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Sample records for mouse digestive system

  1. Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... is about 30 feet long. continue How Digestion Works Digestion Begins in the Mouth The process of ... a noncongenital condition. Esophagitis is usually caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) , a condition in which the esophageal ...

  2. Effects of Aging on the Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Digestive Disorders Biology of the Digestive System Effects of Aging on ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of the Digestive System Overview of the Digestive ...

  3. A rapid DNA digestion system.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lung-Ming; Lin, Che-Hsin

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a novel microfluidic DNA digestion system incorporating a high performance micro-mixer. Through the appropriate control of fixed and periodic switching DC electric fields, electrokinetic forces are established to mix the DNA and restriction enzyme samples and to drive them through the reaction column of the device. The experimental and numerical results show that a mixing performance of 98% can be achieved within a mixing channel of length 1.6 mm when a 150 V/cm driving voltage and a 5 Hz switching frequency are applied. The relationship between the mixing performance, switching frequency, and main applied electric field is derived. It is found that the optimal switching frequency depends upon the magnitude of the main applied electric field. The successful digestion of lambda-DNA using Eco RI restriction enzyme is demonstrated. The DNA-enzyme reaction is completed within 15 min in the proposed microfluidic system, compared to 50 min in a conventional large-scale system. Hence, the current device provides a valuable tool for rapid lambda-DNA digestion, while its mixer system delivers a simple yet effective solution for mixing problems in the micro-total-analysis-systems field. PMID:17195107

  4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dual digestion system (DDS) was developed to provide stabilized, pathogen free sludge. DDS consists of a 1-day detention time, pure-oxygen, covered aerobic digester (Step I) followed by an 8-day detention time anaerobic reactor. The temperature in the Step I digester is contr...

  5. MOUSE UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The original MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty System) system was designed to deal with the problem of uncertainties in Environmental engineering calculations, such as a set of engineering cost or risk analysis equations. t was especially intended for use by individuals with li...

  6. What Is An Expert System? ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    This digest describes and defines the various components of an expert system, e.g., a computerized tool designed to enhance the quality and availability of knowledge required by decision makers. It is noted that expert systems differ from conventional applications software in the following areas: (1) the existence of the expert systems shell, or…

  7. Digestive system damage caused by substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, I; Kalezić, N; Ristić, J; Bojović, O; Dimitrijević, N

    2008-01-01

    Substance abuse and addiction represent a worldwide problem and cause a number of family, social and health problems. Digestive system damage caused by substance intake is an increasing problem amoung drug addicts. Many studies show that substances can cause cancer of all parts of the digestive system. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with colon and rectal cancer. For rectal cancer, the risk was increased in association with drinking of alcoholic beverages, specialy for beer consumption. Sinthetic drugs such as ecstasy may lead also to digestive and hepatic damage, as well as vascular complications of the stomach. Many studies show the existance of supstance associated enterocolitis as well as ishemic colitis. Diagnosis of ishemic colitis is based on the presence of rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, a history of substance use, supportive endoscopic and histopathologic findings, and the absence of other etiologic mechanisms of ischemic colitis. Great damage to the digestive system is also produced by smuggling narcotics packed into small pages that are afterwards been swallowed or implemented on other sorts of ways inside the smugglers natural body spaces as the rectum or vagina. In the paper authors reviewed literature conserning digestive system damage caused by substance abuse and drug smuggling. PMID:19069706

  8. Adenylyl cyclases in the digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, Maria Eugenia; Gorelick, Fred; Glaser, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a group of widely distributed enzymes whose functions are very diverse. There are nine known transmembrane AC isoforms activated by Gαs. Each has its own pattern of expression in the digestive system and differential regulation of function by Ca2+ and other intracellular signals. In addition to the transmembrane isoforms, one AC is soluble and exhibits distinct regulation. In this review, the basic structure, regulation and physiological roles of ACs in the digestive system are discussed. PMID:24521753

  9. Adenylyl cyclases in the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Maria Eugenia; Gorelick, Fred; Glaser, Shannon

    2014-06-01

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a group of widely distributed enzymes whose functions are very diverse. There are nine known transmembrane AC isoforms activated by Gαs. Each has its own pattern of expression in the digestive system and differential regulation of function by Ca(2+) and other intracellular signals. In addition to the transmembrane isoforms, one AC is soluble and exhibits distinct regulation. In this review, the basic structure, regulation and physiological roles of ACs in the digestive system are discussed. PMID:24521753

  10. Regions of the Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  11. Delivery Systems for Distance Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamber, Linda

    This ERIC digest provides a brief overview of the video, audio, and computer technologies that are currently used to deliver instruction for distance education programs. The video systems described include videoconferencing, low-power television (LPTV), closed-circuit television (CCTV), instructional fixed television service (ITFS), and cable…

  12. Kinetic properties of mouse pancreatic lipase-related protein-2 suggest the mouse may not model human fat digestion

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xunjun; Ross, Leah E.; Miller, Rita A.; Lowe, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically engineered mice have been employed to understand the role of lipases in dietary fat digestion with the expectation that the results can be extrapolated to humans. However, little is known about the properties of mouse pancreatic triglyceride lipase (mPTL) and pancreatic lipase-related protein-2 (mPLRP2). In this study, both lipases were expressed in Pichia Pastoris GS115, purified to near homogeneity, and their properties were characterized. Mouse PTL displayed the kinetics typical of PTL from other species. Like mPTL, mPLRP2 exhibited strong activity against various triglycerides. In contrast to mPTL, mPLRP2 was not inhibited by increasing bile salt concentration. Colipase stimulated mPLRP2 activity 2- to 4-fold. Additionally, mPTL absolutely required colipase for absorption to a lipid interface, whereas mPLRP2 absorbed fully without colipase. mPLRP2 had full activity in the presence of BSA, whereas BSA completely inhibited mPTL unless colipase was present. All of these properties of mPLRP2 differ from the properties of human PLRP2 (hPLRP2). Furthermore, mPLRP2 appears capable of compensating for mPTL deficiency. These findings suggest that the molecular mechanisms of dietary fat digestion may be different in humans and mice. Thus, extrapolation of dietary fat digestion in mice to humans should be done with care. PMID:21382969

  13. Nanostructured microfluidic digestion system for rapid high-performance proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gong; Hao, Si-Jie; Yu, Xu

    2014-01-01

    A novel microfluidic protein digestion system with nanostructured and bioactive inner surface was constructed by an easy biomimetic self-assembly strategy for rapid and effective proteolysis in 2 minutes, which is faster than the conventional overnight digestion methods. It is expected that this work would contribute to rapid online digestion in future high-throughput proteomics. PMID:25511010

  14. Student Teachers' Ways of Thinking and Ways of Understanding Digestion and the Digestive System in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çimer, Sabiha Odabasi; Ursavas, Nazihan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ways in which student teachers understand digestion and the digestive system and, subsequently, their ways of thinking, as reflected in their problem solving approaches and the justification schemes that they used to validate their claims. For this purpose, clinical interviews were conducted with 10…

  15. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the junction of the esophagus and stomach, controls the passage of food and liquid between the esophagus and stomach. As ... different nutrients. The small intestine absorbs most digested food ... digestive process. [ Top ] Clinical Trials The National ...

  16. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  17. Human and mouse tissue-engineered small intestine both demonstrate digestive and absorptive function.

    PubMed

    Grant, Christa N; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Sala, Frederic G; Hill, J Ryan; Levin, Daniel E; Speer, Allison L; Barthel, Erik R; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Zachos, Nicholas C; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2015-04-15

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a devastating condition in which insufficient small intestinal surface area results in malnutrition and dependence on intravenous parenteral nutrition. There is an increasing incidence of SBS, particularly in premature babies and newborns with congenital intestinal anomalies. Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a therapeutic alternative to the current standard treatment, intestinal transplantation, and has the potential to solve its biggest challenges, namely donor shortage and life-long immunosuppression. We have previously demonstrated that TESI can be generated from mouse and human small intestine and histologically replicates key components of native intestine. We hypothesized that TESI also recapitulates native small intestine function. Organoid units were generated from mouse or human donor intestine and implanted into genetically identical or immunodeficient host mice. After 4 wk, TESI was harvested and either fixed and paraffin embedded or immediately subjected to assays to illustrate function. We demonstrated that both mouse and human tissue-engineered small intestine grew into an appropriately polarized sphere of intact epithelium facing a lumen, contiguous with supporting mesenchyme, muscle, and stem/progenitor cells. The epithelium demonstrated major ultrastructural components, including tight junctions and microvilli, transporters, and functional brush-border and digestive enzymes. This study demonstrates that tissue-engineered small intestine possesses a well-differentiated epithelium with intact ion transporters/channels, functional brush-border enzymes, and similar ultrastructural components to native tissue, including progenitor cells, whether derived from mouse or human cells. PMID:25573173

  18. Dietary Sodium Suppresses Digestive Efficiency via the Renin-Angiotensin System

    PubMed Central

    Weidemann, Benjamin J.; Voong, Susan; Morales-Santiago, Fabiola I.; Kahn, Michael Z.; Ni, Jonathan; Littlejohn, Nicole K.; Claflin, Kristin E.; Burnett, Colin M.L.; Pearson, Nicole A.; Lutter, Michael L.; Grobe, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fats and sodium are both palatable and are hypothesized to synergistically contribute to ingestive behavior and thereby obesity. Contrary to this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice fed a 45% high fat diet exhibited weight gain that was inhibited by increased dietary sodium content. This suppressive effect of dietary sodium upon weight gain was mediated specifically through a reduction in digestive efficiency, with no effects on food intake behavior, physical activity, or resting metabolism. Replacement of circulating angiotensin II levels reversed the effects of high dietary sodium to suppress digestive efficiency. While the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan had no effect in mice fed low sodium, the AT2 receptor antagonist PD-123,319 suppressed digestive efficiency. Correspondingly, genetic deletion of the AT2 receptor in FVB/NCrl mice resulted in suppressed digestive efficiency even on a standard chow diet. Together these data underscore the importance of digestive efficiency in the pathogenesis of obesity, and implicate dietary sodium, the renin-angiotensin system, and the AT2 receptor in the control of digestive efficiency regardless of mouse strain or macronutrient composition of the diet. These findings highlight the need for greater understanding of nutrient absorption control physiology, and prompt more uniform assessment of digestive efficiency in animal studies of energy balance. PMID:26068176

  19. Dietary Sodium Suppresses Digestive Efficiency via the Renin-Angiotensin System.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, Benjamin J; Voong, Susan; Morales-Santiago, Fabiola I; Kahn, Michael Z; Ni, Jonathan; Littlejohn, Nicole K; Claflin, Kristin E; Burnett, Colin M L; Pearson, Nicole A; Lutter, Michael L; Grobe, Justin L

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fats and sodium are both palatable and are hypothesized to synergistically contribute to ingestive behavior and thereby obesity. Contrary to this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice fed a 45% high fat diet exhibited weight gain that was inhibited by increased dietary sodium content. This suppressive effect of dietary sodium upon weight gain was mediated specifically through a reduction in digestive efficiency, with no effects on food intake behavior, physical activity, or resting metabolism. Replacement of circulating angiotensin II levels reversed the effects of high dietary sodium to suppress digestive efficiency. While the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan had no effect in mice fed low sodium, the AT2 receptor antagonist PD-123,319 suppressed digestive efficiency. Correspondingly, genetic deletion of the AT2 receptor in FVB/NCrl mice resulted in suppressed digestive efficiency even on a standard chow diet. Together these data underscore the importance of digestive efficiency in the pathogenesis of obesity, and implicate dietary sodium, the renin-angiotensin system, and the AT2 receptor in the control of digestive efficiency regardless of mouse strain or macronutrient composition of the diet. These findings highlight the need for greater understanding of nutrient absorption control physiology, and prompt more uniform assessment of digestive efficiency in animal studies of energy balance. PMID:26068176

  20. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION OF THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Full-scale performance and costs of an innovative sludge stabilization process were evaluated at the three plants. The DDS incorporates a 1-day-detention-time, pure oxygen aerobic digester followed in series by an 8-day-detention-time anaerobic digester. Heat of biological oxidat...

  1. Digestive Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  2. Energy Integrated Dairy Farm digester and cogeneration system installation

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.C.; Walsh, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Georgia Tech finished in December, 1983 Phase II (system installation and startup) of its four year Energy Integrated Dairy Farm System (EIDFS) program. This paper outlines the selection and installation of the anaerobic digestion and cogeneration components of the EIDFS.

  3. Waste heat utilization in an anaerobic digestion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissevain, Brett

    Anaerobic digestion has great potential as an energy source. Not only does it provide an effective method for waste mitigation, but it has the potential to generate significant quantities of fuel and electricity. In order to ensure efficient digestion and biomass utilization, however, the system must be continuously maintained at elevated temperatures. It is technically feasible to supplement such a system with outside energy, but it is more cost effective to heat the system using only the produced biogas. While there is considerable literature covering the theory of anaerobic digestion, there are very few practical studies to show how heat utilization affects system operation. This study considers the effect of major design variables (i.e. heat exchanger efficiencies and biogas conditioning) on promoting a completely self-sustaining digestion system. The thesis considers a real world system and analyzes how it can be improved to avoid the need of an external energy source.

  4. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.

    PubMed

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian. PMID:24785191

  5. Role of microRNA-7 in digestive system malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wan-Qun; Hu, Ling; Chen, Geng-Xin; Deng, Hai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    There are several malignancies of the digestive system (including gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma), which are the most common types of cancer and a major cause of death worldwide. MicroRNA (miR)-7 is abundant in the pancreas, playing an important role in pancreatic development and endocrine function. Expression of miR-7 is downregulated in digestive system malignancies compared with normal tissue. Although there are contrasting results for miR-7 expression, almost all research reveals that miR-7 is a tumor suppressor, by targeting various genes in specific pathways. Moreover, miR-7 can target different genes simultaneously in different malignancies of the digestive system. By acting on many cytokines, miR-7 is also involved in many gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases as a significant carcinogenic factor. Consequently, miR-7 might be a biomarker or therapeutic target gene in digestive system malignancies. PMID:26798443

  6. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... that the body digests into smaller molecules called amino acids. The body absorbs amino acids through the small intestine into the blood, which ... into the bloodstream. The bloodstream carries simple sugars, amino acids, glycerol, and some vitamins and salts to the ...

  7. Effect of glucagon on digestive enzyme synthesis, transport and secretion in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M

    1980-01-01

    1. Effect of glucagon on amylase secretion and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release from functionally intact dissociated pancreatic acinar cells and acini was studied. 2. In dissociated rat pancreatic acinar cells, the rate of amylase secretion was increased by 70% with bethanechol (maximally effective concentration, 10(-4) M) and 125% with A23187 (10(-5) M), but the response to cholecystokinin-pancreozymin (CCK-PZ) was inconsistent. In dissociated cells from mouse pancreas, the increases amounted to 78% with bethanechol (10(-4) M), 134% with A23187 (10(-5) M) and 82% with CCK-PZ (maximally effective concentration, 0 . 01 u. ml.-1). Glucagon in concentrations ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-4) M increased amylase secretion by 3, 26, 67 and 80%, whereas secretin (10(-8)--10(-5) M) increased amylase secretion by 8, 39, 88 and 138%. LDH release was increased with A23187 in concentrations greater than 10(-6) M. 3. CCK-PZ, bethanechol and A23187 used in maximal concentrations potentiated the effect of a submaximal dose of glucagon whereas secretin did not have an additive or a potentiating effect. 4. Pancreatic acini were approximately 3 times more responsive to secretagogues than cells. The dose--response curves to bethanechol, glucagon and CCK-PZ for increase in amylase secretion were similar. LDH release was not increased by these agents. Cytochalasin B (5 microgram ml.-1) which is known to disrupt the integrity of luminal membrane inhibited the amylase secretion stimulated by glucagon, bethanechol and CCK-PZ. 5. Glucagon inhibited incorporation of a mixture of fifteen 14C-labelled amino acids (algal profile, Schwarz Mann) into perchloric acid precipitable proteins in dissociated mouse pancreatic acini within 30 min. 6. In 'pulse-chase' experiments, glucagon decreased the specific activity of zymogen granules isolated by differential centrifugation, from pancreatic lobules (120 min) and increased the specific activity of radiolabelled proteins in the medium (60 and 120 min

  8. Fast On–Line Digestion System for Protein Characterization

    PubMed Central

    López-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Lourette, Natacha M.; Clowers, Brian; Hixson, Kim K.; Heibeck, Tyler; Prior, David C; Pasa-Tolić, Ljiljana; Camp, David G.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    An efficient on-line digestion system that reduces the number of sample manipulation steps has been demonstrated for high throughput proteomics. By incorporating a pressurized sample loop into a liquid chromatography-based separation system, both sample and enzyme (e.g., trypsin) can be simultaneously introduced to produce a complete, yet rapid digestion. Both standard proteins and a complex Shewanella oneidensis global protein extract were digested and analyzed using the automated on-line pressurized digestion system coupled to an ion mobility time of flight mass spectrometer and/or an ion trap mass spectrometer. The system denatured, digested, and separated product peptides in a manner of minutes, making it amenable to high-throughput applications. In addition to simplifying and expediting sample processing, the system was easy to implement and no cross contamination was observed among samples. As a result, the on-line digestion system offers a powerful approach for high-throughput screening of proteins that could prove valuable in biochemical research; for example, quick screening of protein-based drugs. PMID:19551971

  9. Bile acid nuclear receptor FXR and digestive system diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lili; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao; Huang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are not only digestive surfactants but also important cell signaling molecules, which stimulate several signaling pathways to regulate some important biological processes. The bile-acid-activated nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), plays a pivotal role in regulating bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis as well as in regulating the inflammatory responses, barrier function and prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal tract. As expected, FXR is involved in the pathophysiology of a wide range of diseases of gastrointestinal tract, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the roles of FXR in physiology of the digestive system and the related diseases. Better understanding of the roles of FXR in digestive system will accelerate the development of FXR ligands/modulators for the treatment of digestive system diseases. PMID:26579439

  10. Bile acid nuclear receptor FXR and digestive system diseases.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lili; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao; Huang, Wendong

    2015-03-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are not only digestive surfactants but also important cell signaling molecules, which stimulate several signaling pathways to regulate some important biological processes. The bile-acid-activated nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), plays a pivotal role in regulating bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis as well as in regulating the inflammatory responses, barrier function and prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal tract. As expected, FXR is involved in the pathophysiology of a wide range of diseases of gastrointestinal tract, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the roles of FXR in physiology of the digestive system and the related diseases. Better understanding of the roles of FXR in digestive system will accelerate the development of FXR ligands/modulators for the treatment of digestive system diseases. PMID:26579439

  11. Rab27A Is Present in Mouse Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Is Required for Digestive Enzyme Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yanan; Ernst, Stephen A.; Stuenkel, Edward L.; Lentz, Stephen I.; Williams, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The small G-protein Rab27A has been shown to regulate the intracellular trafficking of secretory granules in various cell types. However, the presence, subcellular localization and functional impact of Rab27A on digestive enzyme secretion by mouse pancreatic acinar cells are poorly understood. Ashen mice, which lack the expression of Rab27A due to a spontaneous mutation, were used to investigate the function of Rab27A in pancreatic acinar cells. Isolated pancreatic acini were prepared from wild-type or ashen mouse pancreas by collagenase digestion, and CCK- or carbachol-induced amylase secretion was measured. Secretion occurring through the major-regulated secretory pathway, which is characterized by zymogen granules secretion, was visualized by Dextran-Texas Red labeling of exocytotic granules. The minor-regulated secretory pathway, which operates through the endosomal/lysosomal pathway, was characterized by luminal cell surface labeling of lysosomal associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1). Compared to wild-type, expression of Rab27B was slightly increased in ashen mouse acini, while Rab3D and digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, chymotrypsin and elastase) were not affected. Localization of Rab27B, Rab3D and amylase by immunofluorescence was similar in both wild-type and ashen acinar cells. The GTP-bound states of Rab27B and Rab3D in wild-type and ashen mouse acini also remained similar in amount. In contrast, acini from ashen mice showed decreased amylase release induced by CCK- or carbachol. Rab27A deficiency reduced the apical cell surface labeling of LAMP1, but did not affect that of Dextran-Texas Red incorporation into the fusion pockets at luminal surface. These results show that Rab27A is present in mouse pancreatic acinar cells and mainly regulates secretion through the minor-regulated pathway. PMID:25951179

  12. Molecular physiology of vesicular glutamate transporters in the digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Ghishan, Fayez K.; Bai, Liqun

    2005-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Packaging and storage of glutamate into glutamatergic neuronal vesicles require ATP-dependent vesicular glutamate uptake systems, which utilize the electrochemical proton gradient as a driving force. Three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) have been recently identified from neuronal tissue where they play a key role to maintain the vesicular glutamate level. Recently, it has been demonstrated that glutamate signaling is also functional in peripheral neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, and occurs in sites of pituitary, adrenal, pineal glands, bone, GI tract, pancreas, skin, and testis. The glutamate receptors and VGLUTs in digestive system have been found in both neuronal and endocrinal cells. The glutamate signaling in the digestive system may have significant relevance to diabetes and GI tract motility disorders. This review will focus on the most recent update of molecular physiology of digestive VGLUTs. PMID:15793854

  13. Performance of a UASB-digester system treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J A; Armstrong, E; Presas, J; Gómez, M; Soto, M

    2004-10-01

    The anaerobic treatment of raw domestic wastewater by a novel technology consisting of an Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor combined with a completely mixed digester for the stabilisation of the UASB sludge was assessed. A pilot-scale plant of the so-called UASB-Digester system was located at the municipal wastewater treatment facility of Santiago de Compostela (Northwest of Spain). The main aim of the Digester was to enhance the biodegradation of influent solids retained in the UASB reactor at low temperatures, then increasing its specific methanogenic activity. The sludge drawn from the middle zone of the UASB entered the upper zone of the Digester and then circulated from the bottom of the Digester to the UASB bottom. Circulating in an automated semi-continuous way, the flow of this sludge stream was selected in order to set a previously defined hydraulic retention time (HRT) (16-27 d) in the digester. The Digester temperature was set at an optimum value ranging from 25 to 35 degrees C. The steady state efficiency of the UASB system, at 6-8 h of HRT, 15-16 degrees C of temperature and 330-360 mg l(-1) of influent total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was 79% of total suspended solids (TSS) removal, 52% of TCOD removal and 60% of biological oxygen demand (BOD5) removal. The hydrolysis of retained solids reached 85%, while excess sludge generation was only 7% of influent TCOD. A stable anaerobic (pre)treatment of diluted domestic wastewater was reached as the sludge concentration in the reactor remained mainly constant and the specific methanogenic activity showed a slight increase. PMID:15551833

  14. Autogenerative high pressure digestion: anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system.

    PubMed

    Lindeboom, R E F; Fermoso, F G; Weijma, J; Zagt, K; van Lier, J B

    2011-01-01

    Conventional anaerobic digestion is a widely applied technology to produce biogas from organic wastes and residues. The biogas calorific value depends on the CH, content which generally ranges between 55 and 65%. Biogas upgrading to so-called 'green gas', with natural gas quality, generally proceeds with add-on technologies, applicable only for biogas flows > 100 m3/h. In the concept of autogenerative high pressure digestion (AHPD), methanogenic biomass builds up pressure inside the reactor. Since CO2 has a higher solubility than CH4, it will proportion more to the liquid phase at higher pressures. Therefore, AHPD biogas is characterised by a high CH4 content, reaching equilibrium values between 90 and 95% at a pressure of 3-90 bar. In addition, also H2S and NH3 are theoretically more soluble in the bulk liquid than CO2. Moreover, the water content of the already compressed biogas is calculated to have a dew point <--10 degrees C. Ideally, high-quality biogas can be directly used for electricity and heat generation, or injected in a local natural gas distribution net. In the present study, using sodium acetate as substrate and anaerobic granular sludge as inoculum, batch-fed reactors showed a pressure increase up to 90 bars, the maximum allowable value for our used reactors. However, the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of the sludge decreased on average by 30% compared to digestion at ambient pressure (1 bar). Other results show no effect of pressure exposure on the SMA assessed under atmospheric conditions. These first results show that the proposed AHPD process is a highly promising technology for anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system. PMID:22097043

  15. Biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of food waste with dairy manure in a two-phase digestion system.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongping; Chen, Shulin; Li, Xiujiu

    2010-01-01

    Co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure in a two-phase digestion system was conducted in laboratory scale. Four influents of R0, R1, R2, and R3 were tested, which were made by mixing food waste with dairy manure at different ratios of 0:1, 1:1, 3:1, and 6:1, respectively. For each influent, three runs of experiments were performed with the same overall hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 13 days but different HRT for acidification (1, 2, and 3 days) and methanogenesis (12, 11, and 10 days) in two-phase digesters. The results showed that the gas production rate (GPR) of co-digestion of food waste with dairy manure was enhanced by 0.8-5.5 times as compared to the digestion with dairy manure alone. Appropriate HRT for acidification was mainly determined by the biodegradability of the substrate digested. Three-, 2-, and 1-day HRT for acidification were found to be optimal for the digestion of R0, R1, and R2/R3, respectively, when overall HRT of 13 days was used. The highest GPR of 3.97 L/L.day was achieved for R3(6:1) in Run 1 (1 + 12 days), therefore, the mixing ratio of 6:1 and HRT of 1 day for acidification were considered to be the optimal ones and thus recommended for co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure. There were close correlations between degradation of organic matters and GPR. The highest VS removal rate was achieved at the same HRT for acidification and mixing ratio of food waste and dairy manure as GPR in the co-digestion. The two-phase digestion system showed good stability, which was mainly attributed to the strong buffering capacity with two-phase system and the high alkalinity from dairy manure when co-digested with food waste. PMID:19214795

  16. Student Science Teachers' Ideas of the Digestive System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardak, Osman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to reveal the levels of understanding of student science teachers regarding the digestive system. In this research, 116 student science teachers were tested by applying the drawing method. Upon the analysis of the drawings they made, it was found that some of them had misconceptions such as "the organs of the…

  17. Procedures for Identifying Infectious Prions After Passage Through the Digestive System of an Avian Species

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Justin W; Nichols, Tracy A; Phillips, Gregory E; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2013-01-01

    Infectious prion (PrPRes) material is likely the cause of fatal, neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases1. Transmission of TSE diseases, such as chronic wasting disease (CWD), is presumed to be from animal to animal2,3 as well as from environmental sources4-6. Scavengers and carnivores have potential to translocate PrPRes material through consumption and excretion of CWD-contaminated carrion. Recent work has documented passage of PrPRes material through the digestive system of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a common North American scavenger7. We describe procedures used to document passage of PrPRes material through American crows. Crows were gavaged with RML-strain mouse-adapted scrapie and their feces were collected 4 hr post gavage. Crow feces were then pooled and injected intraperitoneally into C57BL/6 mice. Mice were monitored daily until they expressed clinical signs of mouse scrapie and were thereafter euthanized. Asymptomatic mice were monitored until 365 days post inoculation. Western blot analysis was conducted to confirm disease status. Results revealed that prions remain infectious after traveling through the digestive system of crows and are present in the feces, causing disease in test mice. PMID:24300668

  18. The complexities of hydrolytic enzymes from the termite digestive system.

    PubMed

    Saadeddin, Anas

    2014-06-01

    The main challenge in second generation bioethanol production is the efficient breakdown of cellulose to sugar monomers (hydrolysis). Due to the recalcitrant character of cellulose, feedstock pretreatment and adapted hydrolysis steps are needed to obtain fermentable sugar monomers. The conventional industrial production process of second-generation bioethanol from biomass comprises several steps: thermochemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar fermentation. This process is undergoing continuous optimization in order to increase the bioethanol yield and reduce the economic cost. Therefore, the discovery of new enzymes with high lignocellulytic activity or new strategies is extremely important. In nature, wood-feeding termites have developed a sophisticated and efficient cellulose degrading system in terms of the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis and exploitation. This system, which represents a model for digestive symbiosis has attracted the attention of biofuel researchers. This review describes the termite digestive system, gut symbionts, termite enzyme resources, in vitro studies of isolated enzymes and lignin degradation in termites. PMID:23036053

  19. [Mental disorders in digestive system diseases - internist's and psychiatrist's insight].

    PubMed

    Kukla, Urszula; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Chronowska, Justyna; Krzystanek, Marek; Okopień, BogusŁaw

    2015-05-01

    Mental disorders accompanying digestive system diseases constitute interdisciplinary yet scarcely acknowledged both diagnostic and therapeutic problem. One of the mostly recognized examples is coeliac disease where patients endure the large spectrum of psychopathological symptoms, starting with attention deficit all the way down to the intellectual disability in extreme cases. It has not been fully explained how the pathomechanism of digestive system diseases affects patient's mental health, however one of the hypothesis suggests that it is due to serotonergic or opioid neurotransmission imbalance caused by gluten and gluten metabolites effect on central nervous system. Behavioral changes can also be invoked by liver or pancreatic diseases, which causes life-threatening abnormalities within a brain. It occurs that these abnormalities reflexively exacerbate the symptoms of primary somatic disease and aggravate its course, which worsens prognosis. The dominant mental disease mentioned in this article is depression which because of its effect on a hypothalamuspituitary- adrenal axis and on an autonomic nervous system, not only aggravates the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases but may accelerate their onset in genetically predisposed patients. Depression is known to negatively affects patients' ability to function in a society and a quality of their lives. Moreover, as far as children are concerned, the occurrence of digestive system diseases accompanied by mental disorders, may adversely affect their further physical and psychological development, which merely results in worse school performance. All those aspects of mental disorders indicate the desirability of the psychological care for patients with recognized digestive system disease. The psychological assistance should be provided immediately after diagnosis of a primary disease and be continued throughout the whole course of treatment. PMID:26039016

  20. Systems Theory and the Earth Systems Approach in Science Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyongyong

    The systems approach provides a framework for integrating different scientific disciplines. This approach is used often in Earth Systems Education. This ERIC Digest describes the systems theory and its influence on science education. (Contains 16 references.) (YDS)

  1. Systemic Education Reform. ERIC Digest, Number 90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James

    Economic forces and educational equity issues have combined to heighten calls for improved education for all students. Systemic reform calls for education to be reconceptualized from the ground up, beginning with the nature of teaching and learning, educational relationships, and school-community relationships. One of the assumptions made by…

  2. Effect of Mouse Maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) Knockout on Starch Digestion to Glucose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digestion of starch requires activities provided by six different alpha-glucosidase enzymes. Two activities are luminal alpha-amylases (AMY). Four activities are mucosal activities described as maltases. Two of the activities are associated with sucrase-isomaltase (Si) activities. Two activities ...

