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1

Immunohistochemical localization of translationally controlled tumor protein in the mouse digestive system.  

PubMed

Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a housekeeping protein, highly conserved among various species. It plays a major role in cell differentiation, growth, proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Studies reported so far on TCTP expression in different digestive organs have not led to any understanding of the role of TCTP in digestion, so we localized TCTP in organs of the mouse digestive system employing immunohistochemical techniques. Translationally controlled tumor protein was found expressed in all organs studied: tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver and pancreas. The expression of TCTP was found to be predominant in epithelia and neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia; high in serous glands (parotid, submandibular, gastric, intestinal crypts, pancreatic acini) and in neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia, and moderate to low in epithelia. In epithelia, expression of TCTP varied depending on its type and location. In enteric neurons, TCTP was predominantly expressed in the processes. Translationally controlled tumor protein expression in the liver followed porto-central gradient with higher expression in pericentral hepatocytes. In the pancreas, TCTP was expressed in both acini and islet cells. Our finding of nearly universal localization and expression of TCTP in mouse digestive organs points to the hitherto unrecognized functional importance of TCTP in the digestive system and suggests the need for further studies of the possible role of TCTP in the proliferation, secretion, absorption and neural regulation of the digestive process and its importance in the physiology and pathology of digestive process. PMID:23834399

Sheverdin, Vadim; Jung, Jiwon; Lee, Kyunglim

2013-09-01

2

Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... the body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ... the anus as a bowel movement. Back Continue Digestive System Problems Nearly everyone has a digestive problem at ...

3

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system is investigated in this learning activity to help participants learn how food is broken down and prepared for absorption, and list the components of the digestive system as well as their functions. Organs investigated include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Jim Bidlack

4

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a section of an online Biology Textbook - developed by Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College - providing a concise overview of the digestive system. It describes the enzymes, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids involved in digestion and outlines the role that each part of the body plays from the mouth the large intestine.

Gregory, Michael

5

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system is amazing: it takes the foods we eat and breaks them into smaller components that our bodies can use for energy, cell repair and growth. This lesson introduces students to the main parts of the digestive system and how they interact. In addition, students learn about some of the challenges astronauts face when eating in outer space. Engineers figure out how to deal with such challenges.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

6

Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... hard. Other common stomach and intestinal disorders include: Celiac disease is a digestive disorder caused by the abnormal ... which is found in certain foods. People with celiac disease have difficulty digesting the nutrients from their food ...

7

Digestive System Movie  

MedlinePLUS

... People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A Movies & More Quizzes Games Kids' Medical Dictionary En Español ... Pink Locker Society Movie: Digestive System KidsHealth > Kids > Movies & More > Movies > Movie: Digestive System Print A A ...

8

The Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the prime structures and functions of the digestive system ? First, take a look at Structures and Functions of Digestive System and answer these questions on the handout given. Name 10 main structures of the digestive system. For each 10 structures, name the functions of each structure. Next,examine the Description of the Digestion pathway process. Answer the questions below on the back of the same handout as the first questions: What is ...

Daniel

2010-03-25

9

Problems of the Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms of colorectal cancer? • Glossary Problems of the Digestive System What are some common digestive problems? Common digestive ... of hormones during pregnancy can slow down the digestive system. How can constipation be treated? If constipation continues, ...

10

Digestive and Circulatory System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are key parts in the Circulatory and Digestive System? First, read the Digestive System Text. After reading the text, write the steps of digestion if you were eating a pizza. Write two interesting facts. Next, read the Text about Circulatory System. Describe what you learned. Write two interesting facts. Next, watch and listen to the Circulatory System Song. Tell me what you liked or did not like about the song. Did it help you ...

Ms. Kuenzli

2010-03-25

11

Smoking and Your Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... 282 KB) Alternate Language URL Smoking and the Digestive System Page Content DUE TO UNFORESEEN CIRCUMSTANCES, PUBLICATION ORDERS ... caused by cigarette smoking. 2 What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of the ...

12

Nutrition, digestive system and digestion specificity in phytophagous bats  

E-print Network

Nutrition, digestive system and digestion specificity in phytophagous bats NF Zhukova Schmalhausen the entire order specificity affects these processes. To tackle these issues, the digestive system, within the mouth cavity, when only liquid fraction is swollen. The digestive system specialisation

Boyer, Edmond

13

Regions of the Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... Anatomy & Physiology » Digestive System » Regions of the Digestive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

14

Digestive System general organization throughout  

E-print Network

Digestive System general organization throughout: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa digestive glands salivary pancreas liver (lobes: right, left, caudate, quadrate, diaphragmatic surface, bare

Houde, Peter

15

Daphnia digestive system  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The parts of the digestive system can be difficult to imagine because they are inside of our bodies. This clip demonstrates the Daphnia digestive system. The brown material is feces. Notice the slinky-like motion of the intestine. This acts to move the feces to the anus, where it will eventually be eliminated. The tiny cells making up the intestine allow nutrients to pass into the body of the Daphnia, to be used as energy.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )

2007-08-18

16

Ruminating on the Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will review the functions of basic digestive organs, understand how diet affects digestion, understand how digestive tracks may differ, and then step outside to compare the digestive systems of the buffalo and the zebra in a lively demonstration. This lesson plan includes key vocabulary words, teacher background information, and is standards-based.

California Academy of Sciences

2008-01-01

17

Your Digestive System and How It Works  

MedlinePLUS

... PDF, 341 KB)????. Alternate Language URL Español Your Digestive System and How It Works Page Content DUE TO ... Research For More Information Acknowledgments What is the digestive system? The digestive system The digestive system is made ...

18

The digestive system: part 1.  

PubMed

This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the digestive system, explores the structure and function of the digestive system. It is important that nurses understand how the digestive system works and its role in maintaining health. The article describes the gross structure of the gastrointestinal tract along with relevant physiology. It also outlines several disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and their treatment and nursing management. The second article will explain the liver, pancreas and gall bladder and their digestive functions, and provides a brief overview of the disorders of chronic liver disease, pancreatitis and gallstones. PMID:24517694

Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

19

Aquaporins in the digestive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid transfer such as secretion and absorption is one of the major functions of the digestive system. Aquaporins are water channel proteins providing water transfer across the cellular membrane. At least six aquaporin isoforms are expressed in the digestive system. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is widely distributed in endothelial cells of capillaries and small vessels as well as in the central lacteals

Toshiyuki Matsuzaki; Yuki Tajika; Abdushukur Ablimit; Takeo Aoki; Haruo Hagiwara; Kuniaki Takata

2004-01-01

20

The Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Colorado State University has produced this website as a hypertextbook on the subject of pathophysiology of the digestive system. In the "Introduction and Guide" link, they describe it as an education experiment that hopes to bypass the drawbacks of traditional paper and ink textbooks. The layout of this hypertextbook has a clickable table of contents, and at the bottom of each page is a helpful navigation device to show you what topic is next and what topic precedes it. Explanatory drawings or pictures accompany each concept, which makes for an excellent way to learn about the subject. Visitors should not forget to click on the "Hypertextbook" menu to see the other pathophysiology and biomedical sciences topics that are available as hypertextbooks at Colorado State University.

21

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The dual digestion system (DDS) was developed to provide stabilized, pathogen free sludge. DDS consists of a 1-day detention time, pure-oxygen, covered aerobic digester (Step I) followed by an 8-day detention time anaerobic reactor. The temperature in the Step I digester is contr...

22

MOUSE UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The original MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty System) system was designed to deal with the problem of uncertainties in Environmental engineering calculations, such as a set of engineering cost or risk analysis equations. t was especially intended for use by individuals with li...

23

Inquiring Into The Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching science by means of inquiry-based projects has the potential to transform the science lab into a place of debate and discovery, but teachers run the risk of either leaving students to work too independently or forcing them to be too dependent on our guidance. To counter these challenges, the author implemented changes in the way topics are covered and assessment is made in his 6th grade classroom. This article presents an example of the structure that was developed as a result, which is based on an inquiry into the digestive system.

Carlos Schroeder

2007-11-01

24

Papain digestion of different mouse IgG subclasses as studied by electrospray mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

On-line liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) has been utilized to monitor the papain digestion of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAb) of different subclasses (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3). The method is simple, rapid, sensitive, and allows for simultaneous determination of digestion products and the identification of microheterogenous fragments. The results provide important insight into the mechanism of papain digestion of mouse IgGs of different subclasses. PMID:10725455

Adamczyk, M; Gebler, J C; Wu, J

2000-04-01

25

Digestion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digestion is a complex and miraculous process fundamental to our daily living. The complex nature of our digestive system, however, can also contribute to a variety of disorders. The following websites offer information and resources pertaining to the digestive system and digestive disorders. The first link leads to website for the American Gastroenterological Association which is an online resource for Association members as well as "other medical professionals with an interest in digestive diseases, patients and the general public." The site posts links to related news; and to sections for clinical resources, practice management, educational resources, and publications-to name a few (1). The second link leads to GastroLab, a long-standing online gastrointestinal resource specializing in digestive disorders. The site offers visitors a vast array of endoscopic images and video clips as well as a comprehensive dictionary of gastrointestinal terms (2). The third site presents the Gut Foundation, an organization that "provides professional and public education and promotes research into digestive disorders to improve gastrointestinal health." The Foundation website contains a variety of information about gastrointestinal conditions, diagnoses, medical research, membership, and more (3). The fourth website, from ViaHealth provides a brief overview of the digestive system; and information sections addressing common digestive disorders, rectal and colon cancer, diagnostic procedures, and online resources (4). From the ThinkQuest Library archives, the fifth site-titled La Casa de Comida-was created by a team of high school students for elementary school children. This section of the site offers a brief and basic comparison of digestive systems in birds, horses, insects, snakes, crustaceans, and mollusks (5). The sixth site contains a section of an online Biology Textbook-developed by Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College-providing a concise overview of the digestive system (6). The final link leads to a kid-friendly website from KidsHealth containing a short summary of the digestive system complete with a cartoony diagram illustrating all of the system's major parts (7).

26

76 FR 39159 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; The Digestive System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Rating Disabilities; The Digestive System; Proposed Rule Federal Register...for Rating Disabilities; The Digestive System AGENCY: Department of Veterans...Disabilities that addresses the Digestive System. The purpose of this...

2011-07-05

27

Digestive System, a Kinesthetic Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two parallel strips of tape on the floor 3-4 feet apart and width of classroom represent the digestive tract. A large filled bag represents the food particle. Students standing on both lines act out each digestive function of the organs, tissues, and cells in the tract as the food particle comes to them.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Bobbin Cave N:Cave; Bobbin ORG:Village High School REV:2005-04-09 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

28

Colorado State University: Pathophysiology of the Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website was developed by faculty at Colorado State University as a Biomedical Hypertextbook on the Pathophysiology of the Digestive System. The website is very comprehensive including well-organized sections on the Fundamental Physiology and Anatomy of the Digestive System, Control of Digestive Function, Pregastric Digestion, The Pancreas, and many more. There are even sections exploring the digestive physiology of birds and herbivores. Additional features include self-evaluation tests reviewing the material, a Glossary and Index, and links to other Hypertextbooks.

29

Joint Polar Satellite System Science Seminar Annual Digest  

E-print Network

iii Joint Polar Satellite System Science Seminar Annual Digest 2013 #12;#12;Joint Polar Satellite System Science Seminar Annual Digest Page i From the Senior Program Scientist On behalf of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program Science, it is my pleasure to present this digest, which

30

Digestion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this food science activity, learners explore digestion and proteins by observing the action of meat tenderizer on luncheon meat. This lesson guide includes background information about digestion, enzymes, and proteins.

Nancy P. Moreno

2011-01-01

31

Formation of the digestive system in zebrafish. I. liver morphogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the essential functions of the digestive system, much remains to be learned about the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for digestive organ morphogenesis and patterning. We introduce a novel zebrafish transgenic line, the gutGFP line, that expresses GFP throughout the digestive system, and use this tool to analyze the development of the liver. Our studies reveal two phases of

Holly A Field; Elke A Ober; Tobias Roeser; Didier Y. R Stainier

2003-01-01

32

Nutrition 1: Food and the Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the first of a three part series. Most of this lesson will focus on what nutrients are needed to do particular tasks for the body. More specifically, where the nutrients come from, their different forms, and then their importance for particular tasks in the body. Some of the lesson will focus on the overall digestive system in order to address the latter part of the benchmark-that undigested food is eliminated.

Science Netlinks

2001-10-20

33

PATHOGEN AND INDICATOR ORGANISM DESTRUCTION BY THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The effectiveness of the dual digestion system (DDS) to destroy pathogenic microorganisms was evaluated at a full-scale treatment facility. The DDS incorporates a pure oxygen aerobic digester (1-day detention time) followed by an anaerobic digester (8-day detention time). Heat bi...

34

Multiple-stage anaerobic digestion system  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to develop a new process for the stabilization of municipal sludge produced at the Allegheny County Sanitary Authority wastewater treatment plant in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. A multiple-stage digestion process is sought to provide good removal efficiency of high concentration of sludge and to perform high methane production. The process primarily consists of three stages of anaerobic digestion. Stage 1 is for hydrolysis and acidification and stage 2 is for acidification and methanation; both digesters are operated in the mesophilic temperature range. The last stage is for methanation which is controlled in the thermophilic range. The multiple-stage system (MS) was operated at different solids retention time (SRT) of 15, 9, and 20 days. For comparison to the performance of the multiple-stage system a conventional single-stage system (SS) was also operated at the same conditions. The COD removal, solids reduction, and the methane yield of the multiple-stage system were much greater than the single-stage system at all of the different SRT. Moreover, the results of the different SRT of the multiple-stage system study showed that a SRT of 15 days has the best performance. The maximum VS removal rates are 67% of MS and 50% of SS; and the methane yields are 6.72 SCF CH/sub 4//lb VS added of MS and 3.95 SCF CH/sub 4//lb VS added of SS with VS loading of 0.15 lb/ft/sup 3/-day at a 15 days SRT. These methane yields are equivalent to 89% and 67% biogas conversion from the removed VS (based on 75% of the sludge VS is biodegradable), respectively, for the multiple-stage and the single-stage systems.

Lin, L.Y.

1985-01-01

35

Human and mouse tissue-engineered small intestine both demonstrate digestive and absorptive function.  

PubMed

Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a devastating condition in which insufficient small intestinal surface area results in malnutrition and dependence on intravenous parenteral nutrition. There is an increasing incidence of SBS, particularly in premature babies and newborns with congenital intestinal anomalies. Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a therapeutic alternative to the current standard treatment, intestinal transplantation, and has the potential to solve its biggest challenges, namely donor shortage and life-long immunosuppression. We have previously demonstrated that TESI can be generated from mouse and human small intestine and histologically replicates key components of native intestine. We hypothesized that TESI also recapitulates native small intestine function. Organoid units were generated from mouse or human donor intestine and implanted into genetically identical or immunodeficient host mice. After 4 wk, TESI was harvested and either fixed and paraffin embedded or immediately subjected to assays to illustrate function. We demonstrated that both mouse and human tissue-engineered small intestine grew into an appropriately polarized sphere of intact epithelium facing a lumen, contiguous with supporting mesenchyme, muscle, and stem/progenitor cells. The epithelium demonstrated major ultrastructural components, including tight junctions and microvilli, transporters, and functional brush-border and digestive enzymes. This study demonstrates that tissue-engineered small intestine possesses a well-differentiated epithelium with intact ion transporters/channels, functional brush-border enzymes, and similar ultrastructural components to native tissue, including progenitor cells, whether derived from mouse or human cells. PMID:25573173

Grant, Christa N; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Sala, Frederic G; Hill, J Ryan; Levin, Daniel E; Speer, Allison L; Barthel, Erik R; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Zachos, Nicholas C; Grikscheit, Tracy C

2015-04-15

36

75 FR 82428 - VASRD Improvement Forum-Updating Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Updating Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive System, Dental Conditions, and Infectious Diseases...Updating Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive System, Dental Conditions, and Infectious...

2010-12-30

37

FIDS: an intelligent financial Web news articles digest system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a system called FIDS (Financial Information Digest System), which can digest online financial news automatically. Compared to previous approaches, FIDS is unique in the way that it can understand news articles in different domains simultaneously. These domains are all concerned with financial news. The system is able to integrate the information from different articles by

Wai Lam; Kei Shiu Ho

2001-01-01

38

Digestive Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

39

77 FR 27009 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; The Digestive System; Withdrawal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Rating Disabilities; The Digestive System; Withdrawal AGENCY: Department...for Rating Disabilities; The Digestive System. VA has determined, after...and science related to the digestive system. Therefore, the proposed...

2012-05-08

40

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION OF THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Full-scale performance and costs of an innovative sludge stabilization process were evaluated at the three plants. The DDS incorporates a 1-day-detention-time, pure oxygen aerobic digester followed in series by an 8-day-detention-time anaerobic digester. Heat of biological oxidat...

41

Digestion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about digestion and proteins by observing the action of meat tenderizer on luncheon meat. It is part of the My World activities from Baylor College of Medicine. Additional activities can be accessed at http://www.k8science.org/.

Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

2010-01-01

42

Anaerobic digestion of sludge from intensive recirculating aquaculture systems: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) produce high volumes of biosolid waste which is a potential source of pollution if not properly treated. A reduction in sludge-mass would therefore minimize the potential environmental hazard and economic burden stemming from its disposal. Recently, anaerobic digestion was suggested as an alternative to aquaculture sludge digestion and stabilization in RAS. This practice results not

Natella Mirzoyan; Yossi Tal; Amit Gross

2010-01-01

43

Stem cells in the Drosophila digestive system.  

PubMed

Adult stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis by continuously replenishing damaged, aged and dead cells in any organism. Five types of region and organ-specific multipotent adult stem cells have been identified in the Drosophila digestive system: intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the posterior midgut; hindgut intestinal stem cells (HISCs) at the midgut/hindgut junction; renal and nephric stem cells (RNSCs) in the Malpighian Tubules; type I gastric stem cells (GaSCs) at foregut/midgut junction; and type II gastric stem cells (GSSCs) at the middle of the midgut. Despite the fact that each type of stem cell is unique to a particular organ, they share common molecular markers and some regulatory signaling pathways. Due to the simpler tissue structure, ease of performing genetic analysis, and availability of abundant mutants, Drosophila serves as an elegant and powerful model system to study complex stem cell biology. The recent discoveries, particularly in the Drosophila ISC system, have greatly advanced our understanding of stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, and the role of stem cells play in tissue homeostasis/regeneration and adaptive tissue growth. PMID:23696352

Zeng, Xiankun; Chauhan, Chhavi; Hou, Steven X

2013-01-01

44

A Practical Video Digest Generation System Designed for Nursery Schools  

E-print Network

In this paper, we present a video digest generation system that designed for use in nursery schools. The system utilizes plural surveillance cameras that set in different nursery rooms, each has a corresponding RFID receiver to catch the signal send by RFID tags. With every kid having a RFID tag in the pocket all the day time, the system automatically generate one daily video digest for each kid. The digest is generated through two types of processing. One is RDIF log analysis, which quickly picks out videos that expect to have the target kids ’ appearance. The other is visual feature analysis, which recognizes events in raw video materials, select video segments for each event and construct the digest. The practical performance of our system is confirmed in both quantitative experiment and questionnaire survey. 1

Yu Wang; Tomoya Ishikawa; Jien Kato; Kenichiro Ishii; Shigeki Yokoi

45

Biogasification of rice straw with an anaerobic-phased solids digester system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice straw was converted into biogas using a high-rate anaerobic digestion system, anaerobic-phased solids digester system (APS-digester system). The system was stable and, with proper design, could become a space-efficient, high-rate solids digestion system. Ammonia is used as a supplemental nitrogen source for rice straw digestion. The effects of different pretreatment methods, physical (mechanical), thermal and chemical (ammonia) treatment, on

Ruihong Zhang; Zhiqin Zhang

1999-01-01

46

The circulatory, digestive, and respiratory systems work together.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system breaks down the food we eat into smaller nutrients which are moved throughout our bodies by the circulatory system. The respiratory system captures oxygen from the air and releases toxic carbon dioxide to the air; these chemicals are also moved through the body via the circulatory system.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )

2007-08-18

47

Histological and histochemical development of the digestive system of Solea senegalensis (Kaup, 1858) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digestive system of Solea senegalensis was studied from hatching until 1 month of larval life. Histological and histochemical procedures were used to study the histomorphology, digestive enzymes, lipid, protein and carbohydrate distribution in the digestive larval tract. The major events in digestive system differentiation occurred during the early stages. At first feeding (2DAH—days after hatching) both the mouth and

L Ribeiro; C Sarasquete; M. T Dinis

1999-01-01

48

An integrated baseball digest system using maximum entropy method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel system that is able to automatically detect and classify highlights from baseball game videos in TV broadcast. The digest system gives complete indexes of a baseball game which cover all of the status changes in a game. We achieve this by seamlessly integrating image, audio and speech clues using a maximum entropy based

Mei Han; Wei Hua; Wei Xu; Yihong Gong

2002-01-01

49

Kids Health: How the Body Works - Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How the Body Works is an interactive website for children to explore the systems of the body and learn basic anatomy and physiology. In particular this link provides students and teachers to animations, videos and activities related to the digestive system.

2012-11-20

50

Procedures for identifying infectious prions after passage through the digestive system of an avian species.  

PubMed

Infectious prion (PrP(Res)) material is likely the cause of fatal, neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases(1). Transmission of TSE diseases, such as chronic wasting disease (CWD), is presumed to be from animal to animal(2,3) as well as from environmental sources(4-6). Scavengers and carnivores have potential to translocate PrP(Res) material through consumption and excretion of CWD-contaminated carrion. Recent work has documented passage of PrP(Res) material through the digestive system of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a common North American scavenger(7). We describe procedures used to document passage of PrP(Res) material through American crows. Crows were gavaged with RML-strain mouse-adapted scrapie and their feces were collected 4 hr post gavage. Crow feces were then pooled and injected intraperitoneally into C57BL/6 mice. Mice were monitored daily until they expressed clinical signs of mouse scrapie and were thereafter euthanized. Asymptomatic mice were monitored until 365 days post inoculation. Western blot analysis was conducted to confirm disease status. Results revealed that prions remain infectious after traveling through the digestive system of crows and are present in the feces, causing disease in test mice. PMID:24300668

Fischer, Justin W; Nichols, Tracy A; Phillips, Gregory E; VerCauteren, Kurt C

2013-01-01

51

INTRODUCTION The digestive system is critical for maintenance of all  

E-print Network

genes are expressed in an organ-specific 3671Development 127, 3671-3681 (2000) Printed in Great BritainINTRODUCTION The digestive system is critical for maintenance of all multicellular organisms. As the organism ingests food, it must be processed and essential nutrients removed and absorbed into the body

Tabin, Cliff

52

The Ecology and Digestive System of the Struthiolariidae (Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The two neozelanic species Struthiolaria papulosa and Pelicaria vermis have been studied as regards ecology, feeding mechanism, and structure and function of the digestive system. They are dwellers on sand or sand-mud-flat, with a feeding position just below the surface, where they construct paired siphonal tubes with the rostrum. A ciliary mode of feeding has been acquired by the

J. E. MORTON

53

Psoriasis vulgaris and digestive system disorders: is there a linkage?  

PubMed

Psoriasis is well-known immune-mediated skin disease often associated with co-morbidities, including dyslipidaemia and obesity. Few reports imply that the disease might be also related to pathology of mucosal surfaces, especially that of the digestive system. The authors present a case of psoriasis and concurrent digestive system abnormalities, and review the literature regarding the topic. A 40-year-old man suffered from an exacerbation of exudative psoriasis for about 6 months. Topical antipsoriatics proved ineffective and the disease gradually progressed to a severe disseminated form. Subsequent detailed examinations revealed persistent gastroduodenitis due to H. pylori infection, pancreatic dysfunction and fatty change of the liver, although the patient denied any gastrointestinal symptoms. As a result appropriate treatment of the diagnosed digestive system disorders was added to topical antipsoriatic therapy. Within 2 weeks of treatment clinical symptoms and laboratory signs showed a marked trend to normalisation. The presented medical history seems to suggest that there may be some kind of interplay between psoriasis and digestive system disorders. PMID:20164041

Pietrzak, Aldona; Jastrzebska, Iwona; Chodorowska, Grazyna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Dybiec, Ewa; Juszkiewicz-Borowiec, Maria; Krasowska, Dorota; Schwartz, Robert A

2009-01-01

54

Synergistic activity for high-proliferative-potential colony-forming cell (HPP-CFC) development, stable to trypsin digestion, present in pregnant mouse uterus and placenta extract.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe a crude pregnant mouse uterus and embryo extract (PMUE) prepared from CFW/ep mice which was able to stimulate the proliferation of high-proliferative-potential colony-forming cells (HPP-CFC) of bone marrow of normal mice, in vitro, in semisolid agar culture system. The development of that primitive murine progenitor cells requires the presence of a macrophage-stimulating factor (CSF-1) plus a synergistic factor (SF). The biological activity of both factors was present in our extracts. The higher SF activity was found in uterine plus placental tissues extracts. The SF was precipitated over 45 per cent ammonium sulfate saturation, and behaved as a nondialyzable substance, remained unaffected by trypsin digestion, and was heat-stable (70 degrees C for 15 min). PMID:2699385

Zangheri, E O; Labanca, A M

1989-01-01

55

Effect of Mouse Maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) Knockout on Starch Digestion to Glucose  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Digestion of starch requires activities provided by six different alpha-glucosidase enzymes. Two activities are luminal alpha-amylases (AMY). Four activities are mucosal activities described as maltases. Two of the activities are associated with sucrase-isomaltase (Si) activities. Two activities ...

56

Resilience and psychosocial adjustment in digestive system cancer.  

PubMed

The study aims to investigate the contributions of resilience, affective reactions and post traumatic growth (PTG) to psychosocial adjustment and behavioral changes among digestive system cancer patients in Israel. A sample of 200 participants, 57.5 % men (from the 46 to 70-year age range), 1-4 years following diagnosis, completed an inventory assessing demographic and medical information, resilience, current positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA), PTG, psychosocial adjustment and retrospective report of behavioral changes following cancer treatment. Resilience, PA and NA, and PTG were related to adjustment and/or reported behavioral changes, and PA, NA and PTG mediated some of the effects of resilience on adjustment and/or reported behavioral changes. The data underline the importance of resilience, affect, and PTG in the adjustment of digestive system cancer patients. Future studies are needed to better understand the associations of resilience with psychosocial adjustment and behavioral changes. This knowledge may help improve cancer survivors' adjustment. PMID:25605269

Gouzman, Julia; Cohen, Miri; Ben-Zur, Hasida; Shacham-Shmueli, Einat; Aderka, Dan; Siegelmann-Danieli, Nava; Beny, Alex

2015-03-01

57

Anaerobic digestion and wastewater treatment systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) wastewater (pre-)treatment systems represent a proven sustainable technology for a wide range of very different industrial effluents, including those containing toxic\\/inhibitory compounds. The process is also feasible for treatment of domestic wastewater with temperatures as low as 14–16° C and likely even lower. Compared to conventional aerobic treatment systems the anaerobic treatment process merely offers

G. Lettinga

1995-01-01

58

ANAEROBIC SEWAGE TREATMENT IN A ONE-STAGE UASB AND A COMBINED UASB-DIGESTER SYSTEM  

E-print Network

The potential of a novel technology consisting of a UASB complemented with a digester (UASB-Digester) for mutual sewage treatment and sludge stabilisation under low temperature conditions was investigated. The performance of the UASB-Digester system was compared with a one stage UASB. The UASB reactor was operated at a HRT of 6 hours and controlled temperature of 15°C, the average sewage temperature in the Middle East countries during wintertime, while the digester was operated at 35 °C. The UASB-Digester provided substantially better removal efficiencies and conversion than the one stage UASB reactor (pDigester and the one stage UASB for

Nidal Mahmoud; Grietje Zeeman; Huub Gijzen; Gatze Lettinga

59

The Digestive System: Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The purpose of this review is to set the context for a discussion of the improvement of nutrient efficiency in poultry production through greater understanding of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Much of the ongoing research in efficiency of nutrient capture is directed toward better understanding of the benefits of nonpharmaceutical antibiotic growth promoters because approvals for the use of

J. J. Dibner; J. D. Richards

2004-01-01

60

Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Muller, J.K.; Prather, D.R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.

2003-01-01

61

Comparative study on open system digestion and microwave assisted digestion methods for metal determination in shrimp sludge compost.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate two different digestion methods for the determination of the total concentration of metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd) in shrimp sludge compost. The compost made from shrimp aquaculture sludge co-composted with organic materials (peat, crushed bark and manure) was used as an organic growing medium for crop. Open system digestion and microwave assisted digestion procedures were employed in sample preparation. Various combinations and volumes of hydrofluoric, nitric and hydrochloric acids were evaluated for the efficiency of both methods. A certified reference material (CRM 146) was used in the comparison of these two digestion methods. The results revealed a good agreement between both procedures and the certified valued. The best recoveries were found in the range between 95% and 99% for microwave assisted digestion with a mixture of 2 ml of HF, 6 ml of HNO(3) and 2 ml of HCl. This procedure was recommended as the method for digestion the compost herein based on the recovery analysis and time taken. PMID:20638781

Nemati, Keivan; Abu Bakar, Nor Kartini; Bin Abas, Mhd Radzi; Sobhanzadeh, Elham; Low, Kah Hin

2010-10-15

62

System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material  

DOEpatents

An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01

63

Gallstones, cholecystectomy, and risk of digestive system cancers.  

PubMed

Gallstones and cholecystectomy may be related to digestive system cancer through inflammation, altered bile flux, and changes in metabolic hormone levels. Although gallstones are recognized causes of gallbladder cancer, associations with other cancers of the digestive system are poorly established. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database (1992-2005), which includes 17 cancer registries that cover approximately 26% of the US population, to identify first primary cancers (n = 236,850) occurring in persons aged ?66 years and 100,000 cancer-free population-based controls frequency-matched by calendar year, age, and gender. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for the matching factors. Gallstones and cholecystectomy were associated with increased risk of noncardia gastric cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.21 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.32) and OR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.40), respectively), small-intestine carcinoid (OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.60) and OR = 1.78 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.25)), liver cancer (OR = 2.35 (95% CI: 2.18, 2.54) and OR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.41)), and pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.31) and OR = 1.23 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.33)). Colorectal cancer risk associated with gallstones and cholecystectomy decreased with increasing distance from the common bile duct (P-trend < 0.001). Hence, gallstones and cholecystectomy are associated with the risk of cancers occurring throughout the digestive tract. PMID:24470530

Nogueira, Leticia; Freedman, Neal D; Engels, Eric A; Warren, Joan L; Castro, Felipe; Koshiol, Jill

2014-03-15

64

Expression Patterns Suggest that Despite Considerable Functional Redundancy, Galectin-4 and -6 Play Distinct Roles in Normal and Damaged Mouse Digestive Tract  

PubMed Central

The galectin-4 protein is mostly expressed in the digestive tract and is associated with lipid raft stabilization, protein apical trafficking, wound healing, and inflammation. While most mammalian species, including humans, have a single Lgals4 gene, some mice have two paralogues: Lgals4 and Lgals6. So far, their significant similarities have hindered the analysis of their respective expression and function. We took advantage of two antibodies that discriminate between the galectin-4 and galectin-6 proteins to document their patterns of expression in the normal and the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-damaged digestive tract in the mouse. In the normal digestive tract, their pattern of expression from tongue to colon is quite similar, which suggests functional redundancy. However, the presence of galectin-4, but not galectin-6, in the lamina propria of the DSS-damaged colon, its association with luminal colonic bacteria, and differences in subcellular localization of these proteins suggest that they also have distinct roles in the normal and the damaged mouse digestive tract. Our results provide a rare example of ancestral and derived functions evolving after tandem gene duplication. PMID:23360694

Reyes-Gomez, Edouard; Maurer, Marie; Netter, Pierre; Higuet, Dominique

2013-01-01

65

The endocrine cells of the digestive system: amines, peptides, and modes of action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endocrine cells of the digestive system (entero-endocrine cells of gastro-intestinal epithelia and langerhans' islets of the pancreas) and the chemical messengers produced by them constitute a complicated and complex system. The physiological function of this system is the regulation of all processes related to digestion and resorption, and to homeostasis of carbohydrate metabolism. Using morphological and histochemical features of

D. Grube

1986-01-01

66

Is the food-entrainable circadian oscillator in the digestive system?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Food-anticipatory activity (FAA) is the increase in locomotion and core body temperature that precedes a daily scheduled meal. It is driven by a circadian oscillator but is independent of the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Recent results that reveal meal-entrained clock gene expression in rat and mouse peripheral organs raise the intriguing possibility that the digestive system is the site of the feeding-entrained oscillator (FEO) that underlies FAA. We tested this possibility by comparing FAA and Per1 rhythmicity in the digestive system of the Per1-luciferase transgenic rat. First, rats were entrained to daytime restricted feeding (RF, 10 days), then fed ad libitum (AL, 10 days), then food deprived (FD, 2 days). As expected FAA was evident during RF and disappeared during subsequent AL feeding, but returned at the correct phase during deprivation. The phase of Per1 in liver, stomach and colon shifted from a nocturnal to a diurnal peak during RF, but shifted back to nocturnal phase during the subsequent AL and remained nocturnal during food deprivation periods. Second, rats were entrained to two daily meals at zeitgeber time (ZT) 0400 and ZT 1600. FAA to both meals emerged after about 10days of dual RF. However, all tissues studied (all five liver lobes, esophagus, antral stomach, body of stomach, colon) showed entrainment consistent with only the night-time meal. These two results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that FAA arises as an output of rhythms in the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The results also highlight an interesting diversity among peripheral oscillators in their ability to entrain to meals and the direction of the phase shift after RF ends.

Davidson, A. J.; Poole, A. S.; Yamazaki, S.; Menaker, M.

2003-01-01

67

Adenine nucleotide levels in a closed enzymatic digestion system for porcine islet isolation.  

PubMed

Obtaining viable islets is a crucial step for successful islet transplantation. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a marker of cell viability. However, little is known about any changes in the energy status of the tissues that are being digested during the digestion phase. We herein examined whether the ATP content in serially digested pancreatic tissue samples could be specific objective parameters that signal the optimal point to stop the digestion process. We obtained partial pancreata (body to tail) from 4- to 5-year-old pigs from a slaughterhouse. The tissue samples were preserved in M-Kyoto solution for less than 3 h. They were digested using an automated enzymatic and mechanical dissociation system at 37°C for 90 min following intraductal injection of Liberase HI. Samples were collected from the digestive circuit every 5 or 10 min to determine the ATP level, total adenine nucleotide (TAN) level, islet count (count/g), and yield of islet equivalent (IEQ) in the serial digestive fluids. The ATP and TAN levels, IEQ and islet count were increased and then decreased during digestion process. The profile of these parameters differed from case to case. However, when ATP changing ratio (respective value/precedent value) was compared with IEQ changing ratio, a greater than threefold increase in the ATP changing ratio followed by an increase in the islet count changing ratio within 5 min was consistently observed, indicating the optimal time to stop the digestion. The ATP levels of the handpicked islets in the digested samples were lower in the overdigested phase in comparison to those in the earlier digested phase. These results indicate that the ATP level in digested fluid could be an effective indicator to estimate the viability of cells as well as determine the optimal time to terminate the digestion process in order to obtain viable islets. PMID:22793056

Oshibe, Ikuro; Saito, Takuro; Sato, Yoshihiro; Saito, Takaharu; Tsukada, Manabu; Ise, Kazuya; Kenjo, Akira; Kimura, Takashi; Anazawa, Takayuki; Suzuki, Shigeya; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Gotoh, Mitusukazu

2012-01-01

68

Intermediate-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion system operational development  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. Operation of the anaerobic digestion process at high solids reduces the level of process water and thereby the size and capital costs for the digester system. In addition, by virtue of the lack of available water, the microbial catalysts are more productive in feedstock polymer hydrolysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. Information gained from laboratory-scale digester research was used to develop die intermediate-scale digester system. This system represents a 50-fold scale-up of the original digester system and includes continuous feed addition and computer monitoring and control. During the first 1.15 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements -- which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using the NREL high-solids digester design -- are detailed in this report.

Rivard, C.J.

1995-02-01

69

Evolutionary steps of ecophysiological adaptation and diversification of ruminants: a comparative view of their digestive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is made of the ruminant digestive system in its morphophysiological variations and adaptations relating to foraging behaviour, digestive physiology, to interactions between plants and ruminants and to geographic and climatic diversity of ruminants' ecological niches. Evidence is provided for evolutionary trends from an extreme selectivity mainly for plant cell contents and dependence upon a fractionated fore- and hindgut

R. R. Hofmann

1989-01-01

70

Anaerobic Digester Systems for Mid-Sized Dairy FarmsEXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

E-print Network

Six options for anaerobic digestion of animal manure on mid-sized dairy farms in Minnesota have been presented to provide dairy farm operators with information needed to make decisions about odor control and manure management technology. Information for each option is presented with schematics of the system, an explanation of how the system functions, the environmental benefits and lessons learned from other similar digesters. Capital costs for the installation of the digesters and yearly costs are presented. The expected benefits from odor control and use of separated solids are presented for a 100-cow dairy. Scale up information for 200-cow and 300-cow dairies are included as a multiplier factor. There are also answers to the questions “who should consider a system like this? ” and “why would a farmer install this digester? ” Resources are provided with who to contact about similar digesters and additional references relevant to each design. The generation of energy is discussed in a separate section. The six options applied to mid-sized farms do not produce excess energy beyond the energy needed to heat the digester during the winter months. Adding capacity and electrical generators would be an upgrade to the digester after experience was gained with the digestion system.

unknown authors

71

Combustion Characteristics of a CO2 Mixture Methane & a Microturbine Cogeneration System utilizing Sewage Digester Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt has been made to utilize biogas (sewage digester gas) as a fuel for gas turbines. The sewage digester gas utilized had low Btu, constituting 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide. Conventional attempts necessitate the optimization of combustion systems to improve flame-holding and other characteristics to enable the use of biogas as gas turbine fuel. The novel approach taken

Tadashi KATAOKA; Teruyuki NAKAJIMA; Takahiro NAKAGAWA; Saburo YUASA

72

Ontogeny of the digestive system of the Octopus bimaculatus paralarvae (Verril, 1883).  

PubMed

The high mortalities registered in the larval stage during octopus culturing are mainly due to nutritional deficiencies of the food provided. To understand the cause of this problem, we studied the ontogenetic development of the digestive system of Octopus bimaculatus paralarvae. An egg batch was obtained from a gravid female collected in the Bay of Los Angeles, Baja California, Mexico, and it was incubated in the laboratory during the summer of 2011. We observed that the formation of the digestive system began at 33 days post-laying (DPL). The newly hatched paralarvae had already formed the organs involved in food ingestion and digestion, although it was not possible to know accurately their degree of maturity. The present research constitutes the first description at the histological level of the ontogenic development of the digestive system of the O. bimaculatus paralarvae. This serves as a basis for future studies of the digestive physiology of this species. PMID:24683531

López-Peraza, Diana Judith; Hernández-Rodríguez, Mónica; Barón-Sevilla, Benjamín

2014-01-01

73

Effects of Dietary Components on Cancer of the Digestive System.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Cancer is the second leading cause of death in developed countries and poor diet and physical inactivity are major risk factors in cancer-related deaths. Therefore, interventions to reduce levels of smoking, improve diet, and increase physical activity must become much higher priorities in the general population's health and health care systems. The consumption of fruit and vegetables exerts a preventive effect towards cancer and in recent years natural dietary agents have attracted great attention in the scientific community and among the general public. Foods such as tomatoes, olive oil, broccoli, garlic, onions, berries, soy bean, honey, tea, aloe vera, grapes, rosemary, basil, chili peppers, carrots, pomegranate, and curcuma contain active components that can influence the initiation and the progression of carcinogenesis, acting on pathways implied in cell proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis. The present review illustrates the main foods and their active components, including their antioxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic properties, with a particular focus on the evidence related to cancers of the digestive system. PMID:24841279

Zanini, Sara; Marzotto, Marta; Giovinazzo, Francesco; Bassi, Claudio; Bellavite, Paolo

2014-05-19

74

[Symptoms and diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive system].  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive system can cause very diverse clinical symptoms. Due to the secretion of biogenic amines, peptides and hormones secreted by the tumor cells, various paraneoplastic syndromes can evolve, on the other hand, the growth and spreading of hormonally inactive tumors can result in different local symptoms. Patients can be symptom-free for a long time or aspecific, often periodical symptoms can prevent recognition or lead to misdiagnosis for years. The symptomatology of hormonally active tumors, derived mainly from the pancreas is very characteristic. Carcinoid syndrome can be seen in 10-18% of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. In this review, the critical appreciation of laboratory and imaging modalities is discussed. Among the major new developments in this field, the introduction of serum chromogranin A assay and new small bowel examination methods should be mentioned. Capsule endoscopy and balloon enteroscopy can provide possibility of much more earlier diagnosis, as previously. The worldwide spreading of endoscopic ultrasound and fine needle biopsy allows the detection and clear localization of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:21354953

Gyökeres, Tibor

2011-03-01

75

Blocking c-myc and stat3 by E. coli expressed and enzyme digested siRNA in mouse melanoma  

SciTech Connect

Tumour cells often show alteration in the signal-transduction pathways, leading to proliferation in response to external signals. Oncogene overexpression and constitutive expression is a common phenomenon in the development and progression of many human cancers. Therefore oncogenes provide potential targets for cancer therapy. RNA interference (RNAi), mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), silences genes with a high degree of specificity and potentially represents a general approach for molecularly targeted anti-cancer therapy. The data presented in this report evaluated the method of systemically administering combined esiRNAs to multiple targets as compared with the method of using a single kind of esiRNA to a single target. Our experimental data revealed that the mixed treatment of esiC-MYC and esiSTAT3 had a better inhibition effect than the single treatment of esiC-MYC or esiSTAT3 on mouse B16 melanoma.

Hong Jie [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhao Yingchun [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Weida [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: whuang@fudan.edu.cn

2006-09-22

76

MOUSE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in New York City, the MOUSE organization works to empower "underserved students to provide technology support and leadership in their schools, supporting their academic and career success." On their homepage, visitors can learn about their programs, learn about supporting the MOUSE organization, and read up on their resources. In the "Resources" area, visitors can learn about their outreach activities in New York City, Chicago, and California. Visitors working in educational outreach will appreciate the information offered here, including materials on how different groups can receive assistance from the MOUSE organization. Also, visitors can look over the "News" updates to learn about their new programs, their educational seminars, and their outreach activities.

77

MPHASYS: a mouse phenotype analysis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Systematic, high-throughput studies of mouse phenotypes have been hampered by the inability to analyze individual animal data from a multitude of sources in an integrated manner. Studies generally make comparisons at the level of genotype or treatment thereby excluding associations that may be subtle or involve compound phenotypes. Additionally, the lack of integrated, standardized ontologies and methodologies for data

R. Brent Calder; Rudolf B. Beems; Harry Van Steeg; I. Saira Mian; Paul H. M. Lohman; Jan Vijg

2007-01-01

78

Topic in Depth - Digestion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digestion is a complex and miraculous process fundamental to our daily living. The complex nature of our digestive system, however, can also contribute to a variety of disorders. The following websites offer information and resources pertaining to the digestive system and digestive disorders.

79

A novel fed-batch digestion system for biomethanation of plant biomasses.  

PubMed

Plant biomasses, which in the absence of adequate pretreatment pose serious operational problems in biogas production using conventional domestic flow-through digesters, can be successfully digested in a novel fedbatch digestion system that produces a steady rate of biogas. Basically, the system is a batch digestion operated with a regular input of a calculated amount of feed based on first order decay kinetics in order to maintain a regular biogas production rate. For nearly three years the system was tested in a laboratory-scale fed-batch digester (10 l) using dried water hyacinth as feed providing the desired biogas production rate. A field-scale domestic digester of masonry construction with a working volume of 10 m3 was designed and tested for about 9 months by feeding a mixture of dried water hyacinth or banana stem along with sugarcane press mud, yielding an average biogas production of 90-100% of the expected rate calculated on the basis of the feed rate. PMID:16232537

Sharma, A; Unni, B G; Singh, H D

1999-01-01

80

Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD{sub rem} for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

Kheradmand, S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Shiraz, Shiraz 7134851156 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi-Jashni, A., E-mail: akarimi@shirazu.ac.i [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Shiraz, Shiraz 7134851156 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sartaj, M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 841568311 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-06-15

81

Chitinolytic enzymes in the digestive system of marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitinase, exo-N-acetyl-ß-D-glycosaminidase (NAGase) and lysozyme activities were assayed in the digestive tract of 6 species of marine fishes: Myxine glutinosa (cyclostome), Chimaera monstrosa (holocephalan), Squalus acanthias, Etmopterus spinax, Raja radiata (elasmobranchs) and Coryphaenoides rupestris (teleost). Strong chitinase activity was found in the gastric mucosa of the elasmobranchs (S. acanthias, E. spinax and R. radiata) and the teleost (Coryphaenoides rupestris). A

R. Fänge; G. Lundblad; J. Lind; K. Slettengren

1979-01-01

82

Mouse vocal communication system: are ultrasounds learned or innate?  

PubMed Central

Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production. Here we discuss the available data to assess whether male mouse song behavior and the supporting brain circuits resemble those of known vocal non-learning or vocal learning species. Recent neurobiology studies have demonstrated that the mouse USV brain system includes motor cortex and striatal regions, and that the vocal motor cortex sends a direct sparse projection to the brainstem vocal motor nucleus ambiguous, a projection thought be unique to humans among mammals. Recent behavioral studies have reported opposing conclusions on mouse vocal plasticity, including vocal ontogeny changes in USVs over early development that might not be explained by innate maturation processes, evidence for and against a role for auditory feedback in developing and maintaining normal mouse USVs, and evidence for and against limited vocal imitation of song pitch. To reconcile these findings, we suggest that the trait of vocal learning may not be dichotomous but encompass a broad set of behavioral and neural traits we call the continuum hypothesis, and that mice possess some of the traits associated with a capacity for limited vocal learning. PMID:23295209

Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

2013-01-01

83

AN IMPROVEMENT TO THE MOUSE COMPUTERIZED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The original MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty System) system was designed to deal with the problem of uncertainties in Environmental engineering calculations, such as a set of engineering cast or risk analysis equations. It was especially intended for use by individuals with l...

84

Energize It! An Ecologically Integrated Approach to the Study of the Digestive System and Energy Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops a research-oriented method of studying the digestive system that integrates species' ecology with the form and function of this system. Uses problem-posing, problem-probing, and peer persuasion. Presents information for mammalian systems. (27 references) (MKR)

Derting, Terry L.

1992-01-01

85

HENOTYPIC FLEXIBILITY IN THE digestive system of migratory birds is critically important in allowing birds to successfully overcome the phys-  

E-print Network

67 6 P HENOTYPIC FLEXIBILITY IN THE digestive system of migratory birds is critically important physiological systems, including that of the digestive system, is match flexibility in the diges- tive system of birds has limits that can influence the pace of migration

Mladenoff, David

86

Multicenter retrospective analysis of systemic chemotherapy for advanced neuroendocrine carcinoma of the digestive system.  

