Sample records for mouse digestive system

  1. Digestive System Movie

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Games Kids' Medical Dictionary En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Girls and Puberty Boys and Puberty ... Body Works Main Page Movie: Digestive System KidsHealth > Kids > Movies & More > Movies > Movie: Digestive System Print A ...

  2. Nutrition, digestive system and digestion specificity in phytophagous bats

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Nutrition, digestive system and digestion specificity in phytophagous bats NF Zhukova Schmalhausen the entire order specificity affects these processes. To tackle these issues, the digestive system, within the mouth cavity, when only liquid fraction is swollen. The digestive system specialisation

  3. Regions of the Digestive System

    MedlinePLUS

    Search SEER Training: SEER Training Modules Print Home Glossary Citation Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Digestive System » Regions of the Digestive System ...

  4. Ruminating on the Digestive System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    California Academy of Sciences

    2008-01-01

    In this activity, learners will review the functions of basic digestive organs, understand how diet affects digestion, understand how digestive tracks may differ, and then step outside to compare the digestive systems of the buffalo and the zebra in a lively demonstration. This lesson plan includes key vocabulary words, teacher background information, and is standards-based.

  5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dual digestion system (DDS) was developed to provide stabilized, pathogen free sludge. DDS consists of a 1-day detention time, pure-oxygen, covered aerobic digester (Step I) followed by an 8-day detention time anaerobic reactor. The temperature in the Step I digester is contr...

  6. Manure digester and power generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Santina, P.F.; Chatterjee, A.K.

    1988-06-14

    A manure digester and power generating system is described comprising: a mixing tank for receiving manure, and for mixing water with the manure to produce a manure slurry of desired consistency; a closed anaerobic digester tank of fixed volume; the mixing tank being separate from and spaced from the digester tank; pumping and conduit means for transferring the contents of the mixing tank to the digester tank; automatic control means, associated with the pumping means, for monitoring and controlling temperature and volume of the contents of the mixing tank before transfer to the digester tank; means for discharging effluent by-products out the outflow end of the digester tank; a gas-fueled engine and a generator coupled to the engine, for generating electrical power; heater means; means for drawing off biogas from the digester tank and for conducting it to the engine as fuel, and wherein the manure slurry is heated sufficiently, prior to introduction into the digester tank and separately from the digester tank, to prevent temperature shock of already digesting slurry in the digester tank when the slurry is introduced into the digester tank.

  7. 76 FR 39159 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; The Digestive System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ...for Rating Disabilities; The Digestive System; Proposed Rule Federal Register / Vol...for Rating Disabilities; The Digestive System AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs...Disabilities that addresses the Digestive System. The purpose of this change is to...

  8. Delivery Systems for Distance Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamber, Linda

    This ERIC digest provides a brief overview of the video, audio, and computer technologies that are currently used to deliver instruction for distance education programs. The video systems described include videoconferencing, low-power television (LPTV), closed-circuit television (CCTV), instructional fixed television service (ITFS), and cable…

  9. Digestion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy P. Moreno

    2011-01-01

    In this food science activity, learners explore digestion and proteins by observing the action of meat tenderizer on luncheon meat. This lesson guide includes background information about digestion, enzymes, and proteins.

  10. Dietary Sodium Suppresses Digestive Efficiency via the Renin-Angiotensin System

    PubMed Central

    Weidemann, Benjamin J.; Voong, Susan; Morales-Santiago, Fabiola I.; Kahn, Michael Z.; Ni, Jonathan; Littlejohn, Nicole K.; Claflin, Kristin E.; Burnett, Colin M.L.; Pearson, Nicole A.; Lutter, Michael L.; Grobe, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fats and sodium are both palatable and are hypothesized to synergistically contribute to ingestive behavior and thereby obesity. Contrary to this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice fed a 45% high fat diet exhibited weight gain that was inhibited by increased dietary sodium content. This suppressive effect of dietary sodium upon weight gain was mediated specifically through a reduction in digestive efficiency, with no effects on food intake behavior, physical activity, or resting metabolism. Replacement of circulating angiotensin II levels reversed the effects of high dietary sodium to suppress digestive efficiency. While the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan had no effect in mice fed low sodium, the AT2 receptor antagonist PD-123,319 suppressed digestive efficiency. Correspondingly, genetic deletion of the AT2 receptor in FVB/NCrl mice resulted in suppressed digestive efficiency even on a standard chow diet. Together these data underscore the importance of digestive efficiency in the pathogenesis of obesity, and implicate dietary sodium, the renin-angiotensin system, and the AT2 receptor in the control of digestive efficiency regardless of mouse strain or macronutrient composition of the diet. These findings highlight the need for greater understanding of nutrient absorption control physiology, and prompt more uniform assessment of digestive efficiency in animal studies of energy balance. PMID:26068176

  11. Dietary Sodium Suppresses Digestive Efficiency via the Renin-Angiotensin System.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, Benjamin J; Voong, Susan; Morales-Santiago, Fabiola I; Kahn, Michael Z; Ni, Jonathan; Littlejohn, Nicole K; Claflin, Kristin E; Burnett, Colin M L; Pearson, Nicole A; Lutter, Michael L; Grobe, Justin L

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fats and sodium are both palatable and are hypothesized to synergistically contribute to ingestive behavior and thereby obesity. Contrary to this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice fed a 45% high fat diet exhibited weight gain that was inhibited by increased dietary sodium content. This suppressive effect of dietary sodium upon weight gain was mediated specifically through a reduction in digestive efficiency, with no effects on food intake behavior, physical activity, or resting metabolism. Replacement of circulating angiotensin II levels reversed the effects of high dietary sodium to suppress digestive efficiency. While the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan had no effect in mice fed low sodium, the AT2 receptor antagonist PD-123,319 suppressed digestive efficiency. Correspondingly, genetic deletion of the AT2 receptor in FVB/NCrl mice resulted in suppressed digestive efficiency even on a standard chow diet. Together these data underscore the importance of digestive efficiency in the pathogenesis of obesity, and implicate dietary sodium, the renin-angiotensin system, and the AT2 receptor in the control of digestive efficiency regardless of mouse strain or macronutrient composition of the diet. These findings highlight the need for greater understanding of nutrient absorption control physiology, and prompt more uniform assessment of digestive efficiency in animal studies of energy balance. PMID:26068176

  12. Digestion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students learn about digestion and proteins by observing the action of meat tenderizer on luncheon meat. It is part of the My World activities from Baylor College of Medicine. Additional activities can be accessed at http://www.k8science.org/.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of sludge from intensive recirculating aquaculture systems: Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natella Mirzoyan; Yossi Tal; Amit Gross

    2010-01-01

    Intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) produce high volumes of biosolid waste which is a potential source of pollution if not properly treated. A reduction in sludge-mass would therefore minimize the potential environmental hazard and economic burden stemming from its disposal. Recently, anaerobic digestion was suggested as an alternative to aquaculture sludge digestion and stabilization in RAS. This practice results not

  14. Waste heat utilization in an anaerobic digestion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissevain, Brett

    Anaerobic digestion has great potential as an energy source. Not only does it provide an effective method for waste mitigation, but it has the potential to generate significant quantities of fuel and electricity. In order to ensure efficient digestion and biomass utilization, however, the system must be continuously maintained at elevated temperatures. It is technically feasible to supplement such a system with outside energy, but it is more cost effective to heat the system using only the produced biogas. While there is considerable literature covering the theory of anaerobic digestion, there are very few practical studies to show how heat utilization affects system operation. This study considers the effect of major design variables (i.e. heat exchanger efficiencies and biogas conditioning) on promoting a completely self-sustaining digestion system. The thesis considers a real world system and analyzes how it can be improved to avoid the need of an external energy source.

  15. Quantifying raft proteins in neonatal mouse brain by 'tube-gel' protein digestion label-free shotgun proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongwei; Wakim, Bassam; Li, Man; Halligan, Brian; Tint, G Stephen; Patel, Shailendra B

    2007-01-01

    Background The low concentration and highly hydrophobic nature of proteins in lipid raft samples present significant challenges for the sensitive and accurate proteomic analyses of lipid raft proteins. Elimination of highly enriched lipids and interfering substances from raft samples is generally required before mass spectrometric analyses can be performed, but these procedures often lead to excessive protein loss and increased sample variability. For accurate analyses of the raft proteome, simplified protocols are needed to avoid excessive sample handling and purification steps. Results We have devised a simple protocol using a 'tube-gel' protein digestion that, when combined with mass spectrometry, can be used to obtain comprehensive and reproducible identification and quantitation of the lipid raft proteome prepared from neonatal mouse brain. Lipid rafts (detergent-resistant membranes using Triton X-100 extraction) prepared from neonatal mouse brain were directly incorporated into a polyacrylamide tube-gel matrix without prior protein separation. After in-gel digestion of proteins, nanospray LC-MS/MS was used to analyze the extracted peptides, and the resulting spectra were searched to identify the proteins present in the sample. Using the standard 'label-free' proteomics approach, the total number of MS/MS spectra for the identified proteins was used to provide a measure of relative protein abundances. This approach was successfully applied to lipid rafts prepared from neonatal mouse brain. A total of 216 proteins were identified: 127 proteins (58.8%) were predicted to be membrane proteins, or membrane-associated proteins and 175 proteins (~80%) showed less than a 2-fold variation in the relative abundance in replicate samples. Conclusion The tube-gel protein digestion protocol coupled with nanospray LC-MS/MS (TubeGeLC-MS/MS) offers a simple and reproducible method for identifying and quantifying the changes of relative abundances in lipid raft proteins from neonatal mouse brain and could become a useful approach for studying lipid raft proteins from various tissues. PMID:17892558

  16. 75 FR 82428 - VASRD Improvement Forum-Updating Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ...System, Digestive System, Dental Conditions, and Infectious...System, Digestive System, Dental Conditions, and Infectious...public comment and current medical science information from presentations...115-4.115b) and (4) Dental and Oral Conditions (38...

  17. Overview of the Immune Dynamics of the Digestive System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Korver

    2005-01-01

    Summary Activation of the immune system of poultry can divert nutrients away from growth. As the digestive tract is a major site of pathogen exposure, an understanding of the function and regulation of the immune system may help nutritionists improve performance, and minimize the potential negative impacts of the reduction or loss of the use of growth- promoting antibiotics in

  18. Mouse behavioural analysis in systems biology

    PubMed Central

    van Meer, Peter; Raber, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Molecular techniques allowing in vivo modulation of gene expression have provided unique opportunities and challenges for behavioural studies aimed at understanding the function of particular genes or biological systems under physiological or pathological conditions. Although various animal models are available, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) has unique features and is therefore a preferred animal model. The mouse shares a remarkable genetic resemblance and aspects of behaviour with humans. In this review, first we describe common mouse models for behavioural analyses. As both genetic and environmental factors influence behavioural performance and need to be carefully evaluated in behavioural experiments, considerations for designing and interpretations of these experiments are subsequently discussed. Finally, common behavioural tests used to assess brain function are reviewed, and it is illustrated how behavioural tests are used to increase our understanding of the role of histaminergic neurotransmission in brain function. PMID:16035954

  19. MPHASYS: a mouse phenotype analysis system

    PubMed Central

    Calder, R Brent; Beems, Rudolf B; van Steeg, Harry; Mian, I Saira; Lohman, Paul HM; Vijg, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background Systematic, high-throughput studies of mouse phenotypes have been hampered by the inability to analyze individual animal data from a multitude of sources in an integrated manner. Studies generally make comparisons at the level of genotype or treatment thereby excluding associations that may be subtle or involve compound phenotypes. Additionally, the lack of integrated, standardized ontologies and methodologies for data exchange has inhibited scientific collaboration and discovery. Results Here we introduce a Mouse Phenotype Analysis System (MPHASYS), a platform for integrating data generated by studies of mouse models of human biology and disease such as aging and cancer. This computational platform is designed to provide a standardized methodology for working with animal data; a framework for data entry, analysis and sharing; and ontologies and methodologies for ensuring accurate data capture. We describe the tools that currently comprise MPHASYS, primarily ones related to mouse pathology, and outline its use in a study of individual animal-specific patterns of multiple pathology in mice harboring a specific germline mutation in the DNA repair and transcription-specific gene Xpd. Conclusion MPHASYS is a system for analyzing multiple data types from individual animals. It provides a framework for developing data analysis applications, and tools for collecting and distributing high-quality data. The software is platform independent and freely available under an open-source license [1]. PMID:17553167

  20. [Mental disorders in digestive system diseases - internist's and psychiatrist's insight].

    PubMed

    Kukla, Urszula; ?abuzek, Krzysztof; Chronowska, Justyna; Krzystanek, Marek; Okopie?, Bogus?aw

    2015-05-25

    Mental disorders accompanying digestive system diseases constitute interdisciplinary yet scarcely acknowledged both diagnostic and therapeutic problem. One of the mostly recognized examples is coeliac disease where patients endure the large spectrum of psychopathological symptoms, starting with attention deficit all the way down to the intellectual disability in extreme cases. It has not been fully explained how the pathomechanism of digestive system diseases affects patient's mental health, however one of the hypothesis suggests that it is due to serotonergic or opioid neurotransmission imbalance caused by gluten and gluten metabolites effect on central nervous system. Behavioral changes can also be invoked by liver or pancreatic diseases, which causes life-threatening abnormalities within a brain. It occurs that these abnormalities reflexively exacerbate the symptoms of primary somatic disease and aggravate its course, which worsens prognosis. The dominant mental disease mentioned in this article is depression which because of its effect on a hypothalamuspituitary- adrenal axis and on an autonomic nervous system, not only aggravates the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases but may accelerate their onset in genetically predisposed patients. Depression is known to negatively affects patients' ability to function in a society and a quality of their lives. Moreover, as far as children are concerned, the occurrence of digestive system diseases accompanied by mental disorders, may adversely affect their further physical and psychological development, which merely results in worse school performance. All those aspects of mental disorders indicate the desirability of the psychological care for patients with recognized digestive system disease. The psychological assistance should be provided immediately after diagnosis of a primary disease and be continued throughout the whole course of treatment. PMID:26039016

  1. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): mouse biology and model systems.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E; Blake, Judith A

    2008-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database, (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org/), integrates genetic, genomic and phenotypic information about the laboratory mouse, a primary animal model for studying human biology and disease. MGD data content includes comprehensive characterization of genes and their functions, standardized descriptions of mouse phenotypes, extensive integration of DNA and protein sequence data, normalized representation of genome and genome variant information including comparative data on mammalian genes. Data within MGD are obtained from diverse sources including manual curation of the biomedical literature, direct contributions from individual investigator's laboratories and major informatics resource centers such as Ensembl, UniProt and NCBI. MGD collaborates with the bioinformatics community on the development of data and semantic standards such as the Gene Ontology (GO) and the Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology. MGD provides a data-mining platform that enables the development of translational research hypotheses based on comparative genotype, phenotype and functional analyses. Both web-based querying and computational access to data are provided. Recent improvements in MGD described here include the association of gene trap data with mouse genes and a new batch query capability for customized data access and retrieval. PMID:18158299

  2. Anaerobic digestion and wastewater treatment systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Lettinga

    1995-01-01

    Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) wastewater (pre-)treatment systems represent a proven sustainable technology for a wide range of very different industrial effluents, including those containing toxic\\/inhibitory compounds. The process is also feasible for treatment of domestic wastewater with temperatures as low as 14–16° C and likely even lower. Compared to conventional aerobic treatment systems the anaerobic treatment process merely offers

  3. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF THE HOLOTHURIAN, CUCUMARIA ELONGATA. II. DISTRIBUTION OF THE DIGESTIVE ENZYMES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN D. FISH

    Several enzymes have been recorded from holothurian digestive tracts and in extracts of the gut wall. Oomen ( 1926) demonstrated a protease, amylase, maltase and a weak lipase in Holothuria, and Van der Heyde (1922) reported protease, invertase and lipase, but no amylase in Thyone. The digestive fluid and extracts of the gut wall of Caudina chilensis were found by

  4. Cholesterol crystal embolization to the digestive system: characterization of a common, yet overlooked presentation of atheroembolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shomron Ben-Horin; Eytan Bardan; Iris Barshack; Nurit Zaks; Avi Livneh

    2003-01-01

    In the 1359 published patients with multiorgan cholesterol crystal embolism (CCE), the digestive system seems to be the third most frequently affected system. Yet, this system received hitherto only little attention in the medical literature. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clinically characterize the subset of patients with CCE involving the digestive system, based on our institutional

  5. Relationships between Digestive, Circulatory, and Urinary Systems in Portuguese Primary Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Graça S.; Clèment, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    In this study, 63 Portuguese primary schoolbooks (1920-2005) were analyzed. The analysis focused on text information (reference to blood absorption and association of the digestive system to other human systems) and on information from images (presence or absence of image "confusion" (when the sequence of the digestive tract is not…

  6. ANAEROBIC SEWAGE TREATMENT IN A ONE-STAGE UASB AND A COMBINED UASB-DIGESTER SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nidal Mahmoud; Grietje Zeeman; Huub Gijzen; Gatze Lettinga

    2003-01-01

    The potential of a novel technology consisting of a UASB complemented with a digester (UASB-Digester) for mutual sewage treatment and sludge stabilisation under low temperature conditions was investigated. The performance of the UASB-Digester system was compared with a one stage UASB. The UASB reactor was operated at a HRT of 6 hours and controlled temperature of 15°C, the average sewage

  7. MOUSE

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based in New York City, the MOUSE organization works to empower "underserved students to provide technology support and leadership in their schools, supporting their academic and career success." On their homepage, visitors can learn about their programs, learn about supporting the MOUSE organization, and read up on their resources. In the "Resources" area, visitors can learn about their outreach activities in New York City, Chicago, and California. Visitors working in educational outreach will appreciate the information offered here, including materials on how different groups can receive assistance from the MOUSE organization. Also, visitors can look over the "News" updates to learn about their new programs, their educational seminars, and their outreach activities.

  8. Avoiding digester imbalance through real-time expert system control of dilution rate

    SciTech Connect

    Pullammanappallil, P.; Harmon, J.; Lyberatos, G.; Svoronos, S.A.; Chynoweth, D.P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Process control of anaerobic digesters is a particularly challenging problem because of the diversity of possible causes that can lead to digester imbalance. Conventional control schemes can fail in consequence of a reversal in the sign of the steady-state gain caused by some type of disturbance. In this work we present an expert system approach that takes into account the particularity of this process. The developed algorithm is demonstrated to compensate successfully for changes in the digester feed medium when simulated against a model for a continuous anaerobic digester.

  9. Validation of an in vitro digestive system for studying macronutrient decomposition in humans.

    PubMed

    Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A; Schwander, Flurina; Gijs, Martin; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti

    2012-02-01

    The digestive process transforms nutrients and bioactive compounds contained in food to physiologically active compounds. In vitro digestion systems have proven to be powerful tools for understanding and monitoring the complex transformation processes that take place during digestion. Moreover, the investigation of the physiological effects of certain nutrients demands an in vitro digestive process that is close to human physiology. In this study, human digestion was simulated with a 3-step in vitro process that was validated in depth by choosing pasteurized milk as an example of a complex food matrix. The evolution and decomposition of the macronutrients was followed over the entire digestive process to the level of intestinal enterocyte action, using protein and peptide analysis by SDS-PAGE, reversed-phase HPLC, size exclusion HPLC, and liquid chromatography-MS. The mean peptide size after in vitro digestion of pasteurized milk was 5-6 amino acids (AA). Interestingly, mostly essential AA (93.6%) were released during in vitro milk digestion, a significantly different relative distribution compared to the total essential AA concentration of bovine milk (44.5%). All TG were degraded to FFA and monoacylglycerols. Herein, we present a human in vitro digestion model validated for its ability to degrade the macronutrients of dairy products comparable to physiological ranges. It is suited to be used in combination with a human intestinal cell culture system, allowing ex vivo bioavailability measurements and assessment of the bioactive properties of food components. PMID:22223575

  10. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing P450 in artificial digestive systems: a model for biodetoxication in the human digestive environment.

    PubMed

    Blanquet, S; Meunier, J P; Minekus, M; Marol-Bonnin, S; Alric, M

    2003-05-01

    The use of genetically engineered microorganisms such as bacteria or yeasts as live vehicles to carry out bioconversion directly in the digestive environment is an important challenge for the development of innovative biodrugs. A system that mimics the human gastrointestinal tract was combined with a computer simulation to evaluate the survival rate and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase activity of a recombinant model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the plant P450 73A1. The yeasts showed a high level of resistance to gastric and small intestinal secretions (survival rate after 4 h of digestion, 95.6% +/- 10.1% [n = 4]) but were more sensitive to the colonic conditions (survival rate after 4 h of incubation, 35.9% +/- 2.7% [n = 3]). For the first time, the ability of recombinant S. cerevisiae to carry out a bioconversion reaction has been demonstrated throughout the gastrointestinal tract. In the gastric-small intestinal system, 41.0% +/- 5.8% (n = 3) of the ingested trans-cinnamic acid was converted into p-coumaric acid after 4 h of digestion, as well as 8.9% +/- 1.6% (n = 3) in the stomach, 13.8% +/- 3.3% (n = 3) in the duodenum, 11.8% +/- 3.4% (n = 3) in the jejunum, and 6.5% +/- 1.0% (n = 3) in the ileum. In the large intestinal system, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase activity was detected but was too weak to be quantified. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae may afford a useful host for the development of biodrugs and may provide an innovative system for the prevention or treatment of diseases that escape classical drug action. In particular, yeasts may provide a suitable vector for biodetoxication in the digestive environment. PMID:12732562

  11. Digestive and Metabolic Utilization of Feed Energy in Swine: Application to Energy Evaluation Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Noblet

    2000-01-01

    Noblet, J. 2000. Digestive and metabolic utilization of feed energy in swine: Application to energy evaluation systems. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 17: 113–132.Feeds can be attributed different energy values according to, first, the step considered in energy utilization (DE: digestible energy, ME: metabolisable energy and NE: net energy) and, second, the method used for estimation at each step. This paper

  12. Blocking c-myc and stat3 by E. coli expressed and enzyme digested siRNA in mouse melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Jie [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhao Yingchun [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Weida [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: whuang@fudan.edu.cn

    2006-09-22

    Tumour cells often show alteration in the signal-transduction pathways, leading to proliferation in response to external signals. Oncogene overexpression and constitutive expression is a common phenomenon in the development and progression of many human cancers. Therefore oncogenes provide potential targets for cancer therapy. RNA interference (RNAi), mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), silences genes with a high degree of specificity and potentially represents a general approach for molecularly targeted anti-cancer therapy. The data presented in this report evaluated the method of systemically administering combined esiRNAs to multiple targets as compared with the method of using a single kind of esiRNA to a single target. Our experimental data revealed that the mixed treatment of esiC-MYC and esiSTAT3 had a better inhibition effect than the single treatment of esiC-MYC or esiSTAT3 on mouse B16 melanoma.

  13. MICRON MOUSE IMAGING SYSTEM The Micron Mouse Imaging System is a Core Resource for the Moran

    E-print Network

    Marc, Robert E.

    ;4 IMPORTANT NOTES ON PREPARING THE MOUSE Cataracts will prevent satisfactory imaging. Cortical cataracts form cryptic nuclear cataracts. Some albino mice seem susceptible to cataracts while imaging ... mechanism

  14. Mouse vocal communication system: are ultrasounds learned or innate?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production. Here we discuss the available data to assess whether male mouse song behavior and the supporting brain circuits resemble those of known vocal non-learning or vocal learning species. Recent neurobiology studies have demonstrated that the mouse USV brain system includes motor cortex and striatal regions, and that the vocal motor cortex sends a direct sparse projection to the brainstem vocal motor nucleus ambiguous, a projection previously thought be unique to humans among mammals. Recent behavioral studies have reported opposing conclusions on mouse vocal plasticity, including vocal ontogeny changes in USVs over early development that might not be explained by innate maturation processes, evidence for and against a role for auditory feedback in developing and maintaining normal mouse USVs, and evidence for and against limited vocal imitation of song pitch. To reconcile these findings, we suggest that the trait of vocal learning may not be dichotomous but encompass a broad spectrum of behavioral and neural traits we call the continuum hypothesis, and that mice possess some of the traits associated with a capacity for limited vocal learning. PMID:23295209

  15. Mouse vocal communication system: are ultrasounds learned or innate?

    PubMed Central

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production. Here we discuss the available data to assess whether male mouse song behavior and the supporting brain circuits resemble those of known vocal non-learning or vocal learning species. Recent neurobiology studies have demonstrated that the mouse USV brain system includes motor cortex and striatal regions, and that the vocal motor cortex sends a direct sparse projection to the brainstem vocal motor nucleus ambiguous, a projection thought be unique to humans among mammals. Recent behavioral studies have reported opposing conclusions on mouse vocal plasticity, including vocal ontogeny changes in USVs over early development that might not be explained by innate maturation processes, evidence for and against a role for auditory feedback in developing and maintaining normal mouse USVs, and evidence for and against limited vocal imitation of song pitch. To reconcile these findings, we suggest that the trait of vocal learning may not be dichotomous but encompass a broad set of behavioral and neural traits we call the continuum hypothesis, and that mice possess some of the traits associated with a capacity for limited vocal learning. PMID:23295209

  16. On-line digestion system for protein characterization and proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    López-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Lourette, Natacha M; Clowers, Brian; Hixson, Kim K; Heibeck, Tyler; Prior, David C; Pasa-Toli?, Ljiljana; Camp, David G; Belov, Mikhail E; Smith, Richard D

    2008-12-01

    An efficient on-line digestion system that reduces the number of sample manipulation steps has been demonstrated for high-throughput proteomics. By incorporating a pressurized sample loop into a liquid chromatography-based separation system, both sample and enzyme (e.g., trypsin) can be simultaneously introduced to produce a complete, yet rapid digestion. Both standard proteins and a complex Shewanella oneidensis global protein extract were digested and analyzed using the automated online pressurized digestion system coupled to an ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometer, an ion trap mass spectrometer, or both. The system denatured, digested, and separated product peptides in a manner of minutes, making it amenable to on-line high-throughput applications. In addition to simplifying and expediting sample processing, the system was easy to implement and no cross-contamination was observed among samples. As a result, the online digestion system offers a powerful approach for high-throughput screening of proteins that could prove valuable in biochemical research (rapid screening of protein-based drugs). PMID:19551971

  17. AN IMPROVEMENT TO THE MOUSE COMPUTERIZED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The original MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty System) system was designed to deal with the problem of uncertainties in Environmental engineering calculations, such as a set of engineering cast or risk analysis equations. It was especially intended for use by individuals with l...

  18. Digestive system dysfunction in cystic fibrosis: challenges for nutrition therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn

    2014-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis can affect food digestion and nutrient absorption. The underlying mutation of the cystic fibrosis trans-membrane regulator gene depletes functional cystic fibrosis trans-membrane regulator on the surface of epithelial cells lining the digestive tract and associated organs, where Cl(-) secretion and subsequently secretion of water and other ions are impaired. This alters pH and dehydrates secretions that precipitate and obstruct the lumen, causing inflammation and the eventual degradation of the pancreas, liver, gallbladder and intestine. Associated conditions include exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, impaired bicarbonate and bile acid secretion and aberrant mucus formation, commonly leading to maldigestion and malabsorption, particularly of fat and fat-soluble vitamins. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is used to address this insufficiency. The susceptibility of pancreatic lipase to acidic and enzymatic inactivation and decreased bile availability often impedes its efficacy. Brush border digestive enzyme activity and intestinal uptake of certain disaccharides and amino acids await clarification. Other complications that may contribute to maldigestion/malabsorption include small intestine bacterial overgrowth, enteric circular muscle dysfunction, abnormal intestinal mucus, and intestinal inflammation. However, there is some evidence that gastric digestive enzymes, colonic microflora, correction of fatty acid abnormalities using dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and emerging intestinal biomarkers can complement nutrition management in cystic fibrosis. PMID:25053610

  19. Head mouse system based on gyro and opto-sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soochan Kim; Sasiporn Anumas; Jaeha Yoo

    2010-01-01

    We proposed the mouse to control a computer mouse with head rotations and eye blinks so that the severe disabled person can use a computer. We compared the performance of the proposed mouse to that of a general computer mouse and to that of alternative mouses such as Quick glance using eye movements and a Camera mouse using face movements.

  20. Innovative treatment system for digester liquor using anammox process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Furukawa; Yasuhiko Inatomi; Sen Qiao; Lai Quan; Taichi Yamamoto; Kazuichi Isaka; Tatsuo Sumino

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrated that partial nitritation using nitrifying activated sludge entrapped in a polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel carrier, as a pretreatment to anammox process, could be successfully applied to digester liquor of biogas plant at a nitrogen loading rate of 3.0kg-N\\/m3\\/d. The nitritation process produced an effluent with a NO2–N\\/NH4–N ratio between 1.0 and 1.4, which was found to be

  1. Experimental System Setup for HIFU under MRI for mouse experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Tao; Amin, Viren; Boska, Michael

    2009-04-01

    We describe an integrated system setup for HIFU and MRI thermometry for mouse experiments. The applications of such a system include MRI imaging and thermometry for evaluation and feedback during HIFU applications on mouse models of various diseases; and validation of temperature estimated by other methods, such as RF data. A 5 MHz geometrically focused (diameter of 16.1 mm, focal length 35 mm), MRI-compatible HIFU transducer is used, driven by a programmable signal generator and a power amplifier. The small animal MRI scanner has been programmed to acquire sequential phase information, which is used to determine frequency shift. Relative temperature rise is then calculated by proton resonance frequency (RPF) method. The current software development is done in C++ and Matlab. An integrated software is being developed to streamline the acquisition, analysis and visualization during HIFU delivery. Preliminary experiments have been performed using different phantoms. Performing HIFU (less than 100 watts) under MRI has had minimal interference for MRI data acquisition. The development is continuing for further characterizing and understanding the interference at the higher power level and accelerate data acquisition rate to achieve thermometry for a few frames per second. Further tissue experiments are under way with target of live mouse experiments. We present the overall design and discuss challenges encountered in the development of such system for experiments on mouse.

  2. Early warning indicators for monitoring the process failure of anaerobic digestion system of food waste.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; He, Qingming; Wei, Yunmei; He, Qin; Peng, Xuya

    2014-11-01

    To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), alkalinity and their combined indicators were evaluated. Results revealed that operation conditions significantly affect the responses of parameters and thus the optimal early warning indicators of each reactor differ from each other. None of the single indicators was universally valid for all the systems. The universally valid indicators should combine several parameters to supply complementary information. A combination of total VFA, the ratio of VFA to total alkalinity (VFA/TA) and the ratio of bicarbonate alkalinity to total alkalinity (BA/TA) can reflect the metabolism of the digesting system and realize rapid and effective early warning. PMID:25218457

  3. Evaluation of microwave digestion systems for mercury recovery in an oil matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, M.J.; Clymire, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    The scope of this document is to characterize three microwave systems developed by CEM Corporation. The purpose of this investigative work was to evaluate the performance of each system for dissolution qualities and the recovery of mercury in an oil based matrix. The microwave systems evaluated were the heavy duty vessel system (HDV), the advanced composite system (ACV), and the open vessel system (OVS). All three systems have automated features, but all systems are limited by one factor or another. EPA method 3051 was the procedure used for sample preparation for this project. This particular microwave digestion method can also be used for other metal analytes of interest. Of the three different systems, only the HDV (now UDV) demonstrated complete digestion of the oil based matrix in a one step process and acceptable mercury recoveries.

  4. Establishment of Systemic Brucella melitensis Infection through the Digestive Tract Requires Urease, the Type IV Secretion System, and Lipopolysaccharide O Antigen?

    PubMed Central

    Paixão, Tatiane A.; Roux, Christelle M.; den Hartigh, Andreas B.; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Dandekar, Satya; Santos, Renato L.; Tsolis, Renée M.

    2009-01-01

    Human brucellosis is caused mainly by Brucella melitensis, which is often acquired by ingesting contaminated goat or sheep milk and cheese. Bacterial factors required for food-borne infection of humans by B. melitensis are poorly understood. In this study, a mouse model of oral infection was characterized to assess the roles of urease, the VirB type IV secretion system, and lipopolysaccharide for establishing infection through the digestive tract. B. melitensis strain 16M was consistently recovered from the mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and liver beginning at 3 or 7 day postinfection (dpi). In the gut, persistence of the inoculum was observed up to 21 dpi. No inflammatory lesions were observed in the ileum or colon during infection. Mutant strains lacking the ureABC genes of the ure1 operon, virB2, or pmm encoding phosphomannomutase were constructed and compared to the wild-type strain for infectivity through the digestive tract. Mutants lacking the virB2 and pmm genes were attenuated in the spleen (P < 0.05) and MLN (P < 0.001), respectively. The wild-type and mutant strains had similar levels of resistance to low pH and 5 or 10% bile, suggesting that the reduced colonization of mutants was not the result of reduced resistance to acid pH or bile salts. In an in vitro lymphoepithelial cell (M-cell) model, B. melitensis transited rapidly through polarized enterocyte monolayers containing M-like cells; however, transit through monolayers containing only enterocytes was reduced or absent. These results indicate that B. melitensis is able to spread systemically from the digestive tract after infection, most likely through M cells of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. PMID:19651862

  5. A robust automated system elucidates mouse home cage behavioral structure

    PubMed Central

    Goulding, Evan H.; Schenk, A. Katrin; Juneja, Punita; MacKay, Adrienne W.; Wade, Jennifer M.; Tecott, Laurence H.

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of behavior exhibited by mice in their home cages reflect the function and interaction of numerous behavioral and physiological systems. Detailed assessment of these patterns thus has the potential to provide a powerful tool for understanding basic aspects of behavioral regulation and their perturbation by disease processes. However, the capacity to identify and examine these patterns in terms of their discrete levels of organization across diverse behaviors has been difficult to achieve and automate. Here, we describe an automated approach for the quantitative characterization of fundamental behavioral elements and their patterns in the freely behaving mouse. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by identifying unique features of home cage behavioral structure and changes in distinct levels of behavioral organization in mice with single gene mutations altering energy balance. The robust, automated, reproducible quantification of mouse home cage behavioral structure detailed here should have wide applicability for the study of mammalian physiology, behavior, and disease. PMID:19106295

  6. [Incidence and severity of the digestive system diseases in the armed forces of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Rozhkov, H S

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the level and structure of morbidity Armed Forces of Ukraine diseases of the digestive system. The highest rates of total incidence of disease in the class XI 2008-2011, recorded among conscripts, the lowest--in the military under the contract. PMID:23356151

  7. Anaerobic Digestion for Reduction and Stabilization of Organic Solid Waste During Space Missions: Systems Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiyong Xu; Tim Townsend; David Chynoweth; Patrick Haley; John Owens; Elana Rich; Sabrina Maxwell; Hong-Lim Choi

    High Solids Leachbed Anaerobic Digestion (HSLAD) is a biological waste treatment system that has been successfully demonstrated for solid waste treatment in terrestrial applications. The process involves a solid phase leachbed fermentation, employing leachate recycle between new and mature reactors for inoculation, wetting, and removal of volatile organic acids during startup. HSLAD also offers a potential option for treatment of

  8. Building School-to-Work Systems in Rural America. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart

    This digest briefly describes key components for building a local school-to-work (STW) partnership and discusses the rural context for implementing such an initiative. The School-To-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 established a national framework for each state to create STW systems that are part of comprehensive education reform, are integrated…

  9. Modification of digestive system microbiome of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine: effect on ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, ...

  10. Finger mouse system based on computer vision in complex backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Xiong

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a human-computer interaction system and realizes a real-time virtual mouse. Our system emulates the dragging and selecting functions of a mouse by recognizing bare hands, hence the control style is simple and intuitive. A single camera is used to capture hand images and a DSP chip is embedded as the image processing platform. To deal with complex backgrounds, particularly where skin-like or moving objects appear, we develop novel hand recognition algorithms. Hand segmentation is achieved by skin color cue and background difference. Each input image is corrected according to the luminance and then skin color is extracted by Gaussian model. We employ a Camshift tracking algorithm which receives feedbacks from the recognition module. In fingertip recognition, a method combining template matching and circle drawing is proposed. Our system has advantages of good real-time performance, easy integration and energy conservation. Experiments show that the system is robust to the scaling and rotation of hands.

  11. Immunohistochemical detection of regulatory cells in the digestive system of leeches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yu. Punin; V. K. Kazakov; L. G. Mkrtchyan

    2000-01-01

    The digestive system of four leech species,Glossiphonia complanata, Hirudo medicinalis, Haemopis sanguisuga, andErpobdella octoculata, was studied using, as markers, antisera to biologically active peptides, neurotensin, calcitonin, FRMF-amide, and serotonin.\\u000a In the epithelium and the wall of the alimentary tract, regulatory cells were revealed. They differed in shapes and detected\\u000a immunoreactivities; presumably they are elements of the diffuse endocrine system as

  12. [Digestive system diseases and style of nutrition among secondary school students].

    PubMed

    Chemperek, E; Jeleniewski, M

    2001-03-01

    In the paper there was examined 246 pupils from secondary school. The auditorial survey including 23 questions was drawn up. The questions referred to digestive diseases occurrence among members of family, pupils under the survey, their style of nutrition, financial status of their family. It was interesting how kind of food, keeping regular hours, behaviour during eating is connected with frequency of digestive disease occurrence. 14.5% of pupils suffered from alimentary tract diseases especially constipation and peptic ulcer. A large percentage (46.2%) do not eat regularly, and 85% is in a hurry, doing something else during eating. 39.4% of examined use spices, ketchup, mustard every time, 17.5% do not eat vegetables, fruit at all, 45.9% eat sweets every day. Before leaving for school 45.9% pupils do not even eat breakfast. 69.1% of subjects claimed that stress is a reason of occurence their digestive disorders. In the paper abnormal style of nutrition is more frequent among pupils complaining of digestive system diseases. PMID:11398515

  13. Modular expert system for the diagnosis of operating conditions of industrial anaerobic digestion plants.

    PubMed

    Lardon, L; Puñal, A; Martinez, J A; Steyer, J P

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plants are highly efficient wastewater treatment processes with possible energetic valorisation. Despite these advantages, many industries are still reluctant to use them because of their instability in the face of changes in operating conditions. To the face this drawback and to enhance the industrial use of anaerobic digestion, one solution is to develop and to implement knowledge base (KB) systems that are able to detect and to assess in real-time the quality of operating conditions of the processes. Case-based techniques and heuristic approaches have been already tested and validated on AD processes but two major properties were lacking: modularity of the system (the knowledge base system should be easily tuned on a new process and should still work if one or more sensors are added or removed) and uncertainty management (the assessment of the KB system should remain relevant even in the case of too poor or conflicting information sources). This paper addresses these two points and presents a modular KB system where an uncertain reasoning formalism is used to combine partial and complementary fuzzy diagnosis modules. Demonstration of the interest of the approach is provided from real-life experiments performed on an industrial 2,000 m3 CSTR anaerobic digester. PMID:16180460

  14. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes. PMID:23668159

  15. Experimental and modeling study of a two-stage pilot scale high solid anaerobic digester system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liang; Zhao, Quanbao; Ma, Jingwei; Frear, Craig; Chen, Shulin

    2012-11-01

    This study established a comprehensive model to configure a new two-stage high solid anaerobic digester (HSAD) system designed for highly degradable organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW). The HSAD reactor as the first stage was naturally separated into two zones due to biogas floatation and low specific gravity of solid waste. The solid waste was retained in the upper zone while only the liquid leachate resided in the lower zone of the HSAD reactor. Continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and advective-diffusive reactor (ADR) models were constructed in series to describe the whole system. Anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1) was used as reaction kinetics and incorporated into each reactor module. Compared with the experimental data, the simulation results indicated that the model was able to well predict the pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and biogas production. PMID:22989632

  16. XPC Polymorphism Increases Risk of Digestive System Cancers: Current Evidence from A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xia; Zhou, Li-tao; Zhang, Shan-chun

    2012-01-01

    Objective Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) participates in the initial recognition of DNA damage during nucleotide excision repair process in global genomic repair. Our meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between three polymorphisms (Lys939Gln, PAT+/– and Ala499Val) of XPC gene and risk of digestive system cancers. Methods All the relevant case-control studies published to April 2011 were identified through searching PubMed. Digestive system cancer risk with the three polymorphisms was estimated for each study by odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results We found an increased overall risk for digestive system cancers in all three models of Lys939Gln A>C (AC/CC vs. AA: OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11–1.30; CC vs. AC/AA: OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.11–1.39; CC vs. AA: OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.21–1.53). When strati?ed by ethnicity, results remained significant in Asian population (AC/CC vs. AA: OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02–1.37; CC vs. AC/AA: OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.1–1.51; CC vs. AA: OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.08–1.70), but not for Caucasians. However for Ala499Val C>T, a significant protective effect of T allele was only observed in the dominant model. Otherwise, no significant results were observed for PAT+/–. Conclusion XPC Lys939Gln A>C polymorphism may play an important role in digestive system cancer susceptibility. PMID:23359774

  17. A Bibliographic Retrieval System Using Lucene and Digester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suvarna V Damodaran

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a Bibliographic Retrieval System (BRS) for maintaining bibliographic databases. Bibliographic databases are repositories of bibliographic items such as journal articles, conference publications, books, and technical reports. The BRS system supports four major features: inserting a new item, browsing and querying items, editing and deleting existing items, and exporting a selected set of

  18. Prognostic Value of MACC1 in Digestive System Neoplasms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhenzhen; Zhou, Rui; Su, Yuqi; Sun, Li; Liao, Yulin; Liao, Wangjun

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1), a newly identified oncogene, has been associated with poor survival of cancer patients by multiple studies. However, the prognostic value of MACC1 in digestive system neoplasms needs systematic evidence to verify. Therefore, we aimed to provide further evidence on this topic by systematic review and meta-analysis. Literature search was conducted in multiple databases and eligible studies analyzing survival data and MACC1 expression were included for meta-analysis. Hazard ratio (HR) for clinical outcome was chosen as an effect measure of interest. According to our inclusion criteria, 18 studies with a total of 2,948 patients were identified. Pooled HRs indicated that high MACC1 expression significantly correlates with poorer OS in patients with digestive system neoplasms (HR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.49–2.53) as well as poorer relapse-free survival (HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.33–2.82). The results of subgroup studies categorized by methodology, anatomic structure, and cancer subtype for pooled OS were all consistent with the overall pooled HR for OS as well. No publication bias was detected according to test of funnel plot asymmetry and Egger's test. In conclusion, high MACC1 expression may serve as a prognostic biomarker to guide individualized management in clinical practice for digestive system neoplasms. PMID:26090393

  19. Prediction of digestible energy of feed ingredients for growing pigs using a computer-controlled simulated digestion system.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Gao, L X; Huang, Q H; Lu, Q P; Sa, R N; Zhang, H F

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate in vitro DE (IVDE) of selected feed ingredients using a computer-controlled simulated digestion system (CCSDS) and predict DE of ingredients for growing pigs. Samples of 6 ingredients with a wide range in energy and nutrient profile were collected. The CP and GE contents ranged from 9.9 to 50.9% and 4,493 to 4,841 kcal/kg (DM basis), respectively. Two control diets were formulated to achieve different CP contents (12.5 and 20.0%). Three experimental diets were formulated by replacing 20% of the high-CP control diet with corn, wheat, or wheat bran, whereas 3 additional diets were formulated by replacing 20% of the low-CP control diet with soybean meal, rapeseed meal, or cottonseed meal. The DE was determined using barrows (n = 24; initial BW = 35.9 ± 1.9 kg) in 2 periods with 6 observations per diet treatment and ranged from 2,769 to 4,368 kcal/kg. The equation for the DE content (kcal/kg of DM) using chemical components as independent variables was DE = 4,186 + 0.06 × CP + 79.33 × ether extract - 14.57 × NDF - 47.99 × ADF, with R(2) = 0.995, residual SD (RSD) = 89.5 kcal/kg, CV = 2.4%, and P = 0.10 (chemical component values; %). The IVDE ranged from 2,289 to 3,724 kcal/kg and was highly related to the determined DE content of the ingredients (R(2) = 0.91, RSD = 193 kcal/kg, and CV = 5.2%). The relationship between IVDE:GE and DE:GE was very high (R(2) = 0.93, RSD = 3.8%, and CV = 4.7%). The average values of CV for IVDE (0.75%) and IVDE:GE (0.73%) were less than that for determined DE (2.58%) and DE:GE (2.54%), respectively. In conclusion, the IVDE content determined, using a CCSDS with relatively high accuracy and acceptable repeatability, might be used to predict DE of feed ingredients for growing pigs. PMID:25057025

  20. Quiz Making Activities Using the Multi-Mouse Quiz System in an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Juan; Mori, Mikihiko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Kita, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Mouse Quiz System is an application used to treat quizzes in a classroom or other learning environment. The system comprises the Multi Mouse Quiz (MMQ) and MMQEditor. The MMQ is an application of Single Display Groupware (SDG), which enables multiple users to answer quizzes by connecting several mice to an ordinary computer. The…

  1. [Infestation of the human digestive system with beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Cantharidae): a case report].

    PubMed

    Y?lmaz, Hasan; Ta? Cengiz, Zeynep; Dülger, Ahmet Cumhur; Ekici, P?nar

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to report the digestive system infestation caused by the larvae of Coleoptera in a female pediatric patient. She was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of emergence of insect larvae from her vomit and feces, abdominal pain, inguinal pain, lack of appetite, hair loss, excessive cleaning behavior, extreme irritability, and distractibility. The larvae observed typically had the morphology of the larvae of insects related to the Cantharidae family in the Coleoptera order. For treatment, a single dose of albendazole (400 mg) was used. Consequently, in the present case, it was seen that the larvae of Coleoptera incidentally taken orally could continue to live for a period in the digestive tract of people, without losing vitality, and the larvae caused a variety of symptoms due to both their toxic agents and the possible irritation they caused. PMID:25732890

  2. Digestive diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Digestive diseases are disorders of the digestive tract, which is sometimes called the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In digestion, food and drink are broken down into small parts (called nutrients) ...

  3. Mouse Forward Genetics in the Study of the Peripheral Nervous System and Human Peripheral Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darlene S. Douglas; Brian Popko

    2009-01-01

    Forward genetics, the phenotype-driven approach to investigating gene identity and function, has a long history in mouse genetics.\\u000a Random mutations in the mouse transcend bias about gene function and provide avenues towards unique discoveries. The study\\u000a of the peripheral nervous system is no exception; from historical strains such as the trembler mouse, which led to the identification of PMP22 as

  4. Anaerobic digestion of food waste through the operation of a mesophilic two-phase pilot scale digester--assessment of variable loadings on system performance.

    PubMed

    Grimberg, S J; Hilderbrandt, D; Kinnunen, M; Rogers, S

    2015-02-01

    Single and two-phase operations were compared at mesophilic operating conditions using a digester system consisting of three 5-m(3) reactors treating food waste generated daily within the university campus kitchens. When normalizing the methane production to the daily feedstock characteristics, significantly greater methane was produced during two-phase mesophilic digestion compared to the single-stage operation (methane yield of 380 vs 446-L CH4 kg VS(-1); 359 vs 481-L CH4 kg COD(-1) removed for single vs two stage operation). The fermentation reactor could be maintained reliably even under very low loading rates (0.79±0.16 kg COD m(-3) d(-1)) maintaining a steady state pH of 5.2. PMID:25266683

  5. Membrane controlled anaerobic digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omstead, D. R.

    In response to general shortages of energy, examination of the anaerboic digestion process as a potential source of a combustible, methane-rich fuel has intensified in recent years. It has been suggested that orgaic intermediates (such as fatty acids), produced during digestion, might also be recovered for use as chemical feedstocks. This investigation has been concerned with combining ultrafiltration separation techniques with anaerobic digestion for the development of a process in which the total production of acetic acid (the most valuable intermediate in anaerobic digestion) and methane are optimized. Enrichment cultures, able to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source, were adapted from sewage digesting cultures using conventional techniques. An ultrafiltration system was constructed and coupled to an anaerobic digester culture vessel which contained the glucose enrichment. The membrane controlled anaerobic digester appears to show promise as a means of producing high rates of both methane gas and acetic acid.

  6. In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems: calcium ions combine with fatty acids liberated from triglyceride rich lipid solutions to form soaps and reduce the solubilization capacity of colloidal digestion products.

    PubMed

    Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B; Mullertz, Anette; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W

    2013-01-30

    In vitro digestion testing is of practical importance to predict the fate of drugs administered in lipid-based delivery systems. Calcium ions are often added to digestion media to increase the extent of digestion of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), but the effects they have on phase behaviour of the products of digestion, and consequent drug solubilization, are not well understood. This study investigates the effect of calcium and bile salt concentrations on the rate and extent of in vitro digestion of soybean oil, as well as the solubilizing capacity of the digestion products for two poorly water-soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces the availability of liberated fatty acids to form mixed micelles and vesicles, thereby reducing drug solubilization. The use of high calcium concentrations does indeed force in vitro digestion of LCTs but may overestimate the extent of drug precipitation that occurs within the intestinal lumen. PMID:23178598

  7. [Role of substance P in the nervous system control of digestive motility].

    PubMed

    Niel, J P

    1991-09-01

    Substance P is a 11 amino-acids peptide which belongs to the tachykinins, a family of peptide which induces a rapid contraction of the smooth muscle of the digestive tract. The occurrence of substance P has been demonstrated by immunohistochemical and radioimmunological techniques in most parts of the central and peripheral nervous system. Substance P exerts on the smooth muscle of all the areas of the digestive tract a strong excitatory effect which is either direct or relayed by the cholinergic intramural neurones. Numerous electrophysiological, pharmacological and immunohistochemical data lead to the conclusion that substance P is released by intrinsic neurones of the digestive tract or by extrinsic nerves (vagus and splanchnic nerves, etc...). This release is enhanced by acetylcholine, cholecystokinin, serotonin and neurotensin, it is reduced by opioid peptides and noradrenaline. Substance P participates in the intestinal peristaltic reflex by the activation of the smooth muscle cells of the intestine, either directly or through the activation of the cholinergic intrinsic neurones. Substance P is also involved in the genesis of a non-cholinergic ascending excitatory activity likely occurring during vomiting. Lastly, substance P participates in the reflex contraction of the lower oesophageal sphincter following acidification of the distal part of the oesophagus. PMID:1720693

  8. Biogas production from municipal solid wastes using an integrated rotary drum and anaerobic-phased solids digester system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baoning; Zhang, Ruihong; Gikas, Petros; Rapport, Joshua; Jenkins, Bryan; Li, Xiujin

    2010-08-01

    This research was conducted to develop an integrated rotary drum reactor (RDR)-anaerobic-phased solids (APS) digester system for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce biogas energy and achieve waste reduction. A commercial RDR facility was used to provide a 3-d pretreatment and sufficient separation of the organics from MSW and then the organics were digested in a laboratory APS-digester system for biogas production. The organics generated from the RDR contained 50% total solids (TS) and 36% volatile solids (VS) on wet basis. The APS-digester was started at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.1 gVS L(-1) d(-1) and operated at three higher OLRs of 4.6, 7.7 and 9.2 gVS L(-1) d(-1). At the OLR of 9.2 gVS L(-1) d(-1) the system biogas production rate was 3.5 L L(-1) d(-1) and the biogas and methane yields were 0.38 and 0.19 L gVS(-1), respectively. Anaerobic digestion resulted in 38% TS reduction and 53% VS reduction in the organic solids. It was found that the total VFA concentration reached a peak value of 15,000 mg L(-1) as acetic acid in the first 3d of batch digestion and later decreased to about 500 mg L(-1). The APS-digester system remained stable at each OLRs for over 100d with the pH in the hydrolysis reactors in the range of 7.3-7.8 and the pH in the biogasification reactor in 7.9-8.1. The residual solids after the digestion had a high heating value of 14.7 kJ gTS(-1). PMID:20409703

  9. Performance of temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system treating dairy cattle wastes.

    PubMed

    Sung, Shihwu; Santha, Harikishan

    2003-04-01

    The performance of temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system in the stabilization of dairy cattle wastes at high solids concentrations has never been evaluated, though the process has been established as a feasible alternative to conventional mesophilic processes for the treatment of municipal wastewater sludges. In this study, the TPAD system operating at a retention time of 14 days was subjected to varying total solids (TS) concentrations (3.46-14.54%) of dairy cattle wastes. At TS concentrations lower than 12.20%, corresponding to system volatile solids (VS) loadings in the range of 1.87-5.82 g VS/L/day, the system achieved an average VS removal of 40.2%. The maximum VS destruction of 42.6% was achieved at a TS concentration of 10.35%. Methane recovery from the wastes was consistently within 0.21-0.22 L/g VS fed. There was a drop in the system performance with respect to VS removal and methane recovery at TS concentrations higher than 10.35%. volatile fatty acid/alkalinity ratios less than 0.35 in the thermophilic reactor and 0.10 in the mesophilic reactor were found favorable for stable operation of the system. For the entire range of TS concentrations, the indicator organism counts in the biosolids were within the limits specified by USEPA in 40 CFR Part 503 regulations for Class A designation. After digestion, nearly 80-85% of total phosphorus was associated with the biosolids. PMID:12600391

  10. Dynamic expression of Dab2 in the mouse embryonic central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwok-Kuen Cheung; Samuel C Mok; Payam Rezaie; Wood Yee Chan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dab2, one of two mammalian orthologs of Drosophila Disabled, has been shown to be involved in cell positioning and formation of visceral endoderm during mouse embryogenesis, but its role in neuronal development is not yet fully understood. In this report, we have examined the localization of the Dab2 protein in the mouse embryonic central nervous system (CNS) at different

  11. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    SciTech Connect

    Stabnikova, O. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)], E-mail: costab@ntu.edu.sg; Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2008-07-01

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

  12. Waste activated sludge treatment based on temperature staged and biologically phased anaerobic digestion system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingwen; Zheng, Mingxia; Tao, Tao; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun

    2013-10-01

    The concept of temperature staged and biological phased (TSBP) was proposed to enhance the performance of waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion. Semi-continuous experiments were used to investigate the effect of temperature (35 to 70 degrees C) as well as the hydraulic retention time (HRT) (2, 4 and 6 days) on the acidogenic phase. The results showed that the solubilization degree of waste-activated sludge increased from 14.7% to 30.1% with temperature increasing from 35 to 70 degrees C, while the acidification degree was highest at 45 degrees C (17.6%), and this was quite different from the temperature impact on hydrolysis. Compared with HRT of 2 and 6 days, 4 days was chosen as the appropriate HRT because of its relatively high solubilization degree (24.6%) and acidification degree (20.1%) at 45 degrees C. The TSBP system combined the acidogenic reactor (45 degrees C, 4 days) with the methanogenic reactor (35 degrees C, 16 days) and the results showed 84.8% and 11.4% higher methane yield and volatile solid reduction, respectively, compared with that of the single-stage anaerobic digestion system with HRT of 20 days at 35 degrees C. Moreover, different microbial morphologies were observed in the acidogenic- and methanogenic-phase reactors, which resulted from the temperature control and HRT adjustment. All the above results indicated that 45 degrees C was the optimum temperature to inhibit the activity of methanogenic bacteria in the acidogenic phase, and temperature staging and phase separation was thus accomplished. The advantages of the TSBP process were also confirmed by a full-scale waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion project which was an energy self-sufficient system. PMID:24494492

  13. Continuously-stirred anaerobic digester to convert organic wastes into biogas: system setup and basic operation.

    PubMed

    Usack, Joseph G; Spirito, Catherine M; Angenent, Largus T

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a bioprocess that is commonly used to convert complex organic wastes into a useful biogas with methane as the energy carrier. Increasingly, AD is being used in industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste(water) treatment applications. The use of AD technology allows plant operators to reduce waste disposal costs and offset energy utility expenses. In addition to treating organic wastes, energy crops are being converted into the energy carrier methane. As the application of AD technology broadens for the treatment of new substrates and co-substrate mixtures, so does the demand for a reliable testing methodology at the pilot- and laboratory-scale. Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations, including the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow (PF), and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) configurations. The CSTR is frequently used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations. However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with solids or settling of solids in tubing. For that scenario with continuous mixing requirements, lab-scale bioreactors are fed periodically and we refer to such configurations as continuously stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs). This article presents a general methodology for constructing, inoculating, operating, and monitoring a CSAD system for the purpose of testing the suitability of a given organic substrate for long-term anaerobic digestion. The construction section of this article will cover building the lab-scale reactor system. The inoculation section will explain how to create an anaerobic environment suitable for seeding with an active methanogenic inoculum. The operating section will cover operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting. The monitoring section will introduce testing protocols using standard analyses. The use of these measures is necessary for reliable experimental assessments of substrate suitability for AD. This protocol should provide greater protection against a common mistake made in AD studies, which is to conclude that reactor failure was caused by the substrate in use, when really it was improper user operation. PMID:22824993

  14. Continuously-stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into Biogas: System Setup and Basic Operation

    PubMed Central

    Usack, Joseph G.; Spirito, Catherine M.; Angenent, Largus T.