  3. Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muller, Jennifer K.; Prather, D.R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.

    2003-01-01

    The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Integrated system for extraction, purification, and digestion of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiying; Yan, Guoquan; Gao, Mingxia; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2016-05-01

    An integrated system was developed for directly processing living cells into peptides of membrane proteins. Living cells were directly injected into the system and cracked in a capillary column by ultrasonic treatment. Owing to hydrophilicity for broken pieces of the cell membrane, the obtained membranes were retained in a well-designed bi-filter. While cytoplasm proteins were eluted from the bi-filter, the membranes were dissolved and protein released by flushing 4 % SDS buffer through the bi-filter. The membrane proteins were subsequently transferred into a micro-reactor and covalently bound in the reactor for purification and digestion. As the system greatly simplified the whole pretreatment processes and minimized both sample loss and contamination, it could be used to analyze the membrane proteome samples of thousand-cell-scales with acceptable reliability and stability. We totally identified 1348 proteins from 5000 HepG2 cells, 615 of which were annotated as membrane proteins. In contrast, with conventional method, only 233 membrane proteins were identified. It is adequately demonstrated that the integrated system shows promising practicability for the membrane proteome analysis of small amount of cells. Graphical Abstract The legend of online abstract figure is (a) schematic illustration of membrane proteins extraction, purification and digestion from living cells; (b) diagrammatic sketch of the automatic integrated membrane proteome analysis system. PMID:26922343

  5. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Richard G.; Blasewitz, Albert G.

    1982-01-01

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  6. [Interrelation between the sexual and digestive systems of chaetognaths (Chaetognatha)].

    PubMed

    Mishin, V L

    1980-12-01

    Histological and histochemical investigations on structure of the reproductive and digestive systems have been performed in two cold-water (Sagitta elegans, Sagitta maxima) and in four tropical (Sagitta bipunctata), Flaccisagitta hexaptera, Sagitta pulchra, Ferosagitta ferox) species of Chaetognatha. There is no essential seasonal difference in structure of the intestinal epithelial cells. There is not any storage of nutritional substances. Chaetognatha seem to feed actively during their whole life cycle. Some features of alimentary oogenesis have been revealed, although, in the whole, their ova mature according to the solitary type. At initial stages of oogenesis the nuclear apparatus is inactivated (condensed chromosomes form a ball--caryosphere); cells of the micropilar apparatus perform the function of the nutritive cells. The remaining period of oogenesis (synthesis of protein and lipid yolk) is performed according to the solitary type (the nucleoplasm contains chromosomes of the "lamp brush" type). A possibility whether nutritive substances can diffuse from the digestive tract into the coelomic fluid and into the ovarian cavity towards the developing ova is discussed. PMID:7195701

  7. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate. PMID:26776247

  8. Expression patterns suggest that despite considerable functional redundancy, galectin-4 and -6 play distinct roles in normal and damaged mouse digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Houzelstein, Denis; Reyes-Gomez, Edouard; Maurer, Marie; Netter, Pierre; Higuet, Dominique

    2013-05-01

    The galectin-4 protein is mostly expressed in the digestive tract and is associated with lipid raft stabilization, protein apical trafficking, wound healing, and inflammation. While most mammalian species, including humans, have a single Lgals4 gene, some mice have two paralogues: Lgals4 and Lgals6. So far, their significant similarities have hindered the analysis of their respective expression and function. We took advantage of two antibodies that discriminate between the galectin-4 and galectin-6 proteins to document their patterns of expression in the normal and the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-damaged digestive tract in the mouse. In the normal digestive tract, their pattern of expression from tongue to colon is quite similar, which suggests functional redundancy. However, the presence of galectin-4, but not galectin-6, in the lamina propria of the DSS-damaged colon, its association with luminal colonic bacteria, and differences in subcellular localization of these proteins suggest that they also have distinct roles in the normal and the damaged mouse digestive tract. Our results provide a rare example of ancestral and derived functions evolving after tandem gene duplication. PMID:23360694

  9. Relationships between Digestive, Circulatory, and Urinary Systems in Portuguese Primary Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Graça S.; Clèment, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    In this study, 63 Portuguese primary schoolbooks (1920-2005) were analyzed. The analysis focused on text information (reference to blood absorption and association of the digestive system to other human systems) and on information from images (presence or absence of image "confusion" (when the sequence of the digestive tract is not…

  10. Is the food-entrainable circadian oscillator in the digestive system?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, A. J.; Poole, A. S.; Yamazaki, S.; Menaker, M.

    2003-01-01

    Food-anticipatory activity (FAA) is the increase in locomotion and core body temperature that precedes a daily scheduled meal. It is driven by a circadian oscillator but is independent of the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Recent results that reveal meal-entrained clock gene expression in rat and mouse peripheral organs raise the intriguing possibility that the digestive system is the site of the feeding-entrained oscillator (FEO) that underlies FAA. We tested this possibility by comparing FAA and Per1 rhythmicity in the digestive system of the Per1-luciferase transgenic rat. First, rats were entrained to daytime restricted feeding (RF, 10 days), then fed ad libitum (AL, 10 days), then food deprived (FD, 2 days). As expected FAA was evident during RF and disappeared during subsequent AL feeding, but returned at the correct phase during deprivation. The phase of Per1 in liver, stomach and colon shifted from a nocturnal to a diurnal peak during RF, but shifted back to nocturnal phase during the subsequent AL and remained nocturnal during food deprivation periods. Second, rats were entrained to two daily meals at zeitgeber time (ZT) 0400 and ZT 1600. FAA to both meals emerged after about 10days of dual RF. However, all tissues studied (all five liver lobes, esophagus, antral stomach, body of stomach, colon) showed entrainment consistent with only the night-time meal. These two results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that FAA arises as an output of rhythms in the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The results also highlight an interesting diversity among peripheral oscillators in their ability to entrain to meals and the direction of the phase shift after RF ends.

  11. Intermediate-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion system operational development

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.

    1995-02-01

    Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. Operation of the anaerobic digestion process at high solids reduces the level of process water and thereby the size and capital costs for the digester system. In addition, by virtue of the lack of available water, the microbial catalysts are more productive in feedstock polymer hydrolysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. Information gained from laboratory-scale digester research was used to develop die intermediate-scale digester system. This system represents a 50-fold scale-up of the original digester system and includes continuous feed addition and computer monitoring and control. During the first 1.15 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements -- which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using the NREL high-solids digester design -- are detailed in this report.

  12. Volume ratios between the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters of a temperature-phased anaerobic digestion system affect their performance and microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wen; Zhang, Wenfei; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-25

    An experimental temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system, with the thermophilic digester operated at neutral pH and with a balanced acidogenesis and methanogenesis (referred to as NT-TPAD), was evaluated with respect to the microbial communities and population dynamics of methanogens when digesting dairy cattle manure at 15-day overall system hydraulic retention time (HRT). When fed a manure slurry of 10% total solid (TS), similar system performance, 36-38% volatile solid (VS) removal and 0.21-0.22 L methane g(-1) VS fed, was achieved between a 5-day and 7.5-day HRT for the thermophilic digester. However, the thermophilic digester achieved a greater volumetric biogas yield when operated at a 5-day RT than at a 7.5-day HRT (6.3 vs. 4.7 L/L/d), while the mesophilic digester had a stable volumetric biogas yield (about 1.0 L/L/d). Each of the digesters harbored distinct yet dynamic microbial populations, and some of the methanogens were significantly correlated with methane productions. Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta were the most important methanogenic genera in the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters, respectively. The microbiological findings may help understand the metabolism that underpins the anaerobic processes within each of the two digesters of TPAD systems when fed dairy manure. PMID:26232524

  13. Mouse Genome Editing using CRISPR/Cas System

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Donald W; Quadros, Rolen M; Seruggia, Davide; Ohtsuka, Masato; Takahashi, Gou

    2015-01-01

    The availability of techniques to create desired genetic mutations has enabled the laboratory mouse as an extensively used model organism in biomedical research including human genetics. A new addition to this existing technical repertoire is the CRISPR/Cas system. Specifically, this system allows editing of the mouse genome much faster than the previously used techniques and more importantly multiple mutations can be created in a single experiment. Here we provide protocols for preparation of CRISPR/Cas reagents and microinjection into one cell mouse embryos to create knockout or knock-in mouse models. PMID:25271839

  14. Effect of organic loading on the microbiota in a temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system co-digesting dairy manure and waste whey.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Abraham, Christopher; Nelson, Michael C; Chen, Po-Hsu; Graf, Joerg; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-10-01

    Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) has gained increasing attention because it provides the flexibility to operate digesters under conditions that enhance overall digester performance. However, research on impact of organic overloading rate (OLR) to microbiota of TPAD systems was limited. In this study, we investigated the composition and successions of the microbiota in both the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters of a laboratory-scale TPAD system co-digesting dairy manure and waste whey before and during organic overloading. The thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters were operated at 50 and 35 °C, respectively, with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days for each digester. High OLR (dairy manure with 5 % total solid and waste whey of ≥60.4 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/l/day) resulted in decrease in pH and in biogas production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the thermophilic digester, while the mesophilic digester remained unchanged except a transient increase in biogas production. Both denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicons showed dramatic change in microbiota composition and profound successions of both bacterial and methanogenic communities. During the overloading, Thermotogae was replaced by Proteobacteria, while Methanobrevibacter and archaeon classified as WCHD3-02 grew in predominance at the expense of Methanoculleus in the thermophilic digester, whereas Methanosarcina dominated the methanogenic community, while Methanobacterium and Methanobrevibacter became less predominant in the mesophilic digester. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that digester temperature and pH were the most influential environmental factors that explained much of the variations of the microbiota in this TPAD system when it was overloaded. PMID:26084892

  15. Effects of dietary components on cancer of the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Sara; Marzotto, Marta; Giovinazzo, Francesco; Bassi, Claudio; Bellavite, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in developed countries and poor diet and physical inactivity are major risk factors in cancer-related deaths. Therefore, interventions to reduce levels of smoking, improve diet, and increase physical activity must become much higher priorities in the general population's health and health care systems. The consumption of fruit and vegetables exerts a preventive effect towards cancer and in recent years natural dietary agents have attracted great attention in the scientific community and among the general public. Foods, such as tomatoes, olive oil, broccoli, garlic, onions, berries, soy bean, honey, tea, aloe vera, grapes, rosemary, basil, chili peppers, carrots, pomegranate, and curcuma contain active components that can influence the initiation and the progression of carcinogenesis, acting on pathways implied in cell proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis. The present review illustrates the main foods and their active components, including their antioxidant, cytotoxic, and pro-apoptotic properties, with a particular focus on the evidence related to cancers of the digestive system. PMID:24841279

  16. [The aneurysms of digestive system arteries: three cases].

    PubMed

    Tijani, Y; Chtata, H; Elkaoui, H; Hatim, A; Drissi, M; Abissegue, Y; Taberkant, M

    2015-04-01

    The aneurysms of digestive arteries are a rare pathological entity, with a risk of rupture associated to a high mortality rate, often asymptomatic, then they are discovered incidentally during a exam for other diagnostic purposes. We report three cases of digestive aneurysms, one of celiac trunk, one of mesenteric artery on behçet disease, and one of splenic artery, which were treated surgically with success. PMID:24856656

  17. Biokinetics and bacterial communities of propionate oxidizing bacteria in phased anaerobic sludge digestion systems.

    PubMed

    Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Parker, Wayne J; Verastegui, Yris; Neufeld, Josh D

    2013-03-15

    Phased anaerobic digestion is a promising technology and may be a potential source of bio-energy production. Anaerobic digesters are widely used for sewage sludge stabilization and thus a better understanding of the microbial process and kinetics may allow increased volatile solids reduction and methane production through robust process operation. In this study, we analyzed the impact of phase separation and operational conditions on the bio-kinetic characteristics and communities of bacteria associated with four phased anaerobic digestion systems. In addition to significant differences between bacterial communities associated with different digester operating temperatures, our results also revealed that bacterial communities in the phased anaerobic digestion systems differed between the 1st and 2nd phase digesters and we identified strong community composition correlations with several measured physicochemical parameters. The maximum specific growth rates of propionate oxidizing bacteria (POB) in the mesophilic and thermophilic 1st phases were 11 and 23.7 mgCOD mgCOD(-1) d(-1), respectively, while those of the mesophilic and thermophilic 2nd-phase digesters were 6.7 and 18.6 mgCOD mgCOD(-1) d(-1), respectively. Hence, the biokinetic characteristics of the POB population were dependent on the digester loading. In addition, we observed that the temperature dependency factor (θ) values were higher for the less heavily loaded digesters as compared to the values obtained for the 1st-phase digesters. Our results suggested the appropriate application of two sets of POB bio-kinetic that reflect the differing growth responses as a function of propionate concentration (and/or organic loading rates). Also, modeling acetogenesis in phased anaerobic sludge digestion systems will be improved considering a population shift in separate phases. On the basis of the bio-kinetic values estimated in various digesters, high levels of propionate in the thermophilic digesters may be

  18. Digestive Diseases A-Z

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Information Digestive Diseases English English Español Digestive Diseases The digestive system made up of the ... Upper GI Endoscopy Upper GI Series Virtual Colonoscopy Digestive Disease Topics Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) ...

  19. Digestive system dysfunction in cystic fibrosis: challenges for nutrition therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn

    2014-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis can affect food digestion and nutrient absorption. The underlying mutation of the cystic fibrosis trans-membrane regulator gene depletes functional cystic fibrosis trans-membrane regulator on the surface of epithelial cells lining the digestive tract and associated organs, where Cl(-) secretion and subsequently secretion of water and other ions are impaired. This alters pH and dehydrates secretions that precipitate and obstruct the lumen, causing inflammation and the eventual degradation of the pancreas, liver, gallbladder and intestine. Associated conditions include exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, impaired bicarbonate and bile acid secretion and aberrant mucus formation, commonly leading to maldigestion and malabsorption, particularly of fat and fat-soluble vitamins. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is used to address this insufficiency. The susceptibility of pancreatic lipase to acidic and enzymatic inactivation and decreased bile availability often impedes its efficacy. Brush border digestive enzyme activity and intestinal uptake of certain disaccharides and amino acids await clarification. Other complications that may contribute to maldigestion/malabsorption include small intestine bacterial overgrowth, enteric circular muscle dysfunction, abnormal intestinal mucus, and intestinal inflammation. However, there is some evidence that gastric digestive enzymes, colonic microflora, correction of fatty acid abnormalities using dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and emerging intestinal biomarkers can complement nutrition management in cystic fibrosis. PMID:25053610

  20. Anaerobic digestion: Principles and practices for biogas systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnerson, C.G.; Stuckey, D.C.; Greeley, M.; Skrinde, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    This report, one in a continuing subseries on ''integrated resource recovery,'' explores the history, technology, and applications of anaerobic digestion, the biological process by which organic materials are degraded in the absence of oxygen to produce a combustible gas, methane, and carbon dioxide.

  1. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Gracia; Bonmatí, August; Fernández, Belén

    2015-09-01

    The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20days. The SS-OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1kgCODm(-3)d(-1) (1.9kgVSm(-3)d(-1)), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20mm to 8mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system. PMID:26139136

  2. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size

    SciTech Connect

    Silvestre, Gracia; Bonmatí, August; Fernández, Belén

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Methane production rate increased between 56% and 208% during OFMSW–SS codigestion. • The OFMSW particle size reduction from 20 to 8 mm did not affect the methane yield. • OFMSW–SS codigestion promoted β-oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenic activity. • The evolution of specific activity was a feasible tool to control the process. - Abstract: The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20 days. The SS–OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1 kg{sub COD} m{sup −3} d{sup −1} (1.9 kg{sub VS} m{sup −3} d{sup −1}), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20 mm to 8 mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system.

  3. Blocking c-myc and stat3 by E. coli expressed and enzyme digested siRNA in mouse melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Jie; Zhao Yingchun; Huang Weida . E-mail: whuang@fudan.edu.cn

    2006-09-22

    Tumour cells often show alteration in the signal-transduction pathways, leading to proliferation in response to external signals. Oncogene overexpression and constitutive expression is a common phenomenon in the development and progression of many human cancers. Therefore oncogenes provide potential targets for cancer therapy. RNA interference (RNAi), mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), silences genes with a high degree of specificity and potentially represents a general approach for molecularly targeted anti-cancer therapy. The data presented in this report evaluated the method of systemically administering combined esiRNAs to multiple targets as compared with the method of using a single kind of esiRNA to a single target. Our experimental data revealed that the mixed treatment of esiC-MYC and esiSTAT3 had a better inhibition effect than the single treatment of esiC-MYC or esiSTAT3 on mouse B16 melanoma.

  4. Microthrix parvicella and Gordona amarae in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems.

    PubMed

    Marneri, Matina; Mamais, Daniel; Koutsiouki, Efi

    2009-04-14

    The scope of the study presented in this paper is to determine the fate of the filamentous bacteria Gordona amarae and Microthrix parvicella in anaerobic digestion operating under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. In order to detect and quantify foaming bacteria in the anaerobic digesters, a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method was developed and applied. This paper presents the results of a laboratory-scale study that involved the operation of four lab-scale anaerobic digestion systems operating in the mesophilic (35 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) temperature ranges at 20 days' detention time. According to the FISH counts of G. amarae and M. parvicella, it appears that thermophilic conditions resulted in a higher destruction of both filamentous bacteria, averaging approximately 97% and 94% for the single thermophilic digester and the dual thermophilic/mesophilic system, respectively. Within the context of this study, the overall performance of the four different anaerobic digestion systems was evaluated in terms of biogas production per mass of volatile solids destroyed, COD destruction, sludge dewaterability and foaming characteristics. The dual stage systems used in this study outperformed the single stage digesters. PMID:19507434

  5. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system

    SciTech Connect

    Kheradmand, S.; Karimi-Jashni, A.; Sartaj, M.

    2010-06-15

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD{sub rem} for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

  6. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Kheradmand, S; Karimi-Jashni, A; Sartaj, M

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD(rem) for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%. PMID:20194009

  7. [NADPH-diaphorase activity in digestive system of gastropod molluscs Achatina fulica and Littorina littorea].

    PubMed

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V; Markosova, T G

    2009-01-01

    Localization and peculiarities of NO-ergic elements were studied for he first time throughout the entire length of digestive tract of the marine gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica (Prosobranchia) and the terrestrial molusc Littorina littorea (Pulmonata) by using histochemical method of detection of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd). NO-ergic cells and fibers were revealed in all parts of the mollusc digestive tract beginning from pharynx. An intensive NADPHd activity was found in many intraepithelial cells of the open type and in their processes in intra- and subepithelial nerve plexuses, single subepithelial neurons, granular connective tissue cells, and numerous nerve fibers among muscle elements of he digestive tract wall as well as in nerves innervating the tract. NADPHd was also present in receptor cells of he oral area and in the central A. fulica ganglia participating in innervation of the digestive tract. The digestive tract NO-ergic system ofA. fulica has a more complex organization that that of L. littorea. In the A. fulica pharynx, stomach, and midgut, directly beneath epithelium, there is revealed a complex system of glomerular structures formed by thin NADPHd-positive nerve fibers coming from the side of epithelium. More superficially under the main groups of muscle elements, small agglomerations of NADPHd-positive neurons are seen, which could be considered as primitive, non-formed microganglia. Peculiarities of distribution and a possible functional role of NO-ergic elements in the digestive tract of molluscs are discussed as compared with other invertebrate and vertebrate animals. PMID:19370997

  8. Energize It! An Ecologically Integrated Approach to the Study of the Digestive System and Energy Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derting, Terry L.

    1992-01-01

    Develops a research-oriented method of studying the digestive system that integrates species' ecology with the form and function of this system. Uses problem-posing, problem-probing, and peer persuasion. Presents information for mammalian systems. (27 references) (MKR)

  9. Dissipation of bentazone, pyrimethanil and boscalid in biochar and digestate based soil mixtures for biopurification systems.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Santanu; Tappe, Wolfgang; Weihermueller, Lutz; Hofmann, Diana; Köppchen, Stephan; Laabs, Volker; Schroeder, Tom; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

    2016-02-15

    Biopurification systems, such as biofilters, are biotechnological tools to prevent point sources of pesticide pollution stemming from on-farm operations. For the purification processes pesticide sorption and mineralization and/or dissipation are essential and both largely depend on the type of filling materials and the pesticide in use. In this paper the mineralization and dissipation of three contrasting (14)C-labeled pesticides (bentazone, boscalid, and pyrimethanil) were investigated in laboratory incubation experiments using sandy soil, biochar produced from Pine woodchips, and/or digestate obtained from anaerobic digestion process using maize silage, chicken manure, beef and pig urine as feedstock. The results indicate that the addition of digestate increased pesticide mineralization, whereby the mineralization was not proportional to the digestate loads in the mixture, indicating a saturation effect in the turnover rate of pesticides. This effect was in correlation with the amount of water extractable DOC, obtained from the digestate based mixtures. Mixing biochar into the soil generally reduced total mineralization and led to larger sorption/sequestration of the pesticides, resulting in faster decrease of the extractable fraction. Also the addition of biochar to the soil/digestate mixtures reduced mineralization compared to the digestate alone mixture but mineralization rates were still higher as for the biochar/soil alone. In consequence, the addition of biochar to the soil generally decreased pesticide dissipation times and larger amounts of biochar led to high amounts of non-extractable residues of pesticide in the substrates. Among the mixtures tested, a mixture of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) gave optimal results with respect to mineralization and simultaneous sorption for all three pesticides. PMID:26657365

  10. Dynamics of digestive proteolytic system during blood feeding of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ticks are vectors of a wide variety of pathogens causing severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Intestinal digestion of the host blood is an essential process of tick physiology and also a limiting factor for pathogen transmission since the tick gut represents the primary site for pathogen infection and proliferation. Using the model tick Ixodes ricinus, the European Lyme disease vector, we have previously demonstrated by genetic and biochemical analyses that host blood is degraded in the tick gut by a network of acidic peptidases of the aspartic and cysteine classes. Results This study reveals the digestive machinery of the I. ricinus during the course of blood-feeding on the host. The dynamic profiling of concentrations, activities and mRNA expressions of the major digestive enzymes demonstrates that the de novo synthesis of peptidases triggers the dramatic increase of the hemoglobinolytic activity along the feeding period. Overall hemoglobinolysis, as well as the activity of digestive peptidases are negligible at the early stage of feeding, but increase dramatically towards the end of the slow feeding period, reaching maxima in fully fed ticks. This finding contradicts the established opinion that blood digestion is reduced at the end of engorgement. Furthermore, we show that the digestive proteolysis is localized intracellularly throughout the whole duration of feeding. Conclusions Results suggest that the egressing proteolytic system in the early stage of feeding and digestion is a potential target for efficient impairment, most likely by blocking its components via antibodies present in the host blood. Therefore, digestive enzymes are promising candidates for development of novel 'anti-tick' vaccines capable of tick control and even transmission of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:21156061

  11. Histological study on the digestive system development of Takifugu rubripes larvae and juvenile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zhenzhen; Gao, Tianxiang; Zhang, Xiumei; Chen, Chao; Yu, Changhong

    2006-01-01

    The digestive tract of Takifugu rubripes during early life stages was studied with light microscopy. At the beginning of hatching, the digestive tract is represented by a simple and undifferentiated straight tube and does not communicate with the exterior, as the mouth and anus are not open yet. At 2 d after hatching, a constriction between intestine and rectum that will become the intestino-rectal valve is visible. During the endogenous feeding phase, the yolk sac is resorbed and the digestive tract becomes functional and differentiated. The liver and pancreas also become apparent at this time. At onset of exogenous feeding (3 d after hatching), yolk sac resesves are not completely depleted, suggesting a period of mixed nutrition. The digestive tract differentiates fully into buccopharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestine and rectum. At 9 d after hatching, the yolk sac reserves are completely depleted. The most noticeable events occurring from 5 to 17 d after hatching are the transformation of the epithelia type, the differentiation of the pneumatic sac, the epithelial cell, gut convolution, mucosal fold increase, and the growth of liver and pancreas. From 18 to 27 d after hatching, the numbers of intestine folds and mucus cells increase progressively. From then on, morphological changes of digestive features are almost completed. At 27 d after hatching, the morphology and function of digestive system are similar to that of the adult.

  12. The effect of 1-week feed restriction on performance, digestibility of nutrients and digestive system development in the growing rabbit.

    PubMed

    Tůmová, E; Volek, Z; Chodová, D; Härtlová, H; Makovický, P; Svobodová, J; Ebeid, T A; Uhlířová, L

    2016-01-01

    A 3 to 4 week feed restriction of about 20% to 25% of the free intake is widely applied in rabbit breeding systems to reduce post-weaning digestive disorders. However, a short intensive feed restriction is described in few studies and can be beneficial for growing rabbits due to a longer re-alimentation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ad libitum (AL) and two restriction levels of feeding (50 and 65 g/rabbit per day) applied for 1 week on performance, gastrointestinal morphology and physiological parameters during the restriction and during the re-alimentation period. Rabbits were divided into three experimental groups: AL rabbits were fed AL, R1 rabbits were restricted from 42 to 49 days of age and received 50 g daily (29% of AL) and R2 rabbits were restricted at the same age and were fed 65 g of feed daily (37% of AL). In the 1(st) week after weaning and in the weeks after restriction, all the groups were fed AL. During the restriction period, daily weight gain (DWG) in R1 significantly dropped to 11% (experiment 1) and 5% (experiment 2) compared with rabbits in the AL group, although they were fed 29% of AL, whereas in the R2 group it decreased to 20% (experiment 1) and 10% (experiment 2). In the week following feed restriction, DWG in the restricted groups increased (P<0.001) to 166% and 148% in R1 and to 128% and 145% in R2. Restricted rabbits in both the experiments reached up to 90% to 93% of the final live weight (70 days) of the AL group. Over the entire experimental period, feed restriction significantly decreased feed intake to 85% to 88% of the AL group; however, the feed conversion ratio was lower (P<0.05) only in experiment 1 (-6% in R1 and -4% in R2). Digestibilities of CP and fat were not significantly higher during the restriction period and during the 1(st) week of re-alimentation compared with the AL group. Significant interactions between feeding regime and age revealed the shortest large intestine in the AL group at

  13. Mouse vocal communication system: are ultrasounds learned or innate?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production. Here we discuss the available data to assess whether male mouse song behavior and the supporting brain circuits resemble those of known vocal non-learning or vocal learning species. Recent neurobiology studies have demonstrated that the mouse USV brain system includes motor cortex and striatal regions, and that the vocal motor cortex sends a direct sparse projection to the brainstem vocal motor nucleus ambiguous, a projection previously thought be unique to humans among mammals. Recent behavioral studies have reported opposing conclusions on mouse vocal plasticity, including vocal ontogeny changes in USVs over early development that might not be explained by innate maturation processes, evidence for and against a role for auditory feedback in developing and maintaining normal mouse USVs, and evidence for and against limited vocal imitation of song pitch. To reconcile these findings, we suggest that the trait of vocal learning may not be dichotomous but encompass a broad spectrum of behavioral and neural traits we call the continuum hypothesis, and that mice possess some of the traits associated with a capacity for limited vocal learning. PMID:23295209

  14. Mouse vocal communication system: are ultrasounds learned or innate?

    PubMed Central

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production. Here we discuss the available data to assess whether male mouse song behavior and the supporting brain circuits resemble those of known vocal non-learning or vocal learning species. Recent neurobiology studies have demonstrated that the mouse USV brain system includes motor cortex and striatal regions, and that the vocal motor cortex sends a direct sparse projection to the brainstem vocal motor nucleus ambiguous, a projection thought be unique to humans among mammals. Recent behavioral studies have reported opposing conclusions on mouse vocal plasticity, including vocal ontogeny changes in USVs over early development that might not be explained by innate maturation processes, evidence for and against a role for auditory feedback in developing and maintaining normal mouse USVs, and evidence for and against limited vocal imitation of song pitch. To reconcile these findings, we suggest that the trait of vocal learning may not be dichotomous but encompass a broad set of behavioral and neural traits we call the continuum hypothesis, and that mice possess some of the traits associated with a capacity for limited vocal learning. PMID:23295209

  15. AN IMPROVEMENT TO THE MOUSE COMPUTERIZED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The original MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty System) system was designed to deal with the problem of uncertainties in Environmental engineering calculations, such as a set of engineering cast or risk analysis equations. It was especially intended for use by individuals with l...

  16. The role of hypoxia-inducible factor-2 in digestive system cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, J; Du, F; Shen, G; Zheng, F; Xu, B

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia is an all but ubiquitous phenomenon in cancers. Two known hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), HIF-1α and HIF-2α, primarily mediate the transcriptional response to hypoxia. Despite the high homology between HIF-1α and HIF-2α, emerging evidence suggests differences between both molecules in terms of transcriptional targets as well as impact on multiple physiological pathways and tumorigenesis. To date, much progress has been made toward understanding the roles of HIF-2α in digestive system cancers. Indeed, HIF-2α has been shown to regulate multiple aspects of digestive system cancers, including cell proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis, metabolism, metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. These findings make HIF-2α a critical regulator of this malignant phenotype. Here we summarize the function of HIF-2 during cancer development as well as its contribution to tumorigenesis in digestive system malignancies. PMID:25590810

  17. 75 FR 82428 - VASRD Improvement Forum-Updating Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ...The Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) and Veterans Health Administration (VHA) will co-host the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Schedule for Rating Disabilities (VASRD) Improvement Forum-- Updating Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive System, Dental Conditions, and Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies. The purpose of the VASRD......

