Lionel

2009-01-01

257

Central CRF system perturbation in an Alzheimer's disease knockin mouse model.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is often accompanied by changes in mood as well as increases in circulating cortisol levels, suggesting that regulation of the stress responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is disturbed. Here, we show that amyloid precursor protein (APP) is endogenously expressed in important limbic, hypothalamic, and midbrain nuclei that regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Furthermore, in a knockin mouse model of AD that expresses familial AD (FAD) mutations of both APP with humanized amyloid beta (hA?), and presenilin 1 (PS1), in their endogenous patterns (APP/hA?/PS1 animals), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) levels are increased in key stress-related nuclei, resting corticosteroid levels are elevated, and animals display increased anxiety-related behavior. Endocrine and behavioral phenotypes can be normalized by loss of 1 copy of CRF receptor type-1 (Crfr1), consistent with a perturbation of central CRF signaling in APP/hA?/PS1 animals. However, reductions in anxiety and corticosteroid levels conferred by heterozygosity of CRF receptor type-1 do not improve a deficit in working memory observed in APP/hA?/PS1 mice, suggesting that perturbations of the CRF system are not the primary cause of decreased cognitive performance. PMID:22336193

Guo, Qinxi; Zheng, Hui; Justice, Nicholas John

2012-02-14

258

Peripheral immune system and neuroimmune communication impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be understood in the context of the aging of neuroimmune communication. Although the contribution to AD of the immune cells present in the brain is accepted, the role of the peripheral immune system is less well known. The present review examines the behavior and the function and redox state of peripheral immune cells in a triple-transgenic mouse model (3×Tg-AD). These animals develop both beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles with a temporal- and regional-specific profile that closely mimics their development in the human AD brain. We have observed age and sex-related changes in several aspects of behavior and immune cell functions, which demonstrate premature aging. Lifestyle strategies such as physical exercise and environmental enrichment can improve these aspects. We propose that the analysis of the function and redox state of peripheral immune cells can be a useful tool for measuring the progression of AD. PMID:22823438

Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Maté, Ianire; Manassra, Rashed; Vida, Carmen; De la Fuente, Mónica

2012-07-01

259

A system for imaging the regulatory noncoding Xist RNA in living mouse embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

In mammals, silencing of one of the two X chromosomes in female cells compensates for the different number of X chromosomes between the sexes. The noncoding Xist RNA initiates X chromosome inactivation. Xist spreads from its transcription site over the X chromosome territory and triggers the formation of a repressive chromatin domain. To understand localization of Xist over one X chromosome we aimed to develop a system for investigating Xist in living cells. Here we report successful visualization of transgenically expressed MS2-tagged Xist in mouse embryonic stem cells. Imaging of Xist during an entire cell cycle shows that Xist spreads from a single point to a steady state when the chromosome is covered with a constant amount of Xist. Photobleaching experiments of the established Xist cluster indicate that chromosome-bound Xist is dynamic and turns over on the fully Xist covered chromosome. It appears that in interphase the loss of bound Xist and newly produced Xist are in equilibrium. We also show that the turnover of bound Xist requires transcription, and Xist binding becomes stable when transcription is inhibited. Our data reveal a strategy for visualizing Xist and indicate that spreading over the chromosome might involve dynamic binding and displacement. PMID:21613549

Ng, Karen; Daigle, Nathalie; Bancaud, Aurélien; Ohhata, Tatsuya; Humphreys, Peter; Walker, Rachael; Ellenberg, Jan; Wutz, Anton

2011-05-25

260

A system for imaging the regulatory noncoding Xist RNA in living mouse embryonic stem cells  

PubMed Central

In mammals, silencing of one of the two X chromosomes in female cells compensates for the different number of X chromosomes between the sexes. The noncoding Xist RNA initiates X chromosome inactivation. Xist spreads from its transcription site over the X chromosome territory and triggers the formation of a repressive chromatin domain. To understand localization of Xist over one X chromosome we aimed to develop a system for investigating Xist in living cells. Here we report successful visualization of transgenically expressed MS2?tagged Xist in mouse embryonic stem cells. Imaging of Xist during an entire cell cycle shows that Xist spreads from a single point to a steady state when the chromosome is covered with a constant amount of Xist. Photobleaching experiments of the established Xist cluster indicate that chromosome?bound Xist is dynamic and turns over on the fully Xist covered chromosome. It appears that in interphase the loss of bound Xist and newly produced Xist are in equilibrium. We also show that the turnover of bound Xist requires transcription, and Xist binding becomes stable when transcription is inhibited. Our data reveal a strategy for visualizing Xist and indicate that spreading over the chromosome might involve dynamic binding and displacement.

Ng, Karen; Daigle, Nathalie; Bancaud, Aurelien; Ohhata, Tatsuya; Humphreys, Peter; Walker, Rachael; Ellenberg, Jan; Wutz, Anton

2011-01-01

261

Quantification, Distribution, and Possible Source of Bacterial Biofilm in Mouse Automated Watering Systems  

PubMed Central

The use of automated watering systems for providing drinking water to rodents has become commonplace in the research setting. Little is known regarding bacterial biofilm growth within the water piping attached to the racks (manifolds). The purposes of this project were to determine whether the mouse oral flora contributed to the aerobic bacterial component of the rack biofilm, quantify bacterial growth in rack manifolds over 6 mo, assess our rack sanitation practices, and quantify bacterial biofilm development within sections of the manifold. By using standard methods of bacterial identification, the aerobic oral flora of 8 strains and stocks of mice were determined on their arrival at our animal facility. Ten rack manifolds were sampled before, during, and after sanitation and monthly for 6 mo. Manifolds were evaluated for aerobic bacterial growth by culture on R2A and trypticase soy agar, in addition to bacterial ATP quantification by bioluminescence. In addition, 6 racks were sampled at 32 accessible sites for evaluation of biofilm distribution within the watering manifold. The identified aerobic bacteria in the oral flora were inconsistent with the bacteria from the manifold, suggesting that the mice do not contribute to the biofilm bacteria. Bacterial growth in manifolds increased while they were in service, with exponential growth of the biofilm from months 3 to 6 and a significant decrease after sanitization. Bacterial biofilm distribution was not significantly different across location quartiles of the rack manifold, but bacterial levels differed between the shelf pipe and connecting elbow pipes.

Meier, Thomas R; Maute, Carrie J; Cadillac, Joan M; Lee, Ji Young; Righter, Daniel J; Hugunin, Kelly MS; Deininger, Rolf A; Dysko, Robert C

2008-01-01

262

Systemic multicompartmental effects of the gut microbiome on mouse metabolic phenotypes  

PubMed Central

To characterize the impact of gut microbiota on host metabolism, we investigated the multicompartmental metabolic profiles of a conventional mouse strain (C3H/HeJ) (n=5) and its germ-free (GF) equivalent (n=5). We confirm that the microbiome strongly impacts on the metabolism of bile acids through the enterohepatic cycle and gut metabolism (higher levels of phosphocholine and glycine in GF liver and marked higher levels of bile acids in three gut compartments). Furthermore we demonstrate that (1) well-defined metabolic differences exist in all examined compartments between the metabotypes of GF and conventional mice: bacterial co-metabolic products such as hippurate (urine) and 5-aminovalerate (colon epithelium) were found at reduced concentrations, whereas raffinose was only detected in GF colonic profiles. (2) The microbiome also influences kidney homeostasis with elevated levels of key cell volume regulators (betaine, choline, myo-inositol and so on) observed in GF kidneys. (3) Gut microbiota modulate metabotype expression at both local (gut) and global (biofluids, kidney, liver) system levels and hence influence the responses to a variety of dietary modulation and drug exposures relevant to personalized health-care investigations.

Claus, Sandrine P; Tsang, Tsz M; Wang, Yulan; Cloarec, Olivier; Skordi, Eleni; Martin, Francois-Pierre; Rezzi, Serge; Ross, Alastair; Kochhar, Sunil; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K

2008-01-01

263

Large scale expression and purification of mouse melanopsin-L in the baculovirus expression system.  

PubMed

Melanopsin is the mammalian photopigment that primarily mediates non-visual photoregulated physiology. So far, this photopigment is poorly characterized with respect to structure and function. Here, we report large-scale production and purification of the intact long isoform of mouse melanopsin (melanopsin-L) using the baculovirus/insect cell expression system. Exploiting the baculoviral GP67 signal peptide, we obtained expression levels that varied between 10-30pmol/10(6)cells, equivalent to 2-5mg/L. This could be further enhanced using DMSO as a chemical chaperone. LC-MS analysis confirmed that full-length melanopsin-L was expressed and demonstrated that the majority of the expressed protein was N-glycosylated at Asn(30) and Asn(34). Other posttranslational modifications were not yet detected. Purification was achieved exploiting a C-terminal deca-histag, realizing a purification factor of several hundred-fold. The final recovery of purified melanopsin-L averaged 2.5% of the starting material. This was mainly due to low extraction yields, probably since most of the protein was present as the apoprotein. The spectral data we obtained agree with an absorbance maximum in the 460-500nm wavelength region and a significant red-shift upon illumination. This is the first report on expression and purification of full length melanopsin-L at a scale that can easily be further amplified. PMID:23921072

Shirzad-Wasei, Nazhat; van Oostrum, Jenny; Bovee-Geurts, Petra H; Wasserman, Maud; Bosman, Giel J; Degrip, Willem J

2013-08-03

264

Physiology and pathophysiology of the digestive organs in critical illness.  

PubMed

Prolongation of life in critical illness has led to the increasing involvement of the digestive organs by systemic hypoperfusion. The end result of profound ischemia is multiple systems organ failure. Digestive system failure, in most probability, becomes the terminal event. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of the digestive organs in critical illness allows for early detection and institution of prophylactic measures. Involvement of the liver, biliary tract, pancreas, stomach, and intestines is individually discussed. PMID:3332205

Sarfeh, I J; Rypins, E B

1987-04-01

265

Pathogenesis of acute and chronic central nervous system infection with variants of mouse hepatitis virus, strain JHM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of mice with variants of mouse hepatitis virus, strain JHM (MHV-JHM), provide models of acute and chronic viral\\u000a infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Through targeted recombination and reverse genetic manipulation, studies of\\u000a infection with MHV-JHM variants have identified phenotypic differences and examined the effects of these differences on viral\\u000a pathogenesis and anti-viral host immune responses. Studies employing

Steven P. Templeton; Stanley Perlman

2007-01-01

266

Evaluation of safety and efficacy of RNAi against HIV1 in the human immune system (Rag2-\\/-?c-\\/-) mouse model  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA interference (RNAi) gene therapy against HIV-1 by stable expression of antiviral short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) can potently inhibit viral replication in T cells. Recently, a mouse model with a human immune system (HIS) was developed that can be productively infected with HIV-1. In this in vivo model, in which Rag-2?\\/??c?\\/? mice are engrafted with human CD34+CD38? hematopoietic precursor cells,

O ter Brake; N. Legrand; K J von Eije; M. Centlivre; H. Spits; K. Weijer; B. Blom; B. Berkhout

2009-01-01

267

Fiber optic light-scattering measurement system for evaluation of embryo viability: light-scattering characteristics from live mouse embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured angular distribution of the light scattering from live mouse embryo with 632.8nm in wavelength to evaluate the embryo viability. We aim to measure the mitochondrial density in human embryo which have relation to the embryo viability. We have constructed the light scattering measurement system to detect the mitochondrial density non-invasively. We have employed two optical fibers for the

Harumi Itoh; Tsunenori Arai; Makoto Kikuchi

1997-01-01

268

Distribution of the nociceptin and nocistatin precursor transcript in the mouse central nervous system.  

PubMed

The distribution of prepronociceptin messenger RNA, the recently identified endogenous ligand of the ORL1 receptor (opioid receptor-like-1), has been studied in the adult mouse central nervous system using in situ hybridization. Prepronociceptin is a new peptide precursor that generates, upon maturation, at least three bioactive peptides: nociceptin, noc2 and the recently described nocistatin. Considering both the density of labeled neurons per region and their intensity of labeling, the distribution of prepronociceptin messenger RNA-containing neurons can be summarized as follows: the highest level of prepronociceptin messenger RNA expression was detected in the septohippocampal nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdaloid nucleus, and in selective thalamic nuclei such as the parafascicular, reticular, ventral lateral geniculate and zona incerta. High to moderate levels of prepronociceptin messenger RNA expression were detected in the lateral, ventral and medial septum, and were evident in brainstem structures implicated in descending antinociceptive pathways (e.g., the gigantocellular nucleus, raphe magnus nucleus, periaqueductal gray matter), and also observed in association with auditory relay nuclei such as the inferior colliculi, lateral lemniscus nucleus, medioventral preolivary nucleus and lateral superior nucleus. A moderate level of prepronociceptin messenger RNA expression was observed in the medial preoptic nucleus, ventromedial preoptic nucleus, periventricular nucleus, pedonculopontine tegmental nucleus, solitary tract nucleus and spinal trigeminal nucleus. A weak level of prepronociceptin messenger RNA expression was present in some areas, such as the cerebral cortex, endopiriform cortex, hippocampal formation, medial amygdaloid nucleus, anterior hypothalamic area, medial mammillary hypothalamic nuclei, retrorubral field and substantia nigra pars compacta. No labeled cells could be found in the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. The present data confirm that nociceptin is expressed in a broad array of regions of the central nervous system. In good correlation with the presently known physiological actions of nociceptin, they include, amongst others, brain areas conveying/integrating pain and auditory sensory afferences. PMID:10391477

Boom, A; Mollereau, C; Meunier, J C; Vassart, G; Parmentier, M; Vanderhaeghen, J J; Schiffmann, S N

1999-01-01

269

Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Multiple System Atrophy: Immunomodulation and Neuroprotection  

PubMed Central

Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are currently strong candidates for cell-based therapies. They are well known for their differentiation potential and immunoregulatory properties and have been proven to be potentially effective in the treatment of a large variety of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Currently there is no treatment that provides consistent long-term benefits for patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), a fatal late onset ?-synucleinopathy. Principally neuroprotective or regenerative strategies, including cell-based therapies, represent a powerful approach for treating MSA. In this study we investigated the efficacy of intravenously applied MSCs in terms of behavioural improvement, neuroprotection and modulation of neuroinflammation in the (PLP)-?synuclein (?SYN) MSA model. Methodology/Principal Findings MSCs were intravenously applied in aged (PLP)-?SYN transgenic mice. Behavioural analyses, defining fine motor coordination and balance capabilities as well as stride length analysis, were performed to measure behavioural outcome. Neuroprotection was assessed by quantifying TH neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). MSC treatment on neuroinflammation was analysed by cytokine measurements (IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, GM-CSF, INF?, MCP-1, TGF-?1, TNF-?) in brain lysates together with immunohistochemistry for T-cells and microglia. Four weeks post MSC treatment we observed neuroprotection in the SNc, as well as downregulation of cytokines involved in neuroinflammation. However, there was no behavioural improvement after MSC application. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge this is the first experimental approach of MSC treatment in a transgenic MSA mouse model. Our data suggest that intravenously infused MSCs have a potent effect on immunomodulation and neuroprotection. Our data warrant further studies to elucidate the efficacy of systemically administered MSCs in transgenic MSA models.

Stemberger, Sylvia; Jamnig, Angelika; Stefanova, Nadia; Lepperdinger, Gunter; Reindl, Markus; Wenning, Gregor K.

2011-01-01

270

Unique Properties of the ATP-Sensitive K+ Channel in the Mouse Ventricular Cardiac Conduction System  

PubMed Central

Background The specialized cardiac conduction system (CCS) expresses a unique complement of ion channels that confer a specific electrophysiological profile. ATP sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in these myocytes have not been systemically investigated. Methods and Results We recorded KATP channels in isolated CCS myocytes using Cntn2-EGFP reporter mice. The CCS KATP channels were less sensitive to inhibitory cytosolic ATP compared to ventricular channels and more strongly activated by MgADP. They also had a smaller slope conductance. The two types of channels had similar intraburst open and closed times, but the CCS KATP channel had a prolonged interburst closed time. CCS KATP channels were strongly activated by diazoxide and less by levcromakalim, whereas the ventricular KATP channel had a reverse pharmacological profile. CCS myocytes express elevated levels of Kir6.1, but reduced Kir6.2 and SUR2A mRNA compared to ventricular myocytes (SUR1 expression was negligible). SUR2B mRNA expression was higher in CCS myocytes relative to SUR2A. Canine Purkinje fibers expressed higher levels of Kir6.1 and SUR2B protein relative to the ventricle. Numerical simulation predicts a high sensitivity of the Purkinje action potential to changes in ATP:ADP ratio. Cardiac conduction time was prolonged by low-flow ischemia in isolated, perfused mouse hearts, which was prevented by glibenclamide. Conclusions These data imply a differential electrophysiological response (and possible contribution to arrhythmias) of the ventricular CCS to KATP channel opening during periods of ischemia.

Bao, Li; Kefalogianni, Eirini; Lader, Joshua; Hong, Miyoun; Morley, Gregory; Fishman, Glenn I.; Sobie, Eric A.; Coetzee, William A.

2011-01-01

271

Isolation and culture of mouse intestinal cells.  

PubMed

Complex cell signal transduction mechanisms regulate intestinal epithelial shape, polarity, motility, organelles, cell membrane components as well as physical and mechanical properties to influence alimentary digestion, absorption, secretion, detoxification and fluid balance. Interactions between the epithelial cells and adjacent mesenchyme are central to intestinal homeostasis although the key regulatory molecules of specific differentiation steps remain unclear. Isolation and primary culture of heterotypic murine intestinal cells provides a model system for elucidation of essential molecular cross-talk between epithelium and mesenchyme that may provide several biological and practical advantages over transformed cell lines. An in vitro primary culture system for neonatal rat or mouse intestinal cells has been established that forms monolayers, expresses intestine-specific epithelial features including intestinal brush borders and appropriate hydrolase enzymes. Our studies confirm the promise of this method which may advance our understanding of heterotypic cellular interactions implicated in intestinal function and may provide important insights into the pathobiology of disease. PMID:20204629

Campbell, Charles Frederick

2010-01-01

272

Using Technology in Remedial Education. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest discusses two specific computer-aided instruction systems used in two-year colleges in the United States and Canada, and addresses critical points regarding system implementation in remedial education programs. As developed in the Nova Scotia Community College System in Canada, the INVEST computer system provides literacy-based…

Keup, Jennifer Rinella

273

World Court Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law provides this resource, an electronic version of the first two volumes of the printed work. It presents digested views of the International Court of Justice on various issues in international law, as expressed in their judgements, advisory opinions, and orders. The Digest covers 1986-1995 at present. The digest can be browsed or searched, and a case decision and opinion summary can be found at the end of the table of contents.

1997-01-01

274

User Evaluation of an Information Service in Social Welfare. Report of an Interview and Questionnaire Study of the Wiltshire Social Services Staff Digest. Design of Information Systems in the Social Sciences. Research Reports Series B, Number One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a larger research effort to determine what constitutes an effective information system, a user evaluation of the "Wiltshire Social Services Staff Digest", a monthly publication produced by the research and development section of the Social Service Department, was carried out. A stratified sample of 700 among the total 2,424…

Bath Univ. of Technology (England). Univ. Library.

275

Effects of different manuring systems with and without biogas digestion on soil mineral nitrogen content and on gaseous nitrogen losses (ammonia, nitrous oxides)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) is the most susceptible nutrient to transformations affecting plant availability. These transformations include mineralization, immobilization, nitrification and denitrification, as well as leaching and ammonia volatilization. Use of stable wastes and other residues for biogas digestion may reduce N-losses. It is the purpose of this paper (i) to assess the effects of biogas digestion on soil mineral N (SMN)

Kurt Möller; Walter Stinner

2009-01-01

276

Engineering the rabbit digestive ecosystem to improve digestive health and efficacy.  