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a bioprocess that is commonly used to convert complex organic wastes into a useful biogas with methane as the energy carrier 1-3. Increasingly, AD is being used in industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste(water) treatment applications 4,5. The use of AD technology allows plant operators to reduce waste disposal costs and offset energy utility expenses. In addition to treating organic wastes, energy crops are being converted into the energy carrier methane 6,7. As the application of AD technology broadens for the treatment of new substrates and co-substrate mixtures 8, so does the demand for a reliable testing methodology at the pilot- and laboratory-scale. Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations, including the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow (PF), and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) configurations 9. The CSTR is frequently used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations. However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with solids or settling of solids in tubing. For that scenario with continuous mixing requirements, lab-scale bioreactors are fed periodically and we refer to such configurations as continuously stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs). This article presents a general methodology for constructing, inoculating, operating, and monitoring a CSAD system for the purpose of testing the suitability of a given organic substrate for long-term anaerobic digestion. The construction section of this article will cover building the lab-scale reactor system. The inoculation section will explain how to create an anaerobic environment suitable for seeding with an active methanogenic inoculum. The operating section will cover operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting. The monitoring section will introduce testing protocols using standard analyses. The use of these measures is necessary for reliable experimental assessments of substrate suitability for AD. This protocol should provide greater protection against a common mistake made in AD studies, which is to conclude that reactor failure was caused by the substrate in use, when really it was improper user operation 10. PMID:22824993

  15. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as drug targets for diseases of the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Approximately 20 of the 30 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed by specific neurons and cells within the alimentary canal. They subserve important roles in taste, chemesthesis, mechanosensation, pain and hyperalgesia and contribute to the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, absorptive and secretory processes, blood flow, and mucosal homeostasis. In a cellular perspective, TRP channels operate either as primary detectors of chemical and physical stimuli, as secondary transducers of ionotropic or metabotropic receptors, or as ion transport channels. The polymodal sensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPM8, TRPP2, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 enables the digestive system to survey its physical and chemical environment, which is relevant to all processes of digestion. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 contribute to the absorption of Ca²? and Mg²?, respectively. TRPM7 participates in intestinal pacemaker activity, and TRPC4 transduces muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation to smooth muscle contraction. Changes in TRP channel expression or function are associated with a variety of diseases/disorders of the digestive system, notably gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pain and hyperalgesia in heartburn, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, cholera, hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, esophageal, gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer, and polycystic liver disease. These implications identify TRP channels as promising drug targets for the management of a number of gastrointestinal pathologies. As a result, major efforts are put into the development of selective TRP channel agonists and antagonists and the assessment of their therapeutic potential. PMID:21420431

  16. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as drug targets for diseases of the digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 20 of the 30 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed by specific neurons and cells within the alimentary canal. They subserve important roles in taste, chemesthesis, mechanosensation, pain and hyperalgesia and contribute to the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, absorptive and secretory processes, blood flow, and mucosal homeostasis. In a cellular perspective, TRP channels operate either as primary detectors of chemical and physical stimuli, as secondary transducers of ionotropic or metabotropic receptors, or as ion transport channels. The polymodal sensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPM8, TRPP2, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 enables the digestive system to survey its physical and chemical environment, which is relevant to all processes of digestion. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 contribute to the absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively. TRPM7 participates in intestinal pacemaker activity, and TRPC4 transduces muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation to smooth muscle contraction. Changes in TRP channel expression or function are associated with a variety of diseases/disorders of the digestive system, notably gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pain and hyperalgesia in heartburn, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, cholera, hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, esophageal, gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer, and polycystic liver disease. These implications identify TRP channels as promising drug targets for the management of a number of gastrointestinal pathologies. As a result, major efforts are put into the development of selective TRP channel agonists and antagonists and the assessment of their therapeutic potential. PMID:21420431

  17. Performance and stability improvements in anaerobic digestion of thermally hydrolyzed municipal biowaste by a biofilm system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hou, Huahua; Hu, Song; Gao, Xingbao

    2010-03-01

    In this present study, thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment improved the hydrolysis of organic solids and the solid-liquid separation ability of MB, making it possible to obtain a long solid retention time (SRT) and high degradation ratio in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). Biofilm carriers were introduced into ASBR to prolong the mean cell retention time (MCRT). The biofilm system operated at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.5-5 gVSL(reactor)(-1)day(-1) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 13.3 days. The biofilm carriers provided perfect conditions for microbe retention and growth, improving the digestion efficiency. The MCRT was 89-150 days and SRT was 24-36 days, with the methane yield of 330-370 mL g(-1)VS(added) and VS(d) of 62-70%. Meanwhile, due to the mass-transport resistance and high microbe density of the biofilm, the system show high stability. Therefore, the biofilm system provided an approach for a highly efficient anaerobic digestion of municipal biowaste. PMID:19910188

  18. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; P<0.001) and the calculated time to cero viability is 36 days. The eggs in the intestinal system of each beetle were counted and tested for viability. Taenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas. PMID:24728368

  19. Identification of transcriptional regulators in the mouse immune system

    PubMed Central

    Jojic, Vladimir; Shay, Tal; Sylvia, Katelyn; Zuk, Or; Sun, Xin; Kang, Joonsoo; Regev, Aviv; Koller, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    The differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into immune cells has been extensively studied in mammals, but the transcriptional circuitry controlling it is still only partially understood. Here, the Immunological Genome Project gene expression profiles across mouse immune lineages allowed us to systematically analyze these circuits. Using a computational algorithm called Ontogenet, we uncovered differentiation-stage specific regulators of mouse hematopoiesis, identifying many known hematopoietic regulators, and 175 new candidate regulators, their target genes, and the cell types in which they act. Among the novel regulators, we highlight the role of ETV5 in ??T cells differntiation. Since the transcriptional program of human and mouse cells is highly conserved1, it is likely that many lessons learned from the mouse model apply to humans. PMID:23624555

  20. Microvasculature of the mouse testis and excurrent duct system.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, F

    1982-04-01

    The microvascular architecture of the mouse testis and excurrent duct system was examined by a casting method with the aid of scanning electron microscopy and by sectioning techniques for light and transmission electron microscopy. Two fundamental types of peritubular capillary arrangements were noted in relation to the tubules. The first type most typically appeared in the testis. In this type, peritubular capillaries interconnected intertubular blood vessels to form a rope-ladder-like structure. The length of the individual peritubular capillaries was short, and a number of the capillaries encircled each tubule. Adjacent tubules shared a single layer of capillaries. The vascular organization of the ductuli efferentes and of the middle segment of the epididymis was also of this type, but the number of peritubular capillaries was much fewer compared with that of the testis. In the second type, the peritubular capillaries formed a network encircling each tubule in its subepithelial layer. The capillary organization in the initial and terminal segments of the epididymis and the ductus deferens belonged to the second type. In the distal part of the ductus deferens, a prominent venous plexus was formed in the most peripheral subepithelial layer. PMID:7091016

  1. Analysis of angiogenesis in the developing mouse central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Nicole; Plate, Karl H; Liebner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In order to study basic mechanisms of sprouting angiogenesis, researchers worldwide rely on the use of model tissues such as rodent retina, which becomes vascularized postnatally, to study the growth of blood vessels. By definition, models have to be simple, recapitulating angiogenic processes in a stereotyped and relatively easy accessible manner, allowing the application of standardized analyses. These criteria also apply in an ideal manner to the embryonic mouse hindbrain, which becomes vascularized by sprouting angiogenesis from a preformed perineural vascular plexus, leading to the stereotypical formation of a capillary subventricular plexus. Similar to the retina model, between embryonic days 10.5 and 13.5, the hindbrain can be flat-mounted in an "open-book" preparation, allowing the analysis of the vascular bed in two-dimensional extension, of parameters like vessel density, morphology, and remodeling including branching and sprouting. In addition to sprouting angiogenesis, the hindbrain is a suitable model for investigating inductive mechanisms towards the blood-brain barrier phenotype of microvessels in the central nervous system. In this chapter, we describe how to fix, dissect, stain, and analyze the developing hindbrain vasculature. PMID:24510854

  2. FGF signaling facilitates postinjury recovery of mouse hematopoietic system

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Meng; Ross, Jason T.; Itkin, Tomer; Perry, John M.; Venkatraman, Aparna; Haug, Jeffrey S.; Hembree, Mark J.; Deng, Chu-Xia; Lapidot, Tsvee; He, Xi C.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling promotes hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion in vitro. However, it is unknown whether FGF promotes HSPC expansion in vivo. Here we examined FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) expression and investigated its in vivo function in HSPCs. Conditional knockout (CKO) of Fgfr1 did not affect phenotypical number of HSPCs and homeostatic hematopoiesis, but led to a reduced engraftment only in the secondary transplantation. When treated with 5-fluorouracil (5FU), the Fgfr1 CKO mice showed defects in both proliferation and subsequent mobilization of HSPCs. We identified megakaryocytes (Mks) as a major resource for FGF production, and further discovered a novel mechanism by which Mks underwent FGF-FGFR signaling dependent expansion to accelerate rapid FGF production under stress. Within HSPCs, we observed an up-regulation of nuclear factor ?B and CXCR4, a receptor for the chemoattractant SDF-1, in response to bone marrow damage only in control but not in Fgfr1 CKO model, accounting for the corresponding defects in proliferation and migration of HSPCs. This study provides the first in vivo evidence that FGF signaling facilitates postinjury recovery of the mouse hematopoietic system by promoting proliferation and facilitating mobilization of HSPCs. PMID:22802336

  3. Fluorescence molecular imaging system with a novel mouse surface extraction method and a rotary scanning scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Dianwen; Baikejiang, Reheman; Li, Changqing

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a new fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) imaging system, in which we utilized a phase shifting method to extract the mouse surface geometry optically and a rotary laser scanning approach to excite fluorescence molecules and acquire fluorescent measurements on the whole mouse body. Nine fringe patterns with a phase shifting of 2?/9 are projected onto the mouse surface by a projector. The fringe patterns are captured using a webcam to calculate a phase map that is converted to the geometry of the mouse surface with our algorithms. We used a DigiWarp approach to warp a finite element mesh of a standard digital mouse to the measured mouse surface thus the tedious and time-consuming procedure from a point cloud to mesh is avoided. Experimental results indicated that the proposed method is accurate with errors less than 0.5 mm. In the FMT imaging system, the mouse is placed inside a conical mirror and scanned with a line pattern laser that is mounted on a rotation stage. After being reflected by the conical mirror, the emitted fluorescence photons travel through central hole of the rotation stage and the band pass filters in a motorized filter wheel, and are collected by a CCD camera. Phantom experimental results of the proposed new FMT imaging system can reconstruct the target accurately.

  4. Potential for direct interspecies electron transfer in an electric-anaerobic system to increase methane production from sludge digestion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Wang, Liying; Quan, Xie

    2015-01-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between Geobacter species and Methanosaeta species is an alternative to interspecies hydrogen transfer (IHT) in anaerobic digester, which however has not been established in anaerobic sludge digestion as well as in bioelectrochemical systems yet. In this study, it was found that over 50% of methane production of an electric-anaerobic sludge digester was resulted from unknown pathway. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Geobacter species were significantly enriched with electrodes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) further confirmed that the dominant Geobacter species enriched belonged to Geobacter metallireducens. Together with Methanosaeta species prevailing in the microbial communities, the direct electron exchange between Geobacter species and Methanosaeta species might be an important reason for the "unknown" increase of methane production. Conductivity of the sludge in this electric-anaerobic digester was about 30% higher than that of the sludge in a control digester without electrodes. This study not only revealed for the first time that DIET might be the important mechanism on the methanogenesis of bioelectrochemical system, but also provided a new method to enhance DIET by means of bioelectric enrichment of Geobacter species. PMID:26057581

  5. The mouse genome database (MGD): new features facilitating a model system.

    PubMed

    Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2007-01-01

    The mouse genome database (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org/), the international community database for mouse, provides access to extensive integrated data on the genetics, genomics and biology of the laboratory mouse. The mouse is an excellent and unique animal surrogate for studying normal development and disease processes in humans. Thus, MGD's primary goals are to facilitate the use of mouse models for studying human disease and enable the development of translational research hypotheses based on comparative genotype, phenotype and functional analyses. Core MGD data content includes gene characterization and functions, phenotype and disease model descriptions, DNA and protein sequence data, polymorphisms, gene mapping data and genome coordinates, and comparative gene data focused on mammals. Data are integrated from diverse sources, ranging from major resource centers to individual investigator laboratories and the scientific literature, using a combination of automated processes and expert human curation. MGD collaborates with the bioinformatics community on the development of data and semantic standards, and it incorporates key ontologies into the MGD annotation system, including the Gene Ontology (GO), the Mammalian Phenotype Ontology, and the Anatomical Dictionary for Mouse Development and the Adult Anatomy. MGD is the authoritative source for mouse nomenclature for genes, alleles, and mouse strains, and for GO annotations to mouse genes. MGD provides a unique platform for data mining and hypothesis generation where one can express complex queries simultaneously addressing phenotypic effects, biochemical function and process, sub-cellular location, expression, sequence, polymorphism and mapping data. Both web-based querying and computational access to data are provided. Recent improvements in MGD described here include the incorporation of single nucleotide polymorphism data and search tools, the addition of PIR gene superfamily classifications, phenotype data for NIH-acquired knockout mice, images for mouse phenotypic genotypes, new functional graph displays of GO annotations, and new orthology displays including sequence information and graphic displays. PMID:17135206

  6. Cache Digests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Rousskov; Duane Wessels

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents Cache Digest, a novel protocol and optimization technique for cooperativeWeb caching. Cache Digest allows proxies to make information about their cache contentsavailable to peers in a compact form. A peer uses digests to identify neighbors that are likelyto have a given document. Cache Digest is a promising alternative to traditional per-requestquery\\/reply schemes such as ICP.We discuss the

  7. Use of modeling to aid design of a two-phase grass digestion system.

    PubMed

    Thamsiriroj, Thanasit; Nizami, Abdul Sattar; Murphy, Jerry D

    2012-04-01

    A sequentially fed leach bed system coupled with a leachate holding tank and an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) was modeled based on 310d of grass silage digestion with the goal of generating specific design instruction. The model suggests the hydrolysis rate is proportional to the sprinkling rate and retention time. It suggests that raising the sprinkling rate by a third (from 600L/d to 800L/d) increases the volatile solids destruction from 70% to 80% for a retention time of 30d yielding 370L CH(4)/kg VS. The volume of the leachate holding tank has a minimal influence on methane production (reducing its volume by a factor of 2 reduces methane yield by 1%). The model suggests that for a constant sprinkling rate, shorter retention time increases daily methane production, but lowers specific methane yield (L CH(4)/kg VS). Longer retention time increases methane content in the biogas. PMID:22342589

  8. Spatiotemporal Fate Map of Neurogenin1 (Neurog1) Lineages in the Mouse Central Nervous System

    E-print Network

    Goodrich, Lisa V.

    Spatiotemporal Fate Map of Neurogenin1 (Neurog1) Lineages in the Mouse Central Nervous System of Neurog1 lineage cells throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Here we labeled and followed Neurog1 factor; neural progenitor; brain development; genetic fate mapping; Ngn1 The central nervous system (CNS

  9. Distribution of the type I interferon in different organs of chicken digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shu-Yuan; Li, Chao; Dai, Xiu-Mei; Zhao, Cui

    2014-01-01

    Objective Distribution of the type I interferon in different organs of the chicken digestive system. Material and methods In order to obtain a certain length (274 bp) of a fragment, a pair of primers was designed according to the conserved nucleotide sequence of gallus IFNAR-1 (EU477527.1) fragment that was published by the GenBank. The fragment was cloned by pEASY-T1 and amplified by relative fluorescence quantitative PCR with SYBR Green I; according to the results, we made a standard curve. The experimental group took interferon orally, while the control group took equivalent physiological saline orally, then we used relative fluorescence quantitative PCR to detect the copies of the IFNAR-1 gene of the palate, tongue, esophagus, craw, glandular stomach, duodenum and rectum of the experimental group and control group. Copies of the IFNAR-1 gene of those organs were calculated by Ct value. Finally, all the chickens were infected with the Newcastle Disease Virus after 48 hours. Results The results showed that the IFNAR-1 gene had the most expression in the esophagus. In the experiment of interferon antiviral activity detection, the chickens which took interferon orally were healthier than the other group. Conclusions It is confirmed that the interferon receptor did exist in the digestive organs. However, according to the physical and chemical properties of interferon, interferon is easily inactivated in the acid and alkali environment, by pepsin and trypsin, so the absorption site for interferon exists in organs above the craw, especially in the esophagus and tongue.

  10. Glycine receptor mouse mutants: model systems for human hyperekplexia

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Natascha; Langlhofer, Georg; Kluck, Christoph J; Villmann, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Human hyperekplexia is a neuromotor disorder caused by disturbances in inhibitory glycine-mediated neurotransmission. Mutations in genes encoding for glycine receptor subunits or associated proteins, such as GLRA1, GLRB, GPHN and ARHGEF9, have been detected in patients suffering from hyperekplexia. Classical symptoms are exaggerated startle attacks upon unexpected acoustic or tactile stimuli, massive tremor, loss of postural control during startle and apnoea. Usually patients are treated with clonazepam, this helps to dampen the severe symptoms most probably by up-regulating GABAergic responses. However, the mechanism is not completely understood. Similar neuromotor phenotypes have been observed in mouse models that carry glycine receptor mutations. These mouse models serve as excellent tools for analysing the underlying pathomechanisms. Yet, studies in mutant mice looking for postsynaptic compensation of glycinergic dysfunction via an up-regulation in GABAA receptor numbers have failed, as expression levels were similar to those in wild-type mice. However, presynaptic adaptation mechanisms with an unusual switch from mixed GABA/glycinergic to GABAergic presynaptic terminals have been observed. Whether this presynaptic adaptation explains the improvement in symptoms or other compensation mechanisms exist is still under investigation. With the help of spontaneous glycine receptor mouse mutants, knock-in and knock-out studies, it is possible to associate behavioural changes with pharmacological differences in glycinergic inhibition. This review focuses on the structural and functional characteristics of the various mouse models used to elucidate the underlying signal transduction pathways and adaptation processes and describes a novel route that uses gene-therapeutic modulation of mutated receptors to overcome loss of function mutations. PMID:23941355

  11. Pathogenesis of H5N1 influenza virus infections in mice and ferret models differ between respiratory and digestive system exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data suggests H5N1 influenza viruses are transmitted through and predominantly affect the respiratory system of mammals. Some data suggests digestive system involvement. However, direct evidence of alimentary transmission and infection in mammal...

  12. The organotelluride catalyst (PHTE)?NQ prevents HOCl-induced systemic sclerosis in mouse.

    PubMed

    Marut, Wioleta K; Kavian, Niloufar; Servettaz, Amélie; Nicco, Carole; Ba, Lalla A; Doering, Mandy; Chéreau, Christiane; Jacob, Claus; Weill, Bernard; Batteux, Frédéric

    2012-04-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by skin and visceral fibrosis, microvascular damage, and autoimmunity. HOCl-induced mouse SSc is a murine model that mimics the main features of the human disease, especially the activation and hyperproliferation rate of skin fibroblasts. We demonstrate here the efficiency of a tellurium-based catalyst 2,3-bis(phenyltellanyl)naphthoquinone ((PHTE)(2)NQ) in the treatment of murine SSc, through its selective cytotoxic effects on activated SSc skin fibroblasts. SSc mice treated with (PHTE)(2)NQ displayed a significant decrease in lung and skin fibrosis and in alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression in the skin compared with untreated mouse SSc animals. Serum concentrations of advanced oxidation protein products, nitrate, and anti-DNA topoisomerase I autoantibodies were increased in SSc mice, but were significantly reduced in SSc mice treated with (PHTE)(2)NQ. To assess the mechanism of action of (PHTE)(2)NQ, the cytotoxic effect of (PHTE)(2)NQ was compared in normal fibroblasts and in mouse SSc skin fibroblasts. ROS production is higher in mouse SSc fibroblasts than in normal fibroblasts, and was still increased by (PHTE)(2)NQ to reach a lethal threshold and kill mouse SSc fibroblasts. Therefore, the effectiveness of (PHTE)(2)NQ in the treatment of mouse SSc seems to be linked to the selective pro-oxidative and cytotoxic effects of (PHTE)(2)NQ on hyperproliferative fibroblasts. PMID:22277946

  13. Anaerobic biodegradability and digestion in accumulation systems for concentrated black CD water and kitchen organic-wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Elmitwalli; M. van Leeuwen; K. Kujawa-Roeleveld; W. Sanders; G. Zeeman

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of two accumulation-systems (AC) for anaerobic digestion and storage of concentrated black water with (A,Cl) or without (AC2) urine + kitchen organic-wastes was investigated. The waste(water) 0 was collected by two vacuum toilet\\/transport systems. The influent-total COD of the AC2 (53,000 mg\\/L) was more concentrated by four times than that of the AC1. The suspended COD represented the

  14. Do individually ventilated cage systems generate a problem for genetic mouse model research?

    PubMed

    Logge, W; Kingham, J; Karl, T

    2014-09-01

    Technological developments over recent decades have produced a novel housing system for laboratory mice, so-called 'individually ventilated cage' (IVC) systems. IVCs present a cage environment which is different to conventional filter-top cages (FILTER). Nothing is known about the consequences of IVC housing on genetic mouse models, despite studies reporting IVC-mediated changes to the phenotypes of inbred mouse strains. Thus, in this study, we systematically compared the established behavioural phenotype of a validated mouse model for the schizophrenia risk gene neuregulin 1 (TM Nrg1 HET) kept in FILTER housing with Nrg1 mutant mice raised in IVC systems. We found that particular schizophrenia-relevant endophenotypes of TM Nrg1 HETs which had been established and widely published using FILTER housing were altered when mice were raised in IVC housing. IVCs diminished the schizophrenia-relevant prepulse inhibition deficit of Nrg1 mutant males. Furthermore, IVC housing had a sex-dependent moderate effect on the locomotive phenotype of Nrg1 mice across test paradigms. Behavioural effects of IVC housing were less prominent in female mice. Thus, transferring the breeding colony of mouse mutants from FILTER to IVC systems can shift disease-relevant behaviours and therefore challenge the face validity of these mice. Researchers facing an upgrade of their mouse breeding or holding facilities to IVC systems must be aware of the potential impact this upgrade might have on their genetic mouse models. Future publications should provide more details on the cage system used to allow appropriate data comparison across research sites. PMID:24920375

  15. Influence of different substrates on the performance of a two-stage high pressure anaerobic digestion system.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, A; Chen, Y; Lindner, J; Wonneberger, A M; Zielonka, S; Oechsner, H; Jungbluth, T

    2015-02-01

    The two-stage autogenerative high-pressure digestion technique is a novel and promising approach for the production of gaseous fuels or upgraded biogas. This new technique is described in the patent DE 10 2011 015415 A1 and integrates biogas production, its upgrading and pressure boosting in one process. Anaerobic digestion under elevated pressure conditions leads to decreasing pH-values in the digestate due to the augmented formation of carboxylic acid. Model calculations carried out to evaluate the two-stage design showed that the pH-value in the pressurized anaerobic filter has a major influence on the methane content of the biogas produced. Within this study, the influence of the nitrogen content as one of the most important buffering substances on the performance of the system has been tested. The results show that higher NH4 contents lead to higher pH-values in the digester and as a consequence to higher methane contents. PMID:25451774

  16. Spare capacity and phenotypic flexibility in the digestive system of a migratory bird: defining the limits of animal design

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Scott R.; Karasov, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible phenotypes enable animals to live in environments that change over space and time, and knowing the limits to and the required time scale for this flexibility provides insights into constraints on energy and nutrient intake, diet diversity and niche width. We quantified the level of immediate and ultimate spare capacity, and thus the extent of phenotypic flexibility, in the digestive system of a migratory bird in response to increased energy demand, and identified the digestive constraints responsible for the limits on sustained energy intake. Immediate spare capacity decreased from approximately 50% for birds acclimated to relatively benign temperatures to less than 20% as birds approached their maximum sustainable energy intake. Ultimate spare capacity enabled an increase in feeding rate of approximately 126% as measured in birds acclimated for weeks at ?29°C compared with +21°C. Increased gut size and not tissue-specific differences in nutrient uptake or changes in digestive efficiency or retention time were primarily responsible for this increase in capacity with energy demand, and this change required more than 1–2 days. Thus, the pace of change in digestive organ size may often constrain energy intake and, for birds, retard the pace of their migration. PMID:24718764

  17. Illuminating Cancer Systems With Genetically-Engineered Mouse Models and Coupled Luciferase Reporters In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Brandon; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is a powerful non-invasive tool that has dramatically accelerated the in vivo interrogation of cancer systems and longitudinal analysis of mouse models of cancer over the past decade. Various luciferase enzymes have been genetically engineered into mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer which permit investigation of cellular and molecular events associated with oncogenic transcription, post-transcriptional processing, protein-protein interactions, transformation and oncogene addiction in live cells and animals. Luciferase-coupled GEMMs ultimately serve as a non-invasive, repetitive, longitudinal, and physiological means by which cancer systems and therapeutic responses can be investigated accurately within the autochthonous context of a living animal. PMID:23585416

  18. 77 FR 38075 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ...of Health National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases...Committee: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Type 1 Diabetes Mouse Resource. Date: July...

  19. Ontogeny of the Digestive System of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) and Effects of Soybean Meal from Start-Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Sahlmann, Christian; Gu, Jinni; Kortner, Trond M.; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long history of rearing Atlantic salmon in hatcheries in Norway, knowledge of molecular and physiological aspects of juvenile development is still limited. To facilitate introduction of alternative feed ingredients and feed additives during early phases, increased knowledge regarding the ontogeny of the digestive apparatus in salmon is needed. In this study, we characterized the development of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs for five months following hatch by using histological, biochemical and molecular methods. Furthermore, the effects of a diet containing 16.7% soybean meal (SBM) introduced at start-feeding were investigated, as compared to a fishmeal based control diet. Salmon yolk sac alevins and fry were sampled at 18 time points from hatch until 144 days post hatch (dph). Histomorphological development was investigated at 7, 27, 46, 54 and 144 dph. Ontogenetic expression patterns of genes encoding key digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, gastrointestinal peptide hormones and T-cell markers were analyzed from 13 time points by qPCR. At 7 dph, the digestive system of Atlantic salmon alevins was morphologically distinct with an early stomach, liver, pancreas, anterior and posterior intestine. About one week before the yolk sac was internalized and exogenous feeding was started, gastric glands and developing pyloric caeca were observed, which coincided with an increase in gene expression of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and nutrient transporters. Thus, the observed organs seemed ready to digest external feed well before the yolk sac was absorbed into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to post-smolt Atlantic salmon, inclusion of SBM did not induce intestinal inflammation in the juveniles. This indicates that SBM can be used in compound feeds for salmon fry from start-feeding to at least 144 dph and/or 4-5 g body weight. PMID:25923375

  20. Ontogeny of the Digestive System of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) and Effects of Soybean Meal from Start-Feeding.

    PubMed

    Sahlmann, Christian; Gu, Jinni; Kortner, Trond M; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long history of rearing Atlantic salmon in hatcheries in Norway, knowledge of molecular and physiological aspects of juvenile development is still limited. To facilitate introduction of alternative feed ingredients and feed additives during early phases, increased knowledge regarding the ontogeny of the digestive apparatus in salmon is needed. In this study, we characterized the development of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs for five months following hatch by using histological, biochemical and molecular methods. Furthermore, the effects of a diet containing 16.7% soybean meal (SBM) introduced at start-feeding were investigated, as compared to a fishmeal based control diet. Salmon yolk sac alevins and fry were sampled at 18 time points from hatch until 144 days post hatch (dph). Histomorphological development was investigated at 7, 27, 46, 54 and 144 dph. Ontogenetic expression patterns of genes encoding key digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, gastrointestinal peptide hormones and T-cell markers were analyzed from 13 time points by qPCR. At 7 dph, the digestive system of Atlantic salmon alevins was morphologically distinct with an early stomach, liver, pancreas, anterior and posterior intestine. About one week before the yolk sac was internalized and exogenous feeding was started, gastric glands and developing pyloric caeca were observed, which coincided with an increase in gene expression of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and nutrient transporters. Thus, the observed organs seemed ready to digest external feed well before the yolk sac was absorbed into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to post-smolt Atlantic salmon, inclusion of SBM did not induce intestinal inflammation in the juveniles. This indicates that SBM can be used in compound feeds for salmon fry from start-feeding to at least 144 dph and/or 4-5 g body weight. PMID:25923375

  1. Improving methane production and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of particulate saline sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuedong; Ferreira, Rui B; Hu, Jianmei; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2014-06-01

    In this study, batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of trehalose and glycine betaine as well as potassium on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of anaerobic biomass and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of saline sludge from a brackish recirculation aquaculture system. The results of ANOVA and Tukey's HSD (honestly significant difference) tests showed that glycine betaine and trehalose enhanced SMA of anaerobic biomass and reactive phosphorus release from the particulate waste. Moreover, SMA tests revealed that methanogenic sludge, which was long-term acclimatized to a salinity level of 17 g/L was severely affected by the increase in salinity to values exceeding 35 g/L. Addition of compatible solutes, such as glycine betaine and trehalose, could be used to enhance the specific methane production rate and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion from particulate organic waste produced in marine or brackish aquaculture recirculation systems. PMID:24785791

  2. Long Noncoding RNAs in Digestive System Malignancies: A Novel Class of Cancer Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets?

    PubMed Central

    Kladi-Skandali, Athina; Michaelidou, Kleita; Scorilas, Andreas; Mavridis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    High throughput methodologies have revealed the existence of an unexpectedly large number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). The unconventional role of lncRNAs in gene expression regulation and their broad implication in oncogenic and tumor suppressive pathways have introduced lncRNAs as novel biological tumor markers. The most prominent example of lncRNAs application in routine clinical practice is PCA3, a FDA-approved biomarker for prostate cancer. Regarding digestive system malignancies, the oncogenic HOTAIR is one of the most widely studied lncRNAs in the preclinical level and has already been identified as a potent prognostic marker for major malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we provide an overview of recent findings regarding the emerging role of lncRNAs not only as key regulators of cancer initiation and progression in colon, stomach, pancreatic, liver, and esophageal cancers, but also as reliable tumor markers and therapeutic tools. lncRNAs can be easily, rapidly, and cost-effectively determined in tissues, serum, and gastric juice, making them highly versatile analytes. Taking also into consideration the largely unmet clinical need for early diagnosis and more accurate prognostic/predictive markers for gastrointestinal cancer patients, we comment upon the perspectives of lncRNAs as efficient molecular tools that could aid in the clinical management.

  3. Long Noncoding RNAs in Digestive System Malignancies: A Novel Class of Cancer Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets?

    PubMed

    Kladi-Skandali, Athina; Michaelidou, Kleita; Scorilas, Andreas; Mavridis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    High throughput methodologies have revealed the existence of an unexpectedly large number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). The unconventional role of lncRNAs in gene expression regulation and their broad implication in oncogenic and tumor suppressive pathways have introduced lncRNAs as novel biological tumor markers. The most prominent example of lncRNAs application in routine clinical practice is PCA3, a FDA-approved biomarker for prostate cancer. Regarding digestive system malignancies, the oncogenic HOTAIR is one of the most widely studied lncRNAs in the preclinical level and has already been identified as a potent prognostic marker for major malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we provide an overview of recent findings regarding the emerging role of lncRNAs not only as key regulators of cancer initiation and progression in colon, stomach, pancreatic, liver, and esophageal cancers, but also as reliable tumor markers and therapeutic tools. lncRNAs can be easily, rapidly, and cost-effectively determined in tissues, serum, and gastric juice, making them highly versatile analytes. Taking also into consideration the largely unmet clinical need for early diagnosis and more accurate prognostic/predictive markers for gastrointestinal cancer patients, we comment upon the perspectives of lncRNAs as efficient molecular tools that could aid in the clinical management. PMID:26064090

  4. Nuclear criticality safety practices in digestion systems of the large scale production facility of the Department of Energy at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, L C

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear criticality safety practices used at the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio in conjunction with its metal dissolving and nonmetal, e.g., ash and ore concentrates, digesting operations are reviewed. Operating procedures with several different types of dissolver or digestor systems, i.e., metal dissolver, continuous, drum and safe geometry, are discussed. Calculations performed to verify the criticality safety of the operations are described. (LCL)

  5. Development of the mouse vestibular system in the absence of gravity perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael; Yuan Wang, Xiang; Wolgemuth, Debra J.; Murashov, Alexander K.

    2003-01-01

    The tilted mutant mouse, which lacks otoconia in the inner ear, was used to study development of the mouse vestibular system in the absence of gravity perception. Otoconia are dense particles composed of proteins and calcium carbonate crystals suspended in the gelatinous macular membrane. They enhance, and are largely responsible for, sensitivity to gravity. Morphometric analysis of the vestibular ganglion showed that the mutant developed more slowly than the normal controls, both in rate of development and cell number, particularly during the first week of post-natal development. The mutant ganglia also exhibited a reduction of cells during the first 6 days of post-natal development.

  6. Using anhydrous ammonia during anaerobic digester startup

    SciTech Connect

    Trout, P.A. (HDR Engineering, Inc., Omaha, NE (United States)); Schultz, T.; Schlegel, G.K.

    1991-09-01

    During a new wastewater treatment plant (WTP) startup, several systems cannot be placed in full operation or fine tuned until the anaerobic digestion system is fully on-line, stable, and producing sufficient quantities of burnable gas. To start up and demonstrate these systems while reducing plant utility costs, the anaerobic digester startup must proceed smoothly and the time between beginning digester sludge feed and achieving stable operation must be as short as possible. Controlling anaerobic digester pH and neutralizing volatile fatty acids are commonly required during anaerobic digester startup. This is especially true when good quality seed sludge is not available from operating digesters. If seed sludge is not available, planning for and implementing alkaline chemical feed to the digesters is necessary. Anhydrous ammonia can also be used to control anaerobic digester pH and increase digester buffering capacity.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTACT HEPATOCYTE ACTIVATION SYSTEM FOR ROUTINE USE WITH THE MOUSE LYMPHOMA ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a method for cocultivating primary rat hepatocytes with L5178Y/TK+/- 3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cells. The system should provide a means to simulate more closely in vivo metabolism compared to metabolism by liver homogenates, while still being useful for rou...

  8. INDUCED HEPATOCYTES AS A METABOLIC ACTIVATION SYSTEM FOR THE MOUSE-LYMPHOMA ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed methods for the coculture of hepatocytes and mouse lymphoma cells and have shown the utility of this system for testing promutagens from several chemical classes (Brock et al., 1987). In the present study we investigated the use of hepatocytes isolated from rats...

  9. Molecular Analysis of Atypical Family 18 Chitinase from Fujian Oyster Crassostrea angulata and Its Physiological Role in the Digestive System

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bingye; Zhang, Mingming; Li, Lingling; Pu, Fei; You, Weiwei; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-01-01

    Chitinolytic enzymes have an important physiological significance in immune and digestive systems in plants and animals, but chitinase has not been identified as having a role in the digestive system in molluscan. In our study, a novel chitinase homologue, named Ca-Chit, has been cloned and characterized as the oyster Crassostrea angulate. The 3998bp full-length cDNA of Ca-Chit consisted of 23bp 5-UTR, 3288 ORF and 688bp 3-UTR. The deduced amino acids sequence shares homologue with the chitinase of family 18. The molecular weight of the protein was predicted to be 119.389 kDa, with a pI of 6.74. The Ca-Chit protein was a modular enzyme composed of a glycosyl hydrolase family 18 domain, threonine-rich region profile and a putative membrane anchor domain. Gene expression profiles monitored by quantitative RT-PCR in different adult tissues showed that the mRNA of Ca-Chit expressed markedly higher visceral mass than any other tissues. The results of the whole mount in-situ hybridization displayed that Ca-Chit starts to express the visceral mass of D-veliger larvae and then the digestive gland forms a crystalline structure during larval development. Furthermore, the adult oysters challenged by starvation indicated that the Ca-Chit expression would be regulated by feed. All the observations made suggest that Ca-Chit plays an important role in the digestive system of the oyster, Crassostrea angulate. PMID:26046992

  10. Privacy Impact Assessment Chandra Digest Request

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    Privacy Impact Assessment Chandra Digest Request I. System Identification 1. IT System Name: Chandra EPO Digest (http://chandra.harvard.edu/chronicle/news_priv.html) 2. IT System Sponsor: Van Mc digest. 4. With whom the information will be shared. #12;Only the providers of the material (certain CXC

  11. Navigating wastewater energy recovery strategies: a life cycle comparison of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and conventional treatment systems with anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Cao, Ling; Love, Nancy G; Raskin, Lutgarde; Skerlos, Steven J

    2014-05-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate emerging anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology in comparison with conventional wastewater energy recovery technologies. Wastewater treatment process modeling and systems analyses were combined to evaluate the conditions under which AnMBR may produce more net energy and have lower life cycle environmental emissions than high rate activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (HRAS+AD), conventional activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (CAS+AD), and an aerobic membrane bioreactor with anaerobic digestion (AeMBR+AD). For medium strength domestic wastewater treatment under baseline assumptions at 15 °C, AnMBR recovered 49% more energy as biogas than HRAS+AD, the most energy positive conventional technology considered, but had significantly higher energy demands and environmental emissions. Global warming impacts associated with AnMBR were largely due to emissions of effluent dissolved methane. For high strength domestic wastewater treatment, AnMBR recovered 15% more net energy than HRAS+AD, and the environmental emissions gap between the two systems was reduced. Future developments of AnMBR technology in low energy fouling control, increased flux, and management of effluent methane emissions would make AnMBR competitive with HRAS+AD. Rapid advancements in AnMBR technology must continue to achieve its full economic and environmental potential as an energy recovery strategy for domestic wastewater. PMID:24742289

  12. Evaluating a model of anaerobic digestion of organic wastes through system identification

    SciTech Connect

    Anex, R.P.; Kiely, G.

    1999-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW), on its own or co-digested with primary sewage sludge (PSS), produces high quality biogas, suitable as renewable energy. Parameter estimation and evaluation of a two-stage mathematical model of the anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of MSW and PSS are described. Measured data are from a bench scale laboratory experiment using a continuously stirred tank reactor and operated at 36 C for 115 days. The two-stage model simulates acidogenesis and methanogenesis, including ammonia inhibition. Model parameters are estimated using an output error, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm. Sensitivity of the estimated parameter values and the model outputs to non-estimated model parameters and measurement errors are evaluated. The estimated mathematical model successfully predicts the performance of the anaerobic reactor. Sensitivity results provide guidance for improving the model structure and experimental procedures.

  13. SEWP Digest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The SEWP Digest is a newsletter from the National Bureau of Economic Research's Science and Engineering Workforce Project. This issue features articles on nanotechnology. Covered topics include jobs in nanotechnology, nanotechnology safety, and other developments in the field.

  14. Mesophylic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Zeeman

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERAL<\\/strong>In this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).For this purpose were researched:1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestion process for energy production on dairy farms.2. Digestion of manure at lower temperatures.The goal of the first mentioned research

  15. Fate mapping of the mouse midbrain-hindbrain constriction using a site-specific recombination system.

    PubMed

    Zinyk, D L; Mercer, E H; Harris, E; Anderson, D J; Joyner, A L

    1998-05-21

    The mouse midbrain-hindbrain constriction is centrally involved in patterning of the midbrain and anterior hindbrain (cerebellum), as revealed by recent genetic studies using mice and embryological studies in chick (reviewed in [1,2]). This region can act as an organizer region to induce midbrain and cerebellar development. Genes such as Engrailed-1, Pax-2 and Pax-5, which are expressed in the embryonic cells that will form the midbrain and the cerebellum, are required for development of these regions. Fate-mapping experiments at early somite stages in chick have revealed that the cerebellar primordium is located both anterior and posterior to the midbrain-hindbrain constriction, whereas midbrain precursors lie more anteriorly. Fate mapping in mice has been complicated by the inaccessibility of the postimplantation embryo. Here, we report the use of a new in vivo approach involving the Cre-IoxP site-specific recombination system [3] to map the fate of cells in the mouse midbrain-hindbrain constriction. We show that cells originating in the mouse dorsal midbrain-hindbrain constriction during embryonic days 9-12 contribute significantly to the medial cerebellum and colliculi. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of using a recombinase-based lineage-tracing system for fate mapping in the mouse. PMID:9635195

  16. Biodistribution and stability of CdSe core quantum dots in mouse digestive tract following per os administration: Advantages of double polymer/silica coated nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Loginova, Y.F. [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation)] [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Dezhurov, S.V. [Trial Center For Science and Technology 'Nanotech-Dubna', Dubna, Moscow Region 141983 (Russian Federation)] [Trial Center For Science and Technology 'Nanotech-Dubna', Dubna, Moscow Region 141983 (Russian Federation); Zherdeva, V.V.; Kazachkina, N.I. [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation)] [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Wakstein, M.S. [Trial Center For Science and Technology 'Nanotech-Dubna', Dubna, Moscow Region 141983 (Russian Federation)] [Trial Center For Science and Technology 'Nanotech-Dubna', Dubna, Moscow Region 141983 (Russian Federation); Savitsky, A.P., E-mail: apsavitsky@inbi.ras.ru [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New QDs coated with combination of polythiol ligands and silica shell were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the QDs stability in digestive tract of mice after per os administration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymer/silica shell prevents QDs degradation and fluorescence quenching in vivo. -- Abstract: CdSe-core, ZnS-capped semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are of great potential for biomedical applications. However, applications in the gastrointestinal tract for in vivo imaging and therapeutic purposes are hampered by their sensitivity to acidic environments and potential toxicity. Here we report the use of coatings with a combination of polythiol ligands and silica shell (QDs PolyT-APS) to stabilize QDs fluorescence under acidic conditions. We demonstrated the stability of water-soluble QDs PolyT-APS both in vitro, in strong acidic solutions, and in vivo. The biodistribution, stability and photoluminescence properties of QDs in the gastrointestinal tract of mice after per os administration were assessed. We demonstrated that QDs coated with current traditional materials - mercapto compounds (QDs MPA) and pendant thiol group (QDs PolyT) - are not capable of protecting QDs from chemically induced degradation and surface modification. Polythiol ligands and silica shell quantum dots (QDs PolyT-APS) are suitable for biological and biomedical applications in the gastrointestinal tract.

  17. The Use of Computer Data Systems in Academic Counseling: Outcomes for Community College Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Kristen

    This Digest discusses computer assisted advisory practices currently in use in community colleges, outlining the types of data collected and how they are used, including the use of tracking to plan interventions for at-risk students. Enhanced computer technology has improved the effectiveness of academic advising by enabling more thorough and…

  18. Evaluation of the use of microwave oven systems for the digestion of environmental samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Quevauviller; Jean-Louis Imbert; Micheline Ollé

    1993-01-01

    In most chemical analyses for inorganic determinations in environmental matrices the sample is physically destroyed by dissolution, calcination etc. These digestion procedures have to be validated in order to ensure that no contamination and\\/or losses have occurred which could affect the accuracy of the final results obtained; this validation can be made by using certified reference materials (CRMs).

  19. The estrogen receptor fusion system in mouse models: a reversible switch.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Jonathan; Littlewood, Trevor; Evan, Gerard I; Soucek, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Reversible regulatory mouse models have significantly contributed to our understanding of normal tissue and cancer biology, providing the opportunity to temporally control initiation, progression, and evolution of physiological and pathological events. The tamoxifen inducible system, one of the best-characterized "reversible switch" models, has a number of beneficial features. In this system, the hormone-binding domain of the mammalian estrogen receptor is used as a heterologous regulatory domain. Upon ligand binding, the receptor is released from its inhibitory complex and the fusion protein becomes functional. We summarize the advantages and drawbacks of the system, describe several mouse models that rely on it, and discuss potential improvements that could render it even more useful and versatile. PMID:25734072

  20. Establishment of NOD/SCID mouse model of central nervous system leukemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongfang; Li, Pinggan; He, Zhanwen; Meng, Zhe; Luo, Xiangyang; Fang, Jianpei

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we successfully established a NOD/SCID mouse model of central nervous system leukemia by injection of acute monocytic leukemia cell line SHI-1 cells into the lateral ventricle. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect human leukocyte common antigen in brain slices. Nested PCR assay was used to detect MLL/AF6 fusion gene expression. After injection, the condition of the mice gradually progressed to cachexia and death (median survival time, 25 days). Leukemic cells were identified in the lung, bone marrow, and lymph node of one mouse. Brain tissue sections showed invasion into the subdural space, pia mater, arachnoid, along the Virchow-Robin space and into the deep brain parenchyma. In summary, a central nervous system leukemia (CNSL) model was established in NOD/SCID mice. PMID:24927394

  1. Hoover Digest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started in 1996, the Hoover Digest is a quarterly publication that features writing on politics, economics, and history from the minds of scholars and researchers affiliated with the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. Visitors to the Digest's homepage will find an illustration of the current issue's cover, flanked on one side by a listing of the featured articles. Further down on the site, users will find a list of the "Most Viewed" articles, along with links to the "Most Printed", "Most Emailed", and "Most Saved" pieces. Along the right-side of the homepage, visitors can elect to browse by topic, date, or author. The topic list is exhaustive, and it includes areas such as "Flat Tax", "Constitution", "Law Enforcement", and "Arms Control". Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive a free print copy of the Digest.

  2. Prognostic Value of CD166 Expression in Cancers of the Digestive System: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaotao; Liu, Yang; Qu, Dihong; Wu, Ping; Huang, Jian; Xu, A-xiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective Many studies have reported the prognostic predictive value of CD166 as a cancer stem cell marker in cancers of the digestive system; however, its predictive value remains controversial. Here, we investigate the correlation between CD166 positivity in digestive system cancers and clinicopathological features using meta-analysis. Methods A comprehensive search in PubMed and ISI Web of Science through March of 2013 was performed. Only articles containing CD166 antigen immunohistochemical staining in cancers of the digestive system were included,including pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. Data comparing 3- and 5-year overall survival along with other clinicopathological features were collected. Results Nine studies with 2553 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included for the analysis. The median rate of CD166 immunohistochemical staining expression was 56% (25.4%–76.3%). In colorectal cancer specifically, the results of a fixed-effects model indicated that CD166-positive expression was an independent marker associated with a smaller tumor burden (T category; RR?=?0.93, 95%, CI: 0.88–0.98) but worse spread to nearby lymph nodes (N category; RR?=?1.17, 95% CI: 1.05–1.30). The 5-year overall survival rate was showed relationship with cytoplasmic positive staining of CD166 (RR?=?1.47 95% 1.21–1.79), but no significant association was found in the pool or any other stratified analysis with 3- or 5- year overall survival rate. Conclusion Based on the published studies, different cellular location of CD166 has distinct prognostic value and cytoplasmic positive expression is associated with worse prognosis outcome. Besides, our results also find CD166 expression indicate advanced T category and N-positive status in colorectal cancer specifically. PMID:23940674

  3. Characterization of the calcium-dependent proteolytic system in a mouse muscle cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elise Dargelos; Stephane Dedieu; Catherine Moyen; Sylvie Poussard; Philippe Veschambre; Jean-Jacques Brustis; Patrick Cottin

    2002-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that the calcium-dependent proteolytic system (calpains and calpastatin) is involved in myoblast differentiation. It is also known that myogenic differentiation can be studied in vitro. In the present experiments, using a mouse muscle cell line (C2C12) we have analyzed both the sequences of appearance and the expression profiles of calpains 1, 2, 3 and calpastatin during

  4. Vanadium inhalation in a mouse model for the understanding of air-suspended particle systemic repercussion.

    PubMed

    Fortoul, T I; Rodriguez-Lara, V; Gonzalez-Villalva, A; Rojas-Lemus, M; Cano-Gutierrez, G; Ustarroz-Cano, M; Colin-Barenque, L; Montaño, L F; García-Pelez, I; Bizarro-Nevares, P; Lopez-Valdez, N; Falcon-Rodriguez, C I; Jimenez-Martínez, R S; Ruiz-Guerrero, M L; López-Zepeda, L S; Morales-Rivero, A; Muñiz-Rivera-Cambas, A

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased concern about the health effects that air-suspended particles have on human health which have been dissected in animal models. Using CD-1 mouse, we explore the effects that vanadium inhalation produce in different tissues and organs. Our findings support the systemic effects of air pollution. In this paper, we describe our findings in different organs in our conditions and contrast our results with the literature. PMID:21716674

  5. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  6. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1995-11-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters-type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates-define the investment and operating costs of anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters in somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 11/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  7. Identification of transcriptional regulators in the mouse immune system

    E-print Network

    Regev, Aviv

    The differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into cells of the immune system has been studied extensively in mammals, but the transcriptional circuitry that controls it is still only partially understood. Here, the ...

  8. Multiparametric and semiquantitative scoring systems for the evaluation of mouse model histopathology - a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Histopathology has initially been and is still used to diagnose infectious, degenerative or neoplastic diseases in humans or animals. In addition to qualitative diagnoses semiquantitative scoring of a lesion`s magnitude on an ordinal scale is a commonly demanded task for histopathologists. Multiparametric, semiquantitative scoring systems for mouse models histopathology are a common approach to handle these questions and to include histopathologic information in biomedical research. Results Inclusion criteria for scoring systems were a first description of a multiparametric, semiquantiative scoring systems which comprehensibly describe an approach to evaluate morphologic lesion. A comprehensive literature search using these criteria identified 153 originally designed semiquantitative scoring systems for the analysis of morphologic changes in mouse models covering almost all organs systems and a wide variety of disease models. Of these, colitis, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, lupus nephritis and collagen induced osteoarthritis colitis were the disease models with the largest number of different scoring systems. Closer analysis of the identified scoring systems revealed a lack of a rationale for the selection of the scoring parameters or a correlation between scoring parameter value and the magnitude of the clinical symptoms in most studies. Conclusion Although a decision for a particular scoring system is clearly dependent on the respective scientific question this review gives an overview on currently available systems and may therefore allow for a better choice for the respective project. PMID:23800279

  9. Atmosphere behavior in gas-closed mouse-algal systems - An experimental and modelling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, M. M.; Moore, B., III; Bartholomew, I.; Wharton, R.

    1984-01-01

    A NASA-sponsored research program initiated using mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas-exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere is studied. The development of control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels is considered. A mathematical model simulating the behavior of a gas-closed mouse-algal system under varying environmental conditions is described. To verify and validate the model simulations, an analytical system with which algal growth and gas exchange characteristics can be manipulated and measured is designed, fabricated, and tested. The preliminary results are presented.

  10. A robust automated system elucidates mouse home cage behavioral structure

    E-print Network

    Jiggins, Francis

    and physio- logical systems. Detailed assessment of these patterns thus has the potential to provide acting animals provides a window into the central integration of numerous behavioral and physiological that in natural environments animals typically alternate between two major discrete states, active and inactive

  11. Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent

    E-print Network

    Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent: Significant Energy Savings over Traditional Activated Sludge Treatment This report presents results for an anaerobic digestion system operated;Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office

  12. The physiology of digestion in fish larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Govoni; George W. Boehlert; Yoshirou Watanabej

    1986-01-01

    Synopsis The acquisition, digestion, and assimilation of food is critical for the growth and survival of fish larvae; a fish larva either grows or it perishes. Fish larvae are characterized by digestive systems and diets that differ from adults. Larvae undergo a pattern of trophic ontogeny, changing diet with increasing size, and these changes result in differences in digestive requirements.

  13. Linking susceptibility genes and pathogenesis mechanisms using mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Crampton, Steve P.; Morawski, Peter A.; Bolland, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) represents a challenging autoimmune disease from a clinical perspective because of its varied forms of presentation. Although broad-spectrum steroids remain the standard treatment for SLE, they have many side effects and only provide temporary relief from the symptoms of the disease. Thus, gaining a deeper understanding of the genetic traits and biological pathways that confer susceptibility to SLE will help in the design of more targeted and effective therapeutics. Both human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and investigations using a variety of mouse models of SLE have been valuable for the identification of the genes and pathways involved in pathogenesis. In this Review, we link human susceptibility genes for SLE with biological pathways characterized in mouse models of lupus, and discuss how the mechanistic insights gained could advance drug discovery for the disease. PMID:25147296

  14. Linking susceptibility genes and pathogenesis mechanisms using mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Steve P; Morawski, Peter A; Bolland, Silvia

    2014-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) represents a challenging autoimmune disease from a clinical perspective because of its varied forms of presentation. Although broad-spectrum steroids remain the standard treatment for SLE, they have many side effects and only provide temporary relief from the symptoms of the disease. Thus, gaining a deeper understanding of the genetic traits and biological pathways that confer susceptibility to SLE will help in the design of more targeted and effective therapeutics. Both human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and investigations using a variety of mouse models of SLE have been valuable for the identification of the genes and pathways involved in pathogenesis. In this Review, we link human susceptibility genes for SLE with biological pathways characterized in mouse models of lupus, and discuss how the mechanistic insights gained could advance drug discovery for the disease. PMID:25147296

  15. PalladianDigest Transportation

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    PalladianDigest CONNECT. EMPOWER. GROW. Tackling Transportation Challenges Nebraska has been a vital link in the nation's transportation system since the days when carts, wagons to University of Nebraska­Lincoln research. That's fine with UNL transportation researchers, said Larry Rilett

  16. Posttraumatic growth moderates the effects of posttraumatic stress symptoms on adjustment and positive affective reactions in digestive system cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Cohen, Miri; Gouzman, Julia

    2015-09-01

    The study aims were twofold: (1) To investigate the associations of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) with adjustment and affective reactions of digestive system cancer patients and (2) To assess the moderating effects of PTG on the associations of PTSS with adjustment and affective reactions. The sample consisted of 200 respondents 1-4 years following diagnosis and treatment for digestive system cancer. Participants completed questionnaires assessing PTSS, PTG, adjustment, positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). The results showed that PTG was positively associated with adjustment and PA, while PTSS was negatively associated with these outcomes and positively associated with NA. Moderation effects of PTG were also observed: The negative associations between PTSS and adjustment or PA were weaker under high levels than under low levels of PTG. It was concluded that PTG is important both as a contributor to better adjustment and PA, as well as a moderator of the detrimental effects of PTSS on adjustment and PA following recovery from cancer. Thus, when developing post-cancer intervention programs, PTG should be viewed as a factor to be encouraged and nurtured for the benefit of cancer patients' adjustment and their long-term well-being. PMID:25308122

  17. Short-term exposure to dimethylformamide and the impact on digestive system disease: an outdoor study for volatile organic compound.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cui; Huang, Canke; Wei, Yumei; Zhu, Qi; Tian, Weili; Zhang, Qingyu

    2014-07-01

    Occupational and experimental studies have revealed the organs most affected by dimethylformamide (DMF) are liver and gastrointestinal tract. However, few studies have focused on the potential effect of outdoor pollution of DMF. This study examined the health risk of hospitalization due to digestive system disease by time series studies in a case city Longwan, China. The urine metabolite of DMF was correlated well with DMF exposure concentration (EC). A 101.0-?g/m(3) (interquartile range) increase in the two-day moving average of DMF EC was associated with a 1.10 (1.01 ˜ 1.20), 1.22 (1.10 ˜ 1.35), and 1.05 (0.90 ˜ 1.22) increase in hospitalization for total digestive system diseases, liver disease, and gastrointestinal tract disease, respectively. The exposure-dose response between DMF and the relative risk of liver disease was linear only below 350 ?g/m(3). These findings highlight a previously unrecognized health problem related to VOCs released into the outdoor environment. PMID:24747345

  18. Pumilio-2 Function in the Mouse Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Heller, H. Craig; Brüstle, Oliver; Reijo Pera, Renee A.