  18. The Digestive System [and] Instructor's Guide. Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This instructional modular unit wlth instructor's guide provides materials on important aspects of one of the major systems of the human body--the digestive system. Its purpose is to introduce the student to the structures and functions of the human digestive system--and the interrelationships of the two--and to familiarize the student with some…

  19. Model development and simulation for predicting risk of foaming in anaerobic digestion systems.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, Jordi; Comas, Joaquim; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi; Pagilla, Krishna; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2010-06-01

    Although there is not a complete agreement on the causes of foaming in anaerobic digestion, experts and operators do have valuable empirical knowledge of key factors. Based on this knowledge, a model for calculating the risk of foaming in anaerobic digestion systems due to microbiological causes has been developed. Organic loading rate, variation in organic loading rate, and the presence of filamentous microorganisms in the activated sludge system, used as a feed source for the digester, have been selected as the inputs of a knowledge-based model designed to provide as output the risk of foaming in an anaerobic digester. The performance of the model is demonstrated by means of a case study using the IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 as a framework, where risk of foaming is used as a new evaluation criterion. The simulated results of an open-loop configuration and two closed-loop control strategies illustrate the usefulness of this knowledge-based approach as a means of estimating the risk of foaming in anaerobic digestion. PMID:20163960

  20. Intermediate-Scale High-Solids Anaerobic Digestion System Operational Development

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C. J.

    1995-02-01

    Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. During the first 1.5 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements, which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using ,the NREL high-solids digester design are detailed in this report.

  1. Digestive system development and study of acid and alkaline protease digestive capacities using biochemical and molecular approaches in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae.

    PubMed

    Galaviz, Mario A; López, Lus M; García Gasca, Alejandra; Álvarez González, Carlos Alfonso; True, Conal D; Gisbert, Enric

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to describe and understand the development of the digestive system in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae from hatching to 40 days post-hatch (dph) from morphological and functional perspectives. At hatch, the digestive system of totoaba was undifferentiated. The anus and the mouth opened at 4 and 5 dph, respectively. During exogenous feeding, development of the esophagus, pancreas, liver and intestine was observed with a complete differentiation of all digestive organs. Expression and activity of trypsin and chymotrypsin were observed as early as at 1 dph, and increments in their expression and activity coincided with changes in food items (live and compound diets) and morpho-physiological development of the accessory digestive glands. In contrast, pepsin was detected later during development, which includes the appearance of the gastric glands between 24 and 28 dph. One peak in gene expression was detected at 16 dph, few days before the initial development of the stomach at 20 dph. A second peak of pepsin expression was detected at day 35, followed by a peak of activity at day 40, coinciding with the change from live to artificial food. Totoaba larvae showed a fully morphologically developed digestive system between 24 and 28 dph, as demonstrated by histological observations. However, gene expression and activity of alkaline and acid proteases were detected earlier, indicating the functionality of the exocrine pancreas and stomach before the complete morphological development of the digestive organs. These results showed that integrative studies are needed to fully understand the development of the digestive system from a morphological and functional point of views, since the histological organization of digestive structures does not reflect their real functionality. These results indicate that the digestive system of totoaba develops rapidly during the first days post-hatch, especially for alkaline proteases, and the stomach

  2. Evaluation of microwave digestion systems for mercury recovery in an oil matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, M.J.; Clymire, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    The scope of this document is to characterize three microwave systems developed by CEM Corporation. The purpose of this investigative work was to evaluate the performance of each system for dissolution qualities and the recovery of mercury in an oil based matrix. The microwave systems evaluated were the heavy duty vessel system (HDV), the advanced composite system (ACV), and the open vessel system (OVS). All three systems have automated features, but all systems are limited by one factor or another. EPA method 3051 was the procedure used for sample preparation for this project. This particular microwave digestion method can also be used for other metal analytes of interest. Of the three different systems, only the HDV (now UDV) demonstrated complete digestion of the oil based matrix in a one step process and acceptable mercury recoveries.

  3. Histological development of the digestive system of the Amazonian pimelodid catfish Pseudoplatystoma punctifer.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, E; Moreira, C; Castro-Ruiz, D; Oztürk, S; Fernández, C; Gilles, S; Nuñez, J; Duponchelle, F; Tello, S; Renno, J F; García-Dávila, C; Darias, M J

    2014-11-01

    The organogenesis of the digestive system was described in the Amazonian pimelodid catfish species Pseudoplatystoma punctifer from hatching (3.5 mm total length, TL) to 41 days post-fertilization (dpf) (58.1 mm TL) reared at 28°C. Newly hatched larvae showed a simple digestive tract, which appeared as a straight undifferentiated and unfolded tube lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells (future enterocytes). During the endogenous feeding period, comprised between 20 and 96 h post-fertilization (3.5 to 6.1 mm TL), the larval digestive system experienced a fast transformation with the almost complete development and differentiation of most of digestive organs (buccopahrynx, oesophagus, intestine, liver and exocrine pancreas). Yolk reserves were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (4 dpf, 6.1 mm TL), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 6 to 7 dpf (6.8 to 7.3 mm TL) when yolk was definitively exhausted. The stomach was the organ that latest achieved its complete differentiation, characterized by the development of abundant gastric glands in the fundic stomach between 10 and 15 dpf (10.9 to 15.8 mm TL) and the formation of the pyloric sphincter at the junction of the pyloric stomach and the anterior intestine at 15 dpf (15.8 mm TL). The above-mentioned morphological and histological features observed suggested the achievement of a digestive system characteristic of P. punctifer juveniles and adults. The ontogeny of the digestive system in P. punctifer followed the same general pattern as in most Siluriform species so far, although some species-specific differences in the timing of differentiation of several digestive structures were noted, which might be related to different reproductive guilds, egg and larval size or even different larval rearing practices. According to present findings on the histological development of the digestive system in P. punctifer, some recommendations regarding the rearing practices of this

  4. Biomethanation and microbial community changes in a digester treating sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuedong; Tao, Yu; Hu, Jianmei; Liu, Gang; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2016-08-01

    Using a high-salinity-adapted inoculum and a moderate stepwise-increased organic loading rate (OLR), a stable digester performance was achieved in treating sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system. The specific methane yield was distinctly enhanced, reaching 0.203LCH4/gCODadded, compared to literature values (0.140-0.154LCH4/gCODadded) from the salty sludges. OLR adjustment and the fecal substrate substantially influenced population changes in the digester. Within the bacterial subpopulations, the relative abundance of Bacillus and Bacteroides declined, accompanied by the increase of Clostridium and Trigonala over time. The results show Trigonala was derived from the substrate and accumulated inside the digester. The most abundant methanogen was Methanosarcina in the inoculum and the digestates. The Methanosarcina proliferation can be ascribed to its metabolic versatility, probably a feature of crucial importance for high-salinity environments. Other frequently observed methanogens were outcompeted. The population similarity at the genus level between inoculum and digestates declined during the initial stage and afterwards increased. PMID:27155261

  5. Evaluation of in vivo low-dose mouse irradiation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, S. J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H.; Kye, Y.-U.; Kim, J. K.; Son, T. G.; Lee, M. W.; Jeong, D. H.; Yang, K. M.; Nam, S.-H.; Kang, Y.-R.

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to develop a facility that can irradiate subjects with a desired low dose, which can be used to assess the biological effects of low-dose radiation. We develop a single-occupancy mouse-cage and shelf system with adjustable geometric parameters, such as the distances and angles of the cages relative to the collimator. We assess the irradiation-level accuracy using two measurement methods. First, we calculate the angle and distance of each mouse cage relative to the irradiator. We employ a Monte Carlo n-particle simulation for all of the cages at a given distance from the radiation source to calculate the air kerma and the relative absorbed dose in the in-house designed shelving system; these are found to be approximately 0.108 and 0.109 Gy, respectively. Second, we measure the relative absorbed dose using glass dosimeters inserted directly into the heads and bodies of the mice. For a conventional irradiation system, the irradiation measurements show a maximum discrepancy of 42% between the absorbed and desired doses, whereas a discrepancy of only 6% from the desired dose is found for the designed mouse apartment system. In addition, multi-mouse cages are shown to yield to significantly greater differences in the mouse head and body relative absorbed doses, compared to the discrepancies found for single-occupancy cages in the conventional irradiation system. Our findings suggest that the in-house shelving system has greater reliability for the biological analysis of the effects of low-dose radiation.

  6. Modification of digestive system microbiome of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine: effect on ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, ...

  7. The Effects of Swedish Knife Model on Students' Understanding of the Digestive System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerrah Ozsevgec, Lale; Artun, Huseyin; Unal, Melike

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of Swedish Knife Model on students' understanding of digestive system. A simple experimental design (pretest-treatment-posttest) was used in the study and internal comparison of the results of the one group was made. The sample consisted of 40 7th grade Turkish students whose ages range from 13 to 15.…

  8. The association between biliary tract inflammation and risk of digestive system cancers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Che-Chen; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Su, Wen-Pang; Lai, Shih-Wei; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lai, Hsueh-Chou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between biliary tract inflammation (BTI) and digestive system cancers is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between BTI and the risks of digestive system cancers. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data, information on a cohort of patients diagnosed with BTI (n = 4398) between 2000 and 2009 was collected. A comparison cohort of sex-, age-, and index year-matched persons without BTI (n = 17,592) was selected from the same database. The disease was defined by the ICD-9-CM. Both cohorts were followed until the end of 2010 and incidences of digestive system cancers were calculated. The results revealed an increase in adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of biliary tract cancer (24.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.20–65.02), primary liver cancer (1.53; 95% CI: 1.07–2.18), and pancreatic cancer (3.10; 95% CI: 1.20–8.03) in patients with both gallbladder and BTI. The aHR of stomach cancer was also found to be increased (2.73; 95% CI: 1.28–5.81) in patients with gallbladder inflammation only. There were no differences in esophageal cancer (aHR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.23–2.87) and colorectal cancer (aHR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.59–1.45). The aHR for digestive system cancers increased by 3.66 times (95% CI: 2.50–5.35) and 12.20 times (95% CI: 8.66–17.17) in BTI visits frequency averaged 2 to 4 visits per year and frequency averaged ≥5 visits per year, respectively. Patients with BTI have significantly higher risk of digestive system cancers, particularly biliary tract, pancreatic, and primary liver cancers, compared with those who are without it. PMID:27495065

  9. Modeling a solar-heated anaerobic digester for the developing world using system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Johanna Lynn

    Much of the developing world lacks access to a dependable source of energy. Agricultural societies such as Mozambique and Papua New Guinea could sustain a reliable energy source through the microbacterial decomposition of animal and crop waste. Anaerobic digestion produces methane, which can be used directly for heating, cooking, and lighting. Adding a solar component to the digester provides a catalyst for bacteria activity, accelerating digestion and increasing biogas production. Using methane decreases the amount of energy expended by collecting and preparing firewood, eliminates hazardous health effects linked to inhalation of particles, and provides energy close to where it is needed. The purpose of this work is two fold: initial efforts focus on the development and validation of a computer-based system dynamics model that combines elements of the anaerobic digestion process in order to predict methane output; second, the model is flexed to explore how the addition of a solar component increases robustness of the design, examines predicted biogas generation as a function of varying input conditions, and determines how best to configure such systems for use in varying developing world environments. Therefore, the central components of the system: solar insolation, waste feedstock, bacteria population and consumption rates, and biogas production are related both conceptually and mathematically through a serious of equations, conversions, and a causal loop and feedback diagram. Given contextual constraints and initial assumptions for both locations, it was determined that solar insolation and subsequent digester temperature control, amount of waste, and extreme weather patterns had the most significant impact on the system as a whole. Model behavior was both reproducible and comparable to that demonstrated in existing experimental systems. This tool can thus be flexed to fit specific contexts within the developing world to improve the standard of living of many

  10. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  11. Cogeneration system using digester gas for Macon-Bibb county water and sewerage authority

    SciTech Connect

    Priester, D.C.

    1984-05-01

    With rise in energy cost, there is renewed focus on alternate energy sources, and especially sources that previously were not feasible to utilize, but were readily available. One of these is methane gas generated in biomass conversion in wastewater treatment plant anaerobic digestion process. The gas generated has been historically wasted and only used where it has been convenient. Now it is economically feasible to engineer systems to make the best use of the gas. The combination of cogeneration and digester gas utilization is particularly attractive for medium to large wastewater treatment plants. This paper describes the system designed for the Poplar Street Water Pollution Control Plant of the Macon-Bibb County Water and Sewerage Authority. The system consists of gas collection, cleaning and drying systems, storage vessel, and a utilization system of gas turbine generators.

  12. Comparative assessment of raw and digested pig slurry treatment in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, Míriam; Oliveras, Judit; Viñas, Marc; Bonmatí, August

    2016-08-01

    Both raw and anaerobically digested pig slurries were investigated in batch assays in two chambered bioelectrochemical systems (BES) run in Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) and Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) mode. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal, nitrogen recovery, cation transport and anode microbial population evolutions were assessed. The Anaerobic Digestion-MEC (AD-MEC) integrated system achieved the highest COD removal (60% in 48h); while the maximum NH4(+) removal efficiency (40%, with an ammonia flux of 8.86g N-NH4(+) d(-1)m(-2)) was achieved in MFC mode fed with digested pig slurry in 24h. On the other hand, the high pH (12.1) achieved in MEC mode (NaCl solution as catholyte), could favour ammonium recovery in a subsequent stripping and absorption process. Ammonia was the main cation involved in maintaining the electroneutrality between both compartments. Regarding microbial population, Desulfuromonadaceae, a known family of exoelectrogenic bacteria, was enriched under MEC mode, whereas hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic methanogen phylotypes belonging to Thermoplasmatales were also favoured against acetotrophic Methanosaetaceae. From these results, the integration of anaerobic digestion in BES seems to be an interesting alternative for the treatment of complex substrates, since a polished effluent can be obtained and ammonium can be simultaneously recovered for further reuse as fertilizer. PMID:27093494

  13. Information Digest 1987-1988. University System of Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University System of Georgia, Atlanta.

    A collections of facts and statistical data to enhance understanding of the University System of Georgia is presented, updating information from earlier editions. Information was selected on the basis of the most frequently asked questions about the system and its 34 institutions. Eight sections focus on: general information (University System of…

  14. Efficiency of a novel "Food to waste to food" system including anaerobic digestion of food waste and cultivation of vegetables on digestate in a bubble-insulated greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Stoknes, K; Scholwin, F; Krzesiński, W; Wojciechowska, E; Jasińska, A

    2016-10-01

    At urban locations certain challenges are concentrated: organic waste production, the need for waste treatment, energy demand, food demand, the need for circular economy and limited area for food production. Based on these factors the project presented here developed a novel technological approach for processing organic waste into new food. In this system, organic waste is converted into biogas and digester residue. The digester residue is being used successfully as a stand-alone fertilizer as well as main substrate component for vegetables and mushrooms for the first time - a "digeponics" system - in a closed new low energy greenhouse system with dynamic soap bubble insulation. Biogas production provides energy for the process and CO2 for the greenhouse. With very limited land use highly efficient resource recycling was established at pilot scale. In the research project it was proven that a low energy dynamic bubble insulated greenhouse can be operated continuously with 80% energy demand reduction compared to conventional greenhouses. Commercial crop yields were achieved based on fertilization with digestate; in individual cases they were even higher than the control yields of vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumber and lettuce among others. For the first time an efficient direct use of digestate as substrate and fertilizer has been developed and demonstrated. PMID:27425859

  15. Periodic properties of the histaminergic system of the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Rozov, Stanislav V; Zant, Janneke C; Karlstedt, Kaj; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Panula, Pertti

    2014-01-01

    Brain histamine is involved in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle and alertness. Despite the widespread use of the mouse as an experimental model, the periodic properties of major markers of the mouse histaminergic system have not been comprehensively characterized. We analysed the daily levels of histamine and its first metabolite, 1-methylhistamine, in different brain structures of C57BL/6J and CBA/J mouse strains, and the mRNA level and activity of histidine decarboxylase and histamine-N-methyltransferase in C57BL/6J mice. In the C57BL/6J strain, histamine release, assessed by in vivo microdialysis, underwent prominent periodic changes. The main period was 24 h peaking during the activity period. Additional 8 h periods were also observed. The release was highly positively correlated with active wakefulness, as shown by electroencephalography. In both mouse strains, tissue histamine levels remained steady for 24 h in all structures except for the hypothalamus of CBA/J mice, where 24-h periodicity was observed. Brain tissue 1-methylhistamine levels in both strains reached their maxima in the periods of activity. The mRNA level of histidine decarboxylase in the tuberomamillary nucleus and the activities of histidine decarboxylase and histamine-N-methyltransferase in the striatum and cortex did not show a 24-h rhythm, whereas in the hypothalamus the activities of both enzymes had a 12-h periodicity. These results show that the activities of histamine-metabolizing enzymes are not under simple direct circadian regulation. The complex and non-uniform temporal patterns of the histaminergic system of the mouse brain suggest that histamine is strongly involved in the maintenance of active wakefulness. PMID:24438489

  16. Microbial distribution and abundance in the digestive system of five shipworm species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae).

    PubMed

    Betcher, Meghan A; Fung, Jennifer M; Han, Andrew W; O'Connor, Roberta; Seronay, Romell; Concepcion, Gisela P; Distel, Daniel L; Haygood, Margo G

    2012-01-01

    Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms) are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) of the gills (ctenidia). These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis). These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:23028923

  17. Microbial Distribution and Abundance in the Digestive System of Five Shipworm Species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Betcher, Meghan A.; Fung, Jennifer M.; Han, Andrew W.; O’Connor, Roberta; Seronay, Romell; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Distel, Daniel L.; Haygood, Margo G.

    2012-01-01

    Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms) are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) of the gills (ctenidia). These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis). These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:23028923

  18. [An overview of the regulation of basic functions of the digestive system].

    PubMed

    Svorc, P; Bracoková, I; Dorko, E

    2001-08-01

    The gastrointestinal system is the gate through which nutritive substances, vitamins, minerals, and fluids enter the body. Proteins, fats and complex carbohydrates are broken down into absorbable units (products of the digestion) in the digestive tract and finally they are absorbed together with vitamins, minerals and water into the blood or the lymph. The digestive and absorptive functions of the gastrointestinal tract depend on the various mechanisms, which adjust the food, put it through the gastrointestinal tract and mix it together with digestive enzymes secreted by the salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, small intestine and with bile. Some of these mechanisms depend on the spontaneous activity of the smooth muscles, others involve the somatic and autonomous reflexes, paracrine effects of the chemical substances, hormones and local gastrointestinal hormones. The aim of this paper is to review the essential factors participating in the regulation of these processes (mainly motility and secretion) from the mouth cavity, stomach, duodenum, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine and large intestine to the defecation. The basic regulatory factors are summarized in the schemes from the sources of the physiological textbooks, which are accepted in the whole world for the education of physiology in the medical faculties. PMID:11530723

  19. [Digestive system diseases and style of nutrition among secondary school students].

    PubMed

    Chemperek, E; Jeleniewski, M

    2001-03-01

    In the paper there was examined 246 pupils from secondary school. The auditorial survey including 23 questions was drawn up. The questions referred to digestive diseases occurrence among members of family, pupils under the survey, their style of nutrition, financial status of their family. It was interesting how kind of food, keeping regular hours, behaviour during eating is connected with frequency of digestive disease occurrence. 14.5% of pupils suffered from alimentary tract diseases especially constipation and peptic ulcer. A large percentage (46.2%) do not eat regularly, and 85% is in a hurry, doing something else during eating. 39.4% of examined use spices, ketchup, mustard every time, 17.5% do not eat vegetables, fruit at all, 45.9% eat sweets every day. Before leaving for school 45.9% pupils do not even eat breakfast. 69.1% of subjects claimed that stress is a reason of occurence their digestive disorders. In the paper abnormal style of nutrition is more frequent among pupils complaining of digestive system diseases. PMID:11398515

  20. Psychological Practice in Schools: System Change in the Heartland. Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J.

    System reform in U.S. heartland is the story of a decade-long effort to change the ways we think about children and youth who experience learning or behavior problems in educational settings. This fundamentally different way of thinking involves a shift from seeking the causes and solutions to learning and emotional/behavioral problems in inferred…

  1. [Digestive system disease as manifestation of the pleiotropic action of genes in mitochondrial dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Hrechanina, O Ia; Hrechanina, Iu B; Husar, V A; Molodan, L V

    2014-11-01

    Defined involvement lesions of the digestive system of clinical manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction associated with both point mutations and polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA. The nature of the clinical signs of mtDNA polymorphisms carriers--multi organical, a progressive, clinical polymorphism, genetic heterogeneity with predominant involvement of energotropic bodies (cerebrum, cordis, hepatic). Set individual nosological forms of mitochondrial dysfunctions--syndromes Leia, Leber, Cairns, Sarah, MERRF, MELAS, NARP, MNGIE confirmed by clinical and genetic, morphological, biochemical, enzymatic, molecular genetics methods. It was found that 84-88% of these syndromes involving the violation of the digestive system with varying degrees of injury. This damage will be the first in the complex chain signs recovery which determines the direction of early rehabilitation. PMID:25528830

  2. Efficient and Specific Trypsin Digestion of Microgram to Nanogram Quantities of Proteins in Organic-Aqueous Solvent Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Strader, Michael B; Tabb, Dave L; Hervey, IV, William Judson; Pan, Chongle; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B

    2006-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based identification of the components of multiprotein complexes often involves solution-phase proteolytic digestion of the complex. The affinity purification of individual protein complexes often yields nanogram to low-microgram amounts of protein, which poses several challenges for enzymatic digestion and protein identification. We tested different solvent systems to optimize trypsin digestions of samples containing limited amounts of protein for subsequent analysis by LC-MS-MS. Data collected from digestion of 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2- g portions of a protein standard mixture indicated that an organicaqueous solvent system containing 80% acetonitrile consistently provided the most complete digestion, producing more peptide identifications than the other solvent systems tested. For example, a 1-h digestion in 80% acetonitrile yielded over 52% more peptides than the overnight digestion of 1 g of a protein mixture in purely aqueous buffer. This trend was also observed for peptides from digested ribosomal proteins isolated from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In addition to improved digestion efficiency, the shorter digestion times possible with the organic solvent also improved trypsin specificity, resulting in smaller numbers of semitryptic peptides than an overnight digestion protocol using an aqueous solvent. The technique was also demonstrated for an affinityisolated protein complex, GroEL. To our knowledge, this report is the first using mass spectrometry data to show a linkage between digestion solvent and trypsin specificity. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a widely used method for studying proteins, protein complexes, and whole proteomes because of innovations in soft ionization techniques, bioinformatics, and chromatographic separation techniques.1-7 An example of a high-throughput mass spectrometry strategy commonly used for this purpose is a variation of the "shotgun" approach, involving in-solution digestion of a protein complex followed by

  3. Prediction of digestible energy of feed ingredients for growing pigs using a computer-controlled simulated digestion system.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Gao, L X; Huang, Q H; Lu, Q P; Sa, R N; Zhang, H F

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate in vitro DE (IVDE) of selected feed ingredients using a computer-controlled simulated digestion system (CCSDS) and predict DE of ingredients for growing pigs. Samples of 6 ingredients with a wide range in energy and nutrient profile were collected. The CP and GE contents ranged from 9.9 to 50.9% and 4,493 to 4,841 kcal/kg (DM basis), respectively. Two control diets were formulated to achieve different CP contents (12.5 and 20.0%). Three experimental diets were formulated by replacing 20% of the high-CP control diet with corn, wheat, or wheat bran, whereas 3 additional diets were formulated by replacing 20% of the low-CP control diet with soybean meal, rapeseed meal, or cottonseed meal. The DE was determined using barrows (n = 24; initial BW = 35.9 ± 1.9 kg) in 2 periods with 6 observations per diet treatment and ranged from 2,769 to 4,368 kcal/kg. The equation for the DE content (kcal/kg of DM) using chemical components as independent variables was DE = 4,186 + 0.06 × CP + 79.33 × ether extract - 14.57 × NDF - 47.99 × ADF, with R(2) = 0.995, residual SD (RSD) = 89.5 kcal/kg, CV = 2.4%, and P = 0.10 (chemical component values; %). The IVDE ranged from 2,289 to 3,724 kcal/kg and was highly related to the determined DE content of the ingredients (R(2) = 0.91, RSD = 193 kcal/kg, and CV = 5.2%). The relationship between IVDE:GE and DE:GE was very high (R(2) = 0.93, RSD = 3.8%, and CV = 4.7%). The average values of CV for IVDE (0.75%) and IVDE:GE (0.73%) were less than that for determined DE (2.58%) and DE:GE (2.54%), respectively. In conclusion, the IVDE content determined, using a CCSDS with relatively high accuracy and acceptable repeatability, might be used to predict DE of feed ingredients for growing pigs. PMID:25057025

  4. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. PMID:26799793

  5. Metabolic routes along digestive system of licorice: multicomponent sequential metabolism method in rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Haiyu; Liu, Yang; Dong, Honghuan; Lv, Beiran; Fang, Min; Zhao, Huihui

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to establish the multicomponent sequential metabolism (MSM) method based on comparative analysis along the digestive system following oral administration of licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., leguminosae), a traditional Chinese medicine widely used for harmonizing other ingredients in a formulae. The licorice water extract (LWE) dissolved in Krebs-Ringer buffer solution (1 g/mL) was used to carry out the experiments and the comparative analysis was performed using HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods. In vitro incubation, in situ closed-loop and in vivo blood sampling were used to measure the LWE metabolic profile along the digestive system. The incubation experiment showed that the LWE was basically stable in digestive juice. A comparative analysis presented the metabolic profile of each prototype and its corresponding metabolites then. Liver was the major metabolic organ for LWE, and the metabolism by the intestinal flora and gut wall was also an important part of the process. The MSM method was practical and could be a potential method to describe the metabolic routes of multiple components before absorption into the systemic blood stream. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26418123

  6. [Diseases of digestive system in patients with AIDS].

    PubMed

    Brbmolić, B; Jevtović, Dj; Ranin, J; Salemović, D; Zerjav, S

    1992-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract and hepatobiliary system. Gastrointestinal abnormalities in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are common and may relate to opportunistic inections and tumors, diseases which are usual in the anti-HIV negative population also, and disease of unknown aethiology, such as wasting syndrome and recurrent diarrhoeal illness. Diarrhoea and weight loss are found in more than 50% of patients with AIDS. Gastrointestinal manifestations range in severity from the discomfort of oral and perianal infections, through life threatening diarrhoea due to intestinal cryptosporidiosis. The approach to the patient with AIDS and gastrointestinal or hepatobiliary disorders is oriented toward diagnosing treatable aethiologies and avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures. Although the final prognosis of full developed AIDS is poor, management of gastrointestinal disease may be improved by accurate diagnosis. PMID:18170973

  7. System parameters for erythropoiesis control model: Comparison of normal values in human and mouse model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The computer model for erythropoietic control was adapted to the mouse system by altering system parameters originally given for the human to those which more realistically represent the mouse. Parameter values were obtained from a variety of literature sources. Using the mouse model, the mouse was studied as a potential experimental model for spaceflight. Simulation studies of dehydration and hypoxia were performed. A comparison of system parameters for the mouse and human models is presented. Aside from the obvious differences expected in fluid volumes, blood flows and metabolic rates, larger differences were observed in the following: erythrocyte life span, erythropoietin half-life, and normal arterial pO2.

  8. Spatial decision support system to evaluate crop residue energy potential by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Humberto; Castro, Liliana; Gauthier-Maradei, Paola; Rodríguez De La Vega, Reynel

    2016-11-01

    Implementing anaerobic digestion (AD) in energy production from crop residues requires development of decision tools to assess its feasibility and sustainability. A spatial decision support system (SDSS) was constructed to assist decision makers to select appropriate feedstock according to biomethanation potential, identify the most suitable location for biogas facilities, determine optimum plant capacity and supply chain, and evaluate associated risks and costs. SDSS involves a spatially explicit analysis, fuzzy multi-criteria analysis, and statistical and optimization models. The tool was validated on seven crop residues located in Santander, Colombia. For example, fique bagasse generates about 0.21millionm(3)CH4year(-1) (0.329m(3)CH4kg(-1) volatile solids) with a minimum profitable plant of about 2000tonyear(-1) and an internal rate of return of 10.5%. SDSS can be applied to evaluate other biomass resources, availability periods, and co-digestion potential. PMID:27479798

  9. Finger mouse system based on computer vision in complex backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Xiong

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a human-computer interaction system and realizes a real-time virtual mouse. Our system emulates the dragging and selecting functions of a mouse by recognizing bare hands, hence the control style is simple and intuitive. A single camera is used to capture hand images and a DSP chip is embedded as the image processing platform. To deal with complex backgrounds, particularly where skin-like or moving objects appear, we develop novel hand recognition algorithms. Hand segmentation is achieved by skin color cue and background difference. Each input image is corrected according to the luminance and then skin color is extracted by Gaussian model. We employ a Camshift tracking algorithm which receives feedbacks from the recognition module. In fingertip recognition, a method combining template matching and circle drawing is proposed. Our system has advantages of good real-time performance, easy integration and energy conservation. Experiments show that the system is robust to the scaling and rotation of hands.

  10. Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... pie or thinking about how delicious that ripe tomato is going to be, you start salivating — and ... humans, protein must be broken down into amino acids, starches into simple sugars, and fats into fatty ...

  11. Anaerobic digestion of food waste through the operation of a mesophilic two-phase pilot scale digester--assessment of variable loadings on system performance.

    PubMed

    Grimberg, S J; Hilderbrandt, D; Kinnunen, M; Rogers, S

    2015-02-01

    Single and two-phase operations were compared at mesophilic operating conditions using a digester system consisting of three 5-m(3) reactors treating food waste generated daily within the university campus kitchens. When normalizing the methane production to the daily feedstock characteristics, significantly greater methane was produced during two-phase mesophilic digestion compared to the single-stage operation (methane yield of 380 vs 446-L CH4 kg VS(-1); 359 vs 481-L CH4 kg COD(-1) removed for single vs two stage operation). The fermentation reactor could be maintained reliably even under very low loading rates (0.79±0.16 kg COD m(-3) d(-1)) maintaining a steady state pH of 5.2. PMID:25266683

  12. Immunoreactivity of the 14F7 Mab Raised against N-Glycolyl GM3 Ganglioside in Epithelial Malignant Tumors from Digestive System

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Rancés; Rengifo, Enrique; Cedeño, Mercedes; Rengifo, Charles E.; Alonso, Daniel F.; Carr, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    The limited expression of N-Glycolyl GM3 (NeuGcGM3) ganglioside in human normal tissues, as well as its presence in melanoma and breast carcinoma using 14F7 Mab (anti-NeuGcGM3), has been previously reported. In this work we evaluated for the first time the 14F7 Mab immunorecognition in some digestive system tumors. Immunohistochemical assays were made with 14F7, followed by anti-mouse biotinylated antibody and ABC/HRP system in normal and pathological human tissues were made. No immunoreaction was evidenced in normal tissues. The reactivity of 14F7 was detected in all adenocarcinomas of the stomach (12/12), colon (12/12), and pancreas (11/11). A finely granular immunorecognition in esophageal tumors (5/15), epidermoid carcinoma of the rectum (5/7), and basaloid carcinoma (4/5) of the latter as well as in hepatocellular carcinoma (13/14) was also observed. Our results are in agreement with the assumption that NeuGcGM3 ganglioside may be considered as target for passive and active immunotherapy in digestive system malignancies expressing this molecule. PMID:21991524

  13. Digestive diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007447.htm Digestive diseases To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Digestive diseases are disorders of the digestive tract, which ...