PubMed

This study analyzed outcomes of systemic chemotherapy for advanced neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the digestive system. Clinical data from 258 patients with unresectable or recurrent NEC of the gastrointestinal tract (GI) or hepato-biliary-pancreatic system (HBP), who received chemotherapy, were collected from 23 Japanese institutions and analyzed retrospectively. Patients had primary sites in the esophagus (n = 85), stomach (n = 70), small bowel (n = 6), colorectum (n = 31), hepato-biliary system (n = 31) and pancreas (n = 31). Median overall survival (OS) was 13.4 months the esophagus, 13.3 months for the stomach, 29.7 months for the small bowel, 7.6 months for the colorectum, 7.9 months for the hepato-biliary system and 8.5 months for the pancreas. Irinotecan plus cisplatin (IP) and etoposide plus cisplatin (EP) were most commonly selected for GI-NEC and HBP-NEC. For patients treated with IP/EP (n = 160/46), the response rate was 50/28% and median OS was 13.0/7.3 months. Multivariate analysis among patients treated with IP or EP showed that the primary site (GI vs HBP; hazard ratio [HR] 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.97) and baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase levels (not elevated vs elevated; HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0.94) were independent prognostic factors for OS, while the efficacy of IP was slightly better than for EP (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.48-1.33; P = 0.389). IP and EP are the most common treatment regimens for NEC of the digestive system. HBP primary sites and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels are unfavorable prognostic factors for survival. A randomized controlled trial is required to establish the appropriate chemotherapy regimen for advanced NEC of the digestive system. This study was registered at UMIN as trial number 000005176. PMID:24975505

Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Machida, Nozomu; Morizane, Chigusa; Kasuga, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki; Sudo, Kentaro; Nishina, Tomohiro; Tobimatsu, Kazutoshi; Ishido, Kenji; Furuse, Junji; Boku, Narikazu; Okusaka, Takuji

2014-09-01

87

Histology of the developing digestive system and the effect of food deprivation in larval green sturgeon ( Acipenser medirostris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histological development of the digestive tract in hatchery-reared green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) larvae and the effects of food deprivation on the digestive system organization were studied from hatching until 31 days post-hatching (dph). At hatching, the larval digestive system consisted of two rudiments: a large endodermal yolk sac and a primordial hind-gut. During the endogenous feeding phase, the wall

Enric Gisbert; Serge I Doroshov

2003-01-01

88

The Digestive System [and] Instructor's Guide. Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional modular unit wlth instructor's guide provides materials on important aspects of one of the major systems of the human body--the digestive system. Its purpose is to introduce the student to the structures and functions of the human digestive system--and the interrelationships of the two--and to familiarize the student with some…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

89

Performance of temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system treating dairy cattle wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system in the stabilization of dairy cattle wastes at high solids concentrations has never been evaluated, though the process has been established as a feasible alternative to conventional mesophilic processes for the treatment of municipal wastewater sludges. In this study, the TPAD system operating at a retention time of 14 days was subjected

Shihwu Sung; Harikishan Santha

2003-01-01

90

Quantifying in vivo somatic mutations using transgenic mouse model systems.  

PubMed

This chapter describes the use of the bacteriophage cII positive selection somatic mutational assay with the Muta™Mouse transgenic model system. The assay is similar to others involving a transgenic target, including the cII and lacI assays in the Big Blue(®) Mouse, lacZ in the MutaMouse, and the gpt delta assay. Briefly, high-molecular-weight DNA is purified from the tissue of interest and used as substrate during in vitro packaging reactions, where the ? transgenes are excised from the genome and assembled into viable phage. Phage containing the mutational targets is then adsorbed into an appropriate bacterial host, and mutations sustained in vivo are detected and quantified by either standard recombinant screening or selection assays. Mutant frequencies are reported as the ratio of mutant phage to total phage units analyzed. The ?-based transgenic mouse assays are used to study and characterize in vivo mutagenesis as well as for mutagenicity assessment of chemicals and other agents. These models permit the enumeration of mutations sustained in virtually any tissue of the mouse and are both sensitive and robust. Application of the assays is simple, not requiring resources beyond those commonly found in most academic laboratories. PMID:24623235

Swiger, Roy R

2014-01-01

91

Optical Mapping System for Visualizing Arrhythmias in Isolated Mouse Atria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical mapping has become an important technique in the study of cardiac electrophysiology, especially in terms of investigating the mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias. The increasing availability of transgenic mice as models for cardiovascular disease is driving the need for instrumentation suitable for the study of electrical activity in the mouse heart. In this paper we evaluate our optical mapping system's

Robyn Schmidt; Anders Nygren

2006-01-01

92

Magnetically labeled feeder system for mouse pluripotent stem cell culture.  

PubMed

We report here a magnetically labeled feeder system for mouse embryonic stem/induced pluripotent stem (ES/iPS) cells. Magnetic attraction of feeder cells labeled with magnetite nanoparticles significantly increased ES/iPS colony-forming efficiency. Magnetic labeling of feeder cells also facilitated separation of ES/iPS cells from feeder cells. PMID:25468421

Horie, Masanobu; Ito, Akira; Maki, Takeshi; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

2015-05-01

93

Intermediate-Scale High-Solids Anaerobic Digestion System Operational Development  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. During the first 1.5 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements, which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using ,the NREL high-solids digester design are detailed in this report.

Rivard, C. J.

1995-02-01

94

Early warning indicators for monitoring the process failure of anaerobic digestion system of food waste.  

PubMed

To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), alkalinity and their combined indicators were evaluated. Results revealed that operation conditions significantly affect the responses of parameters and thus the optimal early warning indicators of each reactor differ from each other. None of the single indicators was universally valid for all the systems. The universally valid indicators should combine several parameters to supply complementary information. A combination of total VFA, the ratio of VFA to total alkalinity (VFA/TA) and the ratio of bicarbonate alkalinity to total alkalinity (BA/TA) can reflect the metabolism of the digesting system and realize rapid and effective early warning. PMID:25218457

Li, Lei; He, Qingming; Wei, Yunmei; He, Qin; Peng, Xuya

2014-11-01

95

Structural changes in the digestive lysosomal system of sentinel mussels as biomarkers of environmental stress in mussel-watch programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study has been carried out to validate the measure of structural changes in the digestive lysosomal system of sentinel mussels as biomarkers of environmental stress. Previous laboratory studies demonstrated that the digestive lysosomal system of molluscs reponds to a variety of pollutants and to different stress situations by exhibiting significant changes in its structure. Mussels were collected monthly

I. Marigómez; A. Orbea; I. Olabarrieta; M. Etxeberria; M. P. Cajaraville

1996-01-01

96

Assessing the treatment costs and the fertilizing value of the output products in digestate treatment systems.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper was to advance towards finding sustainable solutions to deal with biogas digestate and contribute to faster development of the market for digestate treatment products. The study compares digestate treatment costs through four different treatment plants, estimates the potential fertilizing and humus value (PFHV) of the derived products and allocates the cash flows to show the possible regional benefits. The treatment costs for the pre-dried solid fraction of digestate ranged from €19 to €23/tonne output. These costs may be covered by vending treatment products at a price reaching at least 34-41% of their PFHV (ca €55/tonne). Treatment of raw digestate generates high operating costs (€216-247/tonne output), much higher than the PFHV of the products (ca €35-51/tonne). For such systems either the treatment has to be financially subsidized by the authorities or €13-32/tonne input should be covered by the substrate deliverers as a disposal fee. Nevertheless, a well-prepared investment concept in this field may allow the local binding of up to 80% of total cash flows. Finally, the current difficult market situation of the treatment products can be primarily improved by clearing their legal status at European level. PMID:24552741

Golkowska, K; Vázquez-Rowe, I; Lebuf, V; Accoe, F; Koster, D

2014-01-01

97

Validation of a new in vitro dynamic system to simulate infant digestion.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms of infant formula disintegration in the infant gastrointestinal tract is a key step for developing new formulas with health benefits for the neonate. For ethical reasons, the access to in vivo data obtained on infants is limited. The use of animal models can be an alternative but these experiments are labour intensive, expensive and results obtained show high inter-individual variability, making their interpretation difficult. The aim of this work was to develop a simple in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal digestion system, for studying infant formula digestion, and to validate it by comparing the kinetics of proteolysis obtained in vitro with in vivo data collected from piglets. Results showed a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo data and confirmed the rapid hydrolysis of caseins in gastric conditions, whereas whey proteins appeared more resistant to digestion. PMID:24128581

Ménard, Olivia; Cattenoz, Thomas; Guillemin, Hervé; Souchon, Isabelle; Deglaire, Amélie; Dupont, Didier; Picque, Daniel

2014-02-15

98

Design of a municipal solid waste anaerobic digestion system at Folsom Prison  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design of an anaerobic digestion system for the treatment of the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste (MSW) from the city of Folsom, California. This organic fraction, estimated to be 76 tons per day, will be separated from the total waste stream (100 tons per day of MSW) at the materials recovery facility (MRF) operated by inmate labor from the Return-to-Custody (RTC) facility at Folsom Prison. The organic fraction will be shredded, the solids content will be adjusted to 30% or less using wastewater, and the resulting influent loaded into an anaerobic digester. The anaerobic fermentation treatment process will reduce the solids content of the organic fraction of the solid waste, while producing valuable methane gas for use as fuel for electrical generation. The resulting digested effluent will be aerobically composted and marketed as a soil amendment.

Williams, D.W.; Cavaletto, R. [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Harrison, L. [Prison Industry Authority, Folsom, CA (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31

99

Building School-to-Work Systems in Rural America. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest briefly describes key components for building a local school-to-work (STW) partnership and discusses the rural context for implementing such an initiative. The School-To-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 established a national framework for each state to create STW systems that are part of comprehensive education reform, are integrated…

Harmon, Hobart

100

Microbial ecology of autothermal thermophilic aerobic digester (ATAD) systems for treating waste activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their widespread use, our understanding of the microbial ecology of the autothermal thermophilic aerobic digesters (ATAD) used to dispose of sludge from wastewater treatment plants is poor. Applying both culture-dependent and molecular methods to two ATAD systems in Victoria, Australia treating different wastewaters revealed that their communities were highly specialized. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling suggested differences in

David Hayes; Leonard Izzard; Robert Seviour

2011-01-01

101

AN ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS TISSUE DIGESTION SYSTEM FOR A BSL-3-AG CONTAINMENT FACILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An alkaline hydrolysis tissue digestion system was installed at the Arthropod-borne Animal Diseases Research Laboratory (ABADRL) Biosafety Level (BSL) 3-AG containment facility in 2000 to replace the antiquated pathologic waste incinerator because of significant costs for upgrading this incinerator ...

102

The Effects of Swedish Knife Model on Students' Understanding of the Digestive System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to examine the effect of Swedish Knife Model on students' understanding of digestive system. A simple experimental design (pretest-treatment-posttest) was used in the study and internal comparison of the results of the one group was made. The sample consisted of 40 7th grade Turkish students whose ages range from 13 to 15.…

Cerrah Ozsevgec, Lale; Artun, Huseyin; Unal, Melike

2012-01-01

103

PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGENS OF THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies previously reported from this laboratory revealed that the human adenocarcinoraas tested, arising from the entodermally derived digestive system epithelium, contained identical tumor-specific antigens (1, 2). Similar constit- uents were found in embryonic and fetal gut, pancreas, and liver during the first two trimesters of gestation. Because these antigenic components could not be detected in any other normal, diseased, or

JOHN KRUPEY; SAMUEL O. FREEDMAN

104

Siting analysis of farm-based centralized anaerobic digester systems for distributed generation using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in installing anaerobic digesters (ADs) on farms to use animal wastes as a biomass resource for both economic value and environmental benefit. This potential expansion prompts the need for land suitability assessment. In this paper, a GIS model is proposed for land-suitability assessment of potential energy systems featuring an AD coupled with an energy generator. A

Jianguo Ma; Norman R. Scott; Stephen D. DeGloria; Arthur J. Lembo

2005-01-01

105

Development of the digestive organ system in Japanese flounder in relation to metamorphosis and settlement  

Microsoft Academic Search

During metamorphosis and settlement the digestive system of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) exhibits various morphological features that include: differentiation and development of gastric glands and pyloric caeca coupled with partial degradation of the pancreas; involution of the liver; inflation of the gall bladder; and shortening of gut epithelium height. Pepsin?like enzyme activity increases markedly as metamorphosis proceeds, while trypsin?like enzyme

M. Tanaka; S. Kawai; T. Seikai; J. S. Burke

1996-01-01

106

Modeling a solar-heated anaerobic digester for the developing world using system dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the developing world lacks access to a dependable source of energy. Agricultural societies such as Mozambique and Papua New Guinea could sustain a reliable energy source through the microbacterial decomposition of animal and crop waste. Anaerobic digestion produces methane, which can be used directly for heating, cooking, and lighting. Adding a solar component to the digester provides a catalyst for bacteria activity, accelerating digestion and increasing biogas production. Using methane decreases the amount of energy expended by collecting and preparing firewood, eliminates hazardous health effects linked to inhalation of particles, and provides energy close to where it is needed. The purpose of this work is two fold: initial efforts focus on the development and validation of a computer-based system dynamics model that combines elements of the anaerobic digestion process in order to predict methane output; second, the model is flexed to explore how the addition of a solar component increases robustness of the design, examines predicted biogas generation as a function of varying input conditions, and determines how best to configure such systems for use in varying developing world environments. Therefore, the central components of the system: solar insolation, waste feedstock, bacteria population and consumption rates, and biogas production are related both conceptually and mathematically through a serious of equations, conversions, and a causal loop and feedback diagram. Given contextual constraints and initial assumptions for both locations, it was determined that solar insolation and subsequent digester temperature control, amount of waste, and extreme weather patterns had the most significant impact on the system as a whole. Model behavior was both reproducible and comparable to that demonstrated in existing experimental systems. This tool can thus be flexed to fit specific contexts within the developing world to improve the standard of living of many people, without significantly altering everyday activities.

Bentley, Johanna Lynn

107

Model system for the study of RNA digestion in the intestine  

SciTech Connect

A model system was developed to study the kinetics and regulation of the intestinal digestion of RNA. RNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strains, Guo 2.1 and Ade 12, were selectively radiolabeled in the adenine or guanine bases according to the method of Burridge and Woods. RNA was extracted from the yeast by incubation at 65/sup 0/C in Tris buffer (pH 7.2) and water-saturated phenol for 30 min and precipitated in ethanol at -70/sup 0/C overnight. The radiolabel in the resultant extract was exclusively in RNA with no labeled free nucleotides or bases detectable according to HV paper electrophoresis. Digestion of the RNA by commercial bovine ribonuclease resulted in the recovery of > 95% of the label in the acid-soluble fraction. 300 mg of the labeled RNA (0.7 ..mu..Ci) was injected into a ligated 15-cm segment of the proximal rat small intestine. Intestinal contents were sampled at 10, 20, and 30 min. Portions of the acid-soluble fraction and acid-insoluble precipitate were analyzed for radioactivity. Greater than 90% of the purified yeast RNA was digested by 30 min in the intestinal lumen. Furthermore, 80% of the radiolabel disappeared from the intestinal lumen. The kinetics and regulation of the digestion of RNA will be studied using this model system.

Chen, H.P.; Gross, C.J.; Savaiano, D.A.

1986-03-05

108

Immunohistochemical detection of regulatory cells in the digestive system of leeches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digestive system of four leech species,Glossiphonia complanata, Hirudo medicinalis, Haemopis sanguisuga, andErpobdella octoculata, was studied using, as markers, antisera to biologically active peptides, neurotensin, calcitonin, FRMF-amide, and serotonin.\\u000a In the epithelium and the wall of the alimentary tract, regulatory cells were revealed. They differed in shapes and detected\\u000a immunoreactivities; presumably they are elements of the diffuse endocrine system as

M. Yu. Punin; V. K. Kazakov; L. G. Mkrtchyan

2000-01-01

109

Systemic vasculitis: an annual critical digest of the most recent literature.  

PubMed

Herewith we provide our annual digest of the recent literature on systemic vasculitis in which we reviewed all the articles published during the last 12 months on large-, medium- and small-vessel vasculitis, and selected the most relevant studies regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of systemic vasculitis. In particular, we focused the attention on giant cell arteritis, ANCA-associated vasculitis and cryoglobulinaemia. PMID:24854379

Della Rossa, Alessandra; Cioffi, Elisa; Elefante, Elena; Ferro, Francesco; Parma, Alice; Vagelli, Roberta; Talarico, Rosaria

2014-01-01

110

Stem Cell Niche System in Mouse Spermatogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mammalian spermatogenesis endures on the persistent activity of stem cells, i.e., their self-renewal and production of differentiating\\u000a progeny. The normal functioning of stem cells explicitly requires a particular microenvironment within the tissue – the stem cell niche – as an indispensable element. While the mammalian spermatogenic stem cell niche system remains to be fully elucidated, recent\\u000a knowledge has improved our

Shosei Yoshida

111

Microbial distribution and abundance in the digestive system of five shipworm species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae).  

PubMed

Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms) are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) of the gills (ctenidia). These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis). These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:23028923

Betcher, Meghan A; Fung, Jennifer M; Han, Andrew W; O'Connor, Roberta; Seronay, Romell; Concepcion, Gisela P; Distel, Daniel L; Haygood, Margo G

2012-01-01

112

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 mediates the toxicity of Paclobutrazol on the digestive system of zebrafish embryos.  

PubMed

Paclobutrazol (PBZ), a trazole-containing fungicide and plant growth retardant, has been widely used for over 30 years to regulate plant growth and promote early fruit setting. Long-term usage of PBZ in agriculture and natural environments has resulted in residual PBZ in the soil and water. Chronic exposure to waterborne PBZ can cause various physiological effects in fish, including hepatic steatosis, antioxidant activity, and disruption of spermatogenesis. We have previously shown that PBZ also affects the rates of zebrafish embryonic survival and hatching, and causes developmental failure of the head skeleton and eyes; here, we further show that PBZ has embryonic toxic effects on digestive organs of zebrafish, and describe the underlying mechanisms. PBZ treatment of embryos resulted in dose-dependent morphological and functional abnormalities of the digestive organs. Real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization were used to show that PBZ strongly induces cyp1a1 expression in the digestive system, and slightly induces ahr2 expression in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of ahr2 with morpholino oligonucleotides prevents PBZ toxicity. Thus, the toxic effect of PBZ on digestive organs is mediated by AhR2, as was previously reported for retene and TCDD. These findings have implications for understanding the potential toxicity of PBZ during embryogenesis, and thus the potential impact of fungicides on public health and the environment. PMID:25500619

Wang, Wen-Der; Chen, Guan-Ting; Hsu, Hwei-Jan; Wu, Chang-Yi

2015-02-01

113

Microbial Distribution and Abundance in the Digestive System of Five Shipworm Species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae)  

PubMed Central

Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms) are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) of the gills (ctenidia). These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis). These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:23028923

Betcher, Meghan A.; Fung, Jennifer M.; Han, Andrew W.; O’Connor, Roberta; Seronay, Romell; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Distel, Daniel L.; Haygood, Margo G.

2012-01-01

114

System parameters for erythropoiesis control model: Comparison of normal values in human and mouse model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer model for erythropoietic control was adapted to the mouse system by altering system parameters originally given for the human to those which more realistically represent the mouse. Parameter values were obtained from a variety of literature sources. Using the mouse model, the mouse was studied as a potential experimental model for spaceflight. Simulation studies of dehydration and hypoxia were performed. A comparison of system parameters for the mouse and human models is presented. Aside from the obvious differences expected in fluid volumes, blood flows and metabolic rates, larger differences were observed in the following: erythrocyte life span, erythropoietin half-life, and normal arterial pO2.

1979-01-01

115

Junkyard Digestion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A hands-on exploration of the digestive system organs and their functions for high school students. Grades 10 and up. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2007 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Ms. Diana E Hill (Putnam City High School Science)

2003-05-22

116

Fetal Pig Digestive System Dissection 1. Begin by placing the fetal pig on its side in your dissecting tray. Peel the skin back from the  

E-print Network

Fetal Pig Digestive System Dissection Protocol: 1. Begin by placing the fetal pig on its side of the digestive tract. First, locate the esophagus, the collapsible tube lying underneath the trachea. 10. Trace

Loughry, Jim

117

Computer-Based Career Information Systems. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-based career information systems (CCIS) provide local labor market information. Guidance counselors frequently use CCIS in conjunction with clients, but youth and adults also access CCIS independently to obtain career information. The best known CCIS are the state-based career information delivery systems (CIDS). Although developed by a…

Imel, Susan

118

Efficient and Specific Trypsin Digestion of Microgram to Nanogram Quantities of Proteins in Organic-Aqueous Solvent Systems  

SciTech Connect

Mass spectrometry-based identification of the components of multiprotein complexes often involves solution-phase proteolytic digestion of the complex. The affinity purification of individual protein complexes often yields nanogram to low-microgram amounts of protein, which poses several challenges for enzymatic digestion and protein identification. We tested different solvent systems to optimize trypsin digestions of samples containing limited amounts of protein for subsequent analysis by LC-MS-MS. Data collected from digestion of 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2- g portions of a protein standard mixture indicated that an organicaqueous solvent system containing 80% acetonitrile consistently provided the most complete digestion, producing more peptide identifications than the other solvent systems tested. For example, a 1-h digestion in 80% acetonitrile yielded over 52% more peptides than the overnight digestion of 1 g of a protein mixture in purely aqueous buffer. This trend was also observed for peptides from digested ribosomal proteins isolated from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In addition to improved digestion efficiency, the shorter digestion times possible with the organic solvent also improved trypsin specificity, resulting in smaller numbers of semitryptic peptides than an overnight digestion protocol using an aqueous solvent. The technique was also demonstrated for an affinityisolated protein complex, GroEL. To our knowledge, this report is the first using mass spectrometry data to show a linkage between digestion solvent and trypsin specificity. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a widely used method for studying proteins, protein complexes, and whole proteomes because of innovations in soft ionization techniques, bioinformatics, and chromatographic separation techniques.1-7 An example of a high-throughput mass spectrometry strategy commonly used for this purpose is a variation of the "shotgun" approach, involving in-solution digestion of a protein complex followed by onedimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) MS-MS.6-8 One of the applications of this method is for characterizing multiprotein complexes by identifying large numbers of proteins in a single data acquisition.9 Large-scale implementations of this strategy have been reported for yeast and Escherichia coli.10-12 To achieve a goal of characterizing large numbers of protein complexes13 isolated by affinity purification from Rhodopseudomonas palustris,14 an efficient protocol for digesting these complexes is required.

Strader, Michael B [ORNL; Tabb, Dave L [ORNL; Hervey, IV, William Judson [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL

2006-01-01

119

[Digestive system disease as manifestation of the pleiotropic action of genes in mitochondrial dysfunction].  

PubMed

Defined involvement lesions of the digestive system of clinical manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction associated with both point mutations and polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA. The nature of the clinical signs of mtDNA polymorphisms carriers--multi organical, a progressive, clinical polymorphism, genetic heterogeneity with predominant involvement of energotropic bodies (cerebrum, cordis, hepatic). Set individual nosological forms of mitochondrial dysfunctions--syndromes Leia, Leber, Cairns, Sarah, MERRF, MELAS, NARP, MNGIE confirmed by clinical and genetic, morphological, biochemical, enzymatic, molecular genetics methods. It was found that 84-88% of these syndromes involving the violation of the digestive system with varying degrees of injury. This damage will be the first in the complex chain signs recovery which determines the direction of early rehabilitation. PMID:25528830

Hrechanina, O Ia; Hrechanina, Iu B; Husar, V A; Molodan, L V

2014-11-01

120

Kynurenic Acid in the Digestive System—New Facts, New Challenges  

PubMed Central

This review provides information on the most recent findings concerning presence, origin, and role of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a tryptophan metabolite, in the digestive system. KYNA is an antagonist of both the ionotropic glutamate receptors and the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, as well as an agonist of G-protein coupled GPR35 receptor. Since the GPR35 receptor is mainly present in the gastrointestinal tract, researchers have concentrated on the digestive system in recent years. They have found that KYNA content increases gradually and significantly along the gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, the concentration of KYNA in the lumen is much higher than in the wall of intestine. It has been documented that KYNA may have a positive influence on the number of pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract, in particular ulcers, colon obstruction, or colitis. Future studies might determine whether it is advisable to supplement KYNA to a human organism. PMID:24049450

Turski, Michal P.; Turska, Monika; Paluszkiewicz, Piotr; Parada-Turska, Jolanta; Oxenkrug, Gregory F.

2013-01-01

121

XPC Polymorphism Increases Risk of Digestive System Cancers: Current Evidence from A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) participates in the initial recognition of DNA damage during nucleotide excision repair process in global genomic repair. Our meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between three polymorphisms (Lys939Gln, PAT+/– and Ala499Val) of XPC gene and risk of digestive system cancers. Methods All the relevant case-control studies published to April 2011 were identified through searching PubMed. Digestive system cancer risk with the three polymorphisms was estimated for each study by odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results We found an increased overall risk for digestive system cancers in all three models of Lys939Gln A>C (AC/CC vs. AA: OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11–1.30; CC vs. AC/AA: OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.11–1.39; CC vs. AA: OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.21–1.53). When strati?ed by ethnicity, results remained significant in Asian population (AC/CC vs. AA: OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02–1.37; CC vs. AC/AA: OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.1–1.51; CC vs. AA: OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.08–1.70), but not for Caucasians. However for Ala499Val C>T, a significant protective effect of T allele was only observed in the dominant model. Otherwise, no significant results were observed for PAT+/–. Conclusion XPC Lys939Gln A>C polymorphism may play an important role in digestive system cancer susceptibility. PMID:23359774

Jiang, Xia; Zhou, Li-tao; Zhang, Shan-chun

2012-01-01

122

XPA A23G polymorphism and risk of digestive system cancers: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have reported an association between the A23G polymorphism (rs 1800975) in the xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) gene and risk of digestive system cancers. However, the results are inconsistent. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between XPA A23G polymorphism and the risk of digestive system cancers. Methods Relevant studies were identified using the PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang, and VIP databases up to August 30, 2014. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using the fixed or random effects model. Results A total of 18 case-control studies from 16 publications with 4,170 patients and 6,929 controls were included. Overall, no significant association was found between XPA A23G polymorphism and the risk of digestive system cancers (dominant model: GA + AA versus GG, OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.74–1.08; recessive model: AA versus GA + GG, OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.74–1.20; GA versus GG, OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.77–1.03; and AA versus GG, OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.64–1.19). When the analysis was stratified by ethnicity, similar results were observed among Asians and Caucasians in all genetic models. In stratified analysis based on tumor type, we also failed to detect any association between XPA A23G polymorphism and the risk of esophageal, gastric, or colorectal cancers. Conclusion This meta-analysis indicates that the XPA A23G polymorphism is not associated with a risk of digestive system cancers. PMID:25709470

He, Lei; Deng, Tao; Luo, Hesheng

2015-01-01

123

Performance of a two-phase anaerobic digestion system when treating dairy wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of a laboratory-scale two-phase anaerobic digestion system treating dairy wastewater was investigated using the pre-determined operating criteria for the anaerobic acidification reactor. The results, obtained from a 9month operation, showed that overall, 90% COD and 95% BOD removal efficiencies at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 5kg COD\\/m3d and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2days were achieved. The

O. Ince

1998-01-01

124

Dual cellulose-digesting system of the wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of endo-?-1,4-glucanase (EG) components in the digestive system of the wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was investigated by zymogram analysis using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by N-terminal protein sequencing. EG components similar to glycoside hydrolase family (GHF) 9 members were restricted to the salivary glands, the foregut, and the midgut, whereas components similar to GHF7 members were confined

K Nakashima; H Watanabe; H Saitoh; G Tokuda; J.-I Azuma

2002-01-01

125

PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN ROUGHAGES AND THEIR FATE IN THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF SHEEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three experiments were conducted to determine the concentrations of phenolic monomers (para-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone, para-hydroxybenzalde- hyde and para-hydroxyacetophenone) and polymers (lignin) in roughages and to assess the fate of these compounds in the ruminant digestive system. In Exp. 1, low quality timothy hay and cottonwood, silver maple and red oak sawdusts were fed to mature wethers.

G. C. Fahey; F. C. Hinds; D. E. Short

2010-01-01

126

Prediction of digestible energy of feed ingredients for growing pigs using a computer-controlled simulated digestion system.  

PubMed

The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate in vitro DE (IVDE) of selected feed ingredients using a computer-controlled simulated digestion system (CCSDS) and predict DE of ingredients for growing pigs. Samples of 6 ingredients with a wide range in energy and nutrient profile were collected. The CP and GE contents ranged from 9.9 to 50.9% and 4,493 to 4,841 kcal/kg (DM basis), respectively. Two control diets were formulated to achieve different CP contents (12.5 and 20.0%). Three experimental diets were formulated by replacing 20% of the high-CP control diet with corn, wheat, or wheat bran, whereas 3 additional diets were formulated by replacing 20% of the low-CP control diet with soybean meal, rapeseed meal, or cottonseed meal. The DE was determined using barrows (n = 24; initial BW = 35.9 ± 1.9 kg) in 2 periods with 6 observations per diet treatment and ranged from 2,769 to 4,368 kcal/kg. The equation for the DE content (kcal/kg of DM) using chemical components as independent variables was DE = 4,186 + 0.06 × CP + 79.33 × ether extract - 14.57 × NDF - 47.99 × ADF, with R(2) = 0.995, residual SD (RSD) = 89.5 kcal/kg, CV = 2.4%, and P = 0.10 (chemical component values; %). The IVDE ranged from 2,289 to 3,724 kcal/kg and was highly related to the determined DE content of the ingredients (R(2) = 0.91, RSD = 193 kcal/kg, and CV = 5.2%). The relationship between IVDE:GE and DE:GE was very high (R(2) = 0.93, RSD = 3.8%, and CV = 4.7%). The average values of CV for IVDE (0.75%) and IVDE:GE (0.73%) were less than that for determined DE (2.58%) and DE:GE (2.54%), respectively. In conclusion, the IVDE content determined, using a CCSDS with relatively high accuracy and acceptable repeatability, might be used to predict DE of feed ingredients for growing pigs. PMID:25057025

Chen, L; Gao, L X; Huang, Q H; Lu, Q P; Sa, R N; Zhang, H F

2014-09-01

127

Finger mouse system based on computer vision in complex backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a human-computer interaction system and realizes a real-time virtual mouse. Our system emulates the dragging and selecting functions of a mouse by recognizing bare hands, hence the control style is simple and intuitive. A single camera is used to capture hand images and a DSP chip is embedded as the image processing platform. To deal with complex backgrounds, particularly where skin-like or moving objects appear, we develop novel hand recognition algorithms. Hand segmentation is achieved by skin color cue and background difference. Each input image is corrected according to the luminance and then skin color is extracted by Gaussian model. We employ a Camshift tracking algorithm which receives feedbacks from the recognition module. In fingertip recognition, a method combining template matching and circle drawing is proposed. Our system has advantages of good real-time performance, easy integration and energy conservation. Experiments show that the system is robust to the scaling and rotation of hands.

Xu, Jun; Zhang, Xiong

2013-12-01

128

Infestation of the human digestive system with beetle larvae (coleoptera: cantharidae): a case report.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to report the digestive system infestation caused by the larvae of Coleoptera in a female pediatric patient. She was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of emergence of insect larvae from her vomit and feces, abdominal pain, inguinal pain, lack of appetite, hair loss, excessive cleaning behavior, extreme irritability, and distractibility. The larvae observed typically had the morphology of the larvae of insects related to the Cantharidae family in the Coleoptera order. For treatment, a single dose of albendazole (400 mg) was used. Consequently, in the present case, it was seen that the larvae of Coleoptera incidentally taken orally could continue to live for a period in the digestive tract of people, without losing vitality, and the larvae caused a variety of symptoms due to both their toxic agents and the possible irritation they caused. PMID:25732890

Y?lmaz, Hasan; Ta? Cengiz, Zeynep; Dülger, Ahmet Cumhur; Ekici, P?nar

2014-12-01

129

Conducting a Safety Walk-through on a Farm: Hazards of the Manure Handling System, Anaerobic Digester, and Biogas Handling System (A Self-Assessment Guideline for Farmers)  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] This self-assessment document is intended to be used by farm owners and managers or farm staff who are responsible for the operations and\\/or maintenance of anaerobic digesters and their related processes. It provides guidance for process and job evaluation with suggestions based upon typical potential hazards for farm digester systems and their associated preventive measures.

Nellie J Brown

2007-01-01

130

Digestibility of sorghum proteins.  

PubMed Central

Published information indicates that rice, maize, and wheat proteins are much more digestible in children than sorghum proteins are (66-81% compared with 46%). However, this digestibility difference cannot be demonstrated with the weanling rat, which gave digestibility values of 80% for cooked and 85% for uncooked sorghum gruels. Therefore, a search was made for a laboratory system sensitive to the digestibility differences between sorghum and other cereals. We found that porcine pepsin in vitro shows these digestibility differences. Using pepsin, we have found that uncooked sorghum proteins have a high digestibility (78-100%), which drops to a range of 45-55% after cooking. Two fermented sheet-baked sorghum products (kisra and abrey) from Sudan gave pepsin digestibility values of 65-86%. In contrast, unfermented cooked gruels made in our laboratory from the same flours used for the kisra and abrey gave pepsin values of only 44-56%. Therefore, fermentation improves pepsin digestibility of sorghum. The digestibility values of other sorghum-based foods prepared in the semiarid tropics need surveying. Those with high pepsin digestibility values hopefully should be more digestible (in children) than are the cooked sorghum gruels studied to date by human nutritionists. PMID:6785757

Axtell, J D; Kirleis, A W; Hassen, M M; D'Croz Mason, N; Mertz, E T; Munck, L

1981-01-01

131

National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse  

MedlinePLUS

... External Link Disclaimer Health Topics Anatomy Lists Your Digestive System and How It Works Blood Diseases Lists Anemia ... cancer called esophageal adencarcinoma.? Bile Ducts See Your Digestive System and How It Works Biliary Atresia Describes biliary ...

132

Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system  

SciTech Connect

The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

Stabnikova, O. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)], E-mail: costab@ntu.edu.sg; Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

2008-07-01

133

Continuously-stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into Biogas: System Setup and Basic Operation  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a bioprocess that is commonly used to convert complex organic wastes into a useful biogas with methane as the energy carrier 1-3. Increasingly, AD is being used in industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste(water) treatment applications 4,5. The use of AD technology allows plant operators to reduce waste disposal costs and offset energy utility expenses. In addition to treating organic wastes, energy crops are being converted into the energy carrier methane 6,7. As the application of AD technology broadens for the treatment of new substrates and co-substrate mixtures 8, so does the demand for a reliable testing methodology at the pilot- and laboratory-scale. Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations, including the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow (PF), and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) configurations 9. The CSTR is frequently used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations. However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with solids or settling of solids in tubing. For that scenario with continuous mixing requirements, lab-scale bioreactors are fed periodically and we refer to such configurations as continuously stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs). This article presents a general methodology for constructing, inoculating, operating, and monitoring a CSAD system for the purpose of testing the suitability of a given organic substrate for long-term anaerobic digestion. The construction section of this article will cover building the lab-scale reactor system. The inoculation section will explain how to create an anaerobic environment suitable for seeding with an active methanogenic inoculum. The operating section will cover operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting. The monitoring section will introduce testing protocols using standard analyses. The use of these measures is necessary for reliable experimental assessments of substrate suitability for AD. This protocol should provide greater protection against a common mistake made in AD studies, which is to conclude that reactor failure was caused by the substrate in use, when really it was improper user operation 10. PMID:22824993

Usack, Joseph G.; Spirito, Catherine M.; Angenent, Largus T.

2012-01-01

134

An Efficient User Verification System via Mouse Nan Zheng, Aaron Paloski, and Haining Wang  

E-print Network

biometric. In this paper, we present a user verifica- tion system using mouse dynamics, which is bothAn Efficient User Verification System via Mouse Movements Nan Zheng, Aaron Paloski, and Haining,appalo,hnw}@cs.wm.edu Abstract Biometric authentication verifies a user based on its inher- ent, unique characteristics--who you

Wang, Haining

135

Quiz Making Activities Using the Multi-Mouse Quiz System in an Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Multi-Mouse Quiz System is an application used to treat quizzes in a classroom or other learning environment. The system comprises the Multi Mouse Quiz (MMQ) and MMQEditor. The MMQ is an application of Single Display Groupware (SDG), which enables multiple users to answer quizzes by connecting several mice to an ordinary computer. The…

Zhou, Juan; Mori, Mikihiko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Kita, Hajime

2013-01-01

136

Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as drug targets for diseases of the digestive system  

PubMed Central

Approximately 20 of the 30 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed by specific neurons and cells within the alimentary canal. They subserve important roles in taste, chemesthesis, mechanosensation, pain and hyperalgesia and contribute to the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, absorptive and secretory processes, blood flow, and mucosal homeostasis. In a cellular perspective, TRP channels operate either as primary detectors of chemical and physical stimuli, as secondary transducers of ionotropic or metabotropic receptors, or as ion transport channels. The polymodal sensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPM8, TRPP2, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 enables the digestive system to survey its physical and chemical environment, which is relevant to all processes of digestion. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 contribute to the absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively. TRPM7 participates in intestinal pacemaker activity, and TRPC4 transduces muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation to smooth muscle contraction. Changes in TRP channel expression or function are associated with a variety of diseases/disorders of the digestive system, notably gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pain and hyperalgesia in heartburn, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, cholera, hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, esophageal, gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer, and polycystic liver disease. These implications identify TRP channels as promising drug targets for the management of a number of gastrointestinal pathologies. As a result, major efforts are put into the development of selective TRP channel agonists and antagonists and the assessment of their therapeutic potential. PMID:21420431

Holzer, Peter

2011-01-01

137

Rapid Nitric Acid Digestion of Plant Material with an Open-Vessel Microwave System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digestion of plant materials in hot (130–140°C) concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) is a common procedure for assessing their nutrient contents. In the conventional HNO3 digestion, desired temperatures are achieved through controlled electrical heating, and digestion occurs within Pyrex test tubes. The main limitations associated with the conventional digestion method may include (1) high labor requirement for monitoring acid levels in

L. Huang; R. W. Bell; J. Woodward

2004-01-01

138

Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; P<0.001) and the calculated time to cero viability is 36 days. The eggs in the intestinal system of each beetle were counted and tested for viability. Taenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas. PMID:24728368

Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

2014-03-01

139

Mouse Forward Genetics in the Study of the Peripheral Nervous System and Human Peripheral Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forward genetics, the phenotype-driven approach to investigating gene identity and function, has a long history in mouse genetics.\\u000a Random mutations in the mouse transcend bias about gene function and provide avenues towards unique discoveries. The study\\u000a of the peripheral nervous system is no exception; from historical strains such as the trembler mouse, which led to the identification of PMP22 as

Darlene S. Douglas; Brian Popko

2009-01-01

140

Characterization of the endocannabinoid system in mouse embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

In this study, we have ascertained the presence and functionality in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) of members of the endocannabinoid system that have been proposed as possible modulators of the survival and differentiation of various type of stem cells. We show that mouse ESCs, in addition to classical CB(1) and CB(2) cannabinoid receptors, express the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor, at mRNA, protein, and binding levels. Remarkably, we demonstrate that ESCs have the mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity to synthesize and degrade the prominent endocannabinoids anandamide (through N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D and fatty acid amide hydrolase) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (through diacylglycerol lipase and monoacylglycerol lipase). In addition, both endocannabinoids were detected in ESCs that were also shown to constitutively release a fatty acid amide hydrolase-activating compound. Finally, we document that the stimulation of ESCs by methanandamide, a nonhydrolysable analog of anandamide, does not lead to overt alteration of the expression of Oct3/4, Nanog, and Cdx2, genes that are involved in early cell fate in the preimplantation embryo and stemness, or of the expression patterns of Brachyury and Hnf4, genes that are used as late markers of lineage differentiation capability of ESC-derived embryoid bodies. Similarly ineffective on the expression of the tested stemness genes was 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Taken together, these results confirm and extend the notion that ESCs express several functional members of the endocannabinoid system, but they leave open the question about their role in stem cells as modulators of stemness and differentiation potential. PMID:20446814

Bari, Monica; Tedesco, Marianna; Battista, Natalia; Pasquariello, Nicoletta; Pucci, Mariangela; Gasperi, Valeria; Scaldaferri, Maria Lucia; Farini, Donatella; De Felici, Massimo; Maccarrone, Mauro

2011-01-01

141

Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: English-Based Sign Systems. ERIC Digest #E556.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest uses a question-and-answer format to summarize basic information about the use of English-based sign systems with children who are deaf or hard of hearing. English-based sign systems are explained as using the vocabulary of American Sign Language (ASL) with the grammatical and syntactical features of English. These systems include…

Gustason, Gerilee

142

Bioefficacy of tea catechins encapsulated in casein micelles tested on a normal mouse cell line (4D/WT) and its cancerous counterpart (D/v-src) before and after in vitro digestion.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have demonstrated that tea catechins form complexes with milk proteins, especially caseins. Much less work has been conducted to understand the metabolic conversions of tea-milk complexes during gastro-duodenal digestion. The objective of this study was to determine the significance of this association on the digestibility of the milk proteins and on the bioaccessibility of the tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). An in vitro digestion model mimicking the gastric and duodenal phases of the human gastrointestinal tract was employed to follow the fate of the milk proteins during digestion and determine the bioefficacy of EGCG isolated or encapsulated with the caseins. The samples, before and after digestion, were tested using two parallel colonic epithelial cell lines, a normal line (4D/WT) and its cancerous transformed counterpart (D/v-src). EGCG caused a decrease in proliferation of cancer cells, while in normal cells, neither isolated nor encapsulated EGCG affected cell proliferation, at concentrations <0.15 mg ml(-1). At higher concentrations, both isolated and encapsulated produced similar decreases in proliferation. On the other hand, the bioefficacy on the cancer cell line showed some differences at lower concentrations. The results demonstrated that regardless of the extent of digestion of the nanoencapsulated EGCG, the bioefficacy of EGCG was not diminished, confirming that casein micelles are an appropriate delivery system for polyphenols. PMID:24686838

Haratifar, Sanaz; Meckling, Kelly A; Corredig, Milena

2014-06-01

143

MICRON MOUSE IMAGING SYSTEM The Micron Mouse Imaging System is a Core Resource for the Moran  

E-print Network

PARTS LIST (A) Windows XP PC with StreamPix software & USB key (H) Micron brightfield and fluorescein, amplifier, light source, monitor power cables #12;3 SYSTEM PARTS LIGHT SOURCE CAMERA AMPLIFIER Quick key.There is no reason to ever touch the guide. The StreamPix USB should never be re- moved. Do not touch it

Marc, Robert E.

144

Cadherin-17 is a useful diagnostic marker for adenocarcinomas of the digestive system.  

PubMed

Cadherin-17, also called liver-intestine cadherin, is a calcium-dependent transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates cell-cell adhesion in intestinal epithelium. Expression of cadherin-17 was reported in gastric, pancreatic, and colorectal adenocarcinomas but not in other tumors. Whether cadherin-17 can be used as a marker for diagnosis of cancers is still unclear. In this study, we used immunohistochemical methods to stain cadherin-17 in tissue arrays containing most normal tissues and 518 carcinomas from many anatomic sites. Among normal tissues, the expression of cadherin-17 was limited to epithelial cells of small intestine and colon. Colorectal adenocarcinomas showed staining in 96% of cases and most of them had strong and diffuse staining. Gastric, pancreatic, and biliary adenocarcinomas showed diffuse or scattered staining in about 25-50% of cases. Fewer than 1% of carcinomas outside the digestive system were positive for cadherin-17. When a two-marker, Cadherin-17/cytokeratin 7, profile was used, 37 of 38 (97%) cadherin-17(+)/cytokeratin 7(-) tumors were colorectal adenocarcinomas; 49 of 56 (86%) cadherin-17(+)/cytokeratin 7(+) tumors were gastric, pancreatic, or biliary adenocarcinomas. Our results show that cadherin-17 is a useful immunohistochemical marker for diagnosis of adenocarcinomas of the digestive system. PMID:18552820

Su, Min-Cheng; Yuan, Ray-Hwang; Lin, Chiao-Ying; Jeng, Yung-Ming

2008-11-01

145

Case study of selective catalytic reduction system start-up on digester gas fired combustion turbines  

SciTech Connect

In August 1989, the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) adopted Rule 1134 which imposed strict NO{sub x} emission limits on stationary, non-utility, combustion turbines. The rule was technology-forcing for the owners and operators of digester gas fired combustion turbines since it established a NO{sub x} emission limit of 9 parts per million by volume at 15 percent oxygen. The County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (Districts), operators of three 6.5 MW digester gas fired turbines, elected to retrofit the turbines with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems to achieve compliance with the SCAQMD rule. After four years and costs in excess of four million dollars, the Districts continue to work on achieving system performance goals. This case study provides a brief history of the development of Rule 1134 and the motivation behind the strict NO{sub x} limits. The Districts` rationale in choosing SCR systems as a means of attaining compliance is presented along with a discussion of the physical site constraints which resulted in a less than optimum retrofit installation of the SCR systems. SCR system performance problems are examined including what was suspected to be poisoning of the catalyst by potassium in the turbine exhaust gas. The major actions undertaken by the Districts, its contractor and subcontractors to bring the turbines into compliance are also presented including optimizing exhaust flow distribution through the catalyst reactor, optimizing the ammonia mixing in the exhaust duct, optimizing water injection rates, installing intake combustion air evaporative cooling systems, reactivating the catalyst with resistant coatings, and undertaking structural retrofits to prevent distortion of the reactor house caused by thermal expansion. The case study concludes with a brief summary of the SCR systems` final physical configuration and performance and an update on the pending regulation changes.

Conway, V.O.; Min, S.W.; Adams, G.M. [County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County, Whittier, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

146

Proceedings of Student-Faculty Research Day, CSIS, Pace University, May 2nd Refinement of a Mouse Movement Biometric System  

E-print Network

of a Mouse Movement Biometric System Nkem Ajufor, Antony Amalraj, Rafael Diaz, Mohammed Islam, Michael Lampe of an existing Mouse Movement Biometric Identification system. Building on the research and work from a previous implementation of a mouse biometric system, the study focuses on enhancing the data capture program to enrich

Tappert, Charles

147

Mouse Vocal Communication System: Are Ultrasounds Learned or Innate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production.…

Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

2013-01-01

148

Immunohistochemical observations of methionine-enkephalin and delta opioid receptor in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus.  

PubMed

The study was designed to determine whether methionine-enkephalin (met-Enk) or delta opioid receptor was present in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus. The results showed that they were both in the bulbus oris, esophagus, crop, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, posterior salivary glands of O. ocellatus, one of them, met-Enk in the rectum, anterior salivary glands, digestive gland. And the distributions were extensive in the digestive system. Strong or general met-Enk immunoreactivity was observed in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, anterior salivary glands and the adventitia of the intestine and rectum, and so was the delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, and crop, however, they were weak in other parts. Combining with delta opioid receptor, met-Enk may be involved in the regulations of food intake, absorption, movement of gastrointestinal smooth muscle and secretion of digestive gland. The different densities of met-Enk and delta opioid receptor may be related to the different functions in the digestive system of O. ocellatus. PMID:22795872

Sha, Ailong; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan

2013-02-01

149

MOUSE (MODULAR ORIENTED UNCERTAINTY SYSTEM): A COMPUTERIZED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM. OPERATIONAL MANUAL.  

EPA Science Inventory

MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty SystEm) deals with the problem of uncertainties in models that consist of one or more algebraic equations. It was especially designed for use by those with little or no knowledge of computer languages or programming. It is compact (and thus can...

150

Development of red porgy Pagrus pagrus visual system in relation with changes in the digestive tract and larval feeding habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red porgy larvae, like other sparids such as red seabream are visual feeders. The normal development of the visual system is essential for successful prey capture and predator avoidance, leading to increased larval growth and survival. The aim of this work is to characterise the development of visual organs in relation to changes in the digestive system and feeding habits.

F. J Roo; J Socorro; M. S Izquierdo; M. J Caballero; C. M Hernández-Cruz; A Fernández; H Fernández-Palacios

1999-01-01

151

Effect of fasting in the digestive system: histological study of the small intestine in house sparrows.  