    2011-01-01

    Coordinated mRNA translation at the synapse is increasingly recognized as a critical mechanism for neuronal regulation. Pumilio, a translational regulator, is known to be involved in neuronal homeostasis and memory formation in Drosophila. Most recently, the mammalian Pumilio homolog Pumilio-2 (Pum2) has been found to play a role in the mammalian nervous system, in particular in regulating morphology, arborization and excitability of neuronal dendrites, in vitro. However, the role of Pum2 in vivo remains unclear. Here, we report our investigation of the functional and molecular consequences of Pum2 disruption in vivo using an array of neurophysiology, behavioral and gene expression profiling techniques. We used Pum2-deficient mice to monitor in vivo brain activity using EEG and to study behavior traits, including memory, locomotor activity and nesting capacities. Because of the suspected role of Pum2 in neuronal excitability, we also examined the susceptibility to seizure induction. Finally, we used a quantitative gene expression profiling assay to identify key molecular partners of Pum2. We found that Pum2-deficient mice have abnormal behavioral strategies in spatial and object memory test. Additionally, Pum2 deficiency is associated with increased locomotor activity and decreased body weight. We also observed environmentally-induced impairment in nesting behavior. Most importantly, Pum2-deficient mice showed spontaneous EEG abnormalities and had lower seizure thresholds using a convulsing dosage of pentylenetetrazole. Finally, some genes, including neuronal ion channels, were differentially expressed in the hippocampus of Pum2-deficient mice. These findings demonstrate that Pum2 serves key functions in the adult mammalian central nervous system encompassing neuronal excitability and behavioral response to environmental challenges. PMID:22016787

  19. Development and Function of the Mouse Vestibular System in the Absence of Gravity Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolgemuth, Debra J.

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that was tested in this research was that the absence of gravity perception, such as would occur in space, would affect the development and function of the vestibular and central nervous systems. Further, we postulated that these effects would be more significant at specific stages of post-natal development of the animal. We also proposed the use of molecular genetic approaches that would provide important information as to the hierarchy of gene function during the development and subsequent function of the vestibular system. The tilted (tlt) mutant mouse has been characterized as lacking the ability to provide sensory input to the gravity receptors. The tlt/tlt mutant mice were a particularly attractive model for the study of vestibular function since the primary defect was limited to the receptor part of the vestibular system, and there were no detectable abnormal phenotypes in other organ systems. The goal of the proposed studies was to assess immediate and delayed effects of the lack of gravity perception on the vestibular system. Particular attention was paid to characterizing primarily affected periods of vestibular morphogenesis, and to identifying downstream genetic pathways that are altered in the CNS of the tlt/tlt mutant mouse. The specific aims were: (1) to characterize the postnatal morphogenesis of the CNS in the tlt mutant mouse, using detailed morphometric analysis of isolated vestibular ganglia and brain tissue at different stages of postnatal development and assessment of apoptotic cell death; (2) to examine the expression of selected genes implicated by mutational analysis to be important in vestibular development or function by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry in the mutant mice; and (3) to identify other genes involved in vestibular development and function, using differential cloning strategies to isolate genes whose expression is changed in the mutant versus normal vestibular system.

  20. The mouse genome database (MGD): new features facilitating a model system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janan T. Eppig; Judith A. Blake; Carol J. Bult; James A. Kadin; Joel E. Richardson

    2007-01-01

    The mouse genome database (MGD, http:\\/\\/www. informatics.jax.org\\/), the international community database for mouse, provides access to extensive integrated data on the genetics, genomics and biology of the laboratory mouse. The mouse is an excellent and unique animal surrogate for studying normal development and disease processes in humans. Thus, MGD's primary goals are to facilitate the use of mouse models for

  1. Molecular and neuronal homology between the olfactory systems of zebrafish and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Luis R.; Ahuja, Gaurav; Ivandic, Ivan; Syed, Adnan S.; Marioni, John C.; Korsching, Sigrun I.; Logan, Darren W.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the two major olfactory organs of rodents, the olfactory mucosa (OM) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO), unraveled the molecular basis of smell in vertebrates. However, some vertebrates lack a VNO. Here we generated and analyzed the olfactory transcriptome of the zebrafish and compared it to the olfactory transcriptomes of mouse to investigate the evolutionary and molecular relationship between single and dual olfactory systems. Our analyses revealed a high degree of molecular conservation, with orthologs of mouse olfactory cell-specific markers and all but one of their chemosensory receptor classes expressed in the single zebrafish olfactory organ. Zebrafish chemosensory receptor genes are expressed across a large dynamic range and their RNA abundance correlates positively with the number of neurons expressing that RNA. Thus we estimate the relative proportions of neuronal sub-types expressing different chemosensory receptors. Receptor repertoire size drives the absolute abundance of different classes of neurons, but we find similar underlying patterns in both species. Finally, we identified novel marker genes that characterize rare neuronal populations in both mouse and zebrafish. In sum, we find that the molecular and cellular mechanisms underpinning olfaction in teleosts and mammals are similar despite 430?million years of evolutionary divergence. PMID:26108469

  2. Molecular and neuronal homology between the olfactory systems of zebrafish and mouse.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Luis R; Ahuja, Gaurav; Ivandic, Ivan; Syed, Adnan S; Marioni, John C; Korsching, Sigrun I; Logan, Darren W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the two major olfactory organs of rodents, the olfactory mucosa (OM) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO), unraveled the molecular basis of smell in vertebrates. However, some vertebrates lack a VNO. Here we generated and analyzed the olfactory transcriptome of the zebrafish and compared it to the olfactory transcriptomes of mouse to investigate the evolutionary and molecular relationship between single and dual olfactory systems. Our analyses revealed a high degree of molecular conservation, with orthologs of mouse olfactory cell-specific markers and all but one of their chemosensory receptor classes expressed in the single zebrafish olfactory organ. Zebrafish chemosensory receptor genes are expressed across a large dynamic range and their RNA abundance correlates positively with the number of neurons expressing that RNA. Thus we estimate the relative proportions of neuronal sub-types expressing different chemosensory receptors. Receptor repertoire size drives the absolute abundance of different classes of neurons, but we find similar underlying patterns in both species. Finally, we identified novel marker genes that characterize rare neuronal populations in both mouse and zebrafish. In sum, we find that the molecular and cellular mechanisms underpinning olfaction in teleosts and mammals are similar despite 430?million years of evolutionary divergence. PMID:26108469

  3. NEONATAL MOUSE-DERIVED ENGINEERED CARDIAC TISSUE: A NOVEL MODEL SYSTEM FOR STUDYING GENETIC HEART DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, W.J.; Hegge, L.F.; Grimes, A.C.; Tong, C.W.; Brost, T.M.; Moss, R.L.; Ralphe, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Cardiomyocytes cultured in a mechanically active three-dimensional configuration can be used for studies that correlate contractile performance to cellular physiology. Current engineered cardiac tissue (ECT) models employ cells derived from either rat or chick hearts. Development of a murine ECT would provide access to many existing models of cardiac disease, and open the possibility of performing targeted genetic manipulation with the ability to directly assess contractile and molecular variables. Objective To generate, characterize and validate mouse ECT using a physiologically relevant model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods and Results We generated mechanically integrated ECT using isolated neonatal mouse cardiac cells derived from both wild type and myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) null mouse hearts. The murine ECT's produce consistent contractile forces that follow the Frank-Starling law, accept physiologic pacing. cMyBP-C null ECT show characteristic acceleration of contraction kinetics. Adenoviral-mediated expression of human cMyBP-C in murine cMyBP-C null ECT restores contractile properties to levels indistinguishable from those of wild type ECT. Importantly, the cardiomyocytes used to construct the cMyBP-C?/? ECT have yet to undergo the significant hypertrophic remodeling that occurs in vivo. Thus, this murine ECT model reveals a contractile phenotype that is specific to the genetic mutation rather than to secondary remodeling events. Conclusions Data presented here show mouse ECT to be an efficient and cost effective platform to study the primary effects of genetic manipulation on cardiac contractile function. This model provides a previously unavailable tool to study specific sarcomeric protein mutations in an intact mammalian muscle system. PMID:21566213

  4. Exceptionally Preserved Cambrian Trilobite Digestive System Revealed in 3D by Synchrotron-Radiation X-Ray Tomographic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Mats E.; Terfelt, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    The Cambrian ‘Orsten’ fauna comprises exceptionally preserved and phosphatised microscopic arthropods. The external morphology of these fossils is well known, but their internal soft-tissue anatomy has remained virtually unknown. Here, we report the first non-biomineralised tissues from a juvenile polymerid trilobite, represented by digestive structures, glands, and connective strands harboured in a hypostome from the Swedish ‘Orsten’ fauna. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy enabled three-dimensional internal recordings at sub-micrometre resolution. The specimen provides the first unambiguous evidence for a J-shaped anterior gut and the presence of a crop with a constricted alimentary tract in the Trilobita. Moreover, the gut is Y-shaped in cross section, probably due to a collapsed lumen of that shape, another feature which has not previously been observed in trilobites. The combination of anatomical features suggests that the trilobite hypostome is functionally analogous to the labrum of euarthropods and that it was a sophisticated element closely integrated with the digestive system. This study also briefly addresses the preservational bias of the ‘Orsten’ fauna, particularly the near-absence of polymerid trilobites, and the taphonomy of the soft-tissue-harbouring hypostome. PMID:22558180

  5. DATA DIGEST WEST LAFAYETTE

    E-print Network

    Petriu, Emil M.

    DATA DIGEST 2009-2010 WEST LAFAYETTE PreparingTomorrow'sLeaders for a Changing World #12-mail: datadigest@purdue.edu URL: www.purdue.edu/DataDigest DATA DIGEST2009-2010 WEST LAFAYETTE #12;DATA DIGEST2009-2010 This tenth edition of the Purdue University Data Digest provides information on a variety of topics

  6. Yersinia enterocolitica Targets Cells of the Innate and Adaptive Immune System by Injection of Yops in a Mouse Infection Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Köberle; Annegret Klein-Günther; Monika Schütz; Michaela Fritz; Susanne Berchtold; Eva Tolosa; Ingo B. Autenrieth; Erwin Bohn

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye) evades the immune system of the host by injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) via a type three secretion system into host cells. In this study, a reporter system comprising a YopE-?-lactamase hybrid protein and a fluorescent staining sensitive to ?-lactamase cleavage was used to track Yop injection in cell culture and in an experimental Ye mouse

  7. Closeout final report on a demonstration test and evaluation of the Cannon Low-NOx Digester System

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Cannon Boiler Works Inc. has been investigating a system for removing NOx from the exhaust gases of furnaces, gas turbines, chemical reactors, incinerators, and boilers. Computer simulations, bench-scale and pilot plant tests have proved that the system is capable of removing substantially all of the NOx from natural gas fired equipment exhaust streams. Originally designated as the Cannon NOx Digester, it has recently been renamed the Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO) System for NOx and SOx Reduction. The principal elements in the system are a fan, heat exchanger, oxidation chamber, spray chamber acting as a gas/liquid absorber, demister, an ozone generator, liquid oxygen storage or dry air supply system for the ozonator, chemical storage and metering system for the caustic neutralizer, and a data acquisition and control system. Most of the ozone is consumed in converting NOx to N{sub 2}O{sub 5} which hydrates to nitric acid which is then scrubbed out of the gas as it passes through the absorber. CO also reacts with ozone to form CO{sub 2} which is subsequently scrubbed out with NaOH. A demonstration, planned for the Alta Dena Dairy located near Los Angeles and in violation of California`s air quality regulations for natural gas fired boilers, was started, delayed due to boiler modifications, and will be continued shortly with new funding. This paper describes the LTO process and presents results from the initial demonstration.

  8. Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

  9. Towards better mouse models: enhanced genotypes, systemic phenotyping and envirotype modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Wurst; Johannes Beckers; Martin Hrabé de Angelis

    2009-01-01

    The mouse is the leading mammalian model organism for basic genetic research and for studying human diseases. Coordinated international projects are currently in progress to generate a comprehensive map of mouse gene functions — the first for any mammalian genome. There are still many challenges ahead to maximize the value of the mouse as a model, particularly for human disease.

  10. Immunodeficient mouse model for human hematopoietic stem cell engraftment and immune system development

    PubMed Central

    Aryee, Ken-Edwin; Shultz, Leonard D.; Brehm, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Immunodeficient mice engrafted with human immune systems provide an exciting model to study human immunobiology in an in vivo setting without placing patients at risk. The essential parameter for creation of these “humanized models” is engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that will allow optimal development of human immune systems. However there are a number of strategies to generate humanized mice and specific protocols can vary significantly among different laboratories. Here we describe a protocol for the co-implantation of human HSC with autologous fetal liver and thymic tissues into immunodeficient mice to create a humanized model with optimal human T cell development. This model, often referred to as the Thy/Liv or BLT (bone marrow, liver, thymus) mouse, develops a functional human immune system, including HLA-restricted human T cells, B cells and innate immune cells. PMID:25062635

  11. An inducible RNA interference system for the functional dissection of mouse embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vidigal, Joana A.; Morkel, Markus; Wittler, Lars; Brouwer-Lehmitz, Antje; Grote, Phillip; Macura, Karol; Herrmann, Bernhard G.

    2010-01-01

    Functional analysis of multiple genes is key to understanding gene regulatory networks controlling embryonic development. We have developed an integrated vector system for inducible gene silencing by shRNAmir-mediated RNA interference in mouse embryos, as a fast method for dissecting mammalian gene function. For validation of the vector system, we generated mutant phenotypes for Brachyury, Foxa2 and Noto, transcription factors which play pivotal roles in embryonic development. Using a series of Brachyury shRNAmir vectors of various strengths we generated hypomorphic and loss of function phenotypes allowing the identification of Brachyury target genes involved in trunk development. We also demonstrate temporal control of gene silencing, thus bypassing early embryonic lethality. Importantly, off-target effects of shRNAmir expression were not detectable. Taken together, the system allows the dissection of gene function at unprecedented detail and speed, and provides tight control of the genetic background minimizing intrinsic variation. PMID:20350929

  12. A primary culture system of mouse thick ascending limb cells with preserved function and uromodulin processing.

    PubMed

    Glaudemans, Bob; Terryn, Sara; Gölz, Nadine; Brunati, Martina; Cattaneo, Angela; Bachi, Angela; Al-Qusairi, Lama; Ziegler, Urs; Staub, Olivier; Rampoldi, Luca; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    The epithelial cells lining the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the loop of Henle perform essential transport processes and secrete uromodulin, the most abundant protein in normal urine. The lack of differentiated cell culture systems has hampered studies of TAL functions. Here, we report a method to generate differentiated primary cultures of TAL cells, developed from microdissected tubules obtained in mouse kidneys. The TAL tubules cultured on permeable filters formed polarized confluent monolayers in ?12 days. The TAL cells remain differentiated and express functional markers such as uromodulin, NKCC2, and ROMK at the apical membrane. Electrophysiological measurements on primary TAL monolayers showed a lumen-positive transepithelial potential (+9.4?±?0.8 mV/cm(2)) and transepithelial resistance similar to that recorded in vivo. The transepithelial potential is abolished by apical bumetanide and in primary cultures obtained from ROMK knockout mice. The processing, maturation and apical secretion of uromodulin by primary TAL cells is identical to that observed in vivo. The primary TAL cells respond appropriately to hypoxia, hypertonicity, and stimulation by desmopressin, and they can be transfected. The establishment of this primary culture system will allow the investigation of TAL cells obtained from genetically modified mouse models, providing a critical tool for understanding the role of that segment in health and disease. PMID:23887378

  13. Apparatus for the anaerobic digestion of natural organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, D.L.; Horton, R.; Stafford, D.A.

    1980-11-11

    The title system consists of a feed tank, from which sewage is provided to a digester tank at an adjustable continuous weight, in which the sewage is anaerobically digested. The gas produced in the anaerobic digester is collected at the top and pumped to a diffuser at the bottom of the digester. The supernatent from the treated sewage is transferred to an outlet tank, and sludge is removed from the bottom of the digester tank.

  14. Noninvasive Topical Loading for Manganese-Enhanced MRI of the Mouse Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Bruce; Lunderville, Chantal; Won, Eric; Liang, Hsiao-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate topical loading as an alternative to intravitreal injection for Mn2+-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) of the visual system. Methods. Topical administration of 0.5 to 1.5 M MnCl2 and intravitreal injections with 0.5 ?L 100 mM and 2 ?L 1 M MnCl2 for mouse MEMRI were conducted, followed by immunohistochemistry. In another mouse group, two topical administrations of 1 M Mn2+ were applied to the same animals 7 days apart, to evaluate the use of MEMRI in a time course study. Dynamic imaging was also conducted to reveal how Mn2+ travels to the retina. MEMRI with topically loaded MnCl2 was also conducted in eyes with retinal ischemia, to evaluate whether the enhancements required healthy neurons. Results. After 1 day, topical administration of 1 M and 1.5 M MnCl2 rendered significant signal enhancement (up to 20%) in the superior colliculus (P < 0.05) that was equivalent to that of the 2-?L 1 M injection. Repeated exposure to Mn2+ showed reproduced enhancement. Dynamic imaging showed significant enhancement in the iris, retina, and lens boundary, but not in the vitreous space. In retinal ischemic eyes, no enhancement of MEMRI was detected in the optic nerves. The immunohistochemistry of the optic nerve (1.5 mm anterior to the chiasm) and retina showed no injury 1 week after Mn2+ topical administrations to each mouse. Conclusions. The results demonstrated the feasibility of using topical administration of Mn2+ for MEMRI. Topically loaded Mn2+ did not diffuse into the vitreous space, but was it may have been absorbed into the iris to diffuse or travel via the capillary circulation to reach the retina. PMID:21421878

  15. SUCCESS STORY DIGEST Success Story Digest

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    NIH LRP SUCCESS STORY DIGEST Success Story Digest In the profiles below, researchers describe how is an Assistant Professor of pediatrics at Wake Forest University's Brenner Children's Hospital. He received

  16. Modular Expert System for the Diagnosis of Operating Conditions of Industrial Anaerobic Digestion Plants (TELEMAC Contribution #5)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Lardon; A. Puñal; J. P. Steyer; J. A. Martinez

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plants are highly efficient wastewater treatment processes with possible energetic valorisation. Despite these advantages, many industries are still reluctant to use them because of their instability in front of changes in operating conditions. To face this major drawback and to enhance the industrial use of anaerobic digestion, one solution is to develop and to implement knowledge base

  17. Two-phase anaerobic digestion within a solid waste/wastewater integrated management system.

    PubMed

    De Gioannis, G; Diaz, L F; Muntoni, A; Pisanu, A

    2008-01-01

    A two-phase, wet anaerobic digestion process was tested at laboratory scale using mechanically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) as the substrate. The proposed process scheme differs from others due to the integration of the MSW and wastewater treatment cycles, which makes it possible to avoid the recirculation of process effluent. The results obtained show that the supplying of facultative biomass, drawn from the wastewater aeration tank, to the solid waste acidogenic reactor allows an improvement of the performance of the first phase of the process which is positively reflected on the second one. The proposed process performed successfully, adopting mesophilic conditions and a relatively short hydraulic retention time in the methanogenic reactor, as well as high values of organic loading rate. Significant VS removal efficiency and biogas production were achieved. Moreover, the methanogenic reactor quickly reached optimal conditions for a stable methanogenic phase. Studies conducted elsewhere also confirm the feasibility of integrating the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW with that of wastewater. PMID:18191559

  18. Poultry waste digester. Final progress report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shih; J. C. H

    1983-01-01

    A simple and low-cost poultry waste digester (PWD) was constructed at North Carolina State University's Poultry Research Farm at Raleigh, N.C. The PWD system was designed to process a daily output of 600 kg of manure from 4000 caged laying hens. The system consisted of two digesters connected in series, a heating system, a hot water tank, and other metering

  19. A demonstration test and evaluation of the Cannon Low-NO{sub x} Digester System. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Since 1985, Cannon Boiler Works, Inc. has been carrying out research and development efforts to perfect a system for removing nitrogen oxides, NO{sub x}, from the exhaust gases of furnaces, gas turbines, chemical reactors, incinerators and boilers.Computer simulations, bench-scale tests and pilot plant testing have proved that the system is capable of removing substantially all of the NO{sub x} from natural gas-fired equipment exhaust streams. Furthermore when retrofit to industrial boilers, both capital costs and operating costs are lower than for competing processes, while performance is much better. The Cannon system for removing NO{sub x}, originally designated as the Cannon NO{sub x} Digester, has recently been renamed the Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO) System for NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} Reduction. It will be engineered and marketed by Cannon Technology, Inc, a wholly owned subsidiary of Cannon Boiler Works, Inc. Cannon has US patents for the process and for the associated equipment and has patent applications pending in Europe. Cannon`s Low Temperature Oxidation, LTO, process has proved effective for reducing the levels of NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and particulates from boiler flue gases.

  20. Defining Functional Gene-Circuit Interfaces in the Mouse Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Soden, Marta E.; Gore, Bryan B.; Zweifel, Larry S.

    2013-01-01

    Complexity in the nervous system is established by developmental genetic programs, maintained by differential genetic profiles, and sculpted by experiential and environmental influence over gene expression. Determining how specific genes define neuronal phenotypes, shape circuit connectivity, and regulate circuit function is essential for understanding how the brain processes information, directs behavior, and adapts to changing environments. Mouse genetics has contributed greatly to current percepts of gene-circuit interfaces in behavior, but considerable work remains. Large-scale initiatives to map gene expression and connectivity in the brain, together with advanced techniques in molecular genetics, now allow detailed exploration of the genetic basis of nervous system function at the level of specific circuit connections. In this review, we highlight several key advances for defining the function of specific genes within a neural network. PMID:24007626

  1. A microbial clock provides an accurate estimate of the postmortem interval in a mouse model system.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lauber, Christian L; Knights, Dan; Ackermann, Gail; Humphrey, Gregory C; Gebert, Matthew J; Van Treuren, Will; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Keepers, Kyle; Guo, Yan; Bullard, James; Fierer, Noah; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Establishing the time since death is critical in every death investigation, yet existing techniques are susceptible to a range of errors and biases. For example, forensic entomology is widely used to assess the postmortem interval (PMI), but errors can range from days to months. Microbes may provide a novel method for estimating PMI that avoids many of these limitations. Here we show that postmortem microbial community changes are dramatic, measurable, and repeatable in a mouse model system, allowing PMI to be estimated within approximately 3 days over 48 days. Our results provide a detailed understanding of bacterial and microbial eukaryotic ecology within a decomposing corpse system and suggest that microbial community data can be developed into a forensic tool for estimating PMI. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01104.001. PMID:24137541

  2. A microbial clock provides an accurate estimate of the postmortem interval in a mouse model system

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lauber, Christian L; Knights, Dan; Ackermann, Gail; Humphrey, Gregory C; Gebert, Matthew J; Van Treuren, Will; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Keepers, Kyle; Guo, Yan; Bullard, James; Fierer, Noah; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Establishing the time since death is critical in every death investigation, yet existing techniques are susceptible to a range of errors and biases. For example, forensic entomology is widely used to assess the postmortem interval (PMI), but errors can range from days to months. Microbes may provide a novel method for estimating PMI that avoids many of these limitations. Here we show that postmortem microbial community changes are dramatic, measurable, and repeatable in a mouse model system, allowing PMI to be estimated within approximately 3 days over 48 days. Our results provide a detailed understanding of bacterial and microbial eukaryotic ecology within a decomposing corpse system and suggest that microbial community data can be developed into a forensic tool for estimating PMI. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01104.001 PMID:24137541

  3. Systems Biology-Based Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence Genes in Mouse Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Noton K.; Bandyopadhyay, Nirmalya; Veeramani, Balaji; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Karakousis, Petros C.; Bader, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence genes is important for developing novel drugs to shorten the duration of tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We developed computational algorithms that predict M. tuberculosis genes required for long-term survival in mouse lungs. As the input, we used high-throughput M. tuberculosis mutant library screen data, mycobacterial global transcriptional profiles in mice and macrophages, and functional interaction networks. We selected 57 unique, genetically defined mutants (18 previously tested and 39 untested) to assess the predictive power of this approach in the murine model of TB infection. We observed a 6-fold enrichment in the predicted set of M. tuberculosis genes required for persistence in mouse lungs relative to randomly selected mutant pools. Our results also allowed us to reclassify several genes as required for M. tuberculosis persistence in vivo. Finally, the new results implicated additional high-priority candidate genes for testing. Experimental validation of computational predictions demonstrates the power of this systems biology approach for elucidating M. tuberculosis persistence genes. PMID:24549847

  4. Peripheral nervous system defects in a mouse model for peroxisomal biogenesis disorders.

    PubMed

    Hanson, M Gartz; Fregoso, Veronica L; Vrana, Justin D; Tucker, Chandra L; Niswander, Lee A

    2014-11-01

    Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are autosomal recessive disorders in humans characterized by skeletal, eye and brain abnormalities. Despite the fact that neurological deficits, including peripheral nervous system (PNS) defects, can be observed at birth in some PBD patients including those with PEX10 mutations, the embryological basis of the PNS defects is unclear. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified a mouse model for Pex10 deficiency that exhibits neurological abnormalities during fetal development. Homozygous Pex10 mutant mouse embryos display biochemical abnormalities related to a PBD deficiency. During late embryogenesis, Pex10 homozygous mutant mice experience progressive loss of movement and at birth they become cyanotic and die shortly thereafter. Homozygous Pex10 mutant fetuses display decreased integrity of axons and synapses, over-extension of axons in the diaphragm and decreased Schwann cell numbers. Our neuropathological, molecular and electrophysiological studies provide new insights into the embryological basis of the PNS deficits in a PBD model. Our findings identify PEX10 function, and likely other PEX proteins, as an essential component of the spinal locomotor circuit. PMID:25176044

  5. Architectural Digest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Architectural Digest is one of the world's premier periodicals dedicated to architecture and interior design. Their website is a trove of materials for those dabbling in such matters. On this site, visitors can look through one of six sections: Interiors + Inspiration, Celebrity Style, Architecture + Design, Shopping + Sources, News, Culture + Travel, and In the Magazine. These areas are rich in content and commentary from diverse caravansaries. First-timers might enjoy a jaunt on over to the Daily AD to get their daily dose of what's happening in the field. A random visit to the site might bring up a photo gallery of 25 inspiring staircases from around the world, a renovation of a chateau in the Loire Valley, or a look into the homes of some of Southern California's movers and shakers. Additionally, users can sign up to receive updates about their special editions and website only features.

  6. Histochemical changes in the digestive gland of Lymnaea truncatula infected with Fasciola hepatica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Moore; D. W. Halton

    1973-01-01

    Histochemical studies of the digestive gland of Lymnaea truncatula have revealed features of the normal digestive processes in which at least 3 cell types are involved: digestive cells, mucus cells and basiphil cells. An intracellular vacuolar digestive system containing lysosomal enzymes appears to operate in the digestive cells. Parasitization by Fasciola hepatica evokes considerable structural and histochemical changes in the

  7. Comparison of single-stage and two-phase anaerobic sludge digestion systems - Performance and microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Maspolim, Yogananda; Zhou, Yan; Guo, Chenghong; Xiao, Keke; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-12-01

    This study compared reactor performance and the respective microbial community dynamics in the conventional single-stage and 2-phase anaerobic digestion (AD) systems, treating municipal sludge to generate methane. The 2-phase system's COD and VS reduction, and methane production could be maintained throughout the three HRTs tested (p=0.05), which was associated with an increase in organic loading (30d=1.5gCODL(-1)d(-1), 20d=2.2gCODL(-1)d(-1) and 10d=3.5gCODL(-1)d(-1)); but this was not so in the single-stage system where it deteriorated at HRT of 10d (p=0.05) due to impairment of particulate COD reduction. qPCR, DGGE and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that microbial adaptation occurred as the seed sludge formed a different community in each reactor at 30d HRT; however, no further significant microbial shift occurred at lower HRTs. The presence of specific hydrolytic and acidogenic Flavobacteriales and Clostriales in the acidogenic reactor may have allowed for enhanced hydrolysis and acidogenesis, leading to higher organic loading tolerance at 10d HRT. Methanogenic activity in the acidogenic reactor may have been performed by Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinaceae. Operation of the acidogenic reactor at neutral pH may have to be considered to ensure the cultivation of propionate oxidising bacteria, which could in turn, prevent reactor "souring" during high load conditions. PMID:25096961

  8. Interactions between the neuromodulatory systems and the amygdala: exploratory survey using the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas.

    PubMed

    Zaldivar, Andrew; Krichmar, Jeffrey L

    2013-11-01

    Neuromodulatory systems originate in nuclei localized in the subcortical region of the brain and control fundamental behaviors by interacting with many areas of the central nervous system. An exploratory survey of the cholinergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic receptor expression energy in the amygdala, and in the neuromodulatory areas themselves was undertaken using the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas. The amygdala was chosen because of its importance in cognitive behavior and its bidirectional interaction with the neuromodulatory systems. The gene expression data of 38 neuromodulatory receptor subtypes were examined across 13 brain regions. The substantia innominata of the basal forebrain and regions of the amygdala had the highest amount of receptor expression energy for all four neuromodulatory systems examined. The ventral tegmental area also displayed high receptor expression of all four neuromodulators. In contrast, the locus coeruleus displayed low receptor expression energy overall. In general, cholinergic receptor expression was an order of magnitude greater than other neuromodulatory receptors. Since the nuclei of these neuromodulatory systems are thought to be the source of specific neurotransmitters, the projections from these nuclei to target regions may be inferred by receptor expression energy. The comprehensive analysis revealed many connectivity relations and receptor localization that had not been previously reported. The methodology presented here may be applied to other neural systems with similar characteristics, and to other animal models as these brain atlases become available. PMID:23143393

  9. In vitro digestion of short-dough biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres, using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system (1): viscosity measurement and prediction.

    PubMed

    Villemejane, C; Wahl, R; Aymard, P; Denis, S; Michon, C

    2015-09-01

    The effects of biscuit composition on the viscosity generated during digestion were investigated. A control biscuit, one with proteins, one with fibres, and one with both proteins and fibres were digested under the same conditions, using the TNO intestinal model (TIM-1). The TIM-1 is a multi-compartmental and dynamic in vitro system, simulating digestion in the upper tract (stomach and small intestine) of healthy adult humans. Digesta were collected at different times, in the different compartments of the TIM-1 (stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and viscosity was measured with a dynamic rheometer. Results showed a marked effect of biscuit composition on chyme viscosity. Highest viscosity was obtained with biscuits containing viscous soluble fibres, followed by those enriched in both proteins and fibres, then by protein-enriched and control biscuits. The viscosity was maintained throughout the gut up to the ileal compartment. A prediction of the evolution of the chyme viscosity in each compartment of the TIM-1 was built, based on model curves describing the evolution of the viscosity as a function of biscuit concentration, and on dilution factors measured by spectrophotometry on a blank digestion. PMID:25842308

  10. Mouse NAIP1 detects the type III secretion system needle protein

    PubMed Central

    Rayamajhi, Manira; Zak, Daniel E.; Chavarria-Smith, Joseph; Vance, Russell E.; Miao, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    The NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes activate caspase-1 in response to bacterial type III secretion systems (T3SS). Inadvertent injection of the T3SS rod protein and flagellin into the cytosol are detected through murine NAIP2 and NAIP5/6, respectively. Here, we identify the agonist for the orphan murine NAIP1 receptor as the T3SS needle protein. NAIP1 is poorly expressed in resting mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), however, priming with poly(I:C) induces it, and confers needle protein sensitivity. Further, overexpression of NAIP1 in immortalized BMMs by retroviral transduction enabled needle detection. In contrast, peritoneal cavity macrophages basally express NAIP1 and respond to needle protein robustly independent of priming. Human macrophages are known to only express one NAIP gene, which detects the needle protein, but not rod or flagellin. Thus, murine NAIP1 is functionally analogous to human NAIP. PMID:24043898

  11. The role of co-culture systems on developmental competence of preimplantation mouse embryos against pH fluctuations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seyed Noureddin Nematollahi-mahani; Amirmehdi Nematollahi-mahani; Ghazaleh Moshkdanian; Zhinoosossadat Shahidzadehyazdi; Fatemeh Labibi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  To determine the effect of pH fluctuations of culture media, and the role of co-culture systems on embryo development.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Mouse embryos were incubated in phosphate buffered solutions (PBSs) with different pH for various lengths of time. After 3 h\\u000a incubation of embryos at various pH, the embryos were transferred into four media with human (HEF) and mouse (MEF) embryonic\\u000a fibroblast cells,

  12. Non-steady peristaltic propulsion with exponential variable viscosity: a study of transport through the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Dharmendra; Pandey, S K; Siddiqui, Abdul; Bég, O Anwar

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented for transient peristaltic flow of an incompressible fluid with variable viscosity in a finite length cylindrical tube as a simulation of transport in physiological vessels and biomimetic peristaltic pumps. The current axisymmetric analysis is qualitatively similar to two-dimensional analysis but exhibits quantitative variations. The current analysis is motivated towards further elucidating the physiological migration of gastric suspensions (food bolus) in the human digestive system. It also applies to variable viscosity industrial fluid (waste) peristaltic pumping systems. First, an axisymmetric model is analysed in the limit of large wavelength ([Formula: see text]) and low Reynolds number ([Formula: see text]) for axial velocity, radial velocity, pressure, hydromechanical efficiency and stream function in terms of radial vibration of the wall ([Formula: see text]), amplitude of the wave ([Formula: see text]), averaged flow rate ([Formula: see text]) and variable viscosity ([Formula: see text]). Subsequently, the peristaltic flow of a fluid with an exponential viscosity model is examined, which is based on the analytical solutions for pressure, wall shear stress, hydromechanical efficiency and streamline patterns in the finite length tube. The results are found to correlate well with earlier studies using a constant viscosity formulation. This study reveals some important features in the flow characteristics including the observation that pressure as well as both number and size of lower trapped bolus increases. Furthermore, the study indicates that hydromechanical efficiency reduces with increasing magnitude of viscosity parameter. PMID:22817394

  13. Changes in benzodiazepine receptor binding as seen autoradiographically in the central nervous system of the spastic mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Biscoe, T J; Fry, J P; Rickets, C

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative light-microscope autoradiography has been used to compare the specific, clonazepam-displaceable binding of [3H]flunitrazepam, a photoaffinity label for the 1,4-benzodiazepine receptor, in different regions of the brain and spinal cord of spastic mice and their unaffected littermates. Specific binding of [3H]flunitrazepam in the central nervous system of the spastic mouse showed significant increases in the anterior colliculus and pretectal area and in all laminae of the grey matter in the lumbar spinal cord. These results confirm homogenate binding assays suggesting an increased number of benzodiazepine receptors in the spinal cord of the spastic mouse. Possible sites are therefore provided at which disorders of function could arise, associated with changes seen at the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-benzodiazepine receptor complex in spinal cord homogenates from the mutant mouse spastic. Images Plate 1 PMID:6086914

  14. Developing a computer-controlled simulated digestion system to predict the concentration of metabolizable energy of feedstuffs for rooster.

    PubMed

    Zhao, F; Ren, L Q; Mi, B M; Tan, H Z; Zhao, J T; Li, H; Zhang, H F; Zhang, Z Y

    2014-04-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-controlled simulated digestion system (CCSDS) for predicting apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) using in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) content of feeds for roosters. In Exp. 1, the repeatability of the IVDE assay was tested in corn, wheat, rapeseed meal, and cottonseed meal with 3 assays of each sample and each with 5 replicates of the same sample. In Exp. 2, the additivity of IVDE concentration in corn, soybean meal, and cottonseed meal was tested by comparing determined IVDE values of the complete diet with values predicted from measurements on individual ingredients. In Exp. 3, linear models to predict AME and TME based on IVDE were developed with 16 calibration samples. In Exp. 4, the accuracy of prediction models was tested by the differences between predicted and determined values for AME or TME of 6 ingredients and 4 diets. In Exp. 1, the mean CV of IVDE was 0.88% (range = 0.20 to 2.14%) for corn, wheat, rapeseed meal, and cottonseed meal. No difference in IVDE was observed between 3 assays of an ingredient, indicating that the IVDE assay is repeatable under these conditions. In Exp. 2, minimal differences (<21 kcal/kg) were observed between determined and calculated IVDE of 3 complete diets formulated with corn, soybean meal, and cottonseed meal, demonstrating that the IVDE values are additive in a complete diet. In Exp. 3, linear relationships between AME and IVDE and between TME and IVDE were observed in 16 calibration samples: AME = 1.062 × IVDE - 530 (R(2) = 0.97, residual standard deviation [RSD] = 146 kcal/kg, P < 0.001) and TME = 1.050 × IVDE - 16 (R(2) = 0.97, RSD = 148 kcal/kg, P < 0.001). Differences of less than 100 kcal/kg were observed between determined and predicted values in 10 and 9 of the 16 calibration samples for AME and TME, respectively. In Exp. 4, differences of less than 100 kcal/kg between determined and predicted values were observed in 3 and 4 of the 6 ingredient samples for AME and TME, respectively, and all 4 diets showed the differences of less than 25 kcal/kg between determined and predicted AME or TME. Our results indicate that the CCSDS is repeatable and additive. This system accurately predicted AME or TME on 17 of the 26 samples and may be a promising method to predict the energetic values of feed for poultry. PMID:24663164

  15. MONICA: a compact, portable dual gamma camera system for mouse whole-body imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Choyke, Peter L.; Xia, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Kakareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.

    2010-04-01

    Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named "MONICA" for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed ?looking up? through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV?10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1 cm), 2.2 mm; sensitivity, 149 cps (counts per seconds)/MBq (5.5 cps/μCi); energy resolution (FWHM, full width at half maximum), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2=0.99 for 0?185 MBq (0?5 mCi) in the field of view (FOV); spatial uniformity, <3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-min images acquired throughout the 168-h study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g., limited imaging space, portability and, potentially, cost are important.

  16. The transcobalamin receptor knockout mouse: a model for vitamin B12 deficiency in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shao-Chiang; Nakayama, Yasumi; Sequeira, Jeffrey M.; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J.; Cabrera, Robert M.; Finnell, Richard H.; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Quadros, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    The membrane receptor (TCblR/CD320) for transcobalamin (TC)-bound cobalamin (Cbl) facilitates the cellular uptake of Cbl. A genetically modified mouse model involving ablation of the CD320 gene was generated to study the effects on cobalamin homeostasis. The nonlethal nature of this knockout and the lack of systemic cobalamin deficiency point to other mechanisms for cellular Cbl uptake in the mouse. However, severe cobalamin depletion in the central nervous system (CNS) after birth (P<0.01) indicates that TCblR is the only receptor responsible for Cbl uptake in the CNS. Metabolic Cbl deficiency in the brain was evident from the increased methylmalonic acid (P<0.01–0.04), homocysteine (P<0.01), cystathionine (P<0.01), and the decreased S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosyl homocysteine ratio (P<0.01). The CNS pathology of Cbl deficiency seen in humans may not manifest in this mouse model; however, it does provide a model with which to evaluate metabolic pathways and genes affected.—Lai, S.-C., Nakayama, Y., Sequeira, J. M., Wlodarczyk, B. J., Cabrera, R. M., Finnell, R. H., Bottiglieri, T., Quadros, E. V. The transcobalamin receptor knockout mouse: a model for vitamin B12 deficiency in the central nervous system. PMID:23430977

  17. An endocannabinoid system is present in the mouse olfactory epithelium but does not modulate olfaction.

    PubMed

    Hutch, C R; Hillard, C J; Jia, C; Hegg, C C

    2015-08-01

    Endocannabinoids modulate a diverse array of functions including progenitor cell proliferation in the central nervous system, and odorant detection and food intake in the mammalian central olfactory system and larval Xenopus laevis peripheral olfactory system. However, the presence and role of endocannabinoids in the peripheral olfactory epithelium have not been examined in mammals. We found the presence of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor protein and mRNA in the olfactory epithelium. Using either immunohistochemistry or calcium imaging we localized CB1 receptors on neurons, glia-like sustentacular cells, microvillous cells and progenitor-like basal cells. To examine the role of endocannabinoids, CB1- and CB2- receptor-deficient (CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-)) mice were used. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) was present at high levels in both C57BL/6 wildtype and CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-) mice. 2-AG synthetic and degradative enzymes are expressed in wildtype mice. A small but significant decrease in basal cell and olfactory sensory neuron numbers was observed in CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-) mice compared to wildtype mice. The decrease in olfactory sensory neurons did not translate to impairment in olfactory-mediated behaviors assessed by the buried food test and habituation/dishabituation test. Collectively, these data indicate the presence of an endocannabinoid system in the mouse olfactory epithelium. However, unlike in tadpoles, endocannabinoids do not modulate olfaction. Further investigation on the role of endocannabinoids in progenitor cell function in the olfactory epithelium is warranted. PMID:26037800

  18. Differential response of calmodulin genes in the mouse brain after systemic kainate administration.

    PubMed

    Solà, C; Tusell, J M; Serratosa, J

    1997-05-01

    In the central nervous system, many of the effects resulting from an increase in the intracellular levels of calcium are mediated by calmodulin, a major calcium-binding protein in the mammalian brain. Calmodulin is expressed by three different genes, namely CaM I, CaM II and CaM III, all of which encode an identical protein. We studied the expression of calmodulin in the mouse brain at different times after the administration of a convulsant dose of kainate, a potent neuroexcitotoxic agent. We detected the presence of the different calmodulin messenger RNAs and of the protein itself in brain sections by in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunocytochemistry respectively. In addition, we determined the calmodulin content in brain regions by radioimmunoassay. Kainate-treated animals did not show areas of neuronal death at the different times following administration considered. An increase in the hybridization signal for CaM I messenger RNAs was observed from 5 h after kainate administration in the different brain regions tested. In contrast, the CaM II messenger RNA signal decreased gradually to a minimum 24 h after treatment in the hippocampus, while the CaM III messenger RNA signal was mostly unaffected. Calmodulin immunoreactivity also increased in the hippocampus. Nevertheless, we did not detect any significant difference in calmodulin content between brain regions of control and treated animals by radioimmunoassay. Kainate treatment induced modifications in the expression of calmodulin at the level of both messenger RNAs and protein. The results suggest a differential regulation of the three calmodulin genes in the adult mouse brain and a post-transcriptional or a post-translational regulation of calmodulin expression. PMID:9135097

  19. A metabolomic and systems biology perspective on the brain of the Fragile X syndrome mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Davidovic, Laetitia; Navratil, Vincent; Bonaccorso, Carmela M.; Catania, Maria Vincenza; Bardoni, Barbara; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the first cause of inherited intellectual disability, due to the silencing of the X-linked Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 gene encoding the RNA-binding protein FMRP. While extensive studies have focused on the cellular and molecular basis of FXS, neither human Fragile X patients nor the mouse model of FXS—the Fmr1-null mouse—have been profiled systematically at the metabolic and neurochemical level to provide a complementary perspective on the current, yet scattered, knowledge of FXS. Using proton high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HR-MAS NMR)-based metabolic profiling, we have identified a metabolic signature and biomarkers associated with FXS in various brain regions of Fmr1-deficient mice. Our study highlights for the first time that Fmr1 gene inactivation has profound, albeit coordinated consequences in brain metabolism leading to alterations in: (1) neurotransmitter levels, (2) osmoregulation, (3) energy metabolism, and (4) oxidative stress response. To functionally connect Fmr1-deficiency to its metabolic biomarkers, we derived a functional interaction network based on the existing knowledge (literature and databases) and show that the FXS metabolic response is initiated by distinct mRNA targets and proteins interacting with FMRP, and then relayed by numerous regulatory proteins. This novel “integrated metabolome and interactome mapping” (iMIM) approach advantageously unifies novel metabolic findings with previously unrelated knowledge and highlights the contribution of novel cellular pathways to the pathophysiology of FXS. These metabolomic and integrative systems biology strategies will contribute to the development of potential drug targets and novel therapeutic interventions, which will eventually benefit FXS patients. PMID:21900387

  20. Automatic Classification of Digestive Organs in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Videos

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jeongkyu

    .00. A human digestive system consists of a series of several different organs including the esophagus, stomach such as gastroscopy, push enteroscopy colonoscopy have been used for the visualization of digestive system. HoweverAutomatic Classification of Digestive Organs in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Videos Jeongkyu Lee1

  1. Prognostic Role of Phospho-STAT3 in Patients with Cancers of the Digestive System: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Jian-jun; Han, Yue; Li, Zhi-yu; Zhang, Ye-fan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Xiao; Hu, Xu-hui; Zhao, Hong; Cai, Jian-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The definite prognostic role of p-STAT3 has not been well defined. We performed a meta-analysis evaluating the prognostic role of p-STAT3 expression in patients with digestive system cancers. Methods We searched the available articles reporting the prognostic value of p-STAT3 in patients with cancers of the digestive system, mainly including colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, esophagus cancer and pancreatic cancer. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were used to assess the prognostic role of p-STAT3 expression level in cancer tissues. And the association between p-STAT3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated. Results A total of 22 studies with 3585 patients were finally enrolled in the meta-analysis. The results showed that elevated p-STAT3 expression level predicted inferior OS (HR=1.809, 95% CI: 1.442-2.270, P<0.001) and DFS (HR=1.481, 95% CI: 1.028-2.133, P= 0.035) in patients with malignant cancers of the digestive system. Increased expression of p-STAT3 is significantly related with tumor cell differentiation (Odds ratio (OR) =1.895, 95% CI: 1.364-2.632, P<0.001) and lymph node metastases (OR=2.108, 95% CI: 1.104-4.024, P=0.024). Sensitivity analysis suggested that the pooled HR was stable and omitting a single study did not change the significance of the pooled HR. Funnel plots and Egger’s tests revealed there was no significant publication bias in the meta-analysis. Conclusion Phospho-STAT3 might be a prognostic factor of patients with digestive system cancers. More well designed studies with adequate follow-up are needed to gain a thorough understanding of the prognostic role of p-STAT3. PMID:26024373

  2. Integrating accelerated tryptic digestion into proteomics workflows.

    PubMed

    Slysz, Gordon W; Schriemer, David C

    2009-01-01

    An accelerated protein digestion procedure is described that features a microscale trypsin cartridge operated under aqueous-organic conditions. High sequence coverage digestions obtained in seconds with small amounts of enzyme are possible with the approach, which also supports online integration of digestion with reversed-phase protein separation. The construction and operation of effective digestor cartridges for rapid sample processing are described. For workflows involving chromatographic protein separation an easily assembled fluidic system is presented, which inserts the digestion step after column-based separation. Successful integration requires dynamic effluent titration immediately prior to transmission through the digestor. This is achieved through the co-ordination of the column gradient system with an inverse gradient system to produce steady pH and organic solvent levels. System assembly and operation sufficient for achieving digestion and identification of subnanogram levels of protein are described. PMID:19241037

  3. XPC Ala499Val and XPG Asp1104His polymorphisms and digestive system cancer risk: a meta-analysis based on model-free approach

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guangsheng; Wang, Jianlu; Dong, Jiahong; Liu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have reported the association between XPC Ala499Val and XPG Asp1104His polymorphisms and digestive system cancer susceptibility, but the results were inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis, using a comprehensive strategy based on the allele model and a model-free approach, to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between XPC Ala499Val and XPG Asp1104His polymorphisms with digestive system cancer risk. For XPC Ala499Val, no significant cancer risk was found in the allele model (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.11) and with model-free approach (ORG = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.83-1.13). For XPG Asp1104His, there was also no association between this polymorphism and cancer risk in the allele model (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.96-1.11) and with the model-free approach (ORG = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.95-1.14). Therefore, this meta-analysis suggests that the XPC Ala499Val and XPG Asp1104His polymorphisms were not associated with digestive system cancer risk. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26131294

  4. 38 CFR 4.114 - Schedule of ratings-digestive system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...associated with nausea, sweating, circulatory disturbance after meals...disorders with characteristic mild circulatory symptoms after meals but with...distress with characteristic mild circulatory symptoms or continuous mild... See Hemic and Lymphatic Systems. 7319Irritable colon...

  5. 38 CFR 4.114 - Schedule of ratings-digestive system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...associated with nausea, sweating, circulatory disturbance after meals...disorders with characteristic mild circulatory symptoms after meals but with...distress with characteristic mild circulatory symptoms or continuous mild... See Hemic and Lymphatic Systems. 7319Irritable colon...

  6. 38 CFR 4.114 - Schedule of ratings-digestive system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...associated with nausea, sweating, circulatory disturbance after meals...disorders with characteristic mild circulatory symptoms after meals but with...distress with characteristic mild circulatory symptoms or continuous mild... See Hemic and Lymphatic Systems. 7319Irritable colon...

  7. Immunochemical analysis of the N-acetyl hexosaminidases in human-mouse hybrids made using a double selective system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Swallow; E. Solomon; L. Pajunen

    1977-01-01

    A human-mouse hybrid, DUR 4 (Solomon et al., 1976), containing a human X\\/15 translocation chromosome and also chromosome 5, among other human chromosomes, was used in a double selection system to obtain hybrids of four different types: X\\/15+ 5+, X\\/15– 5+, X\\/15+ 5, and X\\/15– 5–. Standard positive and negative selection systems were used for the X chromosome, and negative

  8. Ontogeny and distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatases in the digestive system of California halibut larvae (Paralichthys californicus).

    PubMed

    Zacarias-Soto, Magali; Barón-Sevilla, Benjamín; Lazo, Juan P

    2013-10-01

    Studies aimed to assess the digestive physiology of marine fish larvae under culture conditions are important to further understand the functional characteristics and digestive capacities of the developing larvae. Most studies to date concentrate on intestinal lumen digestion and little attention to the absorption process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to histochemically detect and quantify some of the enzymes responsible for absorption and intracellular digestion of nutrients in the anterior and posterior intestine of California halibut larvae. Alkaline and acid phosphatases were detected from the first days post-hatch (dph). Alkaline phosphatase maintained a high level of activity during the first 20 dph in both intestinal regions. Thereafter, a clear intestinal regionalization of the activity was observed with the highest levels occurring in the anterior intestine. Acid phosphatase activity gradually increased in both intestinal regions during development, and a regionalization of the activity was not observed until late in development, once the ocular migration began. Highest levels were observed in the anterior intestine at the end of metamorphosis concomitant with the stomach development. The results from this study show some morphological and physiological changes are occurring during larval development and a clear regionalization of the absorption process as the larvae develops. These ontological changes must be considered in the elaboration of diets according to the digestive capacity of the larvae. PMID:23508366

  9. Use of a Hierarchical Oligonucleotide Primer Extension Approach for Multiplexed Relative Abundance Analysis of Methanogens in Anaerobic Digestion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Hui-Ping; Hsu, Mao-Hsuan; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we established a rapid multiplex method to detect the relative abundances of amplified 16S rRNA genes from known cultivatable methanogens at hierarchical specificities in anaerobic digestion systems treating industrial wastewater and sewage sludge. The method was based on the hierarchical oligonucleotide primer extension (HOPE) technique and combined with a set of 27 primers designed to target the total archaeal populations and methanogens from 22 genera within 4 taxonomic orders. After optimization for their specificities and detection sensitivity under the conditions of multiple single-nucleotide primer extension reactions, the HOPE approach was applied to analyze the methanogens in 19 consortium samples from 7 anaerobic treatment systems (i.e., 513 reactions). Among the samples, the methanogen populations detected with order-level primers accounted for >77.2% of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes detected using an Archaea-specific primer. The archaeal communities typically consisted of 2 to 7 known methanogen genera within the Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales and displayed population dynamic and spatial distributions in anaerobic reactor operations. Principal component analysis of the HOPE data further showed that the methanogen communities could be clustered into 3 distinctive groups, in accordance with the distribution of the Methanosaeta, Methanolinea, and Methanomethylovorans, respectively. This finding suggested that in addition to acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, the methylotrophic methanogens might play a key role in the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrated that the HOPE approach is a specific, rapid, and multiplexing platform to determine the relative abundances of targeted methanogens in PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene products. PMID:24077716

  10. Video Games: Research, Ratings, Recommendations. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This Digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The Digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders played at least one…

  11. Performance and stability improvements in anaerobic digestion of thermally hydrolyzed municipal biowaste by a biofilm system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Wang; Huahua Hou; Song Hu; Xingbao Gao

    2010-01-01

    In this present study, thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment improved the hydrolysis of organic solids and the solid–liquid separation ability of MB, making it possible to obtain a long solid retention time (SRT) and high degradation ratio in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). Biofilm carriers were introduced into ASBR to prolong the mean cell retention time (MCRT). The biofilm system operated at

  12. Fate of pathogen indicators in a domestic blend of food waste and wastewater through a two-stage anaerobic digestion system.

    PubMed

    Rounsefell, B D; O'Sullivan, C A; Chinivasagam, N; Batstone, D; Clarke, W P

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a viable on-site treatment technology for rich organic waste streams such as food waste and blackwater. In contrast to large-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants which are typically located away from the community, the effluent from any type of on-site system is a potential pathogenic hazard because of the intimacy of the system to the community. The native concentrations of the pathogen indicators Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and somatic coliphage were tracked for 30 days under stable operation (organic loading rate (OLR) = 1.8 kgCOD m(-3) day(-1), methane yield = 52% on a chemical oxygen demand (COD) basis) of a two-stage laboratory-scale digester treating a mixture of food waste and blackwater. E. coli numbers were reduced by a factor of 10(6.4) in the thermophilic stage, from 10(7.5±0.3) to 10(1.1±0.1) cfu 100 mL(-1), but regenerated by a factor of 10(4) in the mesophilic stage. Neither the thermophilic nor mesophilic stages had any significant impact on C. perfringens concentrations. Coliphage concentrations were reduced by a factor of 10(1.4) across the two stages. The study shows that anaerobic digestion only reduces pathogen counts marginally but that counts in effluent samples could be readily reduced to below detection limits by filtration through a 0.22 µm membrane, to investigate membrane filtration as a possible sanitation technique. PMID:23168637

  13. Axonal regeneration of cultured mouse hippocampal neurons studied by an optical nano-surgery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difato, F.; Tsushima, H.; Pesce, M.; Guiggiani, A.; Benfenati, F.; Blau, A.; Basso, M.; Vassalli, M.; Chieregatti, E.

    2012-02-01

    During development, the axons of neurons in the mammalian central nervous system lose their ability to regenerate after injury. In order to study the regeneration process, we developed a system integrating an optical tweezers and a laser dissector to manipulate the sample. A sub-nanosecond pulsed UVA laser was used to inflict a partial damage to the axon of mouse hippocampal neurons at early days in vitro. Partial axonal transections were performed in a highly controlled and reproducible way without affecting the regeneration process. Force spectroscopy measurements, during and after the ablation of the axon, were performed by optical tweezers with a bead attached to the neuronal membrane. Thus, the release of tension in the neurite could be analyzed in order to quantify the inflicted damage. After dissection, we monitored the viscoelastic properties of the axonal membrane, the cytoskeleton reorganization, and the dynamics of the newly formed growth cones during regeneration. In order to follow cytoskeleton dynamics in a long time window by tracking a bead attached to the neuron, we developed a real-time control of the microscope stage position with sub-millisecond and nanometer resolution. Axonal regeneration was documented by long-term (24-48 hours) bright-field live imaging using an optical microscope equipped with a custom-built cell culture incubator.