  14. [Diseases of the digestive system and a system for patient classification: diagnostic-related groups (DRG)].

    PubMed

    Poves Martínez, E

    1996-10-01

    In the last years different classification systems for hospitalized patients have been developed in the United States, that allow to evaluate different aspects of any Hospital: The quality, the efficacy and the efficiency. The classification of "The Diagnosis Related Groups" (DRG) relates the hospitalized patients with the expenses that they generate, and it is the most used in Europe. In the version DRG-All Patient, all the diagnoses and procedures of the hospitalized patients, using the International Classification of Diseases, are divided in to 25 Major Diagnostic Categories (MDC) where each one excludes all the others. We describe the behavior with respect to the age, sex and stay of all the GDR integrated in the CDM 6 and 7: diseases and disorders of the digestive tract, and diseases and disorders of the hepatobiliary system and the pancreas. The study has been carried out with a national data base of two millions of cases seen from 214 acute-care Hospitals. The MDC number 6 is the most frequent, with an important number of patients in the pediatric age; it is more frequent in males; the average stay is 8.59 days and 19 GDR (36.5%) have a variation coefficient greater than one. The other MDC, number 7 is less frequent, the majority of the patients are between 60-80 years of age, the average stay is 12.2 days with a coefficient of variation greater than one in 4 GDR (17.4%). Clinical Services should know the characteristics and behavior of their patients, as well as the comparison with the national data bases. This may allow a control of the quality and the costs by using a common "language" with the managers. PMID:8983307

  15. Biogas production from municipal solid wastes using an integrated rotary drum and anaerobic-phased solids digester system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baoning; Zhang, Ruihong; Gikas, Petros; Rapport, Joshua; Jenkins, Bryan; Li, Xiujin

    2010-08-01

    This research was conducted to develop an integrated rotary drum reactor (RDR)-anaerobic-phased solids (APS) digester system for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce biogas energy and achieve waste reduction. A commercial RDR facility was used to provide a 3-d pretreatment and sufficient separation of the organics from MSW and then the organics were digested in a laboratory APS-digester system for biogas production. The organics generated from the RDR contained 50% total solids (TS) and 36% volatile solids (VS) on wet basis. The APS-digester was started at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.1 gVS L(-1) d(-1) and operated at three higher OLRs of 4.6, 7.7 and 9.2 gVS L(-1) d(-1). At the OLR of 9.2 gVS L(-1) d(-1) the system biogas production rate was 3.5 L L(-1) d(-1) and the biogas and methane yields were 0.38 and 0.19 L gVS(-1), respectively. Anaerobic digestion resulted in 38% TS reduction and 53% VS reduction in the organic solids. It was found that the total VFA concentration reached a peak value of 15,000 mg L(-1) as acetic acid in the first 3d of batch digestion and later decreased to about 500 mg L(-1). The APS-digester system remained stable at each OLRs for over 100d with the pH in the hydrolysis reactors in the range of 7.3-7.8 and the pH in the biogasification reactor in 7.9-8.1. The residual solids after the digestion had a high heating value of 14.7 kJ gTS(-1). PMID:20409703

  16. Analysis of Bioenergy Residues (biochar and digestate) to Study the Fate of Pesticides for Biopurification Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2015-12-01

    To overcome the problem of on farm point sources of pollution, environmental friendly and low cost technology filter systems are under development. Processes like sorption-desorption, dissipation behavior of three radiolabeled pesticides (Bentazone, Boscalid and Pyrimethanil) has been investigated at lab scale. Biochar and digestate mixtures with two types of soil (sandy and silt loam) had been used as a biofilter test material for a respiration study (over three month's time period) instead of conventional soil, peat and straw mixtures. The results show that digestate is an easily available C-source leading to highest release of CO2-C. It was found that with the addition of even a small amount (1 % W/W) of biochar there is a profound suppression in the CO2-C release.The driving mechanism for this suppression can be manifold like negative priming, chemisorption of CO2-C on biochar or combinations of all. Further, the fate of applied organic contaminants to biomixtures depends on factors like soil properties as well as biological degradation by soil microbes. To analyze the degradation potential of the different soil/amendment mixtures on pesticides a degradation study was performed. The results from the 14C labelled pesticides study indicated that a mixture of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) well balanced the mineralization (~20% for bentazone, ~6% for boscalid and ~2% for pyrimethanil) and sorption process (>85% non-extractable residues for all pesticides) resulting in favorable dissipation process. To investigate the sorption-desorption potential of the above pesticides a batch equilibrium study was carried out with selected biomixtures. A higher Kd (>1500 L kg-1), kf (>400 μM1-1/nf L1/nfkg-1) and KL (>40 L kg-1) was obtained for all pesticides for the soil/digestate/biochar mixtures, which had a higher organic matter content. SUVA254 values justified the aromatic character of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) mixture which showed highest Koc values among all

  17. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    SciTech Connect

    Stabnikova, O. Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y.

    2008-07-01

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

  18. Waste activated sludge treatment based on temperature staged and biologically phased anaerobic digestion system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingwen; Zheng, Mingxia; Tao, Tao; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun

    2013-10-01

    The concept of temperature staged and biological phased (TSBP) was proposed to enhance the performance of waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion. Semi-continuous experiments were used to investigate the effect of temperature (35 to 70 degrees C) as well as the hydraulic retention time (HRT) (2, 4 and 6 days) on the acidogenic phase. The results showed that the solubilization degree of waste-activated sludge increased from 14.7% to 30.1% with temperature increasing from 35 to 70 degrees C, while the acidification degree was highest at 45 degrees C (17.6%), and this was quite different from the temperature impact on hydrolysis. Compared with HRT of 2 and 6 days, 4 days was chosen as the appropriate HRT because of its relatively high solubilization degree (24.6%) and acidification degree (20.1%) at 45 degrees C. The TSBP system combined the acidogenic reactor (45 degrees C, 4 days) with the methanogenic reactor (35 degrees C, 16 days) and the results showed 84.8% and 11.4% higher methane yield and volatile solid reduction, respectively, compared with that of the single-stage anaerobic digestion system with HRT of 20 days at 35 degrees C. Moreover, different microbial morphologies were observed in the acidogenic- and methanogenic-phase reactors, which resulted from the temperature control and HRT adjustment. All the above results indicated that 45 degrees C was the optimum temperature to inhibit the activity of methanogenic bacteria in the acidogenic phase, and temperature staging and phase separation was thus accomplished. The advantages of the TSBP process were also confirmed by a full-scale waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion project which was an energy self-sufficient system. PMID:24494492

  19. Continuously-stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into Biogas: System Setup and Basic Operation

    PubMed Central

    Usack, Joseph G.; Spirito, Catherine M.; Angenent, Largus T.

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a bioprocess that is commonly used to convert complex organic wastes into a useful biogas with methane as the energy carrier 1-3. Increasingly, AD is being used in industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste(water) treatment applications 4,5. The use of AD technology allows plant operators to reduce waste disposal costs and offset energy utility expenses. In addition to treating organic wastes, energy crops are being converted into the energy carrier methane 6,7. As the application of AD technology broadens for the treatment of new substrates and co-substrate mixtures 8, so does the demand for a reliable testing methodology at the pilot- and laboratory-scale. Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations, including the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow (PF), and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) configurations 9. The CSTR is frequently used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations. However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with solids or settling of solids in tubing. For that scenario with continuous mixing requirements, lab-scale bioreactors are fed periodically and we refer to such configurations as continuously stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs). This article

  20. On the Morphology of the Digestive System of Two Monomorium Ant Species

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Daniel Russ; Rossi, Mônica Lanzoni; Fox, Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson; Nogueira, Neusa de Lima; Tanaka, Francisco André Ossamu; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2013-01-01

    The digestive system of adults and mature larvae of two ant species of Monomorium Mayr (Hymoneptera: Formicidae) were described with the aid of light and scanning electron microscopy, as there is a lack of studies in this area. These two ant species are recurrently found in urban habitats and are known as ‘tramp species,’ as they cause problems in households, businesses, and hospitals. The most interesting finds of the present study include the existence of spinules in the crop of adults, and the number of Malpighian tubules and rectal pads was constant among different castes, ages, and species. PMID:24224520

  1. Membrane controlled anaerobic digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omstead, D. R.

    In response to general shortages of energy, examination of the anaerboic digestion process as a potential source of a combustible, methane-rich fuel has intensified in recent years. It has been suggested that orgaic intermediates (such as fatty acids), produced during digestion, might also be recovered for use as chemical feedstocks. This investigation has been concerned with combining ultrafiltration separation techniques with anaerobic digestion for the development of a process in which the total production of acetic acid (the most valuable intermediate in anaerobic digestion) and methane are optimized. Enrichment cultures, able to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source, were adapted from sewage digesting cultures using conventional techniques. An ultrafiltration system was constructed and coupled to an anaerobic digester culture vessel which contained the glucose enrichment. The membrane controlled anaerobic digester appears to show promise as a means of producing high rates of both methane gas and acetic acid.

  2. Anaerobic digestion: principles and practices for biogas systems. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnerson, C.G.; Stuckey, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The report is part of a joint global research, development, and demonstration effort of the United Nations Development Programme and the World Bank. It explores the history, technology, and applications of anaerobic digestion, the biological process by which organic materials are degraded in the absence of oxygen to produce a combustible gas, methane (CH/sub 4/), and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/). The process occurs naturally in wet, decaying organic matter (biomass) found in swamps, bottom muds of streams, and garbage dumps. Since about 1900, it has been used in engineered systems for treatment and stabilization of municipal or industrial sludges. Starting around 1920, systems have been operated so as to capture the biogas, identical to marsh gas which contains about 55-75 percent methane, as an energy source. In addition to producing a fuel substitute, benefits of digestion include reduction or elimination of pathogens in human and animal wastes and production of a stable, generally environmentally acceptable slurry or sludge that can be used as a fertilizer and soil conditioner.

  3. Electrochemical sensing system employing fructosamine 6-kinase enables glycated albumin measurement requiring no proteolytic digestion.

    PubMed

    Kameya, Miho; Tsugawa, Wakako; Yamada-Tajima, Mayumi; Hatada, Mika; Suzuki, Keita; Sakaguchi-Mikami, Akane; Ferri, Stefano; Klonoff, David C; Sode, Koji

    2016-06-01

    Currently available enzymatic methods for the measurement of glycated proteins utilize fructosyl amino acid/peptide oxidases (FAOXs/FPOXs) as sensing elements. FAOXs/FPOXs oxidize glycated amino acids or glycated dipeptides but they are not able to accept longer glycated peptides or intact glycated proteins as substrates. Therefore, pretreatment via proteolytic digestion is unavoidable with the current enzymatic methods, and there remains a need for simpler measurement methods for glycated proteins. In this study, in order to develop a novel sensing system for glycated albumin (GA), a marker for diabetes, with no requirement for proteolytic digestion, we created an electrochemical sensor based on fructosamine 6-kinase (FN6K) from Escherichia coli. Uniquely, FN6K can react directly with intact GA unlike FAOXs/FPOXs. The concentration of GA in samples was measured using a carbon-printed disposable electrode upon which FN6K as well as two additional enzymes, pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase were overlaid. A clear correlation between the response current and the concentration of GA was observed in the range of 20-100 µM GA, which is suitable for measurement of GA in diluted blood samples from both healthy individuals and patients with diabetes. The sensing system reported here could be applied to point-of-care-testing devices for measurement of glycated proteins. PMID:27067959

  4. Validation of the TrichinEasy® digestion system for the detection of Anisakidae larvae in fish products.

    PubMed

    Cammilleri, Gaetano; Chetta, Michele; Costa, Antonella; Graci, Stefania; Collura, Rosaria; Buscemi, Maria Drussilla; Cusimano, Maria; Alongi, Angelina; Principato, Deborah; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Vella, Antonio; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    Anisakis and other parasites belonging to the Anisakidae family are organisms of interest for human health, because of their high zoonotic potential. Parasites belonging to this family can cause Anisakiasis, a parasitological disease caused by the ingestion of raw, infested fish products. Furthermore, evidence from the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority; EFSA 2010) has highlighted the allergological potential of nematodes belonging to the Anisakis genre. The detection and identification of Anisakidae larvae in fish products requires an initial visual inspection of the fish sample, as well as other techniques such as candling, UV illumination and artificial digestion. The digestion method consists of the simulation of digestive mechanics, which is made possible by the utilization of HCl and pepsin, according to EC Regulation 2075/2005. In this study, a new Anisakidae larvae detection method using a mechanical digestion system called Trichineasy® was developed. A total of 142 fish samples, belonging to 14 different species, were examined to validate the method. A reaction mixture with 100 g of sample, 10 g of pepsin (1:10000 NF) and 50 ml of 10% HCl at 36 ± 1°C for 20 minutes was evaluated to be the best condition for the digestion of fish samples. These parameters have also allowed the detection of viable larvae after digestion. The results confirm this instrumentation as a valuable and safe tool for the detection of Anisakidae larvae in fishery products. PMID:27078661

  5. Quiz Making Activities Using the Multi-Mouse Quiz System in an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Juan; Mori, Mikihiko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Kita, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Mouse Quiz System is an application used to treat quizzes in a classroom or other learning environment. The system comprises the Multi Mouse Quiz (MMQ) and MMQEditor. The MMQ is an application of Single Display Groupware (SDG), which enables multiple users to answer quizzes by connecting several mice to an ordinary computer. The…

  6. Anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, M.; Haga, R.; Odawara, Y.

    1982-10-19

    An algae culture grown on the water from the digested slurry of a biogasification plant serves as a means of removing CO/sub 2/ from the methane stream while purifying the wastewater and providing more biomass for the anaerobic digestion plant. Tested on a sewage-sludge digestion system, the proposed process improved the methane yield by 32% and methane concentration by 53-98 vol % while lowering the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the final water.

  7. Mouse Vocal Communication System: Are Ultrasounds Learned or Innate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production.…

  8. Potential for direct interspecies electron transfer in an electric-anaerobic system to increase methane production from sludge digestion

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Wang, Liying; Quan, Xie

    2015-01-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between Geobacter species and Methanosaeta species is an alternative to interspecies hydrogen transfer (IHT) in anaerobic digester, which however has not been established in anaerobic sludge digestion as well as in bioelectrochemical systems yet. In this study, it was found that over 50% of methane production of an electric-anaerobic sludge digester was resulted from unknown pathway. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Geobacter species were significantly enriched with electrodes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) further confirmed that the dominant Geobacter species enriched belonged to Geobacter metallireducens. Together with Methanosaeta species prevailing in the microbial communities, the direct electron exchange between Geobacter species and Methanosaeta species might be an important reason for the “unknown” increase of methane production. Conductivity of the sludge in this electric-anaerobic digester was about 30% higher than that of the sludge in a control digester without electrodes. This study not only revealed for the first time that DIET might be the important mechanism on the methanogenesis of bioelectrochemical system, but also provided a new method to enhance DIET by means of bioelectric enrichment of Geobacter species. PMID:26057581

  9. MOUSE (MODULAR ORIENTED UNCERTAINTY SYSTEM): A COMPUTERIZED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM. OPERATIONAL MANUAL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty SystEm) deals with the problem of uncertainties in models that consist of one or more algebraic equations. It was especially designed for use by those with little or no knowledge of computer languages or programming. It is compact (and thus can...

  10. Kinetics of drug selection systems in mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stable expression of transgenes is an important technique to analyze gene function. Various drug resistance genes, such as neo, pac, hph, zeo, bsd, and hisD, have been equally used as selection markers to isolate a transfectant without considering their dose-dependent characters. Results We quantitatively measured the variation of transgene expression levels in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells, using a series of bi-cistronic expression vectors that contain Egfp expression cassette linked to each drug resistant gene via IRES with titration of the selective drugs, and found that the transgene expression levels achieved in each system with this vector design are in order, in which pac and zeo show sharp selection of transfectants with homogenously high expression levels. We also showed the importance of the choice of the drug selection system in gene-trap or gene targeting according to this order. Conclusions The results of the present study clearly demonstrated that an appropriate choice of the drug resistance gene(s) is critical for a proper design of the experimental strategy. PMID:23919313

  11. Role of MicroRNAs-221/222 in Digestive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Suzuki, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    MiR-221 and miR-222 (miR-221/222) are well-studied oncogenic microRNAs that are frequently upregulated in several types of human tumors, such as esophageal adenocarcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. In these cancers, silencing miR-221/222 could represent a novel anti-tumor approach to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. On the other hand, miR-221/222 also play onco-suppressive roles in cholangiocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Here we will review the roles of miR-221/222 in digestive systems and their possibility as prognostic and therapeutic tools. PMID:26258795

  12. Digestive system of the sacoglossan Plakobranchus ocellatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia): light- and electron-microscopic observations with remarks on chloroplast retention.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi

    2005-08-01

    The sacoglossan Plakobranchus ocellatus feeds by sucking the cytoplasmic contents from algae and retains intact algal chloroplasts within the cells of the digestive gland. Morphology of the entire digestive system of this species was firstly described by means of a combination of histology and electron microscopy (both SEM and TEM). The short alimentary canal is confined to the head, and the anus opens at the anterior right corner of the pericardial swelling, as is the case in many non-shelled sacoglossans. The alimentary canal of the specimens examined rarely contained ingesta, suggesting that the retained chloroplasts provide sufficient nourishment to the sacoglossan hosts and that sea slugs with empty stomachs survive well in the field. The digestive gland, with the retained chloroplasts, branches from the stomach and is sparsely distributed throughout the body, including the head region, but is aggregated mainly in the dorsal lamellae. Chloroplasts were occasionally found in the epithelial cells in the transitional region from the stomach wall to the digestive gland, which may be a site at which chloroplasts are incorporated into the animal cells by endocytosis. Numerous microvilli filling the lumen of the digestive gland suggest that molecules are actively transferred within the gland. The sea slug thus apparently provides a favorable environment to support the long-term retention and function of chloroplasts. PMID:16141704

  13. Histological Aspects of the Early Development of the Digestive System of Burbot Lota lota L. (Lotidae, Gadiformes).

    PubMed

    Furgała-Selezniow, Grazyna; Jankun, Małgorzata; Kujawa, Roman; Nowosad, Joanna; Biłas, Maria; Kucharczyk, Dariusz; Skrzypczak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The ontogeny of the digestive tract was studied histologically in burbot, Lota lota L., from hatching to 42 days post-hatch (dph). At hatching, the digestive tract consisted of a straight tube with discernible digestive accessory glands (the liver and the pancreas) dorsally attached to the yolk sac. Most of the yolk sac reserves were consumed during the first 12 days and were completely depleted by 17 dph. The first PAS-positive goblet cells appeared at 6 dph, dispersed within the epithelium of the oesophagus and increasing substantially in number and distribution as development progressed. At 12 dph, the first vacuoles (neutral lipids) appeared in the intestine, indicating the functional absorption of nutrients from food. Differentiation of gastric glands was first noticed at 17 dph and was extensive by 27 dph. L. lota larvae have a morphologically complete digestive tract by 32 dph. These findings on the development of the digestive system in L. lota may contribute to a better understanding of its ontogeny and can be useful for improvement of the larval rearing techniques of this promising species for freshwater aquaculture diversification. PMID:27172708

  14. Modelling anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water and faecal matter in accumulation system.

    PubMed

    Elmitwalli, Tarek; Zeeman, Grietje; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model based on anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was developed for accumulation (AC) system treating concentrated black water and faecal matter at different temperatures. The AC system was investigated for the treatment of waste (water) produced from the following systems: vacuum toilet for black water (VBW), vacuum toilet for faeces with urine separation (VF), dry toilet (DT), dry toilets for faeces with urine separation (DF), separated faecal matter from conventional black water by filter bag (FB). For evaluation of the AC system treating the proposed waste (water) sources at 20 and 35 degrees C, two options were studied: (1) The filling period of the AC system was constant for all waste (water) sources (either 1, 3 or 6 months) and for each period, the seed sludge volume was varied; (2) The volume of the AC system was constant for all proposed waste (water) sources. The results showed that the filling period of the AC system was the main parameter affecting the system performance, followed by operational temperature, while the increase of the seed sludge volume slightly enhanced the performance of the system. The model results indicated that the filling period of the AC system should be higher than 150 days for obtaining a stable performance. It was found that the hydrolysis of biodegradable particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD) is the rate limiting step, as volatile fatty acid concentration is very low in all experimental conditions (< 200 mgCOD/L at 20 degrees C and < 100 mgCOD/L at 35 degrees C). Based on the results of the two options, it was found that the concentrated waste (water) sources have better performance than the diluted waste (water) sources, like VBW waste (water). Furthermore, smaller volume will be required for the AC system. PMID:21902047

  15. Anaerobic biodegradability and digestion in accumulation systems for concentrated black water and kitchen organic-wastes.

    PubMed

    Elmitwalli, T A; van Leeuwen, M; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Sanders, W; Zeeman, G

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of two accumulation-systems (AC) for anaerobic digestion and storage of concentrated black water with (AC1) or without (AC2) urine + kitchen organic-wastes was investigated. The waste(water) was collected by two vacuum toilet/transport systems. The influent-total COD of the AC2 (53,000 mg/L) was more concentrated by four times than that of the AC1. The suspended COD represented the major part (71-73%) of influent total COD of the two systems. The batch-experiments results showed a high anaerobic biodegradability of the waste(water) (> 85%). The AC systems demonstrated stable performance. There was no inhibition effect of NH4 and VFA concentration decreased in time. Total COD removal of 58% was achieved in both systems, after 105 days at 20 degrees C. Moreover, if only the supernatant in AC1 is withdrawn and the settled sludge stays for the next runs, only 20% of the influent total COD will be in the supernatant. In AC2, 74% of influent ortho-P was removed by precipitation. Therefore, the settled sludge in the AC2 had a high total-P concentration of 1,300 mg/L. The C:N:P ratios of the supernatant and the sludge were 26:13:1 and 35:4.5:1, respectively, in the AC1, and were 28:14:1 and 32:2.4:1, respectively, in AC2. PMID:16784201

  16. Postnatal Development of the Mouse Enteric Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Foong, Jaime Pei Pei

    2016-01-01

    Owing to over three decades of research, we now have a good understanding of the genetic and molecular control of enteric nervous system (ENS) development during embryonic and prenatal stages. On the other hand, it has only just become clear that a substantial process of ENS maturation occurs after birth (Hao et al. 2013a). During postnatal stages, in addition to genetic influences, ENS development is also potentially affected by the external environment. Thus it is possible that manipulating certain environmental factors could help prevent or reduce motility disorders. However the genetic and environmental factors that regulate postnatal ENS development remain unknown. Researchers have used a variety of animal models that are easy to manipulate genetically or experimentally, and have short gestational periods, to understand the development of the ENS. Notably, due to the availability of mouse models for several human enteric neuropathies, many studies have used the mature and developing murine ENS as a model. Here, I will discuss recent advances in knowledge about postnatal development of the murine ENS, and highlight future directions for this emerging research field. PMID:27379641

  17. The Journey of a Sandwich: Computer-Based Laboratory Experiments about the Human Digestive System in High School Biology Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorgo, Andrej; Hajdinjak, Zdravka; Briski, Darko

    2008-01-01

    Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school…

  18. Pretreatment Lymphocyte Monocyte Ratio Predicts Long-Term Outcomes in Patients with Digestive System Tumor: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwen; Chen, Lishan; Zhou, Rui; Sun, Huiying; Liao, Yulin; Liao, Wangjun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The prognostic value of pretreatment lymphocyte monocyte ratio (LMR) in digestive system cancer patients remains controversial. The aim of this study was to quantify the prognostic impact of this biomarker and assess its consistency in digestive system tumors. Methods. We searched "PubMed," "Embase," and "CBM" for published eligible studies before June 2016 and conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for disease recurrence and mortality focusing on LMR. Subgroup analyses, meta-regression, and sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results. A total of 22 cohort studies enrolling 12829 patients with digestive system cancer were included. The summary results showed that lower LMR was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and tumor disease or recurrence-free survival (DFS/RFS) in analyses using the studies reporting HRs either by the univariate analyses (HR = 1.32, HR = 1.35, and HR = 1.26 for OS, CSS, and DFS/RFS, resp.) or by multivariate analyses (HR = 1.21, HR = 1.18, and HR = 1.26 for OS, CSS, and DFS/RFS, resp.). Conclusion. Our results support the fact that decreased LMR indicates worse prognosis in multiple digestive system tumors. PMID:27594882

  19. What Happens to the Food We Eat? Children's Conceptions of the Structure and Function of the Digestive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Francimar Martins

    2000-01-01

    Describes children's conceptions of the structure and function of the human digestive system based on an investigation carried out with children aged 4-10 (n=45). Finds that children possess biological knowledge as an independent knowledge domain from the age of four. Discusses acquisition of and barriers to scientific concepts related to human…

  20. Pretreatment Lymphocyte Monocyte Ratio Predicts Long-Term Outcomes in Patients with Digestive System Tumor: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingwen; Chen, Lishan; Zhou, Rui; Sun, Huiying; Liao, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The prognostic value of pretreatment lymphocyte monocyte ratio (LMR) in digestive system cancer patients remains controversial. The aim of this study was to quantify the prognostic impact of this biomarker and assess its consistency in digestive system tumors. Methods. We searched “PubMed,” “Embase,” and “CBM” for published eligible studies before June 2016 and conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for disease recurrence and mortality focusing on LMR. Subgroup analyses, meta-regression, and sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results. A total of 22 cohort studies enrolling 12829 patients with digestive system cancer were included. The summary results showed that lower LMR was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and tumor disease or recurrence-free survival (DFS/RFS) in analyses using the studies reporting HRs either by the univariate analyses (HR = 1.32, HR = 1.35, and HR = 1.26 for OS, CSS, and DFS/RFS, resp.) or by multivariate analyses (HR = 1.21, HR = 1.18, and HR = 1.26 for OS, CSS, and DFS/RFS, resp.). Conclusion. Our results support the fact that decreased LMR indicates worse prognosis in multiple digestive system tumors. PMID:27594882

  1. The isolation and characterization of new C. thermocellum strains and the evaluation of multiple anaerobic digestion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Wen

    The overall objective of my research was to improve the efficiencies of bioconversions that produce renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass. To this end, my studies addressed issues important to two promising strategies: consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) and anaerobic digestion (AD). CBP achieves saccharolytic enzyme production, hydrolysis, and fermentation in a single step and is considered to be the most cost-effective model. Anaerobic bacteria that can be used in CBP are highly desirable. To that end, two thermophilic and cellulolytic bacterial strains were isolated and characterized (Chapter 3). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, both strains CS7 and CS8 are closely related to Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. However, they had significantly higher specific cellulase activities and ethanol/acetate ratios than C. thermocellum ATCC 27405. As a result, CS7 and CS8 are two new highly cellulolytic and ethanologenic C. thermocellum strains, with application potentials in research and development of CBP. As some of the most promising AD processes, two temperature-phased AD (TPAD) systems, in comparison with a thermophilic single-stage AD (TSAD) system and a mesophilic two-stage AD (MTAD) system, were studied in treating high-strength dairy cattle manure. The TPAD systems, with the thermophilic digesters acidified (AT-TPAD, Chapter 4) or operated at neutral pH (NT-TPAD, Chapter 5), were optimized at the thermophilic temperature of 50°C and a volume ratio between the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters of 1:2. Despite similar methane productions, the NT-TPAD system achieved significantly higher volatile solid (VS) removal than the AT-TPAD system and needed no external pH adjustments (Chapter 6). At the same overall OLR, the TSAD system achieved the highest performance, followed by the NT-TPAD and the MTAD systems (Chapter 7). Each digester harbored distinct yet dynamic microbial populations, some of which were significantly correlated or associated

  2. The association between biliary tract inflammation and risk of digestive system cancers: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Che-Chen; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Su, Wen-Pang; Lai, Shih-Wei; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lai, Hsueh-Chou

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between biliary tract inflammation (BTI) and digestive system cancers is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between BTI and the risks of digestive system cancers.Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data, information on a cohort of patients diagnosed with BTI (n = 4398) between 2000 and 2009 was collected. A comparison cohort of sex-, age-, and index year-matched persons without BTI (n = 17,592) was selected from the same database. The disease was defined by the ICD-9-CM. Both cohorts were followed until the end of 2010 and incidences of digestive system cancers were calculated.The results revealed an increase in adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of biliary tract cancer (24.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.20-65.02), primary liver cancer (1.53; 95% CI: 1.07-2.18), and pancreatic cancer (3.10; 95% CI: 1.20-8.03) in patients with both gallbladder and BTI. The aHR of stomach cancer was also found to be increased (2.73; 95% CI: 1.28-5.81) in patients with gallbladder inflammation only. There were no differences in esophageal cancer (aHR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.23-2.87) and colorectal cancer (aHR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.59-1.45). The aHR for digestive system cancers increased by 3.66 times (95% CI: 2.50-5.35) and 12.20 times (95% CI: 8.66-17.17) in BTI visits frequency averaged 2 to 4 visits per year and frequency averaged ≥5 visits per year, respectively.Patients with BTI have significantly higher risk of digestive system cancers, particularly biliary tract, pancreatic, and primary liver cancers, compared with those who are without it. PMID:27495065

  3. Quantification of the main digestive processes in ruminants: the equations involved in the renewed energy and protein feed evaluation systems.