PubMed

In rabbits, the bacterial and archaeal community of caecal ecosystem is composed mostly of species not yet described and very specific to that species. In mammals, the digestive ecosystem plays important physiological roles: hydrolysis and fermentation of nutrients, immune system regulation, angiogenesis, gut development and acting as a barrier against pathogens. Understanding the functioning of the digestive ecosystem and how to control its functional and specific diversity is a priority, as this could provide new strategies to improve the resistance of the young rabbit to digestive disorders and improve feed efficiency. This review first recalls some facts about the specificity of rabbit digestive microbiota composition in the main fermentation compartment, and its variability with some new insights based on recent molecular approaches. The main functions of the digestive microbiota will then be explained. Finally, some possible ways to control rabbit caecal microbiota will be proposed and a suitable timing for action will be defined. PMID:23769161

Combes, S; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Cauquil, L; Gidenne, T

2013-06-17

277

Teaching and Learning about the Earth. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC Digest investigates the earth and space science guidelines of the National Science Education Standards. These guidelines are frequently referred to as the earth system and include components such as plate tectonics, the water cycle, and the carbon cycle. This Digest describes the development of earth systems science and earth systems

Lee, Hyonyong

278

Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of guinea pig manure in low-cost tubular digesters at high altitude.  

PubMed

Guinea pig is one of the most common livestock in rural communities of the Andes. The aim of this research was to study the anaerobic digestion of guinea pig manure in low-cost unheated tubular digesters at high altitude. To this end, the performance of two pilot digesters was monitored during 7 months; and two greenhouse designs were compared. In the dome roof digester the temperature and biogas production were significantly higher than in the shed roof digester. However, the biogas production rate was low (0.04 m(biogas)(3)m(digester)(-3) d(-1)), which is attributed to the low organic loading rate (0.6 kg(VS)m(digester)(-3)d(-1)) and temperature (23°C) of the system, among other factors. In a preliminary fertilization study, the potato yield per hectare was increased by 100% using the effluent as biofertilizer. Improving manure management techniques, increasing the organic loading rate and co digesting other substrates may be considered to enhance the process. PMID:21450457

Garfí, Marianna; Ferrer-Martí, Laia; Villegas, Vidal; Ferrer, Ivet

2011-03-29

279

Steam Digest 2001  

SciTech Connect

Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

Not Available

2002-01-01

280

Distribution of protocadherin 9 protein in the developing mouse nervous system.  

PubMed

Protocadherin 9 (Pcdh9) is a member of the protocadherin family, which includes many members involved in various phenomena, such as cell-cell adhesion, neural projection, and synapse formation. Here, we identified Pcdh9 protein in the mouse brain and examined its distribution during neural development. Pcdh9, with a molecular weight of approximately 180 kDa, was localized at cell-cell contact sites in COS-1 cells transfected with Pcdh9 cDNA. In cultured neurons, it was detected at the growth cone and at adhesion sites along neurites. In the E13.5 brain, prominent Pcdh9 immunoreactivity was detected in the dorsal thalamus along with other regions including the vestibulocochlear nerve. As development proceeded (E15.5-P1), Pcdh9 immunoreactivity became observable in various brain regions but was restricted to certain fiber tracts and brain nuclei. Interestingly, many Pcdh9-positive brain nuclei and fascicles belonged to the vestibular (e.g. vestibulocochlear nerve, vestibular nuclei, and the vestibulocerebellum) and oculomotor systems (medial longitudinal fascicles, oculomotor nucleus, trochlear nucleus, and interstitial nucleus of Cajal). In addition, we examined the distribution of Pcdh9 protein in the olfactory bulb, retina, spinal cord, and dorsal root ganglion. In these regions, Pcdh9 and OL-protocadherin proteins were differentially distributed, with the difference highlighted in the olfactory bulb, where they were enriched in different subsets of glomeruli. In the mature retina, Pcdh9 immunoreactivity was detected in distinct sublaminae of the inner and outer plexiform layers. In the dorsal root ganglion, only certain subsets of neurons showed Pcdh9 immunoreactivity. These results suggest that Pcdh9 might be involved in formation of specific neural circuits during neural development. PMID:22982106

Asahina, H; Masuba, A; Hirano, S; Yuri, K

2012-09-11

281

Nonlinear optical techniques for imaging and manipulating the mouse central nervous system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spinal cord of vertebrates serves as the conduit for somatosensory information and motor control, as well as being the locus of neural circuits that govern fast reflexes and patterned behaviors, such as walking in mammals or swimming in fish. Consequently, pathologies of the spinal cord -such as spinal cord injury (SCI)- lead to loss of motor control and sensory perception, with accompanying decline in life expectancy and quality of life. Despite the devastating effects of these diseases, few therapies exist to substantially ameliorate patient outcome. In part, studies of spinal cord pathology have been limited by the inability to perform in vivo imaging at the level of cellular processes. The focus of this thesis is to present the underlying theory for and demonstration of novel multi-photon microscopy (MPM) and optical manipulation techniques as they apply to studies the mouse central nervous system (CNS), with an emphasis on the spinal cord. The scientific findings which have resulted from the implementation of these techniques are also presented. In particular, we have demonstrated that third harmonic generation is a dye-free method of imaging CNS myelin, a fundamental constituent of the spinal cord that is difficult to label using exogenous dyes and/or transgenic constructs. Since gaining optical access to the spinal cord is a prerequisite for spinal cord imaging, we review our development of a novel spinal cord imaging chamber and surgical procedure which allowed us to image for multiple weeks following implantation without the need for repeated surgeries. We also have used MPM to characterize spinal venous blood flow before and after point occlusions. We review a novel nonlinear microscopy technique that may serve to show optical interfaces in three dimensions inside scattering tissue. Finally, we discuss a model and show results of optoporation, a means of transfecting cells with genetic constructs. Brief reviews of MPM and SCI are also presented.

Farrar, Matthew John

282

Central nervous system dysfunction in a mouse model of FA2H deficiency  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) is responsible for the synthesis of myelin galactolipids containing hydroxy fatty acid (hFA) as the N-acyl chain. Mutations in the FA2H gene cause leukodystrophy, spastic paraplegia, and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Using the Cre-lox system, we developed two types of mouse mutants, Fa2h?/? mice (Fa2h deleted in all cells by germline deletion) and Fa2hflox/flox Cnp1-Cre mice (Fa2h deleted only in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells). We found significant demyelination, profound axonal loss, and abnormally enlarged axons in the CNS of Fa2h?/? mice at 12 months of age, while structure and function of peripheral nerves were largely unaffected. Fa2h?/? mice also exhibited histological and functional disruption in the cerebellum at 12 months of age. In a time course study, significant deterioration of cerebellar function was first detected at 7 months of age. Further behavioral assessments in water T-maze and Morris water maze tasks revealed significant deficits in spatial learning and memory at 4 months of age. These data suggest that various regions of the CNS are functionally compromised in young adult Fa2h?/? mice. The cerebellar deficits in 12-month-old Fa2hflox/flox Cnp1-Cre mice were indistinguishable from Fa2h?/?mice, indicating that these phenotypes likely stem from the lack of myelin hFA-galactolipids. In contrast, Fa2hflox/flox Cnp1-Cre mice did not show reduced performance in water maze tasks, indicating that oligodendrocytes are not involved in the learning and memory deficits found in Fa2h?/? mice. These findings provide the first evidence that FA2H has an important function outside of oligodendrocytes in the CNS.

Potter, Kathleen A.; Kern, Michael J.; Fullbright, George; Bielawski, Jacek; Scherer, Steven S.; Yum, Sabrina W.; Li, Jian J.; Cheng, Hua; Han, Xianlin; Venkata, Jagadish Kummetha; Khan, P. Akbar Ali; Rohrer, Barbel; Hama, Hiroko

2011-01-01

283

Gene expression in mouse ovarian follicle development in vivo versus an ex vivo alginate culture system.  

PubMed

Ovarian follicle maturation results from a complex interplay of endocrine, paracrine, and direct cell-cell interactions. This study compared the dynamic expression of key developmental genes during folliculogenesis in vivo and during in vitro culture in a 3D alginate hydrogel system. Candidate gene expression profiles were measured within mouse two-layered secondary follicles, multi-layered secondary follicles, and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). The expression of 20 genes involved in endocrine communication, growth signaling, and oocyte development was investigated by real-time PCR. Gene product levels were compared between i) follicles of similar stage and ii) COCs derived either in vivo or by in vitro culture. For follicles cultured for 4 days, the expression pattern and the expression level of 12 genes were the same in vivo and in vitro. Some endocrine (cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (Cyp19a1) and inhibin ?A subunit (Inhba)) and growth-related genes (bone morphogenetic protein 15 (Bmp15), kit ligand (Kitl), and transforming growth factor ? receptor 2 (Tgfbr2)) were downregulated relative to in vivo follicles. For COCs obtained from cultured follicles, endocrine-related genes (inhibin ?-subunit (Inha) and Inhba) had increased expression relative to in vivo counterparts, whereas growth-related genes (Bmp15, growth differentiation factor 9, and kit oncogene (Kit)) and zona pellucida genes were decreased. However, most of the oocyte-specific genes (e.g. factor in the germline ? (Figla), jagged 1 (Jag1), and Nlrp5 (Mater)) were expressed in vitro at the same level and with the same pattern as in vivo-derived follicles. These studies establish the similarities and differences between in vivo and in vitro cultured follicles, guiding the creation of environments that maximize follicle development and oocyte quality. PMID:21610168

Parrish, Elizabeth M; Siletz, Anaar; Xu, Min; Woodruff, Teresa K; Shea, Lonnie D

2011-05-24

284

Integration of Ecogpt and SV40 early region sequences into human chromosome 17: a dominant selection system in whole cell and microcell human-mouse hybrids.  

PubMed

The dominant selectable gene, Ecogpt, has been introduced, by the calcium phosphate precipitation technique, into normal human fibroblasts, along with the SV40 early region genes. In one transfectant clone, integration of these sequences into human chromosome 17 was demonstrated by the construction of human-mouse somatic cell hybrids, selected for by growth in medium containing mycophenolic acid and xanthine. A whole cell hybrid, made between the human transfectant and a mouse L cell, was used as donor of the Ecogpt-carrying human chromosome 17 to 'tribrids' growing in suspension, made by whole cell fusion between a mouse thymoma cell line, and to microcell hybrids made with a mouse teratocarcinoma cell line. Two tribrids contained karyotypically normal human chromosomes 17 and a small number of other human chromosomes, while a third tribrid had a portion of the long arm of chromosome 17 translocated to mouse as its only human genetic material. Two independent microcell hybrids contained a normal chromosome 17 and no other human chromosome on a mouse teratocarcinoma background. These experiments demonstrate the ability to construct human-mouse somatic cell hybrids using a dominant selection system. By applying this approach it should be possible to select for a wide range of different human chromosomes in whole cell and microcell hybrids. In particular, transfer of single human chromosomes to mouse teratocarcinoma cells will allow examination of developmentally regulated human gene sequences after differentiation of such hybrids. PMID:11892815

Tunnacliffe, A; Parkar, M; Povey, S; Bengtsson, B O; Stanley, K; Solomon, E; Goodfellow, P

1983-01-01

285

Integration of Ecogpt and SV40 early region sequences into human chromosome 17: a dominant selection system in whole cell and microcell human-mouse hybrids.  

PubMed Central

The dominant selectable gene, Ecogpt, has been introduced, by the calcium phosphate precipitation technique, into normal human fibroblasts, along with the SV40 early region genes. In one transfectant clone, integration of these sequences into human chromosome 17 was demonstrated by the construction of human-mouse somatic cell hybrids, selected for by growth in medium containing mycophenolic acid and xanthine. A whole cell hybrid, made between the human transfectant and a mouse L cell, was used as donor of the Ecogpt-carrying human chromosome 17 to 'tribrids' growing in suspension, made by whole cell fusion between a mouse thymoma cell line, and to microcell hybrids made with a mouse teratocarcinoma cell line. Two tribrids contained karyotypically normal human chromosomes 17 and a small number of other human chromosomes, while a third tribrid had a portion of the long arm of chromosome 17 translocated to mouse as its only human genetic material. Two independent microcell hybrids contained a normal chromosome 17 and no other human chromosome on a mouse teratocarcinoma background. These experiments demonstrate the ability to construct human-mouse somatic cell hybrids using a dominant selection system. By applying this approach it should be possible to select for a wide range of different human chromosomes in whole cell and microcell hybrids. In particular, transfer of single human chromosomes to mouse teratocarcinoma cells will allow examination of developmentally regulated human gene sequences after differentiation of such hybrids. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7.

Tunnacliffe, A; Parkar, M; Povey, S; Bengtsson, B O; Stanley, K; Solomon, E; Goodfellow, P

1983-01-01

286

Climate Information Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Columbia University's International Research Institute for Climate Prediction Web site (last mentioned in the October 27, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) offers a monthly publication called the Climate Information Digest, which is described as "a global quick look at seasonal climate, its impacts and outlooks." The free digest offers timely climate summaries, predictions, and other information for those involved in related research or study.

1998-01-01

287

Visual Digest Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention, understanding and abstraction are three key elements in our visual communication that we have taken for granted.\\u000a These interconnected elements constitute a Visual Digest Network. In this chapter, we investigate the conceptual design of\\u000a Visual Digest Networks at three visual abstraction levels: gaze, object and word. The goal is to minimize the media footprint\\u000a during visual communication while sustaining

Yang Cai; Guillaume Milcent; Ludmila Marian

288

Gene expression of opioid and dopamine systems in mouse striatum: effects of CB 1 receptors, age and sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Endocannabinoid, opioid, and dopamine systems interact to exhibit cannabinoid receptor neuromodulation of opioid peptides\\u000a and D4 dopamine receptor gene expression in CB1-cannabinoid-deficient mouse striatum.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  Using CB1-transgenic mice, we examine primary age–sex influences and interactions on opioid and dopamine system members’ gene expression\\u000a in striatum.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze gene expression of opioid peptides

Tonya M. Gerald; Allyn C. Howlett; Gregg R. Ward; Cheryl Ho; Steven O. Franklin

2008-01-01

289

Light microscopic autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse central nervous system  

SciTech Connect

Much work has been done on opioid systems in the rat CNS. Although the mouse is widely used in pharmacological studies of opioid action, little has been done to characterize opioid systems in this species. In the present study the distribution of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse CNS was examined using a quantitative in vitro autoradiography procedure. Tritiated dihydromorphine was used to visualize mu sites and (3H-d-Ala2-d-Leu5)enkephalin with a low concentration of morphine was used to visualize delta sites. Mu and delta site localizations in the mouse are very similar to those previously described in the rat (Goodman, R.R., S.H. Snyder, M.J. Kuhar, and W.S. Young, 3d (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:6239-6243), with certain exceptions and additions. Mu and delta sites were observed in sensory processing areas, limbic system, extrapyramidal motor system, and cranial parasympathetic system. Differential distributions of mu and delta sites were noted in many areas. Mu sites were prominent in laminae I, IV, and VI of the neocortex, in patches in the striatum, and in the ventral pallidum, nucleus accumbens, medial and midline thalamic nuclei, medial habenular nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, and laminae I and II of the spinal cord. In contrast, delta sites were prominent in all laminae of the neocortex, olfactory tubercle, diffusely throughout the striatum, and in the basal, lateral, and cortical nuclei of the amygdala. The determination of the differential distributions of opioid binding sites should prove useful in suggesting anatomical substrates for the actions of opiates and opioids.

Moskowitz, A.S.; Goodman, R.R.

1984-05-01

290

Systems genetics analysis of cancer susceptibility: from mouse models to humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic studies of cancer susceptibility have shown that most heritable risk cannot be explained by the main effects of common alleles. This may be due to unknown gene–gene or gene–environment interactions and the complex roles of many genes at different stages of cancer. Studies using mouse models of cancer suggest that methods that integrate genetic analysis and genomic networks with

David Quigley; Allan Balmain

2009-01-01

291

XactMice: A Xenochimaeric Mouse with Tumor and Hematopoietic System Obtained from the Same Patient.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lack of faithful animal models limits cancer research. One of the major factors is that regular animal models are a mixture of human tumor cells supported by mouse stroma cells, and this can have a major negative impact in research, particularly that ...

A. Jimeno

2011-01-01

292

Reliable Measurement of Mouse Intraocular Pressure by a Servo-Null Micropipette System  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS. The micropipette tip was visualized in the anterior chamber. With the SNMS, the IOP of black Swiss outbred mice under ketamine anesthesia was 17.8 6 0.4 mm Hg, higher than values previously estimated in inbred mouse strains by a larger bore microneedle manometric technique. After withdrawal of the micropipette, a second penetration led to a similar level of IOP.

Marcel Y. Avila; David A. Carre; Richard A. Stone; Mortimer M. Civan

2001-01-01

293

Immature and Neurally Differentiated Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Do Not Express a Functional Fas/Fas Ligand System  

PubMed Central

The potential of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells to develop into functional cells or tissue provides an opportunity in the development of new therapies for many diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. The survival of implanted cells usually requires systemic immunosuppression, however, which severely compromises the host immune system, leading to complications in clinical transplantation. An optimal therapy would therefore be the induction of specific tolerance to the donor cells, while otherwise preserving functional immune responses. Fas ligand (FasL) is expressed in activated lymphocytes as well as cells in “immune-privileged” sites including the central nervous system. Its receptor, Fas, is expressed on various immune-reactive cell types, such as activated natural killer and T cells, monocytes, and polymorphic mononucleocytes, which can undergo apoptosis upon interaction with FasL. To render transplanted cells tolerant to host cellular immune responses, we genetically engineered mouse ES cells to express rat FasL (rFasL). The rFasL-expressing ES cells were analyzed for survival during in vitro neurodifferentiation and after transplantation to the rat brain without further immunosuppression. Although control transfected HEK-293T cells expressed functional rFasL, immature and differentiated mouse ES cells did not express the recombinant rFasL surface protein. Furthermore, there was no evidence for functional endogenous Fas and FasL expression on either ES cells or on neural cells after in vitro differentiation. Moreover, implanted rFasL-engineered ES cells did not survive in the rat brains in the absence of the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A. Our results indicate that immature and differentiated mouse ES cells do not express a functional Fas/FasL system.

Brunlid, Gabriella; Pruszak, Jan; Holmes, Benjamin; Isacson, Ole; Sonntag, Kai-Christian

2010-01-01

294

Biofilms promote survival and virulence of Salmonella enterica sv. Tennessee during prolonged dry storage and after passage through an in vitro digestion system.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica serotypes have been linked to outbreaks associated with low water activity foods. While the biofilm-forming abilities of Salmonella improve its survival during thermal processing and sanitation it is unclear whether biofilms enhance survival to desiccation and gastric stresses. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of physiological state (planktonic versus biofilm) and prior exposure to desiccation and storage in dry milk powder on Salmonella survival and gene expression after passage through an in vitro digestion model. Planktonic cells of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee were deposited onto membranes while biofilms were formed on glass beads. The cells were subsequently dried at room temperature and stored in dried milk powder (a(w)=0.3) for up to 30 days. Salmonella survival was quantified by serial dilution onto Brilliant Green Agar before desiccation, after desiccation, after 1-day storage and after 30-day storage. At each sampling period both physiological states were tested for survival through a simulated gastrointestinal system. RNA was extracted at the identical time points and Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to determine relative expression for genes associated with stress response (rpoS, otsB), virulence (hilA, invA, sipC) and a housekeeping gene 16S rRNA. The physiological state and length of storage affected the survival and gene expression of Salmonella within the desiccated milk powder environment and after passage through an in vitro digestion system (p<0.05). Larger numbers of S. Tennessee were recovered by plate counts for biofilms compared to planktonic, however, the numbers of Salmonella genomes detected by qPCR were not significantly different suggesting entry of the planktonic cells of S. Tennessee into a viable but non-culturable state. The increased expression of stress response genes rpoS and otsB correlated with survival, indicating cross-protection to low water activity and acid stress. Increased expression of virulence-associated genes was seen in cells exposed to dry storage for short periods, however the largest amount of expression occurred in biofilm cells stored for 30 days at aw 0.3, suggesting increased virulence potential. PMID:23454816

Aviles, Bryan; Klotz, Courtney; Eifert, Joseph; Williams, Robert; Ponder, Monica

2013-02-04

295

Report from the Fifth National Cancer Institute Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium Nervous System Tumors Workshop  

PubMed Central

Cancers of the nervous system are clinically challenging tumors that present with varied histopathologies and genetic etiologies. While the prognosis for the most malignant of these tumors is essentially unchanged despite decades of basic and translational science research, the past few years have witnessed the identification of numerous targetable molecular alterations in these cancers. With the advent of advanced genomic sequencing methodologies and the development of accurate small-animal models of these nervous system cancers, we are now ideally positioned to develop personalized therapies that target the unique cellular and molecular changes that define their formation and drive their continued growth. Recently, the National Cancer Institute convened a workshop to advance our understanding of nervous system cancer mouse models and to inform clinical trials by reconsidering these neoplasms as complex biological systems characterized by heterogeneity at all levels.