PubMed

In birds and mammals the metabolic response to fasting has been studied and can be characterized by three consecutive phases reflecting metabolic and physiological adjustments. An effective way to minimize energy expenditure during food scarcity is to decrease the mass of the organs. As the digestive system is metabolically expensive to maintain, the small intestine and the liver are the most affected organs. We evaluated the effects of phase III starvation on the mass of the different organs and histological parameters on house sparrows, a small non-migrant bird. In a short period of time (34 h) we observed a larger reduction in the digestive organ mass when compared to the mass of the body and non-alimentary tissues. Furthermore, the intestinal mass was proportionally more reduced than its length and nominal surface area. A reduction on the intestinal mucosal layer also resulted in a shortening of villus (length and thickness) and crypt depth. Moreover, the morphology of the enterocytes changed from cylindrical to cubical, suggesting that the surface exposed to the lumen was conserved. This may indicate an adaptive response to the moment of refeeding. The nominal surface area/body mass remained constant in both groups and several histological parameters were reduced, suggesting that starving induces the atrophy of the small intestine. However, the goblet cells were conserved after fasting indicating a protective tendency. PMID:25035101

Funes, Samanta Celeste; Filippa, Verónica Palmira; Cid, Fabricio Damián; Mohamed, Fabián; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Chediack, Juan Gabriel

2014-10-01

152

Microbial ecology of autothermal thermophilic aerobic digester (ATAD) systems for treating waste activated sludge.  

PubMed

Despite their widespread use, our understanding of the microbial ecology of the autothermal thermophilic aerobic digesters (ATAD) used to dispose of sludge from wastewater treatment plants is poor. Applying both culture-dependent and molecular methods to two ATAD systems in Victoria, Australia treating different wastewaters revealed that their communities were highly specialized. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling suggested differences in their population compositions and both changed over time. However, both showed low level biodiversity, and contained several novel bacterial populations. 16S rRNA clone library data and FISH analyses showed that Thermus thermophilus dominated both communities and that of a third ATAD plant in NSW (more than 90% of the total bacterial biovolume in repeated samples taken from each of the three ATAD plants). Culture-dependent methods also showed Geobacillus spp. were present in both Victorian communities. Nevertheless, the ecophysiology of these populations and their putative roles in sludge digestion remain unclear. FISH/microautoradiographic studies did not provide conclusive data elucidating which substrate/s T. thermophilus might utilize in the ATAD reactors. PMID:21377821

Hayes, David; Izzard, Leonard; Seviour, Robert

2011-04-01

153

Influence of different manuring systems with and without biogas digestion on soil organic matter and nitrogen inputs, flows and budgets in organic cropping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) cycles are closely linked in organic farming systems. Use of residues for biogas digestion may\\u000a reduce N-losses and lead to higher farmland productivity. However, digestion is connected to large losses of organic C. It\\u000a is the purpose of this paper (1) to compare farming systems based on liquid slurry and solid farmyard manure regarding the

Kurt Möller

2009-01-01

154

The journey of a sandwich: computer-based laboratory experiments about the human digestive system in high school biology teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school biology. Using a computer equipped with a commercially available data-acquisition system and a couple of sensors, it was possible to illustrate the basic underlying physical and chemical principles of digestion to the students. Students were able to investigate, through hands-on activities, the chewing force of the jaws, importance of the mechanical breakdown of food, enzymatic activity of pepsin and amylase, antibacterial activity of hydrochloric acid, and importance of the villi for absorption. Students found the experiments interesting and helpful for understanding the digestive process. Furthermore, the results from testing indicated that the students had a deeper understanding of the physiological processes.

Andrej Sorgo (Prva gimnazija Maribor)

2008-01-14

155

Autoheated thermophilic aerobic digestion  

SciTech Connect

Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) is first and foremost a digestion process, the primary purpose of which is to decompose a portion of the waste organic solids generated from wastewater treatment. As a result of the high operating temperature, digestion is expected to occur within a short time period (6 days) and accomplish a high degree of pathogen reduction. ATAD systems are two-stage aerobic digestion processes that operate under thermophilic temperature conditions (40 to 80C) without supplemental heat. Like composting, the systems rely on the conservation of heat released during digestion itself to attain and sustain the desired operating temperature. Typical ATAD systems operate at 55C and may reach temperatures of 60 to 65C in the second-stage reactor. Perhaps because of the high operating temperature, this process has been referred to as Liquid Composting.' Major advantages associated with thermophilic operation include high biological reaction rates and a substantial degree of pathogen reduction.

Deeny, K. (Junkins Engineering, Morgantown, PA (United States)); Hahn, H.; Leonhard, D. (Univ. Karlsruhe (West Germany)); Heidman, J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1991-10-01

156

Cache Digests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Cache Digest, a novel protocol and optimization technique for cooperativeWeb caching. Cache Digest allows proxies to make information about their cache contentsavailable to peers in a compact form. A peer uses digests to identify neighbors that are likelyto have a given document. Cache Digest is a promising alternative to traditional per-requestquery\\/reply schemes such as ICP.We discuss the

Alex Rousskov; Duane Wessels

1998-01-01

157

Identification of transcriptional regulators in the mouse immune system  

PubMed Central

The differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into immune cells has been extensively studied in mammals, but the transcriptional circuitry controlling it is still only partially understood. Here, the Immunological Genome Project gene expression profiles across mouse immune lineages allowed us to systematically analyze these circuits. Using a computational algorithm called Ontogenet, we uncovered differentiation-stage specific regulators of mouse hematopoiesis, identifying many known hematopoietic regulators, and 175 new candidate regulators, their target genes, and the cell types in which they act. Among the novel regulators, we highlight the role of ETV5 in ??T cells differntiation. Since the transcriptional program of human and mouse cells is highly conserved1, it is likely that many lessons learned from the mouse model apply to humans. PMID:23624555

Jojic, Vladimir; Shay, Tal; Sylvia, Katelyn; Zuk, Or; Sun, Xin; Kang, Joonsoo; Regev, Aviv; Koller, Daphne

2013-01-01

158

Radiofrequency dosimetry for the Ferris-wheel mouse exposure system.  

PubMed

Numerical and experimental methods were employed to assess the individual and collective dosimetry of mice used in a bioassay on the exposure to pulsed radiofrequency energy at 900 MHz in the Ferris-wheel exposure system (Utteridge et al., Radiat. Res. 158, 357-364, 2002). Twin-well calorimetry was employed to measure the whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) of mice for three body masses (23 g, 32 g and 36 g) to determine the lifetime exposure history of the mice used in the bioassay. Calorimetric measurements showed about 95% exposure efficiency and lifetime average whole-body SARs of 0.21, 0.86, 1.7 and 3.4 W kg(-1) for the four exposure groups. A larger statistical variation in SAR was observed in the smallest mice because they had the largest variation in posture inside the plastic restrainers. Infrared thermography provided SAR distributions over the sagittal plane of mouse cadavers. Thermograms typically showed SAR peaks in the abdomen, neck and head. The peak local SAR at these locations, determined by thermometric measurements, showed peak-to-average SAR ratios below 6:1, with typical values around 3:1. Results indicate that the Ferris wheel fulfills the requirement of providing a robust exposure setup, allowing uniform collective lifetime exposure of mice. PMID:16392968

Faraone, Antonio; Luengas, Wilson; Chebrolu, Subbarao; Ballen, Maurice; Bit-Babik, Giorgi; Gessner, Andrew V; Kanda, Michael Y; Babij, Tadeusz; Swicord, Mays L; Chou, Chung-Kwang

2006-01-01

159

Control of organic loading rate using the specific methanogenic activity test during start-up of an anaerobic digestion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific methanogenic activity test (SMA) was used to determine a suitable organic loading rate during the start-up phase of a crossflow ultrafiltration membrane anaerobic reactor system (CUMAR). The SMA test was immediately carried out after seeding the reactor with sludge taken from a municipal wastewater treatment plant digester in order to determine the most acceptable initial organic loading rate.

O. Ince; G. K. Anderson; B. Kasapgil

1995-01-01

160

The Journey of a Sandwich: Computer-Based Laboratory Experiments about the Human Digestive System in High School Biology Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school…

Sorgo, Andrej; Hajdinjak, Zdravka; Briski, Darko

2008-01-01

161

What Happens to the Food We Eat? Children's Conceptions of the Structure and Function of the Digestive System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes children's conceptions of the structure and function of the human digestive system based on an investigation carried out with children aged 4-10 (n=45). Finds that children possess biological knowledge as an independent knowledge domain from the age of four. Discusses acquisition of and barriers to scientific concepts related to human…

Teixeira, Francimar Martins

2000-01-01

162

The isolation and characterization of new C. thermocellum strains and the evaluation of multiple anaerobic digestion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objective of my research was to improve the efficiencies of bioconversions that produce renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass. To this end, my studies addressed issues important to two promising strategies: consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) and anaerobic digestion (AD). CBP achieves saccharolytic enzyme production, hydrolysis, and fermentation in a single step and is considered to be the most cost-effective model. Anaerobic bacteria that can be used in CBP are highly desirable. To that end, two thermophilic and cellulolytic bacterial strains were isolated and characterized (Chapter 3). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, both strains CS7 and CS8 are closely related to Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. However, they had significantly higher specific cellulase activities and ethanol/acetate ratios than C. thermocellum ATCC 27405. As a result, CS7 and CS8 are two new highly cellulolytic and ethanologenic C. thermocellum strains, with application potentials in research and development of CBP. As some of the most promising AD processes, two temperature-phased AD (TPAD) systems, in comparison with a thermophilic single-stage AD (TSAD) system and a mesophilic two-stage AD (MTAD) system, were studied in treating high-strength dairy cattle manure. The TPAD systems, with the thermophilic digesters acidified (AT-TPAD, Chapter 4) or operated at neutral pH (NT-TPAD, Chapter 5), were optimized at the thermophilic temperature of 50°C and a volume ratio between the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters of 1:2. Despite similar methane productions, the NT-TPAD system achieved significantly higher volatile solid (VS) removal than the AT-TPAD system and needed no external pH adjustments (Chapter 6). At the same overall OLR, the TSAD system achieved the highest performance, followed by the NT-TPAD and the MTAD systems (Chapter 7). Each digester harbored distinct yet dynamic microbial populations, some of which were significantly correlated or associated with system performances. Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium were the most important methanogenic genera in the digesters where intense hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis occurred, while Methanosaeta established itself in the mesophilic digesters with sufficient retention time and low concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA). The populations of all the quantified methanogen genera (Methanobacterium, Methanosarcina, Methanosaeta , and Methanoculleus) were inversely correlated or associated with high concentrations of VFA. The results of DGGE and qPCR were confirmed and improved by the pyrosequencing data (Chapter 8). Different operation conditions led to the development of different microbial communities that resulted in the functional differences among AD systems. The bacterial community tended to be more diverse in the digesters with more lenient conditions. Firmicutes was a major phylum in each AD system and might be associated with system performance. Chloroflexi was a major phylum in each thermophilic digester with balanced hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis, so it might be indicative of efficient operations of thermophilic digesters. Thermotogae only appeared as a major phylum in the AT-TPAD system and might be important to its performance. The results of my studies had impacts on the development of renewable bioenergy. On one hand, the two new thermophilic cellulolytic isolates may be further evaluated for development of CBP strains. On the other hand, the series of comparative and integrated studies of different AD systems provided new knowledge that may guide future research and development of AD systems, particularly TPAD systems. Furthermore, the correlation between system performances and microbial communities may help improve design and operation of AD in general.

Lv, Wen

163

Characterisation of cellulase activity in the digestive system of the redclaw crayfish ( Cherax quadricarinatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endogenous cellulase activity was identified in the gastric fluid and digestive gland of the redclaw crayfish. Cellulase showed maximal activity from pH 4 to 5 and was stable for up to 2 h at 40°C. Cellulase activity in the digestive gland was unaffected by antibiotic treatment. Taken together these findings suggest a significant endogenous component for redclaw cellulase activity. Partial

Xiao M Xue; Alys J Anderson; Neil A Richardson; Alex J Anderson; Gang P Xue; Peter B Mather

1999-01-01

164

Pathogenesis of H5N1 influenza virus infections in mice and ferret models differ between respiratory and digestive system exposure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data suggests H5N1 influenza viruses are transmitted through and predominantly affect the respiratory system of mammals. Some data suggests digestive system involvement. However, direct evidence of alimentary transmission and infection in mammal...

165

The biparental care system of the California mouse, Peromyscus californicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most knowledge of parent-offspring relations in mammals is derived from studies of mother- infant interactions. Male parental care has been less well studied. We explored maternal and paternal behavior of the California mouse, Peromyscus californicus. Six pairs of parents and their young were videotaped continuously for 12 hours\\/day, on alternate days from Days 1 to 31 postpartum. Males exhibit all

David J. Gubernick; Jeffrey R. Alberts

1987-01-01

166

A hydrogen-peroxide digestion system for tissue trace-metal analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue digestion prior to analysis for trace metals is usually carried out with strong acids. Nitric acid, alone or in combination\\u000a with perchloric acid, is most commonly used. In addition to the laborious acid washing of all glassware prior to use, the\\u000a digestion necessitates exposure to potential environmental contamination. Use of perchloric acid mandates a specially constructed\\u000a hood with facilities

Nancy W. Alcock

1987-01-01

167

Encapsulation altered starch digestion: toward developing starch-based delivery systems.  

PubMed

Starch is an abundant biomaterial that forms a vital energy source for humans. Altering its digestion, e.g. increasing the proportions of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS), would revolutionize starch utility in addressing a number of health issues related to glucose absorption, glycemic index and colon health. The research reported in this article is based on my hypothesis that water channels present in the B-type starch crystalline matrix, particularly in tuber starches, can embed guest molecules such as nutraceuticals, drugs, flavor compounds and vitamins leading to altered starch digestion. Toward this goal, potato starch has been chosen as the model tuber starch, and ibuprofen, benzocaine, sulfapyridine, curcumin, thymol and ascorbic acid as model guest molecules. X-ray powder diffraction and FT-IR analyses clearly suggest the incorporation of guest molecules in the water channels of potato starch. Furthermore, the in vitro digestion profiles of complexes are intriguing with major variations occurring after 60 min of starch digestion and finally at 120 min. These changes are concomitantly reflected in the SDS and RS amounts, with about 24% decrease in SDS for benzocaine complex and 6% increase in RS for ibuprofen complex, attesting the ability of guest molecule encapsulation in modulating the digestion properties of potato starch. Overall, this research provides an elegant opportunity for the design and development of novel starch-based stable carriers that not only bestow tailored glucose release rates but could also transport health promoting and disease preventing compounds. PMID:24299816

Janaswamy, Srinivas

2014-01-30

168

Spatiotemporal Fate Map of Neurogenin1 (Neurog1) Lineages in the Mouse Central Nervous System  

E-print Network

Spatiotemporal Fate Map of Neurogenin1 (Neurog1) Lineages in the Mouse Central Nervous System of Neurog1 lineage cells throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Here we labeled and followed Neurog1 factor; neural progenitor; brain development; genetic fate mapping; Ngn1 The central nervous system (CNS

Goodrich, Lisa V.

169

Digestion Experiments  

E-print Network

I'EXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, President BULL -- -7 .ETIN NO. 291 FEBRUARY, 1922 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY DIGESTION EXPERIMENTS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR CO_LTJ3GE STATION... 5 ......................... ................. Digestible protein : 5 Productive value ............................................ 5 Vitamines .................................................. 6...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1922-01-01

170

The Biparental Care System of the California Mouse, Peromyscus californicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most knowledge of parent-offspring relations in mammals is derived from studies of mother-infant interactions. Male parental care has been less well studied. We explored maternal and paternal behavior of the California mouse, Peromyscus californicus. Six pairs of parents and their young were videotaped continuously for 12 hours\\/day, on alternate days from Days 1 to 31 postpartum. Males exhibit all parental

David J. Gubernick; Jeffrey R. Alberts

1987-01-01

171

Lentiviral labeling of mouse and human enteric nervous system stem cells for regenerative medicine studies  

PubMed Central

Background Reliable methods of labeling human enteric nervous system (ENS) stem cells for use in novel cell replacement therapies for enteric neuropathies are lacking. Here, we explore the possibility of using lentiviral vectors expressing fluorescent reporter genes to transduce, label, and trace mouse and human ENS stem cells following transplantation into mouse gut. Methods Enteric nervous system precursors, including ENS stem cells, were isolated from enzymatically dissociated mouse and human gut tissues. Lentivirus containing eGFP or mCherry fluorescent reporter genes was added to gut cell cultures at a multiplicity of infection of 2–5. After fluorescence activated cell sorting for eGFP and subsequent analysis with markers of proliferation and cell phenotype, transduced mouse and human cells were transplanted into the gut of C57BL/6 and immune deficient Rag2-/gamma chain-/C5 mice, respectively and analyzed up to 60 days later. Key Results Mouse and human transduced cells survived in vitro, maintained intense eGFP expression, proliferated as shown by BrdU incorporation, and formed characteristic neurospheres. When transplanted into mouse gut in vivo and analyzed up to 2 months later, transduced mouse and human cells survived, strongly expressed eGFP and integrated into endogenous ENS networks. Conclusions & Inferences Lentiviral vectors expressing fluorescent reporter genes enable efficient, stable, long-term labeling of ENS stem cells when transplanted into in vivo mouse gut. This lentiviral approach not only addresses the need for a reliable fluorescent marker of human ENS stem cells for preclinical studies, but also raises the possibility of using lentiviruses for other applications, such as gene therapy. PMID:25199909

Natarajan, D; Cooper, J; Choudhury, S; Delalande, J-M; McCann, C; Howe, S J; Thapar, N; Burns, A J

2014-01-01

172

Biodegradation of polyacrylamide by anaerobic digestion under mesophilic condition and its performance in actual dewatered sludge system.  

PubMed

Polyacrylamide (PAM) used in sludge dewatering widely exists in high-solid anaerobic digestion. Degradation of polyacrylamide accompanied with accumulation of its toxic monomer is important to disposition of biogas residues. The potential of anaerobic digestion activity in microbial utilization of PAM was investigated in this study. The results indicated that the utilization rate of PAM (as nitrogen source) was influenced by accumulation of ammonia, while cumulative removal of amide group was accorded with zeroth order reaction in actual dewatered system. The adjoining amide group can combined into ether group after biodegradation. PAM can be broken down in different position of its carbon chain backbone. In actual sludge system, the hydrolytic PAM was liable to combined tyrosine-rich protein to form colloid complex, and then consumed as carbon source to form monomer when easily degradable organics were exhausted. The accumulation of acrylamide was leveled off ultimately, accompanied with the yield of methane. PMID:24345566

Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Yi, Jing; He, Qunbiao; Dong, Bin

2014-02-01

173

CZE-ESI-MS/MS system for analysis of subnanogram amounts of tryptic digests of a cellular homogenate  

PubMed Central

We report the performance of capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with an electrokinetically pumped electrospray interface and an Orbitrap-Velos mass spectrometer for high sensitivity protein analysis. We first investigated the system for quantitation of the tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The system produced outstanding linearity with respect to peak height, number of peptide IDs, and spectral counts across the range of 12 nM to 750 nM (60 amol to 3.5 fmol) of BSA injected. One peptide produced a detection limit of 0.3 nM (1.5 amol) injected. We also analyzed 700 pg of a tryptic digest prepared from a RAW264.7 cell lysate; 10 proteins were identified in triplicate analyses after filtering the data with peptide confidence value as high. This sample size corresponds to the protein content of ~10 eukaryotic cells. PMID:22888077

Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Li, Yihan; Wojcik, Roza; Yang, Ping; Dovichi, Norman J.

2013-01-01

174

Adenosine transport systems on dissociated brain cells from mouse, guinea-pig, and rat  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics and sodium dependence of adenosine transport were determined using an inhibitor-stop method on dissociated cell body preparations obtained from mouse, guinea-pig and rat brain. Transport affinity (KT) values for the high affinity adenosine transport systems KT(H) were significantly different between these three species; mean +/- SEM values were 0.34 +/- 0.1 in mouse, 0.9 +/- 0.2 in rat, and 1.5 +/- 0.5 microM in guinea-pig. The KT values for the low affinity transport system KT(L) were not different between the three species. Brain cells from rat displayed a significantly greater maximal capacity to accumulate (3H)adenosine (Vmax) than did mouse or guinea-pig for the high affinity system, or than did mouse for the low affinity system. When sodium chloride was replaced in the transport medium with choline chloride, the KT(H) values for guinea-pig and rat were both increased by approximately 100%; only in rat did the change reach statistical significance. The sodium-dependence of adenosine transport in mouse brain was clearly absent. The differences between KT(H) values in mouse and those in guinea-pig or rat were accentuated in the absence of sodium. The differences in kinetic values, ionic requirements, and pharmacological characteristics between adenosine transporters in CNS tissues of mouse, guinea-pig and rat may help account for some of the variability noted among species in terms of their physiological responses to adenosine.

Johnston, M.E.; Geiger, J.D. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada))

1990-09-01

175

THE USE OF FORMALDEHYDE-TREATED ¹³¹I-ALBUMIN IN THE STUDY OF DIGESTIVE VACUOLES AND SOME PROPERTIES OF THESE PARTICLES FROM MOUSE LIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity released during incubation of mouse liver particles containing intravenously injected formaldehyde-treated 131I-albumin consisted almost entirely of 131I-iodotyrosine. The material was shown to be excreted into the medium and was not due to disruption of the particles by acid. Triton X-100 or the absence of sucrose in the medium inhibited hydrolysis of the particle-associated labeled protein. This

JOHN L. MEGO; FRANCISCO BERTINI; J. D. McQueen

1967-01-01

176

The organotelluride catalyst (PHTE)?NQ prevents HOCl-induced systemic sclerosis in mouse.  

PubMed

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by skin and visceral fibrosis, microvascular damage, and autoimmunity. HOCl-induced mouse SSc is a murine model that mimics the main features of the human disease, especially the activation and hyperproliferation rate of skin fibroblasts. We demonstrate here the efficiency of a tellurium-based catalyst 2,3-bis(phenyltellanyl)naphthoquinone ((PHTE)(2)NQ) in the treatment of murine SSc, through its selective cytotoxic effects on activated SSc skin fibroblasts. SSc mice treated with (PHTE)(2)NQ displayed a significant decrease in lung and skin fibrosis and in alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression in the skin compared with untreated mouse SSc animals. Serum concentrations of advanced oxidation protein products, nitrate, and anti-DNA topoisomerase I autoantibodies were increased in SSc mice, but were significantly reduced in SSc mice treated with (PHTE)(2)NQ. To assess the mechanism of action of (PHTE)(2)NQ, the cytotoxic effect of (PHTE)(2)NQ was compared in normal fibroblasts and in mouse SSc skin fibroblasts. ROS production is higher in mouse SSc fibroblasts than in normal fibroblasts, and was still increased by (PHTE)(2)NQ to reach a lethal threshold and kill mouse SSc fibroblasts. Therefore, the effectiveness of (PHTE)(2)NQ in the treatment of mouse SSc seems to be linked to the selective pro-oxidative and cytotoxic effects of (PHTE)(2)NQ on hyperproliferative fibroblasts. PMID:22277946

Marut, Wioleta K; Kavian, Niloufar; Servettaz, Amélie; Nicco, Carole; Ba, Lalla A; Doering, Mandy; Chéreau, Christiane; Jacob, Claus; Weill, Bernard; Batteux, Frédéric

2012-04-01

177

N-Squad Episode 1. Students learn misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, the role of the digestive system in processing alcohol, and liver histology.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In N-Squad Episode 1 students work with forensic scientists to solve an alcohol related crime. Along the way, they will learn about alcohol's interaction with the digestive system, misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, and liver histology.

Center for Technology in Teaching and Learning

2011-09-28

178

An Ultrahigh Resolution SPECT System for I-125 Mouse Brain Imaging Studies  

PubMed Central

This paper presents some initial experimental results obtained with a dual-head prototype single photon emission microscope system (SPEM) that is dedicated to mouse brain studies using I-125 labeled radiotracers. In particular, this system will be used for in vivo tacking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain. This system is based on the use of the intensified electron multiplying charge-coupled device (I-EMCCD) camera that offers the combination of an excellent intrinsic spatial resolution, a good signal-to-noise ratio, a large active area and a reasonable detection efficiency over an energy range between 27–140keV. In this study, the dual-head SPEM system was evaluated using both resolution phantoms and a mouse with locally injected T cells labelled with I-125. It was demonstrated that for a relatively concentrated source object, the current dual-head SPEM system is capable of visualizing the tiny amount of radioactivity (~12 nCi) carried by a very small number (<1000) of T cells. The current SPEM system design allows four or six camera heads to be installed in a stationary system configuration that offers a doubled or tripled sensitivity at a spatial resolution similar to that obtained with the dualhead system. This development would provide a powerful tool for in vivo and non-invasive tracking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain and potentially for other rodent brain imaging studies. PMID:20161174

Meng, L. J.; Fu, G.; Roy, E. J.; Suppe, B.; Chen, C. T.

2009-01-01

179

Reverse Genetics System for Mouse Hepatitis Virus Strain 1  

E-print Network

cell (163). The first step involves the translation of replication proteins from the gRNA, which acts as a eukaryotic mRNA. One of these protein products is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase essential for viral RNA transcription and replication (97... response to MHV-1 acts as a double-edged sword: in resistant strains of mice, it helps mediate protection while in susceptible mouse strains it will contribute to the observed pathology (63). It has been shown that intranasal infection of A/J mice...

Carter, Kristen

2011-04-19

180

The effect of heat treatment on the digestibility of wheat gluten in a model food system containing wheat gluten, corn starch and corn oil  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE DIGESTIBILITY OF WHEAT GLUTEN IN A MODEL FOOD SYSTEM CONTAINING WHEAT GLUTEN. CORN STARCH AND CORN OIL A Thesis by DEBRA MARIE RUZICKA FOX Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1984 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology The Effect of Heat Treatment on the Digestibility of Wheat Gluten in A Model Food System Containing Wheat Gluten, Corn...

Fox, Debra Marie Ruzicka

1984-01-01

181

Do individually ventilated cage systems generate a problem for genetic mouse model research?  

PubMed

Technological developments over recent decades have produced a novel housing system for laboratory mice, so-called 'individually ventilated cage' (IVC) systems. IVCs present a cage environment which is different to conventional filter-top cages (FILTER). Nothing is known about the consequences of IVC housing on genetic mouse models, despite studies reporting IVC-mediated changes to the phenotypes of inbred mouse strains. Thus, in this study, we systematically compared the established behavioural phenotype of a validated mouse model for the schizophrenia risk gene neuregulin 1 (TM Nrg1 HET) kept in FILTER housing with Nrg1 mutant mice raised in IVC systems. We found that particular schizophrenia-relevant endophenotypes of TM Nrg1 HETs which had been established and widely published using FILTER housing were altered when mice were raised in IVC housing. IVCs diminished the schizophrenia-relevant prepulse inhibition deficit of Nrg1 mutant males. Furthermore, IVC housing had a sex-dependent moderate effect on the locomotive phenotype of Nrg1 mice across test paradigms. Behavioural effects of IVC housing were less prominent in female mice. Thus, transferring the breeding colony of mouse mutants from FILTER to IVC systems can shift disease-relevant behaviours and therefore challenge the face validity of these mice. Researchers facing an upgrade of their mouse breeding or holding facilities to IVC systems must be aware of the potential impact this upgrade might have on their genetic mouse models. Future publications should provide more details on the cage system used to allow appropriate data comparison across research sites. PMID:24920375

Logge, W; Kingham, J; Karl, T

2014-09-01

182

Navigating wastewater energy recovery strategies: a life cycle comparison of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and conventional treatment systems with anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate emerging anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology in comparison with conventional wastewater energy recovery technologies. Wastewater treatment process modeling and systems analyses were combined to evaluate the conditions under which AnMBR may produce more net energy and have lower life cycle environmental emissions than high rate activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (HRAS+AD), conventional activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (CAS+AD), and an aerobic membrane bioreactor with anaerobic digestion (AeMBR+AD). For medium strength domestic wastewater treatment under baseline assumptions at 15 °C, AnMBR recovered 49% more energy as biogas than HRAS+AD, the most energy positive conventional technology considered, but had significantly higher energy demands and environmental emissions. Global warming impacts associated with AnMBR were largely due to emissions of effluent dissolved methane. For high strength domestic wastewater treatment, AnMBR recovered 15% more net energy than HRAS+AD, and the environmental emissions gap between the two systems was reduced. Future developments of AnMBR technology in low energy fouling control, increased flux, and management of effluent methane emissions would make AnMBR competitive with HRAS+AD. Rapid advancements in AnMBR technology must continue to achieve its full economic and environmental potential as an energy recovery strategy for domestic wastewater. PMID:24742289

Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Cao, Ling; Love, Nancy G; Raskin, Lutgarde; Skerlos, Steven J

2014-05-20

183

Digestive system membranes: freeze-fracture evidence for differentiation and flow in Paramecium  

PubMed Central

Freeze-fractured membranes of digestive vacuoles of randomly feeding Paramecium caudatum exhibit dramatic differences in intramembrane particle (IMP) number and distribution on both E- and P-fracture faces. By pulse-feeding latex spheres to cells we have demonstrated that these differences are related to the age of the digestive vacuoles, and that the membranes of such vacuoles undergo a specific sequence of changes during the digestive cycle. Young digestive vacuoles (DV-I; less than or equal to 6 min), nascent vacuoles still connected to the cytopharynx, and discoidal vesicles, from which vacuole membrane is derived, all have a highly particulate E face and a less particulate P face. As early as 3 min after feeding, a second category of digestive vacuoles (DV-II) can be recognized, which are both considerably smaller in diameter and lack particles on their E face. These findings suggest that the endocytic removal of DV-I membrane material associated with the formation of DV-II vacuoles involves a concomitant and selective removal of E-face particles, as essentially no changes are seen in the density of P-face particles on the two types of vacuoles. Beginning at 10 min the first DV-III vacuoles are encountered. These are both larger than the DV-II vacuoles and possess very prominent E-face particles, which resemble those on the E face of the numerous lysosomes bordering the digestive vacuoles. DV-III vacuoles also exhibit a substantial increase in P-face particles. These membrane changes closely parallel, and are probably correlated with, the physiological events occurring within the vacuole lumen: concentration of food, killing of prey, and digestion. Calculations of the amount of membrane removed from DV-I to form DV-II and of the increase in membrane surface area during the transition from DV-II to DV-III indicate that as much as 90% of the initial phagosome (DV-I) membrane can be removed before digestion begins. The enlargment of DV-II must be caused by fusion with adjacent lysosomes which also contribute the new populations of IMPs to the DV- III membrane. The appearance of numerous endocytic structures on older DV-III vacuoles suggests that membrane is retrieved from DV-III before defecation. PMID:7228903

1981-01-01

184

77 FR 38075 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Health National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases...Committee: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Type 1 Diabetes Mouse Resource. Date: July...

2012-06-26

185

The anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable waste and horse manure mixtures in a bench-scale, two-phase anaerobic digestion system.  

PubMed

In this study, the anaerobic digestion of mixtures of food waste (FW) and horse manure was investigated using a bench-scale two-phase reactor system. Both phases were maintained at 35 degrees C for the duration of the 30-day study period. The first phase reactors were prepared with biomass mixtures in deionized water such that each mixture had an initial total solids (TS) concentration of 6 wt%. The second phase reactors were inoculated with cow manure in water two weeks prior to the study period at 3 wt% TS. The biogas from all second phase reactors contained greater than 60 vol% methane in the biogas before they were used in the study, thus indicating the presence of active methanogens. Filtrate (5 mL) from the first phase was used as feed to the second phase reactor. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon, and volatile solids (VS) of the feed from Phase 1 increased with FW content in the biomass mixture, and so the organic loading rates (OLRs) to the Phase 2 reactors also increased. Accordingly, the volume ofbiogas and methane generated from Phase 2 also increased with FW content. The low OLR (<0.2 g VS/L/day), the use of a two-phase system, and the use of filtrate from Phase las feed to Phase 2 allowed for high utilization of the feed; the observed specific methane yields (mL/g COD) were greater than 80% of the theoretical yields for all mixtures. The methane yields were statistically similar to within a 95% confidence interval. PMID:24645468

Smith, David B; Almquist, Catherine B

2014-01-01

186

Generic Protocol: Conducting a Safety Walk-Through on a Farm: Hazards of the Manure Handling System, Anaerobic Digester, and Biogas Handling System  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] This protocol is intended to be used by health and safety experts and those with expertise in anaerobic digesters\\/systems. It was adapted from basic elements of both traditional job hazard analysis and process hazards analysis (particularly hazard and operability analysis) techniques, and is intended to overcome some of the limitations of both methods for someone conducting a site walk-through

Nellie J Brown

2005-01-01

187

GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG WATERBORNE ASBESTOS, DIGESTIVE SYSTEM CANCER AND POPULATION DENSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Five statistical procedures were used to partial the correlation between water-borne asbestos and digestive site cancer for the putative effects of population density. These include: analysis based on a data subset with roughly homogeneous population density; standard residual an...

188

Ontogeny of the Digestive and Feeding Systems in the Anemonefish Amphiprion Melanopus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ontogenetic growth and development in the anemonefish Amphiprion melanopus (Pomacentridae) is very rapid when compared to other tropical and temperate fish species. A. melanopus hatched with a highly differentiated digestive tract and the ability to capture and ingest prey items. Their alimentary tract changes rapidly throughout the larval period. Concurrent with yolksac absorption at three days after hatching was the

Bridget S. Green; Mark I. McCormick

2001-01-01

189

Water as a leaching medium for hydrolysis of sorghum in anaerobic digestion systems  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect of using water to leach hydrolysis products from sorghum used as an anaerobic digestion feedstock. The pH of the leachate had no effect on the cumulative COD measured in the leachate. Milling the sorghum with a three roll mill prior to leaching appeared to slightly increase the hydrolysis of structural carbohydrates in the sorghum.

Egg, R.; Coble, C.G.

1986-01-01

190

Behavior of vitamin E acetate delivery systems under simulated gastrointestinal conditions: lipid digestion and bioaccessibility of low-energy nanoemulsions.  

PubMed

Colloidal delivery systems are needed to incorporate oil-soluble vitamins into aqueous-based foods and beverage products. In this study, we encapsulated vitamin E acetate into oil-in-water nanoemulsions produced using either a low-energy method (Emulsion Phase Inversion, EPI) or a high energy method (microfluidization). Oil-in-water nanoemulsions (d<200 nm) could be produced using both low- and high-energy methods from a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 80) and medium chain triglycerides (MCTs). The influence of surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR) on lipid digestion and vitamin bioaccessibility of EPI nanoemulsions was determined using a gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model that simulated the mouth, stomach, and small intestine. There were increases in the size and negative charge of the oil droplets after passage through the GIT, which was attributed to droplet coalescence and changes in interfacial composition. The rate and extent of lipid digestion decreased with increasing surfactant concentration, but the bioaccessibility of vitamin E acetate was high in all of the samples (>95%). No appreciable influence of the preparation method (low-energy versus high-energy) on lipid digestion and vitamin bioaccessibility was observed. The major advantage of the EPI method for forming nanoemulsions is that no expensive equipment is required, but relatively high surfactant concentrations are needed compared to microfluidization. PMID:23721832

Mayer, Sinja; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David Julian

2013-08-15

191

Elimination of mouse allergens in the working environment: Assessment of individually ventilated cage systems and ventilated cabinets in the containment of mouse allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Laboratory animal allergy is an important occupational disease that is preventable by reduction of exposure to mammalian allergens. Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of safety equipment in containing mouse urinary protein (MUP)—specifically, individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems and class I–type and class II ventilated cabinets. Methods: Six IVC systems (which are used to

Susan Gordon; Stanley W. Fisher; Ronald H. Raymond

2001-01-01

192

[Determination of inorganic elements in the soil-grass-animal system by sealed microwave digestion ICP-AES].  

PubMed

The contents of inorganic elements including K, Ca, Na, Mg, P, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, and Co in the soil-grass-animal mineral system from Qinghai Tibetan Plateau were determined by ICP-AES using high pressure system-sealed microwave digestion. The sample of soil was digested with HNO3-HF-H2O2 acids system, but others including pasture, animal fur, liver, and serum were digested with HNO3-H2O2 acids system. The operation would be simplified and the blank value would be decreased with the above acids systems. The results were proved to be reliable with the relative standard deviation being 0.271%-2.633% for Ca, 2.971%-4.854% for Co, 0.372%-2.874% for Cu, 0.600%-3.683% for Fe, 0.347%-2.829% for K, 0.626%-2.593% for Mg, 0.705%-4.828% for Mn, 2.946%-4.622% for Mo, 0.689%-3.621% for Na, 0.422%-3.890% for P, and 0.143%-4.622% for S, 0.166%-2.399% for Zn, and all of them were less than 5% for all the elements, and the recovery being 97.1%-101.4% for Ca, 93.5%-112.5% for Co, 95.2%-104.0% for Cu, 96.9%-104.2% for Fe, 96.1%-105.6% for K, 96.2%-102.8% for Mg, 91.5%-108.9% for Mn, 95.0%-113.5% for Mo, 95.2%-101.8% for Na, 94.7%-100.7% for P, 98.3%-108.4% for S, and 97.5%-102.0% for Zn by adding standard recovery experiment. The results of determination were proved that the method of sealed microwave digestion ICP-AES was sensitive, precise, easy to operate and rapid for the determination of inorganic elements in the soil-grass-animal mineral system, and could satisfy the sample examination request. The methods and results were meaningful to research on the soil-pasture-animal mineral system including the contents of mineral elements, the circulation of mineral elements, the interaction, and the application of mineral additive. PMID:20384164

Xin, Guo-Sheng; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Xu-Sheng; Long, Rui-Jun

2010-02-01

193

Development of the mouse vestibular system in the absence of gravity perception  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tilted mutant mouse, which lacks otoconia in the inner ear, was used to study development of the mouse vestibular system in the absence of gravity perception. Otoconia are dense particles composed of proteins and calcium carbonate crystals suspended in the gelatinous macular membrane. They enhance, and are largely responsible for, sensitivity to gravity. Morphometric analysis of the vestibular ganglion showed that the mutant developed more slowly than the normal controls, both in rate of development and cell number, particularly during the first week of post-natal development. The mutant ganglia also exhibited a reduction of cells during the first 6 days of post-natal development.

Smith, Michael; Yuan Wang, Xiang; Wolgemuth, Debra J.; Murashov, Alexander K.

2003-01-01

194

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTACT HEPATOCYTE ACTIVATION SYSTEM FOR ROUTINE USE WITH THE MOUSE LYMPHOMA ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed a method for cocultivating primary rat hepatocytes with L5178Y/TK+/- 3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cells. The system should provide a means to simulate more closely in vivo metabolism compared to metabolism by liver homogenates, while still being useful for rou...

195

Spontaneous mutations in the Big Blue® transgenic system are primarily mouse derived  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Big Blue® transgenic mouse mutation detection system provides a powerful approach for measuring spontaneous and induced mutations in vivo. The observed mutations may contain a fraction of ex vivo or prokaryotic mutational events. Indeed, a modified, selectable form of the Big Blue® assay seem to generate artifactual mutants under certain circumstances. Herein we review the evidence that circular mutants

Kathleen A. Hill; Victoria L. Buettner; Barry W. Glickman; Steve S. Sommer

1999-01-01

196

Analysis of the Mouse Transcriptome for Genes Involved in the Function of the Nervous System  

E-print Network

Analysis of the Mouse Transcriptome for Genes Involved in the Function of the Nervous System and Protein Set for molecules involved in brain function. We found full-length cDNAs of many known brain genes and discovered new members of known brain gene families, including Family 3 G-protein coupled receptors, voltage

Jarvis, Erich D.

197

Biodistribution and stability of CdSe core quantum dots in mouse digestive tract following per os administration: Advantages of double polymer/silica coated nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New QDs coated with combination of polythiol ligands and silica shell were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the QDs stability in digestive tract of mice after per os administration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymer/silica shell prevents QDs degradation and fluorescence quenching in vivo. -- Abstract: CdSe-core, ZnS-capped semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are of great potential for biomedical applications. However, applications in the gastrointestinal tract for in vivo imaging and therapeutic purposes are hampered by their sensitivity to acidic environments and potential toxicity. Here we report the use of coatings with a combination of polythiol ligands and silica shell (QDs PolyT-APS) to stabilize QDs fluorescence under acidic conditions. We demonstrated the stability of water-soluble QDs PolyT-APS both in vitro, in strong acidic solutions, and in vivo. The biodistribution, stability and photoluminescence properties of QDs in the gastrointestinal tract of mice after per os administration were assessed. We demonstrated that QDs coated with current traditional materials - mercapto compounds (QDs MPA) and pendant thiol group (QDs PolyT) - are not capable of protecting QDs from chemically induced degradation and surface modification. Polythiol ligands and silica shell quantum dots (QDs PolyT-APS) are suitable for biological and biomedical applications in the gastrointestinal tract.

Loginova, Y.F. [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation)] [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Dezhurov, S.V. [Trial Center For Science and Technology 'Nanotech-Dubna', Dubna, Moscow Region 141983 (Russian Federation)] [Trial Center For Science and Technology 'Nanotech-Dubna', Dubna, Moscow Region 141983 (Russian Federation); Zherdeva, V.V.; Kazachkina, N.I. [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation)] [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Wakstein, M.S. [Trial Center For Science and Technology 'Nanotech-Dubna', Dubna, Moscow Region 141983 (Russian Federation)] [Trial Center For Science and Technology 'Nanotech-Dubna', Dubna, Moscow Region 141983 (Russian Federation); Savitsky, A.P., E-mail: apsavitsky@inbi.ras.ru [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation)

2012-03-02

198

Effects of different manuring systems with and without biogas digestion on nitrogen cycle and crop yield in mixed organic dairy farming systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were carried out between 2002 and 2005 to investigate the effects of biogas digestion in a mixed organic dairy\\u000a farming system with arable land and grassland on nutrient cycling, nitrogen (N) uptake and crop yields within a cropping system\\u000a comprising a whole crop rotation. Five treatments were carried out: (i) solid farmyard manure, (ii) undigested liquid slurry,\\u000a (iii)

Kurt Möller; Walter Stinner; Arno Deuker; Günter Leithold

2008-01-01

199

Assessing potential bioavailability of raspberry anthocyanins using an in vitro digestion system.  

PubMed

The bioavailability of anthocyanins from raspberry extracts was assessed using an in vitro digestion procedure that mimics the physiochemical and biochemical changes that occur in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Effectively all of the total phenol content of the raspberry extract survived gastric digestion and partitioned between the IN sample, which represents the serum available material, and the OUT sample, which represents the material that remains in the GIT and passes through to the colon. All of the anthocyanins also survived gastric digestion, but only approximately 5% entered the IN sample and approximately 70% of total anthocyanins were recovered in the IN and OUT samples. Codigestion of the raspberry extract with commonly combined foodstuffs such as bread, breakfast cereal, ice cream, and cooked minced beef gave a different pattern. The total phenol content of the IN samples was slightly reduced by codigestion with ice cream or breakfast cereal but unaffected by codigestion with bread or minced beef. In most cases, the phenol contents of the postgastric and OUT samples were reduced as compared with the expected values. However, the anthocyanin content of the IN samples was unaffected or increased by coincubation with the foodstuffs. This suggests that polyphenols transiently bind to food matrices during digestion, which protects the more labile anthocyanins from degradation, and they are free to diffuse into the IN sample. The anthocyanin composition of the bioavailability samples was monitored by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All eight anthocyanins previously identified in raspberry were detected in the extract and the postgastric samples at similar yields. All eight anthocyanins could be discerned in the IN and OUT samples, but some such as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were greatly reduced and others such as pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside were apparently increased in abundance. These differences in stability and their importance for the bioavailability of anthocyanins are discussed. PMID:16028971

McDougall, Gordon J; Dobson, Patricia; Smith, Pauline; Blake, Alison; Stewart, Derek

2005-07-27

200

Ontogenetic development of the digestive system in California halibut ( Paralichthys californicus) with notes on feeding practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the digestive tract and accessory glands in California halibut (Paralichthys californicus) is described from hatching to metamorphosis (42 days post-hatch, dph) at 18 °C. Differentiation of the alimentary canal into the buccopharynx, esophagus, pre- and postvalvular intestine, and rectum was complete by 3 dph (2.7±0.1 mm standard length, SL) coinciding with the time of first feeding. Zymogen

Enric Gisbert; Raul H. Piedrahita; Douglas E. Conklin

2004-01-01

201

Batch and semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid system.  

PubMed

To avoid the inhibition from both of waste oil and high concentrations of cationic elements, anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid (ADSL) system was examined in this present paper. Results from batch test indicated that a higher methane yield could be obtained in the ADSL system. The methane yield of food solid waste (FSW), food liquid waste (FLW) and raw food waste (RFW) were 643, 659 and 581 mL/g-VS, respectively. In semi-continuous anaerobic digestion, the optimum organic loading rates (OLR) for FSW, FLW and RFW were 9, 4 and 7 g-VS/L/d, respectively. The total methane production of RFW and ADSL systems, based on 1 kg-VS(RFW), were 405 and 460 L, respectively, indicating that the methane production increased by 13.6% in the ADSL system. The optimum C/N ratio, redistribution of metal element and lower content of waste oil in FSW explain the higher methane production. PMID:23561948

Zhang, Cunsheng; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei

2013-10-01

202

Digestion and dewatering characteristics of waste activated sludge treated by an anaerobic biofilm system.  

PubMed

Immobilization of microorganisms for sludge anaerobic digestion was investigated in this study. The effects of filler properties on anaerobic digestion and dewaterability of waste activated sludge were assessed at mesophilic temperature in batch mode. The results showed that the duration of the methanogenic stage of reactors without filler, with only filler, and with pre-incubated filler was 39days, 19days and 13days, respectively, during which time the protein was degraded by 45.0%, 29.4% and 30.0%, and the corresponding methane yield was 193.9, 107.2 and 108.2mL/g volatile suspended solids added, respectively. On day 39, the final protein degradation efficiency of the three reactors was 45.0%, 40.9% and 42.0%, respectively. The results of normalized capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration suggested that the reactor incorporating pre-incubated filler could improve the dewaterability of digested sludge, while the effect of the reactor incorporating only filler on sludge dewaterability was uncertain. PMID:24355503

Wang, Tianfeng; Shao, Liming; Li, Tianshui; Lü, Fan; He, Pinjing

2014-02-01

203

Hoover Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1996, the Hoover Digest is a quarterly publication that features writing on politics, economics, and history from the minds of scholars and researchers affiliated with the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. Visitors to the Digest's homepage will find an illustration of the current issue's cover, flanked on one side by a listing of the featured articles. Further down on the site, users will find a list of the "Most Viewed" articles, along with links to the "Most Printed", "Most Emailed", and "Most Saved" pieces. Along the right-side of the homepage, visitors can elect to browse by topic, date, or author. The topic list is exhaustive, and it includes areas such as "Flat Tax", "Constitution", "Law Enforcement", and "Arms Control". Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive a free print copy of the Digest.

204

Application of super-twisting observers to the estimation of state and unknown inputs in an anaerobic digestion system.  

PubMed

This paper presents the estimation of the unknown states and inputs of an anaerobic digestion system characterized by a two-step reaction model. The estimation is based on the measurement of the two substrate concentrations and of the outflow rate of biogas and relies on the use of an observer, consisting of three parts. The first is a generalized super-twisting observer, which estimates a linear combination of the two input concentrations. The second is an asymptotic observer, which provides one of the two biomass concentrations, whereas the third is a super-twisting observer for one of the input concentrations and the second biomass concentration. PMID:24473314

Sbarciog, M; Moreno, J A; Vande Wouwer, A

2014-01-01

205

Atmosphere stabilization and element recycle in an experimental mouse-algal system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life support systems based on bioregeneration rely on the control and manipulation of organisms. Experiments conducted with a gas-closed mouse-algal system designed to investigate principles of photosynthetic gas exchange focus primarily on observing gas exchange phenomena under varying algal environmental conditions and secondarily on studying element cycling through compartments of the experimental system. Inherent instabilities exit between the uptake and release of carbon dioxide CO2 and oxygen O2 by the mouse and algae. Variations in light intensity and cell density alter the photosynthetic rate of the algae and enable maintenance of physiologic concentrations of CO2 and O2. Different nitrogen sources (urea and nitrate) result in different algal assimilatory quotients (AQ). Combinations of photosynthetic rate and AQ ratio manipulations have been examined for their potential in stabilizing atmospheric gas concentrations in the gas-closed algal-mouse system. Elemental mass balances through the experimental systems compartments are being studied with the concurrent development of a mathematical simulation model. Element cycling experiments include quantification of elemental flows through system compartments and wet oxidation of system waste materials for use as an algal nutrient source. Oxidized waste products demonstrate inhibitory properties although dilution has been shown to allow normal growth.