    PubMed

    Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of feeding systems for ruminants towards evaluation of diets in terms of multiple responses requires the updating of the calculation of nutrient supply to the animals to make it more accurate on aggregated units (feed unit, or UF, for energy and protein digestible in the intestine, or PDI, for metabolizable protein) and to allow prediction of absorbed nutrients. The present update of the French system is based on the building and interpretation through meta-analysis of large databases on digestion and nutrition of ruminants. Equations involved in the calculation of UF and PDI have been updated, allowing: (1) prediction of the out flow rate of particles and liquid depending on the level of intake and the proportion of concentrate, and the use of this in the calculation of ruminal digestion of protein and starch from in situ data; (2) the system to take into account the effects of the main factors of digestive interactions (level of intake, proportion of concentrate, rumen protein balance) on organic matter digestibility, energy losses in methane and in urine; (3) more accurate calculation of the energy available in the rumen and the efficiency of its use for the microbial protein synthesis. In this renewed model UF and PDI values of feedstuffs vary depending on diet composition, and intake level. Consequently, standard feed table values can be considered as being only indicative. It is thus possible to predict the nutrient supply on a wider range of diets more accurately and in particular to better integrate energy×protein interactions occurring in the gut. PMID:26696120

  4. Fluorescence molecular imaging system with a novel mouse surface extraction method and a rotary scanning scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Dianwen; Baikejiang, Reheman; Li, Changqing

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a new fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) imaging system, in which we utilized a phase shifting method to extract the mouse surface geometry optically and a rotary laser scanning approach to excite fluorescence molecules and acquire fluorescent measurements on the whole mouse body. Nine fringe patterns with a phase shifting of 2π/9 are projected onto the mouse surface by a projector. The fringe patterns are captured using a webcam to calculate a phase map that is converted to the geometry of the mouse surface with our algorithms. We used a DigiWarp approach to warp a finite element mesh of a standard digital mouse to the measured mouse surface thus the tedious and time-consuming procedure from a point cloud to mesh is avoided. Experimental results indicated that the proposed method is accurate with errors less than 0.5 mm. In the FMT imaging system, the mouse is placed inside a conical mirror and scanned with a line pattern laser that is mounted on a rotation stage. After being reflected by the conical mirror, the emitted fluorescence photons travel through central hole of the rotation stage and the band pass filters in a motorized filter wheel, and are collected by a CCD camera. Phantom experimental results of the proposed new FMT imaging system can reconstruct the target accurately.

  5. Pathogenesis of H5N1 influenza virus infections in mice and ferret models differ between respiratory and digestive system exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data suggests H5N1 influenza viruses are transmitted through and predominantly affect the respiratory system of mammals. Some data suggests digestive system involvement. However, direct evidence of alimentary transmission and infection in mammal...

  6. Biokinetic and molecular studies of methanogens in phased anaerobic digestion systems.

    PubMed

    Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Parker, Wayne J; Verastegui, Yris; Neufeld, Josh D

    2013-12-01

    The influence of differing operational conditions of two-stage digesters on biokinetic characteristics and communities of methanogenic archaea was evaluated. Operating temperature of each phase influenced the archaeal communities significantly. Also, a strong correlation was observed between community composition and temperature and pH. The maximum specific substrate utilization rates (k max) of acetoclastic methanogens in the mesophilic and thermophilic 1st phases were 11.4 and 22.0 mgCOD mgCOD(-1)d(-1), respectively, whereas significantly lower k max values were estimated for the mesophilic and thermophilic 2nd-phase digesters which were 7.6 and 16.6 mgCOD mgCOD(-1)d(-1), respectively. It appeared that the biokinetic characteristics of the acetoclastic methanogen communities were reliant on digester loading rates. Also, higher temperature dependency coefficients (θ) were observed for the long retention time digesters when compared to the values computed for the 1st-phase digesters. Accordingly, the implementation of two sets of biokinetic parameters for acetoclastic methanogen will improve modeling of phased anaerobic digesters. PMID:24125797

  7. All systems GO for understanding mouse gene function

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Chris; Brown, Steve DM

    2004-01-01

    It is widely supposed that the tissue specificity of gene expression indicates gene function. Now, an extensive analysis of gene expression in the mouse reveals that quantitative measurement of expression levels in different tissues can contribute powerfully to the prediction of gene function. PMID:15610553

  8. Spare capacity and phenotypic flexibility in the digestive system of a migratory bird: defining the limits of animal design

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Scott R.; Karasov, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible phenotypes enable animals to live in environments that change over space and time, and knowing the limits to and the required time scale for this flexibility provides insights into constraints on energy and nutrient intake, diet diversity and niche width. We quantified the level of immediate and ultimate spare capacity, and thus the extent of phenotypic flexibility, in the digestive system of a migratory bird in response to increased energy demand, and identified the digestive constraints responsible for the limits on sustained energy intake. Immediate spare capacity decreased from approximately 50% for birds acclimated to relatively benign temperatures to less than 20% as birds approached their maximum sustainable energy intake. Ultimate spare capacity enabled an increase in feeding rate of approximately 126% as measured in birds acclimated for weeks at −29°C compared with +21°C. Increased gut size and not tissue-specific differences in nutrient uptake or changes in digestive efficiency or retention time were primarily responsible for this increase in capacity with energy demand, and this change required more than 1–2 days. Thus, the pace of change in digestive organ size may often constrain energy intake and, for birds, retard the pace of their migration. PMID:24718764

  9. Influence of different substrates on the performance of a two-stage high pressure anaerobic digestion system.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, A; Chen, Y; Lindner, J; Wonneberger, A M; Zielonka, S; Oechsner, H; Jungbluth, T

    2015-02-01

    The two-stage autogenerative high-pressure digestion technique is a novel and promising approach for the production of gaseous fuels or upgraded biogas. This new technique is described in the patent DE 10 2011 015415 A1 and integrates biogas production, its upgrading and pressure boosting in one process. Anaerobic digestion under elevated pressure conditions leads to decreasing pH-values in the digestate due to the augmented formation of carboxylic acid. Model calculations carried out to evaluate the two-stage design showed that the pH-value in the pressurized anaerobic filter has a major influence on the methane content of the biogas produced. Within this study, the influence of the nitrogen content as one of the most important buffering substances on the performance of the system has been tested. The results show that higher NH4 contents lead to higher pH-values in the digester and as a consequence to higher methane contents. PMID:25451774

  10. Long Noncoding RNAs in Digestive System Malignancies: A Novel Class of Cancer Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets?

    PubMed Central

    Kladi-Skandali, Athina; Michaelidou, Kleita; Scorilas, Andreas; Mavridis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    High throughput methodologies have revealed the existence of an unexpectedly large number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). The unconventional role of lncRNAs in gene expression regulation and their broad implication in oncogenic and tumor suppressive pathways have introduced lncRNAs as novel biological tumor markers. The most prominent example of lncRNAs application in routine clinical practice is PCA3, a FDA-approved biomarker for prostate cancer. Regarding digestive system malignancies, the oncogenic HOTAIR is one of the most widely studied lncRNAs in the preclinical level and has already been identified as a potent prognostic marker for major malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we provide an overview of recent findings regarding the emerging role of lncRNAs not only as key regulators of cancer initiation and progression in colon, stomach, pancreatic, liver, and esophageal cancers, but also as reliable tumor markers and therapeutic tools. lncRNAs can be easily, rapidly, and cost-effectively determined in tissues, serum, and gastric juice, making them highly versatile analytes. Taking also into consideration the largely unmet clinical need for early diagnosis and more accurate prognostic/predictive markers for gastrointestinal cancer patients, we comment upon the perspectives of lncRNAs as efficient molecular tools that could aid in the clinical management. PMID:26064090

  11. Rapid preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis by microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Ko, Ju-Young; Jang, Jun-Ho; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Suck; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-11-20

    This study describes a simple preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis using a microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system (MAREDS) with various carbohydrases, and evaluates their antioxidative effects. Polysaccharide hydrolysates were prepared using MAREDS under different hydrolytic conditions of the carbohydrases and microwave powers. Polysaccharides less than 10kDa (Low molecular weight polysaccharides, LMWP, ≤10kDa) were efficiently obtained using an ultrafiltration (molecular weight cut-off of 10kDa). MAREDS increases AMG activation via an increased degree of hydrolysis; the best AMG hydrolysate was prepared using a 10:1 ratio of substrate to enzyme for 2h in MAREDS with 400W. LMWP consisted of galactose (27.3%), glucose (64.5%), and mannose (8.3%) from the AMG hydrolysate had stronger antioxidant effects than the high molecular weight polysaccharides (>10kDa). We rapidly prepared functional LMWPs by using MAREDS with carbohydrases, and suggest that LMWP might be potentially a valuable algal polysaccharide antioxidant. PMID:27561523

  12. Sensory Neurons that Detect Stretch and Nutrients in the Digestive System.

    PubMed

    Williams, Erika K; Chang, Rui B; Strochlic, David E; Umans, Benjamin D; Lowell, Bradford B; Liberles, Stephen D

    2016-06-30

    Neural inputs from internal organs are essential for normal autonomic function. The vagus nerve is a key body-brain connection that monitors the digestive, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. Within the gastrointestinal tract, vagal sensory neurons detect gut hormones and organ distension. Here, we investigate the molecular diversity of vagal sensory neurons and their roles in sensing gastrointestinal inputs. Genetic approaches allowed targeted investigation of gut-to-brain afferents involved in homeostatic responses to ingested nutrients (GPR65 neurons) and mechanical distension of the stomach and intestine (GLP1R neurons). Optogenetics, in vivo ganglion imaging, and genetically guided anatomical mapping provide direct links between neuron identity, peripheral anatomy, central anatomy, conduction velocity, response properties in vitro and in vivo, and physiological function. These studies clarify the roles of vagal afferents in mediating particular gut hormone responses. Moreover, genetic control over gut-to-brain neurons provides a molecular framework for understanding neural control of gastrointestinal physiology. PMID:27238020

  13. Expression, localization and possible functions of aquaporins 3 and 8 in rat digestive system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, G X; Dong, P P; Peng, R; Li, J; Zhang, D Y; Wang, J Y; Shen, X Z; Dong, L; Sun, J Y

    2016-01-01

    Although aquaporins (AQPs) play important roles in transcellular water movement, their precise quantification and localization remains controversial. We investigated expression levels and localizations of AQP3 and AQP8 and their possible functions in the rat digestive system using real-time polymerase chain reactions, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. We investigated the expression levels and localizations of AQP3 and AQP8 in esophagus, forestomach, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, proximal and distal colon, and liver. AQP3 was expressed in the basolateral membranes of stratified epithelia (esophagus and forestomach) and simple columnar epithelia (glandular stomach, ileum, and proximal and distal colon). Expression was particularly abundant in the esophagus, and proximal and distal colon. AQP8 was found in the subapical compartment of columnar epithelial cells of the jejunum, ileum, proximal colon and liver; the most intense staining occurred in the jejunum. Our results suggest that AQP3 and AQP8 play significant roles in intestinal function and/or fluid homeostasis and may be an important subject for future investigation of disorders that involve disruption of intestinal fluid homeostasis, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:26983346

  14. Efficient reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus from mouse central nervous system tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Heng; Yao, Hui-Wen; Huang, Wen-Yen; Hsu, Kuei-Sen; Lei, Huan-Yao; Shiau, Ai-Li; Chen, Shun-Hua

    2006-12-01

    For decades, numerous ex vivo studies have documented that latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivates efficiently from ganglia, but rarely from the central nervous systems (CNS), of mice when assayed by mincing tissues before explant culture, despite the presence of viral genomes in both sites. Here we show that 88% of mouse brain stems reactivated latent virus when they were dissociated into cell suspensions before ex vivo explant culture. The efficient reactivation of HSV from the mouse CNS was demonstrated with more than one viral strain, viral serotype, and mouse strain, further indicating that the CNS can be an authentic latency site for HSV with the potential to cause recurrent disease. PMID:17005636

  15. Ontogeny of the Digestive System of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) and Effects of Soybean Meal from Start-Feeding.

    PubMed

    Sahlmann, Christian; Gu, Jinni; Kortner, Trond M; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long history of rearing Atlantic salmon in hatcheries in Norway, knowledge of molecular and physiological aspects of juvenile development is still limited. To facilitate introduction of alternative feed ingredients and feed additives during early phases, increased knowledge regarding the ontogeny of the digestive apparatus in salmon is needed. In this study, we characterized the development of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs for five months following hatch by using histological, biochemical and molecular methods. Furthermore, the effects of a diet containing 16.7% soybean meal (SBM) introduced at start-feeding were investigated, as compared to a fishmeal based control diet. Salmon yolk sac alevins and fry were sampled at 18 time points from hatch until 144 days post hatch (dph). Histomorphological development was investigated at 7, 27, 46, 54 and 144 dph. Ontogenetic expression patterns of genes encoding key digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, gastrointestinal peptide hormones and T-cell markers were analyzed from 13 time points by qPCR. At 7 dph, the digestive system of Atlantic salmon alevins was morphologically distinct with an early stomach, liver, pancreas, anterior and posterior intestine. About one week before the yolk sac was internalized and exogenous feeding was started, gastric glands and developing pyloric caeca were observed, which coincided with an increase in gene expression of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and nutrient transporters. Thus, the observed organs seemed ready to digest external feed well before the yolk sac was absorbed into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to post-smolt Atlantic salmon, inclusion of SBM did not induce intestinal inflammation in the juveniles. This indicates that SBM can be used in compound feeds for salmon fry from start-feeding to at least 144 dph and/or 4-5 g body weight. PMID:25923375

  16. Ontogeny of the Digestive System of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) and Effects of Soybean Meal from Start-Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Sahlmann, Christian; Gu, Jinni; Kortner, Trond M.; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long history of rearing Atlantic salmon in hatcheries in Norway, knowledge of molecular and physiological aspects of juvenile development is still limited. To facilitate introduction of alternative feed ingredients and feed additives during early phases, increased knowledge regarding the ontogeny of the digestive apparatus in salmon is needed. In this study, we characterized the development of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs for five months following hatch by using histological, biochemical and molecular methods. Furthermore, the effects of a diet containing 16.7% soybean meal (SBM) introduced at start-feeding were investigated, as compared to a fishmeal based control diet. Salmon yolk sac alevins and fry were sampled at 18 time points from hatch until 144 days post hatch (dph). Histomorphological development was investigated at 7, 27, 46, 54 and 144 dph. Ontogenetic expression patterns of genes encoding key digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, gastrointestinal peptide hormones and T-cell markers were analyzed from 13 time points by qPCR. At 7 dph, the digestive system of Atlantic salmon alevins was morphologically distinct with an early stomach, liver, pancreas, anterior and posterior intestine. About one week before the yolk sac was internalized and exogenous feeding was started, gastric glands and developing pyloric caeca were observed, which coincided with an increase in gene expression of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and nutrient transporters. Thus, the observed organs seemed ready to digest external feed well before the yolk sac was absorbed into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to post-smolt Atlantic salmon, inclusion of SBM did not induce intestinal inflammation in the juveniles. This indicates that SBM can be used in compound feeds for salmon fry from start-feeding to at least 144 dph and/or 4-5 g body weight. PMID:25923375

  17. Biodegradation of polyacrylamide by anaerobic digestion under mesophilic condition and its performance in actual dewatered sludge system.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Yi, Jing; He, Qunbiao; Dong, Bin

    2014-02-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) used in sludge dewatering widely exists in high-solid anaerobic digestion. Degradation of polyacrylamide accompanied with accumulation of its toxic monomer is important to disposition of biogas residues. The potential of anaerobic digestion activity in microbial utilization of PAM was investigated in this study. The results indicated that the utilization rate of PAM (as nitrogen source) was influenced by accumulation of ammonia, while cumulative removal of amide group was accorded with zeroth order reaction in actual dewatered system. The adjoining amide group can combined into ether group after biodegradation. PAM can be broken down in different position of its carbon chain backbone. In actual sludge system, the hydrolytic PAM was liable to combined tyrosine-rich protein to form colloid complex, and then consumed as carbon source to form monomer when easily degradable organics were exhausted. The accumulation of acrylamide was leveled off ultimately, accompanied with the yield of methane. PMID:24345566

  18. Insights into bread melanoidins: fate in the upper digestive tract and impact on the gut microbiota using in vitro systems.

    PubMed

    Helou, Cynthia; Denis, Sylvain; Spatz, Madeleine; Marier, David; Rame, Véronique; Alric, Monique; Tessier, Frédéric J; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale

    2015-12-01

    Bread melanoidins are heterogeneous, nitrogen-containing, brown macromolecules generated during the last stages of the Maillard reaction in bread. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact and fate of these bread melanoidins in the human gastrointestinal tract using in vitro systems. Batch systems as well as the TNO gastrointestinal tract were used for studying the digestion of various bread samples. These samples included bread crumb, bread crust and two bread-crust-simulating models: a fiber-free model (gluten, starch and glucose heated together) and its control, free of Maillard reaction products (gluten heated separately than starch and glucose). Furthermore, the impact of these two bread-crust-simulating models on the gut microbiota was assessed using a static anaerobic batch system. Bread melanoidins from bread crust and its model were shown to be partially digested by amylases and proteases, suggesting that these melanoidins have peptidic as well as glycosidic bonds in their skeleton. The impact of bread melanoidins from the bread-crust-simulating models and their digestion products on the gut microbiota revealed an individual-dependent response for most flora except for enterobacteria. This flora decreased by -22%, -48% & -100% depending on the individual. Thus, bread melanoidins seem to exert an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting enterobacteria. PMID:26364594

  19. Bisphosphonates as potential adjuvants for patients with cancers of the digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Celina; Doyle, Erin; Branch, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Best known for their anti-resorptive activity in bone, bisphosphonates (BPs) have generated interest as potential antineoplastic agents given their pleiotropic biological effects which include antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and immune-modulating properties. Clinical studies in multiple malignancies suggest that BPs may be active in the prevention or treatment of cancer. Digestive tract malignancies represent a large and heterogeneous disease group, and the activity of BPs in these cancers has not been extensively studied. Recent data showing that some BPs inhibit human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) signaling highlight a potential therapeutic opportunity in digestive cancers, many of which have alterations in the HER axis. Herein, we review the available evidence providing a rationale for the repurposing of BPs as a therapeutic adjunct in the treatment of digestive malignancies, especially in HER-driven subgroups. PMID:26811636

  20. Bisphosphonates as potential adjuvants for patients with cancers of the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Ang, Celina; Doyle, Erin; Branch, Andrea

    2016-01-21

    Best known for their anti-resorptive activity in bone, bisphosphonates (BPs) have generated interest as potential antineoplastic agents given their pleiotropic biological effects which include antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and immune-modulating properties. Clinical studies in multiple malignancies suggest that BPs may be active in the prevention or treatment of cancer. Digestive tract malignancies represent a large and heterogeneous disease group, and the activity of BPs in these cancers has not been extensively studied. Recent data showing that some BPs inhibit human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) signaling highlight a potential therapeutic opportunity in digestive cancers, many of which have alterations in the HER axis. Herein, we review the available evidence providing a rationale for the repurposing of BPs as a therapeutic adjunct in the treatment of digestive malignancies, especially in HER-driven subgroups. PMID:26811636

  1. Faecal bile acids are natural ligands of the mouse accessory olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Wayne I; Dinser, Jordan A; Cansler, Hillary L; Zhang, Xingjian; Dinh, Daniel D; Browder, Natasha S; Riddington, Ian M; Meeks, Julian P

    2016-01-01

    The accessory olfactory system (AOS) guides behaviours that are important for survival and reproduction, but understanding of AOS function is limited by a lack of identified natural ligands. Here we report that mouse faeces are a robust source of AOS chemosignals and identify bile acids as a class of natural AOS ligands. Single-unit electrophysiological recordings from accessory olfactory bulb neurons in ex vivo preparations show that AOS neurons are strongly and selectively activated by peripheral stimulation with mouse faecal extracts. Faecal extracts contain several unconjugated bile acids that cause concentration-dependent neuronal activity in the AOS. Many AOS neurons respond selectively to bile acids that are variably excreted in male and female mouse faeces, and others respond to bile acids absent in mouse faeces. These results identify faeces as a natural source of AOS information, and suggest that bile acids may be mammalian pheromones and kairomones. PMID:27324439

  2. Faecal bile acids are natural ligands of the mouse accessory olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Wayne I.; Dinser, Jordan A.; Cansler, Hillary L.; Zhang, Xingjian; Dinh, Daniel D.; Browder, Natasha S.; Riddington, Ian M.; Meeks, Julian P.

    2016-01-01

    The accessory olfactory system (AOS) guides behaviours that are important for survival and reproduction, but understanding of AOS function is limited by a lack of identified natural ligands. Here we report that mouse faeces are a robust source of AOS chemosignals and identify bile acids as a class of natural AOS ligands. Single-unit electrophysiological recordings from accessory olfactory bulb neurons in ex vivo preparations show that AOS neurons are strongly and selectively activated by peripheral stimulation with mouse faecal extracts. Faecal extracts contain several unconjugated bile acids that cause concentration-dependent neuronal activity in the AOS. Many AOS neurons respond selectively to bile acids that are variably excreted in male and female mouse faeces, and others respond to bile acids absent in mouse faeces. These results identify faeces as a natural source of AOS information, and suggest that bile acids may be mammalian pheromones and kairomones. PMID:27324439

  3. Navigating wastewater energy recovery strategies: a life cycle comparison of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and conventional treatment systems with anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Cao, Ling; Love, Nancy G; Raskin, Lutgarde; Skerlos, Steven J

    2014-05-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate emerging anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology in comparison with conventional wastewater energy recovery technologies. Wastewater treatment process modeling and systems analyses were combined to evaluate the conditions under which AnMBR may produce more net energy and have lower life cycle environmental emissions than high rate activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (HRAS+AD), conventional activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (CAS+AD), and an aerobic membrane bioreactor with anaerobic digestion (AeMBR+AD). For medium strength domestic wastewater treatment under baseline assumptions at 15 °C, AnMBR recovered 49% more energy as biogas than HRAS+AD, the most energy positive conventional technology considered, but had significantly higher energy demands and environmental emissions. Global warming impacts associated with AnMBR were largely due to emissions of effluent dissolved methane. For high strength domestic wastewater treatment, AnMBR recovered 15% more net energy than HRAS+AD, and the environmental emissions gap between the two systems was reduced. Future developments of AnMBR technology in low energy fouling control, increased flux, and management of effluent methane emissions would make AnMBR competitive with HRAS+AD. Rapid advancements in AnMBR technology must continue to achieve its full economic and environmental potential as an energy recovery strategy for domestic wastewater. PMID:24742289

  4. Adenosine transport systems on dissociated brain cells from mouse, guinea-pig, and rat

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, M.E.; Geiger, J.D. )

    1990-09-01

    The kinetics and sodium dependence of adenosine transport were determined using an inhibitor-stop method on dissociated cell body preparations obtained from mouse, guinea-pig and rat brain. Transport affinity (KT) values for the high affinity adenosine transport systems KT(H) were significantly different between these three species; mean +/- SEM values were 0.34 +/- 0.1 in mouse, 0.9 +/- 0.2 in rat, and 1.5 +/- 0.5 microM in guinea-pig. The KT values for the low affinity transport system KT(L) were not different between the three species. Brain cells from rat displayed a significantly greater maximal capacity to accumulate (3H)adenosine (Vmax) than did mouse or guinea-pig for the high affinity system, or than did mouse for the low affinity system. When sodium chloride was replaced in the transport medium with choline chloride, the KT(H) values for guinea-pig and rat were both increased by approximately 100%; only in rat did the change reach statistical significance. The sodium-dependence of adenosine transport in mouse brain was clearly absent. The differences between KT(H) values in mouse and those in guinea-pig or rat were accentuated in the absence of sodium. The differences in kinetic values, ionic requirements, and pharmacological characteristics between adenosine transporters in CNS tissues of mouse, guinea-pig and rat may help account for some of the variability noted among species in terms of their physiological responses to adenosine.

  5. Water as a leaching medium for hydrolysis of sorghum in anaerobic digestion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Egg, R.; Coble, C.G.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect of using water to leach hydrolysis products from sorghum used as an anaerobic digestion feedstock. The pH of the leachate had no effect on the cumulative COD measured in the leachate. Milling the sorghum with a three roll mill prior to leaching appeared to slightly increase the hydrolysis of structural carbohydrates in the sorghum.

  6. GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG WATERBORNE ASBESTOS, DIGESTIVE SYSTEM CANCER AND POPULATION DENSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five statistical procedures were used to partial the correlation between water-borne asbestos and digestive site cancer for the putative effects of population density. These include: analysis based on a data subset with roughly homogeneous population density; standard residual an...

  7. The Use of Computer Data Systems in Academic Counseling: Outcomes for Community College Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Kristen

    This Digest discusses computer assisted advisory practices currently in use in community colleges, outlining the types of data collected and how they are used, including the use of tracking to plan interventions for at-risk students. Enhanced computer technology has improved the effectiveness of academic advising by enabling more thorough and…

  8. An Audio Digest System for Communicating Career Education Information. Executive Summary. Technical Report [and Final Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Jurgen M.; And Others

    A study was conducted to develop a prototype audio digest to deliver in cassette tape format information concerning career education program design, basic concepts, and faculty training. The project focused on the following goals: increase the amount of career education information in an easily assimilated, high impact format; establish a delivery…

  9. The organotelluride catalyst (PHTE)₂NQ prevents HOCl-induced systemic sclerosis in mouse.

    PubMed

    Marut, Wioleta K; Kavian, Niloufar; Servettaz, Amélie; Nicco, Carole; Ba, Lalla A; Doering, Mandy; Chéreau, Christiane; Jacob, Claus; Weill, Bernard; Batteux, Frédéric

    2012-04-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by skin and visceral fibrosis, microvascular damage, and autoimmunity. HOCl-induced mouse SSc is a murine model that mimics the main features of the human disease, especially the activation and hyperproliferation rate of skin fibroblasts. We demonstrate here the efficiency of a tellurium-based catalyst 2,3-bis(phenyltellanyl)naphthoquinone ((PHTE)(2)NQ) in the treatment of murine SSc, through its selective cytotoxic effects on activated SSc skin fibroblasts. SSc mice treated with (PHTE)(2)NQ displayed a significant decrease in lung and skin fibrosis and in alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in the skin compared with untreated mouse SSc animals. Serum concentrations of advanced oxidation protein products, nitrate, and anti-DNA topoisomerase I autoantibodies were increased in SSc mice, but were significantly reduced in SSc mice treated with (PHTE)(2)NQ. To assess the mechanism of action of (PHTE)(2)NQ, the cytotoxic effect of (PHTE)(2)NQ was compared in normal fibroblasts and in mouse SSc skin fibroblasts. ROS production is higher in mouse SSc fibroblasts than in normal fibroblasts, and was still increased by (PHTE)(2)NQ to reach a lethal threshold and kill mouse SSc fibroblasts. Therefore, the effectiveness of (PHTE)(2)NQ in the treatment of mouse SSc seems to be linked to the selective pro-oxidative and cytotoxic effects of (PHTE)(2)NQ on hyperproliferative fibroblasts. PMID:22277946

  10. Early post-metamorphic, Carboniferous blastoid reveals the evolution and development of the digestive system in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Imran A; Waters, Johnny A; Sumrall, Colin D; Astolfo, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Inferring the development of the earliest echinoderms is critical to uncovering the evolutionary assembly of the phylum-level body plan but has long proven problematic because early ontogenetic stages are rarely preserved as fossils. Here, we use synchrotron tomography to describe a new early post-metamorphic blastoid echinoderm from the Carboniferous (approx. 323 Ma) of China. The resulting three-dimensional reconstruction reveals a U-shaped tubular structure in the fossil interior, which is interpreted as the digestive tract. Comparisons with the developing gut of modern crinoids demonstrate that crinoids are an imperfect analogue for many extinct groups. Furthermore, consideration of our findings in a phylogenetic context allows us to reconstruct the evolution and development of the digestive system in echinoderms more broadly; there was a transition from a straight to a simple curved gut early in the phylum's evolution, but additional loops and coils of the digestive tract (as seen in crinoids) were not acquired until much later. PMID:26510677

  11. Behavior of vitamin E acetate delivery systems under simulated gastrointestinal conditions: lipid digestion and bioaccessibility of low-energy nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Sinja; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David Julian

    2013-08-15

    Colloidal delivery systems are needed to incorporate oil-soluble vitamins into aqueous-based foods and beverage products. In this study, we encapsulated vitamin E acetate into oil-in-water nanoemulsions produced using either a low-energy method (Emulsion Phase Inversion, EPI) or a high energy method (microfluidization). Oil-in-water nanoemulsions (d<200 nm) could be produced using both low- and high-energy methods from a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 80) and medium chain triglycerides (MCTs). The influence of surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR) on lipid digestion and vitamin bioaccessibility of EPI nanoemulsions was determined using a gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model that simulated the mouth, stomach, and small intestine. There were increases in the size and negative charge of the oil droplets after passage through the GIT, which was attributed to droplet coalescence and changes in interfacial composition. The rate and extent of lipid digestion decreased with increasing surfactant concentration, but the bioaccessibility of vitamin E acetate was high in all of the samples (>95%). No appreciable influence of the preparation method (low-energy versus high-energy) on lipid digestion and vitamin bioaccessibility was observed. The major advantage of the EPI method for forming nanoemulsions is that no expensive equipment is required, but relatively high surfactant concentrations are needed compared to microfluidization. PMID:23721832

  12. An Ultrahigh Resolution SPECT System for I-125 Mouse Brain Imaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Meng, L. J.; Fu, G.; Roy, E. J.; Suppe, B.; Chen, C. T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents some initial experimental results obtained with a dual-head prototype single photon emission microscope system (SPEM) that is dedicated to mouse brain studies using I-125 labeled radiotracers. In particular, this system will be used for in vivo tacking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain. This system is based on the use of the intensified electron multiplying charge-coupled device (I-EMCCD) camera that offers the combination of an excellent intrinsic spatial resolution, a good signal-to-noise ratio, a large active area and a reasonable detection efficiency over an energy range between 27–140keV. In this study, the dual-head SPEM system was evaluated using both resolution phantoms and a mouse with locally injected T cells labelled with I-125. It was demonstrated that for a relatively concentrated source object, the current dual-head SPEM system is capable of visualizing the tiny amount of radioactivity (~12 nCi) carried by a very small number (<1000) of T cells. The current SPEM system design allows four or six camera heads to be installed in a stationary system configuration that offers a doubled or tripled sensitivity at a spatial resolution similar to that obtained with the dualhead system. This development would provide a powerful tool for in vivo and non-invasive tracking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain and potentially for other rodent brain imaging studies. PMID:20161174