Gutmann, David H.; Stiles, Charles D.; Lowe, Scott W.; Bollag, Gideon E.; Furnari, Frank B.; Charest, Al

2011-01-01

296

Active Blood Vessel Formation in the Ischemic Hindlimb Mouse Model Using a Microsphere\\/Hydrogel Combination System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We hypothesize that the controlled delivery of rhVEGF using a microsphere\\/hydrogel combination system could be useful to achieve\\u000a active blood vessel formation in the ischemic hindlimb mouse model, which is clinically relevant for therapeutic angiogenesis\\u000a without multiple administrations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A combination of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres and alginate hydrogels containing rhVEGF was prepared and injected intramuscularly into the\\u000a ischemic hindlimb site of

Jangwook Lee; Suk Ho Bhang; Byung-Soo Kim; Kuen Yong Lee

2010-01-01

297

A Simple Composite Phenotype Scoring System for Evaluating Mouse Models of Cerebellar Ataxia  

PubMed Central

We describe a protocol for the rapid and sensitive quantification of disease severity in mouse models of cerebella ataxia. It is derived from previously published phenotype assessments in several disease models, including spinocerebellar ataxias, Huntington s disease and spinobulbar muscular atrophy. Measures include hind limb clasping, ledge test, gait and kyphosis. Each measure is recorded on a scale of 0-3, with a combined total of 0-12 for all four measures. The results effectively discriminate between affected and non-affected individuals, while also quantifying the temporal progression of neurodegenerative disease phenotypes. Measures may be analyzed individually or combined into a composite phenotype score for greater statistical power. The ideal combination of the four described measures will depend upon the disorder in question. We present an example of the protocol used to assess disease severity in a transgenic mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7). Albert R. La Spada and Gwenn A. Garden contributed to this manuscript equally.

Guyenet, Stephan J.; Furrer, Stephanie A.; Damian, Vincent M.; Baughan, Travis D.

2010-01-01

298

Mouse models for Aicardi-Goutières syndrome provide clues to the molecular pathogenesis of systemic autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a hereditary autoimmune disease, which clinically and pathogenetically overlaps with SLE and therefore can be regarded as a monogenic variant of SLE. Both conditions are characterized by chronic activation of antiviral type I IFN responses. AGS can be caused by mutations in one of several genes encoding intracellular enzymes all involved in nucleic acid metabolism. Mouse models of AGS associated defects yielded distinct phenotypes and reproduced important features of the disease. Analysis of these mutant mouse lines stimulated a new concept of autoimmunity caused by intracellular accumulations of nucleic acids, which trigger a chronic cell-intrinsic antiviral type I IFN response and thereby autoimmunity. This model is of major relevance for our understanding of SLE pathogenesis. Findings in gene targeted mice deficient for AGS associated enzymes are summarized in this review. PMID:23713592

Behrendt, Rayk; Roers, Axel

2013-05-28

299

Behavioral characteristics of a nervous system-specific erbB4 knock-out mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

ErbB4 is an important brain receptor for the neuregulin1 growth factor. A conditional knock-out mouse was developed lacking both alleles of the erbB4 gene in neurons\\/glia, and one allele in other cells. The conditional mutant mice were compared to heterozygous null (one null allele and one wildtype allele in all tissues) and wildtype control (no gene deletion) littermates in a

Mari S Golub; Stacey L Germann; K. C. Kent Lloyd

2004-01-01

300

Scube2 expression extends beyond the central nervous system during mouse development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Scube (Signal peptide CUB EGF-like domain-containing protein) family consists of three independent members evolutionarily\\u000a conserved from zebrafish to humans. Scube2 transcripts have been identified primarily in forebrain and trunk neuroepithelium and the anterior hindbrain of the mouse\\u000a embryo, becoming progressively localized to the dorsal forebrain, hindbrain and neural tube. Zebrafish You-class mutants lack a functional C-terminal domain within the

Guilherme M. Xavier; Martyn T. Cobourne

301

Validation of a mouse xenograft model system for gene expression analysis of human acute lymphoblastic leukaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical models that effectively recapitulate human disease are critical for expanding our knowledge of cancer biology and drug resistance mechanisms. For haematological malignancies, the non-obese diabetic\\/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD\\/SCID) mouse is one of the most successful models to study paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, for this model to be effective for studying engraftment and therapy responses at the

Amy L Samuels; Violet K Peeva; Rachael A Papa; Marin J Firth; Richard W Francis; Alex H Beesley; Richard B Lock; Ursula R Kees

2010-01-01

302

Developmental and spatial expression pattern of syntaxin 13 in the mouse central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vesicular transport involves SNARE (soluble-N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor-attachment-protein-receptor) proteins on transport vesicles and on target membranes. Syntaxin 13 is a SNARE enriched in brain, associated with recycling endosomes; its overexpression in PC12 cells promotes neurite outgrowth. This suggests an important role for receptor recycling during neuronal differentiation. Here we describe the spatiotemporal pattern of syntaxin 13 expression during mouse brain development. During early

Floyd J.-C. Sarria; Stefan Catsicas; Jean-Pierre Hornung; Harald Hirling

2002-01-01

303

Voluntary intake, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of fresh forages fed to guinea pigs in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo).  

PubMed

The daily voluntary intake (DVI) of Guinea pigs (GP) fed 15 fresh forages used in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo) was investigated. In order to determine the best forages combination for GP diet, DVI was compared to their nutritional value measured in vitro using (1) a pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, (2) an gas fermentation test on the hydrolysed residues with an inoculum prepared from GP faeces, and (3) the chemical composition of the offered feeds and the hydrolysis residues. The forages ranking based on the DVI was correlated to the NDF content, but not to their nutritional values determined in vitro. According to their high DVI (from 4.23 to 7.75 g/kg liveweigth), and their valuable in vitro nutritional values (crude protein ranging from 261 to 279 g crude protein kg(-1) DM, pepsin-pancreatin digestibilities of the dry matter from 0.55 to 0.59 and final gas production from 170 to 196 1 kg(-1) DM), Desmodium intortum, Euphorbia heterophylla or Amaranthus hybridus, can be suggested to the farmers to complement the usual diet distributed to the GP based on Panicum maximum. PMID:17966272

Bindelle, J; Ilunga, Y; Delacollette, M; Kayij, M Muland; di M'Balu, J Umba; Kindele, E; Buldgen, A

2007-08-01

304

The Type II Secretion System Is Essential for Erythrocyte Lysis and Gut Colonization by the Leech Digestive Tract Symbiont Aeromonas veronii ?  

PubMed Central

Hemolysin and the type II secretion system (T2SS) have been shown to be important for virulence in many pathogens, but very few studies have shown their importance in beneficial microbes. Here, we investigated the importance of the type II secretion pathway in the beneficial digestive-tract association of Aeromonas veronii and the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana and revealed a critical role for the hemolysis of erythrocytes. A mutant with a miniTn5 insertion in exeM, which is involved in forming the inner membrane platform in the T2SS, was isolated by screening mutants for loss of hemolysis on blood agar plates. A hemolysis assay was used to quantify the mutant's deficiency in lysing sheep erythrocytes and revealed a 99.9% decrease compared to the parent strain. The importance of the T2SS in the colonization of the symbiotic host was assessed. Colonization assays revealed that the T2SS is critical for initial colonization of the leech gut. The defect was tied to the loss of hemolysin production by performing a colonization assay with blood containing lysed erythrocytes. This restored the colonization defect in the mutant. Complementation of the mutant using the promoter region and exeMN revealed that the T2SS is responsible for secreting hemolysin into the extracellular space and that both the T2SS and hemolysin export by the T2SS are critical for initial establishment of A. veronii in the leech gut.

Maltz, Michele; Graf, Joerg

2011-01-01

305

A subset of interleukin-21+ chemokine receptor CCR9+ T helper cells target accessory organs of the digestive system in autoimmunity.  

PubMed

This study describes a CD4+ T helper (Th) cell subset marked by coexpression of the cytokine interleukin 21 (IL-21) and the gut-homing chemokine receptor CCR9. Although CCR9+ Th cells were observed in healthy mice and humans, they were enriched in the inflamed pancreas and salivary glands of NOD mice and in the circulation of Sjögren's syndrome patients. CCR9+ Th cells expressed large amounts of IL-21, inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS), and the transcription factors Bcl6 and Maf, and also supported antibody production from B cells, thereby resembling T follicular B helper (Tfh) cells. However, in contrast to Tfh cells, CCR9+ Th cells displayed limited expression of CXCR5 and the targets of CCR9+ Th cells were CD8+ T cells whose responsiveness to IL-21 was necessary for the development of diabetes. Thus, CCR9+ Th cells are a subset of IL-21-producing T helper cells that influence regional specification of autoimmune diseases that affect accessory organs of the digestive system. PMID:21511186

McGuire, Helen M; Vogelzang, Alexis; Ma, Cindy S; Hughes, William E; Silveira, Pablo A; Tangye, Stuart G; Christ, Daniel; Fulcher, David; Falcone, Marika; King, Cecile

2011-04-22

306

Three-dimensional atlas system for mouse and rat brain imaging data.  

PubMed

Tomographic neuroimaging techniques allow visualization of functionally and structurally specific signals in the mouse and rat brain. The interpretation of the image data relies on accurate determination of anatomical location, which is frequently obstructed by the lack of structural information in the data sets. Positron emission tomography (PET) generally yields images with low spatial resolution and little structural contrast, and many experimental magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) paradigms give specific signal enhancements but often limited anatomical information. Side-by-side comparison of image data with conventional atlas diagram is hampered by the 2-D format of the atlases, and by the lack of an analytical environment for accumulation of data and integrative analyses. We here present a method for reconstructing 3-D atlases from digital 2-D atlas diagrams, and exemplify 3-D atlas-based analysis of PET and MRI data. The reconstruction procedure is based on two seminal mouse and brain atlases, but is applicable to any stereotaxic atlas. Currently, 30 mouse brain structures and 60 rat brain structures have been reconstructed. To exploit the 3-D atlas models, we have developed a multi-platform atlas tool (available via The Rodent Workbench, http://rbwb.org) which allows combined visualization of experimental image data within the 3-D atlas space together with 3-D viewing and user-defined slicing of selected atlas structures. The tool presented facilitates assignment of location and comparative analysis of signal location in tomographic images with low structural contrast. PMID:18974799

Hjornevik, Trine; Leergaard, Trygve B; Darine, Dmitri; Moldestad, Olve; Dale, Anders M; Willoch, Frode; Bjaalie, Jan G

2007-11-02

307

A 20-Channel Receive-Only Mouse Array Coil for a 3T Clinical MRI System  

PubMed Central

A 20-channel phased-array coil for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of mice has been designed, constructed and validated with bench measurements and high resolution accelerated imaging. The technical challenges of designing a small, high density array have been overcome using individual small-diameter coil elements arranged on a cylinder in a hexagonal overlapping design with adjacent low impedance preamplifiers to further decouple the array elements. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise amplification in accelerated imaging were simulated and quantitatively evaluated in phantoms and in vivo mouse images. Comparison between the 20-channel mouse array and a length-matched quadrature driven small animal birdcage coil showed an SNR increase at the periphery and in the center of the phantom of 3-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively. Comparison to a shorter but SNR-optimized birdcage coil (aspect ratio 1:1 and only half mouse coverage) showed an SNR gain of 2-fold at the edge of the phantom and similar SNR in the center. G-factor measurements indicate that the coil is well suited to acquire highly accelerated images.

Keil, Boris; Wiggins, Graham C.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wald, Lawrence L.; Meise, Florian M.; Schreiber, Laura M.; Klose, Klaus J.; Heverhagen, Johannes T.

2010-01-01

308

Systemic administration of neuregulin-1?1 protects dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) is genetically linked to schizophrenia, a disease caused by neurodevelopmental imbalance in dopaminergic function. The Nrg1 receptor ErbB4 is abundantly expressed on midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Nrg1 has been shown to penetrate blood-brain barrier, and peripherally administered Nrg1 activates ErbB4 and leads to a persistent hyperdopaminergic state in neonatal mice. These data prompted us to study the effect of peripheral administration of Nrg1 in the context of Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder affecting the dopaminergic system in the adult brain. We observed that systemic injections of the extracellular domain of Nrg1?(1) (Nrg1?(1)-ECD) increased dopamine levels in the substantia nigra and striatum of adult mice. Nrg1?(1)-ECD injections also significantly protected the mouse nigrostriatal dopaminergic system morphologically and functionally against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced toxicity in vivo. Moreover, Nrg1?(1)-ECD also protected human dopaminergic neurons in vitro against 6-hydroxydopamine. In conclusion, we have identified Nrg1?(1)-ECD as a neurotrophic factor for adult mouse and human midbrain dopaminergic neurons with peripheral administratability, warranting further investigation as therapeutic option for Parkinson's disease patients. PMID:21517849

Carlsson, Thomas; Schindler, Friederike R; Höllerhage, Matthias; Depboylu, Candan; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Schnurrbusch, Stefan; Rösler, Thomas W; Wozny, Wojciech; Schwall, Gerhard P; Groebe, Karlfried; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Brundin, Patrik; Schrattenholz, André; Höglinger, Günter U

2011-05-13

309

Climate Change Policy and the Adoption of Methane Digesters on Livestock Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methane digesters - biogas recovery systems that use methane from manure to generate electricity - have not been widely adopted in the United States because costs have exceeded benefits to operators. Burning methane in a digester reduces greenhouse gas em...

N. Key S. Sneeringer

2011-01-01

310

Anaerobic Digestion and Biocatalysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A report is given on the scope of the technical programmes in the UK and the US on anaerobic digestion and biocatalysis. The study arises from the Collaboration Agreement signed by the respective Secretaries of State for Energy in the UK and US in 1984. T...

1985-01-01

311

[Geriatric digestive pathology].  

PubMed

This study shows the digestive diseases frequency, in 438 patients older than 60 years. Gastroduodenal pathology was more frequent (53%) followed by colonic diseases (34%) intestine (25.7%), intestinal parasitosis (24%) anus-rectum (19%), esophagus (17%), biliary Tract (12%) liver (7%) and pancreas (2%). PMID:8018899

Estremadoyro Robles, O

312

Anaerobic digestion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

First, the organic waste slurry of sewage sludge and\\/or kitchen garbage is stored in a stable condition after effecting partially thereto a liquefaction treatment in advance by adding liquefying bacteria, and next this slurry is effectively digested anaerobically by way of a liquefaction\\/gasification-mixed step or a liquefaction\\/gasification separated step.

M. Ishida; R. Haga; Y. Odawara

1984-01-01

313

Preventing Bullying. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students who are the target of bullying episodes commonly suffer serious, long-term academic, physical, and emotional consequences. Unfortunately, school personnel often minimize, underestimate, tolerate, or ignore the extent of bullying and the harm it can cause. This digest examines the problem of bullying and some of its effects, and discusses…

Lumsden, Linda

314

Refeeding biogas digester solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosolid, the digester residue from a biogas plant, must be of economical use to ensure the financial feasibility of biogas facilities. This paper sumarizes work performed for a Department of Energy study in the Imperial Valley of California. Feeding trials show that biosolid can only be used as a small proportion of feed rations. Apart from bacterial debris, biosolid is

Licht

1981-01-01

315

Positive Discipline. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. Discussion focuses on: (1) 12 methods of discipline that promote self-worth; (2) the process of creating a positive climate that promotes self-discipline; (3) harmful and negative disciplinary methods; and (4)…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

316

Media Literacy. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Noting that children today are growing up in a "media saturated" world in which mass media, including the Internet, have a commanding presence in daily life, this Digest argues that it is imperative for educators to teach what M. Megee (1997) calls "the new basic"--media literacy--so that learners can be producers of effective media messages as…

Abdullah, Mardziah Hayati

317

Thanksgiving with Reader's Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers a number of resources to help users cook, decorate, and keep the kids busy at Thanksgiving. Thanksgiving with Reader's Digest site contains 80 classic Thanksgiving recipes, vegetarian and breakfast ideas, tips on hosting, and some holiday projects and crafts.

318

Modeling subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a transgenic mouse system: uncoding pathogenesis of disease and illuminating components of immune control.  

PubMed

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that afflicts eight to 20 individuals per one million of those who become infected with measles virus (MV). The six cardinal elements of SSPE are: (1) progressive fatal CNS disease developing several years after MV infection begins; (2) replication of MV in neurons; (3) defective nonreplicating MV in the CNS that is recoverable by co-cultivation with permissive tissue culture cells; (4) biased hypermutation of the MV recovered from the CNS with massive A to G (U to C) base changes primarily in the M gene of the virus; (5) high titers of antibody to MV; and (6) infiltration of B and T cells into the CNS. All these parameters can be mimicked in a transgenic (tg) mouse model that expresses the MV receptor, thus enabling infection of a usually uninfectable mouse in which the immune system is or is not manipulated. Utilization and analysis of such mice have illuminated how chronic measles virus infection of neurons can be initiated and maintained, leading to the SSPE phenotype. Further, an active role in prolonging MV replication while inhibiting its spread in the CNS can be mapped to a direct affect of the biased hypermutations (A to G changes) of the MV M gene in vivo. PMID:19203103

Oldstone, M B A

2009-01-01

319

In-line system containing porous polymer monoliths for protein digestion with immobilized pepsin, peptide preconcentration and nano-liquid chromatography separation coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The use of two different monoliths located in capillaries for on-line protein digestion, preconcentration of peptides and their separation has been demonstrated. The first monolith was used as support for covalent immobilization of pepsin. This monolith with well defined porous properties was prepared by in situ copolymerization of 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone and ethylene dimethacrylate. The second, poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith with a different porous structure served for the preconcentration of peptides from the digest and their separation in reversed-phase liquid chromatography mode. The top of the separation capillary was used as a preconcentrator, thus enabling the digestion of very dilute solutions of proteins in the bioreactor and increasing the sensitivity of the mass spectrometric detection of the peptides using a time of flight mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization. Myoglobin, albumin, and hemoglobin were digested to demonstrate feasibility of the concept of using the two monoliths in-line. Successive protein injections confirmed both the repeatability of the results and the ability to reuse the bioreactor for at least 20 digestions.

Geiser, Laurent; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Svec, Frantisek; Frechet, Jean M. J.

2008-01-01

320

Novel whole body plethysmography system for the continuous characterization of sleep and breathing in a mouse  

PubMed Central

Sleep is associated with marked alterations in ventilatory control that lead to perturbations in respiratory timing, breathing pattern, ventilation, pharyngeal collapsibility, and sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). Mouse models offer powerful insight into the pathogenesis of SRBD; however, methods for obtaining the full complement of continuous, high-fidelity respiratory, electroencephalographic (EEG), and electromyographic (EMG) signals in unrestrained mice during sleep and wake have not been developed. We adapted whole body plethysmography to record EEG, EMG, and respiratory signals continuously in unrestrained, unanesthetized mice. Whole body plethysmography tidal volume and airflow signals and a novel noninvasive surrogate for respiratory effort (respiratory movement signal) were validated against simultaneously measured gold standard signals. Compared with the gold standard, we validated 1) tidal volume (correlation, R2 = 0.87, P < 0.001; and agreement within 1%, P < 0.001); 2) inspiratory airflow (correlation, R2 = 0.92, P < 0.001; agreement within 4%, P < 0.001); 3) expiratory airflow (correlation, R2 = 0.83, P < 0.001); and 4) respiratory movement signal (correlation, R2 = 0.79–0.84, P < 0.001). The expiratory airflow signal, however, demonstrated a decrease in amplitude compared with the gold standard. Integrating respiratory and EEG/EMG signals, we fully characterized sleep and breathing patterns in conscious, unrestrained mice and demonstrated inspiratory flow limitation in a New Zealand Obese mouse. Our approach will facilitate studies of SRBD mechanisms in inbred mouse strains and offer a powerful platform to investigate the effects of environmental and pharmacological exposures on breathing disturbances during sleep and wakefulness.

Kirkness, J. P.; Smith, P. L.; Schneider, H.; Polotsky, M.; Richardson, R. A.; Hernandez, W. C.; Schwartz, A. R.