Smernoff, David T.

1986-01-01

206

The interplay of ?-amylase and amyloglucosidase activities on the digestion of starch in in vitro enzymic systems.  

PubMed

In vitro hydrolysis assays are a key tool in understanding differences in rate and extent of digestion of starchy foods. They offer a greater degree of simplicity and flexibility than dynamic in vitro models or in vivo experiments for quantifiable, mechanistic exploration of starch digestion. In the present work the influence of ?-amylase and amyloglucosidase activities on the digestion of maize and potato starch granules was measured using both glucose and reducing sugar assays. Data were analysed through initial rates of digestion, and by 1st order kinetics, utilising logarithm of slope (LOS) plots. The rate and extent of starch digestion was dependent on the activities of both enzymes and the type of starch used. Potato required more enzyme than maize to achieve logarithmic reaction curves, and complete digestion. The results allow targeted design of starch digestion experiments through a thorough understanding of the contributions of ?-amylase and amyloglucosidase to digestion rates. PMID:25498625

Warren, Frederick J; Zhang, Bin; Waltzer, Gina; Gidley, Michael J; Dhital, Sushil

2015-03-01

207

Herpes simplex virus, type 1 invasion of the rabbit and mouse nervous systems revealed by in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a3H-labelled virion DNA probe applied to tissue sections, we have previously identified the precise microscopic anatomical localtion of herpes simplex virus (HSV) during the acute and latent stages of infection of the mouse trigeminal ganglia and central nervous system (CNS). In the present investigation, we compared the mouse and the rabbit with respect to their ability to support acute

W. G. Stroop; D. C. Schaefer

1987-01-01

208

Anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater: A comparison of single and two-phase reactor systems  

SciTech Connect

The anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater, a complex substrate which includes milk proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, has received little attention. Work using an aerobic contact system showed that at a 7.5-d hydraulic retention time (HRT), with an organic loading rate of 1.7 g COD/Ld and influent TSS (total suspended solids) of 5870 mg/L, the effluent COD was 628 mg/L, BOD was 91 mg/L and TSS was 674. Anaerobic filters have also been used at organic loadings of 6 kg COD/m{sup 3}d applied at a HRT of 0.42 day, with COD removals of 80%. Goodwing showed that this waste was capable of being treated by the UASB process with granulation commencing after 60-70 days, and gas production ranging between 0.73 and 0.93 L CH{sub 4}/g COD removed with loading rates between 0.7 and 3.0 g TOC/Ld. Two-phase anaerobic digestion is an innovative fermentation mode that has recently received increased attention. The kinetically dissimilar fermentation phases, hydrolysis-acidification and acetogenesis-methanation are operated in two separate reactors; the first of which is maintained at a very short HRT. The effluent from the first, acid-forming, phase is used as the substrate for the methane-phase reactor which has a longer HRT or cell immobilization. The aim of this work was to compare the methane production capability and performance of a single-phase upflow fixed bed reactor with a two-phase digestion system. The two-phase digestion system consists of a completely mixed reactor for the acidogenic reaction and an upflow fixed bed reactor for the methanogenic reaction. Because of the high lipid content and COD of ice cream wastewater off site disposal has proved to be both expensive and poses problems to the receiving effluent treatment plant. For this reason the potential for a rapid anaerobic stabilization of the waste, with energy recovery in the form of methane gas, has been investigated in an attempt to minimize plant size and maximize gas production. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

Borja, R. [Institute of Fat and Its Derivatives (C.S.I.C.), Sevilla (Spain); Banks, C.J. [Environmental Technology Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom)

1995-03-01

209

Economic viability of anaerobic digestion  

SciTech Connect

The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

1996-01-01

210

Digestion Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To reinforce students' understanding of the human digestion process, the functions of several stomach and small intestine fluids are analyzed, and the concept of simulation is introduced through a short, introductory demonstration of how these fluids work. Students learn what simulation means and how it relates to the engineering process, particularly in biomedical engineering. The teacher demo requires vinegar, baking soda, water and aspirin.

2014-09-18

211

Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent  

E-print Network

Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent: Significant Energy Savings over Traditional Activated Sludge Treatment This report presents results for an anaerobic digestion system operated;Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office

212

The physiology of digestion in fish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The acquisition, digestion, and assimilation of food is critical for the growth and survival of fish larvae; a fish larva either grows or it perishes. Fish larvae are characterized by digestive systems and diets that differ from adults. Larvae undergo a pattern of trophic ontogeny, changing diet with increasing size, and these changes result in differences in digestive requirements.

John J. Govoni; George W. Boehlert; Yoshirou Watanabej

1986-01-01

213

PalladianDigest Transportation  

E-print Network

PalladianDigest CONNECT. EMPOWER. GROW. Tackling Transportation Challenges Nebraska has been a vital link in the nation's transportation system since the days when carts, wagons to University of Nebraska­Lincoln research. That's fine with UNL transportation researchers, said Larry Rilett

Farritor, Shane

214

Autoheated thermophilic aerobic sludge digestion and metal bioleaching in a two-stage reactor system.  

PubMed

A two-stage process has been developed for stabilization of sludge and removal of heavy metals from the secondary activated sludge with high rate of energy and time conservation. The first stage of the process involves autoheated thermophilic aerobic digestion at 55-60 degrees C inoculated with less-acidophilic thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms (ATAD). The results show that it is possible to maintain the autoheated conditions (55-60 degrees C) in the ATAD reactor up to 24 hr, leading to reduction of 21% total solids (TS), 27% volatile solids (VS), 27% suspended solids (SS) and 33% volatile suspended solids (VSS) from the sludge. The sludge pH also decreased from 7 to 4.6 due to the activity of less-acidophilic thermophilic microorganisms. In the second stage operation, the digested sludge (pH 4.6, TS 31.6 g/L) from stage one was subjected to bioleaching in a continuous stirred tank reactor, operated at mean hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 12, 24 and 36 hr at 30 degrees C. An HRT of 24 hr was found to be sufficient for removal of 70% Cu, 70% Mn, 75% Ni, and 80% Zn from the sludge. In all, 39% VSS, 76% Cu, 78.2% Mn, 79.5% Ni and 84.2% Zn were removed from the sludge in both the stages. PMID:20397411

Jain, Rohan; Pathak, Ashish; Sreekrishnan, T R; Dastidar, M G

2010-01-01

215

Dog and mouse: toward a balanced view of the mammalian olfactory system.  

PubMed

Although the most intensively studied mammalian olfactory system is that of the mouse, in which olfactory chemical cues of one kind or another are detected in four different nasal areas [the main olfactory epithelium (MOE), the septal organ (SO), Grüneberg's ganglion, and the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ (VNO)], the extraordinarily sensitive olfactory system of the dog is also an important model that is increasingly used, for example in genomic studies of species evolution. Here we describe the topography and extent of the main olfactory and vomeronasal sensory epithelia of the dog, and we report finding no structures equivalent to the Grüneberg ganglion and SO of the mouse. Since we examined adults, newborns, and fetuses we conclude that these latter structures are absent in dogs, possibly as the result of regression or involution. The absence of a vomeronasal component based on VR2 receptors suggests that the VNO may be undergoing a similar involutionary process. PMID:25309347

Barrios, Arthur W; Sánchez-Quinteiro, Pablo; Salazar, Ignacio

2014-01-01

216

Dog and mouse: toward a balanced view of the mammalian olfactory system  

PubMed Central

Although the most intensively studied mammalian olfactory system is that of the mouse, in which olfactory chemical cues of one kind or another are detected in four different nasal areas [the main olfactory epithelium (MOE), the septal organ (SO), Grüneberg's ganglion, and the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ (VNO)], the extraordinarily sensitive olfactory system of the dog is also an important model that is increasingly used, for example in genomic studies of species evolution. Here we describe the topography and extent of the main olfactory and vomeronasal sensory epithelia of the dog, and we report finding no structures equivalent to the Grüneberg ganglion and SO of the mouse. Since we examined adults, newborns, and fetuses we conclude that these latter structures are absent in dogs, possibly as the result of regression or involution. The absence of a vomeronasal component based on VR2 receptors suggests that the VNO may be undergoing a similar involutionary process. PMID:25309347

Barrios, Arthur W.; Sánchez-Quinteiro, Pablo; Salazar, Ignacio

2014-01-01

217

Establishment of NOD/SCID mouse model of central nervous system leukemia.  

PubMed

In the present study, we successfully established a NOD/SCID mouse model of central nervous system leukemia by injection of acute monocytic leukemia cell line SHI-1 cells into the lateral ventricle. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect human leukocyte common antigen in brain slices. Nested PCR assay was used to detect MLL/AF6 fusion gene expression. After injection, the condition of the mice gradually progressed to cachexia and death (median survival time, 25 days). Leukemic cells were identified in the lung, bone marrow, and lymph node of one mouse. Brain tissue sections showed invasion into the subdural space, pia mater, arachnoid, along the Virchow-Robin space and into the deep brain parenchyma. In summary, a central nervous system leukemia (CNSL) model was established in NOD/SCID mice. PMID:24927394

Li, Dongfang; Li, Pinggan; He, Zhanwen; Meng, Zhe; Luo, Xiangyang; Fang, Jianpei

2014-08-01

218

Manure's allure: Variation of the financial, environmental, and economic benefits from combined heat and power systems integrated with anaerobic digesters at hog farms across geographic and economic regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have shown that anaerobic digesters integrated with combined heat and power systems (CHP\\/AD) are a financially attractive way to generate electricity, reduce odor, and improve nutrient management on hog farms; yet only very few systems have been installed to date. Employing published financial, economic, and environmental indicators, this study tests whether the benefits from CHP\\/AD identified in these

Steffen Mueller

2007-01-01

219

Contrasting Quiescent G0 Phase with Mitotic Cell Cycling in the Mouse Immune System  

PubMed Central

A transgenic mouse line expressing Fucci (fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator) probes allows us to monitor the cell cycle in the hematopoietic system. Two populations with high and low intensities of Fucci signals for Cdt1(30/120) accumulation were identified by FACS analysis, and these correspond to quiescent G0 and cycling G1 cells, respectively. We observed the transition of immune cells between quiescent and proliferative phases in lymphoid organs during differentiation and immune responses. PMID:24066072

Takase-Utsugi, Mitsuyo; Hata, Akihiro; Ohtawa, Kenji; Kanagawa, Osami; Miyawaki, Atsushi

2013-01-01

220

Vanadium Inhalation in a Mouse Model for the Understanding of Air-Suspended Particle Systemic Repercussion  

PubMed Central

There is an increased concern about the health effects that air-suspended particles have on human health which have been dissected in animal models. Using CD-1 mouse, we explore the effects that vanadium inhalation produce in different tissues and organs. Our findings support the systemic effects of air pollution. In this paper, we describe our findings in different organs in our conditions and contrast our results with the literature. PMID:21716674

Fortoul, T. I.; Rodriguez-Lara, V.; Gonzalez-Villalva, A.; Rojas-Lemus, M.; Cano-Gutierrez, G.; Ustarroz-Cano, M.; Colin-Barenque, L.; Montaño, L. F.; García-Pelez, I.; Bizarro-Nevares, P.; Lopez-Valdez, N.; Falcon-Rodriguez, C. I.; Jimenez-Martínez, R. S.; Ruiz-Guerrero, M. L.; López-Zepeda, L. S.; Morales-Rivero, A.; Muñiz-Rivera-Cambas, A.

2011-01-01

221

Exceptionally Preserved Cambrian Trilobite Digestive System Revealed in 3D by Synchrotron-Radiation X-Ray Tomographic Microscopy  

PubMed Central

The Cambrian ‘Orsten’ fauna comprises exceptionally preserved and phosphatised microscopic arthropods. The external morphology of these fossils is well known, but their internal soft-tissue anatomy has remained virtually unknown. Here, we report the first non-biomineralised tissues from a juvenile polymerid trilobite, represented by digestive structures, glands, and connective strands harboured in a hypostome from the Swedish ‘Orsten’ fauna. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy enabled three-dimensional internal recordings at sub-micrometre resolution. The specimen provides the first unambiguous evidence for a J-shaped anterior gut and the presence of a crop with a constricted alimentary tract in the Trilobita. Moreover, the gut is Y-shaped in cross section, probably due to a collapsed lumen of that shape, another feature which has not previously been observed in trilobites. The combination of anatomical features suggests that the trilobite hypostome is functionally analogous to the labrum of euarthropods and that it was a sophisticated element closely integrated with the digestive system. This study also briefly addresses the preservational bias of the ‘Orsten’ fauna, particularly the near-absence of polymerid trilobites, and the taphonomy of the soft-tissue-harbouring hypostome. PMID:22558180

Eriksson, Mats E.; Terfelt, Fredrik

2012-01-01

222

Enhancement of biogas production by co-digestion of potato pulp with cow manure in a CSTR system.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion (AD) process is a well-established method to generate energy from the organic wastes both from the environmental and economical perspectives. The purpose of present study is to evaluate energy production from potato wastes by incorporating cow manure into the process. Firstly, a laboratory pilot of one-stage biogas production was designed and built according to continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system. The setup was able to automatically control the environmental conditions of the process including temperature, duration, and rate of stirring. AD experiment was exclusively performed on co-digestion of potato peel (PP) and cow manure (CM) in three levels of mixing ratio including 20:80, 50:50, 80:20 (PP:CM), and 0:100 as control treatment based on the volatile solid (VS) weight without adding initial inoculums. After hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 days on average 193, 256, 348, and 149 norm liter (LN) (kg VS)(-1), methane was produced for different mixing ratios, respectively. Statistical analysis shows that these gas productions are significantly different. The average energy was determined based on the produced methane which was about 2.8 kWh (kg VS)(-1), implying a significant energy production potential. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of treatments was about 61%, showing that it can be leached significantly with high organic matter by the employed pilot. The energy efficiency of 92% of the process also showed the optimum control of the process by the pilot. PMID:24894660

Sanaei-Moghadam, Akbar; Abbaspour-Fard, Mohammad Hossein; Aghel, Hasan; Aghkhani, Mohammad Hossein; Abedini-Torghabeh, Javad

2014-08-01

223

Poliovirus Induces Apoptosis in the Mouse Central Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poliovirus (PV) is the etiological agent of human paralytic poliomyelitis. Paralysis results from the destruc- tion of motoneurons, a consequence of PV replication. However, the PV-induced process leading to the death of motoneurons is not well known. We investigated whether PV-induced central nervous system (CNS) injury is associated with apoptosis by using mice as animal models. Transgenic mice expressing the

SOPHIE GIRARD; THERESE COUDERC; JOSETTE DESTOMBES; DANIELE THIESSON; FRANCIS DELPEYROUX; BRUNO BLONDEL

1999-01-01

224

Multiparametric and semiquantitative scoring systems for the evaluation of mouse model histopathology - a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Histopathology has initially been and is still used to diagnose infectious, degenerative or neoplastic diseases in humans or animals. In addition to qualitative diagnoses semiquantitative scoring of a lesion`s magnitude on an ordinal scale is a commonly demanded task for histopathologists. Multiparametric, semiquantitative scoring systems for mouse models histopathology are a common approach to handle these questions and to include histopathologic information in biomedical research. Results Inclusion criteria for scoring systems were a first description of a multiparametric, semiquantiative scoring systems which comprehensibly describe an approach to evaluate morphologic lesion. A comprehensive literature search using these criteria identified 153 originally designed semiquantitative scoring systems for the analysis of morphologic changes in mouse models covering almost all organs systems and a wide variety of disease models. Of these, colitis, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, lupus nephritis and collagen induced osteoarthritis colitis were the disease models with the largest number of different scoring systems. Closer analysis of the identified scoring systems revealed a lack of a rationale for the selection of the scoring parameters or a correlation between scoring parameter value and the magnitude of the clinical symptoms in most studies. Conclusion Although a decision for a particular scoring system is clearly dependent on the respective scientific question this review gives an overview on currently available systems and may therefore allow for a better choice for the respective project. PMID:23800279

2013-01-01

225

Atmosphere behavior in gas-closed mouse-algal systems - An experimental and modelling study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA-sponsored research program initiated using mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas-exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere is studied. The development of control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels is considered. A mathematical model simulating the behavior of a gas-closed mouse-algal system under varying environmental conditions is described. To verify and validate the model simulations, an analytical system with which algal growth and gas exchange characteristics can be manipulated and measured is designed, fabricated, and tested. The preliminary results are presented.

Averner, M. M.; Moore, B., III; Bartholomew, I.; Wharton, R.

1984-01-01

226

A novel sex determination system in a close relative of the house mouse  

PubMed Central

Therian mammals have an extremely conserved XX/XY sex determination system. A limited number of mammal species have, however, evolved to escape convention and present aberrant sex chromosome complements. In this study, we identified a new case of atypical sex determination in the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, a close evolutionary relative of the house mouse. The pygmy mouse is characterized by a very high proportion of XY females (74%, n = 27) from geographically widespread Southern and Eastern African populations. Sequencing of the high mobility group domain of the mammalian sex determining gene Sry, and karyological analyses using fluorescence in situ hybridization and G-banding data, suggest that the sex reversal is most probably not owing to a mutation of Sry, but rather to a chromosomal rearrangement on the X chromosome. In effect, two morphologically different X chromosomes were identified, one of which, designated X*, is invariably associated with sex-reversed females. The asterisk designates the still unknown mutation converting X*Y individuals into females. Although relatively still unexplored, such an atypical sex chromosome system offers a unique opportunity to unravel new genetic interactions involved in the initiation of sex determination in mammals. PMID:20007182

Veyrunes, Frederic; Chevret, Pascale; Catalan, Josette; Castiglia, Riccardo; Watson, Johan; Dobigny, Gauthier; Robinson, Terence J.; Britton-Davidian, Janice

2010-01-01

227

Linking susceptibility genes and pathogenesis mechanisms using mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) represents a challenging autoimmune disease from a clinical perspective because of its varied forms of presentation. Although broad-spectrum steroids remain the standard treatment for SLE, they have many side effects and only provide temporary relief from the symptoms of the disease. Thus, gaining a deeper understanding of the genetic traits and biological pathways that confer susceptibility to SLE will help in the design of more targeted and effective therapeutics. Both human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and investigations using a variety of mouse models of SLE have been valuable for the identification of the genes and pathways involved in pathogenesis. In this Review, we link human susceptibility genes for SLE with biological pathways characterized in mouse models of lupus, and discuss how the mechanistic insights gained could advance drug discovery for the disease. PMID:25147296

Crampton, Steve P.; Morawski, Peter A.; Bolland, Silvia

2014-01-01

228

Personal Relationships and Digestive Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... GI Disorders The Digestive System Functional GI Disorders Motility Disorders Other Disorders Kids & Teens Manage Your Health Finding ... org © Copyright 1998-2015 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All Rights Reserved. Powered by Net ...

229

Closeout final report on a demonstration test and evaluation of the Cannon Low-NOx Digester System  

SciTech Connect

Cannon Boiler Works Inc. has been investigating a system for removing NOx from the exhaust gases of furnaces, gas turbines, chemical reactors, incinerators, and boilers. Computer simulations, bench-scale and pilot plant tests have proved that the system is capable of removing substantially all of the NOx from natural gas fired equipment exhaust streams. Originally designated as the Cannon NOx Digester, it has recently been renamed the Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO) System for NOx and SOx Reduction. The principal elements in the system are a fan, heat exchanger, oxidation chamber, spray chamber acting as a gas/liquid absorber, demister, an ozone generator, liquid oxygen storage or dry air supply system for the ozonator, chemical storage and metering system for the caustic neutralizer, and a data acquisition and control system. Most of the ozone is consumed in converting NOx to N{sub 2}O{sub 5} which hydrates to nitric acid which is then scrubbed out of the gas as it passes through the absorber. CO also reacts with ozone to form CO{sub 2} which is subsequently scrubbed out with NaOH. A demonstration, planned for the Alta Dena Dairy located near Los Angeles and in violation of California`s air quality regulations for natural gas fired boilers, was started, delayed due to boiler modifications, and will be continued shortly with new funding. This paper describes the LTO process and presents results from the initial demonstration.

NONE

1995-04-01

230

Human Anatomy III: Respiratory, Urinary & Digestive  

E-print Network

1 Human Anatomy III: Respiratory, Urinary & Digestive Systems The Respiratory System Major, along with the lower part of the digestive system #12;6 Basic Anatomy of the Urinary System Kidneys lie in an aquatic insect larva Basic Anatomy of the Respiratory System I Air enters through the nose Inside nose

Brown, Christopher A.

231

DATA DIGEST WEST LAFAYETTE  

E-print Network

DATA DIGEST 2009-2010 WEST LAFAYETTE PreparingTomorrow'sLeaders for a Changing World #12-mail: datadigest@purdue.edu URL: www.purdue.edu/DataDigest DATA DIGEST2009-2010 WEST LAFAYETTE #12;DATA DIGEST2009-2010 This tenth edition of the Purdue University Data Digest provides information on a variety of topics

Petriu, Emil M.

232

A quantitative comparison of rates of phagocytosis and digestion of apoptotic cells by macrophages from normal  

E-print Network

A quantitative comparison of rates of phagocytosis and digestion of apoptotic cells by macrophages head: Phagocytosis and digestion by NOD mice macrophages Corresponding author: Leah Edelstein, thus quantifying kinetics of uptake and digestion of apoptotic cells in both mouse strains (Mar´ee et

Keshet, Leah

233

Epithelial morphogenesis: the mouse eye as a model system.  

PubMed

Morphogenesis is the developmental process by which tissues and organs acquire the shape that is critical to their function. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive morphogenesis in the developing eye. These investigations have shown that regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is central to shaping the presumptive lens and retinal epithelia that are the major components of the eye. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is mediated by Rho family GTPases, by signaling pathways and indirectly, by transcription factors that govern the expression of critical genes. Changes in the actin cytoskeleton can shape cells through the generation of filopodia (that, in the eye, connect adjacent epithelia) or through apical constriction, a process that produces a wedge-shaped cell. We have also learned that one tissue can influence the shape of an adjacent one, probably by direct force transmission, in a process we term inductive morphogenesis. Though these mechanisms of morphogenesis have been identified using the eye as a model system, they are likely to apply broadly where epithelia influence the shape of organs during development. PMID:25662266

Chauhan, Bharesh; Plageman, Timothy; Lou, Ming; Lang, Richard

2015-01-01

234

MADM-ML, a Mouse Genetic Mosaic System with Increased Clonal Efficiency  

PubMed Central

Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM) is a mouse genetic system that allows simultaneous gene knockout and fluorescent labeling of sparse, clonally-related cells within an otherwise normal mouse, thereby circumventing embryonic lethality problems and providing single-cell resolution for phenotypic analysis in vivo. The clonal efficiency of MADM is intrinsically low because it relies on Cre/loxP-mediated mitotic recombination between two homologous chromosomes rather than within the same chromosome, as in the case of conditional knockout (CKO). Although sparse labeling enhances in vivo resolution, the original MADM labels too few or even no cells when a low-expressing Cre transgene is used or a small population of cells is studied. Recently, we described the usage of a new system, MADM-ML, which contains three mutually exclusive, self-recognizing loxP variant sites as opposed to a single loxP site present in the original MADM system (referred to as MADM-SL in this paper). Here we carefully compared the recombination efficiency between MADM-SL and MADM-ML using the same Cre transgene, and found that the new system labels significantly more cells than the original system does. When we established mouse medulloblastoma models with both the original and the new MADM systems, we found that, while the MADM-SL model suffered from varied tumor progression and incomplete penetrance, the MADM-ML model had consistent tumor progression and full penetrance of tumor formation. Therefore MADM-ML, with its higher recombination efficiency, will broaden the applicability of MADM for studying many biological questions including normal development and disease modeling at cellular resolution in vivo. PMID:24143253

Henner, Astra; Ventura, P. Britten; Jiang, Ying; Zong, Hui

2013-01-01

235

Development and Function of the Mouse Vestibular System in the Absence of Gravity Perception  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypothesis that was tested in this research was that the absence of gravity perception, such as would occur in space, would affect the development and function of the vestibular and central nervous systems. Further, we postulated that these effects would be more significant at specific stages of post-natal development of the animal. We also proposed the use of molecular genetic approaches that would provide important information as to the hierarchy of gene function during the development and subsequent function of the vestibular system. The tilted (tlt) mutant mouse has been characterized as lacking the ability to provide sensory input to the gravity receptors. The tlt/tlt mutant mice were a particularly attractive model for the study of vestibular function since the primary defect was limited to the receptor part of the vestibular system, and there were no detectable abnormal phenotypes in other organ systems. The goal of the proposed studies was to assess immediate and delayed effects of the lack of gravity perception on the vestibular system. Particular attention was paid to characterizing primarily affected periods of vestibular morphogenesis, and to identifying downstream genetic pathways that are altered in the CNS of the tlt/tlt mutant mouse. The specific aims were: (1) to characterize the postnatal morphogenesis of the CNS in the tlt mutant mouse, using detailed morphometric analysis of isolated vestibular ganglia and brain tissue at different stages of postnatal development and assessment of apoptotic cell death; (2) to examine the expression of selected genes implicated by mutational analysis to be important in vestibular development or function by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry in the mutant mice; and (3) to identify other genes involved in vestibular development and function, using differential cloning strategies to isolate genes whose expression is changed in the mutant versus normal vestibular system.

Wolgemuth, Debra J.

2005-01-01

236

Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331  

SciTech Connect

Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

237

Anxiety and depression, cognitive coping strategies, and health locus of control in patients with digestive system cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Contemporary psycho-oncology focuses on the study of the psychological determinants of the functioning of cancer patients. Among the psychological factors that significantly affect the functioning of the patients are anxiety and depressive disorders. Aim To assess the psychological functioning of patients with digestive system cancer in the cancer-treating process and to develop guidelines for psychological care dedicated to this group of patients based on the results of the study. Material and methods A total of 69 patients aged 23 to 91 (average 56) years with digestive system cancer treated in the Gastroenterology Cancer Clinic in the Institute of Oncology in Warsaw were examined using HADS, Mini-MAC, and MHLC. The results were analysed using statistical tests and correlation analysis. Another 532 patients from other wards formed the reference group. Results Measured HLC, anxiety, and depression did not differ significantly from the overall patient population. The investigation of the relationships between anxiety and depression and mental adjustment to cancer showed a positive correlation between anxiety and depression and anxious preoccupation and hopelessness-helplessness, and negative correlation between anxiety and depression and fighting spirit. Conclusions The obtained research results on the correlation of anxiety and depression with health locus of control show that the lower the severity of anxiety and depression, the higher the severity of internal health locus of control. The results confirm the necessity of psychological support forcancer patients showing evidence of destructive attitudes and external health locus of control, so that the severity of anxiety-depressive disorders can indirectly be reduced. PMID:25653727

Kulpa, Marta; Kosowicz, Mariola; Kazalska, Dorota

2014-01-01

238

Pointright: a system to redirect mouse and keyboard control among multiple machines  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a software system, PointRight, that allows for smooth and effortless control of pointing and input devices among multiple displays. With PointRight, a single free-floating mouse and keyboard can be used to control multiple screens. When the cursor reaches the edge of a screen it seamlessly moves to the adjacent screen and keyboard control is simultaneously redirected to the appropriate machine. Laptops may also redirect their keyboard and pointing device, and multiple pointers are supported simultaneously. The system automatically reconfigures itself as displays go on, go off, or change the machine they display.

Johanson, Bradley E. (Palo Alto, CA); Winograd, Terry A. (Stanford, CA); Hutchins, Gregory M. (Mountain View, CA)

2008-09-30

239

Molecular cloning of the mouse IMINO system: an Na+- and Cl?-dependent proline transporter  

PubMed Central

Neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6 family play an important role in the removal of neurotransmitters in brain tissue and in amino acid transport in epithelial cells. Here we demonstrate that the mouse homologue of slc6a20 has all properties of the long-sought IMINO system. The mouse has two homologues corresponding to the single human SLC6A20 gene: these have been named XT3 and XT3s1. Expression of mouse XT3s1, but not XT3, in Xenopus laevis oocytes induced an electrogenic Na+-and-Cl?-dependent transporter for proline, hydroxyproline, betaine, N-methylaminoisobutyric acid and pipecolic acid. Expression of XT3s1 was found in brain, kidney, small intestine, thymus, spleen and lung, whereas XT3 prevailed in kidney and lung. Accordingly we suggest that the two homologues be termed ‘XT3s1 IMINOB’ and ‘XT3 IMINOK’ to indicate the tissue expression of the two genes. PMID:15689184

2005-01-01

240

Developmental expression of sorting nexin 3 in the mouse central nervous system.  

PubMed

We previously reported that sorting nexin 3 (SNX3), a protein belonging to the sorting nexin family, regulates neurite outgrowth in mouse N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. The snx3 gene is disrupted in patients with microcephaly, microphthalmia, ectrodactyly, and prognathism (MMEP) and mental retardation, demonstrating that SNX3 plays an important role in the genesis of these organs during development. The present study was designed to determine the expression pattern of snx3 mRNA, particularly in the mouse central nervous system (CNS), from the embryonic stage to adulthood. Whole mount in situ hybridization of embryonic day (E) 9.5 and 10.5 mouse embryos revealed strong positive signals for snx3 mRNA in the forebrain, pharyngeal arches, eyes, and limb buds. In situ hybridization analyses of embryonic and neonatal brain sections revealed that snx3 mRNA is mainly expressed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, piriform cortex, cerebellum, and spinal cord. In adulthood, the expression of snx3 mRNA is observed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, piriform cortex, and cerebellar neurons. Thus, snx3 mRNA is expressed during neural development and in adult neural tissues, suggesting that SNX3 may play an important role in the development and function of the CNS. PMID:20817026

Mizutani, Reiko; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Yokoyama, Shigetoshi; Sanbe, Atsushi; Kusakawa, Shinji; Miyamoto, Yuki; Torii, Tomohiro; Asahara, Hiroshi; Okado, Haruo; Yamauchi, Junji; Tanoue, Akito

2011-01-01

241

Two-phase anaerobic digestion within a solid waste/wastewater integrated management system  

SciTech Connect

A two-phase, wet anaerobic digestion process was tested at laboratory scale using mechanically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) as the substrate. The proposed process scheme differs from others due to the integration of the MSW and wastewater treatment cycles, which makes it possible to avoid the recirculation of process effluent. The results obtained show that the supplying of facultative biomass, drawn from the wastewater aeration tank, to the solid waste acidogenic reactor allows an improvement of the performance of the first phase of the process which is positively reflected on the second one. The proposed process performed successfully, adopting mesophilic conditions and a relatively short hydraulic retention time in the methanogenic reactor, as well as high values of organic loading rate. Significant VS removal efficiency and biogas production were achieved. Moreover, the methanogenic reactor quickly reached optimal conditions for a stable methanogenic phase. Studies conducted elsewhere also confirm the feasibility of integrating the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW with that of wastewater.

De Gioannis, G. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Diaz, L.F. [CalRecovery, Inc., 2454 Stanwell Drive, Concord, California 94520 (United States); Muntoni, A. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy)], E-mail: amuntoni@unica.it; Pisanu, A. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy)

2008-07-01

242

Arnold Schwarzenegger ANAEROBIC DIGESTER  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor ANAEROBIC DIGESTER IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Phase II - A Survey who took concrete steps to install an anaerobic digestion (AD) facility and documentation motivated by being able to reduce odor and use the digested solids as animal bedding. Neither

243

Mouse Curve Biometrics  

SciTech Connect

A biometric system suitable for validating user identity using only mouse movements and no specialized equipment is presented. Mouse curves (mouse movements with little or no pause between them) are individually classied and used to develop classication histograms, which are representative of an individual's typical mouse use. These classication histograms can then be compared to validate identity. This classication approach is suitable for providing continuous identity validation during an entire user session.

Schulz, Douglas A.

2007-10-08

244

A demonstration test and evaluation of the Cannon Low-NO{sub x} Digester System. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Since 1985, Cannon Boiler Works, Inc. has been carrying out research and development efforts to perfect a system for removing nitrogen oxides, NO{sub x}, from the exhaust gases of furnaces, gas turbines, chemical reactors, incinerators and boilers.Computer simulations, bench-scale tests and pilot plant testing have proved that the system is capable of removing substantially all of the NO{sub x} from natural gas-fired equipment exhaust streams. Furthermore when retrofit to industrial boilers, both capital costs and operating costs are lower than for competing processes, while performance is much better. The Cannon system for removing NO{sub x}, originally designated as the Cannon NO{sub x} Digester, has recently been renamed the Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO) System for NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} Reduction. It will be engineered and marketed by Cannon Technology, Inc, a wholly owned subsidiary of Cannon Boiler Works, Inc. Cannon has US patents for the process and for the associated equipment and has patent applications pending in Europe. Cannon`s Low Temperature Oxidation, LTO, process has proved effective for reducing the levels of NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and particulates from boiler flue gases.

NONE

1995-08-01

245

Novel ?-conotoxins from C. catus reverse signs of mouse inflammatory pain after systemic administration  

PubMed Central

Background Antagonists of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC), Cav2.2, can manage severe chronic pain with intrathecal use and may be effective systemically. A series of novel ?-conotoxins that selectively inhibit N-type VGCCs was isolated from Conus catus. In the present study, the potency and reversibility of ?-conotoxins CVID, CVIE and CVIF to inhibit N-type calcium currents were investigated in mouse isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The systemic potency of each ?-conotoxin to reverse signs of mouse chronic inflammatory pain was also compared. Results In DRG neurons, the rank order of potency to inhibit N-type calcium currents was CVIE?>?CVIF?>?CVID. After subcutaneous administration, CVID and CVIE, but not CVIF, partially reversed impaired weight bearing in mice injected with Freund’s complete adjuvant (CFA) three days prior to testing. No side-effects associated with systemic administration of ?-conotoxins were observed. Conclusions The present study indicates a potential for CVID and CVIE to be developed as systemically active analgesics with no accompanying neurological side-effects. PMID:24139484

2013-01-01

246

Architectural Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Architectural Digest is one of the world's premier periodicals dedicated to architecture and interior design. Their website is a trove of materials for those dabbling in such matters. On this site, visitors can look through one of six sections: Interiors + Inspiration, Celebrity Style, Architecture + Design, Shopping + Sources, News, Culture + Travel, and In the Magazine. These areas are rich in content and commentary from diverse caravansaries. First-timers might enjoy a jaunt on over to the Daily AD to get their daily dose of what's happening in the field. A random visit to the site might bring up a photo gallery of 25 inspiring staircases from around the world, a renovation of a chateau in the Loire Valley, or a look into the homes of some of Southern California's movers and shakers. Additionally, users can sign up to receive updates about their special editions and website only features.

247

A pilot plant two-phase anaerobic digestion system for bioenergy recovery from swine wastes and garbage.  

PubMed

A pilot plant bioenergy recovery system from swine waste and garbage was constructed. A series of experiments was performed using swine feces (SF); a mixture of swine feces and urine (MSFU); a mixture of swine feces, urine and garbage (MSFUG); garbage and a mixture of urine and garbage (AUG). The system performed well for treating the source materials at a high organic loading rate (OLR) and short hydraulic retention time (HRT). In particular, the biogas production for the MSFUG was the highest, accounting for approximately 865-930 L kg(-1)-VS added at the OLR of 5.0-5.3 kg-VS m(-3) day(-1) and the HRT of 9 days. The removal of VS was 67-75%, and that of COD was 73-74%. Therefore, co-digestion is a promising method for the recovery of bioenergy from swine waste and garbage. Furthermore, the results obtained from this study provide fundamental information for scaling up a high-performance anaerobic system in the future. PMID:17904349

Feng, Chuanping; Shimada, Sadoru; Zhang, Zhenya; Maekawa, Takaaki

2008-01-01

248

Pressurized Pepsin Digestion in Proteomics  

PubMed Central

Integrated top-down bottom-up proteomics combined with on-line digestion has great potential to improve the characterization of protein isoforms in biological systems and is amendable to high throughput proteomics experiments. Bottom-up proteomics ultimately provides the peptide sequences derived from the tandem MS analyses of peptides after the proteome has been digested. Top-down proteomics conversely entails the MS analyses of intact proteins for more effective characterization of genetic variations and/or post-translational modifications. Herein, we describe recent efforts toward efficient integration of bottom-up and top-down LC-MS-based proteomics strategies. Since most proteomics separations utilize acidic conditions, we exploited the compatibility of pepsin (where the optimal digestion conditions are at low pH) for integration into bottom-up and top-down proteomics work flows. Pressure-enhanced pepsin digestions were successfully performed and characterized with several standard proteins in either an off-line mode using a Barocycler or an on-line mode using a modified high pressure LC system referred to as a fast on-line digestion system (FOLDS). FOLDS was tested using pepsin and a whole microbial proteome, and the results were compared against traditional trypsin digestions on the same platform. Additionally, FOLDS was integrated with a RePlay configuration to demonstrate an ultrarapid integrated bottom-up top-down proteomics strategy using a standard mixture of proteins and a monkey pox virus proteome. PMID:20627868

López-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Robinson, Errol W.; Hixson, Kim K.; Tian, Zhixin; Lee, Jung Hwa; Lee, Sang-Won; Toli?, Nikola; Weitz, Karl K.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.; Paša-Toli?, Ljiljana

2011-01-01

249

Specification of the mouse cardiac conduction system in the absence of Endothelin signaling.  

PubMed

Coordinated contraction of the heart is essential for survival and is regulated by the cardiac conduction system. Contraction of ventricular myocytes is controlled by the terminal part of the conduction system known as the Purkinje fiber network. Lineage analyses in chickens and mice have established that the Purkinje fibers of the peripheral ventricular conduction system arise from working myocytes during cardiac development. It has been proposed, based primarily on gain-of-function studies, that Endothelin signaling is responsible for myocyte-to-Purkinje fiber transdifferentiation during avian heart development. However, the role of Endothelin signaling in mammalian conduction system development is less clear, and the development of the cardiac conduction system in mice lacking Endothelin signaling has not been previously addressed. Here, we assessed the specification of the cardiac conduction system in mouse embryos lacking all Endothelin signaling. We found that mouse embryos that were homozygous null for both ednra and ednrb, the genes encoding the two Endothelin receptors in mice, were born at predicted Mendelian frequency and had normal specification of the cardiac conduction system and apparently normal electrocardiograms with normal QRS intervals. In addition, we found that ednra expression within the heart was restricted to the myocardium while ednrb expression in the heart was restricted to the endocardium and coronary endothelium. By establishing that ednra and ednrb are expressed in distinct compartments within the developing mammalian heart and that Endothelin signaling is dispensable for specification and function of the cardiac conduction system, this work has important implications for our understanding of mammalian cardiac development. PMID:25050930

Hua, Lisa L; Vedantham, Vasanth; Barnes, Ralston M; Hu, Jianxin; Robinson, Ashley S; Bressan, Michael; Srivastava, Deepak; Black, Brian L

2014-09-15

250

Effect of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Mouse Resistance to Systemic Candida albicans Infection  

PubMed Central

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana, is known to suppress the immune responses to bacterial, viral and protozoan infections, but its effects on fungal infections have not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic ?9-THC treatment on mouse resistance to systemic Candida albicans (C. albicans) infection. To determine the outcome of chronic ?9-THC treatment on primary, acute systemic candidiasis, c57BL/6 mice were given vehicle or ?9-THC (16 mg/kg) in vehicle on days 1–4, 8–11 and 15–18. On day 19, mice were infected with 5×105 C. albicans. We also determined the effect of chronic ?9-THC (4–64 mg/kg) treatment on mice infected with a non-lethal dose of 7.5×104 C. albicans on day 2, followed by a higher challenge with 5×105 C. albicans on day 19. Mouse resistance to the infection was assessed by survival and tissue fungal load. Serum cytokine levels were determine to evaluate the immune responses. In the acute infection, chronic ?9-THC treatment had no effect on mouse survival or tissue fungal load when compared to vehicle treated mice. However, ?9-THC significantly suppressed IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 as well as marginally suppressed IL-17 versus vehicle treated mice. In comparison, when mice were given a secondary yeast infection, ?9-THC significantly decreased survival, increased tissue fungal burden and suppressed serum IFN-? and IL-12p40 levels compared to vehicle treated mice. The data showed that chronic ?9-THC treatment decreased the efficacy of the memory immune response to candida infection, which correlated with a decrease in IFN-? that was only observed after the secondary candida challenge. PMID:25057822

Blumstein, Gideon W.; Parsa, Arya; Park, Anthony K.; McDowell, Beverly L. P.; Arroyo-Mendoza, Melissa; Girguis, Marie; Adler-Moore, Jill P.; Olson, Jon; Buckley, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

251

A primary culture system of mouse thick ascending limb cells with preserved function and uromodulin processing.  

PubMed

The epithelial cells lining the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the loop of Henle perform essential transport processes and secrete uromodulin, the most abundant protein in normal urine. The lack of differentiated cell culture systems has hampered studies of TAL functions. Here, we report a method to generate differentiated primary cultures of TAL cells, developed from microdissected tubules obtained in mouse kidneys. The TAL tubules cultured on permeable filters formed polarized confluent monolayers in ?12 days. The TAL cells remain differentiated and express functional markers such as uromodulin, NKCC2, and ROMK at the apical membrane. Electrophysiological measurements on primary TAL monolayers showed a lumen-positive transepithelial potential (+9.4?±?0.8 mV/cm(2)) and transepithelial resistance similar to that recorded in vivo. The transepithelial potential is abolished by apical bumetanide and in primary cultures obtained from ROMK knockout mice. The processing, maturation and apical secretion of uromodulin by primary TAL cells is identical to that observed in vivo. The primary TAL cells respond appropriately to hypoxia, hypertonicity, and stimulation by desmopressin, and they can be transfected. The establishment of this primary culture system will allow the investigation of TAL cells obtained from genetically modified mouse models, providing a critical tool for understanding the role of that segment in health and disease. PMID:23887378

Glaudemans, Bob; Terryn, Sara; Gölz, Nadine; Brunati, Martina; Cattaneo, Angela; Bachi, Angela; Al-Qusairi, Lama; Ziegler, Urs; Staub, Olivier; Rampoldi, Luca; Devuyst, Olivier

2014-02-01

252

In vitro digestion of short-dough biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres, using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system (1): Viscosity measurement and prediction.  

PubMed

The effects of biscuit composition on the viscosity generated during digestion were investigated. A control biscuit, one with proteins, one with fibres, and one with both proteins and fibres were digested under the same conditions, using the TNO intestinal model (TIM-1). The TIM-1 is a multi-compartmental and dynamic in vitro system, simulating digestion in the upper tract (stomach and small intestine) of healthy adult humans. Digesta were collected at different times, in the different compartments of the TIM-1 (stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and viscosity was measured with a dynamic rheometer. Results showed a marked effect of biscuit composition on chyme viscosity. Highest viscosity was obtained with biscuits containing viscous soluble fibres, followed by those enriched in both proteins and fibres, then by protein-enriched and control biscuits. The viscosity was maintained throughout the gut up to the ileal compartment. A prediction of the evolution of the chyme viscosity in each compartment of the TIM-1 was built, based on model curves describing the evolution of the viscosity as a function of biscuit concentration, and on dilution factors measured by spectrophotometry on a blank digestion. PMID:25842308

Villemejane, C; Wahl, R; Aymard, P; Denis, S; Michon, C

2015-09-01

253

Towards better mouse models: enhanced genotypes, systemic phenotyping and envirotype modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse is the leading mammalian model organism for basic genetic research and for studying human diseases. Coordinated international projects are currently in progress to generate a comprehensive map of mouse gene functions — the first for any mammalian genome. There are still many challenges ahead to maximize the value of the mouse as a model, particularly for human disease.

Wolfgang Wurst; Johannes Beckers; Martin Hrabé de Angelis

2009-01-01

254

Fast synchronized dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging system for monitoring hemodynamic changes in a stroke mouse model  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we describe a newly developed synchronized dual-wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging (SDW-LSCI) system, which contains two cameras that are synchronously triggered to acquire data. The system can acquire data at a high spatiotemporal resolution (up to 500Hz for ~1000×1000 pixels). A mouse model of stroke is used to demonstrate the capability for imaging the fast changes (within tens of milliseconds) in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and the relative changes in blood flow in the mouse brain, through an intact cranium. This novel imaging technology will enable the study of fast hemodynamics and metabolic changes in vascular diseases. PMID:23027260

Qin, Jia; Shi, Lei; Dziennis, Suzan; Reif, Roberto; Wang, Ruikang K.

2014-01-01

255

Risk factors for second cancers of the upper respiratory and digestive systems: a case-control study.  

PubMed

A case-control study of determinants of multiple cancers of the upper respiratory and digestive system (URDS) was conducted using a patient cohort-nested design. We analyzed demographic and risk factor information and clinical variables related to the index cancer for 85 cases of multiple cancers and 170 controls matched on sub-site of the index cancer of the case and date of hospital admission. Follow-up information for the control group was used to infer the person-years-at-risk for the cohort of 1977 patients. URDS cancer patients experienced a 10.7 times (95% confidence interval: 8.5-13.2) higher risk of additional related cancers than the general population. Although controls had cancers of the same sites as those of cases and thus, strongly tobacco and alcohol-related, there were marked residual effects for these two risks factors. In addition, characteristics related to the extension and clinical course of the index cancer were strongly associated with the patient's risk of developing additional cancers. PMID:2066741

Franco, E L; Kowalski, L P; Kanda, J L

1991-01-01

256

The MRL/lpr Mouse Strain as a Model for Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

PubMed Central

To date, CNS disease and neuropsychiatric symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (NP-SLE) have been understudied compared to end-organ failure and peripheral pathology. In this review, we focus on a specific mouse model of lupus and the ways in which this model reflects some of the most common manifestations and potential mechanisms of human NP-SLE. The mouse MRL lymphoproliferation strain (a.k.a. MRL/lpr) spontaneously develops the hallmark serological markers and peripheral pathologies typifying lupus in addition to displaying the cognitive and affective dysfunction characteristic of NP-SLE, which may be among the earliest symptoms of lupus. We suggest that although NP-SLE may share common mechanisms with peripheral organ pathology in lupus, especially in the latter stages of the disease, the immunologically privileged nature of the CNS indicates that early manifestations of particularly mood disorders maybe derived from some unique mechanisms. These include altered cytokine profiles that can activate astrocytes, microglia, and alter neuronal function before dysregulation of the blood-brain barrier and development of clinical autoantibody titres. PMID:21331367

Gulinello, Maria; Putterman, Chaim

2011-01-01

257

Peripheral nervous system defects in a mouse model for peroxisomal biogenesis disorders.  