  13. Do individually ventilated cage systems generate a problem for genetic mouse model research?

    PubMed

    Logge, W; Kingham, J; Karl, T

    2014-09-01

    Technological developments over recent decades have produced a novel housing system for laboratory mice, so-called 'individually ventilated cage' (IVC) systems. IVCs present a cage environment which is different to conventional filter-top cages (FILTER). Nothing is known about the consequences of IVC housing on genetic mouse models, despite studies reporting IVC-mediated changes to the phenotypes of inbred mouse strains. Thus, in this study, we systematically compared the established behavioural phenotype of a validated mouse model for the schizophrenia risk gene neuregulin 1 (TM Nrg1 HET) kept in FILTER housing with Nrg1 mutant mice raised in IVC systems. We found that particular schizophrenia-relevant endophenotypes of TM Nrg1 HETs which had been established and widely published using FILTER housing were altered when mice were raised in IVC housing. IVCs diminished the schizophrenia-relevant prepulse inhibition deficit of Nrg1 mutant males. Furthermore, IVC housing had a sex-dependent moderate effect on the locomotive phenotype of Nrg1 mice across test paradigms. Behavioural effects of IVC housing were less prominent in female mice. Thus, transferring the breeding colony of mouse mutants from FILTER to IVC systems can shift disease-relevant behaviours and therefore challenge the face validity of these mice. Researchers facing an upgrade of their mouse breeding or holding facilities to IVC systems must be aware of the potential impact this upgrade might have on their genetic mouse models. Future publications should provide more details on the cage system used to allow appropriate data comparison across research sites. PMID:24920375

  14. The transcriptome of mouse central nervous system myelin

    PubMed Central

    Thakurela, Sudhir; Garding, Angela; Jung, Ramona B.; Müller, Christina; Goebbels, Sandra; White, Robin; Werner, Hauke B.; Tiwari, Vijay K.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid nerve conduction in the CNS is facilitated by insulation of axons with myelin, a specialized oligodendroglial compartment distant from the cell body. Myelin is turned over and adapted throughout life; however, the molecular and cellular basis of myelin dynamics remains elusive. Here we performed a comprehensive transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq) of myelin biochemically purified from mouse brains at various ages and find a surprisingly large pool of transcripts enriched in myelin. Further computational analysis showed that the myelin transcriptome is closely related to the myelin proteome but clearly distinct from the transcriptomes of oligodendrocytes and brain tissues, suggesting a highly selective incorporation of mRNAs into the myelin compartment. The mRNA-pool in myelin displays maturation-dependent dynamic changes of composition, abundance, and functional associations; however ageing-dependent changes after 6 months were minor. We suggest that this transcript pool enables myelin turnover and the local adaptation of individual pre-existing myelin sheaths. PMID:27173133

  15. The transcriptome of mouse central nervous system myelin.

    PubMed

    Thakurela, Sudhir; Garding, Angela; Jung, Ramona B; Müller, Christina; Goebbels, Sandra; White, Robin; Werner, Hauke B; Tiwari, Vijay K

    2016-01-01

    Rapid nerve conduction in the CNS is facilitated by insulation of axons with myelin, a specialized oligodendroglial compartment distant from the cell body. Myelin is turned over and adapted throughout life; however, the molecular and cellular basis of myelin dynamics remains elusive. Here we performed a comprehensive transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq) of myelin biochemically purified from mouse brains at various ages and find a surprisingly large pool of transcripts enriched in myelin. Further computational analysis showed that the myelin transcriptome is closely related to the myelin proteome but clearly distinct from the transcriptomes of oligodendrocytes and brain tissues, suggesting a highly selective incorporation of mRNAs into the myelin compartment. The mRNA-pool in myelin displays maturation-dependent dynamic changes of composition, abundance, and functional associations; however ageing-dependent changes after 6 months were minor. We suggest that this transcript pool enables myelin turnover and the local adaptation of individual pre-existing myelin sheaths. PMID:27173133

  16. Illuminating Cancer Systems With Genetically-Engineered Mouse Models and Coupled Luciferase Reporters In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Brandon; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is a powerful non-invasive tool that has dramatically accelerated the in vivo interrogation of cancer systems and longitudinal analysis of mouse models of cancer over the past decade. Various luciferase enzymes have been genetically engineered into mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer which permit investigation of cellular and molecular events associated with oncogenic transcription, post-transcriptional processing, protein-protein interactions, transformation and oncogene addiction in live cells and animals. Luciferase-coupled GEMMs ultimately serve as a non-invasive, repetitive, longitudinal, and physiological means by which cancer systems and therapeutic responses can be investigated accurately within the autochthonous context of a living animal. PMID:23585416

  17. Dark fermentation, anaerobic digestion and microbial fuel cells: An integrated system to valorize swine manure and rice bran.

    PubMed

    Schievano, Andrea; Sciarria, Tommy Pepè; Gao, Yong Chang; Scaglia, Barbara; Salati, Silvia; Zanardo, Marina; Quiao, Wei; Dong, Renjie; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    This work describes how dark fermentation (DF), anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial fuel cells (MFC) and solid-liquid separation can be integrated to co-produce valuable biochemicals (hydrogen and methane), bioelectricity and biofertilizers. Two integrated systems (System 1: AD+MFC, and System 2: DF+AD+MFC) are described and compared to a traditional one-stage AD system in converting a mixture (COD=124±8.1gO2kg(-1)Fresh Matter) of swine manure and rice bran. System 1 gave a biomethane yield of 182 LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, while System 2 gave L yields of bio-hydrogen and bio-methane of 27.3±7.2LH2kg(-1)COD-added and 154±14LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, respectively. A solid-liquid separation (SLS) step was applied to the digested slurry, giving solid and liquid fractions. The liquid fraction was treated via the MFC-steps, showing power densities of 12-13Wm(-3) (500Ω) and average bioelectricity yields of 39.8Whkg(-1)COD to 54.2Whkg(-1)COD. PMID:27406307

  18. Assessing potential bioavailability of raspberry anthocyanins using an in vitro digestion system.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Gordon J; Dobson, Patricia; Smith, Pauline; Blake, Alison; Stewart, Derek

    2005-07-27

    The bioavailability of anthocyanins from raspberry extracts was assessed using an in vitro digestion procedure that mimics the physiochemical and biochemical changes that occur in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Effectively all of the total phenol content of the raspberry extract survived gastric digestion and partitioned between the IN sample, which represents the serum available material, and the OUT sample, which represents the material that remains in the GIT and passes through to the colon. All of the anthocyanins also survived gastric digestion, but only approximately 5% entered the IN sample and approximately 70% of total anthocyanins were recovered in the IN and OUT samples. Codigestion of the raspberry extract with commonly combined foodstuffs such as bread, breakfast cereal, ice cream, and cooked minced beef gave a different pattern. The total phenol content of the IN samples was slightly reduced by codigestion with ice cream or breakfast cereal but unaffected by codigestion with bread or minced beef. In most cases, the phenol contents of the postgastric and OUT samples were reduced as compared with the expected values. However, the anthocyanin content of the IN samples was unaffected or increased by coincubation with the foodstuffs. This suggests that polyphenols transiently bind to food matrices during digestion, which protects the more labile anthocyanins from degradation, and they are free to diffuse into the IN sample. The anthocyanin composition of the bioavailability samples was monitored by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All eight anthocyanins previously identified in raspberry were detected in the extract and the postgastric samples at similar yields. All eight anthocyanins could be discerned in the IN and OUT samples, but some such as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were greatly reduced and others such as pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside were apparently increased in abundance. These differences in stability and their importance for the

  19. [Upper digestive system endoscopy in Gabon. Contribution of 2 years' experience].

    PubMed

    Flocard, F; Tibermont, G; Klotz, F; Lassalle, Y; Ozouaki, F; Frost, E; Fischer, P

    1987-01-01

    Reporting on 805 endoscopies of upper digestive tract performed in a rural area of Gaboon during a period of 28 months, the authors describe the indications and the results by analysing comparatively their findings with some other African ones. Their experience is deeply in favour of performing much more often fibreoptic endoscopy, even if the percentage of investigations revealing no anomaly is high, because its indisputable medical and economical interest. PMID:3431384

  20. Microbiome response to controlled shifts in ammonium and LCFA levels in co-digestion systems.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Leticia; Carballa, Marta; Lema, Juan M

    2016-02-20

    Anaerobic co-digestion using protein-rich and lipid-rich co-substrates is limited by the accumulation of ammonia and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are important inhibitors of the anaerobic microorganisms. This work aimed to study the microbial community dynamics during gradual and abrupt increase in ammonium and LCFAs concentrations by applying several molecular techniques, as well as during gradual decrease. For this purpose, two anaerobic reactors co-digesting three agro-industrial wastes underwent abrupt and gradual changes of ammonium and LCFAs concentrations. Both variations provoked volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation, mainly acetic acid up to 4.5gL(-1). High ammonium levels were correlated to an increase in Pseudomonadaceae, Carnobacteriaceae and Clostridiadaceae families and to a drop in Syntrophomonadaceae. However, high LCFA levels provoked an increase in the Anaerobaculaceae and Peptococcaceae families. Both perturbations resulted in greater variations in the archaeal domain, going from Methanosaeta dominance in steady state to hydrogenotrophic pathway during the disturbance periods. During the abrupt changes, Bacteria domain experienced a minimal change, which indicates the adaptation bacterial populations to high ammonium and LCFAs levels. Species belonging to Porphyromonadaceae and Tissierellaceae families linked to VFAs consumption rose their presence during the recovery period. This study identifies a subset of microbial communities linked to high ammonia and LCFA concentrations, useful for optimizing the high-rate co-digestion processes dealing with lipid and protein-rich co-substrates. PMID:26778540

  1. Effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming in manure digestion systems.

    PubMed

    Boe, K; Kougias, P G; Pacheco, F; O-Thong, S; Angelidaki, I

    2012-01-01

    Manure contains several compounds that can potentially cause foaming during anaerobic digestion. Understanding the effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming tendency and stability could facilitate strategies for foaming prevention and recovery of the process. In this study, the effect of physicochemical properties of substrates and intermediate compounds on liquid properties such as surface tension, surfactant property, and hydrophobicity were investigated and compared with the effect on foaming tendency and foam stability. The results showed that there was no consistent correlation between foaming potential and hydrophobicity, oil displacement area (ODA) or surface tension of the tested solutions, and the best way to determine the foaming property of the solution was to directly measure foaming tendency and foam stability. Na-oleate and acetic acid showed the highest potential to create foam in a manure digester. Moreover, high organic loading of lipids and protein, and high concentrations of acetic and butyric acids also showed a strong tendency to create foaming during anaerobic digestion. Due to their great ability to stabilize foam, high organic loadings of Na-oleate or gelatine were considered to be the main potential foaming problem. PMID:22949245

  2. Observations on gas exchange and element recycle within a gas-closed algal-mouse system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smernoff, D. T.; Wharton, R. A., Jr.; Averner, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Life support systems based on bioregeneration rely on the control and manipulation of organisms. Algae are potentially useful for a variety of Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) functions including the revitalization of atmospheres, production of food and for nitrogen fixation. The results of experiments conducted with a gas-closed algal-mouse system designed to investigate gas exchange phenomena under varying algal environmental conditions, and the ability of algae to utilize oxidized mouse solid waste are reported. Inherent instabilities exist between the uptake and release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) by the mouse and algae in a gas-closed system. Variations in light intensity and cell density alter the photosynthetic rate of the algae and enable short-term steady-state concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O2. Different nitrogen sources (urea and nitrate) result in different algal assimilatory quotients (AQ). Combinations of photosynthetic rate and AQ ratio manipulations were examined for their potential in stabilizing atmospheric gas concentrations in the gas-closed algal-mouse system.

  3. A low-cost telemetry system suitable for measuring mouse biopotentials.

    PubMed

    Lin, David C; Bucher, Brandon P; Davis, Howard P; Sprunger, Leslie K

    2008-03-01

    The ability to generate specific genetic mutations in mice is a powerful tool to study normal and pathophysiological function. In order to determine the effects of a mutation, measurement of physiological variables, such as biopotentials, is often necessary. However, such measurements can be particularly challenging to obtain from an awake, unrestrained mouse. The goal of this study was to design and implement a telemetry system suitable for recording biopotentials from a mouse. A battery-powered system was fabricated from commercially available electronic components mounted on a small circuit board. The frequency response of the system was measured over a range of frequencies and found suitable for recording biopotentials in mice and larger animals. We affixed the circuit board externally to a mouse and connected surface electrodes to measure electrocardiograms (ECG). The size and weight of the board did not disturb normal behavior over 30-60 min. Recorded ECGs had easily identifiable components relevant to physiological parameters and had a similar frequency spectrum compared to recordings obtained from a commercially available measurement system. In conclusion, the telemetry system was low-cost due to the availability of the components, straightforward to implement, and provided biopotential recordings suitable for measuring physiological parameters in an awake mouse. PMID:17403611

  4. Effect of microalgae inoculation on the start-up of microalgae-bacteria systems treating municipal, piggery and digestate wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Arango, Liz; Cuervo, Flor M; González-Sánchez, Armando; Buitrón, Germán

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the inoculation of a microalgae-bacteria system on the removal of nutrients and organic matter using municipal, piggery and digestate wastewaters was evaluated. Three conditions for each substrate were evaluated: (1) inoculation with activated sludge and illumination, (2) inoculation with activated sludge without illumination, and (3) inoculation with activated sludge plus a native microalgae consortium under illumination. The illuminated reactors that were inoculated only with activated sludge developed microalgae after 12 operation days. In these reactors, the formation of flocs was observed affecting the sedimentation of the biomass positively. The removal of chemical oxygen demand, ammonium and phosphorous reached 84%, 65% and 77%, respectively. PMID:26877054

  5. The interplay of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase activities on the digestion of starch in in vitro enzymic systems.

    PubMed

    Warren, Frederick J; Zhang, Bin; Waltzer, Gina; Gidley, Michael J; Dhital, Sushil

    2015-03-01

    In vitro hydrolysis assays are a key tool in understanding differences in rate and extent of digestion of starchy foods. They offer a greater degree of simplicity and flexibility than dynamic in vitro models or in vivo experiments for quantifiable, mechanistic exploration of starch digestion. In the present work the influence of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase activities on the digestion of maize and potato starch granules was measured using both glucose and reducing sugar assays. Data were analysed through initial rates of digestion, and by 1st order kinetics, utilising logarithm of slope (LOS) plots. The rate and extent of starch digestion was dependent on the activities of both enzymes and the type of starch used. Potato required more enzyme than maize to achieve logarithmic reaction curves, and complete digestion. The results allow targeted design of starch digestion experiments through a thorough understanding of the contributions of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase to digestion rates. PMID:25498625

  6. Reprogramming of mouse amniotic fluid cells using a PiggyBac transposon system.

    PubMed

    Bertin, E; Piccoli, M; Franzin, C; Nagy, A; Mileikovsky, M; De Coppi, P; Pozzobon, M

    2015-11-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from mouse and human somatic cells by forced expression of defined transcription factors using different methods. Amniotic fluid (AF) cells are easy to obtain from routinely scheduled procedures for prenatal diagnosis and iPS cells have been generated from human AF. Here, we generated iPS cells from mouse AF cells, using a non-viral-based approach constituted by the PiggyBac (PB) transposon system. All iPS cell lines obtained exhibited characteristics of pluripotent cells, including the ability to differentiate toward derivatives of all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26987920

  7. Development of the mouse vestibular system in the absence of gravity perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael; Yuan Wang, Xiang; Wolgemuth, Debra J.; Murashov, Alexander K.

    2003-01-01

    The tilted mutant mouse, which lacks otoconia in the inner ear, was used to study development of the mouse vestibular system in the absence of gravity perception. Otoconia are dense particles composed of proteins and calcium carbonate crystals suspended in the gelatinous macular membrane. They enhance, and are largely responsible for, sensitivity to gravity. Morphometric analysis of the vestibular ganglion showed that the mutant developed more slowly than the normal controls, both in rate of development and cell number, particularly during the first week of post-natal development. The mutant ganglia also exhibited a reduction of cells during the first 6 days of post-natal development.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTACT HEPATOCYTE ACTIVATION SYSTEM FOR ROUTINE USE WITH THE MOUSE LYMPHOMA ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a method for cocultivating primary rat hepatocytes with L5178Y/TK+/- 3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cells. The system should provide a means to simulate more closely in vivo metabolism compared to metabolism by liver homogenates, while still being useful for rou...

  9. Anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater: A comparison of single and two-phase reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Borja, R.; Banks, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    The anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater, a complex substrate which includes milk proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, has received little attention. Work using an aerobic contact system showed that at a 7.5-d hydraulic retention time (HRT), with an organic loading rate of 1.7 g COD/Ld and influent TSS (total suspended solids) of 5870 mg/L, the effluent COD was 628 mg/L, BOD was 91 mg/L and TSS was 674. Anaerobic filters have also been used at organic loadings of 6 kg COD/m{sup 3}d applied at a HRT of 0.42 day, with COD removals of 80%. Goodwing showed that this waste was capable of being treated by the UASB process with granulation commencing after 60-70 days, and gas production ranging between 0.73 and 0.93 L CH{sub 4}/g COD removed with loading rates between 0.7 and 3.0 g TOC/Ld. Two-phase anaerobic digestion is an innovative fermentation mode that has recently received increased attention. The kinetically dissimilar fermentation phases, hydrolysis-acidification and acetogenesis-methanation are operated in two separate reactors; the first of which is maintained at a very short HRT. The effluent from the first, acid-forming, phase is used as the substrate for the methane-phase reactor which has a longer HRT or cell immobilization. The aim of this work was to compare the methane production capability and performance of a single-phase upflow fixed bed reactor with a two-phase digestion system. The two-phase digestion system consists of a completely mixed reactor for the acidogenic reaction and an upflow fixed bed reactor for the methanogenic reaction. Because of the high lipid content and COD of ice cream wastewater off site disposal has proved to be both expensive and poses problems to the receiving effluent treatment plant. For this reason the potential for a rapid anaerobic stabilization of the waste, with energy recovery in the form of methane gas, has been investigated in an attempt to minimize plant size and maximize gas production. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Biodistribution and stability of CdSe core quantum dots in mouse digestive tract following per os administration: Advantages of double polymer/silica coated nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Loginova, Y.F.; Dezhurov, S.V.; Zherdeva, V.V.; Kazachkina, N.I.; Wakstein, M.S.; Savitsky, A.P.

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New QDs coated with combination of polythiol ligands and silica shell were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the QDs stability in digestive tract of mice after per os administration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymer/silica shell prevents QDs degradation and fluorescence quenching in vivo. -- Abstract: CdSe-core, ZnS-capped semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are of great potential for biomedical applications. However, applications in the gastrointestinal tract for in vivo imaging and therapeutic purposes are hampered by their sensitivity to acidic environments and potential toxicity. Here we report the use of coatings with a combination of polythiol ligands and silica shell (QDs PolyT-APS) to stabilize QDs fluorescence under acidic conditions. We demonstrated the stability of water-soluble QDs PolyT-APS both in vitro, in strong acidic solutions, and in vivo. The biodistribution, stability and photoluminescence properties of QDs in the gastrointestinal tract of mice after per os administration were assessed. We demonstrated that QDs coated with current traditional materials - mercapto compounds (QDs MPA) and pendant thiol group (QDs PolyT) - are not capable of protecting QDs from chemically induced degradation and surface modification. Polythiol ligands and silica shell quantum dots (QDs PolyT-APS) are suitable for biological and biomedical applications in the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Incorporation of an anaerobic digestion step in a multistage treatment system for sanitary landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Zayen, Amal; Schories, Gerhard; Sayadi, Sami

    2016-07-01

    A combined process of anaerobic digestion (AD), lime precipitation (P), microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO) was developed for the treatment of landfill leachate (LFL). The raw LFL contained high amount of organic matter with an elevated humic acids concentration. During the anaerobic digestion step, the organic loading rate was increased progressively up to 3.3gCODL(-1)d(-1). The upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor showed a great performance in terms of COD removal efficiency and biogas production. During precipitation experiments, lime dose was optimized to obtain the maximum reduction of conductivity to prevent the fouling of RO membranes. This process was compared to a second one in which the AD step was eliminated. Both treatment plans achieved similar removal efficiencies. However, AD step significantly improved the process by reducing the needed lime dose by 50%. It has also increased MF and RO fluxes by 35% and 40% at a steady state, respectively. The dominant fouling mechanism was cake layer formation during both MF tests. This process seems to be a promising approach for the treatment of LFL and its industrial application should be further investigated. PMID:27177466

  12. Enhancement of Anaerobic Digestion to Treat Saline Sludge from Recirculating Aquaculture Systems

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Guo-zhi; Ma, Niannian; Li, Ping; Tan, Hong-xin; Liu, Wenchang

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of carbohydrate addition and the use of ultrasonication as a pretreatment for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of saline aquacultural sludge was assessed. Analyses were conducted using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), which included stopped gas production attributed to the saline inhibition. After increasing the C : N ratio, gas production was observed, and the total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency increased from 75% to 80%. The TCOD removal efficiency of the sonication period was approximately 85%, compared to 75% for the untreated waste. Ultrasonication of aquaculture sludge was also found to enhance the gas production rate and the TCOD removal efficiency. The average volatile fatty acid (VFA) to alkalinity ratios ranged from 0.1 to 0.05, confirming the stability of the digesters. Furthermore, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), VFA, and PO43− concentrations increased in the effluents. There was a 114% greater gas generation during the ultrasonication period, with an average production of 0.08 g COD/L·day−1. PMID:26301258

  13. Atmosphere stabilization and element recycle in an experimental mouse-algal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smernoff, David T.

    1986-01-01

    Life support systems based on bioregeneration rely on the control and manipulation of organisms. Experiments conducted with a gas-closed mouse-algal system designed to investigate principles of photosynthetic gas exchange focus primarily on observing gas exchange phenomena under varying algal environmental conditions and secondarily on studying element cycling through compartments of the experimental system. Inherent instabilities exit between the uptake and release of carbon dioxide CO2 and oxygen O2 by the mouse and algae. Variations in light intensity and cell density alter the photosynthetic rate of the algae and enable maintenance of physiologic concentrations of CO2 and O2. Different nitrogen sources (urea and nitrate) result in different algal assimilatory quotients (AQ). Combinations of photosynthetic rate and AQ ratio manipulations have been examined for their potential in stabilizing atmospheric gas concentrations in the gas-closed algal-mouse system. Elemental mass balances through the experimental systems compartments are being studied with the concurrent development of a mathematical simulation model. Element cycling experiments include quantification of elemental flows through system compartments and wet oxidation of system waste materials for use as an algal nutrient source. Oxidized waste products demonstrate inhibitory properties although dilution has been shown to allow normal growth.

  14. The Effect of Digestion and Drug Load on Halofantrine Absorption from Self-nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS).

    PubMed

    Michaelsen, Maria Høtoft; Wasan, Kishor M; Sivak, Olena; Müllertz, Anette; Rades, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A super-saturated self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (super-SNEDDS), containing the poorly water-soluble drug halofantrine (Hf) at 150% of equilibrium solubility (S eq), was compared in vitro and in vivo with a conventional SNEDDS (75% of S eq) with respect to bioavailability and digestibility. Further, the effect of digestion on oral absorption of Hf from SNEDDS and super-SNEDDS was assessed by incorporation of the lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin (orlistat) into the SNEDDS. The SNEDDS contained soybean oil/Maisine 34-I (1:1), Kolliphor RH40, and ethanol at a ratio of 55:35:10, w/w percent. For the dynamic in vitro lipolysis, the precipitation of Hf at 60 min was significantly larger for the super-SNEDDS (66.8 ± 16.4%) than for the SNEDDS (18.5 ± 9.2%). The inhibition of the in vitro digestion by orlistat (1% (w/w)) lowered drug precipitation significantly for both the super-SNEDDS (36.8 ± 1.7%) and the SNEDDS (3.9 ± 0.7%). In the in vivo studies, the super-SNEDDS concept proved valid in a rat model with a significantly larger C max for the super-SNEDDS (964 ± 167 ng/mL) than for the SNEDDS (506 ± 112 ng/mL). The bioavailability of Hf dosed in super-SNEDDS (32.9 ± 3.6%) and SNEDDS (22.5 ± 6.3%) did not change significantly with co-administration of orlistat (45.5 ± 7.3% and 21.9 ± 6.5%, respectively). However, the pharmacokinetic parameters changed; the t max of the super-SNEDDS (1.3 ± 0.1 h) and SNEDDS (2.8 ± 1.2 h) were significantly lower when dosed with orlistat (6.0 ± 1.3 and 6.3 ± 1.2 h, respectively). These findings suggest that the role of lipid digestion for the absorption of drugs from SNEDDS may be less important than previously thought. PMID:26486790

  15. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  16. Exceptionally Preserved Cambrian Trilobite Digestive System Revealed in 3D by Synchrotron-Radiation X-Ray Tomographic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Mats E.; Terfelt, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    The Cambrian ‘Orsten’ fauna comprises exceptionally preserved and phosphatised microscopic arthropods. The external morphology of these fossils is well known, but their internal soft-tissue anatomy has remained virtually unknown. Here, we report the first non-biomineralised tissues from a juvenile polymerid trilobite, represented by digestive structures, glands, and connective strands harboured in a hypostome from the Swedish ‘Orsten’ fauna. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy enabled three-dimensional internal recordings at sub-micrometre resolution. The specimen provides the first unambiguous evidence for a J-shaped anterior gut and the presence of a crop with a constricted alimentary tract in the Trilobita. Moreover, the gut is Y-shaped in cross section, probably due to a collapsed lumen of that shape, another feature which has not previously been observed in trilobites. The combination of anatomical features suggests that the trilobite hypostome is functionally analogous to the labrum of euarthropods and that it was a sophisticated element closely integrated with the digestive system. This study also briefly addresses the preservational bias of the ‘Orsten’ fauna, particularly the near-absence of polymerid trilobites, and the taphonomy of the soft-tissue-harbouring hypostome. PMID:22558180

  17. Enhancement of biogas production by co-digestion of potato pulp with cow manure in a CSTR system.

    PubMed

    Sanaei-Moghadam, Akbar; Abbaspour-Fard, Mohammad Hossein; Aghel, Hasan; Aghkhani, Mohammad Hossein; Abedini-Torghabeh, Javad

    2014-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) process is a well-established method to generate energy from the organic wastes both from the environmental and economical perspectives. The purpose of present study is to evaluate energy production from potato wastes by incorporating cow manure into the process. Firstly, a laboratory pilot of one-stage biogas production was designed and built according to continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system. The setup was able to automatically control the environmental conditions of the process including temperature, duration, and rate of stirring. AD experiment was exclusively performed on co-digestion of potato peel (PP) and cow manure (CM) in three levels of mixing ratio including 20:80, 50:50, 80:20 (PP:CM), and 0:100 as control treatment based on the volatile solid (VS) weight without adding initial inoculums. After hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 days on average 193, 256, 348, and 149 norm liter (LN) (kg VS)(-1), methane was produced for different mixing ratios, respectively. Statistical analysis shows that these gas productions are significantly different. The average energy was determined based on the produced methane which was about 2.8 kWh (kg VS)(-1), implying a significant energy production potential. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of treatments was about 61%, showing that it can be leached significantly with high organic matter by the employed pilot. The energy efficiency of 92% of the process also showed the optimum control of the process by the pilot. PMID:24894660

  18. Innovative ammonia stripping with an electrolyzed water system as pretreatment of thermally hydrolyzed wasted sludge for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the anaerobic digestion of thermally hydrolyzed wasted sludge (THWS) with a high concentration of ammonia was carried out through combining with an ammonia stripping and an electrolyzed water system (EWS). The EWS produced acidic water (pH 2-3) at the anode and alkaline water (pH 11-12) at the cathode with an electro-diaphragm between the electrodes that could be applied to ammonia stripping. The ammonia stripping efficiency was strongly dependent on the pH and aeration rate, and the ammonium ion removal rate followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. From the BMP test, the methane yield of THWS after ammonia stripping using the EWS was 2.8 times higher than that of the control process (raw THWS without ammonia stripping). Furthermore, both methane yield and ammonium removal efficiency were higher in this study than in previous studies. Since ammonia stripping with the EWS does not require any chemicals for pH control, no precipitated sludge is produced and anaerobic microorganisms are not inhibited by cations. Therefore, ammonia stripping using the EWS could be an effective method for digestion of wastewater with a high concentration of ammonium nitrogen. PMID:25462764

  19. A model for gas and nutrient exchange in the chorionic vasculature system of the mouse placenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirbod, Parisa; Sled, John

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an analytical model for the oxygen and nutrient transport from the umbilical cord to the small villous capillaries. The nutrient and carbon dioxide removal from the fetal cotyledons in the mouse placental system has also been considered. This model describes the mass transfer between the fetal and the maternal red blood cells in the chorionic arterial vasculature system. The model reveals the detail fetal vasculature system and its geometry and the precise mechanisms of mass transfer through the placenta. The dimensions of the villous capillaries, the total length of the villous trees, the total villi surface area, and the total resistance to mass transport in the fetal villous trees has also been defined. This is the first effort to explain the reason why there are at least 7 lobules in the mouse placenta from the fluid dynamics point of view.