2012-01-01

321

Involvement of central opioid systems in human interferon-? induced immobility in the mouse forced swimming test  

PubMed Central

We investigated the mechanism by which human interferon-? (IFN-?) increases the immobility time in a forced swimming test, an animal model of depression.Central administration of IFN-? (0.05–50 IU per mouse, i.cist.) increased the immobility time in the forced swimming test in mice in a dose-dependent manner.Neither IFN-? nor -? possessed any effect under the same experimental conditions.Pre-treatment with an opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone (1?mg?kg?1, s.c.) inhibited the prolonged immobility time induced by IFN-? (60?KIU?kg?1, i.v. or 50 IU per mouse. i.cist.).Peripheral administration of naloxone methiodide (1?mg?kg?1, s.c.), which does not pass the blood–brain barrier, failed to block the effect of IFN-?, while intracisternal administration of naloxone methiodide (1?nmol per mouse) completely blocked.The effect of IFN-? was inhibited by a ?1-specific opioid receptor antagonist, naloxonazine (35?mg?kg?1, s.c.) and a ?1/?2 receptor antagonist, ?-FNA (40?mg?kg?1, s.c.). A selective ?-opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole (3?mg?kg?1, s.c.) and a ?-opioid receptor antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (20?mg?kg?1, s.c.), both failed to inhibit the increasing effect of IFN-?.These results suggest that the activator of the central opioid receptors of the ?1-subtype might be related to the prolonged immobility time of IFN-?, but ? and ?-opioid receptors most likely are not involved.

Makino, Mitsuhiro; Kitano, Yutaka; Komiyama, Chika; Hirohashi, Masaaki; Takasuna, Kiyoshi

2000-01-01

322

Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digestibility of an aquatic biomass (water hyacinth), a land-based biomass (Coastal Bermuda grass), and a biomass-waste blend (a mixture of hyacinth, grass, MSW, and sludge) under various digestion conditions was studied. Anaerobic digestion of hemicellulose consists of the steps of enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose to glucans, mannans, galactans, xylans, and arabans, and then to simple hexose and pentose sugars;

S. Ghosh; M. P. Henry; R. W. Christopher

1982-01-01

323

MuRF1-dependent Regulation of Systemic Carbohydrate Metabolism as Revealed from Transgenic Mouse Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under various pathophysiological muscle-wasting conditions, such as diabetes and starvation, a family of ubiquitin ligases, including muscle-specific RING-finger protein 1 (MuRF1), are induced to target muscle proteins for degradation via ubiquitination. We have generated transgenic mouse lines over-expressing MuRF1 in a skeletal muscle-specific fashion (MuRF1-TG mice) in an attempt to identify the in vivo targets of MuRF1. MuRF1-TG lines were

Stephanie Hirner; Christian Krohne; Alexander Schuster; Sigrid Hoffmann; Stephanie Witt; Ralf Erber; Carsten Sticht; Alexander Gasch; Siegfried Labeit; Dittmar Labeit

2008-01-01

324

Toxicological interactions between carcinogenic and weakly carcinogenic mixtures in the mouse skin initiation-promotion system  

SciTech Connect

We previously observed that the carcinogenic activity of the neutral fraction of a coal gasifier tar was greater in the absence of the other tar components. Other investigators showed that the dermal tumor-initiating activity of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and the binding of BaP to mouse skin DNA was diminished when the BaP was administered in the presence of coal liquids. In the present study we found that the weakly tumorigenic polar neutral fraction of the gasifier tar diminished the tumor-initiating activity of the PAH-enriched fraction at one dose level, but not at another. 20 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Haugen, D.A.; Swanson, M.S.; Kirchner, F.R.; Stamoudis, V.C.; Reilly, C.A. Jr.

1985-01-01

325

Anatomical characterization of the neuropeptide S system in the mouse brain by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.  

PubMed

Neuropeptide S (NPS) is the endogenous ligand for GPR154, now referred to as neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR). Physiologically, NPS has been characterized as a modulator of arousal and has been shown to produce anxiolytic-like effects in rodents. Neuroanatomical analysis in the rat revealed that the NPS precursor mRNA is strongly expressed in the brainstem in only three distinct regions: the locus coeruleus area, the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus, and the lateral parabrachial nucleus. NPSR mRNA expression in the rat is widely distributed, with the strongest expression in the olfactory nuclei, amygdala, subiculum, and some cortical structures, as well as various thalamic and hypothalamic regions. Here we report a comprehensive map of NPS precursor and receptor mRNA expression in the mouse brain. NPS precursor mRNA is only expressed in two regions in the mouse brainstem: the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus and the pericoerulear area. Strong NPSR mRNA expression was found in the dorsal endopiriform nucleus, the intra-midline thalamic and hypothalamic regions, the basolateral amgydala, the subiculum, and various cortical regions. In order to elucidate projections from NPS-producing nuclei in the brainstem to NPSR-expressing structures throughout the brain, we performed immunohistochemical analysis in the mouse brain by using two polyclonal anti-NPS antisera. The distribution of NPS-immunopositive fibers overlaps well with NPSR mRNA expression in thalamic and hypothalamic regions. Mismatches between NPSR expression and NPS-immunoreactive fiber staining were observed in hippocampal, olfactory, and cortical regions. These data demonstrate that the distribution pattern of the central NPS system is only partially conserved between mice and rats. PMID:21452235

Clark, Stewart D; Duangdao, Dee M; Schulz, Stefan; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xiaobin; Xu, Yan-Ling; Reinscheid, Rainer K

2011-07-01

326

Expression of social behaviors of C57BL/6J versus BTBR inbred mouse strains in the visible burrow system  

PubMed Central

The core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Mouse models with behavioral phenotypes relevant to these core symptoms offer an experimental approach to advance the investigation of genes associated with ASD. Previous findings demonstrate that BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of ASD. In the present study, we investigated the expression of social behaviors in a semi-natural visible burrow system (VBS), during colony formation and maintenance in groups comprising three adult male mice of the same strain, either C57BL/6J (B6) or BTBR. For comparative purposes, an extensively investigated three-chambered test was subsequently used to assess social approach in both strains. The effects of strain on these two situations were consistent and highly significant. In the VBS, BTBR mice showed reductions in all interactive behaviors: approach (front and back), flight, chase/follow, allo-grooming and huddling, along with increases in self-grooming and alone, as compared to B6. These results were corroborated in the three-chambered test: in contrast to B6, male BTBR mice failed to spend more time in the side of the test box containing the unfamiliar CD-1 mouse. Overall, the present data indicates that the strain profile for BTBR mice, including consistent social deficits and high levels of repetitive self-grooming, models multiple components of the ASD phenotype.

Pobbe, Roger L. H.; Pearson, Brandon L.; Defensor, Erwin B.; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.

2010-01-01

327

Acid phase digestion phenomena. Final report, February 1983-February 1984  

SciTech Connect

A review of the microbiology and biochemistry of anaerobic digestion of biomass to methane gas is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on the degradation of mono- and polysaccharides that are found in marine macrophytes. Specific research on the control and mechanisms of algin and mannitol degradation in some important microbial strains isolated from a Macrocystis-fed digester system is described.

Forro, J.R.

1984-02-01

328

Aerobic Thermophilic Digestion of Sludge Using Air - Full Scale Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the first full-scale air-operated aerobic thermophilic sludge digestion system in the U.K. In the digester, sludge is rendered stable and odor-free. A proportion of the organic matter is oxidized with an attendant release of heat. Tem...

S. F. Morgan M. H. Littlewood R. Winstanley

1984-01-01

329

Heat and energy requirements in thermophilic anaerobic sludge digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heating requirements of the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process were studied. Biogas production was studied in laboratory experiments at retention times from 1 to 10 days. The data gathered in the experiments was then used to perform a heat and energy analysis. The source of heat was a conventional CHP unit system. The results showed that thermophilic digestion is much

G. D. Zupan?i?; M. Roš

2003-01-01

330

Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

Klopping, Paul H.

331

A human endothelial cell feeder system that efficiently supports the undifferentiated growth of mouse embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeder cells are commonly used to culture embryonic stem cells to maintain their undifferentiated and pluripotent status. Conventionally, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), supplemented with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), are used as feeder cells to support the growth of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) in culture. To prepare for fresh MEF feeder or for MEF-conditioned medium, sacrifice of mouse fetuses repeatedly

Haisheng Zhou; Jun Yong; Xiaomeng Sun; Chengyan Wang; Weifeng Yang; Pengbo Zhang; Jingliang Zhu; Cheng Shi; Mingxiao Ding; Hongkui Deng

2008-01-01

332

Scube2 expression extends beyond the central nervous system during mouse development.  

PubMed

The Scube (Signal peptide CUB EGF-like domain-containing protein) family consists of three independent members evolutionarily conserved from zebrafish to humans. Scube2 transcripts have been identified primarily in forebrain and trunk neuroepithelium and the anterior hindbrain of the mouse embryo, becoming progressively localized to the dorsal forebrain, hindbrain and neural tube. Zebrafish You-class mutants lack a functional C-terminal domain within the Scube2 protein and present with altered myotomal morphology, curled tail and weak cyclopia. These defects are characteristic of disrupted Hedgehog signaling, which is consistent with the downregulation of Hedgehog targets such as Ptc1, MyoD and Eng observed in these mutants. Indeed, human SCUBE2 can form a complex with Sonic hedgehog and its receptor PTC1, acting to promote SHH-induced signaling. Here we have characterized Scube2 expression in detail within the developing mouse embryo using wholemount and section in situ hybridisation and demonstrate the presence of transcripts within a more extensive range than previously reported. In addition to neuroectoderm of the early embryo, expression was also found in the developing face, heart, vasculature and multiple regions of the endochondral skeleton. These findings suggest that Scube2 may play an important role during development of multiple regions in the embryo. PMID:21822616

Xavier, Guilherme M; Cobourne, Martyn T

2011-08-06

333

A BAC Transgenic Mouse Model to Analyze the Function of Astroglial SPARCL1 (SC1) in the Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Extracellular matrix associated Sparc-like 1 (SC1/SPARCL1) can influence the function of astroglial cells in the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS). To examine SC1’s significance in the CNS, we generated a BAC transgenic mouse model in which Sc1 is expressed in radial glia and their astrocyte derivatives using the astroglial-specific Blbp (Brain-lipid binding protein; [Feng et al., (1994) Neuron 12:895–908]) regulatory elements. Characterization of these Blbf-Sc1 transgenic mice show elevated Sc1 transcript and protein in an astroglial selective pattern throughout the CNS. This model provides a novel in vivo system for evaluating the role of SC1 in brain development and function, in general, and for understanding SC1’s significance in the fate and function of astroglial cells, in particular.

Weimer, Jill M.; Stanco, Amelia; Cheng, Jr-Gang; Vargo, Ana C.; Voora, Santhi; Anton, E. S.

2013-01-01

334

Packaged digester for treating animal wastes  

SciTech Connect

A new range of packaged digesters to process animal or organic wastes has been developed by Bovis Civil Engineering. The unit, known as the Polygester is suitable for use on factory farms, isolated communities and manufacturing industries. The unit consists of an anaerobic digester together with associated pumps, heat exchangers and pipework ready-assembled on a rigid common chassis and separate gas holder as a packaged system. Based on an undiluted solids input of 11% pig slurry, performance figures show up to 85% reduction of COD, 95% reduction of BOD and 18 m3 of biogas per day (equivalent to about 10 litres fuel oil).

Not Available

1981-11-03

335

Diagnostic reasoning in digestive tract endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a computer-assisted diagnosis system in digestive endoscopy, relying on a reference endoscopical image database, requires that the diagnosis reasoning during the examination is understood. Two main and complementary approaches are described, one is guided by lesions detection, the other is guided by diagnosis hypothesis. The two approaches rely on medical knowledge of normal and pathological aspects of

J.-M. Cauvin; C. Le Guillou; B. Solaiman; M. Robaszkiewicz; H. Gouerou; C. Roux

1999-01-01

336

Looping: Adding Time, Strengthening Relationships. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Looping" is an essentially simple concept: a teacher moves with his or her students to the next grade level, rather than sending them to another teacher at the end of the school year. This Digest explores the practitioners' perspectives on looping, the experience of European school systems, and research on looping. Practitioners report positive…

Burke, Daniel L.

337

Knowledge Management in Instructional Design. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest reviews what instructional designers do, describes knowledge management, and indicates how knowledge management is influencing instructional design. The first section defines instructional design (ID) and briefly describes the ID process. The second section covers knowledge management (KM), including definitions of KM and systems,…

Spector, J. Michael; Edmonds, Gerald S.

338

DrugDigest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DrugDigest is a "noncommercial, evidence-based, consumer health and drug information site dedicated to empowering consumers to make informed choices about drugs and treatment options." This exhaustive Web site offers a variety of resources to help readers manage their health, including easy-to-read reference materials, a potentially life-saving drug interactions database, informative news and features, and eBulletins -- an email service that delivers news and information on selected health conditions, free of charge.

2007-03-15

339

Web Digest for Marketers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Larry Chase, Web Digest for Marketers (WDM) was started in 1995, nearly a lifetime in Internet years. The site offers an archived weekly publication of "15 mercifully short reviews of marketing-oriented Web sites." Broken into catagories including Research, HTML, JavaScript, and FAQs, the sites are reviewed in a helpful, conversational style. Interested users are encouraged to subscribe to the email version of WDM.

340

Maternal obesity, infertility and mitochondrial dysfunction: potential mechanisms emerging from mouse model systems.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with ovulatory disorders, decreased rates of conception, infertility, early pregnancy loss and congenital abnormalities. Poor oocyte quality and reduced IVF success have also been reported in obese women. Recent attempts to understand the mechanism by which these defects occur have focused on mitochondria, essential organelles that are critical for oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development. The oocyte relies on maternally supplied mitochondria until the resumption of mitochondrial replication in the peri-implantation period. Here we review current literature addressing the roles of mitochondria in oocyte function and how mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to fertility problems. The relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and oocyte function is evaluated by examining the following examples of environmental exposures: tobacco smoke, aging, caloric restriction and hyperglycemia. Finally, we present new data from a mouse model of obesity that has demonstrated that oocyte mitochondria play a key role in obesity-associated reproductive disorders. PMID:23612738

Grindler, Natalia M; Moley, Kelle H

2013-04-23

341

Induction of ovarian cancer by defined multiple genetic changes in a mouse model system  

PubMed Central

Summary We have developed a mouse model for ovarian carcinoma by using an avian retroviral gene delivery technique for the introduction of multiple genes into somatic ovarian cells of adult mice. Ovarian cells from transgenic mice engineered to express the gene encoding the avian receptor TVA were efficiently infected in vitro with multiple vectors carrying coding sequences for oncogenes and marker genes. When target cells were derived from TVA transgenic mice deficient for p53, the addition of any two of the oncogenes c-myc, K-ras, and Akt were sufficient to induce ovarian tumor formation when infected cells were injected at subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, or ovarian sites. We demonstrated that the ovarian surface epithelium is the precursor tissue for these ovarian carcinomas, and that introduction of oncogenes causes phenotypic changes in the ovarian surface epithelial cells. The induced ovarian tumors in mice resembled human ovarian carcinomas in their rapid progression and intraperitoneal metastatic spread.

Orsulic, Sandra; Li, Yi; Soslow, Robert A.; Vitale-Cross, Lynn A.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Varmus, Harold E.

2008-01-01

342

Molecular cloning of a novel putative G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR21) which is expressed predominantly in mouse central nervous system.  

PubMed

A novel cDNA clone encoding a putative G protein-coupled receptor (named GPCR21) was isolated from a mouse brain cDNA library along with its homologue, GPCR01 (the mouse counterpart of previously reported rat receptor R334 [(1991) FEBS Lett. 292, 243-248]) by the polymerase chain reaction using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. Northern blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed predominant expression of these two receptors in the central nervous system. In situ hybridization analysis revealed their prominent expression in the limbic system and further demonstrated the differential distribution of their mRNAs in mouse brain. Although the ligands for these receptors are yet to be identified, the significant sequence homology between these receptors suggests that they constitute a new receptor subfamily and they possibly represent different receptor subtypes for an unknown neurotransmitter. PMID:8262253

Saeki, Y; Ueno, S; Mizuno, R; Nishimura, T; Fujimura, H; Nagai, Y; Yanagihara, T

1993-12-27

343

Immunolocalization of Bex protein in the mouse brain and olfactory system.  

PubMed

Bex proteins are expressed from a family of "brain expressed X-linked genes" that are closely linked on the X-chromosome. Bex1 and 2 have been characterized as interacting partners of the olfactory marker protein (OMP). Here we report the distribution of Bex1 and Bex2 mRNAs in several brain regions and the development and characterization of an antibody to mouse Bex1 protein that cross-reacts with Bex2 (but not Bex3), and its use to determine the cellular distribution of Bex proteins in the murine brain. The specificity of the antiserum was characterized by immunoprecipitation and Western blots of tissue and transfected cell extracts and by immunocytochemical analyses of cells transfected with either Bex1 or Bex2. Antibodies preabsorbed with Bex2 still recognize Bex1, while blocking with Bex1 eliminates all immunoreactivity to both Bex1 and Bex2. Bex immunoreactivity (ir) was primarily localized to neuronal cells within several regions of the brain, including the olfactory epithelium, bulb, peri/paraventricular nuclei, suprachiasmatic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, median eminence, lateral hypothalamic area, thalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of Bex mRNA in several of these regions. Double-label immunocytochemistry indicates that Bex-ir is colocalized with OMP in mature olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and in the OMP-positive subpopulation of neurons in hypothalamus. This is the first anatomical mapping of Bex proteins in the mouse brain and their colocalization with OMP in ORNs and hypothalamus. PMID:15861462

Koo, Jae Hyung; Saraswati, Manda; Margolis, Frank L

2005-06-20

344

Reovirus infection and tissue injury in the mouse central nervous system are associated with apoptosis.  

PubMed Central

Reovirus serotype 3 strains infect neurons within specific regions of the neonatal mouse brain and produce a lethal meningoencephalitis. Viral replication and pathology colocalize and have a predilection for the cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. We have shown previously that infection of cultured fibroblasts and epithelial cells with reovirus type 3 Dearing (T3D) and other type 3 reovirus strains results in apoptotic cell death, suggesting that apoptosis is a mechanism of cell death in vivo. We now report that T3D induces apoptosis in infected mouse brain tissue. To determine whether reovirus induces apoptosis in neural tissues, newborn mice were inoculated intracerebrally with T3D, and at various times after inoculation, brain tissue was assayed for viral antigen by immunostaining and apoptosis was identified by DNA oligonucleosomal laddering and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. Cells were also stained with cresyl violet to detect morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis, including chromatin condensation and cell shrinkage. DNA laddering was detected in T3D- but not in mock-infected brain tissue. Apoptotic cells were restricted to the same regions of the brain in which infected cells and tissue damage were observed. These findings suggest that virus-induced apoptosis is a mechanism of cell death, tissue injury, and mortality in reovirus-infected mice. The correlation between apoptosis and pathogenesis in vivo identifies apoptosis as a potential target for molecular and pharmacological strategies designed to curtail or prevent diseases resulting from induction of this cell death pathway.

Oberhaus, S M; Smith, R L; Clayton, G H; Dermody, T S; Tyler, K L

1997-01-01

345

Smoking and Your Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... and bile, changing food into energy, and filtering alcohol and poisons from the blood. Research has shown that smoking harms the liver’s ability to process medications, alcohol, and other toxins and remove them from the ...

346

Low-cost in vitro Screening Method for Digestibility of Pet Chews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four pet chew treats from four different manufacturers were tested for digestibility using in vitro tests in artificial gastric (stomach) and intestinal juices. In vitro tests were selected to determine the digestibility of dog chews for humane reasons and were conducted under conditions that were designed to simulate the digestive system of dogs. The purpose of the tests was to

Timothy J. Bowser; Charles I. Abramson; Dwayne Bennett

347

Histological and histochemical changes in the digestive tract of white sturgeon larvae during ontogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ontogenetic changes in digestive tract histology and digestive enzyme histochemistry were investigated 11 to 36 days post-hatch in white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus larvae. From initiation of exogenous feeding (12 days post-hatch), larvae were fed a commercial salmonid diet for the ensuing 24 days. The digestive system of white sturgeon displayed a high degree of morphologic organization and functionality at the

A. Gawlicka; S. J. Teh; S. S. O. Hung; D. E. Hinton; J. Noüe

1995-01-01

348

The Effect of Enzyme Addition on Anaerobic Digestion of Jose Tall Wheat Grass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of the addition of enzyme products containing cellulase, hemicellulase, and Beta-glucosidase to anaerobic digestion systems were studied. Anaerobic digestion tests were performed using batch reactors operated at 35°C. The application of enzyme products in three digestion configurations w...