PubMed

Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are autosomal recessive disorders in humans characterized by skeletal, eye and brain abnormalities. Despite the fact that neurological deficits, including peripheral nervous system (PNS) defects, can be observed at birth in some PBD patients including those with PEX10 mutations, the embryological basis of the PNS defects is unclear. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified a mouse model for Pex10 deficiency that exhibits neurological abnormalities during fetal development. Homozygous Pex10 mutant mouse embryos display biochemical abnormalities related to a PBD deficiency. During late embryogenesis, Pex10 homozygous mutant mice experience progressive loss of movement and at birth they become cyanotic and die shortly thereafter. Homozygous Pex10 mutant fetuses display decreased integrity of axons and synapses, over-extension of axons in the diaphragm and decreased Schwann cell numbers. Our neuropathological, molecular and electrophysiological studies provide new insights into the embryological basis of the PNS deficits in a PBD model. Our findings identify PEX10 function, and likely other PEX proteins, as an essential component of the spinal locomotor circuit. PMID:25176044

Hanson, M Gartz; Fregoso, Veronica L; Vrana, Justin D; Tucker, Chandra L; Niswander, Lee A

2014-11-01

258

Design and Economic Analysis of a Heating/Absorption Cooling System Operating with Municipal Solid Waste Digester: A Case Study of Gazi University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recovering energy from municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the most important issues of energy management in developed countries. This raises even more interest as world fossil fuel reserves diminish and fuel prices rise. Being one of main processes of waste disposal, anaerobic digestion can be used as a means to reduce fossil fuel and electricity consumption as well as reducing emissions. With growing demand for cooling in Turkey, especially during warm seasons and considering the energy costs, utilizing heat-driven absorption cooling systems coupled with an anaerobic digester for local cooling purposes is a potentially interesting alternative for electricity driven compression cooling. The aim of this article is to study the viability of utilizing biogas obtained from MSW anaerobic digestion as the main fuel for heating facilities of Gazi University, Turkey and also the energy source for an absorption cooling system designed for the central library of the aforementioned campus. The results prove that the suggested system is sustainably and financially appealing and has the potential to replace the conventional electricity driven cooling systems with a reasonable net present worth; moreover, it can notably reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

Co?ar, Gökhan; Pooyanfar, Mirparham; Amirabedin, Ehsan; Topal, Hüseyin

2013-12-01

259

77 FR 9671 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice...Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special...Tissue and Cell Distribution System. Date: March 15, 2012...Metabolic Research; 93.848, Digestive Diseases and Nutrition...

2012-02-17

260

A human endothelial cell feeder system that efficiently supports the undifferentiated growth of mouse embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

Feeder cells are commonly used to culture embryonic stem cells to maintain their undifferentiated and pluripotent status. Conventionally, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), supplemented with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), are used as feeder cells to support the growth of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) in culture. To prepare for fresh MEF feeder or for MEF-conditioned medium, sacrifice of mouse fetuses repeatedly is unavoidable in these tedious culture systems. Here we report the discovery of a human endothelial cell line (ECV-304 cell line) that efficiently supports growth of mESCs LIF-free conditions. mESCs that were successfully cultured for eight to 20 passages on ECV-304 feeders showed morphological characteristics similar to cells cultured in traditional feeder cell systems. These cells expressed the stem cell markers Oct3/4, Nanog, Sox2, and SSEA-1. Furthermore, cells cultured on the ECV-304 cell line were able to differentiate into three germ layers and were able to generate chimeric mice. Compared with traditional culture systems, there is no requirement for mouse fetuses and exogenous LIF does not need to be added to the culture system. As a stable cell line, the ECV-304 cell line efficiently replaces MEFs as an effective feeder system and allows the efficient expansion of mESCs. PMID:18557766

Zhou, Haisheng; Yong, Jun; Sun, Xiaomeng; Wang, Chengyan; Yang, Weifeng; Zhang, Pengbo; Zhu, Jingliang; Shi, Cheng; Ding, Mingxiao; Deng, Hongkui

2008-11-01

261

Ontogeny and distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatases in the digestive system of California halibut larvae (Paralichthys californicus).  

PubMed

Studies aimed to assess the digestive physiology of marine fish larvae under culture conditions are important to further understand the functional characteristics and digestive capacities of the developing larvae. Most studies to date concentrate on intestinal lumen digestion and little attention to the absorption process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to histochemically detect and quantify some of the enzymes responsible for absorption and intracellular digestion of nutrients in the anterior and posterior intestine of California halibut larvae. Alkaline and acid phosphatases were detected from the first days post-hatch (dph). Alkaline phosphatase maintained a high level of activity during the first 20 dph in both intestinal regions. Thereafter, a clear intestinal regionalization of the activity was observed with the highest levels occurring in the anterior intestine. Acid phosphatase activity gradually increased in both intestinal regions during development, and a regionalization of the activity was not observed until late in development, once the ocular migration began. Highest levels were observed in the anterior intestine at the end of metamorphosis concomitant with the stomach development. The results from this study show some morphological and physiological changes are occurring during larval development and a clear regionalization of the absorption process as the larvae develops. These ontological changes must be considered in the elaboration of diets according to the digestive capacity of the larvae. PMID:23508366

Zacarias-Soto, Magali; Barón-Sevilla, Benjamín; Lazo, Juan P

2013-10-01

262

Use of a Hierarchical Oligonucleotide Primer Extension Approach for Multiplexed Relative Abundance Analysis of Methanogens in Anaerobic Digestion Systems  

PubMed Central

In this study, we established a rapid multiplex method to detect the relative abundances of amplified 16S rRNA genes from known cultivatable methanogens at hierarchical specificities in anaerobic digestion systems treating industrial wastewater and sewage sludge. The method was based on the hierarchical oligonucleotide primer extension (HOPE) technique and combined with a set of 27 primers designed to target the total archaeal populations and methanogens from 22 genera within 4 taxonomic orders. After optimization for their specificities and detection sensitivity under the conditions of multiple single-nucleotide primer extension reactions, the HOPE approach was applied to analyze the methanogens in 19 consortium samples from 7 anaerobic treatment systems (i.e., 513 reactions). Among the samples, the methanogen populations detected with order-level primers accounted for >77.2% of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes detected using an Archaea-specific primer. The archaeal communities typically consisted of 2 to 7 known methanogen genera within the Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales and displayed population dynamic and spatial distributions in anaerobic reactor operations. Principal component analysis of the HOPE data further showed that the methanogen communities could be clustered into 3 distinctive groups, in accordance with the distribution of the Methanosaeta, Methanolinea, and Methanomethylovorans, respectively. This finding suggested that in addition to acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, the methylotrophic methanogens might play a key role in the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrated that the HOPE approach is a specific, rapid, and multiplexing platform to determine the relative abundances of targeted methanogens in PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene products. PMID:24077716

Chuang, Hui-Ping; Hsu, Mao-Hsuan; Chen, Wei-Yu

2013-01-01

263

Automatic Classification of Digestive Organs in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Videos  

E-print Network

.00. A human digestive system consists of a series of several different organs including the esophagus, stomach such as gastroscopy, push enteroscopy colonoscopy have been used for the visualization of digestive system. HoweverAutomatic Classification of Digestive Organs in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Videos Jeongkyu Lee1

Lee, Jeongkyu

264

Representation and transformation of sensory information in the mouse accessory olfactory system  

PubMed Central

In mice, nonvolatile social cues are detected and analyzed by the accessory olfactory system (AOS). Here we provide a first view of information processing in the AOS with respect to individual chemical cues. 12 sulfated steroids, recently-discovered mouse AOS ligands, caused widespread activity among vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs), yet VSN responses clustered into a small number of repeated functional patterns or processing streams. Downstream neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) responded to these ligands with enhanced signal/noise compared to VSNs. Whereas the dendritic connectivity of AOB mitral cells suggests the capacity for broad integration, most sulfated steroid responses were well-modeled by linear excitatory drive from just one VSN processing stream. However, a significant minority demonstrated multi-stream integration. Most VSN excitation patterns were also observed in the AOB, but excitation by estradiol sulfate processing streams was rare, suggesting AOB circuit organization is specific to the biological relevance of sensed cues. PMID:20453853

Meeks, Julian P.; Arnson, Hannah A.; Holy, Timothy E.

2010-01-01

265

Incentives for Accountability. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policymakers and educators are taking a new look at incentives as they work to improve accountability systems. This ERIC Digest examines the role of rewards and sanctions in school reform and identifies key issues in implementing incentive systems. The new accountability is based on five components: carefully designed standards, assessments…

Lashway, Larry

266

MONICA: a compact, portable dual gamma camera system for mouse whole-body imaging  

SciTech Connect

Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named "MONICA" for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed ?looking up? through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV?10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1 cm), 2.2 mm; sensitivity, 149 cps (counts per seconds)/MBq (5.5 cps/μCi); energy resolution (FWHM, full width at half maximum), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2=0.99 for 0?185 MBq (0?5 mCi) in the field of view (FOV); spatial uniformity, <3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-min images acquired throughout the 168-h study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g., limited imaging space, portability and, potentially, cost are important.

Choyke, Peter L.; Xia, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Kakareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.

2010-04-01

267

A novel method for somatic transgenesis of the mouse prostate using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In vivo ectopic gene expression is a common approach for prostate research through the use of transgenes in germline transgenic mice. For some other organs, somatic transgenesis with the Sleeping Beauty transposon system has allowed in vivo ectopic gene expression with higher throughput and lower cost than germline transgenic approaches. METHODS Mouse e16 urogenital sinuses (UGSs) were co-injected with plasmids expressing the Sleeping Beauty transposase and plasmids with control or activated BRAF expressing transposons. Following electroporation, the transduced UGSs were grown as allografts in mouse hosts for 8 weeks, and the resulting allografts were evaluated for several endpoints. RESULTS Transposon-transduced UGS allografts developed into prostatic tissue with normal tissue structure and cellular differentiation. Integration of transposon vectors into the genomes of transduced allografts was confirmed using linker-mediated PCR, sequencing, and in situ PCR. Transduction of UGS allografts with transposons expressing activated BRAF resulted in ectopic BRAF expression that was detectable at both the mRNA and protein levels. Prostatic ducts over-expressing activated BRAF also had ectopic activation of the ERK1/2 mitogen activated kinases and increased epithelial cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS The Sleeping Beauty transposon system can be used to achieve somatic transgenesis of prostatic allografts. This new method for achieving ectopic gene expression in the prostate will complement other existing approaches such as ectopic gene expression in cell lines and in germline transgenic mice. Advantages of this new approach include preservation of stromal-epithelial interactions not possible with cell lines, and higher throughput and lower cost than traditional germline transgenic approaches. PMID:24647932

Hammer, Kimberly D.P.; Alsop, Jim; Buresh-Stiemke, Rita A.; Frantskevich, Katsiaryna; Malinowski, Rita; Roethe, Laura; Powers, Ginny L; Marker, Paul C.

2014-01-01

268

MONICA: A Compact, Portable Dual Gamma Camera System for Mouse Whole-Body Imaging  

PubMed Central

Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named “MONICA” for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed “looking up” through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV ± 10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1-cm), 2.2-mm; sensitivity, 149 cps/MBq (5.5 cps/?Ci); energy resolution (FWHM), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2 = 0.99 for 0–185 MBq (0–5 mCi) in the field-of-view (FOV); spatial uniformity, < 3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-minute images acquired throughout the 168-hour study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g. limited imaging space, portability, and, potentially, cost are important. PMID:20346864

Xi, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Karkareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.; Choyke, Peter L.

2009-01-01

269

A mouse model for pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammation is a major driver of pathological tissue damage and a unifying characteristic of many chronic diseases in humans including neoplastic, autoimmune, and chronic inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence implicates pathogen-induced chronic inflammation in the development and progression of chronic diseases with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of chronic disease, designing experiments for proof of causality and the establishment of mechanistic links is nearly impossible in humans. An advantage of using animal models is that both genetic and environmental factors that may influence the course of a particular disease can be controlled. Thus, designing relevant animal models of infection represents a key step in identifying host and pathogen specific mechanisms that contribute to chronic inflammation. Here we describe a mouse model of pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites following infection with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium closely associated with human periodontal disease. Oral infection of specific-pathogen free mice induces a local inflammatory response resulting in destruction of tooth supporting alveolar bone, a hallmark of periodontal disease. In an established mouse model of atherosclerosis, infection with P. gingivalis accelerates inflammatory plaque deposition within the aortic sinus and innominate artery, accompanied by activation of the vascular endothelium, an increased immune cell infiltrate, and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators within lesions. We detail methodologies for the assessment of inflammation at local and systemic sites. The use of transgenic mice and defined bacterial mutants makes this model particularly suitable for identifying both host and microbial factors involved in the initiation, progression, and outcome of disease. Additionally, the model can be used to screen for novel therapeutic strategies, including vaccination and pharmacological intervention. PMID:25146644

Papadopoulos, George; Kramer, Carolyn D; Slocum, Connie S; Weinberg, Ellen O; Hua, Ning; Gudino, Cynthia V; Hamilton, James A; Genco, Caroline A

2014-01-01

270

Fate of pathogen indicators in a domestic blend of food waste and wastewater through a two-stage anaerobic digestion system.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion is a viable on-site treatment technology for rich organic waste streams such as food waste and blackwater. In contrast to large-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants which are typically located away from the community, the effluent from any type of on-site system is a potential pathogenic hazard because of the intimacy of the system to the community. The native concentrations of the pathogen indicators Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and somatic coliphage were tracked for 30 days under stable operation (organic loading rate (OLR) = 1.8 kgCOD m(-3) day(-1), methane yield = 52% on a chemical oxygen demand (COD) basis) of a two-stage laboratory-scale digester treating a mixture of food waste and blackwater. E. coli numbers were reduced by a factor of 10(6.4) in the thermophilic stage, from 10(7.5±0.3) to 10(1.1±0.1) cfu 100 mL(-1), but regenerated by a factor of 10(4) in the mesophilic stage. Neither the thermophilic nor mesophilic stages had any significant impact on C. perfringens concentrations. Coliphage concentrations were reduced by a factor of 10(1.4) across the two stages. The study shows that anaerobic digestion only reduces pathogen counts marginally but that counts in effluent samples could be readily reduced to below detection limits by filtration through a 0.22 µm membrane, to investigate membrane filtration as a possible sanitation technique. PMID:23168637

Rounsefell, B D; O'Sullivan, C A; Chinivasagam, N; Batstone, D; Clarke, W P

2013-01-01

271

Effect of immune system stimulation and divergent selection for residual feed intake on digestive capacity of the small intestine in growing pigs.  

PubMed

Little is known of the consequences of divergent selection for residual feed intake (RFI) on intestinal digestion capacity, particularly during immune system stimulation (ISS). Our objective was to evaluate the impact of ISS and divergent selection for RFI on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent fecal digestibility (AFD) of nutrients and intestinal nutrient active transport and barrier function. Twenty-eight gilts (63 ± 4 kg BW) from low RFI (LRFI; n = 14) and high RFI (HRFI; n = 14) Yorkshire lines were randomly selected from the Iowa State University RFI herd. Following adaptation, 8 pigs in each line were injected intramuscularly and every 48 h for 7 d with increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+). Remaining pigs were injected with saline (ISS-). Pigs were then euthanized and ileal digesta was collected for measuring AID of nutrients. Fecal samples were collected on a daily basis and pooled for measuring AFD of nutrients. A segment of ileum was used to measure nutrient transport and transepithelial resistance (TER) and/or barrier integrity by Ussing chambers. No effects of line or its interaction with ISS on AID of CP (N × 6.25) and OM, TER, and active nutrients transport were observed. However, ISS decreased (P < 0.05) and tended to (P < 0.1) decrease AID of CP and OM, respectively. Decrease in AFD of CP as result of ISS was greater in the LRFI line compared to the HRFI line (P < 0.05). Relative to ISS-, active glucose and P transport was greater in ISS+ pigs (P < 0.05). Genetic selection for LRFI increases the AFD but has no effect on AID of nutrients. It also reduces the total tract digestive capacity of growing pigs during ISS. Immune system stimulation affects both AID and AFD of dietary CP. PMID:23365340

Rakhshandeh, A; Dekkers, J C M; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; English, J; Gabler, N K

2012-12-01

272

Impact of immune system stimulation on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of methionine plus cysteine intake for whole-body protein deposition in growing pigs.  

PubMed

The impact of immune system stimulation (ISS) on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of dietary methionine plus cysteine (SAA) intake for whole-body protein deposition (PD) was evaluated in growing pigs. For this purpose, sixty barrows were used in two experiments: thirty-six pigs in Expt I and twenty-four pigs in Expt II. Pigs were feed restricted and assigned to five levels of dietary SAA allowance (three and two levels in Expt I and II, respectively) from SAA-limiting diets. Following adaptation, pigs at each dietary SAA level were injected with either increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+; eight and six pigs per dietary SAA level in Expt I and II, respectively) or saline (ISS - ; four and six pigs in Expt I and II, respectively) while measuring the whole-body nitrogen (N) balance. After N-balance observations, pigs were euthanised, organs were removed and ileal digesta were collected for determining nutrient digestibility. Ileal digestibility of gross energy, crude protein and amino acids was not affected by ISS (P>0·20). ISS reduced PD at all levels of dietary SAA intake (P< 0·01). The linear relationship between daily dietary SAA intake and PD observed at the three lowest dietary SAA intake levels indicated that ISS increased extrapolated maintenance SAA requirements (P< 0·05), but had no effect on the partial efficiency of the utilisation of dietary SAA intake for PD (P>0·20). Physiological and metabolic changes associated with systemic ISS had no effect on the ileal digestibility of nutrients per se, but altered SAA requirements for PD in growing pigs. PMID:23803219

Rakhshandeh, Anoosh; Htoo, John K; Karrow, Neil; Miller, Stephen P; de Lange, Cornelis F M

2014-01-14

273

PRENATAL EXPRESSION OF CHOLECYSTOKININ (CCK) IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) OF MOUSE  

PubMed Central

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide found in both gut and brain. Although numerous studies address the role of brain CCK postnatally, relatively little is known about the ontogeny of CCK expression in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent work revealed that CCK modulates olfactory axon outgrowth and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH-1) neuronal migration, suggesting that CCK may be an important factor during CNS development. To further characterize the developmental expression of CCK in the nervous system, in situ hybridization experiments were performed. CCK mRNA expression was widely distributed in the developing mouse brain. As early as E12.5, robust CCK expression is detected in the thalamus and spinal cord. By E17.5, cells in the cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus express CCK. In addition, CCK mRNA was also detected in the external zone of the median eminence where axons of the neuroendocrine hypophysiotropic systems terminate. Our study demonstrates that CCK mRNA is expressed prenatally in multiple areas of the CNS, many of which maintain CCK mRNA expression postnatally into adult life. In addition, we provide evidence that regions of the CNS known to integrate hormonal and sensory information associated with reproduction and the GnRH-1 system, expressed CCK already during prenatal development. PMID:18462884

Giacobini, Paolo; Wray, Susan

2008-01-01

274

Video Games: Research, Ratings, Recommendations. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The Digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders played at least one…

Cesarone, Bernard

275

MARS: a mouse atlas registration system based on a planar x-ray projector and an optical camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a mouse atlas registration system (MARS), composed of a stationary top-view x-ray projector and a side-view optical camera, coupled to a mouse atlas registration algorithm. This system uses the x-ray and optical images to guide a fully automatic co-registration of a mouse atlas with each subject, in order to provide anatomical reference for small animal molecular imaging systems such as positron emission tomography (PET). To facilitate the registration, a statistical atlas that accounts for inter-subject anatomical variations was constructed based on 83 organ-labeled mouse micro-computed tomography (CT) images. The statistical shape model and conditional Gaussian model techniques were used to register the atlas with the x-ray image and optical photo. The accuracy of the atlas registration was evaluated by comparing the registered atlas with the organ-labeled micro-CT images of the test subjects. The results showed excellent registration accuracy of the whole-body region, and good accuracy for the brain, liver, heart, lungs and kidneys. In its implementation, the MARS was integrated with a preclinical PET scanner to deliver combined PET/MARS imaging, and to facilitate atlas-assisted analysis of the preclinical PET images.

Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B.; Taschereau, Richard; Gu, Zheng; Vu, Nam T.; Prout, David L.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

2012-10-01

276

A comparative study of experimental mouse models of central nervous system demyelination.  

PubMed

Several mouse models of multiple sclerosis (MS) are now available. We have established a mouse model, in which ocular infection with a recombinant HSV-1 that expresses murine interleukin (IL)-2 constitutively (HSV-IL-2) causes central nervous system demyelination in different strains of mice. This model differs from most other models, in which it represents a mixture of viral and immune triggers. In the present study, we directly compared MOG35-55, MBP35-47 and PLP190-209 models of experimental autoimmune encephalitis with our HSV-IL-2-induced MS model. Mice with HSV-IL-2- and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced demyelinating diseases demonstrated a similar pattern and distribution of demyelination in their brain, spinal cord (SC) and optic nerves (ONs). In contrast, no demyelination was detected in the ONs of myelin basic protein (MBP)- and proteolipid protein (PLP)-injected mice. Interferon-? (IFN-?) injections significantly reduced demyelination in brains of all groups, in the SCs of the MOG and MBP groups, and completely blocked it in the SCs of the PLP and HSV-IL-2 groups as well as in ONs of MOG and HSV-IL-2 groups. In contrast to IFN-? treatment, IL-12p70 protected the HSV-IL-2 group from demyelination, whereas IL-4 was not effective at all in preventing demyelination. MOG-injected mice showed clinical signs of paralysis and disease-related mortality, whereas mice in the other treatment groups did not. Collectively, the results indicate that the HSV-IL-2 model and the MOG model complement each other and, together, provide unique insights into the heterogeneity of human MS. PMID:24718267

Dumitrascu, O M; Mott, K R; Ghiasi, H

2014-06-01

277

Informatics center for mouse genomics: the dissection of complex traits of the nervous system.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been an explosion in the number of tools and techniques available to researchers interested in exploring the genetic basis of all aspects of central nervous system (CNS) development and function. Here, we exploit a powerful new reductionist approach to explore the genetic basis of the very significant structural and molecular differences between the brains of different strains of mice, called either complex trait or quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Our specific focus has been to provide universal access over the web to tools for the genetic dissection of complex traits of the CNS--tools that allow researchers to map genes that modulate phenotypes at a variety of levels ranging from the molecular all the way to the anatomy of the entire brain. Our website, The Mouse Brain Library (MBL; http://mbl.org) is comprised of four interrelated components that are designed to support this goal: The Brain Library, iScope, Neurocartographer, and WebQTL. The centerpiece of the MBL is an image database of histologically prepared museum-quality slides representing nearly 2000 mice from over 120 strains--a library suitable for stereologic analysis of regional volume. The iScope provides fast access to the entire slide collection using streaming video technology, enabling neuroscientists to acquire high-magnification images of any CNS region for any of the mice in the MBL. Neurocartographer provides automatic segmentation of images from the MBL by warping precisely delineated boundaries from a 3D atlas of the mouse brain. Finally, WebQTL provides statistical and graphical analysis of linkage between phenotypes and genotypes. PMID:15043219

Rosen, Glenn D; La Porte, Nathan T; Diechtiareff, Boris; Pung, Christopher J; Nissanov, Jonathan; Gustafson, Carl; Bertrand, Louise; Gefen, Smadar; Fan, Yingli; Tretiak, Oleh J; Manly, Kenneth F; Park, Melburn R; Williams, Alexander G; Connolly, Michael T; Capra, John A; Williams, Robert W

2003-01-01

278

Histology and histochemistry of the development of the digestive system of larval gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resorption of the yolksac and development of the digestive tract and associated organs, including the swim bladder, were studied in Sparus aurata larvae from hatching until day 30 using histological and histochemical procedures. At the onset of exogenous feeding three regions could be easily distinguished in the gut: the foregut including the oesophagus and a primordial stomach, the midgut and

M. C. Sarasquete; A. Polo; M. Yúfera

1995-01-01

279

Autoheated thermophilic aerobic digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) is first and foremost a digestion process, the primary purpose of which is to decompose a portion of the waste organic solids generated from wastewater treatment. As a result of the high operating temperature, digestion is expected to occur within a short time period (6 days) and accomplish a high degree of pathogen reduction. ATAD

K. Deeny; H. Hahn; D. Leonhard; J. Heidman

1991-01-01

280

Arnold Schwarzenegger ANAEROBIC DIGESTER  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor ANAEROBIC DIGESTER IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Phase I - A Survey of U concrete steps to install an anaerobic digestion (AD) facility and documentation of the factors to reduce odor and use the digested solids as animal bedding. Neither of these factors was a motivator

281

Sensory system-predominant distribution of leukotriene A4 hydrolase and its colocalization with calretinin in the mouse nervous system.  

PubMed

Leukotriene B4 is a potent lipid mediator, which has been identified as a potent proinflammatory and immunomodulatory compound. Although there has been robust evidence indicating that leukotriene B4 is synthesized in the normal brain, detailed distribution and its functions in the nervous system have been unclear. To obtain insight into the possible neural function of leukotriene B4, we examined the immunohistochemical distribution of leukotriene A4 hydrolase, an enzyme catalyzing the final and committed step in leukotriene B4 biosynthesis, in the mouse nervous system. Immunoreactivity for leukotriene A4 hydrolase showed widespread distribution with preference to the sensory-associated structures; i.e. neurons in the olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ, olfactory glomeruli, possibly amacrine cells, neurons in the ganglion cell layer and three bands in the inner plexiform layer of the retina, axons in the optic nerve and tract up to the superior colliculus, inner and outer hair cells and the spiral ganglion cells in the cochlea, vestibulocochlear nerve bundle, spinal trigeminal tract, and lamina II of the spinal cord. Double immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that most of the leukotriene A4-hydrolase-immunopositive neurons coexpressed calretinin, a calcium-binding protein in neurons. The ubiquitous distribution of leukotriene A4 hydrolase was in sharp contrast with the distribution of leukotriene C4 synthase [Shimada A, Satoh M, Chiba Y, Saitoh Y, Kawamura N, Keino H, Hosokawa M, Shimizu T (2005) Highly selective localization of leukotriene C4 synthase in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic vasopressin systems of mouse brain. Neuroscience 131:683-689] which was confined to the hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic vasopressinergic neurons. These results suggest that leukotriene B4 may exert some neuromodulatory function mainly in the sensory nervous system, in concert with calretinin. PMID:16716527

Chiba, Y; Shimada, A; Satoh, M; Saitoh, Y; Kawamura, N; Hanai, A; Keino, H; Ide, Y; Shimizu, T; Hosokawa, M

2006-08-25

282

Ruminal digestion and fermentation of high-producing dairy cows with three different feeding systems combining pasture and total mixed rations.  

PubMed

Six multiparous Holstein cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used to study the effect of three feeding systems combining pasture and total mixed rations (TMR) on ruminal digestion in a 21-wk repeated measures experiment. The three treatments were: 1) pasture plus concentrate (PC), 2) pasture plus partial TMR (pTMR), and 3) TMR (nonpasture). Ruminal NH3-N concentration was lower on both the pTMR and TMR treatments (10.2 +/- 0.5 mg/dL) than on the PC treatment (19.9 +/- 0.5 mg/dL). Ruminal pH was not affected by treatments and averaged 5.87. Neither total volatile fatty acid concentration (137.5 mmol/L) nor individual volatile fatty acid proportions (63.1,20.6, and 12.0 mol/ 100 mol for acetate, propionate, and butyrate, respectively) differed among treatments. The pTMR treatment reduced the total potentially degradable fraction of dry matter (85.5 vs. 82.3%) and the potentially digestible fraction of neutral detergent fiber (82.1 vs. 74.9%) of pasture compared to the PC treatment. Ruminal NH3-N losses were reduced when combining pasture and TMR; however this combination decreased the ruminal digestion of pasture, indicating the presence of associative effects in the rumen. PMID:12487462

Bargo, F; Muller, L D; Varga, G A; Delahoy, J E; Cassidy, T W

2002-11-01

283

Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse in an accumulation system within the DESAR (decentralized sanitation and reuse) concept.  

PubMed

Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse within the DESAR concept was the objective of this pilot research. The digestion took place in two, non-mixed accumulation reactors (AC1 and AC2) inoculated with digested primary sludge from a WWTP at a temperature of 20 degrees C for a period of around 150 days. Reactor AC1 was fed with a mixture of faeces, urine and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that one individual generates per day. The AC2 was fed with a mixture of faeces and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that two individuals produce per day. Some contribution of urine to AC2 was not to be avoided. Detailed characterisation of waste(water) was performed. The performance of the stratified reactor was followed by monitoring the reactor content for several reactors' heights as well as being based on the biogas production. In general the system exposed good process stability. The methanisation of 34 and 61% was obtained for AC1 and AC2 respectively. The biogas yield was 26.5 and 50.8 L/p/d for the respective reactors. Proper choice of inoculum as well as good buffering capacity did not lead to accumulation of VFA and an inhibitive effect due to relatively high ammonium concentration. The chosen process is a promising technology showing good process stability especially for high strength influent. PMID:14531430

Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Elmitwalli, T; Gaillard, A; van Leeuwen, M; Zeeman, G

2003-01-01

284

Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of the sea hare, Aplysia kurodai: Unique properties of two ?-amylases and two ?-glucosidases  

PubMed Central

Sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa) is a nuisance species of green algae that is found all over the world. East-Asian species of the marine gastropod, the sea hare Aplysia kurodai, shows a clear feeding preference for sea lettuce. Compared with cellulose, sea lettuce contains a higher amount of starch as a storage polysaccharide. However, the entire amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai has not been studied in detail. We purified ?-amylases and ?-glucosidases from the digestive fluid of A. kurodai and investigated the synergistic action of these enzymes on sea lettuce. A. kurodai contain two ?-amylases (59 and 80 kDa) and two ?-glucosidases (74 and 86 kDa). The 59-kDa ?-amylase, but not the 80-kDa ?-amylase, was markedly activated by Ca2+ or Cl?. Both ?-amylases degraded starch and maltoheptaose, producing maltotriose, maltose, and glucose. Glucose production from starch was higher with 80-kDa ?-amylase than with 59-kDa ?-amylase. Kinetic analysis indicated that 74-kDa ?-glucosidase prefers short ?-1,4-linked oligosaccharide, whereas 86-kDa ?-glucosidase prefers large ?-1,6 and ?-1,4-linked polysaccharides such as glycogen. When sea lettuce was used as a substrate, a 2-fold greater amount of glucose was released by treatment with 59-kDa ?-amylase and 74-kDa ?-glucosidase than by treatment with 45-kDa cellulase and 210-kDa ?-glucosidase of A. kurodai. Unlike mammals, sea hares efficiently digest sea lettuce to glucose by a combination of two ?-amylases and two ?-glucosidases in the digestive fluids without membrane-bound maltase–glucoamylase and sucrase–isomaltase complexes. PMID:25161866

Tsuji, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Ohshima, Miki; Maniwa, Saori; Kuwamura, Shuji; Shiraishi, Masataka; Yuasa, Keizo

2014-01-01

285

Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of the sea hare, Aplysia kurodai: Unique properties of two ?-amylases and two ?-glucosidases.  

PubMed

Sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa) is a nuisance species of green algae that is found all over the world. East-Asian species of the marine gastropod, the sea hare Aplysia kurodai, shows a clear feeding preference for sea lettuce. Compared with cellulose, sea lettuce contains a higher amount of starch as a storage polysaccharide. However, the entire amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai has not been studied in detail. We purified ?-amylases and ?-glucosidases from the digestive fluid of A. kurodai and investigated the synergistic action of these enzymes on sea lettuce. A. kurodai contain two ?-amylases (59 and 80 kDa) and two ?-glucosidases (74 and 86 kDa). The 59-kDa ?-amylase, but not the 80-kDa ?-amylase, was markedly activated by Ca(2+) or Cl(-). Both ?-amylases degraded starch and maltoheptaose, producing maltotriose, maltose, and glucose. Glucose production from starch was higher with 80-kDa ?-amylase than with 59-kDa ?-amylase. Kinetic analysis indicated that 74-kDa ?-glucosidase prefers short ?-1,4-linked oligosaccharide, whereas 86-kDa ?-glucosidase prefers large ?-1,6 and ?-1,4-linked polysaccharides such as glycogen. When sea lettuce was used as a substrate, a 2-fold greater amount of glucose was released by treatment with 59-kDa ?-amylase and 74-kDa ?-glucosidase than by treatment with 45-kDa cellulase and 210-kDa ?-glucosidase of A. kurodai. Unlike mammals, sea hares efficiently digest sea lettuce to glucose by a combination of two ?-amylases and two ?-glucosidases in the digestive fluids without membrane-bound maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase complexes. PMID:25161866

Tsuji, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Ohshima, Miki; Maniwa, Saori; Kuwamura, Shuji; Shiraishi, Masataka; Yuasa, Keizo

2014-01-01

286

Type II fuzzy systems for amyloid plaque segmentation in transgenic mouse brains for Alzheimer's disease quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid plaques (AP). Using animal models, AP loads have been manually measured from histological specimens to understand disease etiology, as well as response to treatment. Due to the manual nature of these approaches, obtaining the AP load is labourious, subjective and error prone. Automated algorithms can be designed to alleviate these challenges by objectively segmenting AP. In this paper, we focus on the development of a novel algorithm for AP segmentation based on robust preprocessing and a Type II fuzzy system. Type II fuzzy systems are much more advantageous over the traditional Type I fuzzy systems, since ambiguity in the membership function may be modeled and exploited to generate excellent segmentation results. The ambiguity in the membership function is defined as an adaptively changing parameter that is tuned based on the local contrast characteristics of the image. Using transgenic mouse brains with AP ground truth, validation studies were carried out showing a high degree of overlap and low degree of oversegmentation (0.8233 and 0.0917, respectively). The results highlight that such a framework is able to handle plaques of various types (diffuse, punctate), plaques with varying A? concentrations as well as intensity variation caused by treatment effects or staining variability.

Khademi, April; Hosseinzadeh, Danoush

2014-03-01

287

Exercise intolerance and systemic manifestations of pulmonary emphysema in a mouse model  

PubMed Central

Background Systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) significantly contribute to severity and mortality of the disease. We aimed to develop a COPD/emphysema model exhibiting systemic manifestations of the disease. Methods Female NMRI mice were treated 5 times intratracheally with porcine pancreatic elastase (emphysema) or phosphate-buffered saline (control). Emphysema severity was quantified histologically by mean linear intercept, exercise tolerance by treadmill running distance, diaphragm dysfunction using isolated muscle strips, pulmonary hypertension by measuring right ventricular pressure, and neurohumoral activation by determining urinary norepinephrine concentration. Results Mean linear intercept was higher in emphysema (260.7 ± 26.8 ?m) than in control lungs (24.7 ± 1.7 ?m). Emphysema mice lost body weight, controls gained weight. Running distance was shorter in emphysema than in controls. Diaphragm muscle length was shorter in controls compared to emphysema. Fatigue tests of muscle strips revealed impaired relaxation in emphysema diaphragms. Maximum right ventricular pressure and norepinephrine were elevated in emphysema compared to controls. Linear correlations were observed between running distance changes and intercept, right ventricular weight, norepinephrine, and diaphragm length. Conclusion The elastase mouse model exhibited severe emphysema with consecutive exercise limitation, and neurohumoral activation. The model may deepen our understanding of systemic aspects of COPD. PMID:19175913

Lüthje, Lars; Raupach, Tobias; Michels, Hellmuth; Unsöld, Bernhard; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Kögler, Harald; Andreas, Stefan

2009-01-01

288

Effect of digestive ripening agent on nanoparticle size in the digestive ripening process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digestive ripening is an efficient method that leads to monodispersed nanoparticles from polydispersed ones. A systematic investigation of digestive ripening with different agents viz. dodecanethiol and dodecylamine on different metallic systems is presented. It is shown that both the metallic system involved and the digestive ripening agent have influences on the final size distribution. Further, it is demonstrated that the interaction strength between the different metals and the digestive ripening agents based on Hard Soft Acid Base principles could be invoked to explain the variation in nanoparticle size.

Sahu, Puspanjali; Prasad, B. L. V.

2012-02-01

289

A Throughput-Optimized Array System for Multiple-Mouse MRI  

PubMed Central

MRI is a versatile tool for systematically assessing anatomical and functional changes in small animal models of human disease. Its noninvasive nature makes MRI an ideal candidate for longitudinal evaluations of disease progression, but relatively long scan times limit the number of observations that can be made in a given interval of time, imposing restrictions on experiment design and potentially compromising statistical power. Methods that reduce the overall time that is required to scan multiple cohorts of animals in distinct experimental groups are therefore highly desirable. Multiple-mouse MRI, in which several animals are simultaneously scanned in a common MRI system, has been successfully used to improve study throughput. However, to best utilize the next generation of small-animal MRI systems that will be equipped with an increased number of receive channels, a paradigm shift from simultaneously scanning as many animals as possible to scanning a more manageable number, at a faster rate, must be considered. This work explores the tradeoffs between the number of animals to scan at once and the number of array elements dedicated to each animal, to maximize throughput in systems with 16 receive channels. An array system consisting of 15 receive and five transmit coils allows acceleration by a combination of multi-animal and parallel imaging techniques. The array system was designed and fabricated for use on a 7.0-T/30-cm Bruker Biospec MRI system, and tested for high-throughput imaging performance in phantoms and live mice. Results indicate that up to a ninefold throughput improvement of a single sequence is possible compared to an unaccelerated single-animal acquisition. True data throughput of a contrast-enhanced anatomical study is estimated to be improved by just over six-fold. PMID:22887122

Ramirez, Marc S.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Bankson, James A.

2012-01-01

290

A mass transfer model of ammonia volatilisation from anaerobic digestate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is becoming increasingly popular for treating organic waste. The methane produced can be burned to generate electricity and the digestate, which is high in mineral nitrogen, can be used as a fertiliser. In this paper we evaluate potential losses of ammonia via volatilisation from food waste anaerobic digestate using a closed chamber system equipped with a sulphuric

M. J. Whelan; T. Everitt; R. Villa

2010-01-01

291

Your Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... enjoying some grilled-chicken pizza and a few orange wedges. When you're finished, you take a ... let's find out what's happening to that pizza, orange, and milk. Even before you eat, when you ...

292

China's Vocational Universities. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC Digest describes the development and characteristics of vocational universities (VUs) in China. In response to the demand for increased numbers of trained technical workers in the 1980's, VUs developed and the higher vocational education system in China was reformed. Currently, 101 vocational universities are in existence in China. These…

Ding, Anning

293

Generation of transgene-free mouse induced pluripotent stem cells using an excisable lentiviral system.  

PubMed

One goal of research using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) is to generate patient-specific cells which can be used to obtain multiple types of differentiated cells as disease models. Minimally or non-integrating methods to deliver the reprogramming genes are considered to be the best but they may be inefficient. Lentiviral delivery is currently among the most efficient methods but it integrates transgenes into the genome, which may affect the behavior of the iPSC if integration occurs into an important locus. Here we designed a polycistronic lentiviral construct containing four pluripotency genes with an EGFP selection marker. The cassette was excisable with the Cre-loxP system making possible the removal of the integrated transgenes from the genome. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts were reprogrammed using this viral system, rapidly resulting in large number of iPSC colonies. Based on the lowest EGFP expression level, one parental line was chosen for excision. Introduction of the Cre recombinase resulted in transgene-free iPSC subclones. The effect of the transgenes was assessed by comparing the parental iPSC with two of its transgene-free subclones. Both excised and non-excised iPSCs expressed standard pluripotency markers. The subclones obtained after Cre recombination were capable of differentiation in vitro, in contrast to the parental, non-excised cells and formed germ-line competent chimeras in vivo. PMID:24560743

Varga, E; Nemes, C; Davis, R P; Ujhelly, O; Klincumhom, N; Polgar, Z; Muenthaisong, S; Pirity, M K; Dinnyes, A

2014-04-01

294

A robust and high-throughput Cre reporting and characterization system for the whole mouse brain  

PubMed Central

The Cre/lox system is widely used in mice to achieve cell-type-specific gene expression. However, a strong and universal responding system to express genes under Cre control is still lacking. We have generated a set of Cre reporter mice with strong, ubiquitous expression of fluorescent proteins of different spectra. The robust native fluorescence of these reporters enables direct visualization of fine dendritic structures and axonal projections of the labeled neurons, which is useful in mapping neuronal circuitry, imaging and tracking specific cell populations in vivo. Using these reporters and a high-throughput in situ hybridization platform, we are systematically profiling Cre-directed gene expression throughout the mouse brain in a number of Cre-driver lines, including novel Cre lines targeting different cell types in the cortex. Our expression data are displayed in a public online database to help researchers assess the utility of various Cre-driver lines for cell-type-specific genetic manipulation. PMID:20023653

Madisen, Linda; Zwingman, Theresa A.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Oh, Seung Wook; Zariwala, Hatim A.; Gu, Hong; Ng, Lydia L.; Palmiter, Richard D.; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Jones, Allan R.; Lein, Ed S.; Zeng, Hongkui

2009-01-01

295

Growth Arrest Specific 1 (GAS1) Is Abundantly Expressed in the Adult Mouse Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Growth arrest specific 1 (GAS1) is a pleiotropic protein that induces apoptosis and cell arrest in different tumors, but it is also involved in the development of the nervous system and other tissues and organs. This dual ability is likely caused by its capacity to interact both by inhibiting the intracellular signaling cascade induced by glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor and by facilitating the activity of the sonic hedgehog pathway. The presence of GAS1 mRNA has been described in adult mouse brain, and here we corroborated this observation. We then proceeded to determine the distribution of the protein in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We detected, by western blot analysis, expression of GAS1 in olfactory bulb, caudate-putamen, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, mesencephalon, medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and cervical spinal cord. To more carefully map the expression of GAS1, we performed double-label immunohistochemistry and noticed expression of GAS1 in neurons in all brain areas examined. We also observed expression of GAS1 in astroglial cells, albeit the pattern of expression was more restricted than that seen in neurons. Briefly, in the present article, we report the widespread distribution and cellular localization of the GAS1 native protein in adult mammalian CNS. PMID:23813868

Zarco, Natanael; Bautista, Elizabeth; Cuéllar, Manola; Vergara, Paula; Flores-Rodriguez, Paola; Aguilar-Roblero, Raúl

2013-01-01

296

Axonal regeneration of cultured mouse hippocampal neurons studied by an optical nano-surgery system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During development, the axons of neurons in the mammalian central nervous system lose their ability to regenerate after injury. In order to study the regeneration process, we developed a system integrating an optical tweezers and a laser dissector to manipulate the sample. A sub-nanosecond pulsed UVA laser was used to inflict a partial damage to the axon of mouse hippocampal neurons at early days in vitro. Partial axonal transections were performed in a highly controlled and reproducible way without affecting the regeneration process. Force spectroscopy measurements, during and after the ablation of the axon, were performed by optical tweezers with a bead attached to the neuronal membrane. Thus, the release of tension in the neurite could be analyzed in order to quantify the inflicted damage. After dissection, we monitored the viscoelastic properties of the axonal membrane, the cytoskeleton reorganization, and the dynamics of the newly formed growth cones during regeneration. In order to follow cytoskeleton dynamics in a long time window by tracking a bead attached to the neuron, we developed a real-time control of the microscope stage position with sub-millisecond and nanometer resolution. Axonal regeneration was documented by long-term (24-48 hours) bright-field live imaging using an optical microscope equipped with a custom-built cell culture incubator.

Difato, F.; Tsushima, H.; Pesce, M.; Guiggiani, A.; Benfenati, F.; Blau, A.; Basso, M.; Vassalli, M.; Chieregatti, E.

2012-02-01

297

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE AND AGRICULTURAL WASTE AND THE EFFECT OF CO-DIGESTION WITH DAIRY COW MANURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anaerobic digestion of three different organic solid wastes was investigated with a two-phase pilot-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) system. The wastes were cow manure (CM), organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), and cotton gin waste (CGW). The OFMSW and CM were digested as single wastes...

298

[The precursors of N-nitroso compounds in the drinking water and digestive system malignancy morbidity rates in Tashkent].  

PubMed

The authors have studied a correlation between the intake of the precursors of N-nitroso compounds from drinking water in Tashkent residents and the digestive malignancy morbidity rates. With the average urban value of 4.1-6.6 mg/l, the drinking water levels of nitrates are found to vary in different administrative districts of Tashkent: the highest values (range 73-20.3 mg/l) are annually recorded in the Khamzin and Yakkasaray districts and the lowest ones (1.0-1.4 mg/l) in the Yunusabad, Shaikhantakhur, Mirzo-ulugbek, and Uchtepin districts. There is a direct average correlation (r = 0.5-0.6) between the intake of nitrates and the digestive malignancy morbidity rates in the majority of administrative districts of the city and a high one (r = 0.7-0.9) when the values are compared, by taking into account the 3-5 year delay effect. PMID:21513058

Assesorova, Iu Iu; Ponomareva, L A; Kireev, G V; Bo?ko, I B

2011-01-01

299

A Compartmentalized Mathematical Model of the ?1-Adrenergic Signaling System in Mouse Ventricular Myocytes  

PubMed Central

The ?1-adrenergic signaling system plays an important role in the functioning of cardiac cells. Experimental data shows that the activation of this system produces inotropy, lusitropy, and chronotropy in the heart, such as increased magnitude and relaxation rates of [Ca2+]i transients and contraction force, and increased heart rhythm. However, excessive stimulation of ?1-adrenergic receptors leads to heart dysfunction and heart failure. In this paper, a comprehensive, experimentally based mathematical model of the ?1-adrenergic signaling system for mouse ventricular myocytes is developed, which includes major subcellular functional compartments (caveolae, extracaveolae, and cytosol). The model describes biochemical reactions that occur during stimulation of ?1-adrenoceptors, changes in ionic currents, and modifications of Ca2+ handling system. Simulations describe the dynamics of major signaling molecules, such as cyclic AMP and protein kinase A, in different subcellular compartments; the effects of inhibition of phosphodiesterases on cAMP production; kinetics and magnitudes of phosphorylation of ion channels, transporters, and Ca2+ handling proteins; modifications of action potential shape and duration; magnitudes and relaxation rates of [Ca2+]i transients; changes in intracellular and transmembrane Ca2+ fluxes; and [Na+]i fluxes and dynamics. The model elucidates complex interactions of ionic currents upon activation of ?1-adrenoceptors at different stimulation frequencies, which ultimately lead to a relatively modest increase in action potential duration and significant increase in [Ca2+]i transients. In particular, the model includes two subpopulations of the L-type Ca2+ channels, in caveolae and extracaveolae compartments, and their effects on the action potential and [Ca2+]i transients are investigated. The presented model can be used by researchers for the interpretation of experimental data and for the developments of mathematical models for other species or for pathological conditions. PMID:24586529

Bondarenko, Vladimir E.

2014-01-01

300

Production Response and Digestive Enzymatic Activity of the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) Intensively Pregrown in Microbial Heterotrophic and Autotrophic-Based Systems  

PubMed Central

Shrimp postlarvae were reared into different microcosm systems without water exchange; a traditional system based on simple fertilization to improve microalgae concentration (control), an autotrophic system (AS) based on the promotion of biofloc and biofilm by the addition of fertilizer and artificial substrates and a heterotrophic system (HS) based on the promotion of heterotrophic bacteria by the addition of nitrogenous and carbonaceous sources and artificial substrates. Better growth performance and survival were registered in shrimp from the AS and HS compared to the control. Feed conversion ratios were below 0.7 for all treatments, but AS and HS were significantly lower than the control. Regarding digestive performance, no significant differences were observed for trypsin, amylase and lipase activities among AS and control shrimp; however, shrimp from HS showed a higher trypsin and amylase activities, suggesting a higher digestive activity caused by the presence of microbial bioflocs. The presence of biofilm and bioflocs composed by either autotrophic or heterotrophic organisms in combination with formulated feed improved the growth performance and survival of shrimp. Apparently, such combination fits the nutritional requirements of shrimp. PMID:22649317

Becerra-Dórame, Manuel J.; Martínez-Porchas, Marcel; Martínez-Córdova, Luis R.; Rivas-Vega, Martha E.; Lopez-Elias, José A.; Porchas-Cornejo, Marco A.

2012-01-01

301

Human monoclonal antibodies specific to hepatitis B virus generated in a human/mouse radiation chimera: the Trimera system.  