  20. The estrogen receptor fusion system in mouse models: a reversible switch.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Jonathan; Littlewood, Trevor; Evan, Gerard I; Soucek, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Reversible regulatory mouse models have significantly contributed to our understanding of normal tissue and cancer biology, providing the opportunity to temporally control initiation, progression, and evolution of physiological and pathological events. The tamoxifen inducible system, one of the best-characterized "reversible switch" models, has a number of beneficial features. In this system, the hormone-binding domain of the mammalian estrogen receptor is used as a heterologous regulatory domain. Upon ligand binding, the receptor is released from its inhibitory complex and the fusion protein becomes functional. We summarize the advantages and drawbacks of the system, describe several mouse models that rely on it, and discuss potential improvements that could render it even more useful and versatile. PMID:25734072

  1. Ecoengineering high rate anaerobic digestion systems: analysis of improved syntrophic biomethanation catalysts.

    PubMed

    Thiele, J H; Wu, W M; Jain, M K; Zeikus, J G

    1990-04-25

    High performance biomethanation granules with operational specific COD removal rates of 7 kg COD removed/kg SS/d were obtained by ecoengineering conventional, granular, UASB digester sludge using a designed protocol of starvation and selection on a defined volatile fatty acid (VFA) based mineral medium. Addition of low (0.15 mM) sulfate levels to this VFA medium increased the maximum shock-load COD removal rate of the ecoengineered biomethanation granules to 9 kg COD/kg SS/d with specific acetate, propionate, and butyrate removal rates of 111, 28, and 64 mol/g SS/d. Addition of moderate (26 mM) calcium levels inhibited growth and altered the structure of granules. The general cellular, growth, stability, and performance features of these ecoengineered granules are described and discussed in relation to their use as improved biomethanation starter cultures. PMID:18588244

  2. Editing of mouse and human immunoglobulin genes by CRISPR-Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Taek-Chin; Compagno, Mara; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to edit the genome have widely expanded to include DNA gene knock-out, deletions, chromosomal rearrangements, RNA editing and genome-wide screenings. Here we show the application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to edit the mouse and human immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. By delivering Cas9 and guide-RNA (gRNA) with retro- or lenti-virus to IgM(+) mouse B cells and hybridomas, we induce class-switch recombination (CSR) of the IgH chain to the desired subclass. Similarly, we induce CSR in all human B cell lines tested with high efficiency to targeted IgH subclass. Finally, we engineer mouse hybridomas to secrete Fab' fragments instead of the whole Ig. Our results indicate that Ig genes in mouse and human cells can be edited to obtain any desired IgH switching helpful to study the biology of normal and lymphoma B cells. We also propose applications that could transform the technology of antibody production. PMID:26956543

  3. Mn Enhancement and Respiratory Gating for In Utero MRI of the Embryonic Mouse Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Deans, Abby E.; Wadghiri, Youssef Zaim; Berrios-Otero, César A.; Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2009-01-01

    The mouse is the preferred model organism for genetic studies of mammalian brain development. MRI has potential for in utero studies of mouse brain development, but has been limited previously by challenges of maximizing image resolution and contrast while minimizing artifacts due to physiological motion. Manganese (Mn)-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) studies have demonstrated central nervous system (CNS) contrast enhancement in mice from the earliest postnatal stages. The purpose of this study was to expand MEMRI to in utero studies of the embryonic CNS in combination with respiratory gating to decrease motion artifacts. We investigated MEMRI-facilitated CNS segmentation and three-dimensional (3D) analysis in wild-type mouse embryos from midgestation, and explored effects of Mn on embryonic survival and image contrast. Motivated by observations that MEMRI provided an effective method for visualization and volumetric analysis of embryonic CNS structures, especially in ventral regions, we used MEMRI to examine Nkx2.1 mutant mice that were previously reported to have ventral forebrain defects. Quantitative MEMRI analysis of Nkx2.1 knockout mice demonstrated volumetric changes in septum (SE) and basal ganglia (BG), as well as alterations in hypothalamic structures. This method may provide an effective means for in utero analysis of CNS phenotypes in a variety of mouse mutants. PMID:18506798

  4. Editing of mouse and human immunoglobulin genes by CRISPR-Cas9 system

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Taek-Chin; Compagno, Mara; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to edit the genome have widely expanded to include DNA gene knock-out, deletions, chromosomal rearrangements, RNA editing and genome-wide screenings. Here we show the application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to edit the mouse and human immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. By delivering Cas9 and guide-RNA (gRNA) with retro- or lenti-virus to IgM+ mouse B cells and hybridomas, we induce class-switch recombination (CSR) of the IgH chain to the desired subclass. Similarly, we induce CSR in all human B cell lines tested with high efficiency to targeted IgH subclass. Finally, we engineer mouse hybridomas to secrete Fab′ fragments instead of the whole Ig. Our results indicate that Ig genes in mouse and human cells can be edited to obtain any desired IgH switching helpful to study the biology of normal and lymphoma B cells. We also propose applications that could transform the technology of antibody production. PMID:26956543

  5. Systemic neutrophil activation in a mouse model of ischemic stroke and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Helena; McKee, Dana; Ritter, Leslie

    2011-04-01

    As a natural response to injury and disease, neutrophils activate, adhere to the microvasculature, migrate into brain tissue, and release toxic substances such as reactive oxygen species and proteases. This neutrophil response occurs when blood flow is returned to brain tissue (reperfusion) after ischemic stroke. Thus, the presence of activated systemic neutrophils increases the potential for tissue injury during reperfusion after ischemic stroke. Although experiments in rat models suggest that activated neutrophils play a pivotal role in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury, little is known about systemic neutrophil activation during reperfusion following ischemic stroke in a mouse model. The purpose of this study was to characterize systemic leukocyte responses and neutrophil CD11b expression 15-min and 24-hr post-reperfusion in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. The intraluminal filament method of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) with reperfusion or a sham procedure was performed in male C57Bl/6 mice. Automated leukocyte counts and manual white blood cell (WBC) differential counts were measured. Flow cytometry was used to assess systemic neutrophil surface CD11b expression. The data suggest that the damaging potential of systemic neutrophil activation begins as early as 15 min and remains evident at 24 hr after the initiation of reperfusion. In addition, because transgenic mouse models, bred on a C57Bl/6 background, are increasingly used to elucidate single mechanisms of reperfusion injury after ischemic stroke, findings from this study are foundational for future investigations examining the damaging potential of neutrophil responses post-reperfusion after ischemic stroke in genetically altered mouse models within this background strain. PMID:21044968

  6. A Novel, Real-Time, In Vivo Mouse Retinal Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Mark C.; Sullivan, Jack M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop an efficient, low-cost instrument for robust real-time imaging of the mouse retina in vivo, and assess system capabilities by evaluating various animal models. Methods Following multiple disappointing attempts to visualize the mouse retina during a subretinal injection using commercially available systems, we identified the key limitation to be inadequate illumination due to off axis illumination and poor optical train optimization. Therefore, we designed a paraxial illumination system for Greenough-type stereo dissecting microscope incorporating an optimized optical launch and an efficiently coupled fiber optic delivery system. Excitation and emission filters control spectral bandwidth. A color coupled-charged device (CCD) camera is coupled to the microscope for image capture. Although, field of view (FOV) is constrained by the small pupil aperture, the high optical power of the mouse eye, and the long working distance (needed for surgical manipulations), these limitations can be compensated by eye positioning in order to observe the entire retina. Results The retinal imaging system delivers an adjustable narrow beam to the dilated pupil with minimal vignetting. The optic nerve, vasculature, and posterior pole are crisply visualized and the entire retina can be observed through eye positioning. Normal and degenerative retinal phenotypes can be followed over time. Subretinal or intraocular injection procedures are followed in real time. Real-time, intravenous fluorescein angiography for the live mouse has been achieved. Conclusions A novel device is established for real-time viewing and image capture of the small animal retina during subretinal injections for preclinical gene therapy studies. PMID:26551329

  7. Pyruvate kinase M2 overexpression and poor prognosis in solid tumors of digestive system: evidence from 16 cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiayuan; Hu, Liren; Chen, Manyu; Cao, Wenjun; Chen, Haicong; He, Taiping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been linked to tumor formation and invasion. Specifically, the relationship between high PKM2 expression and prognosis has been evaluated in solid tumors of digestive system. However, the prognostic value of PKM2 remains controversial. Methods A literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases was conducted until October 2015. The end point focused on overall survival (OS). The pooled hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio and the 95% confidence intervals were calculated to correlate PKM2 overexpression with OS and clinicopathological characteristics by employing fixed- or random-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Results We identified 18 cohorts in 16 studies involving 2,812 patients for this meta-analysis. Overall, the combined HR for OS in all tumor types was 1.74 (1.44–2.11; P<0.001). When stratified by tumor type, the influence of PKM2 expression on poor prognosis was also found in gastric cancer (HR =1.54 [1.08–2.21], P=0.018), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (HR =1.71 [1.38–2.12], P<0.001), hepatocellular cancer (HR =1.92 [1.52–2.42], P<0.001), biliary cancer (HR =2.11 [1.50–2.95], P<0.001), and oral cancer (HR =3.49 [1.97–6.18], P<0.001), but not in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (HR =1.03 [0.28–3.76], P=0.968). Furthermore, PKM2 overexpression had a negative effect on the late clinical stage of all tumor types except for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The high density of PKM2 overexpression was significantly associated with some clinical characteristics in different cancer types, such as tumor stage, modal metastasis, and tumor size. Conclusion Our findings revealed significant association of PKM2 overexpression with OS and certain clinicopathological features in solid tumors of digestive system, thereby suggesting that PKM2 might be an indicator of poor prognosis in digestive system cancers. PMID:27478385

  8. Integrative database management for mouse development: systems and concepts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amar V; Rouchka, Eric C; Rempala, Greg A; Bastian, Caleb D; Knudsen, Thomas B

    2007-03-01

    Cells in the developing embryo must integrate complex signals from the genome and environment to make decisions about their behavior or fate. The ability to understand the fundamental biology of the decision-making process, and how these decisions may go awry during abnormal development, requires a systems biology paradigm. Presently, the ability to build models with predictive capability in birth defects research is constrained by an incomplete understanding of the fundamental parameters underlying embryonic susceptibility, sensitivity, and vulnerability. Key developmental milestones must be parameterized in terms of system structure and dynamics, the relevant control methods, and the overall design logic of metabolic and regulatory networks. High-content data from genome-based studies provide some comprehensive coverage of these operational processes but a key research challenge is data integration. Analysis can be facilitated by data management resources and software to reveal the structure and function of bionetwork motifs potentially associated with an altered developmental phenotype. Borrowing from applied mathematics and artificial intelligence, we conceptualize a system that can help address the new challenges posed by the transformation of birth defects research into a data-driven science. PMID:17539026

  9. Vanadium Inhalation in a Mouse Model for the Understanding of Air-Suspended Particle Systemic Repercussion

    PubMed Central

    Fortoul, T. I.; Rodriguez-Lara, V.; Gonzalez-Villalva, A.; Rojas-Lemus, M.; Cano-Gutierrez, G.; Ustarroz-Cano, M.; Colin-Barenque, L.; Montaño, L. F.; García-Pelez, I.; Bizarro-Nevares, P.; Lopez-Valdez, N.; Falcon-Rodriguez, C. I.; Jimenez-Martínez, R. S.; Ruiz-Guerrero, M. L.; López-Zepeda, L. S.; Morales-Rivero, A.; Muñiz-Rivera-Cambas, A.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased concern about the health effects that air-suspended particles have on human health which have been dissected in animal models. Using CD-1 mouse, we explore the effects that vanadium inhalation produce in different tissues and organs. Our findings support the systemic effects of air pollution. In this paper, we describe our findings in different organs in our conditions and contrast our results with the literature. PMID:21716674

  10. Closeout final report on a demonstration test and evaluation of the Cannon Low-NOx Digester System

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Cannon Boiler Works Inc. has been investigating a system for removing NOx from the exhaust gases of furnaces, gas turbines, chemical reactors, incinerators, and boilers. Computer simulations, bench-scale and pilot plant tests have proved that the system is capable of removing substantially all of the NOx from natural gas fired equipment exhaust streams. Originally designated as the Cannon NOx Digester, it has recently been renamed the Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO) System for NOx and SOx Reduction. The principal elements in the system are a fan, heat exchanger, oxidation chamber, spray chamber acting as a gas/liquid absorber, demister, an ozone generator, liquid oxygen storage or dry air supply system for the ozonator, chemical storage and metering system for the caustic neutralizer, and a data acquisition and control system. Most of the ozone is consumed in converting NOx to N{sub 2}O{sub 5} which hydrates to nitric acid which is then scrubbed out of the gas as it passes through the absorber. CO also reacts with ozone to form CO{sub 2} which is subsequently scrubbed out with NaOH. A demonstration, planned for the Alta Dena Dairy located near Los Angeles and in violation of California`s air quality regulations for natural gas fired boilers, was started, delayed due to boiler modifications, and will be continued shortly with new funding. This paper describes the LTO process and presents results from the initial demonstration.

  11. Behavioral Assessment of the Aging Mouse Vestibular System

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Victoria W. K.; Burton, Thomas J.; Dababneh, Edward; Quail, Stephanie L.; Camp, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    Age related decline in balance performance is associated with deteriorating muscle strength, motor coordination and vestibular function. While a number of studies show changes in balance phenotype with age in rodents, very few isolate the vestibular contribution to balance under either normal conditions or during senescence. We use two standard behavioral tests to characterize the balance performance of mice at defined age points over the lifespan: the rotarod test and the inclined balance beam test. Importantly though, a custom built rotator is also used to stimulate the vestibular system of mice (without inducing overt signs of motion sickness). These two tests have been used to show that changes in vestibular mediated-balance performance are present over the murine lifespan. Preliminary results show that both the rotarod test and the modified balance beam test can be used to identify changes in balance performance during aging as an alternative to more difficult and invasive techniques such as vestibulo-ocular (VOR) measurements. PMID:25045963

  12. Inferring cortical function in the mouse visual system through large-scale systems neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Anastassiou, Costas; Arkhipov, Anton; Berg, Jim; Buice, Michael; Cain, Nicholas; Gouwens, Nathan W; Gratiy, Sergey; Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Lee, Jung Hoon; Mihalas, Stefan; Mitelut, Catalin; Olsen, Shawn; Reid, R Clay; Teeter, Corinne; de Vries, Saskia; Waters, Jack; Zeng, Hongkui; Koch, Christof

    2016-07-01

    The scientific mission of the Project MindScope is to understand neocortex, the part of the mammalian brain that gives rise to perception, memory, intelligence, and consciousness. We seek to quantitatively evaluate the hypothesis that neocortex is a relatively homogeneous tissue, with smaller functional modules that perform a common computational function replicated across regions. We here focus on the mouse as a mammalian model organism with genetics, physiology, and behavior that can be readily studied and manipulated in the laboratory. We seek to describe the operation of cortical circuitry at the computational level by comprehensively cataloging and characterizing its cellular building blocks along with their dynamics and their cell type-specific connectivities. The project is also building large-scale experimental platforms (i.e., brain observatories) to record the activity of large populations of cortical neurons in behaving mice subject to visual stimuli. A primary goal is to understand the series of operations from visual input in the retina to behavior by observing and modeling the physical transformations of signals in the corticothalamic system. We here focus on the contribution that computer modeling and theory make to this long-term effort. PMID:27382147

  13. Inferring cortical function in the mouse visual system through large-scale systems neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Anastassiou, Costas; Arkhipov, Anton; Berg, Jim; Buice, Michael; Cain, Nicholas; Gouwens, Nathan W.; Gratiy, Sergey; Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Lee, Jung Hoon; Mihalas, Stefan; Mitelut, Catalin; Olsen, Shawn; Reid, R. Clay; Teeter, Corinne; de Vries, Saskia; Waters, Jack; Zeng, Hongkui; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    The scientific mission of the Project MindScope is to understand neocortex, the part of the mammalian brain that gives rise to perception, memory, intelligence, and consciousness. We seek to quantitatively evaluate the hypothesis that neocortex is a relatively homogeneous tissue, with smaller functional modules that perform a common computational function replicated across regions. We here focus on the mouse as a mammalian model organism with genetics, physiology, and behavior that can be readily studied and manipulated in the laboratory. We seek to describe the operation of cortical circuitry at the computational level by comprehensively cataloging and characterizing its cellular building blocks along with their dynamics and their cell type-specific connectivities. The project is also building large-scale experimental platforms (i.e., brain observatories) to record the activity of large populations of cortical neurons in behaving mice subject to visual stimuli. A primary goal is to understand the series of operations from visual input in the retina to behavior by observing and modeling the physical transformations of signals in the corticothalamic system. We here focus on the contribution that computer modeling and theory make to this long-term effort. PMID:27382147

  14. Biotic and abiotic dynamics of a high solid-state anaerobic digestion box-type container system.

    PubMed

    Walter, Andreas; Probst, Maraike; Hinterberger, Stephan; Müller, Horst; Insam, Heribert

    2016-03-01

    A solid-state anaerobic digestion box-type container system for biomethane production was observed in 12 three-week batch fermentations. Reactor performance was monitored using physico-chemical analysis and the methanogenic community was identified using ANAEROCHIP-microarrays and quantitative PCR. A resilient community was found in all batches, despite variations in inoculum to substrate ratio, feedstock quality, and fluctuating reactor conditions. The consortia were dominated by mixotrophic Methanosarcina that were accompanied by hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium, Methanoculleus, and Methanocorpusculum. The relationship between biotic and abiotic variables was investigated using bivariate correlation analysis and univariate analysis of variance. High amounts of biogas were produced in batches with high copy numbers of Methanosarcina. High copy numbers of Methanocorpusculum and extensive percolation, however, were found to negatively correlate with biogas production. Supporting these findings, a negative correlation was detected between Methanocorpusculum and Methanosarcina. Based on these results, this study suggests Methanosarcina as an indicator for well-functioning reactor performance. PMID:26860425

  15. Partial ablation of uropygial gland effects on growth hormone concentration and digestive system histometrical aspect of akar putra chicken.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Hasan S A; Lokman, I H; Zuki, A B Z; Kassim, A B

    2016-04-01

    Partial ablation of the uropygial gland is being used in the poultry industry as a new way to enhance body performance of chickens. However, limited data are available estimating the efficacy of partial uropygialectomy (PU) to improve body organ activity. The present study evaluated the effect of partial ablation of the uropygial gland on the serum growth hormone concentration level and digestive system histology of 120 Akar Putra chickens in 5 trials with 3 replicates per trial. The experimental treatments consisted of a control treatment T1; partial ablation of the uropygial gland was applied in the T2, T3, T4, and T5 treatments at 3, 4, 5, and 6 wk of age, respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. All treatment groups were provided the same diet. Venous blood samples were collected on wk 7, 10, and 12 to assay the levels of growth hormone concentration. On the last d of the experiment, 4 birds per replicate were randomly isolated and euthanized to perform the necropsy. Digestive system organs' cross sections were measured by a computerized image analyzer after being stained with haematoxylin and eosin. In comparison with the control group, surgical removal of the uropygial gland, especially at wk 3, had a greater (P<0.01) effect on the total duodenum, jejunum, and ilium wall thickness. In addition, effects (P<0.05) were observed on the wall thickness of males' cecum and colon. Moreover, the wall layers of the esophagus, proventriculus, gizzard, and rectum were not affected by the treatment. However, removing the uropygial gland showed significant impact (P<0.05) in males' growth hormone concentration level at wk 7 and (P<0.01) effects at wk 12 in both sexes. This study provides a novel and economic alternative to enhance the body performance of poultry in general and Akar Putra chickens particularly. PMID:26908881

  16. Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok

    2013-07-01

    Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

  17. Multiparametric and semiquantitative scoring systems for the evaluation of mouse model histopathology - a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Histopathology has initially been and is still used to diagnose infectious, degenerative or neoplastic diseases in humans or animals. In addition to qualitative diagnoses semiquantitative scoring of a lesion`s magnitude on an ordinal scale is a commonly demanded task for histopathologists. Multiparametric, semiquantitative scoring systems for mouse models histopathology are a common approach to handle these questions and to include histopathologic information in biomedical research. Results Inclusion criteria for scoring systems were a first description of a multiparametric, semiquantiative scoring systems which comprehensibly describe an approach to evaluate morphologic lesion. A comprehensive literature search using these criteria identified 153 originally designed semiquantitative scoring systems for the analysis of morphologic changes in mouse models covering almost all organs systems and a wide variety of disease models. Of these, colitis, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, lupus nephritis and collagen induced osteoarthritis colitis were the disease models with the largest number of different scoring systems. Closer analysis of the identified scoring systems revealed a lack of a rationale for the selection of the scoring parameters or a correlation between scoring parameter value and the magnitude of the clinical symptoms in most studies. Conclusion Although a decision for a particular scoring system is clearly dependent on the respective scientific question this review gives an overview on currently available systems and may therefore allow for a better choice for the respective project. PMID:23800279

  18. Culturing Mouse Cardiac Valves in the Miniature Tissue Culture System.

    PubMed

    Kruithof, Boudewijn P T; Lieber, Samuel C; Kruithof-de Julio, Marianna; Gaussin, Vincian; Goumans, Marie José

    2015-01-01

    Heart valve disease is a major burden in the Western world and no effective treatment is available. This is mainly due to a lack of knowledge of the molecular, cellular and mechanical mechanisms underlying the maintenance and/or loss of the valvular structure. Current models used to study valvular biology include in vitro cultures of valvular endothelial and interstitial cells. Although, in vitro culturing models provide both cellular and molecular mechanisms, the mechanisms involved in the 3D-organization of the valve remain unclear. While in vivo models have provided insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying valvular development, insight into adult valvular biology is still elusive. In order to be able to study the regulation of the valvular 3D-organization on tissue, cellular and molecular levels, we have developed the Miniature Tissue Culture System. In this ex vivo flow model the mitral or the aortic valve is cultured in its natural position in the heart. The natural configuration and composition of the leaflet are maintained allowing the most natural response of the valvular cells to stimuli. The valves remain viable and are responsive to changing environmental conditions. This MTCS may provide advantages on studying questions including but not limited to, how does the 3D organization affect valvular biology, what factors affect 3D organization of the valve, and which network of signaling pathways regulates the 3D organization of the valve. PMID:26555276

  19. Epithelial morphogenesis: the mouse eye as a model system.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Bharesh; Plageman, Timothy; Lou, Ming; Lang, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenesis is the developmental process by which tissues and organs acquire the shape that is critical to their function. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive morphogenesis in the developing eye. These investigations have shown that regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is central to shaping the presumptive lens and retinal epithelia that are the major components of the eye. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is mediated by Rho family GTPases, by signaling pathways and indirectly, by transcription factors that govern the expression of critical genes. Changes in the actin cytoskeleton can shape cells through the generation of filopodia (that, in the eye, connect adjacent epithelia) or through apical constriction, a process that produces a wedge-shaped cell. We have also learned that one tissue can influence the shape of an adjacent one, probably by direct force transmission, in a process we term inductive morphogenesis. Though these mechanisms of morphogenesis have been identified using the eye as a model system, they are likely to apply broadly where epithelia influence the shape of organs during development. PMID:25662266

  20. Two-phase anaerobic digestion within a solid waste/wastewater integrated management system

    SciTech Connect

    De Gioannis, G.; Diaz, L.F.; Muntoni, A. Pisanu, A.

    2008-07-01

    A two-phase, wet anaerobic digestion process was tested at laboratory scale using mechanically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) as the substrate. The proposed process scheme differs from others due to the integration of the MSW and wastewater treatment cycles, which makes it possible to avoid the recirculation of process effluent. The results obtained show that the supplying of facultative biomass, drawn from the wastewater aeration tank, to the solid waste acidogenic reactor allows an improvement of the performance of the first phase of the process which is positively reflected on the second one. The proposed process performed successfully, adopting mesophilic conditions and a relatively short hydraulic retention time in the methanogenic reactor, as well as high values of organic loading rate. Significant VS removal efficiency and biogas production were achieved. Moreover, the methanogenic reactor quickly reached optimal conditions for a stable methanogenic phase. Studies conducted elsewhere also confirm the feasibility of integrating the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW with that of wastewater.

  1. Circulating MicroRNAs: A Next-Generation Clinical Biomarker for Digestive System Cancers.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Tsutomu; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Tsujiura, Masahiro; Takeshita, Hiroki; Hirajima, Shoji; Miyamae, Mahito; Okajima, Wataru; Ohashi, Takuma; Imamura, Taisuke; Kiuchi, Jun; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Otsuji, Eigo

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and play important roles in various physiological and developmental processes such as oncogenic or tumor suppressive regulators. Specific miRNA expression signatures have been identified in a number of human cancers. Cell-free miRNAs have recently been stably detected in plasma and serum (circulating miRNAs), and their presence in blood has attracted the attention of researchers due to their potential as non-invasive biomarkers. Circulating miRNAs have emerged as tumor-associated biomarkers that reflect not only the existence of early-stage tumors, but also the dynamics and status of advanced stage tumors, tumor recurrence, and drug sensitivities. This methodology for liquid biopsy may provide non-invasive and reproductive biomarkers and individualized therapeutic strategies for cancer patients. We herein review the current phase of biological and clinical research on the circulating miRNAs of solid cancers, particularly digestive tract cancers, and discuss future perspectives. The present review may be beneficial for future research on miRNAs used to detect various cancers. PMID:27598137

  2. Atmosphere behavior in gas-closed mouse-algal systems - An experimental and modelling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, M. M.; Moore, B., III; Bartholomew, I.; Wharton, R.

    1984-01-01

    A NASA-sponsored research program initiated using mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas-exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere is studied. The development of control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels is considered. A mathematical model simulating the behavior of a gas-closed mouse-algal system under varying environmental conditions is described. To verify and validate the model simulations, an analytical system with which algal growth and gas exchange characteristics can be manipulated and measured is designed, fabricated, and tested. The preliminary results are presented.

  3. The expression pattern of Follistatin-like 1 in mouse central nervous system development.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Junhua; Mao, Huihua; Hu, Yu-An; Yan, Yan; Zhao, Chunjie

    2009-10-01

    Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1), also named TSC-36 (TGF-beta-stimulated clone 36), was first cloned from the mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line and can be up-regulated by TGF-beta. To better study the function of Fstl1 during the development of the mouse central nervous system (CNS), we examined Fstl1 expression in the developing mouse CNS, in detail, by in situ hybridization. Our results show that Fstl1 is strongly expressed in the telencephalon, diencephalon, brainstem, limbic system and spinal cord. In the telencephalon, Fstl1 positive cells are mainly located in the ventricular zone (VZ) and the subventricular zone (SVZ); a relatively weak signal was observed in layers II and III of the neocortex at postnatal stages. Fstl1 expression is robust in the developing hippocampus and persists to P20. In the developing diencephalon and hindbrain, abundant Fstl1 signals were also detected in nuclei including the medial habenular nucleus, the medial dorsal nucleus, the cochlear nuclei and so on. In addition, a strong expression of Fstl1 was detected in the thalamencephalic signal center, as well as in the olfactory cortex from E14.5 to P0. Meanwhile, Fstl1 was expressed in the septal area and the cingulate gyrus of the limbic system after birth. A high level of expression was also observed in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. These results indicate that Fstl1 may play an important role during CNS development in the mouse. PMID:19595790

  4. In vitro digestion of short-dough biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system (2): Protein and starch hydrolyses.

    PubMed

    Villemejane, C; Denis, S; Marsset-Baglieri, A; Alric, M; Aymard, P; Michon, C

    2016-01-01

    The influence of protein and/or fibre enrichment on the nutritional properties of biscuits was studied in terms of proteolysis and amylolysis. Biscuits were digested using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system that simulates the main physiological digestive functions of the upper tract of healthy adult humans: the TIM-1. A control biscuit and three biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres were digested under the same conditions. Samples were collected in each compartment of the TIM-1 (stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum) at different times of digestion and analysed in terms of proteolysis and amylolysis. Results indicate that both formulation and processing impacted the digestive fate of the biscuits. Incorporating proteins or fibres in biscuits lowered or delayed proteolysis. Moreover a protein-plus-fibre additional or synergic effect was observed. Biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres displayed a higher amylolysis degree than the control biscuit, probably due to lower starch amounts and higher gelatinization degrees. PMID:26212956

  5. A novel sex determination system in a close relative of the house mouse

    PubMed Central

    Veyrunes, Frederic; Chevret, Pascale; Catalan, Josette; Castiglia, Riccardo; Watson, Johan; Dobigny, Gauthier; Robinson, Terence J.; Britton-Davidian, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Therian mammals have an extremely conserved XX/XY sex determination system. A limited number of mammal species have, however, evolved to escape convention and present aberrant sex chromosome complements. In this study, we identified a new case of atypical sex determination in the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, a close evolutionary relative of the house mouse. The pygmy mouse is characterized by a very high proportion of XY females (74%, n = 27) from geographically widespread Southern and Eastern African populations. Sequencing of the high mobility group domain of the mammalian sex determining gene Sry, and karyological analyses using fluorescence in situ hybridization and G-banding data, suggest that the sex reversal is most probably not owing to a mutation of Sry, but rather to a chromosomal rearrangement on the X chromosome. In effect, two morphologically different X chromosomes were identified, one of which, designated X*, is invariably associated with sex-reversed females. The asterisk designates the still unknown mutation converting X*Y individuals into females. Although relatively still unexplored, such an atypical sex chromosome system offers a unique opportunity to unravel new genetic interactions involved in the initiation of sex determination in mammals. PMID:20007182

  6. Linking susceptibility genes and pathogenesis mechanisms using mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Crampton, Steve P.; Morawski, Peter A.; Bolland, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) represents a challenging autoimmune disease from a clinical perspective because of its varied forms of presentation. Although broad-spectrum steroids remain the standard treatment for SLE, they have many side effects and only provide temporary relief from the symptoms of the disease. Thus, gaining a deeper understanding of the genetic traits and biological pathways that confer susceptibility to SLE will help in the design of more targeted and effective therapeutics. Both human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and investigations using a variety of mouse models of SLE have been valuable for the identification of the genes and pathways involved in pathogenesis. In this Review, we link human susceptibility genes for SLE with biological pathways characterized in mouse models of lupus, and discuss how the mechanistic insights gained could advance drug discovery for the disease. PMID:25147296

  7. A Support System for Mouse Operations Using Eye-Gaze Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Kiyohiko; Nakayama, Yasuhiro; Ohi, Shoichi; Ohyama, Minoru

    We have developed an eye-gaze input system for people with severe physical disabilities, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. This system utilizes a personal computer and a home video camera to detect eye-gaze under natural light. The system detects both vertical and horizontal eye-gaze by simple image analysis, and does not require special image processing units or sensors. Our conventional eye-gaze input system can detect horizontal eye-gaze with a high degree of accuracy. However, it can only classify vertical eye-gaze into 3 directions (up, middle and down). In this paper, we propose a new method for vertical eye-gaze detection. This method utilizes the limbus tracking method for vertical eye-gaze detection. Therefore our new eye-gaze input system can detect the two-dimension coordinates of user's gazing point. By using this method, we develop a new support system for mouse operation. This system can move the mouse cursor to user's gazing point.