  14. Differential translation of mouse myeloma messenger RNAs in a wheat germ cell-free system.

    PubMed

    Sonenshein, G E; Brawerman, G

    1976-12-14

    Translation of the polysomal mRNA of mouse myeloma cells in a wheat germ cell-free system leads to the immunoglobulin (Ig) light-chain precursor as the major product. Excess polysomal RNA causes strong inhibition of polypeptide synthesis, but has little effect of light-chain precursor synthesis. The inhibitory effect of excess RNA is avoided when the poly(A)-containing RNA fraction is used. With nearly saturating amounts of the latter RNA, light-chain recursor synthesis becomes more predominant, possibly as a result of competition between different mRNA species. High levels of potassium acetate cause strong inhibition of overall translation, but do not inhibit light-chain precursor synthesis. Addition of poly(A) to the cell-free system also causes inhibition, presumably through interference with the intiation process. Again, light-chain precursor synthesis is relatively resistant. Ig heavy-chain synthesis is relatively inefficent, but its resistance to the inhibitors tends to be nearly as great as that of the light-chain precursor. The results indicate that the Ig mRNAs are particulary efficient in initiating translation. This characteristic may account for certain features of the regulation of Ig synthesis in intact myeloma cells. PMID:999824

  15. Growth Arrest Specific 1 (GAS1) Is Abundantly Expressed in the Adult Mouse Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Zarco, Natanael; Bautista, Elizabeth; Cuéllar, Manola; Vergara, Paula; Flores-Rodriguez, Paola; Aguilar-Roblero, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Growth arrest specific 1 (GAS1) is a pleiotropic protein that induces apoptosis and cell arrest in different tumors, but it is also involved in the development of the nervous system and other tissues and organs. This dual ability is likely caused by its capacity to interact both by inhibiting the intracellular signaling cascade induced by glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor and by facilitating the activity of the sonic hedgehog pathway. The presence of GAS1 mRNA has been described in adult mouse brain, and here we corroborated this observation. We then proceeded to determine the distribution of the protein in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We detected, by western blot analysis, expression of GAS1 in olfactory bulb, caudate-putamen, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, mesencephalon, medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and cervical spinal cord. To more carefully map the expression of GAS1, we performed double-label immunohistochemistry and noticed expression of GAS1 in neurons in all brain areas examined. We also observed expression of GAS1 in astroglial cells, albeit the pattern of expression was more restricted than that seen in neurons. Briefly, in the present article, we report the widespread distribution and cellular localization of the GAS1 native protein in adult mammalian CNS. PMID:23813868

  16. Peripheral nervous system manifestations in a Sandhoff disease mouse model: nerve conduction, myelin structure, lipid analysis

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Melanie A; Baek, Rena C; Avila, Robin L; Seyfried, Thomas N; Strichartz, Gary R; Kirschner, Daniel A

    2007-01-01

    Background Sandhoff disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by a mutation in the gene for the ?-subunit (Hexb gene) of ?-hexosaminidase A (??) and B (??). The ?-subunit together with the GM2 activator protein catabolize ganglioside GM2. This enzyme deficiency results in GM2 accumulation primarily in the central nervous system. To investigate how abnormal GM2 catabolism affects the peripheral nervous system in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease (Hexb-/-), we examined the electrophysiology of dissected sciatic nerves, structure of central and peripheral myelin, and lipid composition of the peripheral nervous system. Results We detected no significant difference in signal impulse conduction velocity or any consistent change in the frequency-dependent conduction slowing and failure between freshly dissected sciatic nerves from the Hexb+/- and Hexb-/- mice. The low-angle x-ray diffraction patterns from freshly dissected sciatic and optic nerves of Hexb+/- and Hexb-/- mice showed normal myelin periods; however, Hexb-/- mice displayed a ~10% decrease in the relative amount of compact optic nerve myelin, which is consistent with the previously established reduction in myelin-enriched lipids (cerebrosides and sulfatides) in brains of Hexb-/- mice. Finally, analysis of lipid composition revealed that GM2 content was present in the sciatic nerve of the Hexb-/- mice (undetectable in Hexb+/-). Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the absence of significant functional, structural, or compositional abnormalities in the peripheral nervous system of the murine model for Sandhoff disease, but do show the potential value of integrating multiple techniques to evaluate myelin structure and function in nervous system disorders. PMID:17623103

  17. The anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, H.A. [Hartung (H.A.), Collingswood, NJ (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion offers many advantages in the processing of organic solid wastes, using a closed system to convert the waste to combustible gas and a stabilized organic residue.Odors are contained while digestion removes their source and gas is collected for energy recovery as heat or electricity. The stabilized residue is less than the starting waste by the mass of gas produced, and it can be disposed of by land application, land filling, incineration or composting. The stimulation of digesters and the phenomenon of co-digestion are two ways the performance of anaerobic digesters can be enhanced. Data from farm digesters and municipal wastewater treatment plants illustrate the present venue of the process; laboratory studies of the anaerobic digestion of a variety of solid wastes show that the process can be applied to these materials as well. About two thirds of municipal solid waste is shown to be amenable to anaerobic digestion in a substrate from an active municipal sewage plant digester.

  18. Systems analysis of primary Sjögren's syndrome pathogenesis in salivary glands identifies shared pathways in human and a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic autoimmune disease with complex etiopathogenesis. Despite extensive studies to understand the disease process utilizing human and mouse models, the intersection between these species remains elusive. To address this gap, we utilized a novel systems biology approach to identify disease-related gene modules and signaling pathways that overlap between humans and mice. Methods Parotid gland tissues were harvested from 24 pSS and 16 non-pSS sicca patients and 25 controls. For mouse studies, salivary glands were harvested from C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice at various times during development of pSS-like disease. RNA was analyzed with Affymetrix HG U133+2.0 arrays for human samples and with MOE430+2.0 arrays for mouse samples. The images were processed with Affymetrix software. Weighted-gene co-expression network analysis was used to identify disease-related and functional pathways. Results Nineteen co-expression modules were identified in human parotid tissue, of which four were significantly upregulated and three were downregulated in pSS patients compared with non-pSS sicca patients and controls. Notably, one of the human disease-related modules was highly preserved in the mouse model, and was enriched with genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. Further comparison between these two species led to the identification of genes associated with leukocyte recruitment and germinal center formation. Conclusion Our systems biology analysis of genome-wide expression data from salivary gland tissue of pSS patients and from a pSS mouse model identified common dysregulated biological pathways and molecular targets underlying critical molecular alterations in pSS pathogenesis. PMID:23116360

  19. Vital dye labelling demonstrates a sacral neural crest contribution to the enteric nervous system of chick and mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Serbedzija, G N; Burgan, S; Fraser, S E; Bronner-Fraser, M

    1991-04-01

    We have used the vital dye, DiI, to analyze the contribution of sacral neural crest cells to the enteric nervous system in chick and mouse embryos. In order to label premigratory sacral neural crest cells selectively, DiI was injected into the lumen of the neural tube at the level of the hindlimb. In chick embryos, DiI injections made prior to stage 19 resulted in labelled cells in the gut, which had emerged from the neural tube adjacent to somites 29-37. In mouse embryos, neural crest cells emigrated from the sacral neural tube between E9 and E9.5. In both chick and mouse embryos, DiI-labelled cells were observed in the rostral half of the somitic sclerotome, around the dorsal aorta, in the mesentery surrounding the gut, as well as within the epithelium of the gut. Mouse embryos, however, contained consistently fewer labelled cells than chick embryos. DiI-labelled cells first were observed in the rostral and dorsal portion of the gut. Paralleling the maturation of the embryo, there was a rostral-to-caudal sequence in which neural crest cells populated the gut at the sacral level. In addition, neural crest cells appeared within the gut in a dorsal-to-ventral sequence, suggesting that the cells entered the gut dorsally and moved progressively ventrally. The present results resolve a long-standing discrepancy in the literature by demonstrating that sacral neural crest cells in both the chick and mouse contribute to the enteric nervous system in the postumbilical gut. PMID:1879357

  20. Mouse submandibular salivary epithelial cell growth and differentiation in long-term culture: Influence of the extracellular matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisa M. Durban

    1990-01-01

    Summary  The adult mouse submandibular salivary gland provides a good model system to study gene regulation during normal and abnormal\\u000a cell behavior because it synthesizes functionally distinct products ranging from growth factors and digestive enzymes to factors\\u000a of relevance to homeostatic mechanisms. The present study describes the long-term growth and differentiation of submandibular\\u000a salivary epithelial cells from adult male mice as

  1. Impact of immune system stimulation on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of methionine plus cysteine intake for whole-body protein deposition in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandeh, Anoosh; Htoo, John K; Karrow, Neil; Miller, Stephen P; de Lange, Cornelis F M

    2014-01-14

    The impact of immune system stimulation (ISS) on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of dietary methionine plus cysteine (SAA) intake for whole-body protein deposition (PD) was evaluated in growing pigs. For this purpose, sixty barrows were used in two experiments: thirty-six pigs in Expt I and twenty-four pigs in Expt II. Pigs were feed restricted and assigned to five levels of dietary SAA allowance (three and two levels in Expt I and II, respectively) from SAA-limiting diets. Following adaptation, pigs at each dietary SAA level were injected with either increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+; eight and six pigs per dietary SAA level in Expt I and II, respectively) or saline (ISS - ; four and six pigs in Expt I and II, respectively) while measuring the whole-body nitrogen (N) balance. After N-balance observations, pigs were euthanised, organs were removed and ileal digesta were collected for determining nutrient digestibility. Ileal digestibility of gross energy, crude protein and amino acids was not affected by ISS (P>0·20). ISS reduced PD at all levels of dietary SAA intake (P< 0·01). The linear relationship between daily dietary SAA intake and PD observed at the three lowest dietary SAA intake levels indicated that ISS increased extrapolated maintenance SAA requirements (P< 0·05), but had no effect on the partial efficiency of the utilisation of dietary SAA intake for PD (P>0·20). Physiological and metabolic changes associated with systemic ISS had no effect on the ileal digestibility of nutrients per se, but altered SAA requirements for PD in growing pigs. PMID:23803219

  2. Digestive Diseases Materials

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NIDDK Health Information NIDDK Home NIDDK Image Library Digestive Disease, Nutrition, and Weight-control Materials Healthy eating, ... Materials Statistics Tip Sheets Catalog Home | Diabetes Materials | Digestive Diseases Materials | Kidney and Urologic Diseases Materials Online ...

  3. Modeling anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanlong.

    1988-01-01

    A computer model was developed for a completely-mixed swine-manure digester operated at 35 C. It satisfactorily predicted polymer degradation, gas production, VFA concentration, and VS reduction at steady state. It accurately predicted digester instability under conditions of shock loading, changing HRT, and step loading. The model was also able to predict polymer degradation in a batch culture. Inhibitory effects of VFA, ammonia, and hydrogen were investigated. VFA and ammonia did not necessarily cause digester failure directly. However, at high concentrations, they resulted in an increase in hydrogen concentration. The increase in hydrogen concentration, in turn, caused digester instability and eventually digester failure. The feedback inhibition of hydrogen on acidogens was crucial in the instability process. Influence of LR and HRT on the digestion process were evaluated in the region where experimental data were not available. Better digester performance were achieved by increasing LR or HRT until a significantly high LR or HRT caused digester failure.

  4. AAV6-mediated Systemic shRNA Delivery Reverses Disease in a Mouse Model of Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bortolanza, Sergia; Nonis, Alessandro; Sanvito, Francesca; Maciotta, Simona; Sitia, Giovanni; Wei, Jessica; Torrente, Yvan; Di Serio, Clelia; Chamberlain, Joel R; Gabellini, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of dominantly inherited muscle disorders remains a difficult task considering the need to eliminate the pathogenic gene product in a body-wide fashion. We show here that it is possible to reverse dominant muscle disease in a mouse model of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). FSHD is a common form of muscular dystrophy associated with a complex cascade of epigenetic events following reduction in copy number of D4Z4 macrosatellite repeats located on chromosome 4q35. Several 4q35 genes have been examined for their role in disease, including FRG1. Overexpression of FRG1 causes features related to FSHD in transgenic mice and the FRG1 mouse is currently the only available mouse model of FSHD. Here we show that systemic delivery of RNA interference expression cassettes in the FRG1 mouse, after the onset of disease, led to a dose-dependent long-term FRG1 knockdown without signs of toxicity. Histological features including centrally nucleated fibers, fiber size reduction, fibrosis, adipocyte accumulation, and inflammation were all significantly improved. FRG1 mRNA knockdown resulted in a dramatic restoration of muscle function. Through RNA interference (RNAi) expression cassette redesign, our method is amenable to targeting any pathogenic gene offering a viable option for long-term, body-wide treatment of dominant muscle disease in humans. PMID:21829175

  5. [Role of risk factors in the development of chronic digestive system diseases in children].

    PubMed

    Ivleva, N A; Sabirova, Z F

    2000-01-01

    The spread, patterns, and risk factors of alimentary diseases were examined in children residing in areas of petroleum-refining, petrochemical, and chemical industries. A total of 4816 children aged 3 to 14 years who lived in Ufa areas differing in the level and nature of ambient air pollution were examined. Those living in the poorer ecological areas (high total pollution and levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, and phenol) had more commonly gastroenterological diseases with prevailing hepatobiliary disorders in the pattern of diseases. The specific features of the diseases in these children are earlier onset, more frequent recurrences, more prolonged exacerbations involving other organs and systems than in those living in more favourable areas. PMID:11030097

  6. Anaerobic digestion of poultry wastes and algae production from digester effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Turnacliff; V. Kollman; D. Rockey

    1978-01-01

    Results obtained in the biosynthesis of methane from poultry manures and the growth of algae on the digester effluent were reported. The algae would be used as a feed supplement for the poultry. The performance of the digester system as a poultry manure handling and disposal system was very good, but the performance as an energy producer was less than

  7. Hypoxia induces dysregulation of local renin-angiotensin system in mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, L; Feng, Y; Wan, H Y; Ni, L; Qian, Y R; Guo, Y; Xiang, Y; Li, Q Y

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) influences cancer biology and is frequently dysregulated in malignancy. However, regulation of tumor local RAS remains poorly understood. Hypoxia is a hallmark of solid tumors and affects nearly every major aspect of cancer biology. Previous studies have shown that hypoxia can regulate RAS expression in somatic tissues and cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of hypoxia on local RAS expression in mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. For hypoxia treatment, LLC cells were cultured in a hypoxia incubator or treated with hypoxia-mimetic cobalt chloride. Hypoxia up-regulated angiotensin II, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), and down-regulated ACE2 and angiotensin II type 2 receptor in LLC cells. Captopril, an ACE inhibitor, and losartan, an AT1R blocker, decreased expression of ACE and AT1R, but increased expression of ACE2 and angiotensin II type 2 receptor in LLC cells under hypoxia. Captopril and losartan also suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in LLC cells under hypoxia. These findings suggest that hypoxia induces dysregulation of local RAS in LLC cells. The pathophysiological importance of hypoxia-induced RAS dysregulation and potentially therapeutic effects of RAS inhibitors on hypoxic tumor cells should be further examined. PMID:25511041

  8. Expression of the transcription factor GATA3 in the postnatal mouse central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang-Yu; Li, Zhu-Yi; Zou, Hui-Li; Hu, Ze-Lan; Song, Ning-Ning; Zheng, Min-Hua; Su, Chang-Jun; Ding, Yu-Qiang

    2008-08-01

    GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) is an important regulator of central nervous system (CNS) development, but its expression pattern in the postnatal CNS has not been studied. In the present study, we examined the distribution of GATA3 mRNA in the mouse CNS at different postnatal stages by in situ hybridization. During the first 2 weeks of postnatal development, numerous GATA3-expressing cells were found in the intergeniculate leaf, ventral lateral geniculate nucleus, pretectal nucleus, nucleus of the posterior commissure, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, periaqueductal grey, substantia nigra and raphe nuclei. Few notable changes in the profile of GATA3 expression occurred over this time period. As postnatal development progressed, however, GATA3 expression weakened, and was maintained in only a few regions of the adult CNS. Throughout the brain, we found that GATA3-expressing cells were NeuN-positive, and no colocalization with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was observed. In the substantia nigra, GATA3 was exclusively expressed in cells of the reticulate part and some of which were found to be GABAergic. This study presents a comprehensive overview of GATA3 expression in the CNS throughout postnatal life, and the dynamics that we observed provide insights for further investigations of the roles of GATA3 in postnatal development and the maintenance of the mature CNS. PMID:18554735

  9. Implications of cell cycle disturbances for meiotic aneuploidy: Studies on a mouse model system

    SciTech Connect

    Eichenlaub-Ritter, U.; Sobek-Klocke, I. [Universitaet Bielefeld (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    The correlation between increased risk of aneuploid offspring with maternal age in the human and some other mammals has been documented by a number of studies in the last decades. With the advent of chromosome banding and molecular cytogenetic techniques using restriction fragment length polymorphisms to identify the origin of extra chromosomes in trisomic conditions, data have accumulated which indicate that most non-disjunction events leading to chromosomally unbalanced gametes and embryos occur during first meiotic division of maturation in the oocyte. Among others, hypotheses relating a reduction in recombination and chiasmata with increased risks for aneuploidy, or such relating hormonal imbalance, alterations in follicular pH or environmental disturbances with aberrations in chromosomal constitution and spindle components have been proposed but the cellular and physiological basis for chromosome malsegregation with increased age still remains elusive. Here we review studies in which the CBA/Ca mouse was used as a model system to analyze spindle structure and formation, chromosome behavior and progression through the cell cycle with regard to extrinsic and intrinsic factors, as well as to age and aneuploidy, respectively, to identify risk factors. The data indicate that disturbances in cell cycle progression are correlated with high risk for aneuploidy in mammalian oocytes. These disturbances may reside in altered protein phosphorylation and gene expression.

  10. Renin–angiotensin system regulates neurodegeneration in a mouse model of normal tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Semba, K; Namekata, K; Guo, X; Harada, C; Harada, T; Mitamura, Y

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma, one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness, is characterized by progressive degeneration of optic nerves and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In the mammalian retina, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is expressed in neural cells, including RGCs, and the loss of EAAC1 leads to RGC degeneration without elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). In the present study, we found that expressions of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are increased in RGCs and retinal Müller glia in EAAC1-deficient (KO) mice. The orally active AT1-R antagonist candesartan suppressed TLR4 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions in the EAAC1 KO mouse retina. Sequential in vivo retinal imaging and electrophysiological analysis revealed that treatment with candesartan was effective for RGC protection in EAAC1 KO mice without affecting IOP. In cultured Müller glia, candesartan suppressed LPS-induced iNOS production by inhibiting the TLR4-apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 pathway. These results suggest that the renin–angiotensin system is involved in the innate immune responses in both neural and glial cells, which accelerate neural cell death. Our findings raise intriguing possibilities for the management of glaucoma by utilizing widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of high blood pressure, in combination with conventional treatments to lower IOP. PMID:25032856

  11. Central CRF System Perturbation in an Alzheimer’s Disease Knock-in Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qinxi; Zheng, Hui; Justice, Nicholas John

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is often accompanied by changes in mood as well as increases in circulating cortisol levels, suggesting that regulation of the stress responsive Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is disturbed. Here, we show that APP is endogenously expressed in important limbic, hypothalamic, and midbrain nuclei that regulate HPA axis activity. Furthermore, in a knock-in mouse model of AD that expresses familial AD (FAD) mutations of both APP with humanized A?, and PS1, in their endogenous patterns (APP/hA?/PS1 animals), Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) levels are increased in key stress-related nuclei, resting corticosteroid levels are elevated and animals display increased anxiety-related behavior. Endocrine and behavioral phenotypes can be normalized by loss of one copy of Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor type-1 (Crfr1), consistent with a perturbation of central CRF signaling in APP/hA?/PS1 animals. However, reductions in anxiety and corticosteroid levels conferred by hemizygosity of Crfr1 do not improve a deficit in working memory observed in APP/hA?/PS1 mice, suggesting that perturbations of the CRF system are not the primary cause of decreased cognitive performance. PMID:22336193

  12. Quantification, distribution, and possible source of bacterial biofilm in mouse automated watering systems.

    PubMed

    Meier, Thomas R; Maute, Carrie J; Cadillac, Joan M; Lee, Ji Young; Righter, Daniel J; Hugunin, Kelly M S; Deininger, Rolf A; Dysko, Robert C

    2008-03-01

    The use of automated watering systems for providing drinking water to rodents has become commonplace in the research setting. Little is known regarding bacterial biofilm growth within the water piping attached to the racks (manifolds). The purposes of this project were to determine whether the mouse oral flora contributed to the aerobic bacterial component of the rack biofilm, quantify bacterial growth in rack manifolds over 6 mo, assess our rack sanitation practices, and quantify bacterial biofilm development within sections of the manifold. By using standard methods of bacterial identification, the aerobic oral flora of 8 strains and stocks of mice were determined on their arrival at our animal facility. Ten rack manifolds were sampled before, during, and after sanitation and monthly for 6 mo. Manifolds were evaluated for aerobic bacterial growth by culture on R2A and trypticase soy agar, in addition to bacterial ATP quantification by bioluminescence. In addition, 6 racks were sampled at 32 accessible sites for evaluation of biofilm distribution within the watering manifold. The identified aerobic bacteria in the oral flora were inconsistent with the bacteria from the manifold, suggesting that the mice do not contribute to the biofilm bacteria. Bacterial growth in manifolds increased while they were in service, with exponential growth of the biofilm from months 3 to 6 and a significant decrease after sanitization. Bacterial biofilm distribution was not significantly different across location quartiles of the rack manifold, but bacterial levels differed between the shelf pipe and connecting elbow pipes. PMID:18351724

  13. An alternative long-term culture system for highly-pure mouse spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    He, Bao-Rong; Lu, Fan; Zhang, Lingling; Hao, Ding-Jun; Yang, Hao

    2015-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have great clinical potential to give rise to a variety of cell types besides all spermatogenic lineage cells. The development of an efficient method for long-term culture of highly-pure SSCs is essential for further studies related to SSC biological events. Here, we describe an in vitro culture system obtaining mouse SSC cultures of high purity, viability, and proliferation. For establishing long-term cultures of SSCs, we mainly focused on isolation procedures and culture conditions. These included co-coating of extracellular substrates, that is, poly-L-lysine (PLL) and laminin, as well as combinatiorial use of three milder enzymes and simultaneously less trypsin to minimize enzyme-mediated degradation of SSCs. Furthermore, a unique purification procedure was performed to effectively eliminate contaminating non-SSCs. Finally, a critical step is to ensure SSC maintenance and expansion by utilizing optimal culture medium. Obtained data suggest that applying our optimally modified method, SSCs can be cultured for over 90?days with high purity (around 93.5%). Moreover, SSCs isolated and expanded using our protocol fulfills all criteria of SSCs without losing their stemness-characterized by SSC-phenotypic gene expression and long-term self-renewal. This study describes for the first time a protocol allowing isolation and expansion of SSCs suitable for numerous studies related to SSC-based clinical therapies of various diseases. PMID:25503338

  14. Guiding the osteogenic fate of mouse and human mesenchymal stem cells through feedback system control

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Yoshitomo; Ding, Xianting; Mussano, Federico; Wiberg, Akira; Ho, Chih-ming; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell-based disease modeling presents unique opportunities for mechanistic elucidation and therapeutic targeting. The stable induction of fate-specific differentiation is an essential prerequisite for stem cell-based strategy. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) initiates receptor-regulated Smad phosphorylation, leading to the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) in vitro; however, it requires supra-physiological concentrations, presenting a bottleneck problem for large-scale drug screening. Here, we report the use of a double-objective feedback system control (FSC) with a differential evolution (DE) algorithm to identify osteogenic cocktails of extrinsic factors. Cocktails containing significantly reduced doses of BMP-2 in combination with physiologically relevant doses of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate, heparin, retinoic acid and vitamin D achieved accelerated in vitro mineralization of mouse and human MSC. These results provide insight into constructive approaches of FSC to determine the applicable functional and physiological environment for MSC in disease modeling, drug screening and tissue engineering. PMID:24305548

  15. Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of the sea hare, Aplysia kurodai: Unique properties of two ?-amylases and two ?-glucosidases

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Ohshima, Miki; Maniwa, Saori; Kuwamura, Shuji; Shiraishi, Masataka; Yuasa, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa) is a nuisance species of green algae that is found all over the world. East-Asian species of the marine gastropod, the sea hare Aplysia kurodai, shows a clear feeding preference for sea lettuce. Compared with cellulose, sea lettuce contains a higher amount of starch as a storage polysaccharide. However, the entire amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai has not been studied in detail. We purified ?-amylases and ?-glucosidases from the digestive fluid of A. kurodai and investigated the synergistic action of these enzymes on sea lettuce. A. kurodai contain two ?-amylases (59 and 80 kDa) and two ?-glucosidases (74 and 86 kDa). The 59-kDa ?-amylase, but not the 80-kDa ?-amylase, was markedly activated by Ca2+ or Cl?. Both ?-amylases degraded starch and maltoheptaose, producing maltotriose, maltose, and glucose. Glucose production from starch was higher with 80-kDa ?-amylase than with 59-kDa ?-amylase. Kinetic analysis indicated that 74-kDa ?-glucosidase prefers short ?-1,4-linked oligosaccharide, whereas 86-kDa ?-glucosidase prefers large ?-1,6 and ?-1,4-linked polysaccharides such as glycogen. When sea lettuce was used as a substrate, a 2-fold greater amount of glucose was released by treatment with 59-kDa ?-amylase and 74-kDa ?-glucosidase than by treatment with 45-kDa cellulase and 210-kDa ?-glucosidase of A. kurodai. Unlike mammals, sea hares efficiently digest sea lettuce to glucose by a combination of two ?-amylases and two ?-glucosidases in the digestive fluids without membrane-bound maltase–glucoamylase and sucrase–isomaltase complexes. PMID:25161866

  16. Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of the sea hare, Aplysia kurodai: Unique properties of two ?-amylases and two ?-glucosidases.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Ohshima, Miki; Maniwa, Saori; Kuwamura, Shuji; Shiraishi, Masataka; Yuasa, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa) is a nuisance species of green algae that is found all over the world. East-Asian species of the marine gastropod, the sea hare Aplysia kurodai, shows a clear feeding preference for sea lettuce. Compared with cellulose, sea lettuce contains a higher amount of starch as a storage polysaccharide. However, the entire amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai has not been studied in detail. We purified ?-amylases and ?-glucosidases from the digestive fluid of A. kurodai and investigated the synergistic action of these enzymes on sea lettuce. A. kurodai contain two ?-amylases (59 and 80 kDa) and two ?-glucosidases (74 and 86 kDa). The 59-kDa ?-amylase, but not the 80-kDa ?-amylase, was markedly activated by Ca(2+) or Cl(-). Both ?-amylases degraded starch and maltoheptaose, producing maltotriose, maltose, and glucose. Glucose production from starch was higher with 80-kDa ?-amylase than with 59-kDa ?-amylase. Kinetic analysis indicated that 74-kDa ?-glucosidase prefers short ?-1,4-linked oligosaccharide, whereas 86-kDa ?-glucosidase prefers large ?-1,6 and ?-1,4-linked polysaccharides such as glycogen. When sea lettuce was used as a substrate, a 2-fold greater amount of glucose was released by treatment with 59-kDa ?-amylase and 74-kDa ?-glucosidase than by treatment with 45-kDa cellulase and 210-kDa ?-glucosidase of A. kurodai. Unlike mammals, sea hares efficiently digest sea lettuce to glucose by a combination of two ?-amylases and two ?-glucosidases in the digestive fluids without membrane-bound maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase complexes. PMID:25161866

  17. Expression and Genetic Interaction of Transcription Factors GATA2 and GATA3 during Development of the Mouse Central Nervous System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeannette Nardelli; Danielle Thiesson; Yuko Fujiwara; Fong-Ying Tsai; Stuart H. Orkin

    1999-01-01

    Here we examine the expression of transcription factors GATA-2 and GATA-3 during early stages of embryonic development in the central nervous system (CNS) of the mouse. GATA-2 is expressed as early as 9 dpc in the hindbrain, in ventral rhombomere 4, and transiently in ventral rhombomere 2 (r2). From 9.5 to 11.5 dpc, activation of the gene spreads to many

  18. Systemic Disease-Induced Salivary Biomarker Profiles in Mouse Models of Melanoma and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Gao; Hui Zhou; Lei Zhang; Jin Wook Lee; Qing Zhou; Shen Hu; Lawrence E. Wolinsky; James Farrell; Guido Eibl; David T. Wong

    2009-01-01

    Background: Saliva (oral fluids) is an emerging biofluid poised for detection of clinical diseases. Although the rationale for oral diseases applications (e.g. oral cancer) is intuitive, the rationale and relationship between systemic diseases and saliva biomarkers are unclear. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: In this study, we used mouse models of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer and compared the transcriptome biomarker profiles

  19. Preservation of positional identity in fetus-derived neural stem (NS) cells from different mouse central nervous system compartments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Onorati; Maurizio Binetti; Luciano Conti; Stefano Camnasio; Giovanna Calabrese; Ilaria Albieri; Francesca Di Febo; Mauro Toselli; Gerardo Biella; Ben Martynoga; Francois Guillemot; G. Giacomo Consalez; Elena Cattaneo

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem (NS) cells are a self-renewing population of symmetrically dividing multipotent radial glia-like stem cells, characterized\\u000a by homogeneous expansion in monolayer. Here we report that fetal NS cells isolated from different regions of the developing\\u000a mouse nervous system behave in a similar manner with respect to self-renewal and neuropotency, but exhibit distinct positional\\u000a identities. For example, NS cells from

  20. Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Influence of co-digestion with manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hinrich Hartmann; Birgitte K. Ahring

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was investigated in two thermophilic (55°C) wet digestion treatment systems R1 and R2. Initially OFMSW was co-digested with manure with a successively higher concentration of OFMSW, at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14–18d and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.3–4.0g-VS\\/l\\/d. Adaptation of the co-digestion process to a

  1. Development of a mouse system to inspect underground gas distribution systems. Phase I. Topical report, November 1988-February 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, B.; Wiesman, R.

    1990-05-31

    The preliminary design of a modular inspection robot system for 4- to 6-in. natural gas distribution pipe was completed in the initial phase of this three phase, 3-1/2 year program. The development included breadboarding of major components comprising the tractor, control software, base station, and fiber optic winder, the camera, lighting systems and the modules for carrying batteries and pipe inspection sensors. The design range of the Mouse system is 2,000 ft (4,000 ft total travel) at a maximum speed of 1 in./sec. The breadboard achieved a speed of 1.6 in./sec and was able to negotiate vertical pipe, including fittings such as elbows, reducers, tees and crosses. Communication to the base station is carried over fiber optic cable which is paid out and taken up by the winder. Significant results from Phase I included preliminary design of all major components and testing of breadboards to verify design approaches. The kinematic configuration of the tractor appears well-suited for negotiating all anticipated pipe materials and fittings.

  2. On-farm anaerobic digester and fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    An anaerobic digestion system was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm. The anaerobic digestion system was designed to be coupled with a fuel alcohol plant constructed by the farm family as part of an integrated farm energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas from the digester can be used as fuel for the alcohol production. The anaerobic digestion system is made up of the following components. A hog finishing house, which already had a slotted floor and manure pit beneath it, was fitted with a system to scrape the manure into a feed slurry pit constructed at one end of the hog house. A solids handling pump feeds the manure from the feed slurry pit into the digester, a 13,000 gallon tank car body which has been insulated with styrofoam and buried underground. Another pump transfers effluent (digested manure) from the digester to a 150,000 gallon storage tank. The digested manure is then applied to cropland at appropriate times of the year. The digester temperature is maintained at the required level by automated hot water circulation through an internal heat exchanger. The biogas produced in the digester is pumped into a 32,000 gallon gas storage tank.

  3. Alterations in mouse macrophage migration: a function of assay systems, lymphocyte activation product preparation, and fractionation.

    PubMed Central

    Sandok, P L; Hinsdill, R D; Albrecht, R M

    1975-01-01

    Supernatants from mouse spleen cell and peritoneal cell cultures were tested for the presence of lymphocyte activation products. Supernatants from mouse spleen cell and peritoneal cell cultures incubated with brucella antigens contained a macrophage migration inhibition factor(s) and a macrophage spreading factor(s) only if the cells were harvested from Brucella-infected mice. After dialysis and freeze-drying, the supernatants were fractionated by preparative acrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Three fractions with lymphocyte activation product activity were obtained from the fractionated supernatants of mouse spleen cells and peritoneal cells harvested from Brucella-infected mice and cultured with brucella antigen. One fraction inhibited mouse macrophage migration from capillary tubes but not from agarose wells. A second fraction not only inhibited macrophage migration from both agarose wells and capillary tubes, but also contained an activity(s) that stimulated macrophage migration through Nuclepore filters and induced macrophage spreading. A third fraction timulated macrophage migration from agarose wells and also contained an activity(s) that stimulated macrophage migration through Nuclepore filters. Fractionated supernatants of mouse spleen cells and peritoneal cells harvested from uninfected mice incubated with and without brucella antigen, as well as of cells harvested from infected mice and not incubated with antigen, did not contain detectable lymphocyte activation products. PMID:804442

  4. Production response and digestive enzymatic activity of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) intensively pregrown in microbial heterotrophic and autotrophic-based systems.

    PubMed

    Becerra-Dórame, Manuel J; Martínez-Porchas, Marcel; Martínez-Córdova, Luis R; Rivas-Vega, Martha E; Lopez-Elias, José A; Porchas-Cornejo, Marco A

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp postlarvae were reared into different microcosm systems without water exchange; a traditional system based on simple fertilization to improve microalgae concentration (control), an autotrophic system (AS) based on the promotion of biofloc and biofilm by the addition of fertilizer and artificial substrates and a heterotrophic system (HS) based on the promotion of heterotrophic bacteria by the addition of nitrogenous and carbonaceous sources and artificial substrates. Better growth performance and survival were registered in shrimp from the AS and HS compared to the control. Feed conversion ratios were below 0.7 for all treatments, but AS and HS were significantly lower than the control. Regarding digestive performance, no significant differences were observed for trypsin, amylase and lipase activities among AS and control shrimp; however, shrimp from HS showed a higher trypsin and amylase activities, suggesting a higher digestive activity caused by the presence of microbial bioflocs. The presence of biofilm and bioflocs composed by either autotrophic or heterotrophic organisms in combination with formulated feed improved the growth performance and survival of shrimp. Apparently, such combination fits the nutritional requirements of shrimp. PMID:22649317

  5. Differential expression of phosphacan/RPTPbeta isoforms in the developing mouse visual system.

    PubMed

    Klausmeyer, Alice; Garwood, Jeremy; Faissner, Andreas

    2007-10-20

    The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan DSD-1-PG/phosphacan represents one of four splice variants of receptor-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-beta/zeta (RPTPbeta/zeta). This receptor is expressed by glial cells and occurs in two isoforms, RPTPbeta(long) and RPTPbeta(short). The secreted forms phosphacan and phosphacan short isoform (PSI) bind to extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules and might mediate astroglial effects on neuronal differentiation. Phosphacan and RPTPbeta(long) both carry the DSD-1 epitope, a glycosaminoglycan modification that is involved in stimulating neurite outgrowth of embryonic rat mesencephalic and hippocampal neurons in a polycationic environment. Additionally, phosphacan inhibits neurite outgrowth of embryonic DRG neurons in the presence of laminin. In the light of these functional properties we examined the expression patterns of the DSD-1 epitope and phosphacan isoforms in the developing mouse visual system. During retinal development the DSD-1 epitope appears around embryonic day (E)13, peaks around postnatal day (P)6, and is downregulated from P9 to adolescence. By comparison, the phosphacan core protein is first detectable at E12, reaches maximal levels around P14, and persists, although at lower levels, to adulthood. The DSD-1 epitope is restricted to the nerve fiber and the inner plexiform layers. In contrast, the phosphacan core protein immunoreactivity extends from the nerve fiber layer to the outer plexiform layer. The level of expression of the phosphacan/RPTPbeta gene was investigated by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. These experiments suggest that there is a shift in the expression patterns of the different phosphacan/RPTPbeta isoforms during late embryonic and postnatal development. In situ hybridization experiments support the conclusion that at least one of the phosphacan/RPTPbeta isoforms in the retina is expressed by neurons. PMID:17722031

  6. Digestive organ in the female reproductive tract borrows genes from multiple organ systems to adopt critical functions.

    PubMed

    Meslin, Camille; Plakke, Melissa S; Deutsch, Aaron B; Small, Brandon S; Morehouse, Nathan I; Clark, Nathan L

    2015-06-01

    Persistent adaptive challenges are often met with the evolution of novel physiological traits. Although there are specific examples of single genes providing new physiological functions, studies on the origin of complex organ functions are lacking. One such derived set of complex functions is found in the Lepidopteran bursa copulatrix, an organ within the female reproductive tract that digests nutrients from the male ejaculate or spermatophore. Here, we characterized bursa physiology and the evolutionary mechanisms by which it was equipped with digestive and absorptive functionality. By studying the transcriptome of the bursa and eight other tissues, we revealed a suite of highly expressed and secreted gene products providing the bursa with a combination of stomach-like traits for mechanical and enzymatic digestion of the male spermatophore. By subsequently placing these bursa genes in an evolutionary framework, we found that the vast majority of their novel digestive functions were co-opted by borrowing genes that continue to be expressed in nonreproductive tissues. However, a number of bursa-specific genes have also arisen, some of which represent unique gene families restricted to Lepidoptera and may provide novel bursa-specific functions. This pattern of promiscuous gene borrowing and relatively infrequent evolution of tissue-specific duplicates stands in contrast to studies of the evolution of novelty via single gene co-option. Our results suggest that the evolution of complex organ-level phenotypes may often be enabled (and subsequently constrained) by changes in tissue specificity that allow expression of existing genes in novel contexts, such as reproduction. The extent to which the selective pressures encountered in these novel roles require resolution via duplication and sub/neofunctionalization is likely to be determined by the need for specialized reproductive functionality. Thus, complex physiological phenotypes such as that found in the bursa offer important opportunities for understanding the relative role of pleiotropy and specialization in adaptive evolution. PMID:25725432

  7. Automated phenotyping of mouse social behavior

    E-print Network

    Edelman, Nicholas (Nicholas A.)

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the connections between social behavior and intelligence, I have developed a trainable system to phenotype mouse social behavior. This system is of immediate interest to researchers studying mouse models of ...

  8. Poultry waste digester. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.C.H.

    1983-01-01

    A simple and low-cost poultry waste digester (PWD) was constructed at North Carolina State University's Poultry Research Farm at Raleigh, N.C. The PWD system was designed to process a daily output of 600 kg of manure from 4000 caged laying hens. The system consisted of two digesters connected in series, a heating system, a hot water tank, and other metering equipment. The primary and secondary digesters were horizontal cylinders located partially below ground level. They were made of Red Mud plastic lining, supported in the insulated trenches, and covered with insulated roofs. The primary digester volume was 15 m/sup 3/ with an 8 m/sup 3/ liquid volume and a gas head-space above the liquid. The secondary digester volume was 30 m/sup 3/ with a 16 m/sup 3/ liquid volume. The temperature (50/sup 0/C) of the primary digester was maintained by the hot dilution water added with manure and a SolaRoll heating mat laid underneath the plastic lining. The design, operation, performance, energy balance, and economics of the digester are discussed and evaluated in this final progress report.

  9. Trophicit des muqueuses digestives D. BALAS Franoise SENEGAS-BALAS Marie-Jos BASTIE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    action on the digestive system. This paper only discusses long-term trophic regulation in three organsTrophicité des muqueuses digestives D. BALAS Françoise SENEGAS-BALAS Marie-José BASTIE Laboratoire. Summary. Trophicity ofthe digestive mucosae. The morphological and functional integrity of the digestive

  10. Thermophilic co-digestion of pig manure and crude glycerol: process performance and digestate stability.

    PubMed

    Astals, S; Nolla-Ardèvol, V; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2013-07-10

    Anaerobic co-digestion has been widely used to enhance biogas production of digesters and, therefore, to improve the anaerobic plants economic feasibility. In the present study, glycerol, a by-product of the biodiesel industry, was used as a co-substrate for pig manure. The results showed that the thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure supplemented with 3% of glycerol, on weight basis, was satisfactory. The specific biogas production of the co-digester was 180% higher than the one obtained by the reference digester, which was only fed with pig manure. The improvement was related to the double of the organic loading rate, the high biodegradability of the crude glycerol, the slight reduction of the free ammonia concentration and the optimisation of the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Moreover, the analysis of the organic matter (protein, lipids, carbohydrates and fibers) of the influent and the effluent of both digesters together with their biogas flow rates indicated that the microorganisms in the co-digester obtained large amounts of nutrients from the glycerol, whereas the microorganisms of the reference digester mainly produced biogas from the particulate matter. However, the digestate obtained from the co-digester cannot be directly applied as soil fertiliser or conditioner due to the presence of high levels of biodegradable matter, which may exert negative impacts on the plant-soil system. Thus, a longer hydraulic retention time, a reduction of the glycerol concentration and/or a post-treatment is required if the digestate is to be used as soil fertiliser or conditioner. In contrast, pig manure digestate can be directly applied on land. PMID:23685137

  11. Light microscopic autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, A.S.; Goodman, R.R.

    1984-05-01

    Much work has been done on opioid systems in the rat CNS. Although the mouse is widely used in pharmacological studies of opioid action, little has been done to characterize opioid systems in this species. In the present study the distribution of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse CNS was examined using a quantitative in vitro autoradiography procedure. Tritiated dihydromorphine was used to visualize mu sites and (3H-d-Ala2-d-Leu5)enkephalin with a low concentration of morphine was used to visualize delta sites. Mu and delta site localizations in the mouse are very similar to those previously described in the rat (Goodman, R.R., S.H. Snyder, M.J. Kuhar, and W.S. Young, 3d (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:6239-6243), with certain exceptions and additions. Mu and delta sites were observed in sensory processing areas, limbic system, extrapyramidal motor system, and cranial parasympathetic system. Differential distributions of mu and delta sites were noted in many areas. Mu sites were prominent in laminae I, IV, and VI of the neocortex, in patches in the striatum, and in the ventral pallidum, nucleus accumbens, medial and midline thalamic nuclei, medial habenular nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, and laminae I and II of the spinal cord. In contrast, delta sites were prominent in all laminae of the neocortex, olfactory tubercle, diffusely throughout the striatum, and in the basal, lateral, and cortical nuclei of the amygdala. The determination of the differential distributions of opioid binding sites should prove useful in suggesting anatomical substrates for the actions of opiates and opioids.

  12. Mechanised flow system for on-line microwave digestion of food samples with off-line catalytic spectrophotometric determination of cobalt at ng l-1 levels.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Filho, E R; Arruda, M A

    1999-12-01

    A mechanised system for on-line slurry food sample digestion was developed and an off-line cobalt determination was performed. The stabilised slurry sample was introduced into an air carrier stream until reaching the digestion coils located inside a household microwave oven. Software written in Visual Basic 3.0 was developed to permit the transport of the slurry samples and the programming of the microwave oven and also the control of the mineralization valve. The proposed system was optimized for determination of cobalt in certified samples such as mussels, bovine liver and fish and also uncertified fish samples. The digestion parameters were established as 3 mol l-1 HNO3 for mussels, 3 mol l-1 HNO3 plus 0.16% v/v H2O2 for bovine liver and 12 mol l-1 HNO3 for fish employing maximum power for 5 min of microwave actuation. In the subsequent spectrophotometric method for the catalytic determination of cobalt, the Tiron and hydrogen peroxide concentrations were 1.8 x 10(-3) and 3.0 x 10(-4) mol l-1, respectively, and the sample residence time was 300 s as determined by an optimisation process. The proposed method features a linear range from 10 to 200 ng l-1 Co (r > 0.996) with detection and quantification limits of 1.7 and 5.5 ng l-1 Co, respectively. The precision, expressed as RSD, was 2.4% (n = 12) for repeatability and 5.2% (n = 10) for reproducibility and the accuracy of the proposed method was assessed by using certified samples and an alternative technique (ETAAS). PMID:10746313

  13. Immature and Neurally Differentiated Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Do Not Express a Functional Fas/Fas Ligand System

    PubMed Central

    Brunlid, Gabriella; Pruszak, Jan; Holmes, Benjamin; Isacson, Ole; Sonntag, Kai-Christian

    2010-01-01

    The potential of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells to develop into functional cells or tissue provides an opportunity in the development of new therapies for many diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. The survival of implanted cells usually requires systemic immunosuppression, however, which severely compromises the host immune system, leading to complications in clinical transplantation. An optimal therapy would therefore be the induction of specific tolerance to the donor cells, while otherwise preserving functional immune responses. Fas ligand (FasL) is expressed in activated lymphocytes as well as cells in “immune-privileged” sites including the central nervous system. Its receptor, Fas, is expressed on various immune-reactive cell types, such as activated natural killer and T cells, monocytes, and polymorphic mononucleocytes, which can undergo apoptosis upon interaction with FasL. To render transplanted cells tolerant to host cellular immune responses, we genetically engineered mouse ES cells to express rat FasL (rFasL). The rFasL-expressing ES cells were analyzed for survival during in vitro neurodifferentiation and after transplantation to the rat brain without further immunosuppression. Although control transfected HEK-293T cells expressed functional rFasL, immature and differentiated mouse ES cells did not express the recombinant rFasL surface protein. Furthermore, there was no evidence for functional endogenous Fas and FasL expression on either ES cells or on neural cells after in vitro differentiation. Moreover, implanted rFasL-engineered ES cells did not survive in the rat brains in the absence of the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A. Our results indicate that immature and differentiated mouse ES cells do not express a functional Fas/FasL system. PMID:17615270

  14. Propagation in the transverse tubular system and voltage dependence of calcium release in normal and mdx mouse muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Christopher E; Novo, David; DiFranco, Marino; Capote, Joana; Vergara, Julio L

    2005-01-01

    Using a two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique, we investigated possible mechanisms underlying the impaired excitation–contraction coupling in skeletal muscle fibres of the mdx mouse, a model of the human disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We evaluated the role of the transverse tubular system (T-system) by using the potentiometric indicator di-8 ANEPPS, and that of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release by measuring Ca2+ transients with a low affinity indicator in the presence of high EGTA concentrations under voltage clamp conditions. We observed minimal differences in the T-system structure and the T-system electrical propagation was not different between normal and mdx mice. Whereas the maximum Ca2+ release elicited by voltage pulses was reduced by ?67% in mdx fibres, in agreement with previous results obtained using AP stimulation, the voltage dependence of SR Ca2+ release was identical to that seen in normal fibres. Taken together, our data suggest that the intrinsic ability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca2+ may be altered in the mdx mouse. PMID:16123111

  15. Writing Development. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Mei-Yu

    This digest reviews children's writing development from socio-cultural, generative, and developmental perspectives. The digest's first section deals with oral language, art, and children's early writing, noting that children use their drawing and talk to support their early exploration and use of print. The second section examines how, in addition…

  16. Solar heated anaerobic digester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhoades

    1980-01-01

    The title digester is adapted to utilize organic waste material capable of decomposing to produce CHâ and a liquid fertilizer. The sealed anaerobic digester is wrapped with a layer of heat-absorptive material followed by a series of abutting removable panels of insulative material. Insulative panels may be temporarily removed to expose the heat-absorptive material to solar radiation and may be

  17. Fate mapping of the mouse midbrain–hindbrain constriction using a site-specific recombination system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn L. Zinyk; Eric H. Mercer; Esther Harris; David J. Anderson; Alexandra L. Joyner

    1998-01-01

    The mouse midbrain–hindbrain constriction is centrally involved in patterning of the midbrain and anterior hindbrain (cerebellum), as revealed by recent genetic studies using mice and embryological studies in chick (reviewed in [1,2]). This region can act as an organizer region to induce midbrain and cerebellar development. Genes such as Engrailed-1, Pax-2 and Pax-5, which are expressed in the embryonic cells

  18. Extractability of heavy metals in wastewater solids undergoing anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    The extractability of heavy metals in wastewater sludge undergoing anaerobic digestion was investigated. Using batch laboratory digesters, raw wastewater sludge was anaerobically digested at different raw sludge solids loadings and two temperatures. From each of the laboratory digesters, wastewater sludge was sampled at three day intervals and sequentially separated into seven extraction fractions and analyzed for the metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni, and Pb. The seven step sequential extraction was for metal species: (a) soluble, (b) displaced-exchangeable, (c) adsorbed, (d) organic, (e) carbonate, (f) sulfide-acid soluble, and (g) residual. At the 35/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the extractant fractions between the raw and anaerobically digested sludges were significantly different. For the 45/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the raw and digested sludge extractant fractions were different and different compared to the 35/sup 0/C system. The 45/sup 0/C raw sludge showed greater percent metal in the organic and sulfide-acid soluble fraction than the digested sludge. At the 45/sup 0/C anaerobic digestion temperature the percent of raw sludge solids loading in the digester had a greater effect on changes in metal extractability and proposed metal species than the 35/sup 0/C.

  19. Expression of aquaporin-4 water channels in the digestive tract of the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Li, Jian; Liu, Xiaofeng; Burnstock, Geoffrey; Xiang, Zhenghua

    2014-04-01

    Expression of the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel was systematically studied in the digestive tract of the guinea pig using Western blot and immunofluorescence techniques. The results showed that AQP4 was expressed widely in different segments of the guinea pig digestive tract. AQP4-immunoreactivity was confined to parietal cells in the stomach, and absorptive and glandular epithelial cells of small and large intestine. AQP4 protein was also expressed by enteric glial cells of submucosal and myenteric ganglia and primary nerve trunks. AQP4 was expressed by both type I and type II enteric gliocytes, but not by type III or type IV enteric gliocytes, indicating that enteric gliocytes have a heterogeneous distribution in the gut wall. In addition, different patterns of AQP4 expression in the enteric nervous system of human, guinea pig, rat and mouse colon mucosa were identified: in rat and mouse AQP4 was localised to a small subpopulation of neurons; in the guinea pig AQP4 was localised to enteric glial cells; and in the human colon mucosa, AQP4 was also detected mainly in the glial cells. It has been speculated that AQP4 may be involved in water transport in the gastrointestinal tract. Its role in enteric neurons and glia is unknown, but, by analogy with the brain, AQP4 may be involved in the formation and resolution of edema. PMID:24122228

  20. Residual biogas potential from the storage tanks of non-separated digestate and digested liquid fraction.

    PubMed

    Gioelli, F; Dinuccio, E; Balsari, P

    2011-11-01

    Biogas plants daily produce enormous volumes of digestate that can be handled in its raw form or after mechanical separation. In Italy, effluents are usually stored within aboveground, uncovered tanks, which make them potential emitters of biogas into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of biogas emitted to the atmosphere during the storage phase of non-separated digestate and digested liquid fraction. The trials were performed at two northwest Italy 1 MWel. biogas plants. A floating system for the residual biogas recovery, and a set of three wind tunnels for NH3 emission measurement were used. The experiment demonstrated significant loss to the atmosphere for each of the gases; specifically, on average, 19.5 and 7.90 N m3 biogas MWhel.(-1) were emitted daily from the storage tanks of non-separated digestate and digested liquid fraction, respectively. PMID:21963905

  1. Teaching and Learning about the Earth. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyonyong

    This ERIC Digest investigates the earth and space science guidelines of the National Science Education Standards. These guidelines are frequently referred to as the earth system and include components such as plate tectonics, the water cycle, and the carbon cycle. This Digest describes the development of earth systems science and earth systems

  2. Auditory sensitivity and the outer hair cell system in the CBA mouse model of age-related hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Frisina, Robert D; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2011-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss is a highly prevalent sensory disorder, from both the clinical and animal model perspectives. Understanding of the neurophysiologic, structural, and molecular biologic bases of age-related hearing loss will facilitate development of biomedical therapeutic interventions to prevent, slow, or reverse its progression. Thus, increased understanding of relationships between aging of the cochlear (auditory portion of the inner ear) hair cell system and decline in overall hearing ability is necessary. The goal of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that there would be correlations between physiologic measures of outer hair cell function (otoacoustic emission levels) and hearing sensitivity (auditory brainstem response thresholds), starting in middle age. For the CBA mouse, a useful animal model of age-related hearing loss, it was found that correlations between these two hearing measures occurred only for high sound frequencies in middle age. However, in old age, a correlation was observed across the entire mouse range of hearing. These findings have implications for improved early detection of progression of age-related hearing loss in middle-aged mammals, including mice and humans, and distinguishing peripheral etiologies from central auditory system decline. PMID:21866215

  3. Two-stage anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and fruit\\/vegetable waste using inclined tubular digesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Dinsdale; G. C. Premier; F. R. Hawkes; D. L. Hawkes

    2000-01-01

    The anaerobic co-digestion of a 10% total solids (7.4% VS) waste activated sludge\\/fruit and vegetable mixture with approximately 25% of the VS arising from the fruit and vegetable waste was studied in duplicate two-stage systems. Acidogenic CSTRs and methanogenic inclined tubular digesters operated at 30°C achieved stable anaerobic digestion at an overall system loading rate of 5.7 kg VS m?3

  4. Antidepressants reduce neuroinflammatory responses and astroglial alpha-synuclein accumulation in a transgenic mouse model of Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Elvira; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the pathological accumulation of alpha-synuclein (?-syn) within oligodendroglial cells. This accumulation is accompanied by neuroinflammation with astrogliosis and microgliosis, that leads to neuronal death and subsequent parkinsonism and dysautonomia. Antidepressants have been explored as neuroprotective agents as they normalize neurotrophic factor levels, increase neurogenesis and reduce neurodegeneration, but their anti-inflammatory properties have not been fully characterized. We analyzed the anti-inflammatory profiles of three different antidepressants (fluoxetine, olanzapine and amitriptyline) in the MBP1-h?-syn transgenic (tg) mouse model of MSA. We observed that antidepressant treatment decreased the number of ?-syn-positive cells in the basal ganglia of 11-month old tg animals. This reduction was accompanied with a similar decrease in the colocalization of ?-syn with astrocyte markers in this brain structure. Consistent with these results, antidepressants reduced astrogliosis in the hippocampus and basal ganglia of the MBP1-h?-syn tg mice, and modulated the expression levels of key cytokines that were dysregulated in the tg mouse model, such as IL-1?. In vitro experiments in the astroglial cell line C6 confirmed that antidepressants inhibited NF-?B translocation to the nucleus and reduced IL-1? protein levels. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory properties of antidepressants in the MBP1-h?-syn tg mouse model of MSA might be related to their ability to inhibit ?-syn propagation from oligodendrocytes to astroglia and to regulate transcription factors involved in cytokine expression. Our results suggest that antidepressants might be of interest as anti-inflammatory and ?-syn-reducing agents for MSA and other ?-synucleinopathies. PMID:24310907

  5. A transgenic mouse line for collecting ribosome-bound mRNA using the tetracycline transactivator system

    PubMed Central

    Drane, Laurel; Ainsley, Joshua A.; Mayford, Mark R.; Reijmers, Leon G.

    2014-01-01

    Acquiring the gene expression profiles of specific neuronal cell-types is important for understanding their molecular identities. Genome-wide gene expression profiles of genetically defined cell-types can be acquired by collecting and sequencing mRNA that is bound to epitope-tagged ribosomes (TRAP; translating ribosome affinity purification). Here, we introduce a transgenic mouse model that combines the TRAP technique with the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) system by expressing EGFP-tagged ribosomal protein L10a (EGFP-L10a) under control of the tetracycline response element (tetO-TRAP). This allows both spatial control of EGFP-L10a expression through cell-type specific tTA expression, as well as temporal regulation by inhibiting transgene expression through the administration of doxycycline. We show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic mice expressing tTA under the Camk2a promoter (Camk2a-tTA) results in offspring with cell-type specific expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed that EGFP-L10a integrates into a functional ribosomal complex. In addition, collection of ribosome-bound mRNA from the hippocampus yielded the expected enrichment of genes expressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons, as well as a depletion of genes expressed in other hippocampal cell-types. Finally, we show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic Fos-tTA mice enables the expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons that are activated during a fear conditioning trial. The tetO-TRAP mouse can be combined with other tTA mouse lines to enable gene expression profiling of a variety of different cell-types. PMID:25400545

  6. Incorporation and retention of radiolabeled S-(+)-and R-(-)-methamphetamine and S(+)- and R(-)-N-(n-butyl)-amphetamine in mouse hair after systemic administration.

    PubMed

    Stout, P R; Claffey, D J; Ruth, J A

    2000-03-01

    We examined the incorporation of unlabeled and tritiated enantiomers of methamphetamine (MA) and a more lipophilic analog N-(n-butyl)-amphetamine (BA) into the hair of pigmented (C57) and nonpigmented (Balb/C) mice after systemic administration. We also compared the ability of extraction methods to remove unlabeled and tritiated MA and BA enantiomers from the hair. R(-)-MA, S(+)-MA, [(3)H]R(-)-MA, [(3)H]S(+)-MA, R(-)-BA, S(+)-BA, [(3)H]R-(-)-BA, and [(3)H]S-(+)-BA were each administered to C57 and Balb/C mice (23 days of age) by i.p. injection at 8.8 mg/kg daily for 3 days. At 44 days of age, hair samples from the animals were treated with a brief methanol wash, a 24-h extraction with pH 6 phosphate buffer, and a final digestion in 1 N NaOH to free residual drugs from the hair. Labeled drugs in the extracts were quantitated by liquid scintillation counting. Unlabeled drugs were quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). GC/MS analysis demonstrated MA and BA to be the major (>90%) species present in the blood during the 24 h after administration. Less than 10% of the MA was N-demethylated. No p-hydroxylated metabolites were found. Blood concentrations of tritiated MA and BA enantiomers measured by liquid scintillation counting agreed well with blood concentrations of unlabeled enantiomers measured by GC/MS. Hair concentrations of S(+)-MA were greater than those of R(-)-MA in both mouse strains, paralleling blood concentrations. There were no enantiomeric differences seen with BA hair accumulation in either strain of mouse. Significantly more MA and BA enantiomers were deposited in pigmented than in nonpigmented hair. With labeled and unlabeled compounds, approximately 30% of S(+)-MA and 60% of R(-)-MA in pigmented hair could be removed by a phosphate extraction. A significant amount of drug could not be removed from the hair by extraction. Greater amounts of drug could be extracted from nonpigmented hair than pigmented. Extracted and residual MA and BA concentrations in pigmented hair were significantly greater when labeled compounds were quantitated by liquid scintillation counting than when unlabeled compounds were quantitated by GC/MS. However, radiotracer and unlabeled drug concentrations were the same in nonpigmented hair. The results demonstrate that hair pigmentation is an important determinant in MA and BA deposition, and that MA and BA deposition is not enantioselective. The data demonstrate a significant amount of MA and BA accumulated is not easily amenable to exhaustive aqueous extraction from the hair. The use of tritiated MA and BA enantiomers demonstrates that a significant amount of MA and BA stored in pigmented hair is structurally different from parent MA and BA, perhaps associated with melanin components of hair. PMID:10681372

  7. Mouse Party

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2007-08-09

    In this interactive activity from The University of Utah, examine the molecular mechanisms that affect the brains of mice on drugs. Learn how different drugs create different responses in the brain and alter the natural state of a mouse.