PubMed Central

An approach to develop fully human monoclonal antibodies in a human/mouse radiation chimera, the Trimera system, is described. In this system, functional human lymphocytes are engrafted in normal strains of mice which are rendered immuno-incompetent by lethal total body irradiation followed by radioprotection with severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse bone marrow. Following transplantation, human lymphocytes colonize murine lymphatic organs and secrete human immunoglobulins. We have established this system as a tool to develop fully human monoclonal antibodies, and applied it for the generation of monoclonal antibodies specific for hepatitis B virus surface antigen. A strong memory response to hepatitis B surface antigen was elicited in Trimera engrafted with lymphocytes from human donors positive for antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen. The human specific antibody fraction in the Trimera was 10(2)-10(3)-fold higher as compared with that found in the donors. Spleens were harvested from Trimera mice showing high specific-antibody titres and cells were fused to a human-mouse heteromyeloma fusion partner. Several stable hybridoma clones were isolated and characterized. These hybridomas produce high-affinity, IgG, anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibodies demonstrating the potential of the Trimera system for generating fully human monoclonal antibodies. The biological function and the neutralizing activity of these antibodies are currently being tested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9616363

Eren, R; Lubin, I; Terkieltaub, D; Ben-Moshe, O; Zauberman, A; Uhlmann, R; Tzahor, T; Moss, S; Ilan, E; Shouval, D; Galun, E; Daudi, N; Marcus, H; Reisner, Y; Dagan, S

1998-01-01

302

Guiding the osteogenic fate of mouse and human mesenchymal stem cells through feedback system control.  

PubMed

Stem cell-based disease modeling presents unique opportunities for mechanistic elucidation and therapeutic targeting. The stable induction of fate-specific differentiation is an essential prerequisite for stem cell-based strategy. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) initiates receptor-regulated Smad phosphorylation, leading to the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) in vitro; however, it requires supra-physiological concentrations, presenting a bottleneck problem for large-scale drug screening. Here, we report the use of a double-objective feedback system control (FSC) with a differential evolution (DE) algorithm to identify osteogenic cocktails of extrinsic factors. Cocktails containing significantly reduced doses of BMP-2 in combination with physiologically relevant doses of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate, heparin, retinoic acid and vitamin D achieved accelerated in vitro mineralization of mouse and human MSC. These results provide insight into constructive approaches of FSC to determine the applicable functional and physiological environment for MSC in disease modeling, drug screening and tissue engineering. PMID:24305548

Honda, Yoshitomo; Ding, Xianting; Mussano, Federico; Wiberg, Akira; Ho, Chih-Ming; Nishimura, Ichiro

2013-01-01

303

Biallelic targeting of expressed genes in mouse embryonic stem cells using the Cas9 system  

PubMed Central

Gene targeting – homologous recombination between transfected DNA and a chromosomal locus – is greatly stimulated by a DNA break in the target locus. Recently, the RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease, involved in bacterial adaptive immunity, has been modified to function in mammalian cells. Unlike other site-specific endonucleases whose specificity resides within a protein, the specificity of Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage is determined by a guide RNA (gRNA) containing an ~20 nucleotide locus-specific RNA sequence, representing a major advance for versatile site-specific cleavage of the genome without protein engineering. This article provides a detailed method using the Cas9 system to target expressed genes in mouse embryonic stem cells. In this method, a promoterless marker flanked by short homology arms to the target locus is transfected into cells together with Cas9 and gRNA expression vectors. Importantly, biallelic gene knockout is obtained at high frequency by only one round of targeting using a single marker. PMID:24929070

LaRocque, Jeannine R.; Krawczyk, Przemek M.; Jasin, Maria

2015-01-01

304

Renin-angiotensin system regulates neurodegeneration in a mouse model of normal tension glaucoma.  

PubMed

Glaucoma, one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness, is characterized by progressive degeneration of optic nerves and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In the mammalian retina, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is expressed in neural cells, including RGCs, and the loss of EAAC1 leads to RGC degeneration without elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). In the present study, we found that expressions of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are increased in RGCs and retinal Müller glia in EAAC1-deficient (KO) mice. The orally active AT1-R antagonist candesartan suppressed TLR4 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions in the EAAC1 KO mouse retina. Sequential in vivo retinal imaging and electrophysiological analysis revealed that treatment with candesartan was effective for RGC protection in EAAC1 KO mice without affecting IOP. In cultured Müller glia, candesartan suppressed LPS-induced iNOS production by inhibiting the TLR4-apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 pathway. These results suggest that the renin-angiotensin system is involved in the innate immune responses in both neural and glial cells, which accelerate neural cell death. Our findings raise intriguing possibilities for the management of glaucoma by utilizing widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of high blood pressure, in combination with conventional treatments to lower IOP. PMID:25032856

Semba, K; Namekata, K; Guo, X; Harada, C; Harada, T; Mitamura, Y

2014-01-01

305

Renin–angiotensin system regulates neurodegeneration in a mouse model of normal tension glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Glaucoma, one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness, is characterized by progressive degeneration of optic nerves and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In the mammalian retina, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is expressed in neural cells, including RGCs, and the loss of EAAC1 leads to RGC degeneration without elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). In the present study, we found that expressions of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are increased in RGCs and retinal Müller glia in EAAC1-deficient (KO) mice. The orally active AT1-R antagonist candesartan suppressed TLR4 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions in the EAAC1 KO mouse retina. Sequential in vivo retinal imaging and electrophysiological analysis revealed that treatment with candesartan was effective for RGC protection in EAAC1 KO mice without affecting IOP. In cultured Müller glia, candesartan suppressed LPS-induced iNOS production by inhibiting the TLR4-apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 pathway. These results suggest that the renin–angiotensin system is involved in the innate immune responses in both neural and glial cells, which accelerate neural cell death. Our findings raise intriguing possibilities for the management of glaucoma by utilizing widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of high blood pressure, in combination with conventional treatments to lower IOP. PMID:25032856

Semba, K; Namekata, K; Guo, X; Harada, C; Harada, T; Mitamura, Y

2014-01-01

306

Quantification, distribution, and possible source of bacterial biofilm in mouse automated watering systems.  

PubMed

The use of automated watering systems for providing drinking water to rodents has become commonplace in the research setting. Little is known regarding bacterial biofilm growth within the water piping attached to the racks (manifolds). The purposes of this project were to determine whether the mouse oral flora contributed to the aerobic bacterial component of the rack biofilm, quantify bacterial growth in rack manifolds over 6 mo, assess our rack sanitation practices, and quantify bacterial biofilm development within sections of the manifold. By using standard methods of bacterial identification, the aerobic oral flora of 8 strains and stocks of mice were determined on their arrival at our animal facility. Ten rack manifolds were sampled before, during, and after sanitation and monthly for 6 mo. Manifolds were evaluated for aerobic bacterial growth by culture on R2A and trypticase soy agar, in addition to bacterial ATP quantification by bioluminescence. In addition, 6 racks were sampled at 32 accessible sites for evaluation of biofilm distribution within the watering manifold. The identified aerobic bacteria in the oral flora were inconsistent with the bacteria from the manifold, suggesting that the mice do not contribute to the biofilm bacteria. Bacterial growth in manifolds increased while they were in service, with exponential growth of the biofilm from months 3 to 6 and a significant decrease after sanitization. Bacterial biofilm distribution was not significantly different across location quartiles of the rack manifold, but bacterial levels differed between the shelf pipe and connecting elbow pipes. PMID:18351724

Meier, Thomas R; Maute, Carrie J; Cadillac, Joan M; Lee, Ji Young; Righter, Daniel J; Hugunin, Kelly M S; Deininger, Rolf A; Dysko, Robert C

2008-03-01

307

Deletion of mouse FXR gene disturbs multiple neurotransmitter systems and alters neurobehavior  

PubMed Central

Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in bile acid synthesis and homeostasis. Dysfunction of FXR is involved in cholestasis and atherosclerosis. FXR is prevalent in liver, gallbladder, and intestine, but it is not yet clear whether it modulates neurobehavior. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that mouse FXR deficiency affects a specific subset of neurotransmitters and results in an unique behavioral phenotype. The FXR knockout mice showed less depressive-like and anxiety-related behavior, but increased motor activity. They had impaired memory and reduced motor coordination. There were changes of glutamatergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, and norepinephrinergic neurotransmission in either hippocampus or cerebellum. FXR deletion decreased the amount of the GABA synthesis enzyme GAD65 in hippocampus but increased GABA transporter GAT1 in cerebral cortex. FXR deletion increased serum concentrations of many bile acids, including taurodehydrocholic acid, taurocholic acid, deoxycholic acid (DCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), tauro-?-muricholic acid, tauro-?-muricholic acid, and hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA). There were also changes in brain concentrations of taurocholic acid, taurodehydrocholic acid, tauro-?-muricholic acid, tauro-?-muricholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and lithocholic acid (LCA). Taken together, the results from studies with FXR knockout mice suggest that FXR contributes to the homeostasis of multiple neurotransmitter systems in different brain regions and modulates neurobehavior. The effect appears to be at least partially mediated by bile acids that are known to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) inducing potential neurotoxicity.

Huang, Fei; Wang, Tingting; Lan, Yunyi; Yang, Li; Pan, Weihong; Zhu, Yonghui; Lv, Boyang; Wei, Yuting; Shi, Hailian; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Beibei; Wang, Jie; Duan, Xiaofeng; Hu, Zhibi; Wu, Xiaojun

2015-01-01

308

A Self-regulatory System of Interlinked Signaling Feedback Loops Controls Mouse Limb Patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developmental pathways need to be robust against environmental and genetic variation to enable reliable morphogenesis. Here, we take a systems biology approach to explain how robustness is achieved in the developing mouse limb, a classical model of organogenesis. By combining quantitative genetics with computational modeling we established a computational model of multiple interlocked feedback modules, involving sonic hedgehog (SHH) morphogen, fibroblast growth factor (FGFs) signaling, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and its antagonist GREM1. Earlier modeling work had emphasized the versatile kinetic characteristics of interlocked feedback loops operating at different time scales. Here we develop and then validate a similar computational model to show how BMP4 first initiates and SHH then propagates feedback in the network through differential transcriptional regulation of Grem1 to control digit specification. This switch occurs by linking a fast BMP4/GREM1 module to a slower SHH/GREM1/FGF feedback loop. Simulated gene expression profiles modeled normal limb development as well those of single-gene knockouts. Sensitivity analysis showed how the model was robust and insensitive to variability in parameters. A surprising prediction of the model was that an early Bmp4 signal is essential to kick-start Grem1 expression and the digit specification system. We experimentally validated the prediction using inducible alleles and showed that early, but not late, removal of Bmp4 dramatically disrupted limb development. Sensitivity analysis showed how robustness emerges from this circuitry. This study shows how modeling and computation can help us understand how self-regulatory signaling networks achieve robust regulation of limb development, by exploiting interconnectivity among the three signaling pathways. We expect that similar computational analyses will shed light on the origins of robustness in other developmental systems, and I will discuss some recent examples from our ongoing research on developmental patterning.

Benazet, Jean-Denis; Bischofberger, Mirko; Tiecke, Eva; Gonalves, Alexandre; Martin, James F.; Zuniga, Aime; Naef, Felix; Zeller, Rolf

309

Impact of Repeated Topical-Loaded Manganese-Enhanced MRI on the Mouse Visual System  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Optic nerve degeneration in diseases such as glaucoma and multiple sclerosis evolves in months to years. The use of Mn2+-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MEMRI) in a time-course study may provide new insights into the disease progression. Previously, we demonstrated the feasibility of using a topical administration for Mn2+ delivery to the visual system. This study is to evaluate the impact of biweekly or monthly repeated Mn2+ topical administration and the pH levels of the Mn2+ solutions for MEMRI on the mouse visual pathway. Methods. Using groups of mice, the MEMRI with an acidic or pH neutralized 1 M MnCl2 solution was performed. To evaluate the feasibility of repeated MEMRIs, topical-loaded MEMRI was conducted biweekly seven times or monthly three times. The enhancement of MEMRI in the visual system was quantified. After repeated MEMRIs, the corneas were examined by optical coherence tomography. The retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and optic nerves were examined by histology. Results. All mice exhibited consistent enhancements along the visual system following repeated MEMRIs. The acidic Mn2+ solution induced a greater MEMRI enhancement as compared with a neutral pH Mn2+ solution. Significant 20% RGC loss was found after three biweekly Mn2+ inductions, but no RGC loss was found after three monthly Mn2+ treatments. The corneal thickness was found increased after seven biweekly topical-loaded MEMRI. Conclusions. Acidic Mn2+ solutions enhanced the uptake of Mn2+ observed on the MEMRI. Increasing the time intervals of repeated Mn2+ topical administration reduced the adverse effects caused by MEMRI. PMID:22700708

Sun, Shu-Wei; Thiel, Tiffany; Liang, Hsiao-Fang

2012-01-01

310

Systemic Disease-Induced Salivary Biomarker Profiles in Mouse Models of Melanoma and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSaliva (oral fluids) is an emerging biofluid poised for detection of clinical diseases. Although the rationale for oral diseases applications (e.g. oral cancer) is intuitive, the rationale and relationship between systemic diseases and saliva biomarkers are unclear.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn this study, we used mouse models of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer and compared the transcriptome biomarker profiles of tumor-bearing mice

Kai Gao; Hui Zhou; Lei Zhang; Jin Wook Lee; Qing Zhou; Shen Hu; Lawrence E. Wolinsky; James Farrell; Guido Eibl; David T. Wong; Benjamin Rich

2009-01-01

311

The Sry-related HMG box-containing gene Sox6 is expressed in the adult testis and developing nervous system of the mouse.  

PubMed Central

We have cloned and sequenced a full-length cDNA for the HMG box-containing, SRY-related gene Sox6 from mouse. The deduced protein sequence of Sox6 has considerable homology with that of the previously determined Sox5 sequence. It seems likely that these genes have diverged more recently than other members of the SOX gene family, although the two genes map to different chromosomes in the mouse. In common with Sox5, Sox6 is highly expressed in the adult mouse testis and the HMG domains of both proteins bind to the sequence 5'-AACAAT-3'. This suggests that the two genes may have overlapping functions in the regulation of gene expression during spermatogenesis in the adult mouse. However, Sox6 may have an additional role in the mouse embryo, where it is specifically expressed in the developing nervous system. Images PMID:7567444

Connor, F; Wright, E; Denny, P; Koopman, P; Ashworth, A

1995-01-01

312

Digestion rate of dietary starch affects the systemic circulation of lipid profiles and lipid metabolism-related gene expression in weaned pigs.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of digestion rate of dietary starch on postprandial systemic circulating glucose, insulin and lipid profiles, and the activity and gene expression of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in weaned pigs. A total of twenty-four weaned pigs, surgically fitted with a catheter in the jugular vein, were randomly assigned to three dietary treatment groups, representing the high digestion rate starch (HDRS) group, the moderate-digestion rate starch (MDRS) group and the low-digestion rate starch (LDRS) group. The amylopectin:amylose ratios in the diets of each group were 27·6:1, 27·6:8·5 and 1:27·6, respectively. The serum concentrations of glucose, TAG, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in the HDRS group were increased to the peak point at postprandial 1·5, 2·5, 2·5, 1·5 and 1·5 h, those in the MDRS group were at postprandial 2·5, 3·5, 3·5, 3·5 and 3·5 h and those in the LDRS group were at postprandial 2·5, 3·5, 3·5, 1·5 and 3·5 h, respectively. The serum concentration of insulin in the HDRS group was higher (P < 0·05) than those in the MDRS group, and those in the MDRS group was also higher (P < 0·05) than those in the LDRS group at postprandial 0·5, 1·5 and 2·5 h, respectively. The serum concentrations of acetate, propionate and butyrate in the HDRS group were higher (P < 0·05) than those in the MDRS group, and those in the MDRS group were higher (P < 0·05) than in the LDRS group in each feeding cycle, in turn, respectively. The activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the liver and abdominal adipose tissues, that of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) in the myocardium and interscapular brown adipose tissues and that of the ATP-citrate lyase (ATP-CL) in the liver and interscapular brown adipose tissues in pigs of the HDRS group were higher (P < 0·05) than that of the MDRS group. The mRNA levels of FAS in the myocardium, liver and interscapular brown adipose tissues of pigs in the HDRS group were higher (P < 0·05) than those of the MDRS group. The activities and mRNA levels of FAS, ACC and ATP-CL in the myocardium, liver, abdominal and interscapular brown adipose tissues of the HDRS group were higher than those of the LDRS group. We conclude that the digestion rate of dietary starch affected not only the postprandial systemic circulating levels of glucose and insulin but also the lipid metabolism in weaned pigs. Dietary starch with higher digestion rate produces higher blood glucose and insulin response, ameliorates the blood lipid profiles and up-regulates the activity and gene expression profile of lipid metabolism-related genes in weaned pigs. PMID:21342605

Yin, Fugui; Yin, Yulong; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Xie, Mingyong; Huang, Ju; Huang, Ruilin; Li, Tiejun

2011-08-01

313

Digestive and feeding characteristics of the chondrosteans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  Structure and function of the digestive system and feeding characteristics of the chondrosteans are reviewed. Although the\\u000a group exhibits a wide diversity of feeding habits including piscivory, benthophagy, and planktivory, they are principally\\u000a carnivores throughout their life history. Examination of digestive system structure reveals the basic structure to be similar\\u000a among the species with some modification to accomodate the different

Randal K. Buddington; Jay P. Christofferson

1985-01-01

314

Thermophilic co-digestion of pig manure and crude glycerol: process performance and digestate stability.  

PubMed

Anaerobic co-digestion has been widely used to enhance biogas production of digesters and, therefore, to improve the anaerobic plants economic feasibility. In the present study, glycerol, a by-product of the biodiesel industry, was used as a co-substrate for pig manure. The results showed that the thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure supplemented with 3% of glycerol, on weight basis, was satisfactory. The specific biogas production of the co-digester was 180% higher than the one obtained by the reference digester, which was only fed with pig manure. The improvement was related to the double of the organic loading rate, the high biodegradability of the crude glycerol, the slight reduction of the free ammonia concentration and the optimisation of the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Moreover, the analysis of the organic matter (protein, lipids, carbohydrates and fibers) of the influent and the effluent of both digesters together with their biogas flow rates indicated that the microorganisms in the co-digester obtained large amounts of nutrients from the glycerol, whereas the microorganisms of the reference digester mainly produced biogas from the particulate matter. However, the digestate obtained from the co-digester cannot be directly applied as soil fertiliser or conditioner due to the presence of high levels of biodegradable matter, which may exert negative impacts on the plant-soil system. Thus, a longer hydraulic retention time, a reduction of the glycerol concentration and/or a post-treatment is required if the digestate is to be used as soil fertiliser or conditioner. In contrast, pig manure digestate can be directly applied on land. PMID:23685137

Astals, S; Nolla-Ardèvol, V; Mata-Alvarez, J

2013-07-10

315

Trophicit des muqueuses digestives D. BALAS Franoise SENEGAS-BALAS Marie-Jos BASTIE  

E-print Network

action on the digestive system. This paper only discusses long-term trophic regulation in three organsTrophicité des muqueuses digestives D. BALAS Françoise SENEGAS-BALAS Marie-José BASTIE Laboratoire. Summary. Trophicity ofthe digestive mucosae. The morphological and functional integrity of the digestive

Boyer, Edmond

316

An interspecies conserved motif of the mouse immune system-released activating agent (ISRAA) induces proliferative effects on human cells.  

PubMed

We have recently described an immune system-released activating agent (ISRAA) as a nervous system-induced factor that stimulates immune responses in the mouse spleen. However, the human ISRAA has not yet been identified. In this study, we examined the effects of the mouse ISRAA protein on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), to observe if the biological activity of this molecule is consistent between the two different species. Mouse ISRAA demonstrated dose-dependent dualistic effects on human cells, as 5 µg exhibited positive apoptosis and 50 pg exhibited significant proliferation (P<0.05). Furthermore, immunosuppressed cells from patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy demonstrated significant proliferation to 50 pg ISRAA (P<0.05). Studies to compare sequences in different species revealed a preserved motif, exhibiting 72% similarity with the interspecies conserved signal peptide motif of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1). A mutant ISRAA lacking this motif was produced and tested for its biological effects. The mutant ISRAA demonstrated neither apoptotic nor proliferative effects compared with wild type. Therefore, an interspecies conserved domain of ISRAA constitutes the active site of the molecule, and its effects on immunocompromised cells should be investigated for future therapies in the treatment of immunosuppressive disorders. PMID:24821660

Taha, Safa; Fathallah, Mohamed Dahmani; Bakhiet, Moiz

2014-07-01

317

Nanobiocatalysis for protein digestion in proteomic analysis  

PubMed Central

The process of protein digestion is a critical step for successful protein identification in the bottom-up proteomic analysis. To substitute the present practice of in-solution protein digestion, which is long, tedious, and difficult to automate, a lot of efforts have been dedicated for the development of a rapid, recyclable and automated digestion system. Recent advances of nanobiocatalytic approaches have improved the performance of protein digestion by using various nanomaterials such as nanoporous materials, magnetic nanoparticles, and polymer nanofibers. Especially, the unprecedented success of trypsin stabilization in the form of trypsin-coated nanofibers, showing no activity decrease under repeated uses for one year and retaining good resistance to proteolysis, has demonstrated its great potential to be employed in the development of automated, high-throughput, and on-line digestion systems. This review discusses recent developments of nanobiocatalytic approaches for the improved performance of protein digestion in speed, detection sensitivity, recyclability, and trypsin stability. In addition, we also introduce the protein digestions under unconventional energy inputs for protein denaturation and the development of microfluidic enzyme reactors that can benefit from recent successes of these nanobiocatalytic approaches. PMID:19953546

Kim, Jungbae; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Smith, Richard D.

2010-01-01

318

Nanobiocatalysis for protein digestion in proteomic analysis  

SciTech Connect

The process of protein digestion is a critical step for successful protein identification in the bottom-up proteomic analysis. To substitute the present practice of in-solution protein digestion, which is long, tedious, and difficult to automate, a lot of efforts have been dedicated for the development of a rapid, recyclable and automated digestion system. Recent advances of nanobiocatalytic approaches have improved the performance of protein digestion by using various nanomaterials such as nanoporous materials, magnetic nanoparticles, and polymer nanofibers. Especially, the unprecedented success of trypsin stabilization in the form of trypsin-coated nanofibers, showing no activity decrease under repeated uses for one year and retaining good resistance to proteolysis, has demonstrated its great potential to be employed in the development of automated, high-throughput, and on-line digestion systems. This review discusses recent developments of nanobiocatalytic approaches for the improved performance of protein digestion in speed, detection sensitivity, recyclability, and trypsin stability. In addition, we also introduce the protein digestions under unconventional energy inputs for protein denaturation and the development of microfluidic enzyme reactors that can benefit from recent successes of these nanobiocatalytic approaches.

Kim, Jungbae; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Smith, Richard D.

2010-02-01

319

An alternative long-term culture system for highly-pure mouse spermatogonial stem cells.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests that spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have great clinical potential to give rise to a variety of cell types besides all spermatogenic lineage cells. The development of an efficient method for long-term culture of highly-pure SSCs is essential for further studies related to SSC biological events. Here, we describe an in vitro culture system obtaining mouse SSC cultures of high purity, viability, and proliferation. For establishing long-term cultures of SSCs, we mainly focused on isolation procedures and culture conditions. These included co-coating of extracellular substrates, that is, poly-L-lysine (PLL) and laminin, as well as combinatiorial use of three milder enzymes and simultaneously less trypsin to minimize enzyme-mediated degradation of SSCs. Furthermore, a unique purification procedure was performed to effectively eliminate contaminating non-SSCs. Finally, a critical step is to ensure SSC maintenance and expansion by utilizing optimal culture medium. Obtained data suggest that applying our optimally modified method, SSCs can be cultured for over 90?days with high purity (around 93.5%). Moreover, SSCs isolated and expanded using our protocol fulfills all criteria of SSCs without losing their stemness-characterized by SSC-phenotypic gene expression and long-term self-renewal. This study describes for the first time a protocol allowing isolation and expansion of SSCs suitable for numerous studies related to SSC-based clinical therapies of various diseases. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 1365-1375, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company. PMID:25503338

He, Bao-Rong; Lu, Fan; Zhang, Lingling; Hao, Ding-Jun; Yang, Hao

2015-06-01

320

Translation and processing of mouse hepatitis virus virion RNA in a cell-free system  

SciTech Connect

The first event after infection with mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 (MHV-A59) is presumed to be the synthesis of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from the input genomic RNA. The synthesis and processing of this putative ploymerase protein was studied in a cell-free translation system utilizing 60S RNA from MHV-A59 virions. The polypeptide products of this reaction included two major species of 220 and 28 kilodaltons. Kinetics experiments indicated that both p220 and p28 appeared after 60 min of incubation and that protein p28 was synthesized initially as the N-terminal portion of a larger precursor protein. When the cell-free translation products were labeled with N-formyl(/sup 35/S)methionyl-tRNA/sub i/, p28 was the predominant radioactive product, confirming its N-terminal location within a precursor protein. Translation in the presence of the protease inhibitors leupeptin and ZnCl/sub 2/ resulted in the disappearance of p28 and p220 and the appearance of a new protein, p250. This product, which approached the maximal size predicted for a protein synthesized from genomic RNA, was not routinely detected in the absence of inhibitors even under conditions which optimized the translation reaction for elongation of proteins. Subsequent chelation of ZnCl/sub 2/ resulted in the partial cleavage of the precursor protein and the reappearance of p28. One-dimensional peptide mapping with Staphylococcus aureus V-8 protease confirmed the precursor-product relationship of p250 and p28. The results show that MHV virion RNA, like many other viral RNAs, is translated into a large polyprotein, which is cleaved soon after synthesis into smaller, presumably functional proteins. This is in marked contrast to the synthesis of other MHV proteins, in which minimal proteolytic processing occurs.

Denison, M.R.; Perlman, S.

1986-10-01

321

Expression and function of NIK- and IKK2-binding protein (NIBP) in mouse enteric nervous system  

PubMed Central

Background NIBP/TRAPPC9 is expressed in brain neurons, and human NIBP mutations are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. The cellular distribution and function of NIBP in the enteric nervous system (ENS) remain unknown. Methods Western blot and RT-PCR analysis were used respectively to identify the protein and mRNA expression of NIBP and other neuronal markers. Multilabeled immunofluorescent microscopy and confocal image analysis were used to examine the cellular distribution of NIBP-like immunoreactivity (IR) in whole mount intestine. Enteric neuronal cell line (ENC) was infected with lentivirus carrying NIBP or its shRNA expression vectors and treated with vehicle or TNF?. Key Results NIBP is expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in different regions and layers of the mouse intestine. NIBP-like-IR was co-localized with various neuronal markers, but not with glial, smooth muscular, or ICC markers. A small population of NIBP-expressing cells and fibers in extra-ganglionic and intra-ganglionic area were negative for pan-neuronal markers HuD or Peripherin. Relatively high NIBP-like-IR was found in 35-44% of myenteric neurons and 9-10% of submucosal neurons. Approximately 98%, 87% and 43% of these relatively high NIBP-expressing neurons were positive for ChAT, nNOS and Calretinin, respectively. NIBP shRNA knockdown in ENC inhibited TNF?-induced NFkB activation and neuronal differentiation, whereas NIBP overexpression promoted it. Conclusions & Inferences NIBP is extensively expressed in the ENS with relatively high level in a subpopulation of enteric neurons. Various NIBP expression levels in different neurons may represent dynamic trafficking or posttranslational modification of NIBP in some functionally-active neurons and ultimately regulate ENS plasticity. PMID:24011459

Zhang, Yonggang; Bitner, Daniel; Pontes Filho, Adalto Alfredo; Li, Fang; Liu, Shu; Wang, Hong; Yang, Fan; Adhikari, Sam; Gordon, Jennifer; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Hu, Wenhui

2014-01-01

322

Nonlinear optical techniques for imaging and manipulating the mouse central nervous system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spinal cord of vertebrates serves as the conduit for somatosensory information and motor control, as well as being the locus of neural circuits that govern fast reflexes and patterned behaviors, such as walking in mammals or swimming in fish. Consequently, pathologies of the spinal cord -such as spinal cord injury (SCI)- lead to loss of motor control and sensory perception, with accompanying decline in life expectancy and quality of life. Despite the devastating effects of these diseases, few therapies exist to substantially ameliorate patient outcome. In part, studies of spinal cord pathology have been limited by the inability to perform in vivo imaging at the level of cellular processes. The focus of this thesis is to present the underlying theory for and demonstration of novel multi-photon microscopy (MPM) and optical manipulation techniques as they apply to studies the mouse central nervous system (CNS), with an emphasis on the spinal cord. The scientific findings which have resulted from the implementation of these techniques are also presented. In particular, we have demonstrated that third harmonic generation is a dye-free method of imaging CNS myelin, a fundamental constituent of the spinal cord that is difficult to label using exogenous dyes and/or transgenic constructs. Since gaining optical access to the spinal cord is a prerequisite for spinal cord imaging, we review our development of a novel spinal cord imaging chamber and surgical procedure which allowed us to image for multiple weeks following implantation without the need for repeated surgeries. We also have used MPM to characterize spinal venous blood flow before and after point occlusions. We review a novel nonlinear microscopy technique that may serve to show optical interfaces in three dimensions inside scattering tissue. Finally, we discuss a model and show results of optoporation, a means of transfecting cells with genetic constructs. Brief reviews of MPM and SCI are also presented.

Farrar, Matthew John

323

Vital staining of the stick insect digestive system identifies appendices of the midgut as novel system of excretion.  

PubMed

The stick insects or phasmids (Phamsatodea) have a series of pyriform ampulles with long, thin filaments on the posterior end of their midgut referred to as the "appendices of the midgut." Found only in phasmids, their function had never been determined until now. Their similarity to the Malpighian tubules, which are ubiquitous insect organs of excretion, suggested a similar function. To differentiate between the appendices and the Malpighian tubules and compare functional differences between the two tissue types, vital staining (the injection of histological stains into living organisms) was done in conjunction with light and scanning electron microscopy in multiple phasmid species. The results showed that the appendices originated in the basal phasmids (Timematidae) and grew more numerous in derived species. The appendices stain selectively, notably failing to pick up the indicators of the two known systems of invertebrate excretory function, indigo carmine and ammonium carmine. Appendices sequester stains in the ampule portion before eliminating the compounds into the midgut. We conclude by confirming that the appendices do have an excretory function, but one unlike any other known in invertebrates. Their function is likely cation excretion, playing a role in calcium regulation and/or organic alkaloid sequestration. The appendices must thus be considered distinct organs from the Malpighian tubules. PMID:24338977

Shelomi, Matan; Kimsey, Lynn S

2014-06-01

324

Metacomprehension. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for administrators and policymakers as well as teachers, this digest explores the nature of students' metacomprehension, or their awareness of their own understanding, and the implications of this awareness for reading instruction. After defining metacomprehension, the digest discusses why this awareness is important to the learning…

Standiford, Sally N.

325

Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although nearly any SDS-PAGE system can be utilized upstream of an LC-MS analysis, the DPCF  

E-print Network

Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although nearly any SDS-PAGE system can be utilized upstream of an LC-MS analysis, the DPCF recommends Invitrogen's NuPAGE Bis-Tris mini-gel system. A good general purpose gel covering a large MW range (6-200 k

Richardson, David

326

Light microscopic autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse central nervous system  

SciTech Connect

Much work has been done on opioid systems in the rat CNS. Although the mouse is widely used in pharmacological studies of opioid action, little has been done to characterize opioid systems in this species. In the present study the distribution of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse CNS was examined using a quantitative in vitro autoradiography procedure. Tritiated dihydromorphine was used to visualize mu sites and (3H-d-Ala2-d-Leu5)enkephalin with a low concentration of morphine was used to visualize delta sites. Mu and delta site localizations in the mouse are very similar to those previously described in the rat (Goodman, R.R., S.H. Snyder, M.J. Kuhar, and W.S. Young, 3d (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:6239-6243), with certain exceptions and additions. Mu and delta sites were observed in sensory processing areas, limbic system, extrapyramidal motor system, and cranial parasympathetic system. Differential distributions of mu and delta sites were noted in many areas. Mu sites were prominent in laminae I, IV, and VI of the neocortex, in patches in the striatum, and in the ventral pallidum, nucleus accumbens, medial and midline thalamic nuclei, medial habenular nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, and laminae I and II of the spinal cord. In contrast, delta sites were prominent in all laminae of the neocortex, olfactory tubercle, diffusely throughout the striatum, and in the basal, lateral, and cortical nuclei of the amygdala. The determination of the differential distributions of opioid binding sites should prove useful in suggesting anatomical substrates for the actions of opiates and opioids.

Moskowitz, A.S.; Goodman, R.R.

1984-05-01

327

Distinct Human and Mouse Membrane Trafficking Systems for Sweet Taste Receptors T1r2 and T1r3  

PubMed Central

The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system. PMID:25029362

Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

2014-01-01

328

Long-Term Expression of Human Coagulation Factor VIII in a Tolerant Mouse Model Using the ?C31 Integrase System  

PubMed Central

Abstract We generated a mouse model for hemophilia A that combines a homozygous knockout for murine factor VIII (FVIII) and a homozygous addition of a mutant human FVIII (hFVIII). The resulting mouse, having no detectable FVIII protein or activity and tolerant to hFVIII, is useful for evaluating FVIII gene-therapy protocols. This model was used to develop an effective gene-therapy strategy using the ?C31 integrase to mediate permanent genomic integration of an hFVIII cDNA deleted for the B-domain. Various plasmids encoding ?C31 integrase and hFVIII were delivered to the livers of these mice by using hydrodynamic tail-vein injection. Long-term expression of therapeutic levels of hFVIII was observed over a 6-month time course when an intron was included in the hFVIII expression cassette and wild-type ?C31 integrase was used. A second dose of the hFVIII and integrase plasmids resulted in higher long-term hFVIII levels, indicating that incremental doses were beneficial and that a second dose of ?C31 integrase was tolerated. We observed a significant decrease in the bleeding time after a tail-clip challenge in mice treated with plasmids expressing hFVIII and ?C31 integrase. Genomic integration of the hFVIII expression plasmid was demonstrated by junction PCR at a known hotspot for integration in mouse liver. The ?C31 integrase system provided a nonviral method to achieve long-term FVIII gene therapy in a relevant mouse model of hemophilia A. PMID:22077817

Chavez, Christopher L.; Keravala, Annahita; Chu, Jacqueline N.; Farruggio, Alfonso P.; Cuéllar, Vanessa E.; Voorberg, Jan

2011-01-01

329

CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE L5178Y/TK+/- YIELDS TK-/- MOUSE LYMPHOMA MUTAGENESIS ASSAY SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The L5178Y/TK t/- TK-/- mouse lymphoma mutagen assay, which allows selection of forward mutations at the autosomal thymidine kinase (TK) locus, uses a TK t/- heterozygous cell line, TK t/- 3.7.2C Quantitation of colonies of mutant TK-/- cells in the assay forms the basis for calc...

330

Validation of a mouse conductance system to determine LV volume: comparison to echocardiography and crystals.  

PubMed

The application of left ventricular pressure-volume analysis to transgenic mice to characterize the cardiac phenotype has been problematic due to the small size of the mouse heart and the rapid heartbeat. Conductance technology has been miniaturized for the mouse and can solve this problem. However, there has been no validation of this technique. Accordingly, we performed echocardiography followed by simultaneous ultrasonic crystals, flow probe, and conductance studies in 18 CD-1 mice. Raw conductance volumes were corrected for an inhomogenous electrical field (alpha) and parallel conductance (G(pi)) yielding a stroke volume of 14.1 +/- 3.7 microliter/beat, end-diastolic volume of 20.8 +/- 6.5 microliter, and end-systolic volume of 9.0 +/- 5.8 microliter. The mean conductance volumes were no different from those derived by flow probe and echocardiography but did differ from ultrasonic crystals. G(pi) was determined to be 14.9 +/- 8.7 microliter. However, hypertonic saline altered dimension and pressure in the mouse left ventricle. Although G(pi) can be determined by the hypertonic saline method, saline altered hemodynamics, questioning its validity in the mouse. Although mean measures of absolute volume may be similar among different techniques, individual values did not correlate. PMID:11009457

Feldman, M D; Erikson, J M; Mao, Y; Korcarz, C E; Lang, R M; Freeman, G L

2000-10-01

331

The IRP/IRE system in vivo: insights from mouse models  

PubMed Central

Iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2) post-transcriptionally control the expression of several mRNAs encoding proteins of iron, oxygen and energy metabolism. The mechanism involves their binding to iron responsive elements (IREs) in the untranslated regions of target mRNAs, thereby controlling mRNA translation or stability. Whereas IRP2 functions solely as an RNA-binding protein, IRP1 operates as either an RNA-binding protein or a cytosolic aconitase. Early experiments in cultured cells established a crucial role of IRPs in regulation of cellular iron metabolism. More recently, studies in mouse models with global or localized Irp1 and/or Irp2 deficiencies uncovered new physiological functions of IRPs in the context of systemic iron homeostasis. Thus, IRP1 emerged as a key regulator of erythropoiesis and iron absorption by controlling hypoxia inducible factor 2? (HIF2?) mRNA translation, while IRP2 appears to dominate the control of iron uptake and heme biosynthesis in erythroid progenitor cells by regulating the expression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2) mRNAs, respectively. Targeted disruption of either Irp1 or Irp2 in mice is associated with distinct phenotypic abnormalities. Thus, Irp1?/? mice develop polycythemia and pulmonary hypertension, while Irp2?/? mice present with microcytic anemia, iron overload in the intestine and the liver, and neurologic defects. Combined disruption of both Irp1 and Irp2 is incombatible with life and leads to early embryonic lethality. Mice with intestinal- or liver-specific disruption of both Irps are viable at birth but die later on due to malabsorption or liver failure, respectively. Adult mice lacking both Irps in the intestine exhibit a profound defect in dietary iron absorption due to a “mucosal block” that is caused by the de-repression of ferritin mRNA translation. Herein, we discuss the physiological function of the IRE/IRP regulatory system. PMID:25120486

Wilkinson, Nicole; Pantopoulos, Kostas

2014-01-01

332

Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of guinea pig manure in low-cost tubular digesters at high altitude.  

PubMed

Guinea pig is one of the most common livestock in rural communities of the Andes. The aim of this research was to study the anaerobic digestion of guinea pig manure in low-cost unheated tubular digesters at high altitude. To this end, the performance of two pilot digesters was monitored during 7 months; and two greenhouse designs were compared. In the dome roof digester the temperature and biogas production were significantly higher than in the shed roof digester. However, the biogas production rate was low (0.04 m(biogas)(3)m(digester)(-3) d(-1)), which is attributed to the low organic loading rate (0.6 kg(VS)m(digester)(-3)d(-1)) and temperature (23°C) of the system, among other factors. In a preliminary fertilization study, the potato yield per hectare was increased by 100% using the effluent as biofertilizer. Improving manure management techniques, increasing the organic loading rate and co digesting other substrates may be considered to enhance the process. PMID:21450457

Garfí, Marianna; Ferrer-Martí, Laia; Villegas, Vidal; Ferrer, Ivet

2011-05-01

333

Teaching and Learning about the Earth. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC Digest investigates the earth and space science guidelines of the National Science Education Standards. These guidelines are frequently referred to as the earth system and include components such as plate tectonics, the water cycle, and the carbon cycle. This Digest describes the development of earth systems science and earth systems

Lee, Hyonyong

334

Galled by the Gallbladder?: Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ  

MedlinePLUS

... among the most common and costly of all digestive system diseases. By some estimates, up to 20 million ... gallbladder may not be the star of the digestive system, it still plays an important role. Treat it ...

335

A comparison study on the high-rate co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste using a temperature-phased anaerobic sequencing batch reactor system.  

PubMed

Assessing contemporary anaerobic biotechnologies requires proofs on reliable performance in terms of renewable bioenergy recovery such as methane (CH(4)) production rate, CH(4) yield while removing volatile solid (VS) effectively. This study, therefore, aims to evaluate temperature-phased anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (TPASBR) system that is a promising approach for the sustainable treatment of organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW). TPASBR system is compared with a conventional system, mesophilic two-stage anaerobic sequencing batch reactor system, which differs in operating temperature of 1st-stage. Results demonstrate that TPASBR system can obtain 44% VS removal from co-substrate of sewage sludge and food waste while producing 1.2m(3)CH(4)/m(3)(system)/d (0.2m(3)CH(4)/kgVS(added)) at organic loading rate of 6.1gVS/L/d through the synergy of sequencing-batch operation, co-digestion, and temperature-phasing. Consequently, the rapid and balanced anaerobic metabolism at thermophilic stage makes TPASBR system to afford high organic loading rate showing superior performance on OFMSW stabilization. PMID:21600764

Kim, Hyun-Woo; Nam, Joo-Youn; Shin, Hang-Sik

2011-08-01

336

Whole mouse cryo-imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Case cryo-imaging system is a section and image system which allows one to acquire micron-scale, information rich, whole mouse color bright field and molecular fluorescence images of an entire mouse. Cryo-imaging is used in a variety of applications, including mouse and embryo anatomical phenotyping, drug delivery, imaging agents, metastastic cancer, stem cells, and very high resolution vascular imaging, among

David Wilson; Debashish Roy; Grant Steyer; Madhusudhana Gargesha; Meredith Stone; Eliot McKinley

2008-01-01

337

Digest Your Food!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a multi-week experiment, student teams gather biogas data from the mini-anaerobic digesters that they build to break down different types of food waste with microbes. Using plastic soda bottles for the mini-anaerobic digesters and gas measurement devices, they compare methane gas production from decomposing hot dogs, diced vs. whole. They monitor and measure the gas production, then graph and analyze the collected data. Students learn how anaerobic digestion can be used to biorecycle waste (food, poop or yard waste) into valuable resources (nutrients, biogas, energy).

Membrane Biotechnology Laboratory,

338

World Court Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law provides this resource, an electronic version of the first two volumes of the printed work. It presents digested views of the International Court of Justice on various issues in international law, as expressed in their judgements, advisory opinions, and orders. The Digest covers 1986-1995 at present. The digest can be browsed or searched, and a case decision and opinion summary can be found at the end of the table of contents.

339

Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

Tuross, N.

2013-12-01

340

Report from the Fifth National Cancer Institute Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium Nervous System Tumors Workshop  

PubMed Central

Cancers of the nervous system are clinically challenging tumors that present with varied histopathologies and genetic etiologies. While the prognosis for the most malignant of these tumors is essentially unchanged despite decades of basic and translational science research, the past few years have witnessed the identification of numerous targetable molecular alterations in these cancers. With the advent of advanced genomic sequencing methodologies and the development of accurate small-animal models of these nervous system cancers, we are now ideally positioned to develop personalized therapies that target the unique cellular and molecular changes that define their formation and drive their continued growth. Recently, the National Cancer Institute convened a workshop to advance our understanding of nervous system cancer mouse models and to inform clinical trials by reconsidering these neoplasms as complex biological systems characterized by heterogeneity at all levels. PMID:21727208

Gutmann, David H.; Stiles, Charles D.; Lowe, Scott W.; Bollag, Gideon E.; Furnari, Frank B.; Charest, Al

2011-01-01

341

Systemic multicompartmental effects of the gut microbiome on mouse metabolic phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the impact of gut microbiota on host metabolism, we investigated the multicompartmental metabolic profiles of a conventional mouse strain (C3H\\/HeJ) (n=5) and its germ-free (GF) equivalent (n=5). We confirm that the microbiome strongly impacts on the metabolism of bile acids through the enterohepatic cycle and gut metabolism (higher levels of phosphocholine and glycine in GF liver and marked

Sandrine P Claus; Tsz M Tsang; Yulan Wang; Olivier Cloarec; Eleni Skordi; François-Pierre Martin; Serge Rezzi; Alastair Ross; Sunil Kochhar; Elaine Holmes; Jeremy K Nicholson

2008-01-01

342

Steam Digest 2001  

SciTech Connect

Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

Not Available

2002-01-01

343

Problems Digesting Dairy Products?  

MedlinePLUS

... with milk allergies are allergic to the milk protein, which is still present when the lactose is removed. ... ucts with other foods. This helps slow down digestion, making it easier for your body to absorb ...

344

Analysis of foods for lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, arsenic, and selenium, using closed system sample digestion: collaborative study.  

PubMed

A method for the determination of cadmium, lead, copper, arsenic, selenium, and zinc is presented. This method involves digesting a food sample with nitric acid under pressure and using aliquots of the solution for analysis by suitable techniques. Cadmium, lead, and copper are determined by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) after heating with equimolar sodium nitrate/potassium nitrate; arsenic and selenium are determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) after generation of their respective hydrides; zinc is determined by conventional AAS. The combined recoveries and reproducibilities (CVR) of the collaborative study on this multi-element analysis are: Cd, 89.14 (17.65) at 0.10-1.0 microgram/g; Zn, 96,53 (5.59) at 16.7 and 66.7 microgram/g; As, 99.50 (17.02) at 0.5 and 2.0 microgram/g; Se, 95.17 (16.52) at 0.5 and 2.0 microgram/g; Pb, 92.57 (15.22) at 0.3-3.0 microgram/g; Cu, 108.39 (18.30) at 1.0-10.0 microgram/g. The method has been adopted as official first action for cadmium, lead, arsenic, selenium, and zinc. PMID:7430035

Holak, W

1980-05-01

345

Outlining microbial community dynamics during temperature drop and subsequent recovery period in anaerobic co-digestion systems.  

PubMed

To improve the stability of anaerobic reactors, more knowledge is required about how the different communities react against operating perturbations and which specific ones respond better. The objective of this work was to monitor the changes in microbial community structure of an anaerobic digester during a temperature drop by applying different complementary molecular techniques. Temperature decrease led to an increase of Bacteroidales order, Porphyromonadaceae family and Bacteroides genus and a decrease in Syntrophomonas and Clostridium genera. Once the temperature was restored, the reactor recovered the steady state performance without requiring any modification in operational conditions or in the microbiome. During the recovery period, Sedimentibacter genus and Porphyromonadaceae family played an important role in the degradation of the accumulated volatile fatty acids. The hydrogenotrophic methanogens appeared to be the keystone archaeal population at low temperatures as well as in the recovery period. This study stands out that the understanding of microbial community dynamics during temperature drop could be utilized to develop strategies for the mitigation of temperature change consequences and speed up the recovery of stable reactor performance. PMID:25450643

Regueiro, Leticia; Carballa, Marta; Lema, Juan M

2014-12-20

346

Effect of storage system and tarpaulin color on nutritional quality and digestibility of stored lucerne hay in the irrigated Sonoran Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field trial and a steer digestion trial were conducted to evaluate the effect of tarpaulin color on the quality and digestive attributes of lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay during a 20 week summer storage period in the irrigated Sonoran Desert of northwestern Mexico and the southwestern US. Lucerne hay was subjected to six treatments (four repetitions per treatment): stored roadside

J. N. Guerrero; J. F. Calderón-Cortés; M. F. Montaño-Gómez; V. González-Vizcarra; M. A. López-Soto

2010-01-01

347

A human endothelial cell feeder system that efficiently supports the undifferentiated growth of mouse embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeder cells are commonly used to culture embryonic stem cells to maintain their undifferentiated and pluripotent status. Conventionally, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), supplemented with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), are used as feeder cells to support the growth of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) in culture. To prepare for fresh MEF feeder or for MEF-conditioned medium, sacrifice of mouse fetuses repeatedly

Haisheng Zhou; Jun Yong; Xiaomeng Sun; Chengyan Wang; Weifeng Yang; Pengbo Zhang; Jingliang Zhu; Cheng Shi; Mingxiao Ding; Hongkui Deng

2008-01-01

348

Diagnosis of digestive deaths.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of deaths due to digestive disorders can be a difficult task. It is helpful if the carcass can be viewed for condition, position, and location before being moved from the pen in which it was found. A complete necropsy is absolutely necessary even though postmortem decomposition may be advanced. All thoracic and abdominal organs must be examined for gross lesions. If one believes that the central nervous system was involved, the brain should be removed and examined. Checking the ruminal pH is important. If indicated, samples should be obtained and submitted to a diagnostic laboratory. Salient lesions include congestion of the anterior portion of the carcass, especially the cervical muscles and tissues adjacent to the esophagus and trachea, paleness of the posterior portion of the carcass, edema between the muscle groups of the hindquarters, scrotal, or mammary area, and a lack of other gross lesions. Many cases have congestion and(or) edema in the submucosa of the dorsal portion of the trachea extending from the thoracic inlet cranially. One must list the cause of death as unknown or undetermined when it is not apparent. PMID:9464914

Miles, D G; Hoffman, B W; Rogers, K C; Sears, J E

1998-01-01

349

Functional promiscuity in a mammalian chemosensory system: extensive expression of vomeronasal receptors in the main olfactory epithelium of mouse lemurs  

PubMed Central

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is functional in most terrestrial mammals, though progressively reduced in the primate lineage, and is used for intraspecific communication and predator recognition. Vomeronasal receptor (VR) genes comprise two families of chemosensory genes (V1R and V2R) that have been considered to be specific for the VNO. However, recently a large number of VRs were reported to be expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of mice, but there is little knowledge of the expression of these genes outside of rodents. To explore the function of VR genes in mammalian evolution, we analyzed and compared the expression of 64 V1R and 2 V2R genes in the VNO and the MOE of the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), the primate with the largest known VR repertoire. We furthermore compared expression patterns in adults of both sexes and seasons, and in an infant. A large proportion (83–97%) of the VR loci was expressed in the VNO of all individuals. The repertoire in the infant was as rich as in adults, indicating reliance on olfactory communication from early postnatal development onwards. In concordance with mice, we also detected extensive expression of VRs in the MOE, with proportions of expressed loci in individuals ranging from 29 to 45%. TRPC2, which encodes a channel protein crucial for signal transduction via VRs, was co-expressed in the MOE in all individuals indicating likely functionality of expressed VR genes in the MOE. In summary, the large VR repertoire in mouse lemurs seems to be highly functional. Given the differences in the neural pathways of MOE and VNO signals, which project to higher cortical brain centers or the limbic system, respectively, this raises the intriguing possibility that the evolution of MOE-expression of VRs enabled mouse lemurs to adaptively diversify the processing of VR-encoded olfactory information. PMID:25309343

Hohenbrink, Philipp; Dempewolf, Silke; Zimmermann, Elke; Mundy, Nicholas I.; Radespiel, Ute

2014-01-01

350

Functional promiscuity in a mammalian chemosensory system: extensive expression of vomeronasal receptors in the main olfactory epithelium of mouse lemurs.  