349

Digestive proteinases of Brycon orbignyanus (Characidae, Teleostei): characteristics and effects of protein quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus, in the wild consume protein from both plant and animal sources. Digestion of protein in piracanjuba begins in the stomach with pepsin, at low pH, and is followed by hydrolysis at alkaline pH in the lumen of the intestine. The digestive system in piracanjuba was evaluated to characterize the enzymes responsible for the digestion of feed

Fernando L. Garc??a-Carreño; Cristiane Albuquerque-Cavalcanti; M. Angeles Navarrete del Toro; Evoy Zaniboni-Filho

2002-01-01

350

Production and sale of energy and nutrients from a multi-farm digester  

SciTech Connect

An investor-owned anaerobic digestion system was designed to process the wastes from several dairy farms totalling 900 cows. The resulting biogas will fuel a 97 KW engine-generator producing both electricity for sale to the utility, and waste heat for digester heating and supplemental greenhouse heating. The digested solids and liquids will be marketed as nursery soil and fertilizer, respectively.

Williams, D.W.; Howard, K.; Orrett, E.

1986-01-01

351

Distinct development of GABA system in the ventral and dorsal horns in the embryonic mouse spinal cord.  

PubMed

In the adult brain, ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, whereas it acts as an excitatory transmitter in the immature brain, and may be involved in morphogenesis. In the present study, we immunohistochemically examined the developmental changes in GABA signaling in the embryonic mouse cervical spinal cord. Glutamic acid decarboxylase and GABA were markers for GABA neurons. Vesicular GABA transporter was a marker for GABAergic and glycinergic terminals. Potassium chloride cotransporter 2 was a marker for GABAergic inhibition. We found five points: (1) In the ventral part, GABA neurons were divided into three groups. The first differentiated group sent commissural axons after embryonic day 11 (E11), but disappeared or changed their transmitter by E15. The second and third differentiated groups were localized in the ventral horn after E12, and sent axons to the ipsilateral marginal zone. There was a distal-to-proximal gradient in varicosity formation in GABAergic axons and a superficial-to-deep gradient in GABAergic synapse formation in the ventral horn; (2) In the dorsal horn, GABA neurons were localized after E13, and synapses were diffusely formed after E15; (3) GABA may be excitatory for several days before synapses formation; (4) There was a ventral-to-dorsal gradient in the development of GABA signaling. The GABAergic inhibitory network may develop in the ventral horn between E15 and E17, and GABA may transiently play crucial roles in inhibitory regulation of the motor system in the mouse fetus; (5) GABA signaling continued to develop after birth, and GABAergic system diminished in the ventral horn. PMID:23044470

Kosaka, Yoshinori; Kin, Hidemichi; Tatetsu, Masaharu; Uema, Itsuki; Takayama, Chitoshi

2012-10-05

352

Offspring from Mouse Embryos Developed Using a Simple Incubator-Free Culture System with a Deoxidizing Agent  

PubMed Central

To culture preimplantation embryos in vitro, water-jacketed CO2 incubators are used widely for maintaining an optimal culture environment in terms of gas phase, temperature and humidity. We investigated the possibility of mouse embryo culture in a plastic bag kept at 37°C. Zygotes derived from in vitro fertilization or collected from naturally mated B6D2F1 female mice were put in a drop of medium on a plastic culture dish and then placed in a commercially available plastic bag. When these were placed in an oven under air at 37°C for 96 h, the rate of blastocyst development and the cell numbers of embryos decreased. However, when the concentration of O2 was reduced to 5% using a deoxidizing agent and a small oxygen meter, most zygotes developed into blastocysts. These blastocysts were judged normal according to their cell number, Oct3/4 and Cdx2 gene expression levels, the apoptosis rate and the potential for full-term development after embryo transfer to pseudopregnant recipients. Furthermore, using this system, normal offspring were obtained simply by keeping the bag on a warming plate. This culture method was applied successfully to both hybrid and inbred strains. In addition, because the developing embryos could be observed through the transparent wall of the bag, it was possible to capture time-lapse images of live embryos until the blastocyst stage without needing an expensive microscope-based incubation chamber. These results suggest that mouse zygotes are more resilient to their environment than generally believed. This method might prove useful in economical culture systems or for the international shipment of embryos.

Itoi, Fumiaki; Tokoro, Mikiko; Terashita, Yukari; Yamagata, Kazuo; Fukunaga, Noritaka; Asada, Yoshimasa; Wakayama, Teruhiko

2012-01-01

353

Golli-MBP proteins mark the earliest stages of fiber extension and terminal arboration in the mouse peripheral nervous system.  

PubMed

The Golli-myelin basic protein (MBP) transcription unit gives rise to two sets of products. One set (i.e., the MBPs) is expressed exclusively in myelin forming cells and the other set (i.e., the golli isoforms) is expressed in both oligodendrocytes and neurons in the CNS. The two major golli proteins, generated from RNAs transcribed from the most upstream promoter of the gene, contain MBP peptide sequences in their C-terminal halves and are, therefore, structurally and immunologically related to the MBPs. We have examined the distribution and localization of golli proteins in the mouse peripheral nervous system (PNS) using immunocytochemistry with a golli-specific antibody. Golli immunoreactivity was first observed in sensory and motor fibers of the mouse at E11 during fiber tract extension, but prior to the maturation of terminal connections. Once neuromuscular junctions had formed, golli immunoreactivity appeared in motor endplates and persisted to the latest age examined, P60. Golli immunoreactivity was also observed in the cell bodies and processes of the dorsal root ganglia throughout development. Strong staining in the PNS of the dysmyelinating mutant shiverer suggested that the major golli protein in peripheral fibers was the BG21 isoform. Interestingly, golli immunoreactivity was also found in adrenal chromaffin cells, which share a common neural crest derivation with other postganglionic neurons that express golli protein. These results suggest that in addition to its role in early forming neuronal systems of the CNS, golli protein also plays a role in the early development and maintenance of neurons in the PNS. PMID:9373036

Landry, C F; Ellison, J; Skinner, E; Campagnoni, A T

1997-10-15

354

Offspring from mouse embryos developed using a simple incubator-free culture system with a deoxidizing agent.  

PubMed

To culture preimplantation embryos in vitro, water-jacketed CO(2) incubators are used widely for maintaining an optimal culture environment in terms of gas phase, temperature and humidity. We investigated the possibility of mouse embryo culture in a plastic bag kept at 37°C. Zygotes derived from in vitro fertilization or collected from naturally mated B6D2F1 female mice were put in a drop of medium on a plastic culture dish and then placed in a commercially available plastic bag. When these were placed in an oven under air at 37°C for 96 h, the rate of blastocyst development and the cell numbers of embryos decreased. However, when the concentration of O(2) was reduced to 5% using a deoxidizing agent and a small oxygen meter, most zygotes developed into blastocysts. These blastocysts were judged normal according to their cell number, Oct3/4 and Cdx2 gene expression levels, the apoptosis rate and the potential for full-term development after embryo transfer to pseudopregnant recipients. Furthermore, using this system, normal offspring were obtained simply by keeping the bag on a warming plate. This culture method was applied successfully to both hybrid and inbred strains. In addition, because the developing embryos could be observed through the transparent wall of the bag, it was possible to capture time-lapse images of live embryos until the blastocyst stage without needing an expensive microscope-based incubation chamber. These results suggest that mouse zygotes are more resilient to their environment than generally believed. This method might prove useful in economical culture systems or for the international shipment of embryos. PMID:23056643

Itoi, Fumiaki; Tokoro, Mikiko; Terashita, Yukari; Yamagata, Kazuo; Fukunaga, Noritaka; Asada, Yoshimasa; Wakayama, Teruhiko

2012-10-09

355

Patterns of Cell and Fiber Vulnerability in the Mesostriatal System of the Mutant Mouse Weaver.Il. High Affinity Uptake Sites for Dopamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weaver (gene symbol WV) is an autosomal recessive mu- tation in the mouse that causes the death of neurons in the cerebellum and of dopamine-containing neurons in the mid- brain. In the accompanying paper and in previous reports, the selective nature of the deficit produced by the gene in the dopamine-containing systems has been described after analysis of the patterns

S. Roffler-Tarlov; D. Pugatch; A. M. Graybiel

356

Protection of adult mouse progenitor cells and human glioma cells by de novo decorin expression in an oxygen- and glucose-deprived cell culture model system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employed an in vitro hypoxia cell culture model system and gene transfer technology to examine the effect of the decorin gene on cell survival against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Ectopic expression of decorin in subventricular zone (SVZ) cells from adult male mouse brain and human glioblastoma U-87 cells kept the cells viable against 24 h of OGD. Fewer

Manoranjan Santra; Mark Katakowski; Rui Lan Zhang; Zheng Gang Zhang; He Meng; Feng Jiang; Michael Chopp

2006-01-01

357

Efficient in utero gene transfer system to the developing mouse brain using electroporation: visualization of neuronal migration in the developing cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a novel gene transfer system using electroporation. We used this technique to introduce a marker gene plasmid containing enhanced green fluorescent protein into mouse brains at embryonic day 12–17 without removing the embryos from the uterus. The embryos were allowed to continue to develop in utero, and more than 80% were born normally expressing the exogenous gene. Enhanced

H. Tabata; K. Nakajima

2001-01-01

358

Conditional Transgenic System for Mouse Aurora A Kinase: Degradation by the Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Controls the Level of the Transgenic Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aurora A is a mitotic kinase that localizes to centrosomes. Expression of this protein is normally limited to the mitotic stage (G2-M) of the cell cycle, whereas human cancer cells frequently exhibit overexpression of Aurora A protein regardless of the cell cycle stage. In the present study, Aurora A transgenic mouse lines were generated with a new conditional expression system

Tomokazu Fukuda; Yuji Mishina; Michael P. Walker; Richard P. DiAugustine

2005-01-01

359

Recovery of two independent sweet taste systems during regeneration of the mouse chorda tympani nerve after nerve crush.  

PubMed

In rodents, section of the taste nerve results in degeneration of the taste buds. Following regeneration of the cut taste nerve, however, the taste buds reappear. This phenomenon can be used to study the functional reformation of the peripheral neural system responsible for sweet taste. In this study we examined the recovery of sweet responses by the chorda tympani (CT) nerve after nerve crush as well as inhibition of these responses by gurmarin (Gur), a sweet response inhibitor. After about 2 weeks of CT nerve regeneration, no significant response to any taste stimuli could be observed. At 3 weeks, responses to sweet stimuli reappeared but were not significantly inhibited by Gur. At 4 weeks, Gur inhibition of sweet responses reached statistically significant levels. Thus, the Gur-sensitive (GS) component of the sweet response reappeared about 1 week later than the Gur-insensitive (GI) component. Moreover, single CT fibers responsive to sucrose could be classified into distinct GS and GI groups at 4 weeks. After 5 weeks or more, responses to sweet compounds before and after treatment with Gur became indistinguishable from responses in the intact group. During regeneration, the GS and GI components of the sucrose response could be distinguished based on their concentration-dependent responses to sucrose. These results suggest that mice have two different sweet-reception systems, distinguishable by their sensitivity to Gur (the GS and GI systems). These two sweet-reception systems may be reconstituted independently during regeneration of the mouse CT nerve. PMID:17714496

Yasumatsu, Keiko; Kusuhara, Yoko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

2007-08-20

360

Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

361

Differential Axonal Projection of Mitral and Tufted Cells in the Mouse Main Olfactory System  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, much has been elucidated regarding the functional organization of the axonal connection of olfactory sensory neurons to olfactory bulb (OB) glomeruli. However, the manner in which projection neurons of the OB process odorant input and send this information to higher brain centers remains unclear. Here, we report long-range, large-scale tracing of the axonal projection patterns of OB neurons using two-photon microscopy. Tracer injection into a single glomerulus demonstrated widely distributed mitral/tufted cell axonal projections on the lateroventral surface of the mouse brain, including the anterior/posterior piriform cortex (PC) and olfactory tubercle (OT). We noted two distinct groups of labeled axons: PC-orienting axons and OT-orienting axons. Each group occupied distinct parts of the lateral olfactory tract. PC-orienting axons projected axon collaterals to a wide area of the PC but only a few collaterals to the OT. OT-orienting axons densely projected axon collaterals primarily to the anterolateral OT (alOT). Different colored dye injections into the superficial and deep portions of the OB external plexiform layer revealed that the PC-orienting axon populations originated in presumed mitral cells and the OT-orienting axons in presumed tufted cells. These data suggest that although mitral and tufted cells receive similar odor signals from a shared glomerulus, they process the odor information in different ways and send their output to different higher brain centers via the PC and alOT.

Nagayama, Shin; Enerva, Allicia; Fletcher, Max L.; Masurkar, Arjun V.; Igarashi, Kei M.; Mori, Kensaku; Chen, Wei R.

2010-01-01

362

In vivo imaging of DNA lipid nanocapsules after systemic administration in a melanoma mouse model.  

PubMed

The biodistribution of intravenously injected DNA lipid nanocapsules (DNA LNCs), encapsulating pHSV-tk, was analysed by in vivo imaging on an orthotopic melanoma mouse model and by a subsequent treatment with ganciclovir (GCV), using the gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) approach. Luminescent melanoma cells, implanted subcutaneously in the right flank of the mice, allowed us to follow tumour growth and tumour localisation with in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI). In parallel, DNA LNCs or PEG DNA LNCs (DNA LNCs recovered with PEG(2000)) encapsulating a fluorescent probe, DiD, allowed us to follow their biodistribution with in vivo biofluorescence imaging (BFI). The BF-images confirmed a prolonged circulation-time for PEG DNA LNCs as was previously observed on an ectotopic model of glioma; comparison with BL-images evidenced the colocalisation of PEG DNA LNCs and melanoma cells. After these promising results, treatment with PEG DNA LNCs and GCV on a few animals was performed and the treatment efficacy measured by BLI. The first results showed tumour growth reduction tendency and, once optimised, this therapy strategy could become a new option for melanoma treatment. PMID:21726617

David, Stephanie; Carmoy, Nathalie; Resnier, Pauline; Denis, Caroline; Misery, Laurent; Pitard, Bruno; Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Passirani, Catherine; Montier, Tristan

2011-06-24

363

Fetal mouse skin heals scarlessly in a chick chorioallantoic membrane model system.  

PubMed

In mammals, the early-gestation fetus has the regenerative ability to heal skin wounds without scar formation. This observation was first reported more than 3 decades ago, and has been confirmed in a number of in vivo animal models. Although an intensive research effort has focused on unraveling the mechanisms underlying scarless fetal wound repair, no suitable model of in vitro fetal skin healing has been developed. In this article, we report a novel model for the study of fetal wound healing. Fetal skin from gestational day 16.5 Balb/c mice (total gestation, 20 days) was grafted onto the chorioallantoic membrane of 12-day-old chicken embryos and cultured for up to 7 days. At 48 hours postengraftment, circular wounds (diameter = 1 mm) were made in the fetal skin using a rotating titanium sapphire laser (N = 45). The tissue was examined daily by visual inspection to look for signs of infection and ischemia. The grafts and the surrounding host tissue were examined histologically. In all fetal skin grafts, the wounds completely reepithelialized by postinjury day 7, with regeneration of the dermis. Fetal mouse skin xenografts transplanted onto the chorioallantoic membrane of fertilized chicken eggs provides a useful model for the study of fetal wound healing. This model can be used as an adjunct to traditional in vivo mammalian models of fetal repair. PMID:21712703

Carre, Antoine L; Larson, Barrett J; Knowles, Joseph A; Kawai, Kenichiro; Longaker, Michael T; Lorenz, H Peter

2012-07-01

364

Differential Distribution of Major Brain Gangliosides in the Adult Mouse Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Gangliosides - sialic acid-bearing glycolipids - are major cell surface determinants on neurons and axons. The same four closely related structures, GM1, GD1a, GD1b and GT1b, comprise the majority of total brain gangliosides in mammals and birds. Gangliosides regulate the activities of proteins in the membranes in which they reside, and also act as cell-cell recognition receptors. Understanding the functions of major brain gangliosides requires knowledge of their tissue distribution, which has been accomplished in the past using biochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Armed with new knowledge about the stability and accessibility of gangliosides in tissues and new IgG-class specific monoclonal antibodies, we investigated the detailed tissue distribution of gangliosides in the adult mouse brain. Gangliosides GD1b and GT1b are widely expressed in gray and white matter. In contrast, GM1 is predominately found in white matter and GD1a is specifically expressed in certain brain nuclei/tracts. These findings are considered in relationship to the hypothesis that gangliosides GD1a and GT1b act as receptors for an important axon-myelin recognition protein, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Mediating axon-myelin interactions is but one potential function of the major brain gangliosides, and more detailed knowledge of their distribution may help direct future functional studies.

Vajn, Katarina; Viljetic, Barbara; Degmecic, Ivan Veceslav; Schnaar, Ronald L.; Heffer, Marija

2013-01-01

365

National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), is an extremely useful tool for those interested in digestive diseases - patients and health care workers alike. The site is designed for those who have been diagnosed with digestive diseases, who have not yet been diagnosed, for those who want to participate in clinical trials, and for those seeking even more resources on digestive diseases. Additionally, this site is for the health care community seeking easy-to-read and Spanish-language publications on digestive diseases, and for U.S. statistics on digestive diseases. Visitors should go to the "Statistics" link on the homepage to view not only NIH's "Digestive Diseases Statistics for the U.S.", but also a link to "Other Sources for Statistics", which has a list of nine other organizations that have statistical information on digestive diseases. Check out the "Clinical Trials and Guidelines" link on the homepage to find patient studies regarding digestive diseases that are underway in Maryland, at the National Institutes of Health research hospital, as well as several other U.S. locations.

366

Complement system dysregulation and inflammation in the retinal pigment epithelium of a mouse model for Stargardt macular degeneration.  

PubMed

Accumulation of vitamin A-derived lipofuscin fluorophores in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a pathologic feature of recessive Stargardt macular dystrophy, a blinding disease caused by dysfunction or loss of the ABCA4 transporter in rods and cones. Age-related macular degeneration, a prevalent blinding disease of the elderly, is strongly associated with mutations in the genes for complement regulatory proteins (CRP), causing chronic inflammation of the RPE. Here we explore the possible relationship between lipofuscin accumulation and complement activation in vivo. Using the abca4(-/-) mouse model for recessive Stargardt, we investigated the role of lipofuscin fluorophores (A2E-lipofuscin) on oxidative stress and complement activation. We observed higher expression of oxidative-stress genes and elevated products of lipid peroxidation in eyes from abca4(-/-) versus wild-type mice. We also observed higher levels of complement-activation products in abca4(-/-) RPE cells. Unexpectedly, expression of multiple CRPs, which protect cells from attack by the complement system, were lower in abca4(-/-) versus wild-type RPE. To test whether acute exposure of healthy RPE cells to A2E-lipofuscin affects oxidative stress and expression of CRPs, we fed cultured fetal-derived human RPE cells with rod outer segments from wild-type or abca4(-/-) retinas. In contrast to RPE cells in abca4(-/-) mice, human RPE cells exposed to abca4(-/-) rod outer segments adaptively increased expression of both oxidative-stress and CRP genes. These results suggest that A2E accumulation causes oxidative stress, complement activation, and down-regulation of protective CRP in the Stargardt mouse model. Thus, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration may both be caused by chronic inflammation of the RPE. PMID:21464132

Radu, Roxana A; Hu, Jane; Yuan, Quan; Welch, Darcy L; Makshanoff, Jacob; Lloyd, Marcia; McMullen, Stephen; Travis, Gabriel H; Bok, Dean

2011-04-04

367

Application of PCR-DGGE to analysis the microbial community structure in nightsoil sludge anaerobic digestion system aggrandized by HBH-II and alkaline pretreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial communities in 6 nightsoil sludge samples taken from the beginning and the 8th days of the 3 anaerobic digestion reactors, ie. the original nightsoil sludge (A), adding 0.0075% HBH-II (B) and adding 0.075% HBH-II under initial pH 10(C), were studied using PCR-DGGE technique. The result shows that alkaline pretreatment can change the microbe community structure of nightsoil sludge

Song Zhen-Xia; Wang Li-Ao

2011-01-01

368

Weighing up whey fortification of foods: Implications for kinetics of starch digestion and estimated glycemic index of model high-protein-low-carbohydrate food systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixtures of whey protein isolate (20 and 50%) and wheat starch, as a model high-protein-low-carbohydrate (HPLC) food, were extruded in a twin-screw extruder by changing moisture, temperature and screw speed. Longitudinal expansion increased with whey, and screw speed enhanced transverse expansion. In vitro starch digestion revealed monophasic digestograms for extrudates and non-extrudates. A modified first-order kinetic model suitably predicted the

L.-Z. Yong; C. H. Chan; C. Garcia; P. A. Sopade

2011-01-01

369

Autoheated, Aerobic, Thermophilic Digestion of Municipal Sludge with Air Aeration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A full-scale aerobic digestion system demonstrated that a simple self-aspirating aerator, that used ambient air, could achieve high oxygen transfer efficiencies and thereby allow conservation of heat. Continuous feed operation utilizing primary and waste ...