  8. A validated Trichinella digestion assay and an associated sampling and quality assurance system for use in testing pork and horse meat.

    PubMed

    Forbes, L B; Gajadhar, A A

    1999-11-01

    A revised digestion method, developed for efficiency and quality assurance, was validated for the detection of Trichinella larvae in pork and horse meat to meet requirements for food safety testing and facilitate access to international markets. The method consisted of a tissue homogenization step and a spin bar digestion procedure conducted at 45 degrees C to free larvae from muscle tissue, followed by two sequential separatory funnel steps to concentrate the larvae for detection using a stereomicroscope. Critical control points were determined for the method and monitored during testing. Under conditions of a defined protocol, test capacity was suitable for industrial applications, since multiples of up to 100 g of tissue could be analyzed at one time. The overall sensitivity of the test system depended on the size and origin of the sample taken from individual infected carcasses. Data from swine indicated that the currently accepted sample size of 1 g from individual carcasses consistently detected larval loads of > or =3 larvae per gram. Larval loads of 1.0 to 1.9 larvae per gram required 3- to 5-g samples of muscle tissue for reliable detection. Five-gram samples were considered optimal, because they consistently detected more tissues than 3-g samples, although the difference was not statistically significant. Tissue localization studies in experimental pigs indicated that the tongue and diaphragm were the tissues of choice for the most sensitive larval recovery. A system of analyst training, laboratory certification based on ISO guide 25, and on-site proficiency panel testing was used to ensure that external laboratories would consistently produce reliable test results. The system developed for pork was successfully modified for the testing of horse meat. PMID:10571321

  9. A detailed analysis of the erythropoietic control system in the human, squirrel, monkey, rat and mouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordheim, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The erythropoiesis modeling performed in support of the Body Fluid and Blood Volume Regulation tasks is described. The mathematical formulation of the species independent model, the solutions to the steady state and dynamic versions of the model, and the individual species specific models for the human, squirrel monkey, rat and mouse are outlined. A detailed sensitivity analysis of the species independent model response to parameter changes and how those responses change from species to species is presented. The species to species response to a series of simulated stresses directly related to blood volume regulation during space flight is analyzed.

  10. Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse in an accumulation system within the DESAR (decentralized sanitation and reuse) concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kujawa-Roeleveld; T. A. Elmitwally; A. Gaillard; M. van Leeuwen; G. Zeeman

    2003-01-01

    Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse within the DESAR concept was the objective of this pilot research. The digestion took place in two, non-mixed accumulation reactors (AC1 and AC2) inoculated with digested primary sludge from a WWTP at a temperature of 20°C for a period of around 150 days. Reactor AC1 was fed with a mixture of faeces,

  11. Solar heated anaerobic digester

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, D.

    1980-09-09

    The title digester is adapted to utilize organic waste material capable of decomposing to produce CH/sub 4/ and a liquid fertilizer. The sealed anaerobic digester is wrapped with a layer of heat-absorptive material followed by a series of abutting removable panels of insulative material. Insulative panels may be temporarily removed to expose the heat-absorptive material to solar radiation and may be replaced when the solar radiation diminishes. A layer of transparent material wrapped in outwardly spaced relation around the insulating panels is capable of transmitting solar radiation while providing protection against environmental elements. Additional heating means extending into the digester provide auxiliary heat as required.

  12. Molecular and Functional Diversity of GABA-A Receptors in the Enteric Nervous System of the Mouse Colon

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Mohsen; Brown, James F.; Mills, Jeremy; Bhandari, Pradeep; Belelli, Delia; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Rudolph, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) provides the intrinsic neural control of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and regulates virtually all GI functions. Altered neuronal activity within the ENS underlies various GI disorders with stress being a key contributing factor. Thus, elucidating the expression and function of the neurotransmitter systems, which determine neuronal excitability within the ENS, such as the GABA-GABAA receptor (GABAAR) system, could reveal novel therapeutic targets for such GI disorders. Molecular and functionally diverse GABAARs modulate rapid GABAergic-mediated regulation of neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. However, the cellular and subcellular GABAAR subunit expression patterns within neurochemically defined cellular circuits of the mouse ENS, together with the functional contribution of GABAAR subtypes to GI contractility remains to be determined. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that immunoreactivity for the GABAAR gamma (?) 2 and alphas (?) 1, 2, 3 subunits was located on somatodendritic surfaces of neurochemically distinct myenteric plexus neurons, while being on axonal compartments of submucosal plexus neurons. In contrast, immunoreactivity for the ?4–5 subunits was only detected in myenteric plexus neurons. Furthermore, ?-?2 subunit immunoreactivity was located on non-neuronal interstitial cells of Cajal. In organ bath studies, GABAAR subtype-specific ligands had contrasting effects on the force and frequency of spontaneous colonic longitudinal smooth muscle contractions. Finally, enhancement of ?2-GABAAR function with alprazolam reversed the stress-induced increase in the force of spontaneous colonic contractions. The study demonstrates the molecular and functional diversity of the GABAAR system within the mouse colon providing a framework for developing GABAAR-based therapeutics in GI disorders. PMID:25080596

  13. Molecular and functional diversity of GABA-A receptors in the enteric nervous system of the mouse colon.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Mohsen; Brown, James F; Mills, Jeremy; Bhandari, Pradeep; Belelli, Delia; Lambert, Jeremy J; Rudolph, Uwe; Swinny, Jerome D

    2014-07-30

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) provides the intrinsic neural control of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and regulates virtually all GI functions. Altered neuronal activity within the ENS underlies various GI disorders with stress being a key contributing factor. Thus, elucidating the expression and function of the neurotransmitter systems, which determine neuronal excitability within the ENS, such as the GABA-GABAA receptor (GABAAR) system, could reveal novel therapeutic targets for such GI disorders. Molecular and functionally diverse GABAARs modulate rapid GABAergic-mediated regulation of neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. However, the cellular and subcellular GABAAR subunit expression patterns within neurochemically defined cellular circuits of the mouse ENS, together with the functional contribution of GABAAR subtypes to GI contractility remains to be determined. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that immunoreactivity for the GABAAR gamma (?) 2 and alphas (?) 1, 2, 3 subunits was located on somatodendritic surfaces of neurochemically distinct myenteric plexus neurons, while being on axonal compartments of submucosal plexus neurons. In contrast, immunoreactivity for the ?4-5 subunits was only detected in myenteric plexus neurons. Furthermore, ?-?2 subunit immunoreactivity was located on non-neuronal interstitial cells of Cajal. In organ bath studies, GABAAR subtype-specific ligands had contrasting effects on the force and frequency of spontaneous colonic longitudinal smooth muscle contractions. Finally, enhancement of ?2-GABAAR function with alprazolam reversed the stress-induced increase in the force of spontaneous colonic contractions. The study demonstrates the molecular and functional diversity of the GABAAR system within the mouse colon providing a framework for developing GABAAR-based therapeutics in GI disorders. PMID:25080596

  14. A comparison study on the high-rate co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste using a temperature-phased anaerobic sequencing batch reactor system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Nam, Joo-Youn; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2011-08-01

    Assessing contemporary anaerobic biotechnologies requires proofs on reliable performance in terms of renewable bioenergy recovery such as methane (CH(4)) production rate, CH(4) yield while removing volatile solid (VS) effectively. This study, therefore, aims to evaluate temperature-phased anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (TPASBR) system that is a promising approach for the sustainable treatment of organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW). TPASBR system is compared with a conventional system, mesophilic two-stage anaerobic sequencing batch reactor system, which differs in operating temperature of 1st-stage. Results demonstrate that TPASBR system can obtain 44% VS removal from co-substrate of sewage sludge and food waste while producing 1.2m(3)CH(4)/m(3)(system)/d (0.2m(3)CH(4)/kgVS(added)) at organic loading rate of 6.1gVS/L/d through the synergy of sequencing-batch operation, co-digestion, and temperature-phasing. Consequently, the rapid and balanced anaerobic metabolism at thermophilic stage makes TPASBR system to afford high organic loading rate showing superior performance on OFMSW stabilization. PMID:21600764

  15. Advantages of using the CRISPR/Cas9 system of genome editing to investigate male reproductive mechanisms using mouse models.

    PubMed

    Young, Samantha A M; Aitken, R John; Ikawa, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    Gene disruption technology has long been beneficial for the study of male reproductive biology. However, because of the time and cost involved, this technology was not a viable method except in specialist laboratories. The advent of the CRISPR/Cas9 system of gene disruption has ushered in a new era of genetic investigation. Now, it is possible to generate gene-disrupted mouse models in very little time and at very little cost. This Highlight article discusses the application of this technology to study the genetics of male fertility and looks at some of the future uses of this system that could be used to reveal the essential and nonessential genetic components of male reproductive mechanisms. PMID:25994645

  16. A new mouse model of Canavan leukodystrophy displays hearing impairment due to central nervous system dysmyelination

    PubMed Central

    Carpinelli, Marina R.; Voss, Anne K.; Manning, Michael G.; Perera, Ashwyn A.; Cooray, Anne A.; Kile, Benjamin T.; Burt, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Canavan disease is a leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the ASPA gene. This gene encodes the enzyme that converts N-acetylaspartate into acetate and aspartic acid. In Canavan disease, spongiform encephalopathy of the brain causes progressive mental retardation, motor deficit and death. We have isolated a mouse with a novel ethylnitrosourea-induced mutation in Aspa. This mutant, named deaf14, carries a c.516T>A mutation that is predicted to cause a p.Y172X protein truncation. No full-length ASPA protein is produced in deaf14 brain and there is extensive spongy degeneration. Interestingly, we found that deaf14 mice have an attenuated startle in response to loud noise. The first auditory brainstem response peak has normal latency and amplitude but peaks II, III, IV and V have increased latency and decreased amplitude in deaf14 mice. Our work reveals a hitherto unappreciated pathology in a mouse model of Canavan disease, implying that auditory brainstem response testing could be used in diagnosis and to monitor the progression of this disease. PMID:24682784

  17. Predictive Dose-Based Estimation of Systemic Exposure Multiples in Mouse and Monkey Relative to Human for Antisense Oligonucleotides With 2?-O-(2-Methoxyethyl) Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rosie Z; Grundy, John S; Henry, Scott P; Kim, Tae-Won; Norris, Daniel A; Burkey, Jennifer; Wang, Yanfeng; Vick, Andrew; Geary, Richard S

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of species differences and systemic exposure multiples (or ratios) in toxicological animal species versus human is an ongoing exercise during the course of drug development. The systemic exposure ratios are best estimated by directly comparing area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUCs), and sometimes by comparing the dose administered, with the dose being adjusted either by body surface area (BSA) or body weight (BW). In this study, the association between AUC ratio and the administered dose ratio from animals to human were studied using a retrospective data-driven approach. The dataset included nine antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) with 2?-O-(2-methoxyethyl) modifications, evaluated in two animal species (mouse and monkey) following single and repeated parenteral administrations. We found that plasma AUCs were similar between ASOs within the same species, and are predictable to human exposure using a single animal species, either mouse or monkey. Between monkey and human, the plasma exposure ratio can be predicted directly based on BW-adjusted dose ratios, whereas between mouse and human, the exposure ratio would be nearly fivefold lower in mouse compared to human based on BW-adjusted dose values. Thus, multiplying a factor of 5 for the mouse BW-adjusted dose would likely provide a reasonable AUC exposure estimate in human at steady-state. PMID:25602582

  18. Systemic Disease-Induced Salivary Biomarker Profiles in Mouse Models of Melanoma and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kai; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Lei; Lee, Jin Wook; Zhou, Qing; Hu, Shen; Wolinsky, Lawrence E.; Farrell, James; Eibl, Guido; Wong, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Saliva (oral fluids) is an emerging biofluid poised for detection of clinical diseases. Although the rationale for oral diseases applications (e.g. oral cancer) is intuitive, the rationale and relationship between systemic diseases and saliva biomarkers are unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we used mouse models of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer and compared the transcriptome biomarker profiles of tumor-bearing mice to those of control mice. Microarray analysis showed that salivary transcriptomes were significantly altered in tumor-bearing mice vs. controls. Significant overlapping among transcriptomes of mouse tumors, serum, salivary glands and saliva suggests that salivary biomarkers have multiple origins. Furthermore, we identified that the expression of two groups of significantly altered transcription factors (TFs) Runx1, Mlxipl, Trim30 and Egr1, Tbx1, Nr1d1 in salivary gland tissue of melanoma-bearing mice can potentially be responsible for 82.6% of the up-regulated gene expression and 62.5% of the down-regulated gene expression, respectively, in the saliva of melanoma-bearing mice. We also showed that the ectopic production of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the melanoma tumor tissue as a tumor-released mediator can induce expression of the TF Egr-1 in the salivary gland. Conclusions Taken together, our data support the conclusion that upon systemic disease development, significant changes can occur in the salivary biomarker profile. Although the origins of the disease-induced salivary biomarkers may be both systemic and local, stimulation of salivary gland by mediators released from remote tumors plays an important role in regulating the salivary surrogate biomarker profiles. PMID:19517020

  19. Activities of the digestive enzymes in the gut and in tissue culture of a tropical geophagous earthworm, Polypheretima elongata (Megascolecidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Lattaud; B. G. Zhang; S. Locati; C. Rouland; P. Lavelle

    1997-01-01

    Endogeic geophagous earthworms from tropical areas seem to digest soil organic matter through a mutualist earthworm microflora-digestion system and the intestinal mucus produced by earthworms was supposed to play a central role in the process of digestion. A large range of glucosidic substrates characteristic of plant material was used to reveal the activities of digestive enzymes in the gut (wall

  20. Development of an intact hepatocyte activation system for routine use with the mouse lymphoma assay

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, K.H.; Moore, M.M.; Oglesby, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have developed a method for cocultivating primary rat hepatocytes with L5178Y/TK/sup +/-/-3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cells. This method should provide a means of simulating more closely in-vivo metabolism compared to metabolism by liver homogenates, while still being useful for routine screening. Hepatocytes were isolated from 200-250 gm adult male Sprague-Dawley rats; 1 x 10/sup 6/ viable hepatocytes were seeded per flask. Rapid attachment of the hepatocytes (2 hr) was obtained by using fibronectin-coated 25-cm/sup 2/ tissue culture flasks. Cocultivated cultures were incubated at 37/sup 0/C on a platform rocker at 32 oscillations per minute. A 16-hr cocultivated period was selected. With this hepatocyte activation methodology, CP, DMN, DMBA, and B(a)P, genotoxins that require metabolic activation, could be detected as mutagens in L5178Y/TK/sup +/-/ cells.

  1. Changes in chemical composition and digestibility of three maize stover components digested by white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J P; O'Kiely, P; Murphy, R; Doyle, E M

    2014-08-01

    Maize stover (total stem and leaves) is not considered a ruminant feed of high nutritive value. Therefore, an improvement in its digestibility may increase the viability of total forage maize production systems in marginal growth regions. The objective of this study was to describe the changes in chemical composition during the storage of contrasting components of maize stover (leaf, upper stem and lower stem) treated with either of two lignin degrading white-rot fungi (WRF; Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor). Three components of maize stover (leaf, upper stem and lower stem), harvested at a conventional maturity for silage production, were digested with either of two WRF for one of four digestion durations (1-4 months). Samples taken prior to fungal inoculation were used to benchmark the changes that occurred. The degradation of acid detergent lignin was observed in all sample types digested with P. ostreatus; however, the loss of digestible substrate in all samples inoculated with P. ostreatus was high, and therefore, P. ostreatus-digested samples had a lower dry matter digestibility than samples prior to inoculation. Similarly, T. veriscolor-digested leaf underwent a non-selective degradation of the rumen-digestible components of fibre. The changes in chemical composition of leaf, upper stem and lower stem digested with either P. ostreatus or T. veriscolor were not beneficial to the feed value of the forage, and incurred high DM losses. PMID:24112093

  2. Outlining microbial community dynamics during temperature drop and subsequent recovery period in anaerobic co-digestion systems.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Leticia; Carballa, Marta; Lema, Juan M

    2014-12-20

    To improve the stability of anaerobic reactors, more knowledge is required about how the different communities react against operating perturbations and which specific ones respond better. The objective of this work was to monitor the changes in microbial community structure of an anaerobic digester during a temperature drop by applying different complementary molecular techniques. Temperature decrease led to an increase of Bacteroidales order, Porphyromonadaceae family and Bacteroides genus and a decrease in Syntrophomonas and Clostridium genera. Once the temperature was restored, the reactor recovered the steady state performance without requiring any modification in operational conditions or in the microbiome. During the recovery period, Sedimentibacter genus and Porphyromonadaceae family played an important role in the degradation of the accumulated volatile fatty acids. The hydrogenotrophic methanogens appeared to be the keystone archaeal population at low temperatures as well as in the recovery period. This study stands out that the understanding of microbial community dynamics during temperature drop could be utilized to develop strategies for the mitigation of temperature change consequences and speed up the recovery of stable reactor performance. PMID:25450643

  3. Systemic tobramycin concentrations during selective decontamination of the digestive tract in intensive care unit patients on continuous venovenous hemofiltration

    PubMed Central

    van Kan, Hendrikus J. M.; Schultz, Marcus J.; de Jonge, Evert

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study whether selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) results in detectable serum tobramycin concentrations in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute renal failure treated with continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH). Design and setting Prospective, observational, single-center study in a mixed medical–surgical ICU. Patients Adult ICU patients receiving SDD for at least 3 days and being treated with CVVH because of acute renal failure. Measurements and results Tobramycin serum concentrations were measured at the 3rd day after start of CVVH and every 3 days thereafter. Detectable serum concentrations of tobramycin were found in 12 (63%) of 19 patients and in 15 (58%) of the 26 samples. With a toxic tobramycin concentration defined as more than 2.0?mg/l, we found one patient with a toxic concentration of 3.0?mg/l. In three other patients tobramycin concentrations of ??1.0?mg/l were found. Conclusions In patients with acute renal failure treated with CVVH, administration of SDD with tobramycin can lead to detectable and potentially toxic serum tobramycin concentrations. PMID:18283433

  4. Highly efficient targeted mutagenesis in one-cell mouse embryos mediated by the TALEN and CRISPR/Cas systems

    PubMed Central

    Yasue, Akihiro; Mitsui, Silvia Naomi; Watanabe, Takahito; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro; Tanaka, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Since the establishment of embryonic stem (ES) cell lines, the combined use of gene targeting with homologous recombination has aided in elucidating the functions of various genes. However, the ES cell technique is inefficient and time-consuming. Recently, two new gene-targeting technologies have been developed: the transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) system, and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system. In addition to aiding researchers in solving conventional problems, these technologies can be used to induce site-specific mutations in various species for which ES cells have not been established. Here, by targeting the Fgf10 gene through RNA microinjection in one-cell mouse embryos with the TALEN and CRISPR/Cas systems, we produced the known limb-defect phenotypes of Fgf10-deficient embryos at the F0 generation. Compared to the TALEN system, the CRISPR/Cas system induced the limb-defect phenotypes with a strikingly higher efficiency. Our results demonstrate that although both gene-targeting technologies are useful, the CRISPR/Cas system more effectively elicits single-step biallelic mutations in mice. PMID:25027812

  5. Ecological Modelling 188 (2005) 358373 A model of digestion modulation in grasshoppers

    E-print Network

    Logan, David

    2005-01-01

    Ecological Modelling 188 (2005) 358­373 A model of digestion modulation in grasshoppers William structures (crop, midgut, and hemolymph system) that reasonably reflect available results for grasshoppers.V. Keywords: Absorption-limited; Digestion; Foraging; Ecophysiology; Grasshoppers; Insects Corresponding

  6. On-farm anaerobic digester and fuel-alcohol plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtson, H.H.

    1985-12-01

    An anaerobic-digestion system, coupled with a fuel-alcohol plant, was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm as part of an integrated farm-energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas from the digester can be used as fuel for the alcohol production. The anaerobic digestion system is made up of the following components; a hog finishing house with a manure pit; a solids handling pump to feed the manure; and a 13,000-gallon railroad tank car as the main digester vessel and pump to transfer effluent from the digester to a 150,000 gallon storage tank. The digester was operated for sufficient time to demonstrate the use of hot water in an automated digester temperature control system. Sufficient biogas was produced to demonstrate the use of biogas in a converted propane boiler.

  7. Hexokinase 2 is required for tumor initiation and maintenance and its systemic deletion is therapeutic in mouse models of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Krushna C.; Miller, Luke; Wang, Zebin; Wheaton, Will; Chandel, Navdeep; Laakso, Markku; Muller, William J.; Allen, Eric L.; Jha, Abhishek K.; Smolen, Gromoslaw A.; Clasquin, Michelle F.; Robey, Brooks; Hay, Nissim

    2013-01-01

    Summary Accelerated glucose metabolism is a common feature of cancer cells. Hexokinases catalyze the first committed step of glucose metabolism. Hexokinase 2 (HK2) is expressed at high level in cancer cells, but only in a limited number of normal adult tissues. Using Hk2 conditional knockout mice, we showed that HK2 is required for tumor initiation and maintenance in mouse models of KRas-driven lung cancer, and ErbB2-driven breast cancer, despite continued HK1 expression. Similarly HK2 ablation inhibits the neoplastic phenotype of human lung and breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Systemic Hk2 deletion is therapeutic in mice bearing lung tumors without adverse physiological consequences. Hk2 deletion in lung cancer cells suppressed glucose-derived ribonucleotides and impaired glutamine-derived carbon utilization in anaplerosis. PMID:23911236

  8. Labscale Evaluation of Biomass-Derived Elements Used in Anaerobic Digestion

    E-print Network

    Labscale Evaluation of Biomass-Derived Elements Used in Anaerobic Digestion This report presents performance data for an anaerobic digestion system (at a 10-liter scale) utilizing corncob biochar as biofilm support. The system operated on grease-trap wastewater and high-rate anaerobic digestion of this material

  9. Cytomegalovirus Infection of the Central Nervous System Stem Cells from Mouse Embryo: A Model for Developmental Brain Disorders Induced by Cytomegalovirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isao Kosugi; Yuichiro Shinmura; Hideya Kawasaki; Yoshifumi Arai; Ren-Yong Li; Satoshi Baba; Yoshihiro Tsutsui

    2000-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent infectious cause of developmental disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans. Infection of the CNS stem cells seems to be primarily responsible for the generation of the brain abnormalities. In this study, we evaluated the infectivity of murine CMV (MCMV) in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-responsive CNS stem cells prepared from fetal mouse

  10. Offspring from Mouse Embryos Developed Using a Simple Incubator-Free Culture System with a Deoxidizing Agent

    PubMed Central

    Itoi, Fumiaki; Tokoro, Mikiko; Terashita, Yukari; Yamagata, Kazuo; Fukunaga, Noritaka; Asada, Yoshimasa; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2012-01-01

    To culture preimplantation embryos in vitro, water-jacketed CO2 incubators are used widely for maintaining an optimal culture environment in terms of gas phase, temperature and humidity. We investigated the possibility of mouse embryo culture in a plastic bag kept at 37°C. Zygotes derived from in vitro fertilization or collected from naturally mated B6D2F1 female mice were put in a drop of medium on a plastic culture dish and then placed in a commercially available plastic bag. When these were placed in an oven under air at 37°C for 96 h, the rate of blastocyst development and the cell numbers of embryos decreased. However, when the concentration of O2 was reduced to 5% using a deoxidizing agent and a small oxygen meter, most zygotes developed into blastocysts. These blastocysts were judged normal according to their cell number, Oct3/4 and Cdx2 gene expression levels, the apoptosis rate and the potential for full-term development after embryo transfer to pseudopregnant recipients. Furthermore, using this system, normal offspring were obtained simply by keeping the bag on a warming plate. This culture method was applied successfully to both hybrid and inbred strains. In addition, because the developing embryos could be observed through the transparent wall of the bag, it was possible to capture time-lapse images of live embryos until the blastocyst stage without needing an expensive microscope-based incubation chamber. These results suggest that mouse zygotes are more resilient to their environment than generally believed. This method might prove useful in economical culture systems or for the international shipment of embryos. PMID:23056643

  11. A Hoxa13:Cre mouse strain for conditional gene manipulation in developing limb, hindgut, and urogenital system.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Martina; Kherdjemil, Yacine; Roux, Marine; Kmita, Marie

    2015-06-01

    The developing limb is a useful model for studying organogenesis and developmental processes. Although Cre alleles exist for conditional loss- or gain-of-function in limbs, Cre alleles targeting specific limb subdomains are desirable. Here we report on the generation of the Hoxa13:Cre line, in which the Cre gene is inserted in the endogenous Hoxa13 gene. We provide evidence that the Cre is active in embryonic tissues/regions where the endogenous Hoxa13 gene is expressed. Our results show that cells expressing Hoxa13 in developing limb buds contribute to the entire autopod (hand/feet) skeleton and validate Hoxa13 as a distal limb marker as far as the skeleton is concerned. In contrast, in the limb musculature, Cre-based fate mapping shows that almost all muscle masses of the zeugopod (forearm) and part of the triceps contain Hoxa13-expressing cells and/or their descendants. Besides the limb, the activity of the Cre is detectable in the urogenital system and the hindgut, primarily in the epithelium and smooth muscles. Together our data show that the Hoxa13:Cre allele is a useful tool for conditional gene manipulation in the urogenital system, posterior digestive tract, autopod and part of the limb musculature. genesis 53:366-376, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25980463

  12. A Common Origin for Immunity and Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Nichole A.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the digestive and immune systems were viewed and studied as separate entities. However, there are remarkable similarities and shared functions in both nutrient acquisition and host defense. Here, I propose a common origin for both systems. This association provides a new prism for viewing the emergence and evolution of host defense mechanisms. PMID:25745424

  13. Recent advances in transport of water-soluble vitamins in organs of the digestive system: a focus on the colon and the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Said, Hamid M

    2013-11-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) transport in the large intestine and pancreas, two important organs of the digestive system that have only recently received their fair share of attention. WSV, a group of structurally unrelated compounds, are essential for normal cell function and development and, thus, for overall health and survival of the organism. Humans cannot synthesize WSV endogenously; rather, WSV are obtained from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption. The intestine is exposed to two sources of WSV: a dietary source and a bacterial source (i.e., WSV generated by the large intestinal microbiota). Contribution of the latter source to human nutrition/health has been a subject of debate and doubt, mostly based on the absence of specialized systems for efficient uptake of WSV in the large intestine. However, recent studies utilizing a variety of human and animal colon preparations clearly demonstrate that such systems do exist in the large intestine. This has provided strong support for the idea that the microbiota-generated WSV are of nutritional value to the host, and especially to the nutritional needs of the local colonocytes and their health. In the pancreas, WSV are essential for normal metabolic activities of all its cell types and for its exocrine and endocrine functions. Significant progress has also been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in the uptake of WSV and the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on the uptake processes. PMID:23989008

  14. Recent advances in transport of water-soluble vitamins in organs of the digestive system: a focus on the colon and the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) transport in the large intestine and pancreas, two important organs of the digestive system that have only recently received their fair share of attention. WSV, a group of structurally unrelated compounds, are essential for normal cell function and development and, thus, for overall health and survival of the organism. Humans cannot synthesize WSV endogenously; rather, WSV are obtained from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption. The intestine is exposed to two sources of WSV: a dietary source and a bacterial source (i.e., WSV generated by the large intestinal microbiota). Contribution of the latter source to human nutrition/health has been a subject of debate and doubt, mostly based on the absence of specialized systems for efficient uptake of WSV in the large intestine. However, recent studies utilizing a variety of human and animal colon preparations clearly demonstrate that such systems do exist in the large intestine. This has provided strong support for the idea that the microbiota-generated WSV are of nutritional value to the host, and especially to the nutritional needs of the local colonocytes and their health. In the pancreas, WSV are essential for normal metabolic activities of all its cell types and for its exocrine and endocrine functions. Significant progress has also been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in the uptake of WSV and the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on the uptake processes. PMID:23989008

  15. An Optimized and Simplified System of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Cardiac Differentiation for the Assessment of Differentiation Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Matthew E.; Librande, Jason R.; Medvedev, Ivan O.; Ahmad, Rabiah N.; Moussavi-Harami, Farid; Gupta, Pritha P.; Chien, Wei-Ming; Chin, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Generating cardiomyocytes from embryonic stem cells is an important technique for understanding cardiovascular development, the origins of cardiovascular diseases and also for providing potential reagents for cardiac repair. Numerous methods have been published but often are technically challenging, complex, and are not easily adapted to assessment of specific gene contributions to cardiac myocyte differentiation. Here we report the development of an optimized protocol to induce the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells to cardiac myocytes that is simplified and easily adapted for genetic studies. Specifically, we made four critical findings that distinguish our protocol: 1) mouse embryonic stem cells cultured in media containing CHIR99021 and PD0325901 to maintain pluripotency will efficiently form embryoid bodies containing precardiac mesoderm when cultured in these factors at a reduced dosage, 2) low serum conditions promote cardiomyocyte differentiation and can be used in place of commercially prepared StemPro nutrient supplement, 3) the Wnt inhibitor Dkk-1 is dispensable for efficient cardiac differentiation and 4) tracking differentiation efficiency may be done with surface expression of PDGFR? alone. In addition, cardiac mesodermal precursors generated by this system can undergo lentiviral infection to manipulate the expression of specific target molecules to assess effects on cardiac myocyte differentiation and maturation. Using this approach, we assessed the effects of CHF1/Hey2 on cardiac myocyte differentiation, using both gain and loss of function. Overexpression of CHF1/Hey2 at the cardiac mesoderm stage had no apparent effect on cardiac differentiation, while knockdown of CHF1/Hey2 resulted in increased expression of atrial natriuretic factor and connexin 43, suggesting an alteration in the phenotype of the cardiomyocytes. In summary we have generated a detailed and simplified protocol for generating cardiomyocytes from mES cells that is optimized for investigating factors that affect cardiac differentiation. PMID:24667642

  16. Differential Distribution of Major Brain Gangliosides in the Adult Mouse Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Vajn, Katarina; Viljeti?, Barbara; Degme?i?, Ivan Ve?eslav; Schnaar, Ronald L.; Heffer, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Gangliosides - sialic acid-bearing glycolipids - are major cell surface determinants on neurons and axons. The same four closely related structures, GM1, GD1a, GD1b and GT1b, comprise the majority of total brain gangliosides in mammals and birds. Gangliosides regulate the activities of proteins in the membranes in which they reside, and also act as cell-cell recognition receptors. Understanding the functions of major brain gangliosides requires knowledge of their tissue distribution, which has been accomplished in the past using biochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Armed with new knowledge about the stability and accessibility of gangliosides in tissues and new IgG-class specific monoclonal antibodies, we investigated the detailed tissue distribution of gangliosides in the adult mouse brain. Gangliosides GD1b and GT1b are widely expressed in gray and white matter. In contrast, GM1 is predominately found in white matter and GD1a is specifically expressed in certain brain nuclei/tracts. These findings are considered in relationship to the hypothesis that gangliosides GD1a and GT1b act as receptors for an important axon-myelin recognition protein, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Mediating axon-myelin interactions is but one potential function of the major brain gangliosides, and more detailed knowledge of their distribution may help direct future functional studies. PMID:24098718

  17. Rapid Screening of Gene Function by Systemic Delivery of Morpholino Oligonucleotides to Live Mouse Embryos

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Kathryn S.; Wainwright, Elanor N.; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Traditional gene targeting methods in mice are complex and time consuming, especially when conditional deletion methods are required. Here, we describe a novel technique for assessing gene function by injection of modified antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) into the heart of mid-gestation mouse embryos. After allowing MOs to circulate through the embryonic vasculature, target tissues were explanted, cultured and analysed for expression of key markers. We established proof-of-principle by partially phenocopying known gene knockout phenotypes in the fetal gonads (Stra8, Sox9) and pancreas (Sox9). We also generated a novel double knockdown of Gli1 and Gli2, revealing defects in Leydig cell differentiation in the fetal testis. Finally, we gained insight into the roles of Adamts19 and Ctrb1, genes of unknown function in sex determination and gonadal development. These studies reveal the utility of this method as a means of first-pass analysis of gene function during organogenesis before committing to detailed genetic analysis. PMID:25629157

  18. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on mouse mast cell induction by a splenic cell culture system.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Z Q; Asano, K; Yamazaki, T; Shimamura, T

    1994-01-01

    We have previously reported a method of mast cell induction by long-term culture of mouse spleen cells without using exogenous mast cell growth factor (Z.-Q. Hu, T. Yoshida, and T. Shimamura, J. Immunol. Methods 149:173, 1992). Supernatants recovered from the long-term cultures contain endogenous interleukin 3 and soluble stem cell factor. These were assessed by the capacity of the recovered supernatants to foster the growth of a mast cell growth factor-dependent cell line and by neutralizing antibodies. Besides the soluble factors, cell-to-cell contacts mediated by membrane stem cell factor on splenic stromal cells and c-Kit receptors on mast cells also affect mast cell induction. Different lots of fetal calf serum (FCS) were examined to determine a possible trigger for cytokine production. FCS can be divided into mast cell-inducible and noninducible sera by this process. However, not all FCS lots contain mast cell growth factor. The mast cell-inducible lots contain lipopolysaccharide (LPS) confirmed by a Limulus assay. Polymyxin B can neutralize the mast cell induction activity. Non-mast cell-inducible FCS can be converted to inducible FCS by adding exogenous LPS. The results indicate that LPS as a trigger of cytokine production is responsible for mast cell induction. Images PMID:7520422

  19. A Novel Polysaccharide in Insects Activates the Innate Immune System in Mouse Macrophage RAW264 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Takashi; Ido, Atsushi; Kusano, Kie; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named “dipterose”, with a molecular weight of 1.01×106 and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose was synthesized in the melon fly itself at the pupal stage. The NO-producing activity of dipterose was approximately equal to that of lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulator. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) led to the suppression of NO production by dipterose. Furthermore, dipterose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon ? (IFN?) and promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in macrophages, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in RAW264 cells via the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that dipterose activates the innate immune response against various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. This is the first identification of an innate immune-activating polysaccharide from an animal. PMID:25490773

  20. Susceptibility of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) peel proteins to digestive enzymes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet potato proteins have been shown to possess antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in vivo. The ability of a protein to exhibit systemic effects is somewhat unusual as proteins are typically susceptible to digestive enzymes. This study was undertaken to better understand how digestive enzymes ...

  1. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  2. Wastewater treatment performance and sludge reduction properties of a household wastewater treatment system combined with an aerobic sludge digestion unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsuyoshi Ichinari; Akitaka Ohtsubo; Tetsunori Ozawa; Kohji Hasegawa; Keiji Teduka; Tatsuo Oguchi; Yoshiaki Kiso

    2008-01-01

    On-site domestic wastewater treatment systems (Johkasous) have become popular in Japan and play an important role in controlling pollution of aquatic environments. Appropriate control of accumulated sludge is an important aspect of the use of these systems. With the goals of reducing sludge production and the total volume of the system, we developed and evaluated an experimental system. The total

  3. Simultaneous submicrometric 3D imaging of the micro-vascular network and the neuronal system in a mouse spinal cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratini, Michela; Bukreeva, Inna; Campi, Gaetano; Brun, Francesco; Tromba, Giuliana; Modregger, Peter; Bucci, Domenico; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Spanò, Raffaele; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Requardt, Herwig; Giove, Federico; Bravin, Alberto; Cedola, Alessia

    2015-02-01

    Faults in vascular (VN) and neuronal networks of spinal cord are responsible for serious neurodegenerative pathologies. Because of inadequate investigation tools, the lacking knowledge of the complete fine structure of VN and neuronal system represents a crucial problem. Conventional 2D imaging yields incomplete spatial coverage leading to possible data misinterpretation, whereas standard 3D computed tomography imaging achieves insufficient resolution and contrast. We show that X-ray high-resolution phase-contrast tomography allows the simultaneous visualization of three-dimensional VN and neuronal systems of ex-vivo mouse spinal cord at scales spanning from millimeters to hundreds of nanometers, with nor contrast agent nor sectioning and neither destructive sample-preparation. We image both the 3D distribution of micro-capillary network and the micrometric nerve fibers, axon-bundles and neuron soma. Our approach is very suitable for pre-clinical investigation of neurodegenerative pathologies and spinal-cord-injuries, in particular to resolve the entangled relationship between VN and neuronal system.

  4. Simultaneous submicrometric 3D imaging of the micro-vascular network and the neuronal system in a mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Fratini, Michela; Bukreeva, Inna; Campi, Gaetano; Brun, Francesco; Tromba, Giuliana; Modregger, Peter; Bucci, Domenico; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Spanò, Raffaele; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Requardt, Herwig; Giove, Federico; Bravin, Alberto; Cedola, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Faults in vascular (VN) and neuronal networks of spinal cord are responsible for serious neurodegenerative pathologies. Because of inadequate investigation tools, the lacking knowledge of the complete fine structure of VN and neuronal system represents a crucial problem. Conventional 2D imaging yields incomplete spatial coverage leading to possible data misinterpretation, whereas standard 3D computed tomography imaging achieves insufficient resolution and contrast. We show that X-ray high-resolution phase-contrast tomography allows the simultaneous visualization of three-dimensional VN and neuronal systems of ex-vivo mouse spinal cord at scales spanning from millimeters to hundreds of nanometers, with nor contrast agent nor sectioning and neither destructive sample-preparation. We image both the 3D distribution of micro-capillary network and the micrometric nerve fibers, axon-bundles and neuron soma. Our approach is very suitable for pre-clinical investigation of neurodegenerative pathologies and spinal-cord-injuries, in particular to resolve the entangled relationship between VN and neuronal system. PMID:25686728

  5. Biofilms promote survival and virulence of Salmonella enterica sv. Tennessee during prolonged dry storage and after passage through an in vitro digestion system.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Bryan; Klotz, Courtney; Eifert, Joseph; Williams, Robert; Ponder, Monica

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serotypes have been linked to outbreaks associated with low water activity foods. While the biofilm-forming abilities of Salmonella improve its survival during thermal processing and sanitation it is unclear whether biofilms enhance survival to desiccation and gastric stresses. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of physiological state (planktonic versus biofilm) and prior exposure to desiccation and storage in dry milk powder on Salmonella survival and gene expression after passage through an in vitro digestion model. Planktonic cells of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee were deposited onto membranes while biofilms were formed on glass beads. The cells were subsequently dried at room temperature and stored in dried milk powder (a(w)=0.3) for up to 30 days. Salmonella survival was quantified by serial dilution onto Brilliant Green Agar before desiccation, after desiccation, after 1-day storage and after 30-day storage. At each sampling period both physiological states were tested for survival through a simulated gastrointestinal system. RNA was extracted at the identical time points and Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to determine relative expression for genes associated with stress response (rpoS, otsB), virulence (hilA, invA, sipC) and a housekeeping gene 16S rRNA. The physiological state and length of storage affected the survival and gene expression of Salmonella within the desiccated milk powder environment and after passage through an in vitro digestion system (p<0.05). Larger numbers of S. Tennessee were recovered by plate counts for biofilms compared to planktonic, however, the numbers of Salmonella genomes detected by qPCR were not significantly different suggesting entry of the planktonic cells of S. Tennessee into a viable but non-culturable state. The increased expression of stress response genes rpoS and otsB correlated with survival, indicating cross-protection to low water activity and acid stress. Increased expression of virulence-associated genes was seen in cells exposed to dry storage for short periods, however the largest amount of expression occurred in biofilm cells stored for 30 days at aw 0.3, suggesting increased virulence potential. PMID:23454816

  6. The Anaerobic Digestion of Organic

    E-print Network

    Iglesia, Enrique

    The Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Municipal Solid Waste in California. Anaerobic Digestion Technology 2.1. Feedstock Characterization 2.2. Collection & Sorting 2.2.1. Waste of Anaerobic Digestion 3.1. Municipal Waste Management 3.2. Climate Change Mitigation 3.2.1. Untreated

  7. Effects of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress on the glutamate transporters GLAST and system xc? in mouse retinal Müller glial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mysona, Barbara; Dun, Ying; Duplantier, Jennifer; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Smith, Sylvia B.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated glutamate levels have been reported in humans with diabetic retinopathy. Retinal Müller glial cells regulate glutamate levels via the GLAST transporter and system xc? (cystine-glutamate exchanger). This study investigated whether transporter function, gene and/or protein expression is altered in mouse Müller cells cultured under conditions of hyperglycemia or oxidative stress, two factors implicated in diabetic retinopathy. Cells were subjected to hyperglycemic conditions (35 mM glucose) over an 8 day period or to oxidative stress conditions (induced by exposure to varying concentrations of xanthine:xanthine oxidase (X:XO)) for 6 hours. The Na+-dependent and –independent uptake of [3H] glutamate was assessed as a measure of GLAST and system xc? function, respectively. Hyperglycemia did not alter the uptake of [3H] glutamate by GLAST or system xc?; neither gene nor protein expression decreased. Oxidative stress (70:14 or 100:20 ?M X:mU/ml XO) decreased GLAST activity by ~10%, however it increased system xc? activity by 43% and 89%, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed an oxidative stress-induced change in Vmax, not Km. Oxidative stress caused a 2.4 fold increase in mRNA encoding xCT, the unique component of system xc?. There are two isoforms of xCT (40 and 50 kDa); oxidative stress induced a 3.6 fold increase in the 40 kDa form localized to the plasma membrane. This is the first report of differential expression and localization of xCT isoforms due to cellular stress. Increased system xc? activity in Müller cells, subjected to conditions associated with diabetic retinopathy, may be beneficial as this exchanger is important for synthesis of the antioxidant glutathione. PMID:19156441

  8. Billiards Digest April, 2011 David Alciatore, PhD ("Dr. Dave") ILLUSTRATED PRINCIPLES

    E-print Network

    Alciatore, David G.

    Billiards Digest April, 2011 David Alciatore, PhD ("Dr. Dave") ILLUSTRATED PRINCIPLES "VEPS GEMS shots, Coriolis' system is a good place to start. #12;Billiards Digest April, 2011 a) side view b) top shot speed effects #12;Billiards Digest April, 2011 Diagram 3 (similar t

  9. Estimation of rumen degradability of feed proteins and comparison of intestinal digestibility by

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Estimation of rumen degradability of feed proteins and comparison of intestinal digestibility and the intestinal digestibility of the undegraded residues are an important characteristic of feed's quality in the new protein evaluation systems. A few methods are available to assess the intestinal digestibility

  10. Histological and histochemical changes in the digestive tract of white sturgeon larvae during ontogeny

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gawlicka; S. J. Teh; S. S. O. Hung; D. E. Hinton; J. Noüe

    1995-01-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive tract histology and digestive enzyme histochemistry were investigated 11 to 36 days post-hatch in white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus larvae. From initiation of exogenous feeding (12 days post-hatch), larvae were fed a commercial salmonid diet for the ensuing 24 days. The digestive system of white sturgeon displayed a high degree of morphologic organization and functionality at the

  11. The Effect of Enzyme Addition on Anaerobic Digestion of Jose Tall Wheat Grass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of the addition of enzyme products containing cellulase, hemicellulase, and Beta-glucosidase to anaerobic digestion systems were studied. Anaerobic digestion tests were performed using batch reactors operated at 35°C. The application of enzyme products in three digestion configurations w...

  12. Bifurcation and stability analysis of a two step model for monitoring anaerobic digestion processes$

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Bifurcation and stability analysis of a two step model for monitoring anaerobic digestion processes in simulation. Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, biotechnology, steady state analysis, $ This work was supported the phenomenologic behavior of anaerobic digestion systems following the idea that all the available information

  13. Video Article Continuously-Stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Video Article Continuously-Stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into Biogas: System@cornell.edu URL: http://www.jove.com/video/3978/ DOI: 10.3791/3978 Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, J.G., Spirito, C.M., Angenent, L.T. Continuously-Stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic

  14. DESTRUCTION AND STABILIZATION OF SLUDGE BY MULTIPLE-STATE DIGESTION AND THERMAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study compared conventional, anaerobic sludge digestion and three stage, anaerobic sludge digestion. The conventional digester and the first two stages of the multiple stage system were operated at 35 deg C; the third stage was maintained at 49 deg C. The influent feed sludge...

  15. Rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein from lucerne and pasture sward

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein from lucerne and intestinal digestion and, therefore, nutrition value. The INRA-88 system of ruminant nutrition has been, and intestinal digestibility of the lucerne and pasture sward protein undegraded in the rumen. Lucerne

  16. Design optimization of multi-pinhole micro-SPECT configurations by signal detection tasks and system performance evaluations for mouse cardiac imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-W; Lin, W-T; Chen, Y-C

    2015-01-21

    An optimized configuration of multi-pinhole aperture can improve the spatial resolution and the sensitivity of pinhole SPECT simultaneously. In this study, an optimization strategy of the multi-pinhole configuration with a small detector is proposed for mouse cardiac imaging. A 14?mm-diameter spherical field-of-view (FOV) is used to accommodate the mouse heart. To accelerate the optimization process, the analytic models are applied to rapidly obtain the projection areas of the FOV, the sensitivities and the spatial resolutions of numerous system designs. The candidates of optimal multi-pinhole configuration are then decided by the preliminary evaluations with the analytic models. Subsequently, the pinhole SPECT systems equipped with the designed multi-pinhole apertures are modeled in GATE to generate the imaging system matrices (H matrices) for the system performance assessments. The area under the ROC curves (AUC) of the designed systems is evaluated by signal-known-exactly/background-known-statistically detection tasks with their corresponding H matrices. In addition, the spatial resolutions are estimated by the Fourier crosstalk approach, and the sensitivities are calculated with the H matrices of designed systems, respectively. Furthermore, a series of OSEM reconstruction images of synthetic phantoms, including the hot-rod phantom, mouse heart phantom and Defrise phantom, are reconstructed with the H matrices of designed systems. To quantify the sensitivity and resolution competition in the optimization process, the AUC from the detection tasks and the resolution estimated by the Fourier crosstalk are used as the figure of merits. A trade-off function of AUC and resolution is introduced to find the optimal multi-pinhole configuration. According to the examining results, a 22.5° rotated detector plus a 4-pinhole aperture with 22.5° rotation, 20% multiplexing and 1.52X magnification is the optimized multi-pinhole configuration for the micro pinhole-SPECT applied to mouse cardiac imaging with a camera of 49? × ?49?mm(2) active area. PMID:25548860

  17. Reliability. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Schafer, William D.

    This digest discusses sources of error in testing, several approaches to estimating reliability, and several ways to increase test reliability. Reliability has been defined in different ways by different authors, but the best way to look at reliability may be the extent to which measurements resulting from a test are characteristics of those being…

  18. Preventing Bullying. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda

    Students who are the target of bullying episodes commonly suffer serious, long-term academic, physical, and emotional consequences. Unfortunately, school personnel often minimize, underestimate, tolerate, or ignore the extent of bullying and the harm it can cause. This digest examines the problem of bullying and some of its effects, and discusses…

  19. Principal Mentoring. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Robert J.

    To help new principals succeed, school districts are capitalizing on senior administrators' expertise by adding mentor programs to the practical training programs for beginning principals. This digest examines the nature of mentorships and discusses how they can prepare principals for the next stage of their careers. Although mentoring has existed…

  20. The anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  1. Conditional Ablation of Orexin/Hypocretin Neurons: A New Mouse Model for the Study of Narcolepsy and Orexin System Function

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Sawako; Tsunematsu, Tomomi; Black, Sarah W.; Tominaga, Makoto; Maruyama, Megumi; Takagi, Kazuyo; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    The sleep disorder narcolepsy results from loss of hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons. Although narcolepsy onset is usually postpubertal, current mouse models involve loss of either orexin peptides or orexin neurons from birth. To create a model of orexin/hypocretin deficiency with closer fidelity to human narcolepsy, diphtheria toxin A (DTA) was expressed in orexin neurons under control of the Tet-off system. Upon doxycycline removal from the diet of postpubertal orexin-tTA;TetO DTA mice, orexin neurodegeneration was rapid, with 80% cell loss within 7 d, and resulted in disrupted sleep architecture. Cataplexy, the pathognomic symptom of narcolepsy, occurred by 14 d when ?5% of the orexin neurons remained. Cataplexy frequency increased for at least 11 weeks after doxycycline. Temporary doxycycline removal followed by reintroduction after several days enabled partial lesion of orexin neurons. DTA-induced orexin neurodegeneration caused a body weight increase without a change in food consumption, mimicking metabolic aspects of human narcolepsy. Because the orexin/hypocretin system has been implicated in the control of metabolism and addiction as well as sleep/wake regulation, orexin-tTA; TetO DTA mice are a novel model in which to study these functions, for pharmacological studies of cataplexy, and to study network reorganization as orexin input is lost. PMID:24806676

  2. Loss of Rb activates both p53-dependent and independent cell death pathways in the developing mouse nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Macleod, K F; Hu, Y; Jacks, T

    1996-01-01

    Extensive apoptosis occurs in the nervous system of mouse embryos homozygous mutant for a targeted disruption of the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene. This cell death is present in both the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS) and is associated with abnormal S phase entry of normally post-mitotic neurons. Aberrant proliferation in the CNS correlates with increased free E2F DNA binding activity and increased expression of cyclin E, an E2F target gene and critical cell cycle regulator. Cell death in the CNS is accompanied by increased levels of the p53 tumor suppressor gene product and increased expression of the p53 target gene, p21Waf-1/Cip-1. However, induction of p53 is not observed in the PNS of Rb-mutant embryos, nor does loss of p53 function inhibit cell death in the PNS. Surprisingly, p21Waf-1/Cip-1 is induced in the sensory ganglia of Rb-mutant embryos in a p53-independent manner. Although loss of p53 gene function prevents cell death in the CNS of Rb-mutant embryos, it does not restore normal proliferative control. Images PMID:8947040

  3. Systemic delivery of a Peptide-linked morpholino oligonucleotide neutralizes mutant RNA toxicity in a mouse model of myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Leger, Andrew J; Mosquea, Leocadia M; Clayton, Nicholas P; Wu, I-Huan; Weeden, Timothy; Nelson, Carol A; Phillips, Lucy; Roberts, Errin; Piepenhagen, Peter A; Cheng, Seng H; Wentworth, Bruce M

    2013-04-01

    Expansions of CUG trinucleotide sequences in RNA transcripts provide the basis for toxic RNA gain-of-function that leads to detrimental changes in RNA metabolism. A CTG repeat element normally resides in the 3' untranslated region of the dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase (DMPK) gene, but when expanded it is the genetic lesion of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), a hereditary neuromuscular disease. The pathogenic DMPK transcript containing the CUG expansion is retained in ribonuclear foci as part of a complex with RNA-binding proteins such as muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1), resulting in aberrant splicing of numerous RNA transcripts and consequent physiological abnormalities including myotonia. Herein, we demonstrate molecular and physiological amelioration of the toxic effects of mutant RNA in the HSA(LR) mouse model of DM1 by systemic administration of peptide-linked morpholino (PPMO) antisense oligonucleotides bearing a CAG repeat sequence. Intravenous administration of PPMO conjugates to HSA(LR) mice led to redistribution of Mbnl1 protein in myonuclei and corrections in abnormal RNA splicing. Additionally, myotonia was completely eliminated in PPMO-treated HSA(LR) mice. These studies provide proof of concept that neutralization of RNA toxicity by systemic delivery of antisense oligonucleotides that target the CUG repeat is an effective therapeutic approach for treating the skeletal muscle aspects of DM1 pathology. PMID:23308382

  4. FCPP application to utilize anaerobic digester gas

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Yoshio; Kusama, Nobuyuki; Wada, Katsuya [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba and a municipal organization of Yokohama city are jointly conducting a program to utilize ADG (Anaerobic Digester Gas) more effectively. ADG which contains about 60% methane is produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge and has been used as an energy source for heating digestion tanks in sewage treatment plants and/or for combustion engine fuel. This program is focused on operating a commercial Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) power plant on ADG because of its inherently high fuel efficiency and low emissions characteristics. According to the following joint program, we have successfully demonstrated an ADG fueled FCPP The success of this study promises that the ADG fueled FCPP, an environment-friendly power generation system, will be added to the line-up of PC25{trademark}C applications.