PubMed

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is functional in most terrestrial mammals, though progressively reduced in the primate lineage, and is used for intraspecific communication and predator recognition. Vomeronasal receptor (VR) genes comprise two families of chemosensory genes (V1R and V2R) that have been considered to be specific for the VNO. However, recently a large number of VRs were reported to be expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of mice, but there is little knowledge of the expression of these genes outside of rodents. To explore the function of VR genes in mammalian evolution, we analyzed and compared the expression of 64 V1R and 2 V2R genes in the VNO and the MOE of the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), the primate with the largest known VR repertoire. We furthermore compared expression patterns in adults of both sexes and seasons, and in an infant. A large proportion (83-97%) of the VR loci was expressed in the VNO of all individuals. The repertoire in the infant was as rich as in adults, indicating reliance on olfactory communication from early postnatal development onwards. In concordance with mice, we also detected extensive expression of VRs in the MOE, with proportions of expressed loci in individuals ranging from 29 to 45%. TRPC2, which encodes a channel protein crucial for signal transduction via VRs, was co-expressed in the MOE in all individuals indicating likely functionality of expressed VR genes in the MOE. In summary, the large VR repertoire in mouse lemurs seems to be highly functional. Given the differences in the neural pathways of MOE and VNO signals, which project to higher cortical brain centers or the limbic system, respectively, this raises the intriguing possibility that the evolution of MOE-expression of VRs enabled mouse lemurs to adaptively diversify the processing of VR-encoded olfactory information. PMID:25309343

Hohenbrink, Philipp; Dempewolf, Silke; Zimmermann, Elke; Mundy, Nicholas I; Radespiel, Ute

2014-01-01

351

Antidepressants reduce neuroinflammatory responses and astroglial alpha-synuclein accumulation in a transgenic mouse model of Multiple System Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the pathological accumulation of alpha-synuclein (?-syn) within oligodendroglial cells. This accumulation is accompanied by neuroinflammation with astrogliosis and microgliosis, that leads to neuronal death and subsequent parkinsonism and dysautonomia. Antidepressants have been explored as neuroprotective agents as they normalize neurotrophic factor levels, increase neurogenesis and reduce neurodegeneration, but their anti-inflammatory properties have not been fully characterized. We analyzed the anti-inflammatory profiles of three different antidepressants (fluoxetine, olanzapine and amitriptyline) in the MBP1-h?-syn transgenic (tg) mouse model of MSA. We observed that antidepressant treatment decreased the number of ?-syn-positive cells in the basal ganglia of 11-month old tg animals. This reduction was accompanied with a similar decrease in the colocalization of ?-syn with astrocyte markers in this brain structure. Consistent with these results, antidepressants reduced astrogliosis in the hippocampus and basal ganglia of the MBP1-h?-syn tg mice, and modulated the expression levels of key cytokines that were dysregulated in the tg mouse model, such as IL-1?. In vitro experiments in the astroglial cell line C6 confirmed that antidepressants inhibited NF-?B translocation to the nucleus and reduced IL-1? protein levels. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory properties of antidepressants in the MBP1-h?-syn tg mouse model of MSA might be related to their ability to inhibit ?-syn propagation from oligodendrocytes to astroglia and to regulate transcription factors involved in cytokine expression. Our results suggest that antidepressants might be of interest as anti-inflammatory and ?-syn-reducing agents for MSA and other ?-synucleinopathies. PMID:24310907

Valera, Elvira; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer

2014-01-01

352

A transgenic mouse line for collecting ribosome-bound mRNA using the tetracycline transactivator system  

PubMed Central

Acquiring the gene expression profiles of specific neuronal cell-types is important for understanding their molecular identities. Genome-wide gene expression profiles of genetically defined cell-types can be acquired by collecting and sequencing mRNA that is bound to epitope-tagged ribosomes (TRAP; translating ribosome affinity purification). Here, we introduce a transgenic mouse model that combines the TRAP technique with the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) system by expressing EGFP-tagged ribosomal protein L10a (EGFP-L10a) under control of the tetracycline response element (tetO-TRAP). This allows both spatial control of EGFP-L10a expression through cell-type specific tTA expression, as well as temporal regulation by inhibiting transgene expression through the administration of doxycycline. We show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic mice expressing tTA under the Camk2a promoter (Camk2a-tTA) results in offspring with cell-type specific expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed that EGFP-L10a integrates into a functional ribosomal complex. In addition, collection of ribosome-bound mRNA from the hippocampus yielded the expected enrichment of genes expressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons, as well as a depletion of genes expressed in other hippocampal cell-types. Finally, we show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic Fos-tTA mice enables the expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons that are activated during a fear conditioning trial. The tetO-TRAP mouse can be combined with other tTA mouse lines to enable gene expression profiling of a variety of different cell-types. PMID:25400545

Drane, Laurel; Ainsley, Joshua A.; Mayford, Mark R.; Reijmers, Leon G.

2014-01-01

353

A transgenic mouse line for collecting ribosome-bound mRNA using the tetracycline transactivator system.  

PubMed

Acquiring the gene expression profiles of specific neuronal cell-types is important for understanding their molecular identities. Genome-wide gene expression profiles of genetically defined cell-types can be acquired by collecting and sequencing mRNA that is bound to epitope-tagged ribosomes (TRAP; translating ribosome affinity purification). Here, we introduce a transgenic mouse model that combines the TRAP technique with the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) system by expressing EGFP-tagged ribosomal protein L10a (EGFP-L10a) under control of the tetracycline response element (tetO-TRAP). This allows both spatial control of EGFP-L10a expression through cell-type specific tTA expression, as well as temporal regulation by inhibiting transgene expression through the administration of doxycycline. We show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic mice expressing tTA under the Camk2a promoter (Camk2a-tTA) results in offspring with cell-type specific expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed that EGFP-L10a integrates into a functional ribosomal complex. In addition, collection of ribosome-bound mRNA from the hippocampus yielded the expected enrichment of genes expressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons, as well as a depletion of genes expressed in other hippocampal cell-types. Finally, we show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic Fos-tTA mice enables the expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons that are activated during a fear conditioning trial. The tetO-TRAP mouse can be combined with other tTA mouse lines to enable gene expression profiling of a variety of different cell-types. PMID:25400545

Drane, Laurel; Ainsley, Joshua A; Mayford, Mark R; Reijmers, Leon G

2014-01-01

354

Incorporation and retention of radiolabeled S-(+)-and R-(-)-methamphetamine and S(+)- and R(-)-N-(n-butyl)-amphetamine in mouse hair after systemic administration.  

PubMed

We examined the incorporation of unlabeled and tritiated enantiomers of methamphetamine (MA) and a more lipophilic analog N-(n-butyl)-amphetamine (BA) into the hair of pigmented (C57) and nonpigmented (Balb/C) mice after systemic administration. We also compared the ability of extraction methods to remove unlabeled and tritiated MA and BA enantiomers from the hair. R(-)-MA, S(+)-MA, [(3)H]R(-)-MA, [(3)H]S(+)-MA, R(-)-BA, S(+)-BA, [(3)H]R-(-)-BA, and [(3)H]S-(+)-BA were each administered to C57 and Balb/C mice (23 days of age) by i.p. injection at 8.8 mg/kg daily for 3 days. At 44 days of age, hair samples from the animals were treated with a brief methanol wash, a 24-h extraction with pH 6 phosphate buffer, and a final digestion in 1 N NaOH to free residual drugs from the hair. Labeled drugs in the extracts were quantitated by liquid scintillation counting. Unlabeled drugs were quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). GC/MS analysis demonstrated MA and BA to be the major (>90%) species present in the blood during the 24 h after administration. Less than 10% of the MA was N-demethylated. No p-hydroxylated metabolites were found. Blood concentrations of tritiated MA and BA enantiomers measured by liquid scintillation counting agreed well with blood concentrations of unlabeled enantiomers measured by GC/MS. Hair concentrations of S(+)-MA were greater than those of R(-)-MA in both mouse strains, paralleling blood concentrations. There were no enantiomeric differences seen with BA hair accumulation in either strain of mouse. Significantly more MA and BA enantiomers were deposited in pigmented than in nonpigmented hair. With labeled and unlabeled compounds, approximately 30% of S(+)-MA and 60% of R(-)-MA in pigmented hair could be removed by a phosphate extraction. A significant amount of drug could not be removed from the hair by extraction. Greater amounts of drug could be extracted from nonpigmented hair than pigmented. Extracted and residual MA and BA concentrations in pigmented hair were significantly greater when labeled compounds were quantitated by liquid scintillation counting than when unlabeled compounds were quantitated by GC/MS. However, radiotracer and unlabeled drug concentrations were the same in nonpigmented hair. The results demonstrate that hair pigmentation is an important determinant in MA and BA deposition, and that MA and BA deposition is not enantioselective. The data demonstrate a significant amount of MA and BA accumulated is not easily amenable to exhaustive aqueous extraction from the hair. The use of tritiated MA and BA enantiomers demonstrates that a significant amount of MA and BA stored in pigmented hair is structurally different from parent MA and BA, perhaps associated with melanin components of hair. PMID:10681372

Stout, P R; Claffey, D J; Ruth, J A

2000-03-01

355

Studies on the metabolism of catecholamines in the central nervous system of the mouse  

PubMed Central

1 The distribution of the metabolites of noradrenaline, 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethane-1,2-diol (DOPEG) and 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethane-1,2-diol (MOPEG), in the brain of the mouse has been investigated. 2 The rate of disappearance of the metabolites after inhibition of the enzyme monoamine oxidase has been used to estimate their turnover rates in the mouse hypothalamus. It was concluded that the turnover of DOPEG was much faster than that of MOPEG. 3 When mice were treated with reserpine dissolved in 5% ascorbic acid solution there was an increase in the hypothalamic concentration of both MOPEG and DOPEG. However, similar increases in the concentrations of the two metabolites were seen when the animals were treated with 5% ascorbic acid solution alone. 4 The administration of tropolone, an inhibitor of the enzyme catechol-O-methyl transferase, resulted in an increase in the concentration of DOPEG. 5 Mice, exposed to a temperature of -15° C showed increased hypothalamic concentrations of both DOPEG and MOPEG. 6 The rates of formation in the mouse striatum of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid (HVA), acidic metabolites of dopamine, were compared with the turnover rate of dopamine, estimated from the rate at which this catecholamine disappears after treatment with ?-methyl-p-tyrosine. It was concluded that the estimate of dopamine turnover obtained by this method is likely to be too large because of the compensatory feedback mechanism which is thought to play a role in the metabolism of dopamine in the brain. PMID:4141637

Ceasar, P.M.; Hague, P.; Sharman, D.F.; Werdinius, B.

1974-01-01

356

Characterization of VIP receptor-effector system antagonists in rat and mouse peritoneal macrophages.  

PubMed

In the present study we show that the synthetic peptides [4-Cl-D-Phe6,Leu17]VIP and the growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) analog [Ac-Tyr1,D-Phe2]GRF-(1-29)-NH2 inhibit in a competitive manner the specific [125I]VIP binding to both rat and mouse peritoneal macrophages. In rat peritoneal macrophages, the order of potency of the different peptides, as expressed by the IC50 values was: VIP (IC50 = 1.90 +/- 0.16 nM) > [4-Cl-D-Phe6,Leu17]VIP (IC50 = 125.8 +/- 13.2 nM) > [Ac-Tyr1,D-Phe2]GRF-(1-29)-NH2 (IC50 = 354.8 +/- 21.2 nM). In mouse peritoneal macrophages a similar pattern of potency was observed: VIP (IC50 = 1.58 +/- 0.12 nM) > [4-Cl-D-Phe6,Leu17]VIP (IC50 = 110.8 +/- 10.7 nM) > [Ac-Tyr1,D-Phe2]GRF-(1-29)-NH2 (IC50 = 251 +/- 19.2 nM). The behavior as VIP receptor antagonists of both [4-Cl-D-Phe6,Leu17]VIP and [Ac-Tyr1,D-Phe2]GRF-(1-29)-NH2 in rat and mouse peritoneal macrophages was confirmed by: (a) the shift to the right of VIP dose-stimulated cyclic AMP production curves in the presence of the two antagonists; (b) the agreement between the order of efficacy of the two peptides in competition experiments with the corresponding inhibition of cyclic AMP production; (c) the inefficiency of the two antagonists on the stimulation of cyclic AMP production by the beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol, which indicates the specificity of the interaction; (d) the synergic effect of VIP on isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP production was completely abolished by [4-Cl-D-Phe6,Leu17]VIP or [Ac-Tyr1,D-Phe2]GRF-(1-29)-NH2, suggesting that both antagonists acted via specific VIP receptors. Moreover, propranolol, a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, did not affect the VIP-stimulated cyclic AMP production and the antagonist role of [4-Cl-D-Phe6,Leu17]VIP or [Ac-Tyr1,D-Phe2]GRF-(1-29)-NH2; (e) in cross-linking experiments, the intensity of the labeling of the [125I]VIP/receptor complexes was significantly lower with the antagonists than in the control experimental situation in both mouse and rat peritoneal macrophage membranes. PMID:9085051

Pozo, D; Montilla, M L; Guerrero, J M; Calvo, J R

1997-03-01

357

Utilizing past and present mouse systems to engineer more relevant pancreatic cancer models  

PubMed Central

The study of pancreatic cancer has prompted the development of numerous mouse models that aim to recapitulate the phenotypic and mechanistic features of this deadly malignancy. This review accomplishes two tasks. First, it provides an overview of the models that have been used as representations of both the neoplastic and carcinoma phenotypes. Second, it presents new modeling schemes that ultimately will serve to more faithfully capture the temporal and spatial progression of the human disease, providing platforms for improved understanding of the role of non-epithelial compartments in disease etiology as well as evaluating therapeutic approaches. PMID:25538623

DeCant, Brian T.; Principe, Daniel R.; Guerra, Carmen; Pasca di Magliano, Marina; Grippo, Paul J.

2014-01-01

358

Molecular and Functional Diversity of GABA-A Receptors in the Enteric Nervous System of the Mouse Colon  

PubMed Central

The enteric nervous system (ENS) provides the intrinsic neural control of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and regulates virtually all GI functions. Altered neuronal activity within the ENS underlies various GI disorders with stress being a key contributing factor. Thus, elucidating the expression and function of the neurotransmitter systems, which determine neuronal excitability within the ENS, such as the GABA-GABAA receptor (GABAAR) system, could reveal novel therapeutic targets for such GI disorders. Molecular and functionally diverse GABAARs modulate rapid GABAergic-mediated regulation of neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. However, the cellular and subcellular GABAAR subunit expression patterns within neurochemically defined cellular circuits of the mouse ENS, together with the functional contribution of GABAAR subtypes to GI contractility remains to be determined. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that immunoreactivity for the GABAAR gamma (?) 2 and alphas (?) 1, 2, 3 subunits was located on somatodendritic surfaces of neurochemically distinct myenteric plexus neurons, while being on axonal compartments of submucosal plexus neurons. In contrast, immunoreactivity for the ?4–5 subunits was only detected in myenteric plexus neurons. Furthermore, ?-?2 subunit immunoreactivity was located on non-neuronal interstitial cells of Cajal. In organ bath studies, GABAAR subtype-specific ligands had contrasting effects on the force and frequency of spontaneous colonic longitudinal smooth muscle contractions. Finally, enhancement of ?2-GABAAR function with alprazolam reversed the stress-induced increase in the force of spontaneous colonic contractions. The study demonstrates the molecular and functional diversity of the GABAAR system within the mouse colon providing a framework for developing GABAAR-based therapeutics in GI disorders. PMID:25080596

Seifi, Mohsen; Brown, James F.; Mills, Jeremy; Bhandari, Pradeep; Belelli, Delia; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Rudolph, Uwe

2014-01-01

359

Molecular and functional diversity of GABA-A receptors in the enteric nervous system of the mouse colon.  

PubMed

The enteric nervous system (ENS) provides the intrinsic neural control of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and regulates virtually all GI functions. Altered neuronal activity within the ENS underlies various GI disorders with stress being a key contributing factor. Thus, elucidating the expression and function of the neurotransmitter systems, which determine neuronal excitability within the ENS, such as the GABA-GABAA receptor (GABAAR) system, could reveal novel therapeutic targets for such GI disorders. Molecular and functionally diverse GABAARs modulate rapid GABAergic-mediated regulation of neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. However, the cellular and subcellular GABAAR subunit expression patterns within neurochemically defined cellular circuits of the mouse ENS, together with the functional contribution of GABAAR subtypes to GI contractility remains to be determined. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that immunoreactivity for the GABAAR gamma (?) 2 and alphas (?) 1, 2, 3 subunits was located on somatodendritic surfaces of neurochemically distinct myenteric plexus neurons, while being on axonal compartments of submucosal plexus neurons. In contrast, immunoreactivity for the ?4-5 subunits was only detected in myenteric plexus neurons. Furthermore, ?-?2 subunit immunoreactivity was located on non-neuronal interstitial cells of Cajal. In organ bath studies, GABAAR subtype-specific ligands had contrasting effects on the force and frequency of spontaneous colonic longitudinal smooth muscle contractions. Finally, enhancement of ?2-GABAAR function with alprazolam reversed the stress-induced increase in the force of spontaneous colonic contractions. The study demonstrates the molecular and functional diversity of the GABAAR system within the mouse colon providing a framework for developing GABAAR-based therapeutics in GI disorders. PMID:25080596

Seifi, Mohsen; Brown, James F; Mills, Jeremy; Bhandari, Pradeep; Belelli, Delia; Lambert, Jeremy J; Rudolph, Uwe; Swinny, Jerome D

2014-07-30

360

Changes in chemical composition and digestibility of three maize stover components digested by white-rot fungi.  

PubMed

Maize stover (total stem and leaves) is not considered a ruminant feed of high nutritive value. Therefore, an improvement in its digestibility may increase the viability of total forage maize production systems in marginal growth regions. The objective of this study was to describe the changes in chemical composition during the storage of contrasting components of maize stover (leaf, upper stem and lower stem) treated with either of two lignin degrading white-rot fungi (WRF; Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor). Three components of maize stover (leaf, upper stem and lower stem), harvested at a conventional maturity for silage production, were digested with either of two WRF for one of four digestion durations (1-4 months). Samples taken prior to fungal inoculation were used to benchmark the changes that occurred. The degradation of acid detergent lignin was observed in all sample types digested with P. ostreatus; however, the loss of digestible substrate in all samples inoculated with P. ostreatus was high, and therefore, P. ostreatus-digested samples had a lower dry matter digestibility than samples prior to inoculation. Similarly, T. veriscolor-digested leaf underwent a non-selective degradation of the rumen-digestible components of fibre. The changes in chemical composition of leaf, upper stem and lower stem digested with either P. ostreatus or T. veriscolor were not beneficial to the feed value of the forage, and incurred high DM losses. PMID:24112093

Lynch, J P; O'Kiely, P; Murphy, R; Doyle, E M

2014-08-01

361

Simultaneous submicrometric 3D imaging of the micro-vascular network and the neuronal system in a mouse spinal cord  

E-print Network

Defaults in vascular (VN) and neuronal networks of spinal cord are responsible for serious neurodegenerative pathologies. Because of inadequate investigation tools, the lacking knowledge of the complete fine structure of VN and neuronal systems is a crucial problem. Conventional 2D imaging yields incomplete spatial coverage leading to possible data misinterpretation, whereas standard 3D computed tomography imaging achieves insufficient resolution and contrast. We show that X-ray high-resolution phase-contrast tomography allows the simultaneous visualization of three-dimensional VN and neuronal systems of mouse spinal cord at scales spanning from millimeters to hundreds of nanometers, with neither contrast agent nor a destructive sample-preparation. We image both the 3D distribution of micro-capillary network and the micrometric nerve fibers, axon-bundles and neuron soma. Our approach is a crucial tool for pre-clinical investigation of neurodegenerative pathologies and spinal-cord-injuries. In particular, it s...

Fratini, Michela; Campi, Gaetano; Brun, Francesco; Tromba, Giuliana; Modregger, Peter; Bucci, Domenico; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Spadon, Raffaele; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Requardt, Herwig; Giove, Federico; Bravin, Alberto; Cedola, Alessia

2014-01-01

362

A new mouse model of Canavan leukodystrophy displays hearing impairment due to central nervous system dysmyelination  

PubMed Central

Canavan disease is a leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the ASPA gene. This gene encodes the enzyme that converts N-acetylaspartate into acetate and aspartic acid. In Canavan disease, spongiform encephalopathy of the brain causes progressive mental retardation, motor deficit and death. We have isolated a mouse with a novel ethylnitrosourea-induced mutation in Aspa. This mutant, named deaf14, carries a c.516T>A mutation that is predicted to cause a p.Y172X protein truncation. No full-length ASPA protein is produced in deaf14 brain and there is extensive spongy degeneration. Interestingly, we found that deaf14 mice have an attenuated startle in response to loud noise. The first auditory brainstem response peak has normal latency and amplitude but peaks II, III, IV and V have increased latency and decreased amplitude in deaf14 mice. Our work reveals a hitherto unappreciated pathology in a mouse model of Canavan disease, implying that auditory brainstem response testing could be used in diagnosis and to monitor the progression of this disease. PMID:24682784

Carpinelli, Marina R.; Voss, Anne K.; Manning, Michael G.; Perera, Ashwyn A.; Cooray, Anne A.; Kile, Benjamin T.; Burt, Rachel A.

2014-01-01

363

Recent advances in transport of water-soluble vitamins in organs of the digestive system: a focus on the colon and the pancreas  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) transport in the large intestine and pancreas, two important organs of the digestive system that have only recently received their fair share of attention. WSV, a group of structurally unrelated compounds, are essential for normal cell function and development and, thus, for overall health and survival of the organism. Humans cannot synthesize WSV endogenously; rather, WSV are obtained from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption. The intestine is exposed to two sources of WSV: a dietary source and a bacterial source (i.e., WSV generated by the large intestinal microbiota). Contribution of the latter source to human nutrition/health has been a subject of debate and doubt, mostly based on the absence of specialized systems for efficient uptake of WSV in the large intestine. However, recent studies utilizing a variety of human and animal colon preparations clearly demonstrate that such systems do exist in the large intestine. This has provided strong support for the idea that the microbiota-generated WSV are of nutritional value to the host, and especially to the nutritional needs of the local colonocytes and their health. In the pancreas, WSV are essential for normal metabolic activities of all its cell types and for its exocrine and endocrine functions. Significant progress has also been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in the uptake of WSV and the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on the uptake processes. PMID:23989008

2013-01-01

364

The human OPA1delTTAG mutation induces premature age-related systemic neurodegeneration in mouse.  

PubMed

Dominant optic atrophy is a rare inherited optic nerve degeneration caused by mutations in the mitochondrial fusion gene OPA1. Recently, the clinical spectrum of dominant optic atrophy has been extended to frequent syndromic forms, exhibiting various degrees of neurological and muscle impairments frequently found in mitochondrial diseases. Although characterized by a specific loss of retinal ganglion cells, the pathophysiology of dominant optic atrophy is still poorly understood. We generated an Opa1 mouse model carrying the recurrent Opa1(delTTAG) mutation, which is found in 30% of all patients with dominant optic atrophy. We show that this mouse displays a multi-systemic poly-degenerative phenotype, with a presentation associating signs of visual failure, deafness, encephalomyopathy, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia and cardiomyopathy. Moreover, we found premature age-related axonal and myelin degenerations, increased autophagy and mitophagy and mitochondrial supercomplex instability preceding degeneration and cell death. Thus, these results support the concept that Opa1 protects against neuronal degeneration and opens new perspectives for the exploration and the treatment of mitochondrial diseases. PMID:23250881

Sarzi, Emmanuelle; Angebault, Claire; Seveno, Marie; Gueguen, Naïg; Chaix, Benjamin; Bielicki, Guy; Boddaert, Nathalie; Mausset-Bonnefont, Anne-Laure; Cazevieille, Chantal; Rigau, Valérie; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Jing; Delettre, Cécile; Brabet, Philippe; Puel, Jean-Luc; Hamel, Christian P; Reynier, Pascal; Lenaers, Guy

2012-12-01

365

Fellowship Training Program in Digestive Diseases Yale University School of Medicine  

E-print Network

Fellowship Training Program in Digestive Diseases Yale University School of Medicine Curriculum Knowledge in Digestive Diseases ................................. 5 General Goals and Objectives ..................... 52 VA Connecticut Health Care System General Information ...................... 59 VA GI Consult

Johnson, Marcia K.

366

Labscale Evaluation of Biomass-Derived Elements Used in Anaerobic Digestion  

E-print Network

Labscale Evaluation of Biomass-Derived Elements Used in Anaerobic Digestion This report presents performance data for an anaerobic digestion system (at a 10-liter scale) utilizing corncob biochar as biofilm support. The system operated on grease-trap wastewater and high-rate anaerobic digestion of this material

367

Predictive dose-based estimation of systemic exposure multiples in mouse and monkey relative to human for antisense oligonucleotides with 2'-o-(2-methoxyethyl) modifications.  

PubMed

Evaluation of species differences and systemic exposure multiples (or ratios) in toxicological animal species versus human is an ongoing exercise during the course of drug development. The systemic exposure ratios are best estimated by directly comparing area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUCs), and sometimes by comparing the dose administered, with the dose being adjusted either by body surface area (BSA) or body weight (BW). In this study, the association between AUC ratio and the administered dose ratio from animals to human were studied using a retrospective data-driven approach. The dataset included nine antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) with 2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl) modifications, evaluated in two animal species (mouse and monkey) following single and repeated parenteral administrations. We found that plasma AUCs were similar between ASOs within the same species, and are predictable to human exposure using a single animal species, either mouse or monkey. Between monkey and human, the plasma exposure ratio can be predicted directly based on BW-adjusted dose ratios, whereas between mouse and human, the exposure ratio would be nearly fivefold lower in mouse compared to human based on BW-adjusted dose values. Thus, multiplying a factor of 5 for the mouse BW-adjusted dose would likely provide a reasonable AUC exposure estimate in human at steady-state. PMID:25602582

Yu, Rosie Z; Grundy, John S; Henry, Scott P; Kim, Tae-Won; Norris, Daniel A; Burkey, Jennifer; Wang, Yanfeng; Vick, Andrew; Geary, Richard S

2015-01-01

368

Predictive Dose-Based Estimation of Systemic Exposure Multiples in Mouse and Monkey Relative to Human for Antisense Oligonucleotides With 2?-O-(2-Methoxyethyl) Modifications  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of species differences and systemic exposure multiples (or ratios) in toxicological animal species versus human is an ongoing exercise during the course of drug development. The systemic exposure ratios are best estimated by directly comparing area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUCs), and sometimes by comparing the dose administered, with the dose being adjusted either by body surface area (BSA) or body weight (BW). In this study, the association between AUC ratio and the administered dose ratio from animals to human were studied using a retrospective data-driven approach. The dataset included nine antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) with 2?-O-(2-methoxyethyl) modifications, evaluated in two animal species (mouse and monkey) following single and repeated parenteral administrations. We found that plasma AUCs were similar between ASOs within the same species, and are predictable to human exposure using a single animal species, either mouse or monkey. Between monkey and human, the plasma exposure ratio can be predicted directly based on BW-adjusted dose ratios, whereas between mouse and human, the exposure ratio would be nearly fivefold lower in mouse compared to human based on BW-adjusted dose values. Thus, multiplying a factor of 5 for the mouse BW-adjusted dose would likely provide a reasonable AUC exposure estimate in human at steady-state. PMID:25602582

Yu, Rosie Z; Grundy, John S; Henry, Scott P; Kim, Tae-Won; Norris, Daniel A; Burkey, Jennifer; Wang, Yanfeng; Vick, Andrew; Geary, Richard S

2015-01-01

369

Privacy Impact Assessment Chandra Digest Request  

E-print Network

Privacy Impact Assessment Chandra Digest Request I. System Identification 1. IT System Name by filling in a web form. II. Privacy Assessment 1. What information is being (or will be) collected of the public web site, as is contact information for phone, fax and mailing address. The privacy policy is also

Mathis, Wayne N.

370

A Common Origin for Immunity and Digestion  

PubMed Central

Historically, the digestive and immune systems were viewed and studied as separate entities. However, there are remarkable similarities and shared functions in both nutrient acquisition and host defense. Here, I propose a common origin for both systems. This association provides a new prism for viewing the emergence and evolution of host defense mechanisms. PMID:25745424

Broderick, Nichole A.

2015-01-01

371

Development of a natural treatment system consisting of red ball earth and alfalfa for the post-treatment of anaerobically digested livestock wastewater.  

PubMed

With the objective of developing a post-treatment process for anaerobically digested livestock wastewater, an innovative natural treatment system composed of two units is proposed. The first trickling filter unit further reduced biochemical oxygen demand and achieved a certain degree of nitrification. The second soil-plant unit was targeted at the removal and recovery of nutrients N, P and K. For the feasibility study, a bench-scale soil column test was carried out, in which red ball earth and alfalfa were utilized for treating synthetic nutrient-enriched wastewater. Through long-term operation, the nitrification function was well established in the top layers, especially the top 20 cm, although a supplementary denitrification process was still required before discharge. P and K were retained by the soil through different mechanisms, and their plant-available forms that remained in the soil were considered suitable for indirect nutrient reuse. As for alfalfa, with wastewater application it fixed more N from the atmosphere, and directly recovered 6% of P and 4% of K input from wastewater. More importantly, alfalfa was verified to have an indispensable role in stimulating the soil nitrifying microorganisms by sustaining their abundance during substrate (NH3) and oxygen scarcity, and enhancing cell-specific nitrification potential during substrate (NH3) and oxygen sufficiency. The proposed system is expected to be further improved, and adopted as a sound countermeasure for livestock wastewater pollution. PMID:25225925

Chen, Xiaochen; Fukushi, Kensuke

2014-01-01

372

Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the anaerobic co-digestion of agro-industrial wastes in a two-stage CSTR system.  

PubMed

A two-stage anaerobic digestion system consisting of two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) operating at mesophilic conditions (37°C) were used to investigate the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on hydrogen and methane production. The acidogenic reactor was fed with a mixture consisting of olive mill wastewater, cheese whey and liquid cow manure (in a ratio 55:40:5, v/v/v) and operated at five different HRTs (5, 3, 2, 1 and 0.75 d) aiming to evaluate hydrogen productivity and operational stability. The highest system efficiency was achieved at HRT 0.75 d with a maximum hydrogen production rate of 1.72 L/LRd and hydrogen yield of 0.54 mol H2/mol carbohydrates consumed. The methanogenic reactor was operated at HRTs 20 and 25 d with better stability observed at HRT 25 d, whereas accumulation of volatile fatty acids took place at HRT 20 d. The methane production rate at the steady state of HRT 25 d reached 0.33 L CH4/LRd. PMID:25000396

Dareioti, Margarita Andreas; Kornaros, Michael

2014-09-01

373

Mouse model systems to study sex chromosome genes and behavior: relevance to humans.  

PubMed

Sex chromosome genes directly influence sex differences in behavior. The discovery of the Sry gene on the Y chromosome (Gubbay et al., 1990; Koopman et al., 1990) substantiated the sex chromosome mechanistic link to sex differences. Moreover, the pronounced connection between X chromosome gene mutations and mental illness produces a strong sex bias in these diseases. Yet, the dominant explanation for sex differences continues to be the gonadal hormones. Here we review progress made on behavioral differences in mouse models that uncouple sex chromosome complement from gonadal sex. We conclude that many social and cognitive behaviors are modified by sex chromosome complement, and discuss the implications for human research. Future directions need to include identification of the genes involved and interactions with these genes and gonadal hormones. PMID:24388960

Cox, Kimberly H; Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F

2014-10-01

374

Reovirus infection and tissue injury in the mouse central nervous system are associated with apoptosis.  

PubMed Central

Reovirus serotype 3 strains infect neurons within specific regions of the neonatal mouse brain and produce a lethal meningoencephalitis. Viral replication and pathology colocalize and have a predilection for the cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. We have shown previously that infection of cultured fibroblasts and epithelial cells with reovirus type 3 Dearing (T3D) and other type 3 reovirus strains results in apoptotic cell death, suggesting that apoptosis is a mechanism of cell death in vivo. We now report that T3D induces apoptosis in infected mouse brain tissue. To determine whether reovirus induces apoptosis in neural tissues, newborn mice were inoculated intracerebrally with T3D, and at various times after inoculation, brain tissue was assayed for viral antigen by immunostaining and apoptosis was identified by DNA oligonucleosomal laddering and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. Cells were also stained with cresyl violet to detect morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis, including chromatin condensation and cell shrinkage. DNA laddering was detected in T3D- but not in mock-infected brain tissue. Apoptotic cells were restricted to the same regions of the brain in which infected cells and tissue damage were observed. These findings suggest that virus-induced apoptosis is a mechanism of cell death, tissue injury, and mortality in reovirus-infected mice. The correlation between apoptosis and pathogenesis in vivo identifies apoptosis as a potential target for molecular and pharmacological strategies designed to curtail or prevent diseases resulting from induction of this cell death pathway. PMID:9032342

Oberhaus, S M; Smith, R L; Clayton, G H; Dermody, T S; Tyler, K L

1997-01-01

375

A comparative study of experimental mouse models of central nervous system demyelination  

PubMed Central

Several mouse models of multiple sclerosis (MS) are now available. We have established a mouse model, in which ocular infection with a recombinant HSV-1 that expresses murine IL-2 constitutively (HSV-IL-2) causes CNS demyelination in different strains of mice. This model differs from most other models in that it represents a mixture of viral and immune triggers. In the present study, we directly compared MOG35–55, MBP35–47, and PLP190–209 models of EAE with our HSV-IL-2-induced MS model. Mice with HSV-IL-2-induced and MOG-induced demyelinating diseases demonstrated a similar pattern and distribution of demyelination in their brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. In contrast, no demyelination was detected in the optic nerves of MBP- and PLP-injected mice. IFN-? injections significantly reduced demyelination in brains of all groups, in the spinal cords of the MOG and MBP groups, and completely blocked it in the spinal cords of the PLP and HSV-IL-2 groups as well as in optic nerves of MOG and HSV-IL-2 groups. In contrast to IFN-? treatment, IL-12p70 protected the HSV-IL-2 group from demyelination, while IL-4 was not effective at all in preventing demyelination. MOG-injected mice showed clinical signs of paralysis and disease-related mortality whereas mice in the other treatment groups did not. Collectively, the results indicate that the HSV-IL-2 model and the MOG model complement each other and, together, provide unique insights into the heterogeneity of human MS. PMID:24718267

Dumitrascu, Oana M.; Mott, Kevin R.; Ghiasi, Homayon

2014-01-01

376

Highly efficient targeted mutagenesis in one-cell mouse embryos mediated by the TALEN and CRISPR/Cas systems  

PubMed Central

Since the establishment of embryonic stem (ES) cell lines, the combined use of gene targeting with homologous recombination has aided in elucidating the functions of various genes. However, the ES cell technique is inefficient and time-consuming. Recently, two new gene-targeting technologies have been developed: the transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) system, and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system. In addition to aiding researchers in solving conventional problems, these technologies can be used to induce site-specific mutations in various species for which ES cells have not been established. Here, by targeting the Fgf10 gene through RNA microinjection in one-cell mouse embryos with the TALEN and CRISPR/Cas systems, we produced the known limb-defect phenotypes of Fgf10-deficient embryos at the F0 generation. Compared to the TALEN system, the CRISPR/Cas system induced the limb-defect phenotypes with a strikingly higher efficiency. Our results demonstrate that although both gene-targeting technologies are useful, the CRISPR/Cas system more effectively elicits single-step biallelic mutations in mice. PMID:25027812

Yasue, Akihiro; Mitsui, Silvia Naomi; Watanabe, Takahito; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro; Tanaka, Eiji

2014-01-01

377

Susceptibility of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) peel proteins to digestive enzymes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sweet potato proteins have been shown to possess antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in vivo. The ability of a protein to exhibit systemic effects is somewhat unusual as proteins are typically susceptible to digestive enzymes. This study was undertaken to better understand how digestive enzymes ...

378

Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

Klopping, Paul H.

379

Acid phase digestion phenomena. Final report, February 1983-February 1984  

SciTech Connect

A review of the microbiology and biochemistry of anaerobic digestion of biomass to methane gas is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on the degradation of mono- and polysaccharides that are found in marine macrophytes. Specific research on the control and mechanisms of algin and mannitol degradation in some important microbial strains isolated from a Macrocystis-fed digester system is described.

Forro, J.R.

1984-02-01

380

TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...

381

Canada's top-ranked digestive health research institute opens  

E-print Network

network Canada's top-ranked digestive health research institute opens McMaster innovates the grand opening of the Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute. The creation of this unique to their vision, McMaster researchers will continue their world-leading study of the gut as an integrated system

Thompson, Michael

382

Hexokinase 2 is required for tumor initiation and maintenance and its systemic deletion is therapeutic in mouse models of cancer  

PubMed Central

Summary Accelerated glucose metabolism is a common feature of cancer cells. Hexokinases catalyze the first committed step of glucose metabolism. Hexokinase 2 (HK2) is expressed at high level in cancer cells, but only in a limited number of normal adult tissues. Using Hk2 conditional knockout mice, we showed that HK2 is required for tumor initiation and maintenance in mouse models of KRas-driven lung cancer, and ErbB2-driven breast cancer, despite continued HK1 expression. Similarly HK2 ablation inhibits the neoplastic phenotype of human lung and breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Systemic Hk2 deletion is therapeutic in mice bearing lung tumors without adverse physiological consequences. Hk2 deletion in lung cancer cells suppressed glucose-derived ribonucleotides and impaired glutamine-derived carbon utilization in anaplerosis. PMID:23911236

Patra, Krushna C.; Miller, Luke; Wang, Zebin; Wheaton, Will; Chandel, Navdeep; Laakso, Markku; Muller, William J.; Allen, Eric L.; Jha, Abhishek K.; Smolen, Gromoslaw A.; Clasquin, Michelle F.; Robey, Brooks; Hay, Nissim

2013-01-01

383

Instructional Conversations. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given recent research that encourages more frequent use of the discussion method in teaching, this digest reviews the role of instructional conversations (ICs) in second language learning. ICs, instructional in content and conversational in quality, offer natural and spontaneous language interactions that are free from the didactic characteristics…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, Washington, DC.

384

Cogeneration with digester gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current electrical power demands at the County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County Joint Water Pollution Control Plant (JWPCP) will triple with the addition of Federally mandated secondary treatment facilities. The paper describes the power demands and the proposed cogeneration facilities. In light of the stringent California air emission rules and economic considerations, combined cycle turbines, using pretreated digester

J. D. Eppich; G. M. Adams; W. E. Garrison; J. C. Gratteau

1979-01-01

385

Carbohydrate digestion and absorption  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A variety of simple and complex carbohydrates are present in human diets. Food carbohydrates include the sugars, starches, and fibers found mainly in fruits, vegetables, grains, and milk products. Small amounts of digestible carbohydrates come from non-plant sources (e.g., trehalose in insects and...

386

Reader's Digest At Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is billed as a resource providing information on "how to do just about anything." It is a virtual smorgasbord of concise information on home repair, cooking, health, and gardening. The "how to library" highlights this site; it contains more than 400 different projects, tips, recipes, and other information. Content is derived from Reader's Digest books.

387

Improved physical and in vitro digestion stability of a polyelectrolyte delivery system based on layer-by-layer self-assembly alginate-chitosan-coated nanoliposomes.  

PubMed

To improve lipid membrane stability and prevent leakage of encapsulated food ingredients, a polyelectrolyte delivery system (PDS) based on sodium alginate (AL) and chitosan (CH) coated on the surface of nanoliposomes (NLs) has been prepared and optimized using a layer-by-layer self-assembly deposition technique. Morphology and FTIR observation confirmed PDS has been successfully coated by polymers. Physical stability studies (pH and heat treatment) indicated that the outer-layer polymers could protect the core (NLs) from damage, and PDS showed more intact structure than NLs. Further enzymic digestion stability studies (particle size, surface charge, free fatty acid, and model functional component release) demonstrated that PDS could better resist lipolytic degradation and facilitate a lower level of encapsulated component release in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. This work suggested that deposition of polyelectrolyte on the surface of NLs can stabilize liposomal structure, and PDS could be developed as a formulation for delivering functional food ingredients in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23566223

Liu, Weilin; Liu, Jianhua; Liu, Wei; Li, Ti; Liu, Chengmei

2013-05-01

388

Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of coffee grounds with and without waste activated sludge as co-substrate using a submerged AnMBR: system amendments and membrane performance.  

PubMed

Coffee grounds are deemed to be difficult for degradation by thermophilic anaerobic process. In this research, a 7 L AnMBR accepting coffee grounds was operated for 82 days and failed with pH dropping to 6.6. The deficiency of micronutrients in the reactor was identified. The system was recovered by supplying micronutrient, pH adjustment and influent ceasing for 22 days. In the subsequent 160 days of co-digestion experiment, waste activated sludge (15% in the mixture) was mixed into coffee grounds. The COD conversion efficiency of 67.4% was achieved under OLR of 11.1 kg-COD/m(3) d and HRT of 20 days. Tannins was identified affecting protein degradation by a batch experiment. Quantitative supplements of NH4HCO3 (0.12 g-N/g-TSin) were effective to maintain alkalinity and pH. The solid concentration in the AnMBR reached 75 g/L, but it did not significantly affect membrane filtration under a flux of 5.1 L/m(2) h. Soluble carbohydrate, lipid and protein were partially retained by the membrane. PMID:24177158

Qiao, Wei; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Shofie, Mohammad; Niu, Qigui; Yu, Han Qing; Li, Yu-You

2013-12-01

389

Digestive tract morphology and digestion in the wombats (Marsupialia: Vombatidae).  

PubMed

Wombats consume grasses and sedges which are often highly fibrous. The morphology of the digestive tract and the sequence of digestion were studied in two species of wombats from contrasting habitats: Vombatus ursinus from mesic habitats and Lasiorhinus latifrons from xeric regions. Studies were performed on wild wombats consuming their natural winter diets, and on captive wombats fed a high-fibre pelleted straw diet. Vombatus had a shorter digestive tract (9.2 vs 12.5 times body length) of greater capacity (wet contents 17.9 vs 13.7% body weight) than Lasiorhinus. The most capacious region of the digestive tract was the proximal colon (62-79% of contents). The proportional length and surface area of the proximal colon were greater in Vombatus, but those of the distal colon were greater in Lasiorhinus. These digestive morphologies may reflect adaptations for greater capacity and longer retention of digesta in Vombatus, but greater absorption and lower faecal water loss in Lasiorhinus. Apparent digestion along the digestive tract was estimated by reference to lignin. The proximal colon was the principal site of fibre and dry matter digestion, whereas nitrogen was mainly digested in the small intestine. Depot fats in captive wombats were highly unsaturated and reflected those in the diet. Therefore, lipids, proteins and soluble carbohydrates in the plant cell contents were digested and absorbed in the stomach and small intestine. Conversely, dietary fibre was probably retained and digested by microbial fermentation along the proximal colon. PMID:1430423

Barboza, P S; Hume, I D

1992-01-01

390

Recovery of two independent sweet taste systems during regeneration of the mouse chorda tympani nerve after nerve crush.  

PubMed

In rodents, section of the taste nerve results in degeneration of the taste buds. Following regeneration of the cut taste nerve, however, the taste buds reappear. This phenomenon can be used to study the functional reformation of the peripheral neural system responsible for sweet taste. In this study we examined the recovery of sweet responses by the chorda tympani (CT) nerve after nerve crush as well as inhibition of these responses by gurmarin (Gur), a sweet response inhibitor. After about 2 weeks of CT nerve regeneration, no significant response to any taste stimuli could be observed. At 3 weeks, responses to sweet stimuli reappeared but were not significantly inhibited by Gur. At 4 weeks, Gur inhibition of sweet responses reached statistically significant levels. Thus, the Gur-sensitive (GS) component of the sweet response reappeared about 1 week later than the Gur-insensitive (GI) component. Moreover, single CT fibers responsive to sucrose could be classified into distinct GS and GI groups at 4 weeks. After 5 weeks or more, responses to sweet compounds before and after treatment with Gur became indistinguishable from responses in the intact group. During regeneration, the GS and GI components of the sucrose response could be distinguished based on their concentration-dependent responses to sucrose. These results suggest that mice have two different sweet-reception systems, distinguishable by their sensitivity to Gur (the GS and GI systems). These two sweet-reception systems may be reconstituted independently during regeneration of the mouse CT nerve. PMID:17714496

Yasumatsu, Keiko; Kusuhara, Yoko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

2007-09-01

391

Recognition of Bergmann glial and ependymal cells in the mouse nervous system by monoclonal antibody  

PubMed Central

A monoclonal antibody designated anti-Cl was obtained from a hybridoma clone isolated from a fusion of NS1 myeloma with spleen cells from BALB/c mice injected with homogenate of white matter from bovine corpus callosum. In the adult mouse neuroectoderm, C1 antigen is detectable by indirect immunohistology in the processes of Bergmann glial cells (also called Golgi epithelial cells) in the cerebellum and of Muller cells in the retina, whereas other astrocytes that express glial fibrillary acidic protein in these brain areas are negative for C1. In addition, C1 antigen is expressed in most, if not all, ependymal cells and in large blood vessels, but not capillaries. In the developing, early postnatal cerebellum, C1 antigen is not confined to Bergmann glial and ependymal cells but is additionally present in astrocytes of presumptive white matter and Purkinje cell layer. In the embryonic neuroectoderm, C1 antigen is already expressed at day 10, the earliest stage tested so far. The antigen is distinguished in radially oriented structures in telencephalon, pons, pituitary anlage, and retina. Ventricular cells are not labeled by C1 antibody at this stage. C1 antigen is not detectable in astrocytes of adult or nearly adult cerebella from the neurological mutant mice staggerer, reeler, and weaver, but is present in ependymal cells and large blood vessels. C1 antigen is expressed not only in the intact animal but also in cultured cerebellar astrocytes and fibroblastlike cells. It is localized intracellularly. PMID:7026574

1981-01-01

392

Rapid screening of gene function by systemic delivery of morpholino oligonucleotides to live mouse embryos.  