J. A. Spada R. M. Kabrick W. J. Jewell

1982-01-01

370

Biodistribution of (137)Cs in a mouse model of chronic contamination by ingestion and effects on the hematopoietic system.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to define the possible occurrence of hematological changes during the course of a chronic ingestion of (137)Cs. A mouse model was used, with ingestion through drinking water with a cesium concentration of 20 kBq l(-1). Ingestion started in parent animals before mating, and (137)Cs intake and its effect on the hematopoietic system was studied in offspring at various ages between birth and 20 weeks. (137)Cs content was measured in various organs, indicating that (137)Cs was distributed throughout the organism including lympho-hematopoietic organs, i.e., femurs, spleen and thymus. However, we did not observe any effect on the hematopoietic system, whatever the parameter used. In fact, blood cell counts, mononuclear cell counts and progenitor frequency in bone marrow and spleen, and Flt3-ligand, Erythropoietin, G-CSF and SDF-1 concentration in plasma remained unchanged when compared to control animals. Moreover, phenotypic analysis did not show any change in the proportions of bone marrow cell populations. These results indicate that, although (137)Cs was found in all organs implicated in the hematopoietic system, this did not induce any changes in bone marrow function. PMID:20157720

Bertho, Jean-Marc; Louiba, Sonia; Faure, Marie-Cécile; Tourlonias, Elie; Stefani, Johanna; Siffert, Baptiste; Paquet, François; Dublineau, Isabelle

2010-02-16

371

Colitis promotes adaptation of an intestinal nematode: a heligmosomoides polygyrus mouse model system.  

PubMed

The precise mechanism of the very effective therapeutic effect of gastrointestinal nematodes on some autoimmune diseases is not clearly understood and is currently being intensively investigated. Treatment with living helminths has been initiated to reverse intestinal immune-mediated diseases in humans. However, little attention has been paid to the phenotype of nematodes in the IBD-affected gut and the consequences of nematode adaptation. In the present study, exposure of Heligmosomoides polygyrus larvae to the changed cytokine milieu of the intestine during colitis reduced inflammation in an experimental model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)- induced colitis, but increased nematode establishment in the moderate-responder BALB/c mouse strain. We used mass spectrometry in combination with two-dimensional Western blotting to determine changes in protein expression and changes in nematode antigens recognized by IgG1 in mice with colitis. We show that nematode larvae immunogenicity is changed by colitis as soon as 6 days post-infection; IgG1 did not recognize highly conserved proteins Lev-11 (isoform 1 of tropomyosin ?1 chain), actin-4 isoform or FTT-2 isoform a (14-3-3 family) protein. These results indicate that changes in the small intestine provoked by colitis directly influence the nematode proteome. The unrecognized proteins seem to be key antigenic epitopes able to induce protective immune responses. The proteome changes were associated with weak immune recognition and increased larval adaptation and worm growth, altered localization in the intestine and increased survival of males but reduced worm fecundity. In this report, the mechanisms influencing nematode survival and the consequences of changed immunogenicity that reflect the immune response at the site colonized by the parasite in mice with colitis are described. The results are relevant to the use of live parasites to ameliorate IBD. PMID:24167594

Donskow-?ysoniewska, Katarzyna; Bien, Justyna; Brodaczewska, Klaudia; Krawczak, Katarzyna; Doligalska, Maria

2013-10-22

372

The mismatch repair system protects against intergenerational GAA repeat instability in a Friedreich ataxia mouse model  

PubMed Central

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a dynamic GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of the FXN gene. Studies of mouse models for other trinucleotide repeat (TNR) disorders have revealed an important role of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins in TNR instability. To explore the potential role of MMR proteins on intergenerational GAA repeat instability in FRDA, we have analyzed the transmission of unstable GAA repeat expansions from FXN transgenic mice which have been crossed with mice that are deficient for Msh2, Msh3, Msh6 or Pms2. We find in all cases that absence of parental MMR protein not only maintains transmission of GAA expansions and contractions, but also increases GAA repeat mutability (expansions and/or contractions) in the offspring. This indicates that Msh2, Msh3, Msh6 and Pms2 proteins are not the cause of intergenerational GAA expansions or contractions, but act in their canonical MMR capacity to protect against GAA repeat instability. We further identified differential modes of action for the four MMR proteins. Thus, Msh2 and Msh3 protect against GAA repeat contractions, while Msh6 protects against both GAA repeat expansions and contractions, and Pms2 protects against GAA repeat expansions and also promotes contractions. Furthermore, we detected enhanced occupancy of Msh2 and Msh3 proteins downstream of the FXN expanded GAA repeat, suggesting a model in which Msh2/3 dimers are recruited to this region to repair mismatches that would otherwise produce intergenerational GAA contractions. These findings reveal substantial differences in the intergenerational dynamics of expanded GAA repeat sequences compared with expanded CAG/CTG repeats, where Msh2 and Msh3 are thought to actively promote repeat expansions.

Ezzatizadeh, Vahid; Pinto, Ricardo Mouro; Sandi, Chiranjeevi; Sandi, Madhavi; Al-Mahdawi, Sahar; te Riele, Hein; Pook, Mark A.

2013-01-01

373

Colitis Promotes Adaptation of an Intestinal Nematode: A Heligmosomoides Polygyrus Mouse Model System  

PubMed Central

The precise mechanism of the very effective therapeutic effect of gastrointestinal nematodes on some autoimmune diseases is not clearly understood and is currently being intensively investigated. Treatment with living helminths has been initiated to reverse intestinal immune-mediated diseases in humans. However, little attention has been paid to the phenotype of nematodes in the IBD-affected gut and the consequences of nematode adaptation. In the present study, exposure of Heligmosomoides polygyrus larvae to the changed cytokine milieu of the intestine during colitis reduced inflammation in an experimental model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)- induced colitis, but increased nematode establishment in the moderate-responder BALB/c mouse strain. We used mass spectrometry in combination with two-dimensional Western blotting to determine changes in protein expression and changes in nematode antigens recognized by IgG1 in mice with colitis. We show that nematode larvae immunogenicity is changed by colitis as soon as 6 days post-infection; IgG1 did not recognize highly conserved proteins Lev-11 (isoform 1 of tropomyosin ?1 chain), actin-4 isoform or FTT-2 isoform a (14-3-3 family) protein. These results indicate that changes in the small intestine provoked by colitis directly influence the nematode proteome. The unrecognized proteins seem to be key antigenic epitopes able to induce protective immune responses. The proteome changes were associated with weak immune recognition and increased larval adaptation and worm growth, altered localization in the intestine and increased survival of males but reduced worm fecundity. In this report, the mechanisms influencing nematode survival and the consequences of changed immunogenicity that reflect the immune response at the site colonized by the parasite in mice with colitis are described. The results are relevant to the use of live parasites to ameliorate IBD.

Donskow-Lysoniewska, Katarzyna; Bien, Justyna; Brodaczewska, Klaudia; Krawczak, Katarzyna; Doligalska, Maria

2013-01-01

374

Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) in the mouse central nervous system: a neuroprotective role?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of paraoxonase 2 (PON2) in mouse brain and to assess its antioxidant properties. PON2 levels were highest in lung, intestine, heart and liver, and lower in brain; in all tissues, PON2 expression was higher in female than in male mice. PON2 knockout [PON2-/-] mice did not express any PON2, as expected. In brain, the highest levels of PON2 were found in the substantia nigra, the nucleus accumbens and the striatum, with lower levels in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and brainstem. A similar regional distribution of PON2 activity (measured by dihydrocoumarin hydrolysis) was also found. PON3 was not detected in any brain area, while PON1 was expressed at very low levels, and did not show any regional difference. PON2 levels were higher in astrocytes than in neurons isolated from all brain regions, and were highest in cells from the striatum. PON2 activity and mRNA levels followed a similar pattern. Brain PON2 levels were highest around birth, and gradually declined. Subcellular distribution experiments indicated that PON2 is primarily expressed in microsomes and in mitochondria. The toxicity in neurons and astrocytes of agents known to cause oxidative stress (DMNQ and H2O2) was higher in cells from PON2-/- mice than in the same cells from wild-type mice, despite similar glutathione levels. These results indicate that PON2 is expressed in brain, and that higher levels are found in dopaminergic regions such as the striatum, suggesting that this enzyme may provide protection against oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity.

Giordano, Gennaro; Cole, Toby B.; Furlong, Clement E.; Costa, Lucio G.

2011-01-01

375

Digestible amino acids for poultry and swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review and comparison of feedstuff amino acid digestibility values for poultry and swine is presented and the use of amino acid digestibility and availability is discussed. The effect of overprocessing on amino acid digestibility of oilseed meals is also reviewed. In general, true digestible amino acid values determined in cecectomized roosters are 5–10% higher than apparent digestibility values determined

Carl M. Parsons

1996-01-01

376

Modifying crops to increase cell wall digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving digestibility of roughage cell walls will improve ruminant animal performance and reduce loss of nutrients to the environment. The main digestibility impediment for dicotyledonous plants is highly lignified secondary cell walls, notably in stem secondary xylem, which become almost non-digestible. Digestibility of grasses is slowed severely by lignification of most tissues, but these cell walls remain largely digestible. Cell

Hans-Joachim G. Jung; Deborah A. Samac; Gautam Sarath

377

Performance and modeling of dual digestion process for biodegradation of cellulose containing wastes  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to study a dual digestion process for decomposing refuse and sludge mixtures to produce methane gas. A laboratory scale dual digestion system was used to study the performance of the process of influents with high cellulose content. A mechanistic model of the system based on volatile solids content was developed to compare the economics of the thermophilic dual digestion process with thermophilic and mesophilic single stage anaerobic digestion and mesophilic dual digestion processes with respect to changes in feed concentration and composition. Experimental and simulation studies showed that for small digesters heat loss from the digester surface is the most significant heat sink. For large digesters (greater than 0.1 MG) sensible heat of the influent becomes the most significant heat sink. Experimental studies indicated that significant amounts of energy can be generated during the oxygen aerobic digestion of thickened sludge-paper mixtures. Steady state temperatures in the aerobic digester can be reached two decays after the start-up. Biogas production rates in the aerobic stage as high as 3.0 liters per liter of reactor volume and 0.31 liters per gram of solids added to the anaerobic digester were observed. A second mechanistic model of the duel digestion process was developed based on chemical oxygen demand. This model includes the relationships between pH, alkalinity, methane content in the biogas and inhibition of the methane formation reaction by the presence of toxic substances and unionized volatile acids.

Tansel, B.

1985-01-01

378

Mouse Party  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity from The University of Utah, examine the molecular mechanisms that affect the brains of mice on drugs. Learn how different drugs create different responses in the brain and alter the natural state of a mouse.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

379

Systemic delivery of a Peptide-linked morpholino oligonucleotide neutralizes mutant RNA toxicity in a mouse model of myotonic dystrophy.  

PubMed

Expansions of CUG trinucleotide sequences in RNA transcripts provide the basis for toxic RNA gain-of-function that leads to detrimental changes in RNA metabolism. A CTG repeat element normally resides in the 3' untranslated region of the dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase (DMPK) gene, but when expanded it is the genetic lesion of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), a hereditary neuromuscular disease. The pathogenic DMPK transcript containing the CUG expansion is retained in ribonuclear foci as part of a complex with RNA-binding proteins such as muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1), resulting in aberrant splicing of numerous RNA transcripts and consequent physiological abnormalities including myotonia. Herein, we demonstrate molecular and physiological amelioration of the toxic effects of mutant RNA in the HSA(LR) mouse model of DM1 by systemic administration of peptide-linked morpholino (PPMO) antisense oligonucleotides bearing a CAG repeat sequence. Intravenous administration of PPMO conjugates to HSA(LR) mice led to redistribution of Mbnl1 protein in myonuclei and corrections in abnormal RNA splicing. Additionally, myotonia was completely eliminated in PPMO-treated HSA(LR) mice. These studies provide proof of concept that neutralization of RNA toxicity by systemic delivery of antisense oligonucleotides that target the CUG repeat is an effective therapeutic approach for treating the skeletal muscle aspects of DM1 pathology. PMID:23308382

Leger, Andrew J; Mosquea, Leocadia M; Clayton, Nicholas P; Wu, I-Huan; Weeden, Timothy; Nelson, Carol A; Phillips, Lucy; Roberts, Errin; Piepenhagen, Peter A; Cheng, Seng H; Wentworth, Bruce M

2013-01-11

380

Digest of Education Statistics, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 1998 edition of the "Digest of Education Statistics" is the 34th in a series of publications initiated in 1962. Its primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of American education from kindergarten through graduate school. The digest includes data from many government and private sources,…

Snyder, Thomas D.; Hoffman, Charlene M.; Geddes, Claire M.

381

Digest of Education Statistics, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This edition of the "Digest of Education Statistics" is the 36th in a series that provides a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of U.S. education from kindergarten through graduate school. The Digest includes data from many sources, both government and private, and draws heavily on work done by the National Center for…

Snyder, Thomas D.; Hoffman, Charlene M.

382

Children and Grief. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Noting that the death of a loved one brings grief to children as well as adults, this Digest draws on research to examine how children respond to death and the role of parents and teachers in helping children cope with loss. The Digest delineates children's "tasks" during mourning that are essential to their adjustment to loss, such as accepting…

McEntire, Nancy

383

High-solids anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste in comparison with mono digestions: stability and performance.  

PubMed

System stability and performance of high-solids anaerobic co-digestion of dewatered sludge (DS) and food waste (FW) in comparison with mono digestions were investigated. System stability was improved in co-digestion systems with co-substrate acting as a diluting agent to toxic chemicals like ammonia or Na(+). For high-solids digestion of DS, the addition of FW not only improved system stability but also greatly enhanced volumetric biogas production. For high-solids digestion of FW, the addition of DS could reduce Na(+) concentration and help maintain satisfactory stability during the conversion of FW into biogas. System performances of co-digestion systems were mainly determined by the mixing ratios of DS and FW. Biogas production and volatile solids (VSs) reduction in digestion of the co-mixture of DS and FW increased linearly with higher ratios of FW. A kinetic model, which aimed to forecast the performance of co-digestion and to assist reactor design, was developed from long-term semi-continuous experiments. Maximum VS reduction for DS and FW was estimated to be 44.3% and 90.3%, respectively, and first order constant k was found to be 0.17d(-1) and 0.50 d(-1), respectively. Experimental data of co-digestion were in good conformity to the predictions of the model. PMID:23177568

Dai, Xiaohu; Duan, Nina; Dong, Bin; Dai, Lingling

2012-11-21

384

Reverse engineering the mouse brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behaviour is governed by activity in highly structured neural circuits. Genetically targeted sensors and switches facilitate measurement and manipulation of activity in vivo, linking activity in defined nodes of neural circuits to behaviour. Because of access to specific cell types, these molecular tools will have the largest impact in genetic model systems such as the mouse. Emerging assays of mouse

Daniel H. O'Connor; Daniel Huber; Karel Svoboda

2009-01-01

385

Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the cellulolytic system in digestive fluid of the sea hare aplysia kurodai. efficient glucose release from sea lettuce by synergistic action of 45 kDa endoglucanase and 210 kDa ß-glucosidase.  

PubMed

Although many endo-ß-1,4-glucanases have been isolated in invertebrates, their cellulolytic systems are not fully understood. In particular, gastropod feeding on seaweed is considered an excellent model system for production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from third-generation feedstocks (microalgae and seaweeds). In this study, enzymes involved in the conversion of cellulose and other polysaccharides to glucose in digestive fluids of the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) were screened and characterized to determine how the sea hare obtains glucose from sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa). Four endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (21K, 45K, 65K, and 95K cellulase) and 2 ß-glucosidases (110K and 210K) were purified to a homogeneous state, and the synergistic action of these enzymes during cellulose digestion was analyzed. All cellulases exhibited cellulase and lichenase activities and showed distinct cleavage specificities against cellooligosaccharides and filter paper. Filter paper was digested to cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose by 21K cellulase, whereas 45K and 65K enzymes hydrolyzed the filter paper to cellobiose and glucose. 210K ß-glucosidase showed unique substrate specificity against synthetic and natural substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU)-ß-glucoside, 4MU-ß-galactoside, cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin, and lichenan were suitable substrates. Furthermore, 210K ß-glucosidase possesses lactase activity. Although ß-glucosidase and cellulase are necessary for efficient hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose to glucose, laminarin is hydrolyzed to glucose only by 210K ß-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 210K ß-glucosidase by D-glucono-1,5-lactone suggested the presence of 2 active sites similar to those of mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Saccharification of sea lettuce was considerably stimulated by the synergistic action of 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase. Our results indicate that 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase are the core components of the sea hare digestive system for efficient production of glucose from sea lettuce. These findings contribute important new insights into the development of biofuel processing biotechnologies from seaweed. PMID:23762366

Tsuji, Akihiko; Tominaga, Keiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Yuasa, Keizo

2013-06-06

386

Comprehensive Enzymatic Analysis of the Cellulolytic System in Digestive Fluid of the Sea Hare Aplysia kurodai. Efficient Glucose Release from Sea Lettuce by Synergistic Action of 45 kDa Endoglucanase and 210 kDa ss-Glucosidase  

PubMed Central

Although many endo-ß-1,4-glucanases have been isolated in invertebrates, their cellulolytic systems are not fully understood. In particular, gastropod feeding on seaweed is considered an excellent model system for production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from third-generation feedstocks (microalgae and seaweeds). In this study, enzymes involved in the conversion of cellulose and other polysaccharides to glucose in digestive fluids of the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) were screened and characterized to determine how the sea hare obtains glucose from sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa). Four endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (21K, 45K, 65K, and 95K cellulase) and 2 ß-glucosidases (110K and 210K) were purified to a homogeneous state, and the synergistic action of these enzymes during cellulose digestion was analyzed. All cellulases exhibited cellulase and lichenase activities and showed distinct cleavage specificities against cellooligosaccharides and filter paper. Filter paper was digested to cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose by 21K cellulase, whereas 45K and 65K enzymes hydrolyzed the filter paper to cellobiose and glucose. 210K ß-glucosidase showed unique substrate specificity against synthetic and natural substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU)-ß-glucoside, 4MU–ß-galactoside, cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin, and lichenan were suitable substrates. Furthermore, 210K ß-glucosidase possesses lactase activity. Although ß-glucosidase and cellulase are necessary for efficient hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose to glucose, laminarin is hydrolyzed to glucose only by 210K ß-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 210K ß-glucosidase by D-glucono-1,5-lactone suggested the presence of 2 active sites similar to those of mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Saccharification of sea lettuce was considerably stimulated by the synergistic action of 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase. Our results indicate that 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase are the core components of the sea hare digestive system for efficient production of glucose from sea lettuce. These findings contribute important new insights into the development of biofuel processing biotechnologies from seaweed.

Tsuji, Akihiko; Tominaga, Keiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Yuasa, Keizo

2013-01-01

387

Gene expression in the digestive tissues of ruminants and their relationships with feeding and digestive processes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract has multiple functions including digestion, nutrient absorption, secretion of hormones, and excretion of wastes. In the ruminant animal, development of this organ system is more complex than that of the monogastric animal due to the necessity to establish a fully func...

388

Imaging of pharmacokinetic rates of indocyanine green in mouse liver with a hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography/x-ray computed tomography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pharmacokinetic rates have the potential to provide quantitative physiological and pathological information for biological studies and drug development. Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is an attractive imaging tool for three-dimensionally resolving fluorophore distribution in small animals. In this letter, pharmacokinetic rates of indocyanine green (ICG) in mouse liver are imaged with a hybrid FMT and x-ray computed tomography (XCT) system. A recently developed FMT method using structural priors from an XCT system is adopted to improve the quality of FMT reconstruction. In the in vivo experiments, images of uptake and excretion rates of ICG in mouse liver are obtained, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate liver function. The accuracy of the results is validated by a fiber-based fluorescence measurement system.