  5. An open system for automatic home-cage behavioral analysis and its application to male and female mouse models of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Zarringhalam, Kourosh; Ka, Minhan; Kook, Yeon-Hee; Terranova, Joseph I; Suh, Yongjoon; King, Oliver D; Um, Moonkyoung

    2012-04-01

    Changes in routine mouse home-cage behavioral activities have been used recently to study alterations of neural circuits caused by genetic and environmental modifications and by drug administration. Nevertheless, automatic assessment of mouse home-cage behaviors remains challenging due to the cost of proprietary systems and to the difficulty in adjusting systems to different monitoring conditions. Here we present software for the automatic quantification of multiple facets of mouse home-cage behaviors, suitable for continuous 24 h video monitoring. We used this program to assess behavioral changes in male and female R6/2 transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease over a 10-week period. Consistent with the well-known progressive motor coordination deficits of R6/2 mice, their hanging, rearing, and climbing activity declined as the disease progressed. R6/2 mice also exhibited frequent disturbances in their resting activity compared to wild-type mice, suggesting that R6/2 mice are more restless and wakeful. Behavioral differences were seen earlier for male R6/2 mice than female R6/2 mice, and "behavioral signatures" based on multiple behaviors enabled us to distinguish male R6/2 mice from sex- and age-matched wild-type controls as early as 5 weeks of age. These results demonstrate that the automated behavioral classification software that we developed ("OpenCage") provides a powerful tool for analyzing natural home-cage mouse behaviors, and for constructing behavioral signatures that will be useful for assessing therapeutic strategies. The OpenCage software is available under an open-source GNU General Public License, allowing other users to freely modify and extend it to suit their purposes. PMID:22266926

  6. Improved physical and in vitro digestion stability of a polyelectrolyte delivery system based on layer-by-layer self-assembly alginate-chitosan-coated nanoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weilin; Liu, Jianhua; Liu, Wei; Li, Ti; Liu, Chengmei

    2013-05-01

    To improve lipid membrane stability and prevent leakage of encapsulated food ingredients, a polyelectrolyte delivery system (PDS) based on sodium alginate (AL) and chitosan (CH) coated on the surface of nanoliposomes (NLs) has been prepared and optimized using a layer-by-layer self-assembly deposition technique. Morphology and FTIR observation confirmed PDS has been successfully coated by polymers. Physical stability studies (pH and heat treatment) indicated that the outer-layer polymers could protect the core (NLs) from damage, and PDS showed more intact structure than NLs. Further enzymic digestion stability studies (particle size, surface charge, free fatty acid, and model functional component release) demonstrated that PDS could better resist lipolytic degradation and facilitate a lower level of encapsulated component release in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. This work suggested that deposition of polyelectrolyte on the surface of NLs can stabilize liposomal structure, and PDS could be developed as a formulation for delivering functional food ingredients in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23566223

  7. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of coffee grounds with and without waste activated sludge as co-substrate using a submerged AnMBR: system amendments and membrane performance.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wei; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Shofie, Mohammad; Niu, Qigui; Yu, Han Qing; Li, Yu-You

    2013-12-01

    Coffee grounds are deemed to be difficult for degradation by thermophilic anaerobic process. In this research, a 7 L AnMBR accepting coffee grounds was operated for 82 days and failed with pH dropping to 6.6. The deficiency of micronutrients in the reactor was identified. The system was recovered by supplying micronutrient, pH adjustment and influent ceasing for 22 days. In the subsequent 160 days of co-digestion experiment, waste activated sludge (15% in the mixture) was mixed into coffee grounds. The COD conversion efficiency of 67.4% was achieved under OLR of 11.1 kg-COD/m(3) d and HRT of 20 days. Tannins was identified affecting protein degradation by a batch experiment. Quantitative supplements of NH4HCO3 (0.12 g-N/g-TSin) were effective to maintain alkalinity and pH. The solid concentration in the AnMBR reached 75 g/L, but it did not significantly affect membrane filtration under a flux of 5.1 L/m(2) h. Soluble carbohydrate, lipid and protein were partially retained by the membrane. PMID:24177158

  8. IL-12-based vaccination therapy reverses liver-induced systemic tolerance in a mouse model of hepatitis B virus carrier.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhutian; Kong, Xiaohui; Li, Fenglei; Wei, Haiming; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang

    2013-10-15

    Liver-induced systemic immune tolerance that occurs during chronic hepadnavirus infection is the biggest obstacle for effective viral clearance. Immunotherapeutic reversal of this tolerance is a promising strategy in the clinic but remains to be explored. In this study, using a hepatitis B virus (HBV)-carrier mouse model, we report that IL-12-based vaccination therapy can efficiently reverse systemic tolerance toward HBV. HBV-carrier mice lost responsiveness to hepatitis B surface Ag (HBsAg) vaccination, and IL-12 alone could not reverse this liver-induced immune tolerance. However, after IL-12-based vaccination therapy, the majority of treated mice became HBsAg(-) in serum; hepatitis B core Ag was also undetectable in hepatocytes. HBV clearance was dependent on HBsAg vaccine-induced anti-HBV immunity. Further results showed that IL-12-based vaccination therapy strongly enhanced hepatic HBV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses, including proliferation and IFN-? secretion. Systemic HBV-specific CD4(+) T cell responses were also restored in HBV-carrier mice, leading to the arousal of HBsAg-specific follicular Th-germinal center B cell responses and anti-hepatitis B surface Ag Ab production. Recovery of HBsAg-specific responses also correlated with both reduced CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell frequency and an enhanced capacity of effector T cells to overcome inhibition by regulatory T cells. In conclusion, IL-12-based vaccination therapy may reverse liver-induced immune tolerance toward HBV by restoring systemic HBV-specific CD4(+) T cell responses, eliciting robust hepatic HBV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses, and facilitating the generation of HBsAg-specific humoral immunity; thus, this therapy may become a viable approach to treating patients with chronic hepatitis B. PMID:24048897

  9. Prenatal methylmercury exposure hampers glutathione antioxidant system ontogenesis and causes long-lasting oxidative stress in the mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Stringari, James; Nunes, Adriana K.C.; Franco, Jeferson L. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Bohrer, Denise [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Solange C. [Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Dafre, Alcir L. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Milatovic, Dejan [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Souza, Diogo O. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rocha, Joao B.T. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Farina, Marcelo [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: farina@ccb.ufsc.br

    2008-02-15

    During the perinatal period, the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely sensitive to metals, including methylmercury (MeHg). Although the mechanism(s) associated with MeHg-induced developmental neurotoxicity remains obscure, several studies point to the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system as an important molecular target for this toxicant. To extend our recent findings of MeHg-induced GSH dyshomeostasis, the present study was designed to assess the developmental profile of the GSH antioxidant system in the mouse brain during the early postnatal period after in utero exposure to MeHg. Pregnant mice were exposed to different doses of MeHg (1, 3 and 10 mg/l, diluted in drinking water, ad libitum) during the gestational period. After delivery, pups were killed at different time points - postnatal days (PND) 1, 11 and 21 - and the whole brain was used for determining biochemical parameters related to the antioxidant GSH system, as well as mercury content and the levels of F{sub 2}-isoprostane. In control animals, cerebral GSH levels significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period; gestational exposure to MeHg caused a dose-dependent inhibition of this developmental event. Cerebral glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period in control animals; gestational MeHg exposure induced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both developmental phenomena. These adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure were corroborated by marked increases in cerebral F{sub 2}-isoprostanes levels at all time points. Significant negative correlations were found between F{sub 2}-isoprostanes and GSH, as well as between F{sub 2}-isoprostanes and GPx activity, suggesting that MeHg-induced disruption of the GSH system maturation is related to MeHg-induced increased lipid peroxidation in the pup brain. In utero MeHg exposure also caused a dose-dependent increase in the cerebral levels of mercury at birth. Even though the cerebral mercury concentration decreased to nearly basal levels at postnatal day 21, GSH levels, GPx and GR activities remained decreased in MeHg-exposed mice, indicating that prenatal exposure to MeHg affects the cerebral GSH antioxidant systems by inducing biochemical alterations that endure even when mercury tissue levels decrease and become indistinguishable from those noted in pups born to control dams. This study is the first to show that prenatal exposure to MeHg disrupts the postnatal development of the glutathione antioxidant system in the mouse brain, pointing to an additional molecular mechanism by which MeHg induces pro-oxidative damage in the developing CNS. Moreover, our experimental observation corroborates previous reports on the permanent functional deficits observed after prenatal MeHg exposure.

  10. Exercise intolerance and systemic manifestations of pulmonary emphysema in a mouse model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Lüthje; Tobias Raupach; Hellmuth Michels; Bernhard Unsöld; Gerd Hasenfuss; Harald Kögler; Stefan Andreas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) significantly contribute to severity and mortality of the disease. We aimed to develop a COPD\\/emphysema model exhibiting systemic manifestations of the disease. METHODS: Female NMRI mice were treated 5 times intratracheally with porcine pancreatic elastase (emphysema) or phosphate-buffered saline (control). Emphysema severity was quantified histologically by mean linear intercept, exercise tolerance

  11. Systemic Administration of Lipopolysaccharide Induces Cyclooxygenase2 Immunoreactivity in Endothelium and Increases Microglia in the Mouse Hippocampus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dae Won Chung; Ki-Yeon Yoo; In Koo Hwang; Dae Won Kim; Jin Young Chung; Choong Hyun Lee; Jung Hoon Choi; Soo Young Choi; Hwa Young Youn; In Se Lee; Moo-Ho Won

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we observed the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on neurodegeneration and immune response in the hippocampus.\\u000a LPS is a gram-negative bacterial cell surface proteoglycan and known as a bacterial endotoxin. For this, we investigated the\\u000a optimal concentration of LPS influencing the ICR mouse hippocampus to measure the LPS receptor, e.g., toll-like receptor 4\\u000a (TLR4), expression in mouse hippocampal

  12. Comparison of acid mucin goblet cell distribution and Hox13 expression patterns in the developing vertebrate digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Theodosiou, Nicole A; Hall, Daniel A; Jowdry, Andrea L

    2007-07-15

    The digestive tract of vertebrates is a complex organ system required for the digestion of food and the absorption of nutrients. The colon evolved as a water absorption organ essential for vertebrates to survive on land. In contrast to land vertebrates, the Chondrichthyes (sharks, skates and rays) are nearly iso-osmotic with their ocean environment and do not reabsorb water from food waste. To understand the origin of the vertebrate colon, we examined the distribution of sulfated and sialyated mucus-producing cells in the little skate, Raja erinacea, as an indication of water absorption function in the chondrichthian digestive tract. The percentage of acid mucin producing goblet cells was analyzed in the spiral valve and hindgut of little skate and the small intestine and colon of mouse embryos. Levels of acid mucins in the hindgut of the little skate was comparable to that of the small intestines of terrestrial vertebrates, whereas the distal region of the spiral valve contained high levels of acid mucin producing cells similar to the colon of mouse and chick. The low numbers of acid mucins in the little skate hindgut confirms that a functional colon for water absorption is absent in the Chondrichthyes. Interestingly, the presence of high levels of acid mucins in the posterior spiral valve provides evidence for a possible primordial water-absorbing organ in the elasmobranchs. Hoxd13 patterns acid mucins in the colons of terrestrial vertebrates. Expression of Hoxd13 and Hoxa13 in R. erinacea suggests conserved roles for Hox genes in patterning the early hindgut. PMID:17538949

  13. Histology Atlas of the Developing Mouse Hepatobiliary System with Emphasis on Embryonic Days 9.5-18.5

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Laura Wilding; Foley, Julie F.; Elmore, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Animal model phenotyping, in utero exposure toxiciy studies, and investigation into causes of embryonic, fetal, or perinatal deaths have required pathologists to recognize and diagnose developmental disorders in spontaneous and engineered mouse models of disease. In mammals, the liver is the main site of hematopoiesis during fetal development, has endocrine and exocrine functions important for maintaining homeostasis in fetal and adult life; and performs other functions including waste detoxification, production and removal of glucose, glycogen storage, triglyceride and fatty acid processing, and serum protein production. Due to its role in many critical functions, alterations in the size, morphology, or function(s) of the liver often lead to embryonic lethality. Many publications and websites describe individual aspects of hepatobiliary development at defined stages. However, no single resource provides a detailed histological evaluation of H&E-stained sections of the developing murine liver and biliary systems using high-magnification and high-resolution color images. The work herein provides a histology atlas of hepatobiliary development between embryonic days 9.5-18.5. Although the focus of this work is normal hepatobiliary development, common defects in liver development are also described as a reference for pathologists who may be asked to phenotype mice with congenital, inherited, or treatment-related hepatobiliary defects. PMID:20805319

  14. Effect of Farnesol on a Mouse Model of Systemic Candidiasis, Determined by Use of a DPP3 Knockout Mutant of Candida albicans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhammika H. M. L. P. Navarathna; Jacob M. Hornby; Navasona Krishnan; Anne M. Parkhurst; Gerald E. Duhamel; Kenneth Nickerson

    2007-01-01

    This work extends our previous observation that the fungus Candida albicans secretes micromolar levels of farnesol and that accumulation of farnesol in vitro prevents the yeast-to-mycelium conversion in a quorumsensing manner. What does farnesol do in vivo? The purpose of this study was to determine the role of farnesol during infection with a well-established mouse model of systemic candidiasis with

  15. A Brain Site for the Antigonadal Action of Melatonin in the White-Footed Mouse (Peromyscus (leucopus): Involvement of the Immunoreactive GnRH Neuronal System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Glass; Lori K. Knotts

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of immunocytochemical staining for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was undertaken to determine the effects of an intracranial implant of melatonin on the GnRH neuronal system in the male white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). Melatonin-containing pellets stereotaxically placed in the anterior hypothalamic area (AH) caused a 60% reduction in testes weight relative to control mice with melatonin-free pellets in the AH

  16. Sequential observations of exencephaly and subsequent morphological changes by mouse exo utero development system: analysis of the mechanism of transformation from exencephaly to anencephaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiro Matsumoto; Toshihisa Hatta; Kenji Moriyama; Hiroki Otani

    2002-01-01

    Anencephaly has been suggested to develop from exencephaly; however, there is little direct experimental evidence to support\\u000a this, and the mechanism of transformation remains unclear. We examined this theory using the exo utero development system\\u000a that allows direct and sequential observations of mid- to late-gestation mouse embryos. We observed the exencephaly induced\\u000a by 5-azacytidine at embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5), let

  17. In Uteroand Lactational Exposure to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-?-dioxin: Effects on Development of the Male and Female Reproductive System of the Mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Michael Theobald; Richard E. Peterson

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate effects ofin uteroand lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-?-dioxin (TCDD) exposure on male and female reproductive system development of the mouse, the offspring of pregnant ICR mice administered 0, 15, 30, or 60 ?g TCDD\\/kg on Gestation Day (GD) 14 were examined at the postweanling, pubertal, young adult, and adult stages of development. Dam and offspring body weights and prenatal and postnatal

  18. OMR-Arena: Automated Measurement and Stimulation System to Determine Mouse Visual Thresholds Based on Optomotor Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Friedrich; Kretschmer, Viola; Kunze, Vincent P.; Kretzberg, Jutta

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the optomotor response is a common way to determine thresholds of the visual system in animals. Particularly in mice, it is frequently used to characterize the visual performance of different genetically modified strains or to test the effect of various drugs on visual performance. Several methods have been developed to facilitate the presentation of stimuli using computer screens or projectors. Common methods are either based on the measurement of eye movement during optokinetic reflex behavior or rely on the measurement of head and/or body-movements during optomotor responses. Eye-movements can easily and objectively be quantified, but their measurement requires invasive fixation of the animals. Head movements can be observed in freely moving animals, but until now depended on the judgment of a human observer who reported the counted tracking movements of the animal during an experiment. In this study we present a novel measurement and stimulation system based on open source building plans and software. This system presents appropriate 360 stimuli while simultaneously video-tracking the animal's head-movements without fixation. The on-line determined head gaze is used to adjust the stimulus to the head position, as well as to automatically calculate visual acuity. Exemplary, we show that automatically measured visual response curves of mice match the results obtained by a human observer very well. The spatial acuity thresholds yielded by the automatic analysis are also consistent with the human observer approach and with published results. Hence, OMR-arena provides an affordable, convenient and objective way to measure mouse visual performance. PMID:24260105

  19. Performance and modeling of dual digestion process for biodegradation of cellulose containing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Tansel, B.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study a dual digestion process for decomposing refuse and sludge mixtures to produce methane gas. A laboratory scale dual digestion system was used to study the performance of the process of influents with high cellulose content. A mechanistic model of the system based on volatile solids content was developed to compare the economics of the thermophilic dual digestion process with thermophilic and mesophilic single stage anaerobic digestion and mesophilic dual digestion processes with respect to changes in feed concentration and composition. Experimental and simulation studies showed that for small digesters heat loss from the digester surface is the most significant heat sink. For large digesters (greater than 0.1 MG) sensible heat of the influent becomes the most significant heat sink. Experimental studies indicated that significant amounts of energy can be generated during the oxygen aerobic digestion of thickened sludge-paper mixtures. Steady state temperatures in the aerobic digester can be reached two decays after the start-up. Biogas production rates in the aerobic stage as high as 3.0 liters per liter of reactor volume and 0.31 liters per gram of solids added to the anaerobic digester were observed. A second mechanistic model of the duel digestion process was developed based on chemical oxygen demand. This model includes the relationships between pH, alkalinity, methane content in the biogas and inhibition of the methane formation reaction by the presence of toxic substances and unionized volatile acids.

  20. Conservation and divergence in the transcriptional programs of the human and mouse immune systems

    E-print Network

    Shay, Tal

    Much of the knowledge about cell differentiation and function in the immune system has come from studies in mice, but the relevance to human immunology, diseases, and therapy has been challenged, perhaps more from anecdotal ...

  1. COMPARISON OF SYSTEMIC AND MUCOSAL ROUTES OF SENSITIZATION TO OVALBUMIN ANTIGEN IN THREE MOUSE STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several studies have shown strain differences in allergic lung responses following ovalbumin (OVA) antigen sensitization and challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these differences were maintained between systemic and mucosal sensitization routes, and to ...

  2. System for remote multichannel real-time monitoring of mouse ECG via the Internet

    E-print Network

    Oefinger, Matthew Blake, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    A hardware/software system was developed to allow real-time monitoring of multiple physiological signals simultaneously via the Internet. The hardware is specifically designed for measuring ECG signals from mice, while the ...

  3. Chronic administration of troxerutin protects mouse brain against d-galactose-induced impairment of cholinergic system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Lu; Dong-mei Wu; Bin Hu; Wei Cheng; Yuan-lin Zheng; Zi-feng Zhang; Qin Ye; Shao-hua Fan; Qun Shan; Yong-jian Wang

    2010-01-01

    Previous evidence showed that administration of d-galactose (d-gal) increased ROS production and resulted in impairment of cholinergic system. Troxerutin, a natural bioflavonoid, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of troxerutin against d-gal-induced impairment of cholinergic system, and explored the potential mechanism of its action. Our results displayed that

  4. Web Digest for Marketers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created and maintained by Larry Chase, Web Digest for Marketers (WDM) was started in 1995, nearly a lifetime in Internet years. The site offers an archived weekly publication of "15 mercifully short reviews of marketing-oriented Web sites." Broken into catagories including Research, HTML, JavaScript, and FAQs, the sites are reviewed in a helpful, conversational style. Interested users are encouraged to subscribe to the email version of WDM.

  5. DrugDigest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    DrugDigest is a "noncommercial, evidence-based, consumer health and drug information site dedicated to empowering consumers to make informed choices about drugs and treatment options." This exhaustive Web site offers a variety of resources to help readers manage their health, including easy-to-read reference materials, a potentially life-saving drug interactions database, informative news and features, and eBulletins -- an email service that delivers news and information on selected health conditions, free of charge.

  6. Reduced gas pressure operation of sludge digesters

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    This report describes bench-scale research for improving the digestion of sludges. The effects of reduced headspace pressure on anaerobic digester performance was evaluated. Four identical digester systems were constructed for investigating reduced headspace pressure effects. The first system served as a control and was operated with a 1.0 atmosphere gas phase pressures. The remaining three reactors had 0.83, 0.75 and 0.5 atm. gas phase pressures. The reactor systems were housed in a 35 {degrees}C walk-in incubator. Each anaerobic system was designed to simulate the operation of a typical municipal digester. Reactors were seeded with sludge and operated with a 15-day solids retention time (SRT), a typical value for a high-rate digester. This was accomplished by replacing one-fifteenth of the active volume (1.5 liters) with fresh feed daily. Headspace gas pressures were controlled by a pressure-sensitive valve located between the reactor and a large closed vacuum reservoir. Changes in reservoir pressure as a function of time were recorded and used to evaluate gas production. Municipal sludges (3, 5, and 8 percent solids) were used as feedstock for the reactors with 15-day SRTs. A 5 percent sludge was also evaluated with a 25-day SRT. Feed characteristics and reactor pH, alkalinity, total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), total and volatile suspended solids (TSS and VSS) and gas composition (CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}) and production rates were routinely monitored. Total COD, VSS and SS destruction rates along with CH{sub 4} and total gas generation rates were determined as a function of headspace pressure. 25 refs., 41 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Restoring systemic GDF11 levels reverses age-related dysfunction in mouse skeletal muscle#

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Manisha; Jang, Young C.; Oh, Juhyun; Khong, Danika; Wu, Elizabeth Y.; Manohar, Rohan; Miller, Christine; Regalado, Samuel G.; Loffredo, Francesco S.; Pancoast, James R.; Hirshman, Michael F.; Lebowitz, Jessica; Shadrach, Jennifer L.; Cerletti, Massimiliano; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Serwold, Thomas; Goodyear, Laurie J.; Rosner, Bernard; Lee, Richard T.; Wagers, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Parabiosis experiments indicate that impaired regeneration in aged mice is reversible by exposure to a young circulation, suggesting that young blood contains humoral “rejuvenating” factors that can restore regenerative function. Here, we demonstrate that the circulating protein Growth Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF11) is a rejuvenating factor for skeletal muscle. Supplementation of systemic GDF11 levels, which normally decline with age, by heterochronic parabiosis or systemic delivery of recombinant protein, reversed functional impairments and restored genomic integrity in aged muscle stem cells (satellite cells). Increased GDF11 levels in aged mice also improved muscle structural and functional features and increased strength and endurance exercise capacity. These data indicate that GDF11 systemically regulates muscle aging and may be therapeutically useful for reversing age-related skeletal muscle and stem cell dysfunction. PMID:24797481

  8. Restoring systemic GDF11 levels reverses age-related dysfunction in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Manisha; Jang, Young C; Oh, Juhyun; Khong, Danika; Wu, Elizabeth Y; Manohar, Rohan; Miller, Christine; Regalado, Samuel G; Loffredo, Francesco S; Pancoast, James R; Hirshman, Michael F; Lebowitz, Jessica; Shadrach, Jennifer L; Cerletti, Massimiliano; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Serwold, Thomas; Goodyear, Laurie J; Rosner, Bernard; Lee, Richard T; Wagers, Amy J

    2014-05-01

    Parabiosis experiments indicate that impaired regeneration in aged mice is reversible by exposure to a young circulation, suggesting that young blood contains humoral "rejuvenating" factors that can restore regenerative function. Here, we demonstrate that the circulating protein growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a rejuvenating factor for skeletal muscle. Supplementation of systemic GDF11 levels, which normally decline with age, by heterochronic parabiosis or systemic delivery of recombinant protein, reversed functional impairments and restored genomic integrity in aged muscle stem cells (satellite cells). Increased GDF11 levels in aged mice also improved muscle structural and functional features and increased strength and endurance exercise capacity. These data indicate that GDF11 systemically regulates muscle aging and may be therapeutically useful for reversing age-related skeletal muscle and stem cell dysfunction. PMID:24797481

  9. Digest of Education Statistics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in early 1996 made full text of the 1995 "Digest of Education Statistics" available via the Internet. This is the 31st in a series of publications begun in 1962. "Its primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of American education from kindergarten through graduate school." The Digest contains seven chapters: All Levels of Education, Elementary and Secondary Education, Postsecondary Education, Federal Programs for Education and Related Activities, Outcomes of Education, International Comparisons of Education, and Learning Resources and Technology. It contains 32 figures and 415 tables. Tables and figures are clearly labeled under their hypertext links, and tables are rendered as ASCII text. Tables are current through 1992-93. This is one of the most important primary sources of education statistics available. The gopher version of the Digest provides the tables and figures in compressed .zip files, and provides pointers to viewing and decompression software.

  10. Comparative Digestive Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Karasov, William H.; Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, morphological and functional features of gastrointestinal (GI) tracts generally reflect food chemistry, such as content of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and material(s) refractory to rapid digestion (e.g., cellulose). The expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters approximately matches the dietary load of their respective substrates, with relatively modest excess capacity. Mechanisms explaining differences in hydrolase activity between populations and species include gene copy number variations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional adjustments mediate phenotypic changes in the expression of hydrolases and transporters in response to dietary signals. Many species respond to higher food intake by flexibly increasing digestive compartment size. Fermentative processes by symbiotic microorganisms are important for cellulose degradation but are relatively slow, so animals that rely on those processes typically possess special enlarged compartment(s) to maintain a microbiota and other GI structures that slow digesta flow. The taxon richness of the gut microbiota, usually identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, is typically an order of magnitude greater in vertebrates than invertebrates, and the interspecific variation in microbial composition is strongly influenced by diet. Many of the nutrient transporters are orthologous across different animal phyla, though functional details may vary (e.g., glucose and amino acid transport with K+ rather than Na+ as a counter ion). Paracellular absorption is important in many birds. Natural toxins are ubiquitous in foods and may influence key features such as digesta transit, enzymatic breakdown, microbial fermentation, and absorption PMID:23720328

  11. Potential digestibilities and digestion kinetics of forage cell wall components 

    E-print Network

    Tauskey, William Henry

    1973-01-01

    by 72 hrs. represented an approximation of asyptotic digestibility and was taken as a mea- sure of potential digestibility. Various models' ability to describe the rate of digestion of these fractions were tested including: (1) a single exponential... function, (2) a sequential two exponential function, and (3) a time dependency function. Each model was tested with and without a time delay function. Inclusion of the time delay term resulted in a sig- nificant lowering (in order of 10-fold...

  12. A systems approach implicates nuclear receptor targeting in the Atp7b(-/-) mouse model of Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wilmarth, Phillip A; Short, Kristopher K; Fiehn, Oliver; Lutsenko, Svetlana; David, Larry L; Burkhead, Jason L

    2012-07-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism characterized by liver disease and/or neurologic and psychiatric pathology. The disease is a result of mutation in ATP7B, which encodes the ATP7B copper transporting ATPase. Loss of copper transport function by ATP7B results in copper accumulation primarily in the liver, but also in other organs including the brain. Studies in the Atp7b(-/-) mouse model of WD revealed specific transcript and metabolic changes that precede development of liver pathology, most notably downregulation of transcripts in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. In order to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of transcriptomic and metabolic changes, we used a systems approach analysing the pre-symptomatic hepatic nuclear proteome and liver metabolites. We found that ligand-activated nuclear receptors FXR/NR1H4 and GR/NR3C1 and nuclear receptor interacting partners are less abundant in Atp7b(-/-) hepatocyte nuclei, while DNA repair machinery and the nucleus-localized glutathione peroxidase, SelH, are more abundant. Analysis of metabolites revealed an increase in polyol sugar alcohols, indicating a change in osmotic potential that precedes hepatocyte swelling observed later in disease. This work is the first application of quantitative Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MuDPIT) to a model of WD to investigate protein-level mechanisms of WD pathology. The systems approach using "shotgun" proteomics and metabolomics in the context of previous transcriptomic data reveals molecular-level mechanisms of WD development and facilitates targeted analysis of hepatocellular copper toxicity. PMID:22565294

  13. AUTOMOUSE: AN IMPROVEMENT TO THE MOUSE COMPUTERIZED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM OPERATIONAL MANUAL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under a mandate of national environmental laws, the agency strives to formulate and implement actions leading to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life. The Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory is responsible ...

  14. COMPARATIVE GUT PHYSIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Comparative physiology of digestion.

    PubMed

    Furness, J B; Cottrell, J J; Bravo, D M

    2015-02-01

    The digestive systems of all species have been shaped by environmental pressures over long evolutionary time spans. Nevertheless, all digestive systems must achieve the same end points, the ingestion of biological material and its conversion to molecules that serve as energy substrates and structural components of tissues. A range of strategies to extract nutrients, including for animals reliant primarily on foregut fermentation, hindgut fermentation, and enzymatic degradation, have evolved. Moreover, animals have adapted to different foodstuffs as herbivores (including frugivores, folivores, granivores, etc.), carnivores, and omnivores. We present evidence that humans have diverged from other omnivores because of the long history of consumption of cooked or otherwise prepared food. We consider them to be cucinivores. We present examples to illustrate that the range of foodstuffs that can be efficiently assimilated by each group or species is limited and is different from that of other groups or species. Differences are reflected in alimentary tract morphology. The digestive systems of each group and of species within the groups are adaptable, with constraints determined by individual digestive physiology. Although overall digestive strategies and systems differ, the building blocks for digestion are remarkably similar. All vertebrates have muscular tubular tracts lined with a single layer of epithelial cells for most of the length, use closely related digestive enzymes and transporters, and control the digestive process through similar hormones and similarly organized nerve pathways. Extrapolations among species that are widely separated in their digestive physiologies are possible when the basis for extrapolation is carefully considered. Divergence is greatest at organ or organismal levels, and similarities are greatest at the cell and molecular level. PMID:26020739

  15. Genome-Wide Screen for Salmonella Genes Required for Long-Term Systemic Infection of the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Lucinda J; Kim, Charles C; Govoni, Gregory R; Monack, Denise M

    2006-01-01

    A microarray-based negative selection screen was performed to identify Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (serovar Typhimurium) genes that contribute to long-term systemic infection in 129X1/SvJ (Nramp1r) mice. A high-complexity transposon-mutagenized library was used to infect mice intraperitoneally, and the selective disappearance of mutants was monitored after 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postinfection. One hundred and eighteen genes were identified to contribute to serovar Typhimurium infection of the spleens of mice by 28 d postinfection. The negatively selected mutants represent many known aspects of Salmonella physiology and pathogenesis, although the majority of the identified genes are of putative or unknown function. Approximately 30% of the negatively selected genes correspond to horizontally acquired regions such as those within Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI 1–5), prophages (Gifsy-1 and ?2 and remnant), and the pSLT virulence plasmid. In addition, mutations in genes responsible for outer membrane structure and remodeling, such as LPS- and PhoP-regulated and fimbrial genes, were also selected against. Competitive index experiments demonstrated that the secreted SPI2 effectors SseK2 and SseJ as well as the SPI4 locus are attenuated relative to wild-type bacteria during systemic infection. Interestingly, several SPI1-encoded type III secretion system effectors/translocases are required by serovar Typhimurium to establish and, unexpectedly, to persist systemically, challenging the present description of Salmonella pathogenesis. Moreover, we observed a progressive selection against serovar Typhimurium mutants based upon the duration of the infection, suggesting that different classes of genes may be required at distinct stages of infection. Overall, these data indicate that Salmonella long-term systemic infection in the mouse requires a diverse repertoire of virulence factors. This diversity of genes presumably reflects the fact that bacteria sequentially encounter a variety of host environments and that Salmonella has evolved to respond to these selective forces in a way that permits both the bacteria and the host to survive. PMID:16518469

  16. Differential response of calmodulin genes in the mouse brain after systemic kainate administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Solà; J. M Tusell; J Serratosa

    1997-01-01

    In the central nervous system, many of the effects resulting from an increase in the intracellular levels of calcium are mediated by calmodulin, a major calcium-binding protein in the mammalian brain. Calmodulin is expressed by three different genes, namely CaM I, CaM II and CaM III, all of which encode an identical protein. We studied the expression of calmodulin in

  17. The Effect of Testosterone Upon the Urate Reabsorptive Transport System in Mouse Kidney

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hosoyamada; Y. Takiue; T. Shibasaki; H. Saito

    2010-01-01

    It is hypothesized that hyperuricemia in males is caused by androgen-induced urate reabsorptive transport system in the kidney. The expression of urate transporter 1 (Urat1), sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1 (Smct1) and glucose transporter 9 (Glut9) were investigated in orchiectomized mice with or without testosterone replacement. Testosterone enhanced mRNA and protein levels of Smct1 while those of Glut9 were attenuated. Although

  18. Novel trends in anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    De Baere, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion capacity has been installed on a large scale for the treatment of biowaste coming from municipal solid waste in the 90's. However, in recent years, a new trend has developed in which anaerobic digestion is applied more and more for the treatment of mixed or grey waste. It is expected that the installed capacity for grey/mixed waste will surpass the capacity installed for biowaste digestion. Five years ago, more than 85% of the treatment capacity was for biowaste digestion and only 15% for grey/mired waste digestion, derived from two old plants that were constructed prior to 1990. By the end of 2004, a digestion capacity of 1,285,000 ton per year will be available in Europe for the treatment of grey or mixed MSW, while digestion capacity for biowaste will only amount to 1,270,000 ton per year. Especially dry digestion offers new perspectives. Dry digestion is particularly suited for the treatment of grey/mixed waste due to its insensitivity to the presence of heavy inerts and light materials. Heavy inerts such as sand, glass and stones cause sedimentation and the light materials cause floatation and scum formation in the more conventional wet and semi-dry systems. Due to the high initial dry solids content, the digestate coming from dry digestion can be treated in a variety of ways. Besides the conventional mechanical dewatering, drying with waste heat or aerobic drying by addition of a fresh waste can be utilized for the production of a high-quality compost in case of the treatment of biowaste. Digestate from mixed or grey waste is not immediately suitable for the production of a high-quality compost. However, integration with incineration plants and landfills can be optimized easily with such a dry digestate and offers various interesting alternatives. In case a maximum of recyclables is pursued, the dry digestion can be followed by a wet separation in order to produce marketable endproducts such as sand and fibers. PMID:15296145

  19. A Novel Mouse Model for Stable Engraftment of a Human Immune System and Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Strick-Marchand, Helene; Dusséaux, Mathilde; Darche, Sylvie; Huntington, Nicholas D.; Legrand, Nicolas; Masse-Ranson, Guillemette; Corcuff, Erwan; Ahodantin, James; Weijer, Kees; Spits, Hergen; Kremsdorf, Dina; Di Santo, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic infections by hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Plasmodium parasites leading to acute or chronic diseases constitute a global health challenge. The species tropism of these hepatotropic pathogens is restricted to chimpanzees and humans, thus model systems to study their pathological mechanisms are severely limited. Although these pathogens infect hepatocytes, disease pathology is intimately related to the degree and quality of the immune response. As a first step to decipher the immune response to infected hepatocytes, we developed an animal model harboring both a human immune system (HIS) and human hepatocytes (HUHEP) in BALB/c Rag2-/- IL-2R?c-/- NOD.sirpa uPAtg/tg mice. The extent and kinetics of human hepatocyte engraftment were similar between HUHEP and HIS-HUHEP mice. Transplanted human hepatocytes were polarized and mature in vivo, resulting in 20–50% liver chimerism in these models. Human myeloid and lymphoid cell lineages developed at similar frequencies in HIS and HIS-HUHEP mice, and splenic and hepatic compartments were humanized with mature B cells, NK cells and naïve T cells, as well as monocytes and dendritic cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that HIS-HUHEP mice can be stably (> 5 months) and robustly engrafted with a humanized immune system and chimeric human liver. This novel HIS-HUHEP model provides a platform to investigate human immune responses against hepatotropic pathogens and to test novel drug strategies or vaccine candidates. PMID:25782010

  20. Integration of NIRS and PCA techniques for the process monitoring of a sewage sludge anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Reed, James P; Devlin, Desmond; Esteves, Sandra R R; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan J

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the use of Hotelling's T(2) control charts as the basis of a process monitor for sewage sludge anaerobic digestion. Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy was used to produce partial least squares regression models of volatile fatty acids, bicarbonate alkalinity and volatile solids. These were utilised in a series of principle component analysis models along with spectral data from digestate and feedstock samples to produce a pseudo steady state model, which was then used with an independent test set to evaluate the system. The system was able to identify disturbances to the digester due to a temporary alteration of the type of feedstock to the digester and separately, halving of the hydraulic retention time of the digester. It could also provide advance warning of disturbances to the digester. This technique could be used to improve the performance of sewage sludge anaerobic digesters by enabling optimisation of the process. PMID:23454801

  1. Partial Restriction Digests Leslie Vosshall

    E-print Network

    Partial Restriction Digests 4/18/2001 Leslie Vosshall · Purpose: To generate DNA cut at a subset to the following schedule for digests [A] ­ [F]: [A] 1.0 ul Enzyme [B] 0.1 ul Enzyme [C] 0.05 ul Enzyme [D] 0.01 ul Enzyme [E] 0.005 ul Enzyme [F] 0.001 ul Enzyme [A] add 1 ul of enzyme and mix well; place digest on wet

  2. Chronic low level lead exposure affects the monoaminergic system in the mouse superior olivary complex

    PubMed Central

    Fortune, Tyler; Lurie, Diana I.

    2009-01-01

    Low-level lead (Pb) exposure is associated with behavioral and cognitive dysfunction but it is not clear how Pb produces these behavioral changes. Pb has been shown to alter auditory temporal processing in both humans and animals. Auditory temporal processing occurs in the superior olivary complex (SOC) in the brainstem where it is an important component in sound detection in noisy environments and in selective auditory attention. The SOC receives a serotonergic innervation from the dorsal raphe, and serotonin has been implicated in auditory temporal processing within the brainstem and inferior colliculus. Because Pb exposure modulates auditory temporal processing, the serotonergic system is a potential target for Pb. The current study was undertaken to determine whether developmental Pb exposure preferentially changes the serotonergic system within the SOC. Pb-treated mice were exposed to no Pb, very low Pb (0.01 mM), or low Pb (0.1 mM) throughout gestation and through 21 days postnatally. Brainstem sections from control and Pb-exposed mice were immunostained for the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), serotonin, and dopamine beta hydroxylase (D?H, a marker for norepinephrine) in order to elucidate the effect of Pb on monoaminergic input into the SOC. Sections were also immunolabeled with antibodies to VGLUT1, VGAT and VAChT to determine whether Pb exposure alters the glutaminergic, gaba-ergic, or cholinergic systems. Pb exposure caused a significant decrease in VMAT2, 5HT, and D?H expression while VGLUT1, VGAT and VAChT showed no change. These results provide evidence that Pb exposure during development alters normal monoaminergic expression in the auditory brainstem. PMID:19226511

  3. Mouse Retinal Development: a Dark Horse Model for Systems Biology Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Serb, Jeanne M.; Greenlee, M. Heather West

    2011-01-01

    The developing retina is an excellent model to study cellular fate determination and differentiation in the context of a complex tissue. Over the last decade, many basic principles and key genes that underlie these processes have been experimentally identified. In this review, we construct network models to summarize known gene interactions that underlie determination and fundamentally affect differentiation of each retinal cell type. These networks can act as a scaffold to assemble subsequent discoveries. In addition, these summary networks provide a rational segue to systems biology approaches necessary to understand the many events leading to appropriate cellular determination and differentiation in the developing retina and other complex tissues. PMID:21698072

  4. Hog farm in California uses anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D. [Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes a system of covered lagoons which help address the waste management problems of hog farmers as well as producing methane used to power generators. Four advantages of anaerobic digestion are described along with the system: energy production from methane; fertilizer for fields; economic development in rural areas; and improved water quality through reduction of nonpoint source pollution. Address for full report is given.

  5. Chronic administration of troxerutin protects mouse brain against D-galactose-induced impairment of cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-Mei; Hu, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ye, Qin; Fan, Shao-Hua; Shan, Qun; Wang, Yong-Jian

    2010-02-01

    Previous evidence showed that administration of d-galactose (d-gal) increased ROS production and resulted in impairment of cholinergic system. Troxerutin, a natural bioflavonoid, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of troxerutin against d-gal-induced impairment of cholinergic system, and explored the potential mechanism of its action. Our results displayed that troxerutin administration significantly improved behavioral performance of d-gal-treated mice in step-through test and morris water maze task. One of the potential mechanisms of this action was decreased AGEs, ROS and protein carbonyl levels in the basal forebrain, hippocampus and front cortex of d-gal-treated mice. Furthermore, our results also showed that troxerutin significantly inhibited cholinesterase (AchE) activity, increased the expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 (nAchRalpha7) and enhanced interactions between nAchRalpha7 and either postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) or N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors subunit 1 (NMDAR1) in the basal forebrain, hippocampus and front cortex of d-gal-treated mice, which could help restore impairment of brain function. PMID:19766199

  6. Spatiotemporal Fate Map of Neurogenin1 (Neurog1) Lineages in the Mouse Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Euiseok J.; Hori, Kei; Wyckoff, Alex; Dickel, Lauren K.; Koundakjian, Edmund J.; Goodrich, Lisa V.; Johnson, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurog1 (Ngn1, Neurod3, neurogenin1) is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor essential for neuronal differentiation and subtype specification during embryogenesis. Due to the transient expression of Neurog1 and extensive migration of neuronal precursors, it has been challenging to understand the full complement of Neurog1 lineage cells throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Here we labeled and followed Neurog1 lineages using inducible Cre-flox recombination systems with Neurog1-Cre and Neurog1-CreERT2 BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenic mice. Neurog1 lineage cells are restricted to neuronal fates and contribute to diverse but discrete populations in each brain region. In the forebrain, Neurog1 lineages include mitral cells and glutamatergic interneurons in the olfactory bulb, pyramidal and granule neurons in the hippocampus, and pyramidal cells in the cortex. In addition, most of the thalamus, but not the hypothalamus, arises from Neurog1 progenitors. Although Neurog1 lineages are largely restricted to glutamatergic neurons, there are multiple exceptions including Purkinje cells and other GABAergic neurons in the cerebellum. This study provides the first overview of the spatiotemporal fate map of Neurog1 lineages in the CNS. PMID:21452201

  7. Digestive efficiency and dry-matter digestibility in Steller sea lions fed herring, pollock, squid, and

    E-print Network

    Digestive efficiency and dry-matter digestibility in Steller sea lions fed herring, pollock, squid, and salmon D.A.S. Rosen and A.W. Trites Abstract: Dry-matter digestibility and energy digestive efficiency-matter digestibility (DMD) and digestive efficiency (DE) were measured using the energy and manganese concentration

  8. Spontaneous congenital hydrocephalus in the mutant mouse hyh. Changes in the ventricular system and the subcommissural organ.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fígares, J M; Jiménez, A J; Pérez-Martín, M; Fernández-Llebrez, P; Cifuentes, M; Riera, P; Rodríguez, S; Rodríguez, E M

    1998-02-01

    The subcommissural organ is an ependymal gland located at the entrance of the cerebral aqueduct. It secretes glycoproteins into the cerebrospinal fluid, where they aggregate to form Reissner's fiber. This fiber grows along the aqueduct, fourth ventricle, and central canal. There is evidence that the subcommissural organ is involved in the pathogenesis of congenital hydrocephalus. This organ was investigated in the mutant mouse hyh developing a congenital hydrocephalus. The central nervous system of normal and hydrocephalic hyh mice, 1 to 40 days old, was investigated using antibodies recognizing the subcommissural organ secretory glycoproteins, and by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. At birth, the affected mice displayed open communications between all ventricles, absence of a central canal in the spinal cord, ependymal denudation of the ventricles, stenosis of the rostral end of the aqueduct, and hydrocephalus of the lateral and third ventricles and of the caudal end of the aqueduct. Around the 5th postnatal day, the communication between the caudal aqueduct and fourth ventricle sealed, and hydrocephalus became severe. It is postulated that the hyh mice carry a genetic defect affecting the ependymal cell lineage. The subcommissural organ showed signs of increased secretory activity; it released to the stenosed aqueduct a material that aggregated, but it did not form a Reissner's fiber. A large area of the third ventricular wall differentiated into a secretory ependyma synthesizing a material similar to that secreted by the subcommissural organ. It is concluded that the subcommissural organ changes during hydrocephalus; whether these changes precede hydrocephalus needs to be investigated. PMID:9600211

  9. Absence of systemic toxicity in mouse model towards BaTiO3 nanoparticulate based eluate treatment.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar; Thrivikraman, Greeshma; Basu, Bikramjit

    2015-02-01

    One of the existing issues in implant failure of orthopedic biomaterials is the toxicity induced by the fine particles released during long term use in vivo, leading to acute inflammatory response. In developing a new class of piezobiocomposite to mimic the integrated electrical and mechanical properties of bone, bone-mimicking physical properties as well as in vitro cytocompatibility properties have been achieved with spark plasma sintered hydroxyapatite (HA)-barium titanate (BaTiO3) composites. However, the presence of BaTiO3 remains a concern towards the potential toxicity effect. To address this issue, present work reports the first result to conclusively confirm the non-toxic effect of HA-BaTiO3 piezobiocomposite nanoparticulates, in vivo. Twenty BALB/c mice were intra-articularly injected at their right knee joints with different concentrations of HA-BaTiO3 composite of up to 25 mg/ml. The histopathological examination confirmed the absence of any trace of injected particles or any sign of inflammatory reaction in the vital organs, such as heart, spleen, kidney and liver at 7 days post-exposure period. Rather, the injected nanoparticulates were found to be agglomerated in the vicinity of the knee joint, surrounded by macrophages. Importantly, the absence of any systemic toxicity response in any of the vital organs in the treated mouse model, other than a mild local response at the site of delivery, was recorded. The serum biochemical analyses using proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-1?) also complimented to the non-immunogenic response to injected particulates. Altogether, the absence of any inflammatory/adverse reaction will open up myriad of opportunities for BaTiO3 based piezoelectric implantable devices in biomedical applications. PMID:25655497

  10. Vascular and neurogenic rejuvenation of the aging mouse brain by young systemic factors.

    PubMed

    Katsimpardi, Lida; Litterman, Nadia K; Schein, Pamela A; Miller, Christine M; Loffredo, Francesco S; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Chen, John W; Lee, Richard T; Wagers, Amy J; Rubin, Lee L

    2014-05-01

    In the adult central nervous system, the vasculature of the neurogenic niche regulates neural stem cell behavior by providing circulating and secreted factors. Age-related decline of neurogenesis and cognitive function is associated with reduced blood flow and decreased numbers of neural stem cells. Therefore, restoring the functionality of the niche should counteract some of the negative effects of aging. We show that factors found in young blood induce vascular remodeling, culminating in increased neurogenesis and improved olfactory discrimination in aging mice. Further, we show that GDF11 alone can improve the cerebral vasculature and enhance neurogenesis. The identification of factors that slow the age-dependent deterioration of the neurogenic niche in mice may constitute the basis for new methods of treating age-related neurodegenerative and neurovascular diseases. PMID:24797482

  11. EEEEK--A Mouse!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IEEE

    2014-05-22

    In this activity, learners explore the concept of how engineering solved the problem of human/computer interface. Learners disassemble a mouse and explore the movement on the X/Y axis that determines mouse positioning. Learners explore design enhancements to the mouse over time, and as a team of "engineers" add further enhancements to current mouse design.

  12. Biogas stripping of ammonia from fresh digestate from a food waste digester.

    PubMed

    Serna-Maza, A; Heaven, S; Banks, C J

    2015-08-01

    The efficiency of ammonia removal from fresh source-segregated domestic food waste digestate using biogas as a stripping agent was studied in batch experiments at 35, 55 and 70°C, at gas flow rates of 0.125 and 0.250Lbiogasmin(-1)L(-1)digestate with and without pH adjustment. Higher temperatures and alkaline conditions were required for effective ammonia removal, and at 35°C with or without pH adjustment or 55°C with unadjusted pH there was little or no removal. Results were compared to those from earlier studies with digestate that had been stored prior to stripping and showed that ammonia removal from fresh digestate was more difficult, with time constants 1.6-5.7 times higher than those previously reported. This has implications for the design of large-scale systems where continuous stripping of fresh digestate is likely to be the normal operating mode. A mass balance approach showed that thermal-alkaline stripping improved hydrolysis. PMID:25930942

  13. Economic evaluation of a swine farm covered anaerobic lagoon digester

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    It is helpful to evaluate anaerobic digestion technologies using objective economic criteria. Options can then be ranked in terms of their relative cost effectiveness, leading to rational deployment decisions. This study presents the results of a hypothetical pro forma economic evaluation of one type of digestion system that could commonly be found on many swine farms; a covered anaerobic lagoon. The digester was assumed to be located in North Carolina, a major swine-producing state. Electricity generation with waste heat recovery was assumed to be the major end-use application of biogas manufactured from this process.

  14. Spread of Oropouche Virus into the Central Nervous System in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Rodrigo I.; Bueno-Júnior, Lézio S.; Ruggiero, Rafael N.; Almeida, Mariana F.; Silva, Maria L.; Paula, Flávia E.; Correa, Vani M. A.; Arruda, Eurico

    2014-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV) is an important cause of arboviral illness in Brazil and other Latin American countries, with most cases clinically manifested as acute febrile illness referred to as Oropouche fever, including myalgia, headache, arthralgia and malaise. However, OROV can also affect the central nervous system (CNS) with clinical neurological implications. Little is known regarding OROV pathogenesis, especially how OROV gains access to the CNS. In the present study, neonatal BALB/c mice were inoculated with OROV by the subcutaneous route and the progression of OROV spread into the CNS was evaluated. Immunohistochemistry revealed that OROV infection advances from posterior parts of the brain, including the periaqueductal gray, toward the forebrain. In the early phases of the infection OROV gains access to neural routes, reaching the spinal cord and ascending to the brain through brainstem regions, with little inflammation. Later, as infection progresses, OROV crosses the blood-brain barrier, resulting in more intense spread into the brain parenchyma, with more severe manifestations of encephalitis. PMID:25310583

  15. Fisetin exerts antihyperalgesic effect in a mouse model of neuropathic pain: engagement of spinal serotonergic system

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Chuang; Cui, Wu-Geng; Ma, Qing; Zhou, Wen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Fisetin, a natural flavonoid, has been shown in our previous studies to exert antidepressant-like effect. As antidepressant drugs are clinically used to treat chronic neuropathic pain, this work aimed to investigate the potential antinociceptive efficacies of fisetin against neuropathic pain and explore mechanism(s). We subjected mice to chronic constriction injury (CCI) by loosely ligating the sciatic nerves, and Hargreaves test or von Frey test was used to assess thermal hyperalgesia or mechanical allodynia, respectively. Chronic fisetin treatment (5, 15 or 45?mg/kg, p.o.) ameliorated thermal hyperalgesia (but not mechanical allodynia) in CCI mice, concomitant with escalated levels of spinal monoamines and suppressed monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A activity. The antihyperalgesic action of fisetin was abolished by chemical depletion of spinal serotonin (5-HT) but potentiated by co-treatment with 5-HTP, a precursor of 5-HT. Moreover, intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intrathecal (i.t.) co-treatment with 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-258719 completely abrogated fisetin's antihyperalgesia. These findings confirm that chronic fisetin treatment exerts antinociceptive effect on thermal hyperalgesia in neuropathic mice, with spinal serotonergic system (coupled with 5-HT7) being critically involved. Of special benefit, fisetin attenuated co-morbidly behavioral symptoms of depression and anxiety (evaluated in forced swim test, novelty suppressed feeding test and light-dark test) evoked by neuropathic pain. PMID:25761874

  16. SOD1 deficiency induces the systemic hyperoxidation of peroxiredoxin in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Homma, Takujiro; Okano, Satoshi; Lee, Jaeyong; Ito, Junitsu; Otsuki, Noriyuki; Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Kang, Eun Sil; Nakajima, Osamu; Fujii, Junichi

    2015-08-01

    A deficiency of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) or peroxiredoxin (Prx) 2 causes anemia in mice due to elevated oxidative stress. In the current study, we investigated whether intrinsic oxidative stress caused by a SOD1 deficiency affected the redox status of Prx2 and other isoforms in red blood cells (RBCs) and several organs of mice. We observed a marked elevation in hyperoxidized Prx2 levels in RBCs from SOD1-deficient mice. Hyperoxidized Prx2 reportedly undergoes a rhythmic change in isolated RBCs under culture conditions. We confirmed such changes in RBCs from wild-type mice but observed no evident changes in SOD1-deficient RBCs. In addition, an elevation in hyperoxidized Prxs, notably Prx2 and Prx3, was observed in several organs from SOD1-deficient mice. However, a SOD1 deficiency had no impact on the wheel-running activity of the mice. Thus, although the redox status of some Prxs is systemically shifted to a more oxidized state as the result of a SOD1 deficiency, which is associated with anemia and some diseases, a redox imbalance appears to have no detectable effect on the circadian activity of mice. PMID:26079888

  17. Complementarity of variable-magnification and spectral-separation fluorescence imaging systems for noninvasive detection of metastasis and intravital detection of single cancer cells in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Ma, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-02-01

    Imaging of tumor growth, progression and metastasis with fluorescent proteins in mouse models is a powerful technology. A limit to fluorescent-protein imaging has been for non-invasive deep-seated tumors, such as those in the lung. In the present study, the Maestro spectral-separation fluorescence imaging system and the OV100 variable-magnification imaging system were compared for noninvasive detection of metastasis in fluorescent protein-expressing orthotopic lung, liver, pancreas, and colon cancer in nude mouse tumor models, as well as for intravital single-cell imaging. Sensitivity, multispectral capability, contrast, and single cell resolution were investigated. The Maestro system outperformed the OV100 for noninvasive imaging of primary and metastatic tumors. The Maestro system detected brain tumor metastasis five days earlier than did the OV100. The Maestro had greater depth of detection compared with the OV100. By separating skin and food autofluorescence, the Maestro provided high-contrast images. The Maestro system was able to produce composite images with more unmixed components and detected more different color signals simultaneously than did the OV100. However, the OV100 system had higher resolution and was able to detect single cells in vivo unlike the Maestro. The present study demonstrates that the two instruments are complementary for imaging of all stages of cancer in mice, including single-cell trafficking and the superiority of in vivo fluorescent-protein imaging over luciferase imaging. PMID:25667443

  18. Global Education Digest 2007

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    The UNESCO Institute for Statistics publishes numerous technical guides and strategy papers every year, and this particular document is both timely and important. The Global Education Digest 2007 offers a comparative look at education statistics and spending across the world, and there are a number of findings that are particularly revealing within its pages. One such finding is that governments in sub-Saharan African spend only 2.4% of the world's public education resources, yet about 15% of the school-age population lives in these countries. Readers can compare education statistics from over 200 countries, and the report also contains a number of useful appendices with additional data.

  19. [Increase in the number of the B-chromosomes and variants of their system in mouse Apodemus peninsulae in Mountain Altai population over 26 years].

    PubMed

    Borisov, Iu M

    2008-09-01

    A new evolutionary genetic phenomenon - increase in the number of B-chromosomes (almost threefold) accompanied by change in B chromosome morphotypes - was discovered in the Artybash population of East Asian mouse Apodemus peninsulae (Mountain Altai) over a historically short period (22 years), comparable with a small number of mouse generations (ten generations). The process of increase in the number of A. peninsulae B-chromosomes in Mountain Altai has been monitored over 26 years (1980, 1986, 1988, 1990, 2002, and 2006). A concept of a new type of genomic mutations - mutations in the number of B-chromosomes-has been substantiated. The phenomenon of genomic mutations in pro-B-chromosomes has been discovered only in the Mountain Altai populations. This region differs from the remaining A. peninsulae dwelling localities by pollution with unspent liquid propellant (UDMH, heptyl). It is assumed that the variants of mouse B chromosome system in the studied A. peninsulae populations in the overall habitation area over long-term periods are likely to remain relatively stable and that their variation is controlled by homeostatic processes. Disturbance of these processes, in particular, due to anthropogenic load, can disrupt the cyclic pattern of increase and decrease in the number of A. peninsulae B-chromosomes in individual years. PMID:18846820

  20. Systems toxicology approaches enable mechanistic comparison of spontaneous and cigarette smoke-related lung tumor development in the A/J mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yang; Iskandar, Anita; Sewer, Alain; Martin, Florian; Talikka, Marja; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Berges, An; Veljkovic, Emilija; Gonzalez-Suarez, Ignacio; Schlage, Walter; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The A/J mouse is highly susceptible to lung tumor induction and has been widely used as a screening model in carcinogenicity testing and chemoprevention studies. However, the A/J mouse model has several disadvantages. Most notably, it develops lung tumors spontaneously. Moreover, there is a considerable gap in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of pulmonary chemical carcinogenesis in the A/J mouse. Therefore, we examined the differences between spontaneous and cigarette smoke-related lung tumors in the A/J mouse model using mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) profiling. Male A/J mice were exposed whole-body to mainstream cigarette smoke (MS) for 18 months. Gene expression interaction term analysis of lung tumors and surrounding non-tumorous parenchyma samples from animals that were exposed to either 300 mg/m3 MS or sham-exposed to fresh air indicated significant differential expression of 296 genes. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis® (IPA®) indicated an overall suppression of the humoral immune response, which was accompanied by a disruption of sphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism and a deregulation of potentially oncogenic miRNA in tumors of MS-exposed A/J mice. Thus, we propose that MS exposure leads to severe perturbations in pathways essential for tumor recognition by the immune system, thereby potentiating the ability of tumor cells to escape from immune surveillance. Further, exposure to MS appeared to affect expression of miRNA, which have previously been implicated in carcinogenesis and are thought to contribute to tumor progression. Finally, we identified a 50-gene expression signature and show its utility in distinguishing between cigarette smoke-related and spontaneous lung tumors.

  1. The Ca 2+ binding protein, frequenin is a nervous system-specific protein in mouse preferentially localized in neurites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petur Olafsson; Holly D Soares; Karl-Heinz Herzog; Ti Wang; James I Morgan; Bai Lu

    1997-01-01

    Frequenin is a Ca2+-binding protein that has been implicated in the regulation of neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction [15, 16]. However, its cellular and subcellular localization in brain have not been determined. Therefore, we cloned mouse frequenin (Mfreq) and investigated its expression both in vivo and in vitro. The amino acid sequence of Mfreq is homologous to that of

  2. Gene expression in the digestive tissues of ruminants and their relationships with feeding and digestive processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract has multiple functions including digestion, nutrient absorption, secretion of hormones, and excretion of wastes. In the ruminant animal, development of this organ system is more complex than that of the monogastric animal due to the necessity to establish a fully func...

  3. Gene expression in the digestive tissues of ruminants and their relationships with feeding and digestive processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has multiple functions including digestion, nutrient absorption, secretion of hormones, and excretion of wastes. In the ruminant animal, development of this organ system is more complex than that of the monogastric animal due to the necessity to establish a fully fun...

  4. Mercury recovery results of microwave digested tritium facility pump oil

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, M.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Clymire, J.W.

    1997-09-30

    This report is a follow up of work done earlier this year and recorded in document WSRC-RP-97-322. The scope of this document is to demonstrated the viability of digesting two non-radioactive Tritium facility pump oils, Welch Duoseal and Spindura, neat and spiked with low-level mercury to determine completeness of digestion and recoverability of mercury. As noted in document WSRC-RP-97-322 a microwave digestion methodology was developed with CEM`s ultimate digestion vessel system (UDV) and is the technique used for the follow up task of digesting the above mention pump oils for the preparatory step of cold-vapor mercury analysis.All analytical development for this project was performed at TNX. The determination of the mercury concentration in each digested sample was by cold vapor atomic absorption. The instrument used was a Varian SpectrAA 800 with a vapor generation attachment. This flameless AA procedure is a physical method based on the absorption of radiation at 253.7 nm of mercury vapor. Organo-mercury compounds will not respond to the cold vapor atomic absorption technique, therefore, to acquire a total mercury value it is necessary for a complete digestion to oxidize and convert the organo-mercury species to the mercuric ion.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of livestock manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1995-08-01

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry creates new opportunities for proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products, including a renewable fuel. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, based on estimates of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return are developed from the evaluations. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes}, are provided as a reality check.