PubMed

Traditional gene targeting methods in mice are complex and time consuming, especially when conditional deletion methods are required. Here, we describe a novel technique for assessing gene function by injection of modified antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) into the heart of mid-gestation mouse embryos. After allowing MOs to circulate through the embryonic vasculature, target tissues were explanted, cultured and analysed for expression of key markers. We established proof-of-principle by partially phenocopying known gene knockout phenotypes in the fetal gonads (Stra8, Sox9) and pancreas (Sox9). We also generated a novel double knockdown of Gli1 and Gli2, revealing defects in Leydig cell differentiation in the fetal testis. Finally, we gained insight into the roles of Adamts19 and Ctrb1, genes of unknown function in sex determination and gonadal development. These studies reveal the utility of this method as a means of first-pass analysis of gene function during organogenesis before committing to detailed genetic analysis. PMID:25629157

McClelland, Kathryn S; Wainwright, Elanor N; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

2015-01-01

393

Ultrastructural Pathology of Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection in Cultured Mouse Nervous System Tissue  

PubMed Central

Mouse spinal cord-ganglia cultures were innoculated with murine cytomegalo-virus 14 days after explantation. Intranuclear virus was first observed 4 days after infection. The viruses, which occurred in four forms, were observed in increasing numbers during the ensuing 4 days. Differences were noted in the relative prevalence of certain of these forms in older as compared to younger cultures. This suggests that variations in virus form are related to virus maturation. Cytoplasmic viruses were occasionally observed, but their site of origin is not certain. A variety of cytoplasmic inclusions were seen, particularly in the older cultures. It seems likely that they represent specific cell responses to the presence of the virus. They were not observed in the control cultures, even though some of the latter did show severe degenerative changes. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Figs 3-4p[477]-dFig 8Fig 9Fig 10Figs 11-12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Figs 17-18Fig 19 PMID:4360827

Willson, Nicholas J.; Schneider, Joseph F.; Rosen, Moshe; Belisle, Elizabeth H.

1974-01-01

394

A Novel Polysaccharide in Insects Activates the Innate Immune System in Mouse Macrophage RAW264 Cells  

PubMed Central

A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named “dipterose”, with a molecular weight of 1.01×106 and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose was synthesized in the melon fly itself at the pupal stage. The NO-producing activity of dipterose was approximately equal to that of lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulator. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) led to the suppression of NO production by dipterose. Furthermore, dipterose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon ? (IFN?) and promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in macrophages, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in RAW264 cells via the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that dipterose activates the innate immune response against various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. This is the first identification of an innate immune-activating polysaccharide from an animal. PMID:25490773

Ohta, Takashi; Ido, Atsushi; Kusano, Kie; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

2014-01-01

395

Rapid Screening of Gene Function by Systemic Delivery of Morpholino Oligonucleotides to Live Mouse Embryos  

PubMed Central

Traditional gene targeting methods in mice are complex and time consuming, especially when conditional deletion methods are required. Here, we describe a novel technique for assessing gene function by injection of modified antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) into the heart of mid-gestation mouse embryos. After allowing MOs to circulate through the embryonic vasculature, target tissues were explanted, cultured and analysed for expression of key markers. We established proof-of-principle by partially phenocopying known gene knockout phenotypes in the fetal gonads (Stra8, Sox9) and pancreas (Sox9). We also generated a novel double knockdown of Gli1 and Gli2, revealing defects in Leydig cell differentiation in the fetal testis. Finally, we gained insight into the roles of Adamts19 and Ctrb1, genes of unknown function in sex determination and gonadal development. These studies reveal the utility of this method as a means of first-pass analysis of gene function during organogenesis before committing to detailed genetic analysis. PMID:25629157

McClelland, Kathryn S.; Wainwright, Elanor N.; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

2015-01-01

396

17?-ESTRADIOL PROTECTS AGAINST THE PROGRESSION OF HYPERTENSION DURING ADULTHOOD IN A MOUSE MODEL OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with a high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Because SLE predominantly affects women, estrogen is commonly implicated as a contributor to SLE disease progression. Utilizing an established mouse model of SLE (female NZBWF1) we tested whether estrogen has a causal role in the development of hypertension in adulthood. Thirty-week-old SLE and control mice (NZW/LacJ) underwent either a sham or ovariectomy (OVX) procedure. 17?-estradiol (E2; 5?g/mouse, twice/week, s.c.) was administered to a subset of OVX mice. Mean arterial pressure (in mmHg) was increased in SLE mice (134±4 versus 119±3 in controls). Contrary to our hypothesis, OVX exacerbated the hypertension in female SLE mice (153±3; p<0.05 vs. SLE sham), and repletion of E2 prevented the OVX induced increase in blood pressure (132±2). The prevalence of albuminuria was increased in SLE mice in comparison to controls (37% vs. 0%). OVX increased the prevalence in SLE mice (70% versus 37% in SLE shams). Repletion of E2 completely prevented albuminuria in OVX SLE mice. Renal cortical TNF-? was increased in SLE mice compared to controls and was further increased in OVX SLE. The OVX induced increase in renal TNF-? expression was prevented by repletion of E2. Treatment of OVX SLE mice with the TNF-? inhibitor, etanercept, blunted the OVX induced increase in blood pressure (140±2) and prevalence of albuminuria (22%). These data suggest that 17?-estradiol protects against the progression of hypertension during adulthood in SLE, in part, by reducing TNF-?. PMID:24366082

Gilbert, Emily L.; Mathis, Keisa W.; Ryan, Michael J.

2015-01-01

397

Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fall 2011 Small Scale Anaerobic Digestion by PENERGY Solutions  

E-print Network

Digestion by PENERGY Solutions Overview For most farmers in Pennsylvania, the growing season ends by wood-fired boilers. By generating biogas through anaerobic digestion of swine manure, fuel can: A mechanical anaerobic digester to handle organic farm waste. A complete biogas collection system with hook

Demirel, Melik C.

398

Billiards Digest April, 2011 David Alciatore, PhD ("Dr. Dave") ILLUSTRATED PRINCIPLES  

E-print Network

Billiards Digest April, 2011 David Alciatore, PhD ("Dr. Dave") ILLUSTRATED PRINCIPLES "VEPS GEMS shots, Coriolis' system is a good place to start. #12;Billiards Digest April, 2011 a) side view b) top shot speed effects #12;Billiards Digest April, 2011 Diagram 3 (similar t

Alciatore, David G.

399

DESTRUCTION AND STABILIZATION OF SLUDGE BY MULTIPLE-STATE DIGESTION AND THERMAL TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The study compared conventional, anaerobic sludge digestion and three stage, anaerobic sludge digestion. The conventional digester and the first two stages of the multiple stage system were operated at 35 deg C; the third stage was maintained at 49 deg C. The influent feed sludge...

400

The Effect of Enzyme Addition on Anaerobic Digestion of Jose Tall Wheat Grass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of the addition of enzyme products containing cellulase, hemicellulase, and Beta-glucosidase to anaerobic digestion systems were studied. Anaerobic digestion tests were performed using batch reactors operated at 35°C. The application of enzyme products in three digestion configurations w...

401

Digestive strategies of the high Arctic Svalbard reindeer W Sormo TD Josefsen SD Mathiesen1  

E-print Network

characterise some digestive strategies in the gastro-intestinal system of the high Arctic Svalbard reindeerDigestive strategies of the high Arctic Svalbard reindeer W Sormo TD Josefsen SD Mathiesen1 Microbiol, 114-118), which might reflect a poor quality diet. The digestive strategies of the animal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

402

Neurohumoral control of gastrointestinal motility Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie des Cellules digestives,  

E-print Network

peptides are present in both the digestive tract and the central nervous system. In spite of the work des Cellules digestives, (FRA 49 INSERM), Faculté de Médecine X Bichat, 16, rue H.-Huchard, 75018 produced a whole new collection of peptide molecules extracted from the digestive tract. Two facts

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

403

Effect of duodenal cannulation in sheep on the pattern of gastroduodenal electrical activity and digestive flow  

E-print Network

and digestive flow C. PONCET M. IVAN Laboratoire de la Digestion des Ruminants, I.N.R.A., Theix, 63122 Ceyrat cannula digestion et al., 1968 ; MacRae et al., 1973). Two of these cannulas are necessary in a reentrant system which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

404

Knowledge Management in Instructional Design. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest reviews what instructional designers do, describes knowledge management, and indicates how knowledge management is influencing instructional design. The first section defines instructional design (ID) and briefly describes the ID process. The second section covers knowledge management (KM), including definitions of KM and systems,…

Spector, J. Michael; Edmonds, Gerald S.

405

Digest of proceedings seventh IEEE workshop on hot topics in operating systems March 29-30 1999, Rio Rico, AZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Seventh IEEE Workshop on Hot Topics in Operating Systems was held on March 29-30 1999 at the Rio Rico Resort & Country Club, south of Tucson, Arizona. The General Chair, Peter Druschel, and the Local Arrangements Chair, John Hartman, had gone to considerable effort to make the operation of the workshop smooth and pleasant for the participants. The secluded

Mahadev Satyanarayanan

1999-01-01

406

The effect of acid digestion technique on the performance of nebulization systems used in inductively coupled plasma spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pneumatic nebulization systems used in inductively coupled plasma spectrometry generally consist of a concentric glass (Meinhard type) or v?groove (Babington principle) nebulizer in combination with a cyclonic, cone or Scott double pass cloud chamber. The characteristic mode of action of each nebulizer produces an aerosol, the droplet size distribution of which depends on the solution matrix. Before reaching the

Bernhard A. Zarcinas; Michael J. McLaughlin; Michelle K. Smart

1996-01-01

407

Simultaneous submicrometric 3D imaging of the micro-vascular network and the neuronal system in a mouse spinal cord  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faults in vascular (VN) and neuronal networks of spinal cord are responsible for serious neurodegenerative pathologies. Because of inadequate investigation tools, the lacking knowledge of the complete fine structure of VN and neuronal system represents a crucial problem. Conventional 2D imaging yields incomplete spatial coverage leading to possible data misinterpretation, whereas standard 3D computed tomography imaging achieves insufficient resolution and contrast. We show that X-ray high-resolution phase-contrast tomography allows the simultaneous visualization of three-dimensional VN and neuronal systems of ex-vivo mouse spinal cord at scales spanning from millimeters to hundreds of nanometers, with nor contrast agent nor sectioning and neither destructive sample-preparation. We image both the 3D distribution of micro-capillary network and the micrometric nerve fibers, axon-bundles and neuron soma. Our approach is very suitable for pre-clinical investigation of neurodegenerative pathologies and spinal-cord-injuries, in particular to resolve the entangled relationship between VN and neuronal system.

Fratini, Michela; Bukreeva, Inna; Campi, Gaetano; Brun, Francesco; Tromba, Giuliana; Modregger, Peter; Bucci, Domenico; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Spanò, Raffaele; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Requardt, Herwig; Giove, Federico; Bravin, Alberto; Cedola, Alessia

2015-02-01

408

Genes Regulated in Metastatic Osteosarcoma: Evaluation by Microarray Analysis in Four Human and Two Mouse Cell Line Systems  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma (OS) is a rare bone neoplasm that affects mainly adolescents. It is associated with poor prognosis in case of metastases formation. The search for metastasis predicting markers is therefore imperative to optimize treatment strategies for patients at risk and important for the search of new drugs for the treatment of this devastating disease. Here, we have analyzed by microarray the differential gene expression in four human and two mouse OS cell line systems consisting of parental cell lines with low metastatic potential and derivatives thereof with increased metastatic potential. Using two osteoblastic cell line systems, the most common OS phenotype, we have identified forty-eight common genes that are differentially expressed in metastatic cell lines compared to parental cells. The identified subset of metastasis relevant genes in osteoblastic OS overlapped only minimally with differentially expressed genes in the other four preosteoblast or nonosteoblastic cell line systems. The results imply an OS phenotype specific expression pattern of metastasis regulating proteins and form a basis for further investigation of gene expression profiles in patients' samples combined with survival analysis with the aim to optimize treatment strategies to develop new drugs and to consequently improve the survival of patients with the most common form of osteoblastic OS. PMID:23213280

Muff, Roman; Ram Kumar, Ram Mohan; Botter, Sander M.; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno

2012-01-01

409

Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) in the mouse central nervous system: A neuroprotective role?  

SciTech Connect

The aims of this study were to characterize the expression of paraoxonase 2 (PON2) in mouse brain and to assess its antioxidant properties. PON2 levels were highest in the lung, intestine, heart and liver, and lower in the brain; in all tissues, PON2 expression was higher in female than in male mice. PON2 knockout [PON2{sup -/-}] mice did not express any PON2, as expected. In the brain, the highest levels of PON2 were found in the substantia nigra, the nucleus accumbens and the striatum, with lower levels in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and brainstem. A similar regional distribution of PON2 activity (measured by dihydrocoumarin hydrolysis) was also found. PON3 was not detected in any brain area, while PON1 was expressed at very low levels, and did not show any regional difference. PON2 levels were higher in astrocytes than in neurons isolated from all brain regions, and were highest in cells from the striatum. PON2 activity and mRNA levels followed a similar pattern. Brain PON2 levels were highest around birth, and gradually declined. Subcellular distribution experiments indicated that PON2 is primarily expressed in microsomes and in mitochondria. The toxicity in neurons and astrocytes of agents known to cause oxidative stress (DMNQ and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was higher in cells from PON2{sup -/-} mice than in the same cells from wild-type mice, despite similar glutathione levels. These results indicate that PON2 is expressed in the brain, and that higher levels are found in dopaminergic regions such as the striatum, suggesting that this enzyme may provide protection against oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity.

Giordano, Gennaro [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cole, Toby B. [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States) [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Dept. of Medicine (Div. of Medical Genetics), University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Dept. of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Furlong, Clement E. [Dept. of Medicine (Div. of Medical Genetics), University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States) [Dept. of Medicine (Div. of Medical Genetics), University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Dept. of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Costa, Lucio G., E-mail: lgcosta@u.washington.edu [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Dept. of Human Anatomy, Pharmacology and Forensic Science, University of Parma Medical School, Parma (Italy)

2011-11-15

410

Quantification of Gordona amarae Strains in Foaming Activated Sludge and Anaerobic Digester Systems with Oligonucleotide Hybridization Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown the predominance of mycolic acid-containing filamentous actinomycetes (my- colata) in foam layers in activated sludge systems. Gordona (formerly Nocardia) amarae often is considered the major representative of this group in activated sludge foam. In this study, small-subunit rRNA genes of four G. amarae strains were sequenced, and the resulting sequences were compared to the sequence of

M. FIORELLA DE LOS REYES; MARK HERNANDEZ; LUTGARDE RASKIN

1998-01-01

411

Atmosphere Behavior in Gas-Closed Mouse-Algal Systems: An Experimental and Modelling Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dual approach of mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere was initiated. The development of control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels is examined. A mathematical model simulating the atmospheric behavior in these systems was developed and an experimental gas closed system was constructed. These systems are described and preliminary results are presented.

Averner, M. M.; Moore, B., III; Bartholomew, I.; Wharton, R.

1985-01-01

412

Cultural Entomology Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cultural Entomology Digest was published in four issues from 1993 to 1997. All issues are available online. More than 30 short articles on the use of insects in human culture are presented, covering a wide variety of fascinating topics from butterflies in mythology to insects in psychiatry to the use of beetles as religious symbols. The articles are both informative and entertaining, and are written by recognized authorities.

0000-00-00

413

Design optimization of multi-pinhole micro-SPECT configurations by signal detection tasks and system performance evaluations for mouse cardiac imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimized configuration of multi-pinhole aperture can improve the spatial resolution and the sensitivity of pinhole SPECT simultaneously. In this study, an optimization strategy of the multi-pinhole configuration with a small detector is proposed for mouse cardiac imaging. A 14?mm-diameter spherical field-of-view (FOV) is used to accommodate the mouse heart. To accelerate the optimization process, the analytic models are applied to rapidly obtain the projection areas of the FOV, the sensitivities and the spatial resolutions of numerous system designs. The candidates of optimal multi-pinhole configuration are then decided by the preliminary evaluations with the analytic models. Subsequently, the pinhole SPECT systems equipped with the designed multi-pinhole apertures are modeled in GATE to generate the imaging system matrices (H matrices) for the system performance assessments. The area under the ROC curves (AUC) of the designed systems is evaluated by signal-known-exactly/background-known-statistically detection tasks with their corresponding H matrices. In addition, the spatial resolutions are estimated by the Fourier crosstalk approach, and the sensitivities are calculated with the H matrices of designed systems, respectively. Furthermore, a series of OSEM reconstruction images of synthetic phantoms, including the hot-rod phantom, mouse heart phantom and Defrise phantom, are reconstructed with the H matrices of designed systems. To quantify the sensitivity and resolution competition in the optimization process, the AUC from the detection tasks and the resolution estimated by the Fourier crosstalk are used as the figure of merits. A trade-off function of AUC and resolution is introduced to find the optimal multi-pinhole configuration. According to the examining results, a 22.5° rotated detector plus a 4-pinhole aperture with 22.5° rotation, 20% multiplexing and 1.52X magnification is the optimized multi-pinhole configuration for the micro pinhole-SPECT applied to mouse cardiac imaging with a camera of 49? × ?49?mm2 active area.

Lee, M.-W.; Lin, W.-T.; Chen, Y.-C.

2015-01-01

414

Digest of Education Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in early 1996 made full text of the 1995 "Digest of Education Statistics" available via the Internet. This is the 31st in a series of publications begun in 1962. "Its primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of American education from kindergarten through graduate school." The Digest contains seven chapters: All Levels of Education, Elementary and Secondary Education, Postsecondary Education, Federal Programs for Education and Related Activities, Outcomes of Education, International Comparisons of Education, and Learning Resources and Technology. It contains 32 figures and 415 tables. Tables and figures are clearly labeled under their hypertext links, and tables are rendered as ASCII text. Tables are current through 1992-93. This is one of the most important primary sources of education statistics available. The gopher version of the Digest provides the tables and figures in compressed .zip files, and provides pointers to viewing and decompression software.

1996-01-01

415

Intracerebroventricular enzyme infusion corrects central nervous system pathology and dysfunction in a mouse model of metachromatic leukodystrophy.  

PubMed

Arylsulfatase A (ASA) catalyzes the desulfation of sulfatide, a major lipid component of myelin. Inherited functional deficiencies of ASA cause the lysosomal storage disease (LSD) metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), which is characterized by intralysosomal accumulation of sulfatide, progressive neurological symptoms and early death. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) using intravenous injection of active enzyme is a treatment option for many LSDs as exogenous lysosomal enzymes are delivered to lysosomes of patient's cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Efficient treatment of MLD and other LSDs with central nervous system (CNS) involvement is, however, hampered by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which limits transfer of therapeutic enzymes from the circulation to the brain parenchyma. To bypass the BBB, we infused recombinant human ASA (rhASA) by implanted miniature pumps into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a conventional and a novel, genetically aggravated ASA knockout mouse model of MLD. rhASA continuously delivered to the lateral ventricle for 4 weeks penetrated the brain parenchyma and was targeted to the lysosomes of brain cells. Histological analysis revealed complete reversal of lysosomal storage in the infused hemisphere. rhASA concentrations and sulfatide clearance declined with increasing distance from the infusion site. Correction of the ataxic gait indicated reversal of central nervous system dysfunctions. The profound histopathological and functional improvements, the requirement of low enzyme doses and the absence of immunological side effects suggest intracerebroventricular ERT to be a promising treatment option for MLD and other LSDs with prevailing CNS disease. PMID:21515587

Stroobants, Stijn; Gerlach, Debora; Matthes, Frank; Hartmann, Dieter; Fogh, Jens; Gieselmann, Volkmar; D'Hooge, Rudi; Matzner, Ulrich

2011-07-15

416

Multiple systemic transplantations of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells exert therapeutic effects in an ALS mouse model.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disease involving degeneration of motor neurons in the central nervous system. Stem cell treatment is a potential therapy for this fatal disorder. The human amniotic membrane (HAM), an extremely rich and easily accessible tissue, has been proposed as an attractive material in cellular therapy and regenerative medicine because of its advantageous characteristics. In the present study, we evaluate the long-term effects of a cellular treatment by intravenous administration of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) derived from HAM into a hSOD1(G93A) mouse model. The mice received systemic administration of hAMSCs or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at the onset, progression and symptomatic stages of the disease. hAMSCs were detected in the spinal cord at the final stage of the disease, in the form of isolates or clusters and were negative for ?-tubulin III and GFAP. Compared with the treatment with PBS, multiple hAMSC transplantations significantly retarded disease progression, extended survival, improved motor function, prevented motor neuron loss and decreased neuroinflammation in mice. These findings demonstrate that hAMSC transplantation is a promising cellular treatment for ALS. PMID:24906288

Sun, Haitao; Hou, Zongliu; Yang, Huaqiang; Meng, Mingyao; Li, Peng; Zou, Qingjian; Yang, Lujun; Chen, Yuxin; Chai, Huihui; Zhong, Huilin; Yang, Zara Zhuyun; Zhao, Jing; Lai, Liangxue; Jiang, Xiaodan; Xiao, Zhicheng

2014-09-01

417

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 29  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the twenty-ninth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It is a double issue covering two issues of the Soviet Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine Journal. Issue 29 contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A review of a book on environmental hygiene and a list of papers presented at a Soviet conference on space biology and medicine are also included. The materials in this issue were identified as relevant to 28 areas of space biology and medicine. The areas are: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, digestive system, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, space biology and medicine, and the economics of space flight.

Stone, Lydia Razran (editor); Teeter, Ronald (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)

1991-01-01

418

Imaging of pharmacokinetic rates of indocyanine green in mouse liver with a hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography/x-ray computed tomography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pharmacokinetic rates have the potential to provide quantitative physiological and pathological information for biological studies and drug development. Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is an attractive imaging tool for three-dimensionally resolving fluorophore distribution in small animals. In this letter, pharmacokinetic rates of indocyanine green (ICG) in mouse liver are imaged with a hybrid FMT and x-ray computed tomography (XCT) system. A recently developed FMT method using structural priors from an XCT system is adopted to improve the quality of FMT reconstruction. In the in vivo experiments, images of uptake and excretion rates of ICG in mouse liver are obtained, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate liver function. The accuracy of the results is validated by a fiber-based fluorescence measurement system.

Zhang, Guanglei; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Bin; He, Yun; Luo, Jianwen; Bai, Jing

2013-04-01

419

Whole mouse cryo-imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Case cryo-imaging system is a section and image system which allows one to acquire micron-scale, information rich, whole mouse color bright field and molecular fluorescence images of an entire mouse. Cryo-imaging is used in a variety of applications, including mouse and embryo anatomical phenotyping, drug delivery, imaging agents, metastastic cancer, stem cells, and very high resolution vascular imaging, among many. Cryo-imaging fills the gap between whole animal in vivo imaging and histology, allowing one to image a mouse along the continuum from the mouse -> organ -> tissue structure -> cell -> sub-cellular domains. In this overview, we describe the technology and a variety of exciting applications. Enhancements to the system now enable tiled acquisition of high resolution images to cover an entire mouse. High resolution fluorescence imaging, aided by a novel subtraction processing algorithm to remove sub-surface fluorescence, makes it possible to detect fluorescently-labeled single cells. Multi-modality experiments in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cryo-imaging of a whole mouse demonstrate superior resolution of cryo-images and efficiency of registration techniques. The 3D results demonstrate the novel true-color volume visualization tools we have developed and the inherent advantage of cryo-imaging in providing unlimited depth of field and spatial resolution. The recent results continue to demonstrate the value cryo-imaging provides in the field of small animal imaging research.

Wilson, David; Roy, Debashish; Steyer, Grant; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Stone, Meredith; McKinley, Eliot

2008-03-01

420

Signal-to-noise ratio of a mouse brain (13) C CryoProbe™ system in comparison with room temperature coils: spectroscopic phantom and in vivo results.  

PubMed

MRI and MRS in small rodents demand very high sensitivity. Cryogenic transmit/receive radiofrequency probes (CryoProbes) designed for (1) H MRI of mouse brain provide an attractive option for increasing the performance of small-animal MR systems. As the Larmor frequency of (13) C nuclei is four times lower than that for (1) H nuclei, an even larger sensitivity improvement is expected for (13) C applications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of a prototype (13) C CryoProbe™ for mouse brain MRS. To investigate the possible gain of the (13) C CryoProbe™, we acquired localized single-voxel (13) C spectra and chemical shift images of a dimethyl sulfoxide phantom with the CryoProbe™, as well as with two room temperature resonators. The cryogenically cooled resonator achieved approximately four-fold higher signal-to-noise ratio in phantom tests when compared with the best-performing room temperature coil. In addition, we present localized (13) C spectra of mouse brain obtained with the CryoProbe™, as well as with one of the room temperature coils, demonstrating the performance in vivo. In summary, the cryogenic cooling technique significantly enhances the (13) C signal sensitivity at 9.4 T and enables the investigation of metabolism within mouse brain. PMID:24692120

Sack, M; Wetterling, F; Sartorius, A; Ende, G; Weber-Fahr, W

2014-06-01

421

Definition of the locus responsible for systemic carnitine deficiency within a 1.6-cM region of mouse chromosome 11 by detailed linkage analysis  

SciTech Connect

Carnitine is an essential cofactor for oxidation of mitochondrial fatty acids. Carnitine deficiency results in failure of energy production by mitochondria and leads to metabolic encephalopathy, lipid-storage myopathy, and cardiomyopathy. The juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse, an animal model of systemic carnitine deficiency, inherits the JVS phenotype in autosomal recessive fashion, through a mutant allele mapped to mouse chromosome 11. As a step toward identifying the gene responsible for JVS by positional cloning, we attempted to refine the jvs locus in the mouse by detailed linkage analysis with 13 microsatellite markers, using 190 backcross progeny. Among the 13 loci tested, 5 (defined by markers D11Mit24, D11Mit111,D11Nds9, D11Mit86, and D11Mit23) showed no recombination, with a maximum lod score of 52.38. Our results implied that the jvs gene can be sought on mouse chromosome 11 within a genetic distance no greater than about 1.6 cM. 21 refs., 2 figs.

Okita, Kohei; Tokino, Takashi; Nishimori, Hiroyuki [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)] [and others] [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); and others

1996-04-15

422

Environmental Enrichment and Gut Inflammation Modify Stress-Induced c-Fos Expression in the Mouse Corticolimbic System  

PubMed Central

Environmental enrichment (EE) has a beneficial effect on rodent behaviour, neuronal plasticity and brain function. Although it may also improve stress coping, it is not known whether EE influences the brain response to an external (psychological) stressor such as water avoidance stress (WAS) or an internal (systemic) stressor such as gastrointestinal inflammation. This study hence explored whether EE modifies WAS-induced activation of the mouse corticolimbic system and whether this stress response is altered by gastritis or colitis. Male C67BL/6N mice were housed under standard or enriched environment for 9 weeks, after which they were subjected to a 1-week treatment with oral iodoacetamide to induce gastritis or oral dextran sulfate sodium to induce colitis. Following exposure to WAS the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was measured by immunocytochemistry. EE aggravated experimentally induced colitis, but not gastritis, as shown by an increase in the disease activity score and the colonic myeloperoxidase content. In the brain, EE enhanced the WAS-induced activation of the dentate gyrus and unmasked an inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression within this part of the hippocampus. Conversely, EE inhibited the WAS-evoked activation of the central amygdala and prevented the inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression in this region. EE, in addition, blunted the WAS-induced activation of the infralimbic cortex and attenuated the inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression in this area. These data reveal that EE has a region-specific effect on stress-induced c-Fos expression in the corticolimbic system, which is likely to improve stress resilience. The response of the prefrontal cortex – amygdala – hippocampus circuitry to psychological stress is also modified by the systemic stress of gut inflammation, and this interaction between external and internal stressors is modulated by the housing environment. PMID:23349972

Reichmann, Florian; Painsipp, Evelin; Holzer, Peter

2013-01-01

423

Fabrication of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Layered Cardiac Cell Sheets Using a Bioreactor Culture System  

PubMed Central

Bioengineered functional cardiac tissue is expected to contribute to the repair of injured heart tissue. We previously developed cardiac cell sheets using mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell-derived cardiomyocytes, a system to generate an appropriate number of cardiomyocytes derived from ES cells and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we established a cultivation system with suitable conditions for expansion and cardiac differentiation of mES cells by embryoid body formation using a three-dimensional bioreactor. Daily conventional medium exchanges failed to prevent lactate accumulation and pH decreases in the medium, which led to insufficient cell expansion and cardiac differentiation. Conversely, a continuous perfusion system maintained the lactate concentration and pH stability as well as increased the cell number by up to 300-fold of the seeding cell number and promoted cardiac differentiation after 10 days of differentiation. After a further 8 days of cultivation together with a purification step, around 1×108 cardiomyocytes were collected in a 1-L bioreactor culture, and additional treatment with noggin and granulocyte colony stimulating factor increased the number of cardiomyocytes to around 5.5×108. Co-culture of mES cell-derived cardiomyocytes with an appropriate number of primary cultured fibroblasts on temperature-responsive culture dishes enabled the formation of cardiac cell sheets and created layered-dense cardiac tissue. These findings suggest that this bioreactor system with appropriate medium might be capable of preparing cardiomyocytes for cell sheet-based cardiac tissue. PMID:23284924

Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Wada, Masanori; Konishi, Kanako; Sato, Michi; Iwamoto, Ushio; Sato, Yuko; Tachibana, Aki; Kikuchi, Tetsutaro; Iwamiya, Takahiro; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Jun K.; Yamato, Masayuki; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Okano, Teruo

2012-01-01

424

Prenatal methylmercury exposure hampers glutathione antioxidant system ontogenesis and causes long-lasting oxidative stress in the mouse brain.  

PubMed

During the perinatal period, the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely sensitive to metals, including methylmercury (MeHg). Although the mechanism(s) associated with MeHg-induced developmental neurotoxicity remains obscure, several studies point to the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system as an important molecular target for this toxicant. To extend our recent findings of MeHg-induced GSH dyshomeostasis, the present study was designed to assess the developmental profile of the GSH antioxidant system in the mouse brain during the early postnatal period after in utero exposure to MeHg. Pregnant mice were exposed to different doses of MeHg (1, 3 and 10 mg/l, diluted in drinking water, ad libitum) during the gestational period. After delivery, pups were killed at different time points - postnatal days (PND) 1, 11 and 21 - and the whole brain was used for determining biochemical parameters related to the antioxidant GSH system, as well as mercury content and the levels of F(2)-isoprostane. In control animals, cerebral GSH levels significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period; gestational exposure to MeHg caused a dose-dependent inhibition of this developmental event. Cerebral glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period in control animals; gestational MeHg exposure induced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both developmental phenomena. These adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure were corroborated by marked increases in cerebral F(2)-isoprostanes levels at all time points. Significant negative correlations were found between F(2)-isoprostanes and GSH, as well as between F(2)-isoprostanes and GPx activity, suggesting that MeHg-induced disruption of the GSH system maturation is related to MeHg-induced increased lipid peroxidation in the pup brain. In utero MeHg exposure also caused a dose-dependent increase in the cerebral levels of mercury at birth. Even though the cerebral mercury concentration decreased to nearly basal levels at postnatal day 21, GSH levels, GPx and GR activities remained decreased in MeHg-exposed mice, indicating that prenatal exposure to MeHg affects the cerebral GSH antioxidant systems by inducing biochemical alterations that endure even when mercury tissue levels decrease and become indistinguishable from those noted in pups born to control dams. This study is the first to show that prenatal exposure to MeHg disrupts the postnatal development of the glutathione antioxidant system in the mouse brain, pointing to an additional molecular mechanism by which MeHg induces pro-oxidative damage in the developing CNS. Moreover, our experimental observation corroborates previous reports on the permanent functional deficits observed after prenatal MeHg exposure. PMID:18023834

Stringari, James; Nunes, Adriana K C; Franco, Jeferson L; Bohrer, Denise; Garcia, Solange C; Dafre, Alcir L; Milatovic, Dejan; Souza, Diogo O; Rocha, João B T; Aschner, Michael; Farina, Marcelo

2008-02-15

425

Prenatal methylmercury exposure hampers glutathione antioxidant system ontogenesis and causes long-lasting oxidative stress in the mouse brain  

SciTech Connect

During the perinatal period, the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely sensitive to metals, including methylmercury (MeHg). Although the mechanism(s) associated with MeHg-induced developmental neurotoxicity remains obscure, several studies point to the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system as an important molecular target for this toxicant. To extend our recent findings of MeHg-induced GSH dyshomeostasis, the present study was designed to assess the developmental profile of the GSH antioxidant system in the mouse brain during the early postnatal period after in utero exposure to MeHg. Pregnant mice were exposed to different doses of MeHg (1, 3 and 10 mg/l, diluted in drinking water, ad libitum) during the gestational period. After delivery, pups were killed at different time points - postnatal days (PND) 1, 11 and 21 - and the whole brain was used for determining biochemical parameters related to the antioxidant GSH system, as well as mercury content and the levels of F{sub 2}-isoprostane. In control animals, cerebral GSH levels significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period; gestational exposure to MeHg caused a dose-dependent inhibition of this developmental event. Cerebral glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period in control animals; gestational MeHg exposure induced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both developmental phenomena. These adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure were corroborated by marked increases in cerebral F{sub 2}-isoprostanes levels at all time points. Significant negative correlations were found between F{sub 2}-isoprostanes and GSH, as well as between F{sub 2}-isoprostanes and GPx activity, suggesting that MeHg-induced disruption of the GSH system maturation is related to MeHg-induced increased lipid peroxidation in the pup brain. In utero MeHg exposure also caused a dose-dependent increase in the cerebral levels of mercury at birth. Even though the cerebral mercury concentration decreased to nearly basal levels at postnatal day 21, GSH levels, GPx and GR activities remained decreased in MeHg-exposed mice, indicating that prenatal exposure to MeHg affects the cerebral GSH antioxidant systems by inducing biochemical alterations that endure even when mercury tissue levels decrease and become indistinguishable from those noted in pups born to control dams. This study is the first to show that prenatal exposure to MeHg disrupts the postnatal development of the glutathione antioxidant system in the mouse brain, pointing to an additional molecular mechanism by which MeHg induces pro-oxidative damage in the developing CNS. Moreover, our experimental observation corroborates previous reports on the permanent functional deficits observed after prenatal MeHg exposure.

Stringari, James; Nunes, Adriana K.C.; Franco, Jeferson L. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Bohrer, Denise [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Solange C. [Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Dafre, Alcir L. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Milatovic, Dejan [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Souza, Diogo O. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rocha, Joao B.T. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Farina, Marcelo [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: farina@ccb.ufsc.br

2008-02-15

426

Chemical composition and digestibility of Trifolium exposed to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in a free-air (FACE) fumigation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) are significant drivers of plant growth and chemical composition. We hypothesized that exposure to elevated con- centrations of O 3 and CO 2 , singly and in combination, would modify the chemical com- position of Trifolium and thus alter its digestibility and nutritive quality for ruminant herbivores.

R. B. MUNTIFERING; A. H. CHAPPELKA; J. C. LIN; D. F. KARNOSKY; G. L. SOMERS

2006-01-01

427

Chemical composition, ensiling characteristics, and apparent digestibility of summer annual forages in a subtropical double-cropping system with annual ryegrass.  

PubMed

A 2-yr study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and digestibility of silages made from forage sorghum, pearl millet, and tropical corn managed to optimize forage quality. Silages were ensiled in upright concrete silos lined with plastic and fed to heifers to determine in vivo apparent digestibility. Samples were collected before and after ensiling to determine ensiling characteristics and forage quality. After ensiling, tropical corn had the greatest dry matter (DM), the lowest crude protein, and the greatest water-soluble concentrations. Tropical corn silage had a pH of 3.96. The pH of forage sorghum silage was 4.09, and pearl millet had a pH of 4.50. Pearl millet had the lowest concentration of preensiled water-soluble carbohydrate, which likely caused the high pH in the silage. There were no differences among the forages in DM loss during ensiling in yr 2. Heifers fed pearl millet silage consumed more DM, but digestible DM intake was not different among the three groups of heifers. The results of this experiment indicate that pearl millet would be less desirable as a crop intended solely for silage production. Both forage sorghum and tropical corn could be grown specifically for ensiling based on DM digestibility. The decision on which crop to use should be based on factors such as production costs, forage yields, and local growing conditions rather than silage quality. PMID:11210031

Ward, J D; Redfearn, D D; McCormick, M E; Cuomo, G J

2001-01-01

428

Minimizing Carry-Over in an Online Pepsin Digestion System used for the H/D Exchange Mass Spectrometric Analysis of an IgG1 Monoclonal Antibody  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromatographic carry-over can severely distort measurements of amide H/D exchange in proteins analyzed by LC/MS. In this work, we explored the origin of carry-over in the online digestion of an IgG1 monoclonal antibody using an immobilized pepsin column under quenched H/D exchange conditions (pH 2.5, 0 °C). From a consensus list of 169 different peptides consistently detected during digestion of this large, ~150 kDa protein, approximately 30 % of the peptic peptides exhibited carry-over. The majority of carry-over originates from the online digestion. Carry-over can be substantially decreased by washing the online digestion flow-path and pepsin column with two wash cocktails: [acetonitrile (5 %)/ isopropanol (5 %)/ acetic acid (20 %) in water] and [2 M guanidine hydrochloride in 100 mM phosphate buffer pH 2.5]. Extended use of this two-step washing procedure does not adversely affect the specificity or activity of the immobilized pepsin column. The results suggest that although the mechanism of carry-over appears to be chemical in nature, and not hydrodynamic, carry-over cannot be attributed to a single factor such as mass, abundance, pI, or hydrophobicity of the peptides.

Majumdar, Ranajoy; Manikwar, Prakash; Hickey, John M.; Arora, Jayant; Middaugh, C. Russell; Volkin, David B.; Weis, David D.

2012-12-01

429

Effect of simulated processing on the antioxidant capacity and in vitro protein digestion of fruit juice-milk beverage model systems.  

PubMed

The effects of simulated processing (pH adjustment and thermal treatment) on the antioxidant capacity and in vitro protein digestion of fruit juice-milk beverage (FJMB) models consisting of whey protein (WP), and chlorogenic acid (CHA) or catechin (CAT) were investigated. Results indicated that CAT was more susceptible to processing than CHA, and showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in ABTS and FRAP after sterilization (121°C/10 min) and pH adjustment to 6.8. WP addition had different effects (none, masking, synergetic effect) on the antioxidant activity of FJMB. Pasteurization (63°C/30 min) and pH adjustment (pH 3.7 or pH 6.8) had either non-significant or slight effects on FJMB's antioxidant capacity, while sterilization significantly (p<0.05) increased or decreased its ABTS and FRAP depending on the different models. In vitro digestion of WP in FJMB was obviously (p < 0.05) inhibited by phenolics to varying degrees, and little influenced (p>0.05) by pasteurization, whereas sterilization initially accelerated WP digestion but did not change its overall digestibility. PMID:25577106

He, Zhiyong; Yuan, Bo; Zeng, Maomao; Tao, Guanjun; Chen, Jie

2015-05-15

430

Partial Restriction Digests Leslie Vosshall  

E-print Network

Partial Restriction Digests 4/18/2001 Leslie Vosshall · Purpose: To generate DNA cut at a subset to the following schedule for digests [A] ­ [F]: [A] 1.0 ul Enzyme [B] 0.1 ul Enzyme [C] 0.05 ul Enzyme [D] 0.01 ul Enzyme [E] 0.005 ul Enzyme [F] 0.001 ul Enzyme [A] add 1 ul of enzyme and mix well; place digest on wet

431

System for remote multichannel real-time monitoring of mouse ECG via the Internet  

E-print Network

A hardware/software system was developed to allow real-time monitoring of multiple physiological signals simultaneously via the Internet. The hardware is specifically designed for measuring ECG signals from mice, while the ...

Oefinger, Matthew Blake, 1976-

2003-01-01

432

Conservation and divergence in the transcriptional programs of the human and mouse immune systems  

E-print Network

Much of the knowledge about cell differentiation and function in the immune system has come from studies in mice, but the relevance to human immunology, diseases, and therapy has been challenged, perhaps more from anecdotal ...

Shay, Tal

433

COMPARISON OF SYSTEMIC AND MUCOSAL ROUTES OF SENSITIZATION TO OVALBUMIN ANTIGEN IN THREE MOUSE STRAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several studies have shown strain differences in allergic lung responses following ovalbumin (OVA) antigen sensitization and challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these differences were maintained between systemic and mucosal sensitization routes, and to ...

434

Inhibition of PI3K? reduces kidney infiltration by macrophages and ameliorates systemic lupus in the mouse.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a human chronic inflammatory disease generated and maintained throughout life by autoreactive T and B cells. Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) are heterodimers composed of a regulatory and a catalytic subunit that catalyze phosphoinositide-3,4,5-P3 formation and regulate cell survival, migration, and division. Activity of the PI3K? isoform is enhanced in human SLE patient PBLs. In this study, we analyzed the effect of inhibiting PI3K? in MRL/lpr mice, a model of human SLE. We found that PI3K? inhibition ameliorated lupus progression. Treatment of these mice with a PI3K? inhibitor reduced the excessive numbers of CD4(+) effector/memory cells and B cells. In addition, this treatment reduced serum TNF-? levels and the number of macrophages infiltrating the kidney. Expression of inactive PI3K?, but not deletion of the other hematopoietic isoform PI3K?, reduced the ability of macrophages to cross the basement membrane, a process required to infiltrate the kidney, explaining MRL/lpr mice improvement by pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K?. The observations that p110? inhibitor prolonged mouse life span, reduced disease symptoms, and showed no obvious secondary effects indicates that PI3K? is a promising target for SLE. PMID:24935930

Suárez-Fueyo, Abel; Rojas, José M; Cariaga, Ariel E; García, Esther; Steiner, Bart H; Barber, Domingo F; Puri, Kamal D; Carrera, Ana C

2014-07-15

435

Variability of a bacterial surface protein and disease expression in a possible mouse model of systemic Lyme borreliosis  

PubMed Central

During persistent infection of scid mice with Borrelia turicatae, an agent of relapsing fever and neuroborreliosis, there was variation in the surface proteins the bacteria expressed and in disease manifestations over time. Two serotypes, A and B, were isolated from the mice, cloned by limiting dilution, and further characterized. The only discernible difference between the two variants was in the size of the major surface protein they expressed: serotype A had a variable major protein (Vmp) of 23,000, and serotype B had a Vmp of 20,000. When other scid mice were inoculated with clonal populations of A and B, the infections were similar with respect to onset and degree of spirochetemia, involvement of the eye and heart, and occurrence of a peripheral vestibular disorder. However, there were differences between the serotypes in other respects: (a) serotype B but not A caused reddened and significantly enlarged joints, markedly impaired performance on a walking bar, and severe arthritis by histologic examination; (b) serotype A but not B invaded the central nervous system during early infection; and (c) serotype A penetrated monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells more readily than did serotype B. The combination of arthritis, myocarditis, and neurologic disease resembled human Lyme borreliosis. The findings indicate that differences in disease expression are determined by variable surface proteins of the bacterium and that scid mouse infections with B. turicatae provide a model for the study of the pathogenesis of Lyme borreliosis and other persistent spirochetal diseases. PMID:8294872

1994-01-01

436

Promoting myelination in an in vitro mouse model of the peripheral nervous system: the effect of wine ingredients [corrected].  

PubMed

Protective properties of moderate wine consumption against cancers, cardiovascular, metabolic and degenerative diseases have been reported in various clinical studies. Here, we analysed the effect of red wine (RW) and white wine (WW) on myelination using an in vitro embryonic co-culture mouse model. The total amount of myelin was found to be significantly increased after RW and WW treatment, while only RW significantly increased the number of internodes. Both types of wine increased rat Schwann cell- (rSC) expression of the NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-two-homolog 2 (Sirt2), a protein known to be involved in myelination. Detailed chemical analysis of RW revealed a broad spectrum of anthocyanins, piceids, and phenolics, including resveratrol (RSV). In our assay system RSV in low concentrations induced myelination. Furthermore RSV raised intracellular glutathione concentrations in rSCs and in co-cultures and therefore augmented antioxidant capacity. We conclude that wine promotes myelination in a rodent in vitro model by controlling intracellular metabolism and SC plasticity. During this process, RSV exhibits protective properties; however, the fostering effect on myelinaton during exposure to wine appears to be a complex interaction of various compounds. PMID:23762469

Stettner, Mark; Wolffram, Kathleen; Mausberg, Anne K; Albrecht, Philipp; Derksen, Angelika; Methner, Axel; Dehmel, Thomas; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Dietrich, Helmut; Kieseier, Bernd C

2013-01-01

437

Fiber optic light-scattering measurement system for evaluation of embryo viability: light-scattering characteristics from live mouse embryo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured angular distribution of the light scattering from live mouse embryo with 632.8nm in wavelength to evaluate the embryo viability. We aim to measure the mitochondrial density in human embryo which have relation to the embryo viability. We have constructed the light scattering measurement system to detect the mitochondrial density non-invasively. We have employed two optical fibers for the illumination and sensing to change the angle between these fibers. There were two dips on the scattering angular distribution from the embryo. These dips existed on 30 and 85 deg. We calculated the scattering angular pattern by Mie theory to fit the measured scattering estimated scattering size and density. The best fitting was obtained when the particle size and density were 0.9 micrometers and 1010 particles per ml, respectively. These values coincided with the approximated values of mitochondrial in the embryo. The measured light scattering may mainly originated from mitochondria in spite of the existence of the various scattering particles in the embryo. Since our simple scattering measurement may offer the mitochondrial density in the embryo, it might become the practical method of human embryo on in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

Itoh, Harumi; Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto

1997-06-01

438

Promoting Myelination in an In Vitro Mouse Model of the Peripheral Nerve System: The Effect of Wine Ingredients  

PubMed Central

Protective properties of moderate wine consumption against cancers, cardiovascular, metabolic and degenerative diseases have been reported in various clinical studies. Here, we analysed the effect of red wine (RW) and white wine (WW) on myelination using an in vitro embryonic co-culture mouse model. The total amount of myelin was found to be significantly increased after RW and WW treatment, while only RW significantly increased the number of internodes. Both types of wine increased rat Schwann cell- (rSC) expression of the NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-two-homolog 2 (Sirt2), a protein known to be involved in myelination. Detailed chemical analysis of RW revealed a broad spectrum of anthocyanins, piceids, and phenolics, including resveratrol (RSV). In our assay system RSV in low concentrations induced myelination. Furthermore RSV raised intracellular glutathione concentrations in rSCs and in co-cultures and therefore augmented antioxidant capacity. We conclude that wine promotes myelination in a rodent in vitro model by controlling intracellular metabolism and SC plasticity. During this process, RSV exhibits protective properties; however, the fostering effect on myelinaton during exposure to wine appears to be a complex interaction of various compounds. PMID:23762469

Stettner, Mark; Wolffram, Kathleen; Mausberg, Anne K.; Albrecht, Philipp; Derksen, Angelika; Methner, Axel; Dehmel, Thomas; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Dietrich, Helmut; Kieseier, Bernd C.

2013-01-01

439

Comparative systems biology of human and mouse as a tool to guide the modeling of human placental pathology  

PubMed Central

Placental abnormalities are associated with two of the most common and serious complications of human pregnancy, maternal preeclampsia (PE) and fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), each disorder affecting ?5% of all pregnancies. An important question for the use of the mouse as a model for studying human disease is the degree of functional conservation of genetic control pathways from human to mouse. The human and mouse placenta show structural similarities, but there have been no systematic attempts to assess their molecular similarities or differences. We collected protein and mRNA expression data through shot-gun proteomics and microarray expression analysis of the highly vascular exchange region, microdissected from the human and mouse near-term placenta. Over 7000 ortholo