Zhang, Guanglei; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Bin; He, Yun; Luo, Jianwen; Bai, Jing

2013-04-01

389

Vitamin B?? dependent changes in mouse spinal cord expression of vitamin B?? related proteins and the epidermal growth factor system.  

PubMed

Chronic vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency in the mammalian central nervous system causes degenerative damage, especially in the spinal cord. Previous studies have shown that cobalamin status alters spinal cord expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor in rats. Employing a mouse model of cobalamin-depletion and loading, we have explored the influence of Cbl status on spinal cord expression of cobalamin related proteins, as well as all four known EGF receptors and their activating ligands. Following four weeks of osmotic minipump infusion (n=7 in each group) with cobinamide (4.25nmol/h), saline or cobalamin (1.75nmol/h) the spinal cords were analyzed for cobalamin and for the mRNA levels of cobalamin related proteins and members of the EGF system using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The median spinal cord cobalamin content was 17, 32, and 52pmol/gr of tissues in cobinamide, saline, and cobalamin treated animals, respectively. Both cobinamide and cobalamin induced a significant decrease in the expression of the lysosomal membrane cobalamin transporter. All four EGF receptors and their activating ligands, except for EGF, were expressed in the spinal cord. Notably, the expression of one of the EGF receptors, HER3, and the ligands heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, transforming growth factor-?, and neuregulins 1? was increased in cobalamin treated mice. Our studies show that four weeks treatment of mice with cobinamide induces spinal cord cobalamin depletion and that cobalamin loading induces an altered expression pattern of the EGF system thus confirming a spinal cord cross talk between Cbl and the EGF system. PMID:23399680

Mutti, Elena; Lildballe, Dorte L; Kristensen, Lise; Birn, Henrik; Nexo, Ebba

2013-02-08

390

Fabrication of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Layered Cardiac Cell Sheets Using a Bioreactor Culture System  

PubMed Central

Bioengineered functional cardiac tissue is expected to contribute to the repair of injured heart tissue. We previously developed cardiac cell sheets using mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell-derived cardiomyocytes, a system to generate an appropriate number of cardiomyocytes derived from ES cells and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we established a cultivation system with suitable conditions for expansion and cardiac differentiation of mES cells by embryoid body formation using a three-dimensional bioreactor. Daily conventional medium exchanges failed to prevent lactate accumulation and pH decreases in the medium, which led to insufficient cell expansion and cardiac differentiation. Conversely, a continuous perfusion system maintained the lactate concentration and pH stability as well as increased the cell number by up to 300-fold of the seeding cell number and promoted cardiac differentiation after 10 days of differentiation. After a further 8 days of cultivation together with a purification step, around 1×108 cardiomyocytes were collected in a 1-L bioreactor culture, and additional treatment with noggin and granulocyte colony stimulating factor increased the number of cardiomyocytes to around 5.5×108. Co-culture of mES cell-derived cardiomyocytes with an appropriate number of primary cultured fibroblasts on temperature-responsive culture dishes enabled the formation of cardiac cell sheets and created layered-dense cardiac tissue. These findings suggest that this bioreactor system with appropriate medium might be capable of preparing cardiomyocytes for cell sheet-based cardiac tissue.

Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Wada, Masanori; Konishi, Kanako; Sato, Michi; Iwamoto, Ushio; Sato, Yuko; Tachibana, Aki; Kikuchi, Tetsutaro; Iwamiya, Takahiro; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Jun K.; Yamato, Masayuki; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Okano, Teruo

2012-01-01

391

IL-12-Based Vaccination Therapy Reverses Liver-Induced Systemic Tolerance in a Mouse Model of Hepatitis B Virus Carrier.  

PubMed

Liver-induced systemic immune tolerance that occurs during chronic hepadnavirus infection is the biggest obstacle for effective viral clearance. Immunotherapeutic reversal of this tolerance is a promising strategy in the clinic but remains to be explored. In this study, using a hepatitis B virus (HBV)-carrier mouse model, we report that IL-12-based vaccination therapy can efficiently reverse systemic tolerance toward HBV. HBV-carrier mice lost responsiveness to hepatitis B surface Ag (HBsAg) vaccination, and IL-12 alone could not reverse this liver-induced immune tolerance. However, after IL-12-based vaccination therapy, the majority of treated mice became HBsAg(-) in serum; hepatitis B core Ag was also undetectable in hepatocytes. HBV clearance was dependent on HBsAg vaccine-induced anti-HBV immunity. Further results showed that IL-12-based vaccination therapy strongly enhanced hepatic HBV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses, including proliferation and IFN-? secretion. Systemic HBV-specific CD4(+) T cell responses were also restored in HBV-carrier mice, leading to the arousal of HBsAg-specific follicular Th-germinal center B cell responses and anti-hepatitis B surface Ag Ab production. Recovery of HBsAg-specific responses also correlated with both reduced CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell frequency and an enhanced capacity of effector T cells to overcome inhibition by regulatory T cells. In conclusion, IL-12-based vaccination therapy may reverse liver-induced immune tolerance toward HBV by restoring systemic HBV-specific CD4(+) T cell responses, eliciting robust hepatic HBV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses, and facilitating the generation of HBsAg-specific humoral immunity; thus, this therapy may become a viable approach to treating patients with chronic hepatitis B. PMID:24048897

Zeng, Zhutian; Kong, Xiaohui; Li, Fenglei; Wei, Haiming; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang

2013-09-18

392

COMPARISON OF SYSTEMIC AND MUCOSAL ROUTES OF SENSITIZATION TO OVALBUMIN ANTIGEN IN THREE MOUSE STRAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several studies have shown strain differences in allergic lung responses following ovalbumin (OVA) antigen sensitization and challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these differences were maintained between systemic and mucosal sensitization routes, and to ...

393

Mouse embryonic stem cell expansion in a microcarrier-based stirred culture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the ability to differentiate in vitro into a wide variety of cell types with potential applications for tissue regeneration. However, a large number of cells are required, thus strengthening the need to develop large-scale systems using chemically defined media for ES cell production and\\/or controlled differentiation.In the present studies, a stirred culture system (i.e. spinner

A. M. Fernandes; T. G. Fernandes; M. M. Diogo; C. Lobato da Silva; D. Henrique; J. M. S. Cabral

2007-01-01

394

Modulation of the basal ganglia dopaminergic system in a transgenic mouse exhibiting dystonia-like features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary excessive muscle activity and abnormal postures. There are data\\u000a supporting the hypothesis that basal ganglia dysfunction, and specifically dopaminergic system dysfunction, plays a role in\\u000a dystonia. In the present study, we used hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and compared the\\u000a basal ganglia dopaminergic system between transgenic mice

Dimitra Giannakopoulou; Ioanna Armata; Ada Mitsacos; Pullani Shashidharan; Panagiotis Giompres

2010-01-01

395

A new X-ray computed tomography system for laboratory mouse imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two versions of a new high-resolution X-ray computed tomography system are being developed to screen mutagenized mice in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Mammalian Genetics Research Facility. The first prototype employs a single-pixel CdZnTe detector with a pinhole collimator operating in pulse counting mode. The second version employs a phosphor screen\\/CCD detector operating in current mode. The major system hardware

M. J. Paulus; H. Sari-Sarraf; S. S. Gleason; M. Bobrek; J. S. Hicks; D. K. Johnson; J. K. Behel; L. H. Thompson; W. C. Allen

1999-01-01

396

Co-digestion to support low temperature anaerobic pretreatment of municipal sewage in a UASB-digester.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to demonstrate that co-digestion improves soluble sewage COD removal efficiency in treatment of low temperature municipal sewage by a UASB-digester system. A pilot scale UASB-digester system was applied to treat real municipal sewage, and glucose was chosen as a model co-substrate. Co-substrate was added in the sludge digester to produce additional methanogenic biomass, which was continuously recycled to inoculate the UASB reactor. Soluble sewage COD removal efficiency increased from 6 to 23%, which was similar to its biological methane potential (BMP). Specific methanogenic activity of the UASB and of the digester sludge at 15°C tripled to a value respectively of 43 and 39mg CH4-COD/(gVSSd). Methane production in the UASB reactor increased by more than 90% due to its doubled methanogenic capacity. Therefore, co-digestion is a suitable approach to support a UASB-digester for pretreatment of low temperature municipal sewage. PMID:24080295

Zhang, Lei; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Kampman, Christel; Temmink, Hardy; Zeeman, Grietje

2013-09-12

397

Verbascosides from olive mill waste water: assessment of their bioaccessibility and intestinal uptake using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model system.  

PubMed

Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is an agricultural waste material produced in high quantities in the Mediterranean basin. OMWW may be an inexpensive source of health promoting phytochemicals with potential economic value including many low molecular weight compounds such as verbascosides. While promising as antioxidants in vitro, little information is available on the potential absorption of verbascosides by humans. The main objective of the present study was to characterize the verbascoside content and potential for their bioavailability from a partially purified phenolic fraction (IP) of OMWW. The IP was obtained after ultrafiltration step at 5000 Dalton and gel filtration low-pressure chromatography (LH20) of OMWW. RP-HPLC analysis identified several soluble phenolics compounds including verbascoside and isoverbascoside as major components of OMWW fractions. The potential for bioavailability of these polyphenols was estimated by using both in vitro digestion and Caco-2 human intestinal cell models. In vitro digestive recoveries (bioaccessibility) were found to be 35.5%± 0.55% for verbascoside and 9.2% ± 0.94% for isoverbascoside highlighting potential sensitivity of these phenolics to gastric and small intestinal digestive conditions. Accumulation of verbascosides by highly differentiated Caco-2 monolayers was linear between 10 and 100 ?M of verbascoside and isoverbascoside from IP extract. Uptake of verbascoside and isoverbascoside was rapid with peak accumulation occurring after 30 min with total accumulation efficiency of 0.1% and 0.2% providing intracellular levels of 130 and 80 pmol/mg cell protein for verbascoside and isoverbascoside, respectively. Combined, these data suggest that verbascosides present in OMWW are bioaccessible and provides a rationale for subsequent in vivo studies on the bioavailability and bioactivity of OMWW components. PMID:21535767

Cardinali, Angela; Linsalata, Vito; Lattanzio, Vincenzo; Ferruzzi, Mario G

2011-02-01

398

Prenatal methylmercury exposure hampers glutathione antioxidant system ontogenesis and causes long-lasting oxidative stress in the mouse brain  

SciTech Connect

During the perinatal period, the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely sensitive to metals, including methylmercury (MeHg). Although the mechanism(s) associated with MeHg-induced developmental neurotoxicity remains obscure, several studies point to the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system as an important molecular target for this toxicant. To extend our recent findings of MeHg-induced GSH dyshomeostasis, the present study was designed to assess the developmental profile of the GSH antioxidant system in the mouse brain during the early postnatal period after in utero exposure to MeHg. Pregnant mice were exposed to different doses of MeHg (1, 3 and 10 mg/l, diluted in drinking water, ad libitum) during the gestational period. After delivery, pups were killed at different time points - postnatal days (PND) 1, 11 and 21 - and the whole brain was used for determining biochemical parameters related to the antioxidant GSH system, as well as mercury content and the levels of F{sub 2}-isoprostane. In control animals, cerebral GSH levels significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period; gestational exposure to MeHg caused a dose-dependent inhibition of this developmental event. Cerebral glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period in control animals; gestational MeHg exposure induced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both developmental phenomena. These adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure were corroborated by marked increases in cerebral F{sub 2}-isoprostanes levels at all time points. Significant negative correlations were found between F{sub 2}-isoprostanes and GSH, as well as between F{sub 2}-isoprostanes and GPx activity, suggesting that MeHg-induced disruption of the GSH system maturation is related to MeHg-induced increased lipid peroxidation in the pup brain. In utero MeHg exposure also caused a dose-dependent increase in the cerebral levels of mercury at birth. Even though the cerebral mercury concentration decreased to nearly basal levels at postnatal day 21, GSH levels, GPx and GR activities remained decreased in MeHg-exposed mice, indicating that prenatal exposure to MeHg affects the cerebral GSH antioxidant systems by inducing biochemical alterations that endure even when mercury tissue levels decrease and become indistinguishable from those noted in pups born to control dams. This study is the first to show that prenatal exposure to MeHg disrupts the postnatal development of the glutathione antioxidant system in the mouse brain, pointing to an additional molecular mechanism by which MeHg induces pro-oxidative damage in the developing CNS. Moreover, our experimental observation corroborates previous reports on the permanent functional deficits observed after prenatal MeHg exposure.

Stringari, James; Nunes, Adriana K.C.; Franco, Jeferson L. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Bohrer, Denise [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Solange C. [Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Dafre, Alcir L. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Milatovic, Dejan [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Souza, Diogo O. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rocha, Joao B.T. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Farina, Marcelo [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: farina@ccb.ufsc.br

2008-02-15

399

Definition of the locus responsible for systemic carnitine deficiency within a 1.6-cM region of mouse chromosome 11 by detailed linkage analysis  

SciTech Connect

Carnitine is an essential cofactor for oxidation of mitochondrial fatty acids. Carnitine deficiency results in failure of energy production by mitochondria and leads to metabolic encephalopathy, lipid-storage myopathy, and cardiomyopathy. The juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse, an animal model of systemic carnitine deficiency, inherits the JVS phenotype in autosomal recessive fashion, through a mutant allele mapped to mouse chromosome 11. As a step toward identifying the gene responsible for JVS by positional cloning, we attempted to refine the jvs locus in the mouse by detailed linkage analysis with 13 microsatellite markers, using 190 backcross progeny. Among the 13 loci tested, 5 (defined by markers D11Mit24, D11Mit111,D11Nds9, D11Mit86, and D11Mit23) showed no recombination, with a maximum lod score of 52.38. Our results implied that the jvs gene can be sought on mouse chromosome 11 within a genetic distance no greater than about 1.6 cM. 21 refs., 2 figs.

Okita, Kohei; Tokino, Takashi; Nishimori, Hiroyuki [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

1996-04-15

400

Mercury recovery results of microwave digested tritium facility pump oil  

SciTech Connect

This report is a follow up of work done earlier this year and recorded in document WSRC-RP-97-322. The scope of this document is to demonstrated the viability of digesting two non-radioactive Tritium facility pump oils, Welch Duoseal and Spindura, neat and spiked with low-level mercury to determine completeness of digestion and recoverability of mercury. As noted in document WSRC-RP-97-322 a microwave digestion methodology was developed with CEM`s ultimate digestion vessel system (UDV) and is the technique used for the follow up task of digesting the above mention pump oils for the preparatory step of cold-vapor mercury analysis.All analytical development for this project was performed at TNX. The determination of the mercury concentration in each digested sample was by cold vapor atomic absorption. The instrument used was a Varian SpectrAA 800 with a vapor generation attachment. This flameless AA procedure is a physical method based on the absorption of radiation at 253.7 nm of mercury vapor. Organo-mercury compounds will not respond to the cold vapor atomic absorption technique, therefore, to acquire a total mercury value it is necessary for a complete digestion to oxidize and convert the organo-mercury species to the mercuric ion.

Whitaker, M.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Clymire, J.W.

1997-09-30

401

Resistance of Soil-Bound Prions to Rumen Digestion  

PubMed Central

Before prion uptake and infection can occur in the lower gastrointestinal system, ingested prions are subjected to anaerobic digestion in the rumen of cervids and bovids. The susceptibility of soil-bound prions to rumen digestion has not been evaluated previously. In this study, prions from infectious brain homogenates as well as prions bound to a range of soils and soil minerals were subjected to in vitro rumen digestion, and changes in PrP levels were measured via western blot. Binding to clay appeared to protect noninfectious hamster PrPc from complete digestion, while both unbound and soil-bound infectious PrPSc proved highly resistant to rumen digestion. In addition, no change in intracerebral incubation period was observed following active rumen digestion of unbound hamster HY TME prions and HY TME prions bound to a silty clay loam soil. These results demonstrate that both unbound and soil-bound prions readily survive rumen digestion without a reduction in infectivity, further supporting the potential for soil-mediated transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) and scrapie in the environment.

Saunders, Samuel E.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Bartz, Jason C.

2012-01-01

402

Oxidative stress regulates the ubiquitin-proteasome system and immunoproteasome functioning in a mouse model of X-adrenoleukodystrophy.  

PubMed

Oxidative damage is a pivotal aetiopathogenic factor in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. This is a neurometabolic disease characterized by the accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids owing to the loss of function of the peroxisomal transporter Abcd1. Here, we used the X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mouse model and patient's fibroblasts to detect malfunctioning of the ubiquitin-proteasome system resulting from the accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins, some involved in bioenergetic metabolism. Furthermore, the immunoproteasome machinery appears upregulated in response to oxidative stress, in the absence of overt inflammation. i-Proteasomes are recruited to mitochondria when fibroblasts are exposed to an excess of very-long-chain fatty acids in response to oxidative stress. Antioxidant treatment regulates proteasome expression, prevents i-proteasome induction and translocation of i-proteasomes to mitochondria. Our findings support a key role of i-proteasomes in quality control in mitochondria during oxidative damage in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and perhaps in other neurodegenerative conditions with similar pathogeneses. PMID:23436506

Launay, Nathalie; Ruiz, Montserrat; Fourcade, Stéphane; Schlüter, Agatha; Guilera, Cristina; Ferrer, Isidre; Knecht, Erwin; Pujol, Aurora

2013-03-01

403

The AERO System: A 3D-Like Approach for Recording Gene Expression Patterns in the Whole Mouse Embryo  

PubMed Central

We have recently constructed a web-based database of gene expression in the mouse whole embryo, EMBRYS (http://embrys.jp/embrys/html/MainMenu.html). To allow examination of gene expression patterns to the fullest extent possible, this database provides both photo images and annotation data. However, since embryos develop via an intricate process of morphogenesis, it would be of great value to track embryonic gene expression from a three dimensional perspective. In fact, several methods have been developed to achieve this goal, but highly laborious procedures and specific operational skills are generally required. We utilized a novel microscopic technique that enables the easy capture of rotational, 3D-like images of the whole embryo. In this method, a rotary head equipped with two mirrors that are designed to obtain an image tilted at 45 degrees to the microscope stage captures serial images at 2-degree intervals. By a simple operation, 180 images are automatically collected. These 2D images obtained at multiple angles are then used to reconstruct 3D-like images, termed AERO images. By means of this system, over 800 AERO images of 191 gene expression patterns were captured. These images can be easily rotated on the computer screen using the EMBRYS database so that researchers can view an entire embryo by a virtual viewing on a computer screen in an unbiased or non-predetermined manner. The advantages afforded by this approach make it especially useful for generating data viewed in public databases.

Hashimoto, Megumi; Yokoyama, Shigetoshi; Takada, Shuji; Mitsuoka, Kazuhiko; Asahara, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

404

Promoting myelination in an in vitro mouse model of the peripheral nerve system: the effect of wine ingredients.  