  6. Novel Insights into Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal Revealed Through Comparative Human and Mouse Systems Biology Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dowell, Karen G.; Simons, Allen K.; Bai, Hao; Kell, Braden; Wang, Zack Z.; Yun, Kyuson; Hibbs, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), characterized by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell lineages, are a powerful model for biomedical research and developmental biology. Human and mouse ESCs share many features, yet have distinctive aspects, including fundamental differences in the signaling pathways and cell cycle controls that support self-renewal. Here, we explore the molecular basis of human ESC self-renewal using Bayesian network machine learning to integrate cell-type-specific, high-throughput data for gene function discovery. We integrated high-throughput ESC data from 83 human studies (~1.8 million data points collected under 1100 conditions) and 62 mouse studies (~2.4 million data points collected under 1085 conditions) into separate human and mouse predictive networks focused on ESC self-renewal to analyze shared and distinct functional relationships among protein-coding gene orthologs. Computational evaluations show that these networks are highly accurate, literature validation confirms their biological relevance, and RT-PCR validation supports our predictions. Our results reflect the importance of key regulatory genes known to be strongly associated with self-renewal and pluripotency in both species (e.g. POU5F1, SOX2, and NANOG), identify metabolic differences between species (e.g. threonine metabolism), clarify differences between human and mouse ESC developmental signaling pathways (e.g. LIF-activated JAK/STAT in mouse; NODAL/ACTIVIN-A-activated FGF in human), and reveal many novel genes and pathways predicted to be functionally associated with self-renewal in each species. These interactive networks are available online at www.StemSight.org for stem cell researchers to develop new hypotheses, discover potential mechanisms involving sparsely annotated genes, and prioritize genes of interest for experimental validation. PMID:24307629

  7. Anaerobic digestion of ozonized biosolids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Weemaes; H Grootaerd; F Simoens; W Verstraete

    2000-01-01

    The effect of an oxidative pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge was investigated. Sewage sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant was partially oxidized by ozone. The pretreatment could alter up to 67% of the organic matter: 29±3% was solubilized, 38±9% was removed. Anaerobic degradability tests indicated that the pretreatment step enhanced the subsequent anaerobic sludge digestion. The

  8. Problems of the Digestive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... I have acid reflux more than twice a week? • What are hemorrhoids? • What causes hemorrhoids? • Can hemorrhoids ... I have acid reflux more than twice a week? If acid reflux occurs more than twice a ...

  9. Role of the Termite Gut Microbiota in Symbiotic Digestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Brune; Moriya Ohkuma

    \\u000a The symbiotic gut microbiota of termites plays important roles in lignocellulose digestion and nitrogen metabolism. Termites\\u000a possess a dual cellulolytic system: in lower termites the cellulases are contributed by both the insect and its gut flagellates,\\u000a whereas in higher termites, host cellulases and hindgut bacteria participate in fiber digestion. Commonly, the microbial feeding\\u000a chain is driven by the primary fermentations

  10. Anaerobic digestion of solid waste: state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    De Baere, L

    2000-01-01

    In order to make a correct assessment of the state-of-the-art of the technology, a study was made on the development of digestion capacity for solid waste in Europe. The study was limited to plants in operation or under construction that were treating at least 10% organic solid waste coming from market waste or municipal solid waste. A total treatment capacity for solid waste organics, excluding the tonnage used for sewage sludge and manures, evolved from 122,000 ton per year in 1990 to 1,037,000 ton available or under construction by the year 2000 in 53 plants across Europe, an increase by 750%. Both mesophilic and thermophilic technologies have been proven, with about 62% of capacity being operated at mesophilic temperatures. Wet and dry digestion are almost evenly split, while a clear choice was made for one-phase systems instead of two-phase systems, which represent only 10.6% of capacity. The capacity provided by co-digestion systems is limited, while there is a rising interest in digestion of mixed household waste. The reliable performance has been demonstrated for all types of anaerobic digestion systems. On the basis of the Dranco technology, a single-phase thermophilic dry digestion process, performances were reached similar to high-rate wastewater digestion. An annual average loading rate of 18.5 kg COD/m3.day, resulting in a biogas production of 9.2 m3/m3 reactor.day was obtained at a full-scale plant. The plant operated at a retention time of 15.3 days. Feedstocks range from clean organic wastes (31% dry matter) to heavily polluted grey waste organics (57% dry matter). Average dry matter concentrations of the digested residue of 41% were obtained. PMID:11382003

  11. Revealing biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion in sludge digesters: detection of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria within full-scale digesters.

    PubMed

    Huber, B; Drewes, J E; Lin, K C; König, R; Müller, E

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion (BSA) is a costly problem affecting both sewerage infrastructure and sludge handling facilities such as digesters. The aim of this study was to verify BSA in full-scale digesters by identifying the microorganisms involved in the concrete corrosion process, that is, sulfate-reducing (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). To investigate the SRB and SOB communities, digester sludge and biofilm samples were collected. SRB diversity within digester sludge was studied by applying polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) targeting the dsrB-gene (dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit). To reveal SOB diversity, cultivation dependent and independent techniques were applied. The SRB diversity studies revealed different uncultured SRB, confirming SRB activity and H2S production. Comparable DGGE profiles were obtained from the different sludges, demonstrating the presence of similar SRB species. By cultivation, three pure SOB strains from the digester headspace were obtained including Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Thiomonas intermedia and Thiomonas perometabolis. These organisms were also detected with PCR-DGGE in addition to two new SOB: Thiobacillus thioparus and Paracoccus solventivorans. The SRB and SOB responsible for BSA were identified within five different digesters, demonstrating that BSA is a problem occurring not only in sewer systems but also in sludge digesters. In addition, the presence of different SOB species was successfully associated with the progression of microbial corrosion. PMID:25353947

  12. Ultrasensitive and fast bottom-up analysis of femtogram amounts of complex proteome digests**

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Zhao, Yimeng; Yan, Xiaojing; Mou, Si

    2014-01-01

    Femtogram proteomics: We report an ultrasensitive capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry system based on an improved nanospray interface. This system is used for analysis of picogram to femtogram amounts of E. coli digests. Over 100 proteins were identified based on tandem mass spectra from 16 pg digests; over 60 proteins were identified from 400 fg digests based on accurate mass and time tags in 10 min. PMID:24173663

  13. Nanoemulsion delivery systems for oil-soluble vitamins: Influence of carrier oil type on lipid digestion and vitamin D3 bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Bengu; Argin, Sanem; Ozilgen, Mustafa; McClements, David Julian

    2015-11-15

    The influence of carrier oil type on the bioaccessibility of vitamin D3 encapsulated within oil-in-water nanoemulsions prepared using a natural surfactant (quillaja saponin) was studied using a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model: mouth; stomach; small intestine. The rate of free fatty acid release during lipid digestion decreased in the following order: medium chain triglycerides (MCT)>corn oil?fish oil>orange oil>mineral oil. Conversely, the measured bioaccessibility of vitamin D3 decreased in the following order: corn oil?fish oil>orange oil>mineral oil>MCT. These results show that carrier oil type has a considerable impact on lipid digestion and vitamin bioaccessibility, which was attributed to differences in the release of bioactives from lipid droplets, and their solubilization in mixed micelles. Nanoemulsions prepared using long chain triglycerides (corn or fish oil) were most effective at increasing vitamin bioaccessibility. PMID:25977056

  14. Identification of mouse selenomethionine ?, ?-elimination enzyme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomofumi Okuno; Shinji Motobayashi; Hitoshi Ueno; Katsuhiko Nakamuro

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the seleno-l-methionine (l-SeMet) ?,?-elimination enzyme that catalyzes l-SeMet to generate methylselenol (CH3SeH), a notable intermediate for the metabolism of selenium compounds, in mammalian tissues. The enzyme purified from ICR\\u000a mouse liver was separated by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and the specific band was subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion\\u000a followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization-time-of-flight

  15. Bioactivity of ellagic acid-, lutein- or sesamol-enriched meat patties assessed using an in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cell model system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor Daly; Eileen Ryan; S. Aisling Aherne; Michael N. O’Grady; Jenny Hayes; Paul Allen; Joseph P. Kerry; Nora M. O’Brien

    2010-01-01

    Interest exists in the manufacture of functional meat products whereby synthetic antioxidants are replaced with naturally-sourced compounds. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the bioactivity of pork and beef patties containing ellagic acid (600?g\\/g), lutein (200?g\\/g) or sesamol (500?g\\/g). Cooked pork and beef patties were subjected to an in vitro digestion procedure and the resultant micelles were

  16. Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury with impact acceleration in the mouse: Multifocal axonopathy, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the visual system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Leyan; Nguyen, Judy V; Lehar, Mohamed; Menon, Adarsh; Rha, Elizabeth; Arena, John; Ryu, Jiwon; Marsh-Armstrong, Nicholas; Marmarou, Christina R; Koliatsos, Vassilis E

    2014-11-20

    Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is implicated in chronic neurological illness. The development of animal models of repetitive mTBI in mice is essential for exploring mechanisms of these chronic diseases, including genetic vulnerability by using transgenic backgrounds. In this study, the rat model of impact acceleration (IA) was redesigned for the mouse cranium and used in two clinically relevant repetitive mTBI paradigms. We first determined, by using increments of weight dropped from 1m that the 40g weight was most representative of mTBI and was not associated with fractures, brain contusions, anoxic-ischemic injury, mortality, or significant neurological impairments. Quantitative evaluation of traumatic axonal injury (TAI) in the optic nerve/tract, cerebellum and corpus callosum confirmed that weight increase produced a graded injury. We next evaluated two novel repetitive mTBI paradigms (1 time per day or 3 times per day at days 0, 1, 3, and 7) and compared the resulting TAI, neuronal cell death, and neuroinflammation to single hit mTBI at sub-acute (7days) and chronic time points (10weeks) post-injury. Both single and repetitive mTBI caused TAI in the optic nerve/tract, cerebellum, corticospinal tract, lateral lemniscus and corpus callosum. Reactive microglia with phagocytic phenotypes were present at injury sites. Severity of axonal injury corresponded to impact load and frequency in the optic nerve/tract and cerebellum. Both single and repeat injury protocols were associated with retinal ganglion cell loss and optic nerve degeneration; these outcomes correlated with impact load and number/frequency. No phosphorylated tau immunoreactivity was detected in the brains of animals subjected to repetitive mTBI. Our findings establish a new model of repetitive mTBI model featured by TAI in discrete CNS tracts, especially the visual system and cerebellum. Injury in retina and optic nerve provides a sensitive measure of severity of mTBI, thus enabling further studies on mechanisms and experimental therapeutics. Our model can also be useful in exploring mechanisms of chronic neurological disease caused by repetitive mTBI in wild-type and transgenic mice. PMID:25450468

  17. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 28

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (editor); Teeter, Ronald (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)

    1990-01-01

    This is the twenty-eighth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 3 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 20 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, aviation medicine, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, and space medicine.

  18. Centralized Mouse Repositories

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Leah Rae; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K. C. Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T.

    2013-01-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world. PMID:22945696

  19. Autoradiography of benzodiazepine receptor binding in the central nervous system of the normal C57BL6J mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Biscoe, T J; Fry, J P; Rickets, C

    1984-01-01

    [3H]flunitrazepam has been used as a photoaffinity label for the specific, clonazepam-displaceable 1,4-benzodiazepine binding sites in sections of normal C57BL6J mouse brain and spinal cord. Binding was visualized by light microscope autoradiography and quantified by a simple microdensitometric procedure. Specific flunitrazepam binding was seen to be highest in the colliculi, cerebral cortex, hippocampal formation, interpeduncular nucleus, mamillary body, hypothalamus, olfactory tubercle, and in the molecular layer and deep nuclei of the cerebellum. The distribution of specific flunitrazepam binding sites in mouse brain and spinal cord is discussed in terms of the known actions of the benzodiazepines. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PLATE 4 PMID:6086913

  20. CD4 T Cells Contribute to Virus Control and Pathology following Central Nervous System Infection with Neurotropic Mouse Hepatitis Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen A. Stohlman; David R. Hinton; Beatriz Parra; Roscoe Atkinson; Cornelia C. Bergmann

    2008-01-01

    Replication of the neurotropic mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM (JHMV) is controlled primarily by CD8 T-cell effectors utilizing gamma interferon (IFN-) and perforin-mediated cytotoxicity. CD4 T cells provide an auxiliary function(s) for CD8 T-cell survival; however, their direct contribution to control of virus replication and pathology is unclear. To examine a direct role of CD4 T cells in viral clearance

  1. Novel system using microliter order sample volume for measuring arterial radioactivity concentrations in whole blood and plasma for mouse PET dynamic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Seki, Chie; Hashizume, Nobuya; Yamada, Takashi; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Nishimoto, Takahiro; Hatano, Kentaro; Kitamura, Keishi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to develop a new system, named CD-Well, for mouse PET dynamic study. CD-Well allows the determination of time-activity curves (TACs) for arterial whole blood and plasma using 2-3 µL of blood per sample; the minute sample size is ideal for studies in small animals. The system has the following merits: (1) measures volume and radioactivity of whole blood and plasma separately; (2) allows measurements at 10 s intervals to capture initial rapid changes in the TAC; and (3) is compact and easy to handle, minimizes blood loss from sampling, and delay and dispersion of the TAC. CD-Well has 36 U-shaped channels. A drop of blood is sampled into the opening of the channel and stored there. After serial sampling is completed, CD-Well is centrifuged and scanned using a flatbed scanner to define the regions of plasma and blood cells. The length measured is converted to volume because the channels have a precise and uniform cross section. Then, CD-Well is exposed to an imaging plate to measure radioactivity. Finally, radioactivity concentrations are computed. We evaluated the performance of CD-Well in in vitro measurement and in vivo 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and [11C]2-carbomethoxy-3?-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane studies. In in vitro evaluation, per cent differences (mean±SE) from manual measurement were 4.4±3.6% for whole blood and 4.0±3.5% for plasma across the typical range of radioactivity measured in mouse dynamic study. In in vivo studies, reasonable TACs were obtained. The peaks were captured well, and the time courses coincided well with the TAC derived from PET imaging of the heart chamber. The total blood loss was less than 200 µL, which had no physiological effect on the mice. CD-Well demonstrates satisfactory performance, and is useful for mouse PET dynamic study.

  2. [Establishment of mouse ZF-12+/- embryonic stem cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Hua; Fu, Ji-Liang

    2002-10-01

    By using the mouse zinc finger protein gene ZF-12 genomic DNA fragment, pSSC-TV-10.5 was designed and constructed as a replacement vector. Structure of pSSC-TV-10.5 was identified by restrictive digestion analysis and partly sequencing. Then linearized vector was electroporated into ES cells, and transfected cells were screened by G418 and GANC selection. Among 508 G418r/GANCr colonies, 4 were proved to have taken place the homologous recombination of ZF-12 by PCR and southern blotting analysis. This study lays the foundations of preparing mouse models of ZF-12+/- or ZF-12-/-. PMID:12561468

  3. Two-stage anaerobic digestion of energy crops: methane production, nitrogen mineralisation and heavy metal mobilisation.

    PubMed

    Lehtomäki, A; Björnsson, L

    2006-02-01

    Energy crops (willow, sugar beet and grass silage) were digested in pilot scale two-stage anaerobic digesters. The specific methane yields obtained were 0.16, 0.38 and 0.39 m3 kg(-1) added volatile solids (VSadded) for willow, sugar beet and grass, respectively, corresponding to yearly gross energy yields of 15, 53 and 26 megawatt-hours (MWh) per hectare. With grass and sugar beets as substrate, 84-85% of the harvestable methane was obtained within 30 days. In pilot scale two-stage digestion of willow and sugar beet, 56 and 85% of the laboratory scale methane yields were obtained, but digestion of grass in two-stage reactors yielded 5% more methane than digestion in laboratory scale completely mixed low solids systems, possibly due to the pH conditions favourable to hydrolysis in the two-stage system. In digestion of grass and sugar beet the liquid at the end of digestion was rich in ammonium nitrogen, and the nitrogen in the substrate was efficiently mineralised. The results show that heavy metal concentrations are not likely to limit the utilisation of residues from digestion of nonmetal accumulating crops. Efficient mobilisation of heavy metals during the acidic phase of digestion revealed the possibility of removing metals from leachate generated in two-stage anaerobic digestion of phytoextracting crops. PMID:16506517

  4. Improved Design of Anaerobic Digesters for Household Biogas Production in Indonesia: One Cow, One Digester, and One Hour of Cooking per Day

    PubMed Central

    Usack, Joseph G.; Wiratni, Wiratni; Angenent, Largus T.

    2014-01-01

    A government-sponsored initiative in Indonesia to design and implement low-cost anaerobic digestion systems resulted in 21 full-scale systems with the aim to satisfy the cooking fuel demands of rural households owning at least one cow. The full-scale design consisted of a 0.3?m diameter PVC pipe, which was operated as a conventional plug-flow system. The system generated enough methane to power a cooking stove for ?1?h. However, eventual clogging from solids accumulation inside the bioreactor proved to be a major drawback. Here, we improved the digester configuration to remedy clogging while maintaining system performance. Controlled experiments were performed using four 9-L laboratory-scale digesters operated at a temperature of 27 ± 1°C, a volatile solids loading rate of 2.0?g VS·L?1·day?1, and a 21-day hydraulic retention time. Two of the digesters were replicates of the original design (control digesters), while the other two digesters included internal mixing or effluent recycle (experimental digesters). The performance of each digester was compared based on methane yields, VS removal efficiencies, and steady-state solids concentrations during an operating period of 311 days. Statistical analyses revealed that internal mixing and effluent recycling resulted in reduced solids accumulation compared to the controls without diminishing methane yields or solids removal efficiencies. PMID:24715809

  5. Article original Adaptation digestive du lapin

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Article original Adaptation digestive du lapin à la teneur en constituants pariétaux du régime ne diffère pas d'un régime à l'autre, du fait d'une régulation de l'énergie digestible ingérée. L le régime B. lapin / digestion / fibre / adaptation / transit Summary — Digestive adaptation

  6. Chemical Reactor Analysis and Optimal Digestion

    E-print Network

    Jumars, Pete

    J 310 Chemical Reactor Analysis and Optimal Digestion An optimal digestion theory can be readily A . Jumars F oraging and digestion are two stages of a single process that determines an animal's net rate if digestion follows an optimal path constrained by the food items actually ingested . An animal feeding

  7. Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mandu Inyang; Bin Gao; Pratap Pullammanappallil; Wenchuan Ding; Andrew R. Zimmerman

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was anaerobically digested to produce methane. The digested residue and fresh bagasse was pyrolyzed separately into biochar at 600°C in nitrogen environment. The digested bagasse biochar (DBC) and undigested bagasse biochar (BC) were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. Although biochar

  8. Acid digestion demonstration (WeDID)

    SciTech Connect

    Crippen, M.D.

    1993-11-01

    Acid digestion process development began at the Hanford Site in 1972 with a beaker of laboratory acid and progressed through laboratory and pilot-scale development culminating in the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU). The RADTU was operational from 1977 through 1982 and processed over 5,000 kg of synthetic and combustible waste forms from Hanford Site operations. It routinely reacted plastics, wood, paper, cloth, ion-exchange resins, metals, and solvents. Operation of RADTU routinely gave volume reductions of 100:1 for most plastics and other combustibles. The residue was inert and was disposed of both as generated and after application of other immobilization techniques, such as calcination, addition to glass, and cement addition. The system was designed to accommodate offgas surges from highly reactive nitrated organics and successfully demonstrated that capability. The system was designed and operated under very stringent safety standards. The Weapons Destruction Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) program required a technology that could dispose of an assortment of weapon components, such as complex electronics, neutron generators, thermal batteries, plastics, cases, cables, and others. A program objective was to recycle and reuse materials wherever possible, but many unique components would need to be rendered inactive, inert, and suitable for disposal under current environmental laws. Acid digestion technology was a key candidate for treating many of the above components; it provided accepted technology for treatment of chemicals and elements that have posed disposal difficulties designated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  9. Anaerobic digestion of space mission wastes.

    PubMed

    Chynoweth, D P; Owens, J M; Teixeira, A A; Pullammanappallil, P; Luniya, S S

    2006-01-01

    The technical feasibility of applying leachbed high-solids anaerobic digestion for reduction and stabilization of the organic fraction of solid wastes generated during space missions was investigated. This process has the advantages of not requiring oxygen or high temperature and pressure while producing methane, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and compost as valuable products. Anaerobic biochemical methane potential assays run on several waste feedstocks expected during space missions resulted in ultimate methane yields ranging from 0.23 to 0.30 L g-1 VS added. Modifications for operation of a leachbed anaerobic digestion process in space environments were incorporated into a new design, which included; (1) flooded operation to force leachate through densified feedstock beds; and (2) separation of biogas from leachate in a gas collection reservoir. This mode of operation resulted in stable performance with 85% conversion of a typical space solid waste blend, and a methane yield of 0.3 Lg per g VS added after a retention time of 15 days. These results were reproduced in a full-scale prototype system. A detailed analysis of this process was conducted to design the system sized for a space mission with a six-person crew. Anaerobic digestion compared favorably with other technologies for solid waste stabilization. PMID:16784202

  10. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 32

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)

    1992-01-01

    This is the thirty-second issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 34 journal or conference papers published in Russian and of 4 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 18 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, biospherics, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, exobiology, habitability and environmental effects, human performance, hematology, mathematical models, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, operational medicine, and reproductive system.

  11. [Knockdown of Larp4b in Lin(-) cells does not affect the colony forming ability of mouse hematopoietic cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Pang, Ya-Kun; Cheng, Hui; Dong, Fang; Liang, Hao-Yue; Zhang, Ying-Chi; Wang, Xiao-Min; Xu, Jing; Cheng, Tao; Yuan, Wei-Ping

    2013-06-01

    Larp4b is a member of the LARP family, which can interact with RNA and generally stimulate the translation of mRNA. Abnormal expression of Larp4b can be found in leukemia patients in our previous study. This study was purposed to detect the relative expression of Larp4b mRNA in different subpopulations of mouse hematopoietic cells, to construct lentivirus vector containing shLarp4b targeting mouse gene Larp4b and to explore its effects on mouse Lin(-) cells infected with shLarp4b by lentivirus. SF-LV-shLarP4b-EGFP and control vectors were constructed and two-plasmid lentivirus packing system was used to transfect 293T cells. After 48 h and 72 h, lentivirus SF-LV-shLarp4b-EGFP was harvested and was used to infect Lin(-) cells. After 48 h, EGFP(+) cells was sorted by flow cytometry (FCM). Meanwhile, semi-quantitative real time-PCR, AnnexinV-PE/7-AAD staining, PI staining and colony forming cell assay (CFC) were performed to determine the expression of Larp4b and its effect on the proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. The results showed that Larp4b was highly expressed in myeloid cells. SF-LV-shLarp4b-EGFP was successfully constructed according to the restriction endonuclease digestion assay. RT-PCR confirmed that Larp4b was efficiently knockdown in mouse Lin(-) cells. The low expression of Larp4b did not affect the colony forming number, the apoptosis and cell cycle of Lin(-) cells. It is concluded that knockdown of Larp4b in mouse Lin(-) cells do not contribute to the colony forming ability and the growth of Lin(-) cells in vitro. This useful knockdown system will be used to study in vivo Larp4b in future. PMID:23815932

  12. NCI Mouse Repository - Information

    Cancer.gov

    General Information About the NCI Mouse Repository Pricing Ordering Information Ordering Live Mice Ordering Cryoarchived Strains Health Reports Getting Assistance / Reporting a Problem Submitting Strains to the NCI Mouse Repository Material Transfer

  13. Mast-Cell Heterogeneity: Functional Comparison of Purified Mouse Cutaneous and Peritoneal Mast Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan He; Susana Esquenazi-Behar; Nicholas A. Soter; Henry W. Lim

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the functional heterogeneity of mouse mast cells, we extracted and purified cutaneous and peritoneal mast cells from 10- to 18-week-old BALB\\/c mice and compared their responses to secretagogues. Cutaneous mast cells (CMC) were extracted from mouse ears after digestion with hyaluronidase and collagenase in MEM containing 25% fetal calf serum and purified on a discontinuous Percoll gradient. The

  14. Pioglitazone counteracts the tumor necrosis factor-? inhibition of follicle-stimulating hormone-induced follicular development and estradiol production in an in vitro mouse preantral follicle culture system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and is characterized by chronic anovulation. Insulin resistance may be a key component of the pathogenesis of this disorder. Pioglitazone is a thiazolidinedione derivative that acts by improving insulin resistance via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) pathway. Reportedly, pioglitazone improves the anovulation status in patients with PCOS. In the present study, we examined whether pioglitazone directly affects ovarian follicular development and steroidogenesis using in vitro mouse preantral follicle culture system. Methods An isolated individual in vitro mouse preantral follicle culture was used to test the effects of pioglitazone on the follicle development and steroidogenesis. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), which plays a role in insulin resistance, has been reported to inhibit the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced follicular development and steroidogenesis in an in vitro mouse preantral follicle culture system. Therefore, we examined whether pioglitazone counteracts these effects by TNF-?. We assessed the follicle diameter and follicle survival and antral-like cavity formation rates, the 17?-estradiol (E2) levels in the culture medium, and the ovulation rate using the in vitro preantral follicle culture. Results Pioglitazone treatment counteracted the inhibition of TNF-? in FSH-induced follicle development in a dose-dependent manner. Pioglitazone, at a concentration of 5 ?M, which was the minimum effective concentration, significantly counteracted the inhibition of TNF-? in FSH-induced follicle survival (29 versus 56%, P?mouse preantral follicle culture. The results suggest that pioglitazone may directly affect the follicular development and steroidogenesis. PMID:24079935

  15. FastStats: Digestive Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Use Infertility Reproductive Health FastStats Mobile Application Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, ... Digestive and Kidney Diseases American Gastroenterological Association Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, ...

  16. Anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes. An overview of research achievements and perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Mata-Alvarez; S Macé; P Llabrés

    2000-01-01

    The technology of anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes is, in many aspects, mature. Topics such as fundamentals (kinetics, modelling, etc.), process aspects (performance, two- and single-phase systems, wet and dry technologies), digestion enhancement (several pre-treatments), co-digestion with other substrates and its relation to composting technology are examined in this review. Special attention is paid to the advantages of anaerobic

  17. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  18. Predicting struvite formation in digestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Ohlinger; T. M. Young; E. D. Schroeder

    1998-01-01

    The solubility constant for struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) was measured in formation and dissolution equilibrium experiments. The proposed solubility constant (pKSO=13.26) accurately predicted struvite precipitation in sludge handling facilities at the Sacramento Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant, whereas the solubility constant in common use did not. An improved method was developed for predicting struvite precipitation potential in anaerobic digestion and post-digestion processes. Method

  19. Phenotypical Analysis of Atypical PKCs In Vivo Function Display a Compensatory System at Mouse Embryonic Day 7.5

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Sebastian; Braun, Ursula; Roos, Norbert; Li, Shaohua; Lüdtke, Timo H.-W.

    2013-01-01

    Background The atypical protein kinases C (PKC) isoforms ?/? and ? play crucial roles in many cellular processes including development, cell proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. Possible redundancy between the two isoforms has always been an issue since most biochemical tools do not differentiate between the two proteins. Thus, much effort has been made during the last decades to characterize the functions of aPKCs using gene targeting approaches and depletion studies. However, little is known about the specific roles of each isoform in mouse development. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate the importance of PKC? in mouse development we designed PKC? deletion mutants using the gene targeting approach. We show that the deletion of PKC?, results in a reduced size of the amniotic cavity at E7.5 and impaired growth of the embryo at E8.5 with subsequent absorption of the embryo. Our data also indicate an impaired localization of ZO-1 and disorganized structure of the epithelial tissue in the embryo. Importantly, using electron microscopy, embryoid body formation and immunofluorescence analysis, we found, that in the absence of PKC?, tight junctions and apico-basal polarity were still established. Finally, our study points to a non-redundant PKC? function at E9.5, since expression of PKC? is able to rescue the E7.5 phenotype, but could not prevent embryonic lethality at a later time-point (E9.5). Conclusion Our data show that PKC? is crucial for mouse embryogenesis but is dispensable for the establishment of polarity and tight junction formation. We present a compensatory function of PKC? at E7.5, rescuing the phenotype. Furthermore, this study indicates at least one specific, yet unknown, PKC? function that cannot be compensated by the overexpression of PKC? at E9.5. PMID:23690951

  20. Localisation and activation of the neurokinin 1 receptor in the enteric nervous system of the mouse distal colon.

    PubMed

    Pelayo, Juan-Carlos; Veldhuis, Nicholas A; Eriksson, Emily M; Bunnett, Nigel W; Poole, Daniel P

    2014-05-01

    The substance P neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) regulates motility, secretion, inflammation and pain in the intestine. The distribution of the NK1R is a key determinant of the functional effects of substance P in the gut. Information regarding the distribution of NK1R in subtypes of mouse enteric neurons is lacking and is the focus of the present study. NK1R immunoreactivity (NK1R-IR) is examined in whole-mount preparations of the mouse distal colon by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. The distribution of NK1R-IR within key functional neuronal subclasses was determined by using established neurochemical markers. NK1R-IR was expressed by a subpopulation of myenteric and submucosal neurons; it was mainly detected in large multipolar myenteric neurons and was colocalized with calcitonin gene-related peptide, neurofilament M, choline acetyltransferase and calretinin. The remaining NK1R-immunoreactive neurons were positive for nitric oxide synthase. NK1R was expressed by most of the submucosal neurons and was exclusively co-expressed with vasoactive intestinal peptide, with no overlap with choline acetyltransferase. Treatment with substance P resulted in the concentration-dependent internalisation of NK1R from the cell surface into endosome-like structures. Myenteric NK1R was mainly expressed by intrinsic primary afferent neurons, with minor expression by descending interneurons and inhibitory motor neurons. Submucosal NK1R was restricted to non-cholinergic secretomotor neurons. These findings highlight key differences in the neuronal distribution of NK1R-IR between the mouse, rat and guinea-pig, with important implications for the functional role of NK1R in regulating intestinal motility and secretion. PMID:24728885

  1. Insights into digestion and absorption of major nutrients in humans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara E. Goodman (Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota Basic Biomedical Sciences)

    2010-06-01

    Nutrient digestion and absorption is necessary for the survival of living organisms and has evolved into the complex and specific task of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. While most people simply assume that their GI tract will work properly to use nutrients, provide energy, and release wastes, few non-scientists know the details about how various nutrients are digested and how the breakdown products traverse the cells lining the small intestine to reach the blood stream and to be used by the other cells of the body. There have been several recent discoveries of new transporters that likely contribute to the absorption of oligopeptides and fatty acids. In addition, details are being clarified about how transporters work and in what forms nutrients can be absorbed. The enzymes that digest basic carbohydrates, proteins, and fats have been identified in various segments of the GI tract, and details are becoming clearer about what types of bonds they hydrolyze. Usually, detailed information about the digestion of basic nutrients is presented and learned in biochemistry courses and detailed information about absorption via transepithelial transport of the breakdown products of digestion is studied in physiology courses. The goal of this Staying Current article is to combine the details of the biochemistry of digestion with the updated information about the physiology of nutrient absorption into one source for teachers of physiology. Insights are included about some of the diseases and conditions that can bring about malabsorption of food in the GI tract and their consequences.

  2. Iran Weekly Press Digest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Iran Weekly Press Digest, a weekly review of the Iranian press in English, contains a number of articles on the summit of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference and its significance for Iran in its archived and current issues. The eighth summit of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference was recently held in Tehran, Iran. Iran recently hosted representatives from 55 countries to a three-day Muslim summit in Tehran in a move which is being seen as a new phase in the country's re-emergence after years of relative isolation. The acceptance of Iran's invitations by senior figures from former enemies such as Saudi Arabia and Iraq has been portrayed by Iranian leaders and many others as a strong setback for US attempts to politically quarantine that country. Representatives considered 142 resolutions prepared by foreign ministers on issues including Middle East peace, regional conflicts, terrorism and human rights. However, perhaps the most significant outcome of the summit has been a reintroduction of Iran into the Muslim community of nations. Capitalizing on current anti-American sentiments and the recent election of a relatively moderate president, Iran hopes to rebuild its relationships with its neighbors and once again become a regional leader, a position it held for approximately 3000 years.

  3. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure and steam-exploded Salix with recirculation of liquid digestate.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Maria M; Sapci, Zehra; Linjordet, Roar; Schnürer, Anna; Morken, John

    2014-04-01

    The effects of recirculating the liquid fraction of the digestate during mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of steam-exploded Salix and cow manure were investigated in laboratory-scale continuously stirred tank reactors. An average organic loading rate of 2.6 g VS L(-1) d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days were employed. Co-digestion of Salix and manure gave better methane yields than digestion of manure alone. Also, a 16% increase in the methane yield was achieved when digestate was recirculated and used instead of water to dilute the feedstock (1:1 dilution ratio). The reactor in which the larger fraction of digestate was recirculated (1:3 dilution ratio) gave the highest methane yields. Ammonia and volatile fatty acids did not reach inhibitory levels, and some potentially inhibitory compounds released during steam explosion (i.e., furfural and 5-hydroxy methyl furfural) were only detected at trace levels throughout the entire study period. However, accumulation of solids, which was more pronounced in the recycling reactors, led to decreased methane yields in those systems after three HRTs. Refraining from the use of fresh water to dilute biomass with a high-solids content and obtaining a final digestate with increased dry matter content might offer important economic benefits in full-scale processes. To ensure long-term stability in such an approach, it would be necessary to optimize separation of the fraction of digestate to be recirculated and also perform proper monitoring to avoid accumulation of solids. PMID:24534902

  4. Evaluation of co-culture and alternative culture systems for promoting in-vitro development of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Piekos, M W; Frasor, J; Mack, S; Binor, Z; Soltes, B; Molo, M W; Radwanska, E; Rawlins, R G

    1995-06-01

    The goal of this study was to compare mouse embryo development in a defined synthetic medium (human tubal fluid) against the same medium supplemented with a defined synthetic serum (SS), co-culture on human tubal epithelium (TECC), and culture on human fibronectin (FN) with and without SS. After 48 h, TECC, SS and FN + SS cultures demonstrated accelerated development with > 70% achieving > or = 8-cell stage. After 72 h, these culture conditions also significantly increased the proportion of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage but only TECC significantly increased the number of hatching blastocysts. Nuclei of the trophectoderm of unhatched and hatched blastocysts were stained with propidium iodide before fixing and labelling both the trophectoderm and inner cell mass with bisbenzimide. Blastocysts from the TECC contained a significantly higher total cell number (TCN) and trophectoderm and inner cell mass cell numbers than all other groups. These findings indicate equivalent improvements in mouse embryo development to the blastocyst stage in response to TECC, SS and FN and an enhanced number of cells and rate of hatching found only with TECC. PMID:7593521

  5. Xenograft and genetically engineered mouse model systems of osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma: tumor models for cancer drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Valerie B; Kamara, Davida F; Kolb, E Anders

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There are > 75 histological types of solid tumors that are classified into two major groups: bone and soft-tissue sarcomas. These diseases are more prevalent in children, and pediatric sarcomas tend to be highly aggressive and rapidly progressive. Sarcomas in adults may follow a more indolent course, but aggressive tumors are also common. Sarcomas that are metastatic at diagnosis, or recurrent following therapy, remain refractory to current treatment options with dismal overall survival rates. A major focus of clinical trials, for patients with sarcoma, is to identify novel and more effective therapeutic strategies targeted to genomic or proteomic aberrations specific to the malignant cells. Critical to the understanding of the potential for targeted therapies are models of disease that are representative of clinical disease and predictive of relevant clinical responses. Areas covered In this article, the authors discuss the use of mouse xenograft models and genetically engineered mice in cancer drug discovery. The authors provide a special focus on models for the two most common bone sarcomas: osteosarcoma (OS) and Ewing's sarcoma (ES). Expert opinion Predicting whether a new anticancer agent will have a positive therapeutic index in patients with OS and ES remains a challenge. The use of mouse sarcoma models for understanding the mechanisms involved in the response of tumors to new treatments is an important step in the process of drug discovery and the development of clinically relevant therapeutic strategies for these diseases. PMID:23844615

  6. Characterization of blood flow in the mouse dorsal spinal venous system before and after dorsal spinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Matthew J; Rubin, Jonathan D; Diago, Darcy M; Schaffer, Chris B

    2015-04-01

    The availability of transgenic strains has made the laboratory mouse a popular model for the study of healthy and diseased state spinal cord (SC). Essential to identifying physiologic and pathologic events is an understanding of the microvascular network and flow patterns of the SC. Using 2-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF) microscopy we performed in vivo measurements of blood flow in the lower thoracic portion of the mouse dorsal spinal vein (dSV) and in the first upstream branches supplying it, denoted as dorsal ascending venules (dAVs). We found that the dSV had large radiculomedullary veins (RMVs) exiting the SC, and that flow in the dSV between pairs of RMVs was bidirectional. Volumetric flow increased in each direction away from the point of bifurcation. Flow in the upstream dAVs varied with diameter in a manner consistent with a constant distal pressure source. By performing ex vivo 2PEF microscopy of fluorescent-gel perfused tissue, we created a 3-D map of the dorsal spinal vasculature. From these data, we constructed a simple model that predicted changes in the flow of upstream branches after occlusion of the dSV in different locations. Using an atraumatic model of dSV occlusion, we confirmed the predictions of this model in vivo. PMID:25564237

  7. Transdifferentiation of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells into acinar cells of the submandibular gland using a co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jingu; Park, Sangkyu; Roh, Sangho

    2015-05-15

    A loss of salivary gland function often occurs after radiation therapy in head and neck tumors, though secretion of saliva by the salivary glands is essential for the health and maintenance of the oral environment. Transplantation of salivary acinar cells (ACs), in part, may overcome the side effects of therapy. Here we directly differentiated mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) into ACs using a co-culture system. Multipotent ADSCs can be easily collected from stromal vascular fractions of adipose tissues. The isolated ADSCs showed positive expression of markers such as integrin beta-1 (CD29), cell surface glycoprotein (CD44), endoglin (CD105), and Nanog. The cells were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neural-like cells after 14days in culture. ADSCs at passage 2 were co-cultured with mouse ACs in AC culture medium using the double-chamber (co-culture system) to avoid mixing the cell types. The ADSCs in this co-culture system expressed markers of ACs, such as ?-amylases and aquaporin5, in both mRNA and protein. ADSCs cultured in AC-conditioned medium also expressed AC markers. Cellular proliferation and senescence analyses demonstrated that cells in the co-culture group showed lower senescence and a higher proliferation rate than the AC-conditioned medium group at Days 14 and 21. The results above imply direct conversion of ADSCs into ACs under the co-culture system; therefore, ADSCs may be a stem cell source for the therapy for salivary gland damage. PMID:25801455

  8. Animal and industrial waste anaerobic digestion: USA status report

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Pollutants from unmanaged animal and bio-based industrial wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing wastes may contribute to global climate change. One waste management system prevents pollution and converts a disposal problem into a new profit center. Case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel. Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities to properly dispose of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Beyond the farm, extension of the anaerobic digestion process to recover methane has considerable potential for certain classified industries - with a waste stream characterization similar to livestock manures. More than 35 example industries have been identified, and include processors of chemicals, fiber, food, meat, milk, and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries already recover methane for energy. This status report examines some current opportunities for recovering methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes in the US. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned,{close_quotes} are included as a reality check. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some anaerobic digestion projects fail, are provided. The role of management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at facilities willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. Anaerobic digestion can provide monetary benefits and mitigate possible pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality.

  9. Animal and industrial waste anaerobic digestion: USA status report

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Pollutants from unmanaged animal and bio-based industrial wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing wastes may contribute to global climate change. One waste management system prevents pollution and converts a disposal problem into a new profit center. Case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel. Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities to properly dispose of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Beyond the farm, extension of the anaerobic digestion process to recover methane has considerable potential for certain classified industries with a waste steam characterization similar to livestock manures. More than 35 example industries have been identified, and include processors of chemicals, fiber, food, meat, mil, and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries already recover methane for energy. This status report examines some current opportunities for recovering methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes in the U.S. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned,{close_quotes} are included as a reality check. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some anaerobic digestion projects fail, are provided. The role of management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at facilities willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. Anaerobic digestion can provide monetary benefits and mitigate possible pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality.

  10. Silica Triggers Inflammation and Ectopic Lymphoid Neogenesis in the Lungs in Parallel with Accelerated Onset of Systemic Autoimmunity and Glomerulonephritis in the Lupus-Prone NZBWF1 Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Melissa A.; Brandenberger, Christina; Langohr, Ingeborg; Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Harkema, Jack R.; Holian, Andrij; Pestka, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic predisposition and environmental factors influence the development of human autoimmune disease. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica (cSiO2) has been etiologically linked to increased incidence of autoimmunity, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that early repeated short-term cSiO2 exposure will modulate both latency and severity of autoimmunity in the lupus-prone female NZBWF1 mouse. Weekly intranasal exposure to cSiO2 (0.25 and 1.0 mg) for 4 wk beginning at 9 wk of age both reduced latency and increased intensity of glomerulonephritis. cSiO2 elicited robust inflammatory responses in the lungs as evidenced by extensive perivascular and peribronchial lymphoplasmacytic infiltration consisting of IgG-producing plasma cells, and CD45R+ and CD3+ lymphocytes that were highly suggestive of ectopic lymphoid tissue (ELT). In addition, there were elevated concentrations of immunoglobulins and the cytokines MCP-1, TNF-? and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. cSiO2-associated kidney and lung effects paralleled dose-dependent elevations of autoantibodies and proinflammatory cytokines in plasma. Taken together, cSiO2-induced pulmonary inflammation and ectopic lymphoid neogenesis in the NZBWF1 mouse corresponded closely to systemic inflammatory and autoimmune responses as well as the early initiation of pathological outcomes in the kidney. These findings suggest that following airway exposure to crystalline silica, in mice genetically prone to SLE, the lung serves as a platform for triggering systemic autoimmunity and glomerulonephritis. PMID:25978333

  11. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, L. R.; Radtke, M.; Rowe, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The first issue of the bimonthly digest of USSR Space Life Sciences is presented. Abstracts are included for 49 Soviet periodical articles in 19 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology, published in Russian during the first quarter of 1985. Translated introductions and table of contents for nine Russian books on topics related to NASA's life science concerns are presented. Areas covered include: botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cybernetics and biomedical data processing, endocrinology, gastrointestinal system, genetics, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, health and medicine, hematology, immunology, life support systems, man machine systems, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, and space biology. This issue concentrates on aerospace medicine and space biology.

  12. Protein denaturation improves enzymatic digestion efficiency for direct tissue analysis using mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setou, M.; Hayasaka, T.; Shimma, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Matsumoto, M.

    2008-12-01

    Molecular identification using high-sensitivity tandem mass spectrometry is essential for protein analysis on the tissue surface. Here we report an improved digestion protocol for protein identification directly on the tissue surface using mass spectrometry. By denaturation process and the use of detergent-supplemented trypsin solution, we could successfully detect and identify many molecules such as tubulin, neurofilament, and synaptosomal-associated 25 kDa protein directly from a mouse cerebellum section.

  13. Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Christopher, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The digestibility of an aquatic biomass (water hyacinth), a land-based biomass (Coastal Bermuda grass), and a biomass-waste blend (a mixture of hyacinth, grass, MSW, and sludge) under various digestion conditions was studied. Anaerobic digestion of hemicellulose consists of the steps of enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose to glucans, mannans, galactans, xylans, and arabans, and then to simple hexose and pentose sugars; production of C/sub 2/ and higher fatty acids from the simple sugars; conversion of higher fatty acids to acetate; and finally, production of methane and CO/sub 2/ from acetate, and CO/sub 2/ and hydrogen. The conversion of hemicellulose was higher under mesophilic conditions than those of cellulose or protein for all biomass test feeds, probably because the hemicellulose structure was more vulnerable to enzymatic attack than that of the lignocellulosic component. Cellulose conversion efficiencies at the mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures were about the same. However, hemicellulose was converted at a much lower efficiency than cellulose during thermophilic digestion - a situation that was the reverse of that observed at the mesophilic temperature. Cellulose was utilized in preference to hemicellulose during mesophilic digestion of nitrogen-supplemented Bermuda grass. It was speculated that Bermuda grass cellulose was converted at a higher efficiency than hemicellulose in the presence of external nitrogen because the metabolism of the breakdown product (glucose) of cellulose requires the least investment of enzymes and energy.

  14. Microbial community structure and dynamics during co-digestion of whey permeate and cow manure in continuous stirred tank reactor systems.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Live Heldal; Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Linjordet, Roar; Pope, Phillip B; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J

    2014-11-01

    Microbial community profiles in two parallel CSTR biogas reactors fed with whey permeate and cow manure were investigated. The operating conditions for these two reactors were identical, yet only one of them (R1) showed stable performance, whereas the other (R2) showed a decrease in methane production accompanied by accumulation of propionic acid and, later, acetic acid. This gave a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of the microbial communities in two biogas reactors apparently operating close to the edge of stability. The microbial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and the methanogens Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales in both reactors, but with larger fluctuations in R2. Correlation analyses showed that the depletion of propionic acid in R1 and the late increase of acetic acid in R2 was related to several bacterial groups. The biogas production in R1 shows that stable co-digestion of manure and whey can be achieved with reasonable yields. PMID:25222739

  15. Magnetic resonance microscopy of flows and compressions of the circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems in pupae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Kevin J

    2008-01-01

    Circulatory, respiratory, and digestive motions in Manduca sexta pupae were observed using proton-density weighted and fast-imaging with steady-state free procession magnetic resonance microscopy. Proton-density weighted images clearly differentiated pupal air sacs from the hemolymph and organs because, as expected, the air sacs appeared dark in these images. Steady-state free procession imaging allowed real-time monitoring of respiration and circulation, creating movies of hemolymph circulation. Some of the movies show compression and inflation of the air sacs as well as abdominal movements consistent with previously reported ceolopulses. To our knowledge, this is the first magnetic resonance microscopy study of insect circulation and respiration and these preliminary results demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance microscopy for studying in vivo dynamic processes in insects. PMID:20345291

  16. Effects of different dietary conditions on the expression of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like protease genes in the digestive system of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Spit, Jornt; Zels, Sven; Dillen, Senne; Holtof, Michiel; Wynant, Niels; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2014-05-01

    While technological advancements have recently led to a steep increase in genomic and transcriptomic data, and large numbers of protease sequences are being discovered in diverse insect species, little information is available about the expression of digestive enzymes in Orthoptera. Here we describe the identification of Locusta migratoria serine protease transcripts (cDNAs) involved in digestion, which might serve as possible targets for pest control management. A total of 5 putative trypsin and 15 putative chymotrypsin gene sequences were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these are distributed among 3 evolutionary conserved clusters. In addition, we have determined the relative gene expression levels of representative members in the gut under different feeding conditions. This study demonstrated that the transcript levels for all measured serine proteases were strongly reduced after starvation. On the other hand, larvae of L. migratoria displayed compensatory effects to the presence of Soybean Bowman Birk (SBBI) and Soybean Trypsin (SBTI) inhibitors in their diet by differential upregulation of multiple proteases. A rapid initial upregulation was observed for all tested serine protease transcripts, while only for members belonging to class I, the transcript levels remained elevated after prolonged exposure. In full agreement with these results, we also observed an increase in proteolytic activity in midgut secretions of locusts that were accustomed to the presence of protease inhibitors in their diet, while no change in sensitivity to these inhibitors was observed. Taken together, this paper is the first comprehensive study on dietary dependent transcript levels of proteolytic enzymes in Orthoptera. Our data suggest that compensatory response mechanisms to protease inhibitor ingestion may have appeared early in insect evolution. PMID:24650544

  17. Application of low-strength ultrasonication to the continuous anaerobic digestion processes: UASBr and dry digester.

    PubMed

    Cho, Si-Kyung; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Jeong, In-Seok; Shin, Hang-Sik; Oh, Sae-Eun

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the positive effects of low-strength ultrasonication (LS-ultrasonication) on the anaerobic digestion (AD) performance were investigated by continuously operating an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBr) and a dry digester. In the ultrasonicated UASBr system (1 s per min, 0.05 W/mL), ultrasonication enhanced the CH? production by 38% and 19% in an ambient and a mesophilic condition, respectively. In addition, a different sludge yield and a changed electron flow were observed after ultrasonication. In the ultrasonicated dry digestion system (2 s per 30 s, 0.0025 W/mL), a 40% increase in the production of CH? was observed after lowering the total solid content of the reactor from 12% to 10%, implying that a high solid content diminished the ultrasonic stimulation effect. Moreover, the ultrasonication strength itself appeared to be a more crucial factor than the ultrasonication density during the application of LS-ultrasonication in the AD system. PMID:23582223

  18. Cytogenetic analysis of the L5178Y/TK+/- leads to TK-/- mouse lymphoma mutagenesis assay system.

    PubMed

    Hozier, J; Sawyer, J; Moore, M; Howard, B; Clive, D

    1981-11-01

    The L5178Y/TK+/- leads to TK-/- mouse lymphoma mutagen assay, which allows selection of forward mutations at the autosomal thymidine kinase (TK) locus, uses a TK+/- heterozygous cell line, TK+/- 3.7.2C. Quantitation of colonies of mutant TK-/- cells in the assay forms the basis for calculations of mutagenic potential of test compounds. We have evaluated the banded karyotypes of the parent TK+/- heterozygous cell line, as well as homozygous TK-/- mutants, in order to relate the genetic and morphological properties of mutant colonies. The parent cell line displays karyotype homogeneity, all cells containing normal mouse chromosomes, readily identifiable chromosome rearrangements, and cell line specific marker chromosomes. Mutant TK-/- colonies of the TK+/- 3.7.2C cell line form a bimodal frequency distribution of colony sizes for most mutagenic or carcinogenic test substances. Large-colony (lambda) TK-/- mutants with normal growth kinetics appear karyotypically identical within and among clones and with the TK+/- parental cell line. In contrast, most slow-growing small-colony (sigma) TK-/- mutants have readily recognizable chromosome rearrangements involving chromosome 11, which contains the thymidine kinase gene locus. It is possible that the heritable differences in growth kinetics and resultant colony morphology in lambda and sigma mutants are related to the type of chromosomal damage sustained. Large-colony mutants receive minimal damage, possibly in the form of point mutations at the TK locus, while small-colony mutants receive damage to other genetic functions coordinately with loss of TK activity, implying gross insult to chromosomal material. It seems likely that lambda and sigma mutants result from 2 different mutational mechanisms that may be distinguished on the basis of mutant colony morphology. PMID:7329431

  19. Mapping of the mouse X chromosome using random genomic probes and an interspecific mouse cross.

    PubMed Central

    Amar, L C; Arnaud, D; Cambrou, J; Guenet, J L; Avner, P R

    1985-01-01

    Two libraries enriched in murine X chromosome material have been constructed in the lambda vector NM 1149 from flow-sorted chromosomes. Inserts of unique genomic sequence DNA were purified and their X chromosome specificity characterised by hybridisation to a panel of somatic cell hybrid lines. Of the first five such X chromosome-specific probes characterised, all detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) between inbred mouse laboratory strains such as C57BL/6 and BALB/c and the SPE/Pas mouse strain established from a wild Mus spretus mouse, when their DNAs are digested with the restriction enzyme TaqI. Taking advantage of these RFLPs, all five probes have been localised on the X chromosome using an interspecific backcross between the B6CBARI and SPE/Pas mouse strains segregating the X chromosome markers hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) and Tabby (Ta). Three of the probes map to the region between the centromere and Hprt, and two distal to Ta. Since such X-specific sequence probes detect RFLPs between M. spretus and M. musculus domesticus DNAs with high frequency, a large panel of well localised probes should soon be available for studies of biological problems associated with the X chromosome which can best be approached using the murine species. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3004966

  20. Juegos de videos: Investigacion, puntajes y recomendaciones (Video Games: Research, Ratings and Recommendations). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This Spanish-language digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders…

  1. Growth, nutrient utilization, and digestibility of soy products by Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apparent nutrient digestibilities of 3 plant-based alternative proteins were determined during an 8 week digestibility study of juvenile pompano. Two 4X4 Latin square experiments were conducted within four 60L tanks on two separate recirculating systems. For both experiments, a menhaden meal-...

  2. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF MESOPHILIC AND THERMOPHILIC DIGESTION - PHASE II. STEADY STATE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study of the relative performance of anaerobic digestion systems under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions was conducted. Fifty liter laboratory scale digesters were fed primary sludge from the Allentown, PA Waste Water Treatment Plant. Long-term, steady-state performance da...

  3. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF MESOPHILIC AND THERMOPHILIC ANAEROBIC DIGESTION. PHASE 2. STEADY STATE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted of the relative performance of anaerobic digestion systems under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Fifty liter laboratory scale digesters were fed primary sludge from the Allentown, PA Waste Water Treatment Plant. Long-term, steady-state performance da...

  4. Occurrence of Digestive Cysteine Proteases in Perillus bioculatus, a Natural Predator of the Colorado Potato Beetle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Overney; Serge Yelle; Conrad Cloutier

    1998-01-01

    Oryzacystatins (OCs) are protease inhibitors (PIs) that inhibit Colorado potato beetle (CPB) digestive proteases, and transgenic potato plants containing these PIs are currently under test. However, OCs could interfere with the digestive system of beneficial insects. Protease activity and susceptibility to class-specific protease inhibitors were studied in protein extracts of Perillus bioculatus, a stinkbug predator that has shown potential for

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production in Small-scale Household Digesters in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Vu, T. K. V.; Vu, D. Q.; Jensen, L. S.; Sommer, S. G.; Bruun, S.

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where there is an excess of biogas which is intentionally released. A sensitivity analysis showed that biogas digesters could be a means of reducing global warming if methane emissions can be kept low. In terms of eutrophication, farms with biogas digesters had 3 to 4 times greater impacts. In order to make biogas digesters sustainable, methods for recycling digestates are urgently required. PMID:25715690

  6. In vitro digestibility of the cancer-preventive soy peptides lunasin and BBI.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Ho; Jeong, Hyung Jin; Lumen, Ben O de

    2007-12-26

    Lunasin and BBI (Bowman Birk protease inhibitor) are bioactive soy peptides that have been shown to be effective suppressors of carcinogenesis in in vitro and in vivo model systems. Since they are subject to digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, we investigated here the stabilities of lunasin and BBI to digestion in vitro by simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) and simulated gastric fluid (SGF). Samples containing lunasin and BBI of varying purities were subjected to in vitro digestion by SIF and SGF at different times and analyzed by Western blot. While the pure BBI reaction is stable after SIF and SGF digestions, the purified lunasin from soybean and synthetic lunasin are easily digested after 2 min in both in vitro digestions. In contrast, lunasin from soy protein containing BBI is comparatively stable after SIF and SGF digestions. Both lunasin and BBI are able to internalize into the cell and localize in the nucleus even after digestion, suggesting that some of the peptides are intact and bioactive. These data suggest that BBI plays a role in protecting lunasin from digestion when soy protein is consumed orally. The role of other soy protease inhibitors such as Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor (KTI) cannot be excluded from these experiments. PMID:18038984

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production in Small-scale Household Digesters in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu, T K V; Vu, D Q; Jensen, L S; Sommer, S G; Bruun, S

    2015-05-01

    Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where there is an excess of biogas which is intentionally released. A sensitivity analysis showed that biogas digesters could be a means of reducing global warming if methane emissions can be kept low. In terms of eutrophication, farms with biogas digesters had 3 to 4 times greater impacts. In order to make biogas digesters sustainable, methods for recycling digestates are urgently required. PMID:25715690

  8. Multiple Levels of Synergistic Collaboration in Termite Lignocellulose Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Michael E.; Karl, Zachary J.; Sethi, Amit; Boucias, Drion G.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to evolving eusocial lifestyles, two equally fascinating aspects of termite biology are their mutualistic relationships with gut symbionts and their use of lignocellulose as a primary nutrition source. Termites are also considered excellent model systems for studying the production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from 2nd generation (non-food) feedstocks. While the idea that gut symbionts are the sole contributors to termite lignocellulose digestion has remained popular and compelling, in recent years host contributions to the digestion process have become increasingly apparent. However, the degree to which host and symbiont, and host enzymes, collaborate in lignocellulose digestion remain poorly understood. Also, how digestive enzymes specifically collaborate (i.e., in additive or synergistic ways) is largely unknown. In the present study we undertook translational-genomic studies to gain unprecedented insights into digestion by the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes and its symbiotic gut flora. We used a combination of native gut tissue preparations and recombinant enzymes derived from the host gut transcriptome to identify synergistic collaborations between host and symbiont, and also among enzymes produced exclusively by the host termite. Our findings provide important new evidence of synergistic collaboration among enzymes in the release of fermentable monosaccharides from wood lignocellulose. These monosaccharides (glucose and pentoses) are highly relevant to 2nd-generation bioethanol production. We also show that, although significant digestion capabilities occur in host termite tissues, catalytic tradeoffs exist that apparently favor mutualism with symbiotic lignocellulose-digesting microbes. These findings contribute important new insights towards the development of termite-derived biofuel processing biotechnologies and shed new light on selective forces that likely favored symbiosis and, subsequently, group living in primitive termites and their cockroach ancestors. PMID:21747950

  9. Conserved roles of ems/Emx and otd/Otx genes in olfactory and visual system development in Drosophila and mouse.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sonia; Reichert, Heinrich; VijayRaghavan, K

    2013-05-01

    The regional specialization of brain function has been well documented in the mouse and fruitfly. The expression of regulatory factors in specific regions of the brain during development suggests that they function to establish or maintain this specialization. Here, we focus on two such factors-the Drosophila cephalic gap genes empty spiracles (ems) and orthodenticle (otd), and their vertebrate homologues Emx1/2 and Otx1/2-and review novel insight into their multiple crucial roles in the formation of complex sensory systems. While the early requirement of these genes in specification of the neuroectoderm has been discussed previously, here we consider more recent studies that elucidate the later functions of these genes in sensory system formation in vertebrates and invertebrates. These new studies show that the ems and Emx genes in both flies and mice are essential for the development of the peripheral and central neurons of their respective olfactory systems. Moreover, they demonstrate that the otd and Otx genes in both flies and mice are essential for the development of the peripheral and central neurons of their respective visual systems. Based on these recent experimental findings, we discuss the possibility that the olfactory and visual systems of flies and mice share a common evolutionary origin, in that the conserved visual and olfactory circuit elements derive from conserved domains of otd/Otx and ems/Emx action in the urbilaterian ancestor. PMID:23635521

  10. Ozone treatment of biomass to enhance digestibility 

    E-print Network

    Almendarez, Maria Elena

    2000-01-01

    is very resistant to enzymatic degradation. Lignocellulosic materials require pretreatment to enhance their digestibility. The main objective of this research was to further enhance the digestibility of biomass (bagasse) with ozonation as a follow...