  8. Maintenance of a fully functional digestive system during hibernation in the European hamster, a food-storing hibernator.

    PubMed

    Weitten, Mathieu; Oudart, Hugues; Habold, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Some small mammals limit energy expenditure during winter conditions through torpor bouts, which are characterized by a decrease in body temperature and metabolic rate. Individuals arise periodically from torpor to restore critical functions requiring euthermia. Although most of the species involved do not feed during hibernation and rely on body reserves to fulfil energy requirements (fat-storing species), others hoard food in a burrow (food-storing species) and can feed during interbout euthermy. Whereas fat-storing species undergo a marked atrophy of the digestive tract, food-storing species have to maintain a functional digestive system during hibernation. Our study aimed to evaluate the absorption capacities of a food-storing species, the European hamster, throughout the annual cycle. In vivo intestinal perfusions were conducted in different groups of hamsters (n=5) during the different life periods, namely before hibernation, in torpor, during interbout euthermy, and during summer rest. The triglyceride, non-esterified free fatty acid, starch, glucose and protein composition of the perfusate was evaluated before and after the 1h perfusion of a closed intestinal loop. Triglyceride, starch and protein hydrolysis rates were similar in hibernating (torpid and euthermic) and non-hibernating hamsters. Intestinal absorption of free fatty acid was also similar in all groups. However, glucose uptake rate was higher during hibernation than during the summer. In contrast with fat-storing species, the intestinal absorption capacities of food-storing species are fully maintained during hibernation to optimize nutrient assimilation during short interbout euthermy. In particular, glucose uptake rate is increased during hibernation to restore glycaemia and ensure glucose-dependent pathways. PMID:26774183

  9. Stability of free and encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in yogurt and in an artificial human gastric digestion system.

    PubMed

    Ortakci, F; Sert, S

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of encapsulation on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 (ATCC 4356) in yogurt and during artificial gastric digestion. Strain ATCC 4356 was added to yogurt either encapsulated in calcium alginate or in free form (unencapsulated) at levels of 8.26 and 9.47 log cfu/g, respectively, and the influence of alginate capsules (1.5 to 2.5mm) on the sensorial characteristics of yogurts was investigated. The ATCC 4356 strain was introduced into an artificial gastric solution consisting of 0.08 N HCl (pH 1.5) containing 0.2% NaCl or into artificial bile juice consisting of 1.2% bile salts in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth to determine the stability of the probiotic bacteria. When incubated for 2h in artificial gastric juice, the free ATCC 4356 did not survive (reduction of >7 log cfu/g). We observed, however, greater survival of encapsulated ATCC 4356, with a reduction of only 3 log cfu/g. Incubation in artificial bile juice (6 h) did not significantly affect the viability of free or encapsulated ATCC 4356. Moreover, statistically significant reductions (~1 log cfu/g) of both free and encapsulated ATCC 4356 were observed during 4-wk refrigerated storage of yogurts. The addition of probiotic cultures in free or alginate-encapsulated form did not significantly affect appearance/color or flavor/odor of the yogurts. However, significant deficiencies were found in body/texture of yogurts containing encapsulated ATCC 4356. We concluded that incorporation of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria did not substantially change the overall sensory properties of yogurts, and encapsulation in alginate using the extrusion method greatly enhanced the survival of probiotic bacteria against an artificial human gastric digestive system. PMID:23021757

  10. Development and Function of the Mouse Vestibular System in the Absence of Gravity Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolgemuth, Debra J.

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that was tested in this research was that the absence of gravity perception, such as would occur in space, would affect the development and function of the vestibular and central nervous systems. Further, we postulated that these effects would be more significant at specific stages of post-natal development of the animal. We also proposed the use of molecular genetic approaches that would provide important information as to the hierarchy of gene function during the development and subsequent function of the vestibular system. The tilted (tlt) mutant mouse has been characterized as lacking the ability to provide sensory input to the gravity receptors. The tlt/tlt mutant mice were a particularly attractive model for the study of vestibular function since the primary defect was limited to the receptor part of the vestibular system, and there were no detectable abnormal phenotypes in other organ systems. The goal of the proposed studies was to assess immediate and delayed effects of the lack of gravity perception on the vestibular system. Particular attention was paid to characterizing primarily affected periods of vestibular morphogenesis, and to identifying downstream genetic pathways that are altered in the CNS of the tlt/tlt mutant mouse. The specific aims were: (1) to characterize the postnatal morphogenesis of the CNS in the tlt mutant mouse, using detailed morphometric analysis of isolated vestibular ganglia and brain tissue at different stages of postnatal development and assessment of apoptotic cell death; (2) to examine the expression of selected genes implicated by mutational analysis to be important in vestibular development or function by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry in the mutant mice; and (3) to identify other genes involved in vestibular development and function, using differential cloning strategies to isolate genes whose expression is changed in the mutant versus normal vestibular system.

  11. A demonstration test and evaluation of the Cannon Low-NO{sub x} Digester System. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Since 1985, Cannon Boiler Works, Inc. has been carrying out research and development efforts to perfect a system for removing nitrogen oxides, NO{sub x}, from the exhaust gases of furnaces, gas turbines, chemical reactors, incinerators and boilers.Computer simulations, bench-scale tests and pilot plant testing have proved that the system is capable of removing substantially all of the NO{sub x} from natural gas-fired equipment exhaust streams. Furthermore when retrofit to industrial boilers, both capital costs and operating costs are lower than for competing processes, while performance is much better. The Cannon system for removing NO{sub x}, originally designated as the Cannon NO{sub x} Digester, has recently been renamed the Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO) System for NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} Reduction. It will be engineered and marketed by Cannon Technology, Inc, a wholly owned subsidiary of Cannon Boiler Works, Inc. Cannon has US patents for the process and for the associated equipment and has patent applications pending in Europe. Cannon`s Low Temperature Oxidation, LTO, process has proved effective for reducing the levels of NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and particulates from boiler flue gases.

  12. CWD prions remain infectious after passage through the digestive system of coyotes (Canis latrans)

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tracy A; Fischer, Justin W; Spraker, Terry R; Kong, Qingzhong; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a geographically expanding prion disease of wild and captive cervids in North America. Disease can be transmitted directly, animal to animal, or indirectly via the environment. CWD contamination can occur residually in the environment via soil, water, and forage following deposition of bodily fluids such as urine, saliva, and feces, or by the decomposition of carcasses. Recent work has indicated that plants may even take up prions into the stems and leaves. When a carcass or gut pile is present in the environment, a large number of avian and mammalian species visit and consume the carrion. Additionally, predators like coyotes, likely select for disease-compromised cervids. Natural cross-species CWD transmission has not been documented, however, passage of infectious prion material has been observed in the feces of crows. In this study we evaluated the ability of CWD-infected brain material to pass through the gastrointestinal tract of coyotes (Canis latrans) following oral ingestion, and be infectious in a cervidized transgenic mouse model. Results from this study indicate that coyotes can pass infectious prions via their feces for at least 3 days post ingestion, demonstrating that mammalian scavengers could contribute to the translocation and contamination of CWD in the environment. PMID:26636258

  13. CWD prions remain infectious after passage through the digestive system of coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tracy A; Fischer, Justin W; Spraker, Terry R; Kong, Qingzhong; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a geographically expanding prion disease of wild and captive cervids in North America. Disease can be transmitted directly, animal to animal, or indirectly via the environment. CWD contamination can occur residually in the environment via soil, water, and forage following deposition of bodily fluids such as urine, saliva, and feces, or by the decomposition of carcasses. Recent work has indicated that plants may even take up prions into the stems and leaves. When a carcass or gut pile is present in the environment, a large number of avian and mammalian species visit and consume the carrion. Additionally, predators like coyotes, likely select for disease-compromised cervids. Natural cross-species CWD transmission has not been documented, however, passage of infectious prion material has been observed in the feces of crows. In this study we evaluated the ability of CWD-infected brain material to pass through the gastrointestinal tract of coyotes (Canis latrans) following oral ingestion, and be infectious in a cervidized transgenic mouse model. Results from this study indicate that coyotes can pass infectious prions via their feces for at least 3 days post ingestion, demonstrating that mammalian scavengers could contribute to the translocation and contamination of CWD in the environment. PMID:26636258

  14. Elastase Digests

    PubMed Central

    Rietschel, Benjamin; Arrey, Tabiwang N.; Meyer, Bjoern; Bornemann, Sandra; Schuerken, Malte; Karas, Michael; Poetsch, Ansgar

    2009-01-01

    Despite many advances in membrane proteomics during the last decade the fundamental problem of accessing the transmembrane regions itself has only been addressed to some extent. The present study establishes a method for the nano-LC-based analysis of complex membrane proteomes on the basis of a methanolic porcine pancreatic elastase digest to increase transmembrane coverage. Halobacterium salinarium purple and Corynebacterium glutamicum membranes were successfully analyzed by using the new protocol. We demonstrated that elastase digests yield a large proportion of transmembrane peptides, facilitating membrane protein identification. The potential for characterization of a membrane protein through full sequence coverage using elastase is there but is restricted to the higher abundance protein components. Compatibility of the work flow with the two most common mass spectrometric ionization techniques, ESI and MALDI, was shown. Currently better results are obtained using ESI mainly because of the low response of MALDI for strictly neutral peptides. New findings concerning elastase specificity in complex protein mixtures reveal a new prospect beyond the application in shotgun experiments. Furthermore peptide mass fingerprinting with less specific enzymes might be done in the near future but requires an adaptation of current search algorithms to the new proteases. PMID:19116210

  15. Pointright: a system to redirect mouse and keyboard control among multiple machines

    DOEpatents

    Johanson, Bradley E.; Winograd, Terry A.; Hutchins, Gregory M.

    2008-09-30

    The present invention provides a software system, PointRight, that allows for smooth and effortless control of pointing and input devices among multiple displays. With PointRight, a single free-floating mouse and keyboard can be used to control multiple screens. When the cursor reaches the edge of a screen it seamlessly moves to the adjacent screen and keyboard control is simultaneously redirected to the appropriate machine. Laptops may also redirect their keyboard and pointing device, and multiple pointers are supported simultaneously. The system automatically reconfigures itself as displays go on, go off, or change the machine they display.

  16. An Automated Mouse Tail Vascular Access System by Vision and Pressure Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yen-Chi; Berry-Pusey, Brittany; Yasin, Rashid; Vu, Nam; Maraglia, Brandon; Chatziioannou, Arion X.; Tsao, Tsu-Chin

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops an automated vascular access system (A-VAS) with novel vision-based vein and needle detection methods and real-time pressure feedback for murine drug delivery. Mouse tail vein injection is a routine but critical step for preclinical imaging applications. Due to the small vein diameter and external disturbances such as tail hair, pigmentation, and scales, identifying vein location is difficult and manual injections usually result in poor repeatability. To improve the injection accuracy, consistency, safety, and processing time, A-VAS was developed to overcome difficulties in vein detection noise rejection, robustness in needle tracking, and visual servoing integration with the mechatronics system. PMID:26478693

  17. Molecular and neuronal homology between the olfactory systems of zebrafish and mouse.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Luis R; Ahuja, Gaurav; Ivandic, Ivan; Syed, Adnan S; Marioni, John C; Korsching, Sigrun I; Logan, Darren W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the two major olfactory organs of rodents, the olfactory mucosa (OM) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO), unraveled the molecular basis of smell in vertebrates. However, some vertebrates lack a VNO. Here we generated and analyzed the olfactory transcriptome of the zebrafish and compared it to the olfactory transcriptomes of mouse to investigate the evolutionary and molecular relationship between single and dual olfactory systems. Our analyses revealed a high degree of molecular conservation, with orthologs of mouse olfactory cell-specific markers and all but one of their chemosensory receptor classes expressed in the single zebrafish olfactory organ. Zebrafish chemosensory receptor genes are expressed across a large dynamic range and their RNA abundance correlates positively with the number of neurons expressing that RNA. Thus we estimate the relative proportions of neuronal sub-types expressing different chemosensory receptors. Receptor repertoire size drives the absolute abundance of different classes of neurons, but we find similar underlying patterns in both species. Finally, we identified novel marker genes that characterize rare neuronal populations in both mouse and zebrafish. In sum, we find that the molecular and cellular mechanisms underpinning olfaction in teleosts and mammals are similar despite 430 million years of evolutionary divergence. PMID:26108469

  18. Molecular and neuronal homology between the olfactory systems of zebrafish and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Luis R.; Ahuja, Gaurav; Ivandic, Ivan; Syed, Adnan S.; Marioni, John C.; Korsching, Sigrun I.; Logan, Darren W.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the two major olfactory organs of rodents, the olfactory mucosa (OM) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO), unraveled the molecular basis of smell in vertebrates. However, some vertebrates lack a VNO. Here we generated and analyzed the olfactory transcriptome of the zebrafish and compared it to the olfactory transcriptomes of mouse to investigate the evolutionary and molecular relationship between single and dual olfactory systems. Our analyses revealed a high degree of molecular conservation, with orthologs of mouse olfactory cell-specific markers and all but one of their chemosensory receptor classes expressed in the single zebrafish olfactory organ. Zebrafish chemosensory receptor genes are expressed across a large dynamic range and their RNA abundance correlates positively with the number of neurons expressing that RNA. Thus we estimate the relative proportions of neuronal sub-types expressing different chemosensory receptors. Receptor repertoire size drives the absolute abundance of different classes of neurons, but we find similar underlying patterns in both species. Finally, we identified novel marker genes that characterize rare neuronal populations in both mouse and zebrafish. In sum, we find that the molecular and cellular mechanisms underpinning olfaction in teleosts and mammals are similar despite 430 million years of evolutionary divergence. PMID:26108469

  19. What do Children Aged Four to Seven Know about the Digestive System and the Respiratory System of the Human Being and of Other Animals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Barros, Susana; Martínez-Losada, Cristina; Garrido, María

    2011-10-01

    The object of this paper is to learn what little children know about the inside of their bodies before they have studied these particular aspects at school. The data for our project were collected by means of drawings made by 342 Spanish children aged four to seven. They were required to depict where the food, drink, and air which enter their bodies go. In addition to this, we intend to study how the ideas of children evolve during three consecutive years. For this purpose, a group of 32 subjects was monitored. Our findings show that the children recognise specific organs in their own bodies which they associate with the intake of food and air. Furthermore, they usually extrapolate those organs to other animals they are familiar with. Their ideas about the digestive system are more adequate than the ones about the respiratory system, though their ideas improve as they become older, above all those concerning the digestive system. Taking these findings as a basis, this paper suggests some points to be taken into consideration for teaching purposes.

  20. MicroCT Morphometry Analysis of Mouse Cancellous Bone: Intra- and Inter-system Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Verdelis, K.; Lukashova, L.; Atti, E.; Mayer-Kuckuk, P.; Peterson, M.G.E.; Tetradis, S.; Boskey, A.L.; van der Meulen, M.C.H.

    2012-01-01

    The agreement between measurements and the relative performance reproducibility among different microcomputed tomography (microCT) systems, especially at voxel sizes close to the limit of the instruments, is not known. To compare this reproducibility 3D morphometric analyses of mouse cancellous bone from distal femoral epiphyses were performed using three different ex vivo microCT systems: GE eXplore Locus SP, Scanco μCT35 and Skyscan 1172. Scans were completed in triplicate at 12μm and 8μm voxel sizes and morphometry measurements, from which relative values and dependence on voxel size were examined. Global and individual visually assessed thresholds were compared. Variability from repeated scans at 12μm voxel size was also examined. Bone volume fraction and trabecular separation values were similar, while values for relative bone surface, trabecular thickness and number varied significantly across the three systems. The greatest differences were measured in trabecular thickness (up to 236%) and number (up to 218%). The relative dependence of measurements on voxel size was highly variable for the trabecular number (from 0% to 20% relative difference between measurements from 12μm and 8μm voxel size scans, depending on the system). The intra-system reproducibility of all trabecular measurements was also highly variable across the systems and improved for BV/TV in all the systems when a smaller voxel size was used. It improved using a smaller voxel size in all the other parameters examined for the Scanco system, but not consistently so for the GE or the Skyscan system. Our results indicate trabecular morphometry measurements should not be directly compared across microCT systems. In addition, the conditions, including voxel size, for trabecular morphometry studies in mouse bone should be chosen based on the specific microCT system and the measurements of main interest. PMID:21621659

  1. [Pharmacological studies on the clathrate compound of mobenzoxamine with beta-cyclodextrin. (I). Effects on the digestive system].

    PubMed

    Yokochi, E; Kohno, S; Ohata, K

    1988-11-01

    Effects of the clathrate compound of mobenzoxamine (MBX) with beta-cyclodextrin (MBX-CD), a new gastro-intestinal function modulator, on the digestive system were studied in comparison with those of metoclopramide, domperidone and trimebutine. MBX-CD showed inhibitory effects that were approximately 1/4 times as potent as metoclopramide on both apomorphine- and copper sulfate-induced emesis and about 1/40 times as potent as domperidone on apomorphine-induced emesis in dogs. In rats, MBX-CD enhanced gastric emptying as potently as metoclopramide, and only MBX-CD showed a clear amelioration of the delayed gastric emptying induced by BaCl2. Similarly, only MBX-CD showed an ameliorative effect on small intestinal transport accelerated by BaCl2 in mice. Though both MBX and trimebutine inhibited spontaneous contractions of the isolated guinea pig stomach and rabbit intestine, it seemed that the properties of these effects were different from those of papaverine. On isolated guinea pig ileum, MBX inhibited contractions induced by various agonists equally to or more potently than trimebutine or papaverine. The results suggest that MBX-CD or MBX acts extensively on the gastro-intestinal system for the reason that it has not only the respective properties of the gastro-intestinal function modulators used as the standards, but also its own characteristic effects. PMID:3243512

  2. Energy conversion of biomass crops and agroindustrial residues by combined biohydrogen/biomethane system and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Corneli, Elisa; Dragoni, Federico; Adessi, Alessandra; De Philippis, Roberto; Bonari, Enrico; Ragaglini, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of ensiled giant reed, ensiled maize, ensiled olive pomace, wheat bran for combined systems (CS: dark fermentation+anaerobic digestion (AD)) producing hydrogen-rich biogas (biohythane), tested in batch under basic operational conditions (mesophilic temperatures, no pH control). Substrates were also analyzed under a single stage AD batch test, in order to investigate the effects of DF on estimated energy recovery (ER) in combined systems. In CS, maize and wheat bran exhibited the highest hydrogen potential (13.8 and 18.9NLkgVS(-1)) and wheat bran the highest methane potential (243.5NLkgVS(-1)). In one-stage AD, giant reed, maize and wheat bran showed the highest methane production (239.5, 267.3 and 260.0NLkgVS(-1)). Butyrate/acetate ratio properly described the dark fermentation, correlating with hydrogen production (r=0.92). Wheat bran proved to be a promising residue for CS in terms of hydrogen/methane potential and ER. PMID:27038259

  3. Minimally invasive microendoscopy system for in vivo functional imaging of deep nuclei in the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Jiang, Wan-chen; Wang, Chen; Dudman, Joshua T.; Ji, Na; Aponte, Yeka

    2015-01-01

    The ability to image neurons anywhere in the mammalian brain is a major goal of optical microscopy. Here we describe a minimally invasive microendoscopy system for studying the morphology and function of neurons at depth. Utilizing a guide cannula with an ultrathin wall, we demonstrated in vivo two-photon fluorescence imaging of deeply buried nuclei such as the striatum (2.5 mm depth), substantia nigra (4.4 mm depth) and lateral hypothalamus (5.0 mm depth) in mouse brain. We reported, for the first time, the observation of neuronal activity with subcellular resolution in the lateral hypothalamus and substantia nigra of head-fixed awake mice. PMID:26601017

  4. Fertilization of Mouse Gametes in Vitro Using a Digital Microfluidic System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hong-Yuan; Shen, Hsien-Hua; Chung, Lung-Yuan; Chung, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Chih-Chen; Hsu, Chia-Hsien; Fan, Shih-Kang; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrated in vitro fertilization (IVF) using a digital microfluidic (DMF) system, so-called electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD). The DMF device was proved to be biocompatible and the DMF manipulation of a droplet was harmless to the embryos. This DMF platform was then used for the fertilization of mouse gametes in vitro and for embryo dynamic culture based on a dispersed droplet form. Development of the embryos was instantaneously recorded by a time-lapse microscope in an incubator. Our results indicated that increasing the number of sperms for IVF would raise the rate of fertilization. However, the excess of sperms in the 10 μL culture medium would more easily make the embryo dead during cell culture. Dynamic culture powered with EWOD can manipulate a single droplet containing mouse embryos and culture to the eight-cell stage. The fertilization rate of IVF demonstrated by DMF system was 34.8%, and about 25% inseminated embryos dynamically cultured on a DMF chip developed into an eight-cell stage. The results indicate that the DMF system has the potential for application in assisted reproductive technology. PMID:26529769

  5. Metagenomic Reconstruction of Key Anaerobic Digestion Pathways in Municipal Sludge and Industrial Wastewater Biogas-Producing Systems.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mingwei; Wilkins, David; Chen, Jiapeng; Ng, Siu-Kin; Lu, Hongyuan; Jia, Yangyang; Lee, Patrick K H

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a microbial process widely used to treat organic wastes. While the microbes involved in digestion of municipal sludge are increasingly well characterized, the taxonomic and functional compositions of AD digesters treating industrial wastewater have been understudied. This study examined metagenomes from a biogas-producing digester treating municipal sludge in Shek Wu Hui (SWH), Hong Kong and an industrial wastewater digester in Guangzhou (GZ), China, and compared their taxonomic composition and reconstructed biochemical pathways. Genes encoding carbohydrate metabolism and protein metabolism functions were overrepresented in GZ, while genes encoding functions related to fatty acids, lipids and isoprenoids were overrepresented in SWH, reflecting the plants' feedstocks. Mapping of genera to functions in each community indicated that both digesters had a high level of functional redundancy, and a more even distribution of genera in GZ suggested that it was more functionally stable. While fermentation in both samples was dominated by Clostridia, SWH had an overrepresentation of Proteobacteria, including syntrophic acetogens, reflecting its more complex substrate. Considering the growing importance of biogas as an alternative fuel source, a detailed mechanistic understanding of AD is important and this report will be a basis for further study of industrial wastewater AD. PMID:27252693

  6. Metagenomic Reconstruction of Key Anaerobic Digestion Pathways in Municipal Sludge and Industrial Wastewater Biogas-Producing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Mingwei; Wilkins, David; Chen, Jiapeng; Ng, Siu-Kin; Lu, Hongyuan; Jia, Yangyang; Lee, Patrick K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a microbial process widely used to treat organic wastes. While the microbes involved in digestion of municipal sludge are increasingly well characterized, the taxonomic and functional compositions of AD digesters treating industrial wastewater have been understudied. This study examined metagenomes from a biogas-producing digester treating municipal sludge in Shek Wu Hui (SWH), Hong Kong and an industrial wastewater digester in Guangzhou (GZ), China, and compared their taxonomic composition and reconstructed biochemical pathways. Genes encoding carbohydrate metabolism and protein metabolism functions were overrepresented in GZ, while genes encoding functions related to fatty acids, lipids and isoprenoids were overrepresented in SWH, reflecting the plants’ feedstocks. Mapping of genera to functions in each community indicated that both digesters had a high level of functional redundancy, and a more even distribution of genera in GZ suggested that it was more functionally stable. While fermentation in both samples was dominated by Clostridia, SWH had an overrepresentation of Proteobacteria, including syntrophic acetogens, reflecting its more complex substrate. Considering the growing importance of biogas as an alternative fuel source, a detailed mechanistic understanding of AD is important and this report will be a basis for further study of industrial wastewater AD. PMID:27252693

  7. In vitro digestion of short-dough biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres, using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system (1): viscosity measurement and prediction.

    PubMed

    Villemejane, C; Wahl, R; Aymard, P; Denis, S; Michon, C

    2015-09-01

    The effects of biscuit composition on the viscosity generated during digestion were investigated. A control biscuit, one with proteins, one with fibres, and one with both proteins and fibres were digested under the same conditions, using the TNO intestinal model (TIM-1). The TIM-1 is a multi-compartmental and dynamic in vitro system, simulating digestion in the upper tract (stomach and small intestine) of healthy adult humans. Digesta were collected at different times, in the different compartments of the TIM-1 (stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and viscosity was measured with a dynamic rheometer. Results showed a marked effect of biscuit composition on chyme viscosity. Highest viscosity was obtained with biscuits containing viscous soluble fibres, followed by those enriched in both proteins and fibres, then by protein-enriched and control biscuits. The viscosity was maintained throughout the gut up to the ileal compartment. A prediction of the evolution of the chyme viscosity in each compartment of the TIM-1 was built, based on model curves describing the evolution of the viscosity as a function of biscuit concentration, and on dilution factors measured by spectrophotometry on a blank digestion. PMID:25842308

  8. Effect of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Mouse Resistance to Systemic Candida albicans Infection

    PubMed Central

    Blumstein, Gideon W.; Parsa, Arya; Park, Anthony K.; McDowell, Beverly L. P.; Arroyo-Mendoza, Melissa; Girguis, Marie; Adler-Moore, Jill P.; Olson, Jon; Buckley, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana, is known to suppress the immune responses to bacterial, viral and protozoan infections, but its effects on fungal infections have not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic Δ9-THC treatment on mouse resistance to systemic Candida albicans (C. albicans) infection. To determine the outcome of chronic Δ9-THC treatment on primary, acute systemic candidiasis, c57BL/6 mice were given vehicle or Δ9-THC (16 mg/kg) in vehicle on days 1–4, 8–11 and 15–18. On day 19, mice were infected with 5×105 C. albicans. We also determined the effect of chronic Δ9-THC (4–64 mg/kg) treatment on mice infected with a non-lethal dose of 7.5×104 C. albicans on day 2, followed by a higher challenge with 5×105 C. albicans on day 19. Mouse resistance to the infection was assessed by survival and tissue fungal load. Serum cytokine levels were determine to evaluate the immune responses. In the acute infection, chronic Δ9-THC treatment had no effect on mouse survival or tissue fungal load when compared to vehicle treated mice. However, Δ9-THC significantly suppressed IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 as well as marginally suppressed IL-17 versus vehicle treated mice. In comparison, when mice were given a secondary yeast infection, Δ9-THC significantly decreased survival, increased tissue fungal burden and suppressed serum IFN-γ and IL-12p40 levels compared to vehicle treated mice. The data showed that chronic Δ9-THC treatment decreased the efficacy of the memory immune response to candida infection, which correlated with a decrease in IFN-γ that was only observed after the secondary candida challenge. PMID:25057822

  9. Pressurized Pepsin Digestion in Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    López-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Robinson, Errol W.; Hixson, Kim K.; Tian, Zhixin; Lee, Jung Hwa; Lee, Sang-Won; Tolić, Nikola; Weitz, Karl K.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Integrated top-down bottom-up proteomics combined with on-line digestion has great potential to improve the characterization of protein isoforms in biological systems and is amendable to high throughput proteomics experiments. Bottom-up proteomics ultimately provides the peptide sequences derived from the tandem MS analyses of peptides after the proteome has been digested. Top-down proteomics conversely entails the MS analyses of intact proteins for more effective characterization of genetic variations and/or post-translational modifications. Herein, we describe recent efforts toward efficient integration of bottom-up and top-down LC-MS-based proteomics strategies. Since most proteomics separations utilize acidic conditions, we exploited the compatibility of pepsin (where the optimal digestion conditions are at low pH) for integration into bottom-up and top-down proteomics work flows. Pressure-enhanced pepsin digestions were successfully performed and characterized with several standard proteins in either an off-line mode using a Barocycler or an on-line mode using a modified high pressure LC system referred to as a fast on-line digestion system (FOLDS). FOLDS was tested using pepsin and a whole microbial proteome, and the results were compared against traditional trypsin digestions on the same platform. Additionally, FOLDS was integrated with a RePlay configuration to demonstrate an ultrarapid integrated bottom-up top-down proteomics strategy using a standard mixture of proteins and a monkey pox virus proteome. PMID:20627868

  10. Feeding of pellets rich in digestible neutral detergent fiber to lactating cows in an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Halachmi, I; Shoshani, E; Solomon, R; Maltz, E; Miron, J

    2006-08-01

    If the milking frequency in an automatic milking system (AMS) is increased, the intake of concentrated pellets in the robot may be raised accordingly. Consumption of a large quantity of starchy grains within a short time can impair the appetite, decrease voluntary visits to the milking stall, and lower intakes of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Therefore, the hypothesis to be tested in this study was whether conventional starchy pellets fed in the AMS could be replaced with pellets rich in digestible NDF without impairing the cows' motivation to visit a milking stall voluntarily. Fifty-four cows were paired according to age, milk yield, and days in milk, and were fed a basic mixture along the feeding lane (19.9 kg of DM/cow per d), plus a pelleted additive (approximately 5.4 kg of DM/cow per d) that they obtained in the milking stall and in the concentrate self-feeder that they could enter only after passing through the milking stall. The 2 feeding regimens differed only in the composition of the pelleted additive, which, for the control group, contained 49% starchy grain, and for the experimental group contained 25% starchy grain plus soy hulls and gluten feed as replacement for part of the grain and other low-digestible, NDF-rich feeds. Both diets resulted in similar rates of voluntary milkings (3.31 vs. 3.39 visits/cow per d). Average yields of milk and percentages of milk protein were also similar in the 2 groups. The results suggest that an alternative pellet composition can be allocated in the AMS in conjunction with basic mixture in the feeding lane, without any negative effect on appetite, milk yield, milk composition, or milking frequency of the cows. It also opens the opportunity to increase yields of milk and milk solids by increasing the amount of pelleted concentrates that can be allocated to selected high-yielding cows via the AMS, because this can be done while maintaining a high frequency of voluntary milkings. PMID:16840642