PubMed

Protective properties of moderate wine consumption against cancers, cardiovascular, metabolic and degenerative diseases have been reported in various clinical studies. Here, we analysed the effect of red wine (RW) and white wine (WW) on myelination using an in vitro embryonic co-culture mouse model. The total amount of myelin was found to be significantly increased after RW and WW treatment, while only RW significantly increased the number of internodes. Both types of wine increased rat Schwann cell- (rSC) expression of the NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-two-homolog 2 (Sirt2), a protein known to be involved in myelination. Detailed chemical analysis of RW revealed a broad spectrum of anthocyanins, piceids, and phenolics, including resveratrol (RSV). In our assay system RSV in low concentrations induced myelination. Furthermore RSV raised intracellular glutathione concentrations in rSCs and in co-cultures and therefore augmented antioxidant capacity. We conclude that wine promotes myelination in a rodent in vitro model by controlling intracellular metabolism and SC plasticity. During this process, RSV exhibits protective properties; however, the fostering effect on myelinaton during exposure to wine appears to be a complex interaction of various compounds. PMID:23762469

Stettner, Mark; Wolffram, Kathleen; Mausberg, Anne K; Albrecht, Philipp; Derksen, Angelika; Methner, Axel; Dehmel, Thomas; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Dietrich, Helmut; Kieseier, Bernd C

2013-06-07

405

Architectural changes of the cortico-spinal system in the dystrophin defective mdx mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutant mdx mice which lack the protein dystrophin are an animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We studied the organization of the cortico-spinal (CS) system in mdx mice using the horseradish peroxidase retrograde tracing technique. Tracer injections were placed in the cervical spinal cord of mutant and control mice. The tangential and radial distribution of CS labeled neurons were

Alessandro Sbriccoli; Marialaura Santarelli; Donatella Carretta; Francesco Pinto; Alberto Granato; Diego Minciacchi

1995-01-01

406

Distribution of phosphorylated glial fibrillary acidic protein in the mouse central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background : Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the principal component of intermediate filaments (IFs) in mature astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). Like other IF proteins, GFAP has multiple phosphorylation sites in the N-terminal head domain. The distribution of phospho-GFAP in vivo has not been elucidated. Results : We generated Gfap hwt knock-in mice, in which the coding

Masaaki Takemura; Hiroshi Nishiyama; Shigeyoshi Itohara

2002-01-01

407

Impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in desminopathy mouse hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein misfolding and aberrant aggregation are associated with many severe disorders, such as neural degenerative diseases, desmin-related myopathy (DRM), and congestive heart failure. Intrasarcoplasmic amyloidosis and increased ubiquitinated proteins are observed in human failing hearts. The pathogenic roles of these derangements in the heart remain unknown. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in intracellular proteolysis and regulates critical

Jinbao Liu; Quanhai Chen; Wei Huang; Kathleen M. Horak; Hanqiao Zheng; Ruben Mestril; Xuejun Wang

2005-01-01

408

The Evolution of Lethals in the t-Haplotype System of the Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of lethal haplotypes in the t-haplotype segregation distortion system of Mus is examined by mathematical and computer models. The models assume that there is reproductive compensation for the loss of lethal embryos, such that the net reproductive success of a female is not reduced in proportion to the frequency of lethal offspring which she produces. The initial population

Brian Charlesworth

1994-01-01

409

Peripheral nervous system manifestations in a Sandhoff disease mouse model: nerve conduction, myelin structure, lipid analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sandhoff disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by a mutation in the gene for the ?-subunit (Hexb gene) of ?-hexosaminidase A (??) and B (??). The ?-subunit together with the GM2 activator protein catabolize ganglioside GM2. This enzyme deficiency results in GM2 accumulation primarily in the central nervous system. To investigate how abnormal GM2 catabolism affects the

Melanie A McNally; Rena C Baek; Robin L Avila; Thomas N Seyfried; Gary R Strichartz; Daniel A Kirschner

2007-01-01

410

Systemic Administration of Lipopolysaccharide Induces Cyclooxygenase2 Immunoreactivity in Endothelium and Increases Microglia in the Mouse Hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we observed the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on neurodegeneration and immune response in the hippocampus.\\u000a LPS is a gram-negative bacterial cell surface proteoglycan and known as a bacterial endotoxin. For this, we investigated the\\u000a optimal concentration of LPS influencing the ICR mouse hippocampus to measure the LPS receptor, e.g., toll-like receptor 4\\u000a (TLR4), expression in mouse hippocampal

Dae Won Chung; Ki-Yeon Yoo; In Koo Hwang; Dae Won Kim; Jin Young Chung; Choong Hyun Lee; Jung Hoon Choi; Soo Young Choi; Hwa Young Youn; In Se Lee; Moo-Ho Won

2010-01-01

411

Histological development of digestive tract in discus, Symphysodon spp. larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study provides information on the histomorphological development of digestive system of discus, Symphyosodon spp., larvae during the first month of life. Discus larvae are altricial at hatching, with an undifferentiated digestive\\u000a tract and a large yolksac, which is completely consumed within 7 days. The mouth opens 3 days after hatching (DAH) and the\\u000a larvae starts feeding on AF Artemia at

Umur Önal; ?hsan Çelik; ?ükran Cirik

2010-01-01

412

Comparative systems biology of human and mouse as a tool to guide the modeling of human placental pathology  

PubMed Central

Placental abnormalities are associated with two of the most common and serious complications of human pregnancy, maternal preeclampsia (PE) and fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), each disorder affecting ?5% of all pregnancies. An important question for the use of the mouse as a model for studying human disease is the degree of functional conservation of genetic control pathways from human to mouse. The human and mouse placenta show structural similarities, but there have been no systematic attempts to assess their molecular similarities or differences. We collected protein and mRNA expression data through shot-gun proteomics and microarray expression analysis of the highly vascular exchange region, microdissected from the human and mouse near-term placenta. Over 7000 ortholog genes were detected with 70% co-expressed in both species. Close to 90% agreement was found between our human proteomic results and 1649 genes assayed by immunohistochemistry for expression in the human placenta in the Human Protein Atlas. Interestingly, over 80% of genes known to cause placental phenotypes in mouse are co-expressed in human. Several of these phenotype-associated proteins form a tight protein–protein interaction network involving 15 known and 34 novel candidate proteins also likely important in placental structure and/or function. The entire data are available as a web-accessible database to guide the informed development of mouse models to study human disease.

Cox, Brian; Kotlyar, Max; Evangelou, Andreas I; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Ignatchenko, Alex; Whiteley, Kathie; Jurisica, Igor; Adamson, S Lee; Rossant, Janet; Kislinger, Thomas

2009-01-01

413

Transcriptomic effects of Tet-on and mifepristone-inducible systems in mouse liver.  

PubMed

Control of transgene expression from long-term expression vectors can be achieved with inducible and regulated promoters. The two most commonly used inducible systems employ doxycycline or mifepristone as the drug activating a silent trans-activator, which is expressed from a constitutive promoter. We evaluated the alterations provoked by constitutive expression in the liver of rtTA2(S)-M2 (rtTA2; second-generation reverse tetracycline-controlled trans-activator) and GLp65, which are the trans-activators of the doxycyline- and mifepristone-inducible systems, respectively. To this end we performed transcriptomic analysis of mice expressing these trans-activators in the liver over 1 month. rtTA2 expression induced alterations in a few genes (69 gene probesets; false discovery rate [FDR], approximately 0.05), whereas GLp65 caused more numerous changes (1059 gene probe-sets, an FDR of approximately 0.05). However, only 20 and 53 of the genes from the rtTA2 and GLp65 groups, respectively, showed changes (R-fold >or= 3). Functional assignments indicate that alterations were mild and of little general significance. Few additional transcriptomic changes were observed when expressing trans-activators in the presence of inducer drugs; most were due to the drugs themselves. These results and the absence of toxicity observed in treated animals indicate that the two inducible systems are well tolerated and have little impact on the liver transcriptome profile. The milder alterations found with the use of rtTA2 suggest that this system is possibly safer for gene therapy applications. PMID:19025414

Reboredo, Mercedes; Kramer, Maria Gabriela; Smerdou, Cristian; Prieto, Jesús; De Las Rivas, Javier

2008-11-01

414

Effects of ochratoxin a on the mouse immune system after subchronic exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on the immune system of oral, subchronic exposure to ochratoxin A (OA) at 6, 250 or 2600 ?g\\/kg diet were studied in female Balb\\/c mice. After 28 days of exposure, antibody production to sheep red blood cells, as measured in the plaque-forming cell assay and expressed as number of plaque-forming cells\\/spleen, was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner which

A. Thuvander; A. Breitholtz-Emanuelsson; M. Olsen

1995-01-01

415

Structural and Functional Changes of Immune System in Aging Mouse Induced by D-Galactose1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the role of D-galactose, especially in the structural and functional changes of the immune system in aging. Methods Serum levels of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) were determined by ELISA method. Ultra-structures of thymus and spleen were detected by transmission electron microscopy. MTT method was used to determine the lymphocyte proliferation. IL-2 activity was determined by bioassay. Northern

HONG-BIN DENG; CHUN-LEI CHENG; DA-PENG CUI; DIAN-DONG LI; LI CUI; NIAN-SHENG CAI

416

A systems genetic analysis of high density lipoprotein metabolism and network preservation across mouse models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a systems genetic analysis of high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in an F2 intercross between inbred strains CAST\\/EiJ and C57BL\\/6J. We previously showed that there are dramatic differences in HDL metabolism in a cross between these strains, and we now report co-expression network analysis of HDL that integrates global expression data from liver and adipose with relevant metabolic

Peter Langfelder; Lawrence W. Castellani; Zhiqiang Zhou; Eric Paul; Richard Davis; Eric E. Schadt; Aldons J. Lusis; Steve Horvath; Margarete Mehrabian

417

Expression of Fc receptor for immunoglobulin M in oligodendrocytes and myelin of mouse central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in neuro-immunology are beginning to elucidate several essential roles of the humoral immunity in both repair and pathogenesis of central nervous system diseases. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) was reported to accelerate the rate of remyelination in a demyelinating disease model, while intrathecal IgM synthesis was shown to predict a more worse disease course in a human demyelinating disease, multiple

Jin Nakahara; Chika Seiwa; Akira Shibuya; Sadakazu Aiso; Hiroaki Asou

2003-01-01

418

Combined anaerobic and aerobic digestion for increased solids reduction and nitrogen removal.  

PubMed

A unique sludge digestion system consisting of anaerobic digestion followed by aerobic digestion and then a recycle step where thickened sludge from the aerobic digester was recirculated back to the anaerobic unit was studied to determine the impact on volatile solids (VS) reduction and nitrogen removal. It was found that the combined anaerobic/aerobic/anaerobic (ANA/AER/ANA) system provided 70% VS reduction compared to 50% for conventional mesophilic anaerobic digestion with a 20 day SRT and 62% for combined anaerobic/aerobic (ANA/AER) digestion with a 15 day anaerobic and a 5 day aerobic SRT. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal for the ANA/AER/ANA system was 70% for sludge wasted from the aerobic unit and 43.7% when wasted from the anaerobic unit. TKN removal was 64.5% for the ANA/AER system. PMID:20801476

Novak, John T; Banjade, Sarita; Murthy, Sudhir N

2010-08-17

419

Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)  

PubMed Central

The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD; ) is a repository of phenotypic and genotypic data on commonly used and genetically diverse inbred strains of mice. Strain characteristics data are contributed by members of the scientific community. Electronic access to centralized strain data enables biomedical researchers to choose appropriate strains for many systems-based research applications, including physiological studies, drug and toxicology testing and modeling disease processes. MPD provides a community data repository and a platform for data analysis and in silico hypothesis testing. The laboratory mouse is a premier genetic model for understanding human biology and pathology; MPD facilitates research that uses the mouse to identify and determine the function of genes participating in normal and disease pathways.

Bogue, Molly A.; Grubb, Stephen C.; Maddatu, Terry P.; Bult, Carol J.

2007-01-01

420

Assessing amendment and fertilizing properties of digestates from anaerobic digestion through a comparative study with digested sludge and compost.  

PubMed

Digestate, with biogas represents the final products of anaerobic digestion (AD). The methane-rich biogas is used to produce electricity and heat, whereas the digestate could be valorized in agriculture. Contrarily to well-recognized biomasses such as digested sludge and compost, the properties of the digestate are not well known and its agricultural use remains unexplored. In this work, a first attempt to study the agronomic properties of digestates was performed by comparing the chemical, spectroscopic, and biological characteristics of digestates with those of compost and digested sludge, used as reference organic matrices. A total of 23 organic matrices were studied, which include eight ingestates and relative digestates, three composts, and four digested sludges. The analytical data obtained was analyzed using principal component analysis to better show in detail similarities or differences between the organic matrices studied. The results showed that digestates differed from ingestates and also from compost, although the starting organic mix influenced the digestate final characteristics. With respect to amendment properties, it seems that biological parameters, more than chemical characteristics, were more important in describing these features. In this way, amendment properties could be ranked as follows: compost?digestate>digested sludge?ingestate. As to fertilizer properties, AD allowed getting a final product (digestate) with very good fertilizing properties because of the high nutrient content (N, P, K) in available form. In this way, the digestate appears to be a very good candidate to replace inorganic fertilizers, also contributing, to the short-term soil organic matter turnover. PMID:20825964

Tambone, Fulvia; Scaglia, Barbara; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Schievano, Andrea; Orzi, Valentina; Salati, Silvia; Adani, Fabrizio

2010-09-09

421

Opposite effects of alcohol in regulating stress-induced changes in body weight between the two mouse lines with enhanced or low opioid system activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the involvement of the opioid system in alcoholism, depression and metabolism - known risk factors in human obesity, we studied the effects of chronic mild stress (CMS) and alcohol intake on body weight in two mouse lines selected for high (HA-high analgesia) or low (LA-low analgesia) swim stress-induced analgesia. In comparison to LA mice, HA mice exhibit an upregulation

Mariusz Sacharczuk; Bogdan Sadowski; Kazimierz Jaszczak; Andrzej W. Lipkowski; Artur H. Swiergiel

2010-01-01

422

Effects of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress on the glutamate transporters GLAST and system x c ? in mouse retinal Müller glial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated glutamate levels have been reported in humans with diabetic retinopathy. Retinal Müller glial cells regulate glutamate\\u000a levels via the GLAST transporter and system xc\\u000a ? (cystine-glutamate exchanger). We have investigated whether transporter function and gene and\\/or protein expression are altered\\u000a in mouse Müller cells cultured under conditions of hyperglycemia or oxidative stress (two factors implicated in diabetic retinopathy).\\u000a Cells

Barbara Mysona; Ying Dun; Jennifer Duplantier; Vadivel Ganapathy; Sylvia B. Smith

2009-01-01

423

Characterization of the Mouse IFN-L Ligand-Receptor System: IFN-Ls Exhibit Antitumor Activity against B16 Melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently discovered type III IFNs (IFN-L) exert their antiviral and immunomodulatory activities through a unique receptor complex composed of IFN-LR1 and interleukin-10 receptor 2. To further study type III IFNs, we cloned and characterized mouse IFN-L ligand-receptor system. We showed that, similar to their human orthologues, mIFN-L2and mIFN- L3 signal through the IFN-L receptor complex, activate IFN stimulated gene factor

Ahmed Lasfar; Sergey V. Smirnov; Shubha Anantha; Walid Abushahba; Bin Tian; Kenneth Reuhl; Harold Dickensheets; Faruk Sheikh; Raymond P. Donnelly; Elizabeth Raveche; Sergei V. Kotenko

2006-01-01

424

Motavizumab, A Neutralizing Anti-Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv) Monoclonal Antibody Significantly Modifies The Local And Systemic Cytokine Responses Induced By Rsv In The Mouse Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motavizumab (MEDI-524) is a monoclonal antibody with enhanced neutralizing activity against RSV. In mice, motavizumab suppressed RSV replication which resulted in significant reduction of clinical parameters of disease severity. We evaluated the effect of motavizumab on the local and systemic immune response induced by RSV in the mouse model. Balb\\/c mice were intranasally inoculated with 106.5 PFU RSV A2 or

Asunción Mejías; Susana Chávez-Bueno; Martin B Raynor; John Connolly; Peter A Kiener; Hasan S Jafri; Octavio Ramilo

2007-01-01

425

Immune responses and protection induced by mucosal and systemic immunisation with recombinant measles nucleoprotein in a mouse model of measles virus-induced encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?In this study the immunogenicity of recombinant nucleoprotein (Np) administered intranasally or intraperitoneally, and its\\u000a ability to support a systemic protective anti-virus antibody response was examined, in a mouse model of measles virus (MV)-induced\\u000a encephalitis. Although both intranasal and intraperitoneal routes of immunisation resulted in priming Np-and MV-specific T-cell\\u000a responses, the intraperitoneal route was shown to prime for a predominantly

W. Olszewska; J. Erume; J. Ripley; M. W. Steward; C. D. Partidos

2001-01-01

426

Chronic low level lead exposure affects the monoaminergic system in the mouse superior olivary complex  

PubMed Central

Low-level lead (Pb) exposure is associated with behavioral and cognitive dysfunction but it is not clear how Pb produces these behavioral changes. Pb has been shown to alter auditory temporal processing in both humans and animals. Auditory temporal processing occurs in the superior olivary complex (SOC) in the brainstem where it is an important component in sound detection in noisy environments and in selective auditory attention. The SOC receives a serotonergic innervation from the dorsal raphe, and serotonin has been implicated in auditory temporal processing within the brainstem and inferior colliculus. Because Pb exposure modulates auditory temporal processing, the serotonergic system is a potential target for Pb. The current study was undertaken to determine whether developmental Pb exposure preferentially changes the serotonergic system within the SOC. Pb-treated mice were exposed to no Pb, very low Pb (0.01 mM), or low Pb (0.1 mM) throughout gestation and through 21 days postnatally. Brainstem sections from control and Pb-exposed mice were immunostained for the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), serotonin, and dopamine beta hydroxylase (D?H, a marker for norepinephrine) in order to elucidate the effect of Pb on monoaminergic input into the SOC. Sections were also immunolabeled with antibodies to VGLUT1, VGAT and VAChT to determine whether Pb exposure alters the glutaminergic, gaba-ergic, or cholinergic systems. Pb exposure caused a significant decrease in VMAT2, 5HT, and D?H expression while VGLUT1, VGAT and VAChT showed no change. These results provide evidence that Pb exposure during development alters normal monoaminergic expression in the auditory brainstem.

Fortune, Tyler; Lurie, Diana I.

2009-01-01

427

A systems approach implicates nuclear receptor targeting in the Atp7b?/? mouse model of Wilson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Wilson’s disease (WD) is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism characterized by liver disease and/or neurologic and psychiatric pathology. The disease is a result of mutation in ATP7B, which encodes the ATP7B copper transporting ATPase. Loss of copper transport function by ATP7B results in copper accumulation primarily in the liver, but also in other organs including the brain. Studies in the Atp7b?/? mouse model of WD revealed specific transcript and metabolic changes that precede development of liver pathology, most notably downregulation of transcripts in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. In order to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of transcriptomic and metabolic changes, we used a systems approach analysing the pre-symptomatic hepatic nuclear proteome and liver metabolites. We found that ligand-activated nuclear receptors FXR/NR1H4 and GR/NR3C1 and nuclear receptor interacting partners are less abundant in Atp7b?/? hepatocyte nuclei, while DNA repair machinery and the nucleus-localized glutathione peroxidase, SelH, are more abundant. Analysis of metabolites revealed an increase in polyol sugar alcohols, indicating a change in osmotic potential that precedes hepatocyte swelling observed later in disease. This work is the first application of quantitative Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MuDPIT) to a model of WD to investigate protein-level mechanisms of WD pathology. The systems approach using “shotgun” proteomics and metabolomics in the context of previous transcriptomic data reveals molecular-level mechanisms of WD development and facilitates targeted analysis of hepatocellular copper toxicity.

Wilmarth, Phillip; Short, Kristopher; Fiehn, Oliver; Lutsenko, Svetlana; David, Larry

2013-01-01

428

A systems approach implicates nuclear receptor targeting in the Atp7b(-/-) mouse model of Wilson's disease.  

PubMed

Wilson's disease (WD) is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism characterized by liver disease and/or neurologic and psychiatric pathology. The disease is a result of mutation in ATP7B, which encodes the ATP7B copper transporting ATPase. Loss of copper transport function by ATP7B results in copper accumulation primarily in the liver, but also in other organs including the brain. Studies in the Atp7b(-/-) mouse model of WD revealed specific transcript and metabolic changes that precede development of liver pathology, most notably downregulation of transcripts in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. In order to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of transcriptomic and metabolic changes, we used a systems approach analysing the pre-symptomatic hepatic nuclear proteome and liver metabolites. We found that ligand-activated nuclear receptors FXR/NR1H4 and GR/NR3C1 and nuclear receptor interacting partners are less abundant in Atp7b(-/-) hepatocyte nuclei, while DNA repair machinery and the nucleus-localized glutathione peroxidase, SelH, are more abundant. Analysis of metabolites revealed an increase in polyol sugar alcohols, indicating a change in osmotic potential that precedes hepatocyte swelling observed later in disease. This work is the first application of quantitative Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MuDPIT) to a model of WD to investigate protein-level mechanisms of WD pathology. The systems approach using "shotgun" proteomics and metabolomics in the context of previous transcriptomic data reveals molecular-level mechanisms of WD development and facilitates targeted analysis of hepatocellular copper toxicity. PMID:22565294

Wilmarth, Phillip A; Short, Kristopher K; Fiehn, Oliver; Lutsenko, Svetlana; David, Larry L; Burkhead, Jason L

2012-05-08