  11. DIGESTER GAS - FUEL CELL - PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Dr.-Eng. Dirk Adolph; Dipl.-Eng. Thomas Saure

    2002-03-01

    GEW has been operating the first fuel cell in Europe producing heat and electricity from digester gas in an environmentally friendly way. The first 9,000 hours in operation were successfully concluded in August 2001. The fuel cell powered by digester gas was one of the 25 registered ''Worldwide projects'' which NRW presented at the EXPO 2000. In addition to this, it is a key project of the NRW State Initiative on Future Energies. All of the activities planned for the first year of operation were successfully completed: installing and putting the plant into operation, the transition to permanent operation as well as extended monitoring till May 2001.

  12. Lipid digestion and effects of diets rich in lipids on carbohydrate and nitrogen digestion. A review *

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Lipid digestion and effects of diets rich in lipids on carbohydrate and nitrogen digestion-Genès-Champanelle, France This review deals with ruminal metabolism and intestinal digestion of lipids, and with the conse- quences of lipid supplementation on carbohy- drate and nitrogen digestion. Ruminal hydrolysis of lipids

  13. Weekly Digest Guide The Weekly Digest is YSM's weekly events newsletter, distributed early

    E-print Network

    Lee, Daeyeol

    Weekly Digest Guide The Weekly Digest is YSM's weekly events newsletter, distributed early each Friday morning to 9,000+ email recipients on the Yale campus. The Weekly Digest includes approximately. Timeline The Weekly Digest is published on Fridays for events taking place the following week. Lead time

  14. The md5 message-digest algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rivest

    1970-01-01

    Abstract The MD4 message,digest algorithm,takes an input message,of arbitrary length and produces an output 12%bit “fingerprint” or “message digest”, in such a way,that it is (hopefully) computationally,infeasible to produce,two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any message having a given prespecified target message,digest. The MD4 algorithm,is thus ideal for digital signature applications: a large file can be

  15. The MD4 Message Digest Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L. Rivest

    1990-01-01

    The MD4 message digest algorithm takes an input message of arbitrary length and produces an output 128-bit “fingerprint” or\\u000a “message digest”, in such a way that it is (hopefully) computationally infeasible to produce two messages having the same\\u000a message digest, or to produce any message having a given prespecified target message digest. The MD4 algorithm is thus ideal\\u000a for digital

  16. Anaerobic Co-Digestion on Dairies in Washington State

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    1 Anaerobic Co-Digestion on Dairies in Washington State The solid waste handling permit exemption W This factsheet briefly reviews the role of co-digestion within anaerobic digestion (AD), explains the potential digestion facilities that digest dairy manure have begun to co-digest pre-consumer organic wastes (such

  17. Genomic analysis of mouse tumorigenesis

    E-print Network

    Tam, Mandy Chi-Mun

    2006-01-01

    The availability of the human and mouse genome sequences has spurred a growing interest in analyzing mouse models of human cancer using genomic techniques. Comparative genomic studies on mouse and human tumors can be ...

  18. In Vitro digestibility of selected polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Kunkel; A. Seo

    1994-01-01

    In vitro digestibility of 10 polymers was studied. Only starch, starch blend, gelatin, and silk were more than 10% digested by the enzyme cocktail. Cellophane, polyhydroxy-?-valerate, pullulan, levan, shellac, ethylene vinyl alcohol, and polyethylene were less than 10% digestible. The implications from these data are that these materials would act physiologically as dietary fiber or residue.

  19. Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries

    E-print Network

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries Practical Information and Case Studies Sandec: Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries #12;Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste-3-906484-58-7 Bibliographic reference: Vögeli Y., Lohri C. R., Gallardo A., Diener S., Zurbrügg C. (2014). Anaerobic Digestion

  20. Sequence Assembly Validation by Restriction Digest Fingerprint

    E-print Network

    Rouchka, Eric

    Sequence Assembly Validation by Restriction Digest Fingerprint Comparison Eric C. Rouchka and David examines the use of restriction digest analysis as a method for testing the fidelity of sequence assembly. Restriction digest fingerprint matching is an established technology for high resolution physical map

  1. Molecular Biology Basics Planning Restriction Enzyme Digests

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    Molecular Biology Basics Planning Restriction Enzyme Digests A. Checklist: Buffer type Addition of BSA Optimum temperature Number of units of enzyme B. Plan to digest DNA with an "excess" of enzyme activity. Plan for the "excess" to be divided between time of digestion and number of units of enzyme

  2. Digestive tube of the Artemia naplius

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

    2007-06-19

    Food is moved through the digestive tube by way of contractions in the muscles of the tube lining. The digestive tube leads to the anus. Food is eaten, then digested in the tube, nutrients are absorbed into the body, and wastes are eliminated at the anus.

  3. Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ye Chen; Jay J. Cheng; Kurt S. Creamer

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive waste treatment practice in which both pollution control and energy recovery can be achieved. Many agricultural and industrial wastes are ideal candidates for anaerobic digestion because they contain high levels of easily biodegradable materials. Problems such as low methane yield and process instability are often encountered in anaerobic digestion, preventing this technique from being widely

  4. Anaerobic digestion of olive mill wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hamdi; K. Stamatelatou; M. Kornaros; G. Lyberatos

    1996-01-01

    Anaerobic digestions for the treatment of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) are reviewed. A major limitation of anaerobic digestion of OMW is inhibition of methanogenic bacteria by simple phenolic compounds, certain organic acids and polyphenols. Pretreatment methods that modify or remove these natural inhibitors improve digestion of OMW.

  5. Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Alstrup, L; Weisbjerg, M R; Hymøller, L; Larsen, M K; Lund, P; Nielsen, M O

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine whether the positive response in milk production to increased crude protein (CP) supply in dairy cows was dependent on the digestibility of the forage. Forty-eight lactating Danish Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 4 rations: (1) high digestibility and high CP concentration (HdHp), (2) high digestibility and low CP concentration (HdLp), (3) low digestibility and high CP concentration (LdHp), and (4) low digestibility and low CP concentration (LdLp). All rations contained 30% corn silage, 25% grass-clover silage, and 45% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Different digestibilities were obtained by replacing a high-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a high-digestible corn silage with a low-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a low-digestible corn silage. Organic matter digestibilities were 79.8 and 74.7% in the high- and low-digestibility rations, respectively. Dietary CP concentration in the ration was increased by substituting barley and sugar beet pulp with rapeseed meal and soybean meal, whereby CP increased from 13.9 to 14.0% (Lp) to 15.7 to 16.0% (Hp). All cows were offered 3 kg of the same concentrate per day in the automatic milking system in addition to the mixed ration. Every feeding period lasted 3 wk, and DM intake and milk yield were measured in the last week in each period, and milk samples for determining milk composition, including fatty acid content, and blood samples were taken during the last 3d of each period. Dry matter intake increased by 2.2 kg/d on Hd compared with Ld and by 0.7 kg/d on Hp compared with Lp. The positive effect on DM intake was reflected in the energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, as a higher ration digestibility increased the ECM yield by 1.7 kg/d and a higher CP concentration increased it by 1.2 kg/d. We detected no interaction between forage digestibility and CP concentration on milk production. Reduced digestibility was accompanied by an increase in the plasma level of glucose, suggesting that other nutrients were limiting to milk production. In conclusion, milk production responses to dietary CP supply appeared independent of forage digestibility. PMID:24835962

  6. "In-Gel" Trypsin Digestion Protocol for Proteins in SDS-PAGE Gel Slices ABRF Internal Protein Sequence Research Committee (11/97)

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    98 "In-Gel" Trypsin Digestion Protocol for Proteins in SDS-PAGE Gel Slices ABRF Internal Protein Sequence Research Committee (11/97) Samples to be digested in the gel are run in as few lanes as possible and alkylated prior to electrophoresis. Note that an alternate buffer system is also provided for LysC digestion

  7. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (editor); Donaldson, P. Lynn (editor); Teeter, Ronald (editor); Garshnek, Victoria (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)

    1988-01-01

    This is the 19th issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 47 papers published in Russian language periodicals or presented at conferences and of 5 new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Reports on two conferences, one on adaptation to high altitudes, and one on space and ecology are presented. A book review of a recent work on high altitude physiology is also included. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 33 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, biology, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, man-machine systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

  8. Digestion of Raw and Roasted Almonds in Simulated Gastric Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fanbin

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of digestion kinetics of solid foods in human stomach, as affected by food processing methods, is critical in establishing processing conditions at the manufacturing stage to achieve desirable release of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to investigate how roasting affected disintegration and solid release properties of almond in simulated gastric environment. In vitro trials were performed for raw and roasted almonds by using static soaking method and a model stomach system. The changes in sample weight, dry mass, and moisture during the trials were determined. Both compression and penetration tests were used to investigate the texture of almonds with a focus on the influence of absorption of gastric juice. Light microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy were used to study the change in microstructure of the raw and roasted almonds after simulated digestion. The results suggested that the slow disintegration rate and the high amount of swelling of the almonds in the stomach may contribute to their high satiety property. Roasting significantly improved the disintegration rates of almonds and increased loss of solids during simulated digestion, which is well correlated with the decrease in the rigidity of almond samples after absorbing gastric juice. Microstructure of digested almonds showed breakage and breach of cell walls due to acid hydrolysis. Intercellular and intracellular channels formed in almonds during roasting are important for penetration of gastric juice that may facilitate an effective digestion.

  9. Mouse system-N amino acid transporter, mNAT3, expressed in hepatocytes and regulated by insulin-activated and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Sumin; Langlais, Paul; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Jean X

    2003-01-01

    Amino acid transporters are essential for normal cell function and physiology. In the present study, we report the identification and functional and regulatory characterization of a mouse system-N amino acid transporter, mNAT3. Expression of mNAT3 in Xenopus oocytes revealed that the strongest transport activities were preferred for L-alanine. In addition, mNAT3 is an Na(+)- and pH-dependent low-affinity transporter and it partially tolerates substitution of Na(+) by Li(+). mNAT3 has been found to be expressed predominantly in the liver, where it is localized to the plasma membrane of hepatocytes, with the strongest expression in those cells adjacent to the central vein, decreasing gradually towards the portal tract. Treatment of mouse hepatocyte-like H2.35 cells with insulin led to a significant increase in the expression of mNAT3, and this stimulation was associated closely with an increase in the uptake of L-alanine. Interestingly, this insulin-induced stimulatory effect on mNAT3 expression was attenuated by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, but not by the mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor PD98059, although both kinases were fully activated by insulin. The results suggest that insulin-mediated regulation of mNAT3 is likely to be mediated through a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent signalling pathway. The unique expression pattern and insulin-mediated regulatory properties of mNAT3 suggest that this transporter may play an important role in liver physiology. PMID:12537539

  10. Longitudinal study of differential protein expression in an Alzheimer's mouse model lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Hoos, Michael D; Richardson, Brenna M; Foster, Matthew W; Everhart, Angela; Thompson, J Will; Moseley, M Arthur; Colton, Carol A

    2013-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative process that involves altered brain immune, neuronal and metabolic functions. Understanding the underlying mechanisms has relied on mouse models that mimic components of AD pathology. We used gel-free, label-free LC-MS/MS to quantify protein and phosphopeptide levels in brains of APPSwDI/NOS2-/- (CVN-AD) mice. CVN-AD mice show a full spectrum of AD-like pathology, including amyloid deposition, hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau, and neuronal loss that worsens with age. Tryptic digests, with or without phosphopeptide enrichment on an automated titanium dioxide LC system, were separated by online two-dimensional LC and analyzed on a Waters Synapt G2 HDMS, yielding relative expression for >950 proteins and >1100 phosphopeptides. Among differentially expressed proteins were known markers found in humans with AD, including GFAP and C1Q. Phosphorylation of connexin 43, not previously described in AD, was increased at 42 weeks, consistent with dysregulation of gap junctions and activation of astrocytes. Additional alterations in phosphoproteins suggests dysregulation of mitochondria, synaptic transmission, vesicle trafficking, and innate immune pathways. These data validate the CVN-AD mouse model of AD, identify novel disease and age-related changes in the brain during disease progression, and demonstrate the utility of integrating unbiased and phosphoproteomics for understanding disease processes in AD. PMID:24006891

  11. Authentic Writing Assessment. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Carmen

    Some of the ways authentic writing assessment can be used in education are discussed. Using the Illinois Writing Program (IWP) as an example, this digest also looks at some of the goals, solutions, and experiences of a program that is implementing authentic writing assessment. New directions in authentic assessment are aimed at going beyond…

  12. "Children's Digest" and Societal Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckart, Karen Sue

    The purpose of this research project was to determine if, like books, the content of children's magazines changes to reflect current societal trends. The study used the method of content analysis and was limited to one children's magazine, "Children's Digest." Certain trends in children's literature were identified through the literature search,…

  13. Tropical Rainforest Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    This digest provides four guideposts for tropical rainforest education: (1) structure; (2) location and climate; (3) importance; and (4) conservation of resources. Research is cited and background information provided about the layers of life and the adaptations of life within the tropical rain forest. Aspects of life within and near rain forests…

  14. Single Sex Education. WEEA Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Diane S.

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in educational institutions that receive federal financial assistance. This digest focuses on the theme of single-sex education. Articles featured in this issue include: (1) "Single-Sex Education" (Diane S. Pollard); (2) "A Legal Framework for Single-Sex…

  15. Digest of 310 Evaluation Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education, Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    This digest of 310 Project evaluation methods is intended to provide examples of and guidelines for evaluating 310 projects at the national, state, and project levels. The first section, which is devoted to state-level 310 evaluation projects, includes a report on a longitudinal study assessing the impact of 310 projects in Florida, a report…

  16. FEU Technology Digest No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This digest contains four articles about technology and education in Britain. "The Development of an 'Additional Skills' Training Programme" (Peter Riley) details the organization and progress of a collaborative effort between Blackpool Processing Company and Flyde College's Additional Skills training program, a solution to achieving the flexible…

  17. Software Copyright Interpretation. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, LeRoy

    1985-01-01

    This digest presents a reprint of an article which addresses the issue of the rights of computer software owners to duplicate materials. A conservative approach to software copyright is taken which looks to how the law will likely be interpreted, rather than waiting for the definitive decision by a court. Three major issues involved with software…

  18. Responses of microbial community and acidogenic intermediates to different water regimes in a hybrid solid anaerobic digestion system treating food waste.

    PubMed

    Xu, Suyun; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Karthikeyan, Obuli P; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of different water regimes in an acidogenic leach bed reactor (LBR) during 16-day batch mode food waste digestion. LBRs were operated under five water replacement ratios (WRRs) (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 5% in LBRs R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5, respectively) and methanogenic effluent (ME) addition with two leachate recirculation frequencies (once in 24 h and 12 h in LBRs R6 and R7, respectively). Results showed that 50-100% WRRs accelerated the hydrolysis and acidogenesis with butyrate as the dominant product (?35% of COD); whereas 5-25% WRRs promoted propionate production. The ME recirculation enhanced protein decomposition and reduced ethanol production. Lactobacillus dominated in LBRs with water addition (R1-R5), while Clostridium and hetero-fermenting lactic acid bacteria dominated in LBR with ME addition (R7). The highest volatile solid degradation (82.9%) and methane yield (0.29 L-CH4/g VS) were obtained with ME addition at 0.7 d hydraulic retention time. PMID:24923660

  19. Mouse Proteomic Technologies Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    Mouse models of human cancer offer many opportunities to optimize procedures for profiling major human cancers. The National Cancer Institute's Mouse Proteomic Technologies Initiative, designed to use these animal models to develop and standardize technologies to help improve the accurate measurement of proteins and peptides linked to cancer processes.

  20. Restriction Endonuclease Studies of Hyperplastic Outgrowth Lines from BALB\\/cfCSH Mouse Hyperplastic Mammary Nodules1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Cardiff; Thomas G. Fanning; David W. Morris; Rhoda L. Ashley; Leslie J. Faulkin

    1981-01-01

    The DNA's isolated from five mouse hyperplastic mammary gland outgrowth lines from BALB\\/cfC3H mice were digested with the restriction endonucleases Psil, ßamHI,or EcoRI; elec- trophoresed; and analyzed by Southern blotting and autora- diography. Proviral DMA sequences from the acquired C3H mouse mammary tumor virus were detected in the DNA of all five lines, indicating that they were infected. The DNA

  1. Gill bacteria enable a novel digestive strategy in a wood-feeding mollusk

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Roberta M.; Fung, Jennifer M.; Sharp, Koty H.; Benner, Jack S.; McClung, Colleen; Cushing, Shelley; Lamkin, Elizabeth R.; Fomenkov, Alexey I.; Henrissat, Bernard; Londer, Yuri Y.; Scholz, Matthew B.; Posfai, Janos; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tringe, Susannah G.; Woyke, Tanja; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Altamia, Marvin A.; Dedrick, Sandra; Kaluziak, Stefan T.; Haygood, Margo G.; Distel, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria play many important roles in animal digestive systems, including the provision of enzymes critical to digestion. Typically, complex communities of bacteria reside in the gut lumen in direct contact with the ingested materials they help to digest. Here, we demonstrate a previously undescribed digestive strategy in the wood-eating marine bivalve Bankia setacea, wherein digestive bacteria are housed in a location remote from the gut. These bivalves, commonly known as shipworms, lack a resident microbiota in the gut compartment where wood is digested but harbor endosymbiotic bacteria within specialized cells in their gills. We show that this comparatively simple bacterial community produces wood-degrading enzymes that are selectively translocated from gill to gut. These enzymes, which include just a small subset of the predicted wood-degrading enzymes encoded in the endosymbiont genomes, accumulate in the gut to the near exclusion of other endosymbiont-made proteins. This strategy of remote enzyme production provides the shipworm with a mechanism to capture liberated sugars from wood without competition from an endogenous gut microbiota. Because only those proteins required for wood digestion are translocated to the gut, this newly described system reveals which of many possible enzymes and enzyme combinations are minimally required for wood degradation. Thus, although it has historically had negative impacts on human welfare, the shipworm digestive process now has the potential to have a positive impact on industries that convert wood and other plant biomass to renewable fuels, fine chemicals, food, feeds, textiles, and paper products. PMID:25385629

  2. Studies on digestive physiology and feed digestibilities in captive Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis).

    PubMed

    Clauss, M; Polster, C; Kienzle, E; Wiesner, H; Baumgartner, K; von Houwald, F; Ortmann, S; Streich, W J; Dierenfeld, E S

    2005-01-01

    We performed intake, digestibility and ingesta passage studies in 11 Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) from four zoological institutions, using total faecal collection for the quantification of faecal output. The regularly fed zoo ration of roughage and concentrates (ration RC) and a roughage-only ration (ration R) were used; the roughage source differed between the facilities and comprised grass hay, grass silage, straw and lucerne hay. Dry matter intake ranged between 0.8 and 1.3% of body weight on ration RC and 0.5-1.2% on ration R. Digestibility coefficients achieved were similar to those reported for horses on diets of comparable composition. Endogenous losses as determined by linear regression analysis were within the range reported for horses. Measurements of faecal volatile fatty acids, faecal lactate and faecal pH also showed similarity to similar measurements in horses. The mean retention times of fluids (Co-EDTA) and particles (Cr-mordanted fibre <2 mm) in the whole gastrointestinal tract averaged 42 and 61 h, respectively, and were the longest ever recorded in a monogastric ungulate with this marker system. The results suggest that the horse is a useful model animal for designing diets for Indian rhinoceroses. Why digestive parameters are similar between these species in spite of enormous differences in body weight and retention times remains to be answered. PMID:15788000

  3. Systemic siRNA Delivery via Peptide-Tagged Polymeric Nanoparticles, Targeting PLK1 Gene in a Mouse Xenograft Model of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Saha, Shyamali; Prakash, Satya

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles were developed from a series of chemical reactions using chitosan, polyethylene glycol, and a cell-targeting peptide (CP15). The nanoparticles were complexed with PLK1-siRNA. The optimal siRNA loading was achieved at an N?:?P ratio of 129.2 yielding a nanoparticle size of >200?nm. These nanoparticles were delivered intraperitoneally and tested for efficient delivery, cytotoxicity, and biodistribution in a mouse xenograft model of colorectal cancer. Both unmodified and modified chitosan nanoparticles showed enhanced accumulation at the tumor site. However, the modified chitosan nanoparticles showed considerably, less distribution in other organs. The relative gene expression as evaluated showed efficient delivery of PLK1-siRNA (0.5?mg/kg) with 50.7 ± 19.5% knockdown (P = 0.031) of PLK1 gene. The in vivo data reveals no systemic toxicity in the animals, when tested for systemic inflammation and liver toxicity. These results indicate a potential of using peptide-tagged nanoparticles for systemic delivery of siRNA at the targeted tumor site. PMID:24159333

  4. Rapid and Efficient Protein Digestion using Trypsin Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles under Pressure Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoungsoo; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Kim, Byoung Chan; Na, Hyon Bin; Park, Yong Il; Weitz, Karl K.; Warner, Marvin G.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Sang-Won; Smith, Richard D.; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-01-01

    Trypsin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (EC-TR/NPs), prepared via a simple multilayer random crosslinking of the trypsin molecules onto magnetic nanoparticles, were highly stable and could be easily captured using a magnet after the digestion was complete. EC-TR/NPs showed a negligible loss of trypsin activity after multiple uses and continuous shaking, while the conventional immobilization of covalently-attached trypsin on NPs resulted in a rapid inactivation under the same conditions due to the denaturation and autolysis of trypsin. A single model protein, a five protein mixture, and a whole mouse brain proteome were digested at atmospheric pressure and 37 °C for 12 h or in combination with pressure cycling technology (PCT) at room temperature for 1 min. In all cases, EC-TR/NPs performed equally to or better than free trypsin in terms of both identified peptide/protein number and the digestion reproducibility. In addition, the concomitant use of EC-TR/NPs and PCT resulted in very rapid (~1 min) and efficient digestions with more reproducible digestion results. PMID:21204257

  5. Television Violence: Content, Context, and Consequences. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidman, Amy

    This digest reports recent findings on violent television content, highlights the recently developed television ratings system, and offers suggestions for parental mediation of children's television viewing. The National Television Violence Study has demonstrated that not all violence is equal. Certain plot elements in portrayals of violence are…

  6. Horsepower requirements for high-solids anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Kay, B.D.; Kerbaugh, D.H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Improved organic loading rates for anaerobic bioconversion of cellulosic feedstocks are possible through high-solids processing. Additionally, the reduction in process water for such a system further improves the economics by reducing the overall size of the digestion system. However, mixing of high-solids materials is often viewed as an energy-intensive part of the process. Although the energy demand for high-solids mixing may be minimized by improving the agitator configuration and reducing the mixing speed, relatively little information is available for the actual horsepower requirements of a mechanically mixed high-solids digester system. The effect of sludge total solids content and digester fill level on mixing power requirements was evaluated using a novel NREL laboratory-scale high-solids digester. Trends in horsepower requirements are shown that establish the optimum parameters for minimizing mixing energy requirements, while maintaining adequate solids blending for biological activity. The comparative relationship between laboratory-scale mixing energy estimates and those required for scale-up systems is also established.

  7. Training Analysis Digest for Technical and Military Training, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Training Command, Randolph AFB, TX.

    The Training Analysis Digest is a compilation of training improvement studies and projects which have contributed to better instruction and the refinement of course content. It provides a system for reporting the efforts of individual training centers at the Chanute, Keesler, Lackland, Lowry, and Sheppard Air Force Bases in improving enlisted men…

  8. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  9. Newer Technologies for School Security. ERIC Digest Number 145.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Tod

    This digest describes several technologies that can be used to control access to, and improve surveillance of, school grounds. Access can be controlled by using "smart" cards to control keyed entries. Many schools have problems with multiple copies of keys, and these card systems are integrated with computer software that allows for specific…

  10. Advanced control of anaerobic digestion processes through disturbances monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Philippe Steyer; Pierre Buffière; Damien Rolland; René Moletta

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a new control strategy for highly loaded anaerobic digestion processes. This strategy is based on the analysis of disturbances added on purpose to the influent flow rate. The control system then carefully overlooks the response of only two parameters, the biogas output flow rate and the pH, in order to determine whether or not the load can

  11. AUTOHEATED, AEROBIC, THERMOPHILIC DIGESTION OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE WITH AIR AERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full-scale aerobic digestion system demonstrated that a simple self-aspirating aerator, that used ambient air, could achieve high oxygen transfer efficiencies and thereby allow conservation of heat. Continuous feed operation utilizing primary and waste activated sludges resulte...

  12. Ablative therapies for liver metastases of digestive endocrine tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D O'Toole; F Maire; P Ruszniewski

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic metastases are frequently encountered in patients with digestive endocrine tumors and their presence plays an important role in quality of life and overall prognosis. Surgery is the treatment method of choice for hepatic metastases but this is frequently impossible due to the extent of disease. Systemic chemotherapy is offered to patients with diffuse and\\/or progressive liver metastases but results

  13. Japanese Education in Grades K-12. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    Japan's educational system, in particular its K-12 schools, remains one of the very best in the world. This digest provides an overview of the following topics: (1) Japanese educational achievements; (2) the structure of K-12 education in Japan; (3) the K-12 curriculum, with an emphasis on social studies education; (4) educational reform in Japan;…

  14. NZB Mouse System for Production of Monoclonal Antibodies to Weak Bacterial Antigens: Isolation of an IgG Antibody to the Polysaccharide Capsules of Escherichia coli K1 and Group B Meningococci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Frosch; Ingrid Gorgen; Graham J. Boulnois; Kenneth N. Timmis; Dieter Bitter-Suermann

    1985-01-01

    A system for the production of monoclonal antibodies, particularly of the IgG type, against weakly immunogenic bacterial polysaccharide antigens is described. This system, which is based on the autoimmune NZB mouse strain, has been used to produce a monoclonal IgG2a antibody against the meningococcus group B and Escherichia coli K1 polysaccharides, identical homopolymers of alpha (2--> 8)-linked units of N-acetylneuraminic

  15. Multimodal, Multidimensional Models of Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie-Graham, Allan J.; Lee, Erh-Fang; Dinov, Ivo D.; Yuan, Heng; Jacobs, Russell E.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Naturally occurring mutants and genetically manipulated strains of mice are widely used to model a variety of human diseases. Atlases are an invaluable aid in understanding the impact of such manipulations by providing a standard for comparison and to facilitate the integration of anatomic, genetic, and physiologic observations from multiple subjects and experiments. We have developed digital atlases of the C57BL/6J mouse brain (adult and neonate) as comprehensive frameworks for storing and accessing the myriad types of information about the mouse brain. Along with raw and annotated images, these contain database management systems and a set of tools for comparing information from different techniques and different animals. Each atlas establishes a canonical representation of the mouse brain and provides the tools for the manipulation and analysis of new data. We describe both these atlases and discuss how they may be put to use in organizing and analyzing data from mouse models of epilepsy. PMID:17767578

  16. Humanized mouse models in transplantation research.

    PubMed

    Hogenes, Marieke; Huibers, Manon; Kroone, Chantal; de Weger, Roel

    2014-07-01

    The interest in the use of humanized mouse models for research topics like Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD), allograft studies and other studies to the human immune system is growing. The design of these models is still improving and enables even more complicated studies to these topics. For researchers it can be difficult to choose the best option from the current pool of available models. The decision will depend on which hypothesis needs to be tested, in which field of interest, and therefore 'the best model' will differ from one to another. In this review, we provide a guide to the most common available humanized mouse models, with regards to different mouse strains, transplantation material, transplantation techniques, pre- and post-conditioning and references to advantages and disadvantages. Also, an evaluation of experiences with humanized mouse models in studies on GvHD and allograft rejection is provided. PMID:24636846

  17. Investigation of Poultry Waste for Anaerobic Digestion: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Christopher R.

    Anaerobic Digestion (AD) is a biological conversion technology which is being used to produce bioenergy all over the world. This energy is created from biological feedstocks, and can often use waste products from various food and agricultural processors. Biogas from AD can be used as a fuel for heating or for co-generation of electricity and heat and is a renewable substitute to using fossil fuels. Nutrient recycling and waste reduction are additional benefits, creating a final product that can be used as a fertilizer in addition to energy benefits. This project was conducted to investigate the viability of three turkey production wastes as AD feedstock: two turkey litters and a material separated from the turkey processing wastewater using dissolved air flotation (DAF) process. The DAF waste contained greases, oils and other non-commodity portions of the turkey. Using a variety of different process methods, types of bacteria, loading rates and food-to-microorganism ratios, optimal loading rates for the digestion of these three materials were obtained. In addition, the co-digestion of these materials revealed additional energy benefits. In this study, batch digestion tests were carried out to treat these three feedstocks, using mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, using loading rates of 3 and 6 gVS/L They were tested separately and also as a mixture for co-digestion. The batch reactor used in this study had total and working volumes of 1130 mL and 500 mL, respectively. The initial organic loading was set to be 3 gVS/L, and the food to microorganism ratio was either 0.6 or 1.0 for different treatments based on the characteristics of each material. Only thermophilic (50 +/- 2ºC) temperatures were tested for the litter and DAF wastes in continuous digestion, but mesophilic and thermophilic batch digestion experiments were conducted. The optimum digestion time for all experiments was 14 days. The biogas yields of top litter, mixed litter, and DAF waste under mesophilic batch conditions all at 3 gVS/L loading were determined to be 148.6 +/- 7.82, 176.5 +/- 11.1 and 542.0 +/- 37.9 mL/ gVS, respectively and were 201.9 +/- 10.0, 210.4 +/- 29.3, and 419.3 +/- 12.1 mL/gVS, respectively, for initial loading of 6 gVS/L. Under thermophilic batch conditions, the top litter, mixed litter, and DAF waste had the biogas yields of 255.3 +/- 7.9, 313.4 +/- 30.1and 297.4 +/- 33.8 mL/gVS for loading rate of 3 gVS/L and 233.8 +/- 45.3, 306.5 +/- 11.8 and 185.1 +/- 0.85 mL/gVS for loading rate of 6 gVS/L. The biogas yields from co-digestion of the mixed litter and DAF waste at 3 gVS/L were 461.8 +/- 41.3 mL/gVS under thermophilic conditions. The results from batch anaerobic digestion tests were then used for designing continuous digestion experiments. All the continuous digestion experiments were conducted by using an Anaerobic Phase Solids (APS) digester system operated at a thermophilic temperature. The total volume of the continuous digester system was 4.8 L and the working volume was around 4.4 L. The APS digester system had two hydrolysis reactors and one biogasification reactor. Feedstock was loaded into the hydrolysis reactors in batches. The feedstock digestion time was 14 days and the average organic loading rate (OLR) of the system was 3 gVS/L/day. The experiment has three distinct feedstock stages, first with turkey litter waste, a co-digestion of DAF and turkey litter waste, followed by DAF waste. The biogas yields were determined to be 305.2 +/- 70.6 mL/gVS/d for turkey mixed litter, 455.8 +/- 77.2 mL/gVS/d during the mixture of mixed litter and DAF waste, and 382.0 +/- 39.6 mL/gVS for DAF waste. The biogas yields from the thermophilic batch test yields compare with that of the continuous digester yields. For experiments utilizing turkey litter, batch tests yielded 313.4 +/- 30.1mL/gVS biogas and 305.2 +/- 70.6 mL/gVS/d for continuous experiments. For experiments using codigestion of turkey litter and DAF waste, batches yielded 461.8 +/- 41.3 mL/gVS biogas comparing well to continuous digester operation that yielded 455.8 +/- 77.

  18. Interaction between the endocannabinoid and serotonergic system in the exhibition of head twitch response in four mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Chiara; Proietti Onori, Martina; Macrì, Simone; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    More than 10 % of children during school years suffer from a transient tic disorder, and 1 % has a particular type of tic disorder known as Tourette syndrome. At present, there is no available treatment that can improve tics without considerable side effects. Recent evidence indicates that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive component of cannabis, reduced in mice the head twitch responses, a tic pharmacologically induced by the selective serotonin 5-HT2 receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI). THC has some considerable side effects that render its use problematic. In this view, cyclohexyl-carbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-biphenyl-3-yl ester (URB597), an indirect cannabinoid agonist that enhances endogenous anandamide levels, can constitute a valid alternative to the use of direct CB1 receptor agonists. We investigated whether URB597 may reduce the exhibition of DOI-induced head twitch responses in mice. Moreover, to address whether the effects of URB597 on DOI-induced behavioral response constitute a general phenomenon, we evaluated four (ABH, C57BL/6N, SJL/J, CD-1) mouse strains. These strains have been selected in order to represent an ample spectrum of genetic background and phenotypic variation. Predictably, DOI induced consistent tic-like behaviors in all mice. While URB597 exerted slight sedation in C57BN/6L mice, this cannabinoid agonist remarkably mitigated the exhibition of DOI-induced head twitch in all strains. Present data may disclose novel avenues for the pharmacological treatment of tic disorders. PMID:25516122

  19. Systemic morphine treatment induces changes in firing patterns and responses of nociceptive afferent fibers in mouse glabrous skin.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Dale; Baker, Alyssa L; Morón, Jose A; Carlton, Susan M

    2013-11-01

    Patients receiving opioids for pain may experience decreased effectiveness of the drug and even abnormal pain sensitivity-hyperalgesia and/or allodynia. We hypothesized that peripheral nociceptor hyperexcitability contributes to opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tested this using an in vitro mouse glabrous skin-nerve preparation. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with escalating doses of morphine (5, 8, 10, 15 mg/kg) or saline every 12 hours for 48 hours and killed approximately 12 hours after the last injection. Receptive fields of nociceptors were tested for mechanical, heat, and cold sensitivity. Activity was also measured during an initial 2-minute period and during 5-minute periods between stimuli. Aberrant activity was common in fibers from morphine-treated mice but rare in saline-treated mice. Resting background activity was elevated in C-fibers from morphine-treated mice. Both C- and A?-fibers had afterdischarge in response to mechanical, heat, and/or cold stimulation of the skin as well as spontaneous, unevoked activity. Compared to saline, morphine treatment increased the proportion of fibers displaying polymodal rather than mechanical-only responses. A significant increase in A?-mechanoreceptive fibers responding to cold accounted for most of this change. In agreement with this, morphine-treated mice showed increased sensitivity in the cold tail flick test. In morphine-treated mice, aberrant activity and hyperexcitability of nociceptors could contribute to increased pain sensitivity. Importantly, this activity is likely driving central sensitization, a phenomenon contributing to abnormal sensory processing and chronic pain. If similar changes occur in human patients, aberrant nociceptor activity is likely to be interpreted as pain and could contribute to opioid-induced hyperalgesia. PMID:23711478

  20. Distinct effects of methamphetamine on autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome systems in HL-1 cultured mouse atrial cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi-Hirose, Izumi; Aki, Toshihiko; Unuma, Kana; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Noritake, Kanako; Uemura, Koichi

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanism underling the cardiotoxicity of methamphetamine, a psychostimulant drug that is currently abused in the world. A mouse atrial cardiac cell line, HL-1, which retains phenotypes of cardiac cells and serves as a useful model for examining cardiac pathophysiology, was used for this purpose. During treatment with 1mM methamphetamine (MAP) for 3-48h, massive but transient cytoplasmic vacuolization (3-12h) followed by an intracellular accumulation of granules (24-48h) was observed under light microscopy. The vacuoles were surrounded by the lysosome membrane marker LAMP1, while the granules colocalized with the autophagy markers LC3 and p62 as well as ubiquitinated proteins. Western blot analysis showed that LC3 was activated during MAP administration, although p62 was not degraded but rather accumulated. Concordant with p62 accumulation, the nuclear translocation of an anti-oxidative transcription factor, Nrf2, and the subsequent induction of its target gene, HO-1, was observed, suggesting an impairment of autophagic protein degradation and the subsequent activation of the p62/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. In addition, proteomic analysis revealed a reduction in myosin heavy chain (MHC) protein levels during MAP administration. The ubiquitination of MHC and the induction of the muscle sarcomere protein-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MuRF1 and atrogin-1 were proved by immunoprecipitation and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Taken together, the vacuolization of lysosomes and the subsequent accumulation of autophagosomes indicate an impairment of autophagic protein degradation during MAP administration; on the other hand, the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of MHC indicate the proper progression of proteasomal degradation. PMID:23933405

  1. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, Issue 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran; Radtke, Mike; Teeter, Ronald; Garshnek, Victoria; Rowe, Joseph E.

    1987-01-01

    The USSR Space Life Sciences Digest contains abstracts of 37 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of five new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Additional features include the translation of a book chapter concerning use of biological rhythms as a basis for cosmonaut selection, excerpts from the diary of a participant in a long-term isolation experiment, and a picture and description of the Mir space station. The abstracts included in this issue were identified as relevant to 25 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are adaptation, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, morphology and cytology, musculosketal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, personnel selection, psychology, and radiobiology.

  2. Advanced thermophilic digestion of biomass blends

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.

    1982-05-01

    The development of an advanced thermophilic biomass-digestion process that could be operated at much higher loading and slurry throughput rates than those of conventional high-rate digestion was reported. The biomass blend (mixture of hyacinth, Bermuda grass, refuse, and sludge) effected superior digester performance than the pure biomass feeds. For the pure feeds, mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion was better than thermophilic (55/sup 0/C) digestion; the reverse was true for the biomass-waste blend substrate. The blend feed had higher biodegradability, and was selected as the substrate for an advanced digestion process. The advanced thermophilic process consisted of alkaline pretreatment of the undiluted blend feed at 55/sup 0/C, recycling of spent alkali to treat the fresh feed, neutralization of the treated feed with digester gas to a high pH (9 to 10), and digestion in a complete-mix digester. Methane yield and gas production rate from the advanced process were significantly higher than those from conventional digestion despite the fact that loading and hydraulic throughput rates for the former process were considerably higher than those of the latter. Reactor volume for the advanced process could be less than 20% and net energy production more than double those for conventional mesophilic high-rate digestion.

  3. The effects of sludge rheology on mixing in the anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    A review of the literature indicated that the understanding of the mixing process in anaerobic digesters is limited. Also indicated was the fact that the ability to measure digester mixing characteristics was lacking and that the rheological characteristics of the sludge have been largely ignored. The need for a more thorough understanding of fundamental mixing relationships and the ability to measure these relationships in the anaerobic digester was recognized. The measurement of mixing characteristics in two laboratory-scale, impeller mixed, anaerobic digesters was based on the concepts of Circulation Time Distribution theory. Circulation time was measured directly from a continuous recording of the change in conductivity following a pulse injection of an ionic tracer. Mean circulation time values were used to derive impeller discharge and pumping flow rates. Impeller flow rates were determined in water and in digesting sludge for comparison. The determination of digesting sludge rheological properties was based on a simple viscometric method, using a Brookfield Model RVT viscometer. The viscometer data were converted to shear stress and shear rate values using conversion factors obtained from the literature. Viscosity functions were derived for the digesting sludge at various levels of total suspended solids. Tests for thixotropy were also conducted on the digesting sludge. The results of this study indicated that the rheological properties of digesting sludge have significant effects on the anaerobic digester mixing process. The Circulation Time Distribution method provided the ability to detect these effects. Additional studies are needed to extend the use of the CTD method and to better define its potential as a tool for designing digester mixing systems.

  4. Chapter 1 Modeling Neural Tube Defects in the Mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene E. Zohn; Anjali A. Sarkar

    2008-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common structural birth defects observed in humans. Mouse models provide an excellent experimental system to study the underlying causes of NTDs. These models not only allow for identification of the genes required for neurulation, they provide tractable systems for uncovering the developmental, pathological and molecular mechanisms underlying NTDs. In addition, mouse models

  5. Experimental digester facility modifications and digester gas upgrading research

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, V.J.; Biljetina, R.; Akin, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has been participating in an experimental program at the Community Waste Research Facility (CWRF) located at the Walt Disney World Resort Complex, Orlando, Florida. Four institutions have formed a team to provide solutions to community waste treatment and disposal programs. Of primary importance to this research effort is the implementation of low-cost, energy-efficient waste treatment and recovery technologies and the net production of energy (methane) from biomass and waste resources. The production of methane is being studied in a novel, high-rate digester. During 1988, we were responsible for modifying the Experimental Test Unit (ETU) to permit dry solids feeding of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and for conducting bench-scale experiments to evaluate techniques for efficient removal of carbon dioxide produced during anaerobic digestion.

  6. Fermentation profiles of wheat dextrin, inulin and partially hydrolyzed guar gum using an in vitro digestion pretreatment and in vitro batch fermentation system model.

    PubMed

    Noack, Jackie; Timm, Derek; Hospattankar, Ashok; Slavin, Joanne

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the fermentation and microbiota profiles of three fibers, wheat dextrin (WD), partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG), and inulin, since little is known about the effects of WD and PHGG on gut microbiota. A treatment of salivary amylase, pepsin, and pancreatin was used to better physiologic digestion. Fibers (0.5 g) were fermented in triplicate including a control group without fiber for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. Analysis of pH, gas volume, hydrogen and methane gases, and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were completed at each time point. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to measure Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus CFUs at 24 h. WD produced the least gas during fermentation at 8, 12, and 24 h (P < 0.0001), while inulin produced the most by 8 h (P < 0.0001). Each fiber reached its lowest pH value at different time points with inulin at 8 h (mean ± SE) (5.94 ± 0.03), PHGG at 12 h (5.98 ± 0.01), and WD at 24 h (6.17 ± 0.03). All fibers had higher total SCFA concentrations compared to the negative control (P < 0.05) at 24 h. At 24 h, inulin produced significantly (P = 0.0016) more butyrate than WD with PHGG being similar to both. An exploratory microbial analysis (log(10) CFU/µL) showed WD had CFU for Bifidobacteria (6.12) and Lactobacillus (7.15) compared with the control (4.92 and 6.35, respectively). Rate of gas production is influenced by fiber source and may affect tolerance in vivo. Exploratory microbiota data hint at high levels of Bifidobacteria for WD, but require more robust investigation to corroborate these findings. PMID:23645025

  7. Potential digestibilities and digestion kinetics of forage cell wall components

    E-print Network

    Tauskey, William Henry

    1973-01-01

    , 12, 18, 24, 48 and 72 hrs. with common source innocula. Forage and in sitz'o residue composition was analyzed for neutral detergent fiber (NDF); easily hydrolyzable hemicellulose (EHH); difficultly hydrolyzable hemicellulose (DHH); cellulose (C...); and lignin (L) . Between species comparison of forage composition indicated a higher percent neutral detergent extract (cell solubles) and cellulose for Sorghums. The coefficients of digestibility for all fractions were higher for the Sorghums...

  8. Pulse power enhancement of the anaerobic digester process

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, H.W. [Scientific Utilization, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A pilot study of the effects of Pulse Power Processing on an anaerobic digester system was completed at the Decatur Utilities Dry Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant, in Decatur Alabama, in September, 1995. This patented method generates several significant effects when all biosolids material is treated as it enters the anaerobic system. Intense, high peak-power plasma arcs are created, one at each end of the parabolic processing chamber, to produce an amplified synergy of alterations to the digester sludge flowing between them. The millisecond electric discharges generate localized temperatures as high as 30,000 K{degrees}, followed by a rapid cooling of the flowing liquid, which produces acoustic shock waves with pressures approaching 5,000 atmospheres. This destructive force: ruptures many of the cell walls of the bacteria and other single-cell organisms, releasing their vacuole fluids; breaks carbon bonds to form smaller organic compounds; and pulverizes large particle conglomerates, increasing the overall surface area of the solids. These beneficial results serve to boost the nutrient source for the anaerobes in the digester. In conjunction with LTV radiation, the formation of excited chemical radicals (including OH{sup -}), and the changes in ionic charge through alteration of the zeta potential, the bioreactor system is turbocharged to enhance the conversion of volatile biosolids to methane gas, which is the natural respiratory by-product of anaerobic digestion.

  9. Laboratory-scale ultrasound pre-treated digestion of sludge: Heat and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Braguglia, C M; Gianico, A; Mininni, G

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this work was to maximize the digestibility of biological sludge to elucidate the feasibility of a new sludge management strategy to recover good quality sludge for agricultural use. The combined effects of organic loading rates (from 0.7 to 2.8g VS L(-1)d(-1)) and the degree of disintegration by anaerobic digestion of sonicated activated sludge were discussed, and the thermal and energetic balances were evaluated. Despite low sonication inputs, sludge digestion performance improved in terms of solids degradation and biogas production depending on the soluble organic load. The biogas production by sonicated sludge was higher (up to 30%) with respect to the control. Filterability improved during digestion of sonicated sludge at medium OLR due to a significant abatement of the fines. Thermal balances indicated that sonication may be a proper system to guarantee self-sustaining WAS mesophilic digestion. Nevertheless, thickening is a pre-requisite to achieve a positive energy balance. PMID:21641205

  10. Systems level approach reveals the correlation of endoderm differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells with specific microstructural cues of fibrin gels

    PubMed Central

    Task, Keith; D'Amore, Antonio; Singh, Satish; Candiello, Joe; Jaramillo, Maria; Wagner, William R.; Kumta, Prashant; Banerjee, Ipsita

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells receive numerous cues from their associated substrate that help to govern their behaviour. However, identification of influential substrate characteristics poses difficulties because of their complex nature. In this study, we developed an integrated experimental and systems level modelling approach to investigate and identify specific substrate features influencing differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) on a model fibrous substrate, fibrin. We synthesized a range of fibrin gels by varying fibrinogen and thrombin concentrations, which led to a range of substrate stiffness and microstructure. mESCs were cultured on each of these gels, and characterization of the differentiated cells revealed a strong influence of substrate modulation on gene expression patterning. To identify specific substrate features influencing differentiation, the substrate microstructure was quantified by image analysis and correlated with stem cell gene expression patterns using a statistical model. Significant correlations were observed between differentiation and microstructure features, specifically fibre alignment. Furthermore, this relationship occurred in a lineage-specific manner towards endoderm. This systems level approach allows for identification of specific substrate features from a complex material which are influential to cellular behaviour. Such analysis may be effective in guiding the design of scaffolds with specific properties for tissue engineering applications. PMID:24718448

  11. Production of digestive enzymes along the gut of the giant keyhole limpet Megathura crenulata (Mollusca: Vetigastropoda).

    PubMed

    Martin, Gary G; Martin, Alanna; Tsai, Whitney; Hafner, John C

    2011-11-01

    The esophagus and intestine form the longest regions of the digestive tract in the giant keyhole limpet and are lined by epithelial cells sharing a common morphology and releasing materials into the gut lumen by apocrine secretion. The purpose of this study was to determine if these morphologically similar regions release similar digestive enzymes and compare their contributions to digestive enzymes released from other regions of the gut. Principal component analysis of enzymes detected by the API ZYM system for 19 enzymes plus EnzChek assays for protease, ?-amylase, lipase, cellulase, and lysozyme identify four distinct regions of the gut: 1) crystalline style and style sac, 2) digestive gland, 3) salivary glands, and 4) esophagus and intestine. Heterogeneity in enzymatic activity was observed in regions of the gut with similar cell morphology (middle and posterior esophagus and intestine) as well as regions with different cell morphology (salivary glands, digestive gland and crystalline style). Enzyme activity in each of these regions is compared to other gastropods, in particular the abalone. Although much of the length of the digestive tract is lined by a morphologically similar epithelium, different regions of the alimentary tract produce a different suite of enzymes which may contribute to the digestive process. These data will help enhance our limited understanding of the digestive physiology of Megathura crenulata and lead to improvement of its culture for clinical research. PMID:21767658

  12. Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of slaughterhouse waste (SHW): influence of heat and pressure pre-treatment in biogas yield.

    PubMed

    Cuetos, M J; Gómez, X; Otero, M; Morán, A

    2010-10-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion (34+/-1 degrees C) of pre-treated (for 20 min at 133 degrees C, >3 bar) slaughterhouse waste and its co-digestion with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) have been assessed. Semi-continuously-fed digesters worked with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 36 d and organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2 and 2.6 kg VS(feed)/m(3)d for digestion and co-digestion, respectively, with a previous acclimatization period in all cases. It was not possible to carry out an efficient treatment of hygienized waste, even less so when OFMSW was added as co-substrate. These digesters presented volatile fatty acids (VFA), long chain fatty acids (LCFA) and fats accumulation, leading to instability and inhibition of the degradation process. The aim of applying a heat and pressure pre-treatment to promote splitting of complex lipids and nitrogen-rich waste into simpler and more biodegradable constituents and to enhance biogas production was not successful. These results indicate that the temperature and the high pressure of the pre-treatment applied favoured the formation of compounds that are refractory to anaerobic digestion. The pre-treated slaughterhouse wastes and the final products of these systems were analyzed by FTIR and TGA. These tools verified the existence of complex nitrogen-containing polymers in the final effluents, confirming the formation of refractory compounds during pre-treatment. PMID:20176467

  13. Ultrasound biomicroscopy imaging for monitoring progressive trypsin digestion and inhibition in articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2009-09-01

    This study reports an ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) imaging approach to monitor the progressive trypsin-induced depletion of proteoglycan (PG) and its inhibition in articular cartilage. Three fresh, normal bovine patellae were obtained and four full-thickness cartilage-bone specimens were prepared from the lower medial side of each patella. One sample was used as a control and the other three were divided into three groups: Groups A, B and C (n=3 for each group). After a 40min 0.25% trypsin digestion, samples from group A were continuously digested in trypsin solution, while those in groups B and C were immersed in physiologic saline and fetal bovine serum (FBS), respectively, for another 280min. The trypsin penetration front was observed by UBM and M-mode images were acquired using 50MHz focused ultrasound and custom-developed software. The results show that the 40min trypsin digestion degraded nearly the whole surface layer of the cartilage tissue. Further digestion in trypsin or residual digestion in saline for 280min depleted most of the PG content, as observed in groups A and B. The replacement of trypsin with a physiologic saline solution only slightly slowed the digestion process (group B), while trypsin inhibitors in FBS stopped the digestion in approximately 1.5h (group C). The normalized digestion fractions of the digested tissues were calculated from ultrasound data and histology sections, and then compared between the groups. Without the use of FBS, 80% to 100% of the full thickness was digested, while this number was only approximately 50% when using FBS. Our findings indicate that the UBM imaging system could provide two-dimensional (2-D) visual information for monitoring progressive trypsin-induced PG depletion in articular cartilage. The system also potentially offers a useful tool for preparing cartilage degeneration models with precisely controlled PG depletion. PMID:19616365

  14. Nature: The Mouse Genome

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    This Web site from the journal Nature offers a one-stop online resource for information on the mouse genome -- "the experimental key to the human genome." Visitors have free access to all content from the journal's special mouse genome issue. Web features include an interactive timeline detailing the history of the mouse in genetics, related news articles and commentary, Web links, and more. Scientific papers and letters to Nature are also available for those who would like to delve into the subject at depth. Additionally, the site provides a selection of classic research papers free to registered users until March 5, 2003.

  15. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, L. R. (editor); Radtke, M. (editor); Garshnek, V. (editor); Teeter, R. (editor); Rowe, J. E. (editor)

    1986-01-01

    The fourth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Science Digest includes abstracts for 42 Soviet periodical articles in 20 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology and published in Russian during the last third of 1985. Selected articles are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. In addition, translated introductions and tables of contents for 17 Russian books on 12 topics related to NASA's life science concerns are presented. Areas covered are: adaptation, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, exobiology, habitability and environmental effects, health and medical treatment, hematology, histology, human performance, immunology, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, perception, personnel selection, psychology, and radiobiology. Two book reviews translated from the Russian are included and lists of additional relevant titles available in English with pertinent ordering information are given.

  16. Cannabinoids and the Digestive Tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Izzo; A. A. Coutts

    In the digestive tract there is evidence for the presence of high levels of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol)\\u000a and enzymes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of endocannabinoids. Immunohistochemical studies have shown the presence\\u000a of CB1 receptors on myenteric and submucosal nerve plexuses along the alimentary tract. Pharmacological studies have shown that\\u000a activation of CB1 receptors produces relaxation of the

  17. Androgen regulates development of the sexually dimorphic gastrin-releasing peptide neuron system in the lumbar spinal cord: evidence from a mouse line lacking androgen receptor in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Saito, Kazuhiro; Marie-Luce, Clarisse; Raskin, Kalina; Oti, Takumi; Satoh, Keita; Tamura, Kei; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina

    2014-01-13

    Androgens including testosterone, organize the nervous system as well as masculine external and internal genitalia during the perinatal period. Androgen organization involves promotion of masculine body features, usually by acting through androgen receptors (ARs). We have recently demonstrated that the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system in the lumbar spinal cord also mediates spinal centers promoting penile reflexes during male sexual behavior in rats. Testosterone may induce sexual differentiation of this spinal GRP system during development and maintain its activation in adulthood. In the present study, we examined the role of ARs in the nervous system regulating the development of the sexually dimorphic GRP system. For this purpose, we used a conditional mouse line selectively lacking the AR gene in the nervous system. AR floxed males carrying (mutants) or not (controls) the nestin-Cre transgene were castrated in adulthood and supplemented with physiological amounts of testosterone. Loss of AR expression in the nervous system resulted in a significant decrease in the number of GRP neurons compared to control littermates. Consequently, the intensity of GRP axonal projections onto the lower lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord was greater in control males than in mutant males. These results suggest that ARs expressed in the nervous system play a significant role in the development of the GRP system in the male lumbar spinal cord. The AR-deletion mutation may attenuate sexual behavior and activity of mutant males via spinal GRP system-mediated neural mechanisms. PMID:24211692

  18. Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: influence of co-digestion with manure.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2005-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was investigated in two thermophilic (55 degrees C) wet digestion treatment systems R1 and R2. Initially OFMSW was co-digested with manure with a successively higher concentration of OFMSW, at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14-18 d and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.3-4.0 g-VS/l/d. Adaptation of the co-digestion process to a OFMSW:manure ratio of 50% (VS/VS) was established over a period of 6 weeks. This co-digestion ratio was maintained in reactor R2 while the ratio of OFMSW to manure was slowly increased to 100% in reactor R1 over a period of 8 weeks. Use of recirculated process liquid to adjust the organic loading to R1 was found to have a beneficial stabilization effect. The pH rose to a value of 8 and the reactor showed stable performance with high biogas yield and low VFA levels. The biogas yield from source-sorted OFMSW was 0.63-0.71 l/g-VS both in the co-digestion configuration and in the treatment of 100% OFMSW with process liquid recirculation. This yield is corresponding to 180-220 m3 biogas per ton OFMSW. VS reduction of 69-74% was achieved when treating 100% OFMSW. None of the processes showed signs of inhibition at the free ammonia concentration of 0.45-0.62 g-N/l. PMID:15878026

  19. Ontogenetic Diet Shifts and Digestive Constraints in the Omnivorous Freshwater Turtle Trachemys scripta

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    intestines than do carnivorous spe- cies (e.g. lizards: Skoczylas 1978; birds: Leopold 1953;mammals: Chivers 1982,Horn 1989,Wootton 1990).This view is based largely on reviews of digestive system morphology

  20. The Effect of Restraint Stress on Glucocorticoid Receptors in Mouse Spleen Lymphocytes: Involvement of the Sympathetic Nervous System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arielle Warner; Haim Ovadia; Nora Tarcic; Joseph Weidenfeld

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Reciprocal pathways of interaction between the nervous and immune systems during stress may be regulated by stress-induced circulating glucocorticoids that act via type II glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of restraint stress on GRs in lymphocytes and the role of the sympathetic system in this effect. Methods: We used male