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Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system is investigated in this learning activity to help participants learn how food is broken down and prepared for absorption, and list the components of the digestive system as well as their functions. Organs investigated include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Bidlack, Jim


Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a section of an online Biology Textbook - developed by Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College - providing a concise overview of the digestive system. It describes the enzymes, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids involved in digestion and outlines the role that each part of the body plays from the mouth the large intestine.

Gregory, Michael



Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system is amazing: it takes the foods we eat and breaks them into smaller components that our bodies can use for energy, cell repair and growth. This lesson introduces students to the main parts of the digestive system and how they interact. In addition, students learn about some of the challenges astronauts face when eating in outer space. Engineers figure out how to deal with such challenges.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program


Digestive System Movie  


... People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A Movies & More Quizzes Games Kids' Medical Dictionary En Español ... Pink Locker Society Movie: Digestive System KidsHealth > Kids > Movies & More > Movies > Movie: Digestive System Print A A ...


Digestive System  


... of the immune system to a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, and barley ... and even depression when they eat foods with gluten. Symptoms can be managed by following a gluten- ...


Digestive System  


... of the immune system to a protein called gluten, which is found in certain foods. People with ... nutrients from their food because eating things with gluten damages the lining of the intestines over time. ...


Digestive and Circulatory System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are key parts in the Circulatory and Digestive System? First, read the Digestive System Text. After reading the text, write the steps of digestion if you were eating a pizza. Write two interesting facts. Next, read the Text about Circulatory System. Describe what you learned. Write two interesting facts. Next, watch and listen to the Circulatory System Song. Tell me what you liked or did not like about the song. Did it help you ...

Kuenzli, Ms.



Smoking and Your Digestive System  


... Topics and Titles : Smoking and the Digestive System Smoking and the Digestive System On this page: What ... for energy, growth, and cell repair. [ Top ] Does smoking increase the risk of cancers of the digestive ...


Ruminating on the Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will review the functions of basic digestive organs, understand how diet affects digestion, understand how digestive tracks may differ, and then step outside to compare the digestive systems of the buffalo and the zebra in a lively demonstration. This lesson plan includes key vocabulary words, teacher background information, and is standards-based.

Sciences, California A.



Effects of Stress on Mouse ?-Defensin-3 Expression in the Upper Digestive Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose Gastrointestinal integrity and immune surveillance are affected by stress. Stress also adversely affects mucosal barrier function. ?-defensins constitute an integral component of the innate immune system as antimicrobial peptides, serving as the first line of defense against microbial pathogens at the epithelial surfaces of the upper digestive mucosa. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress on the expression profile of mouse ?-defensin-3 in the upper digestive mucosa of mice with diabetes. Materials and Methods We established a mouse model of restraint stress by using NSY/Hos mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry to investigate the effects of stress and glucocorticoid administration on mouse ?-defensin-3 expression in the upper digestive mucosa of the gingiva, esophagus, and stomach. Results Mouse ?-defensin-3 mRNA expression was higher in the esophagus than in the gingiva or stomach (p<0.05). In the esophagus, mouse ?-defensin-3 mRNA expression was lower in stressed mice than in non-stressed mice (p<0.05). Furthermore, immunoreactivity to mouse ?-defensin-3 protein was lower in the esophagus of stressed mice than non-stressed mice, consistent with the results of mRNA expression analysis. Systemic glucocorticoid administration also downregulated esophageal mouse ?-defensin-3 mRNA expression. Conclusion Our novel findings show that stress decreases mouse ?-defensin-3 expression in the esophagus of mice with diabetes, possibly due to increased endogenous glucocorticoid production. It appears to be highly likely that stress management may normalize mucosal antimicrobial defenses in patients with diabetes. PMID:24532508

Kawashima, Rie; Shimizu, Tomoko; To, Masahiro; Saruta, Juri; Jinbu, Yoshinori; Kusama, Mikio




EPA Science Inventory

The dual digestion system (DDS) was developed to provide stabilized, pathogen free sludge. DDS consists of a 1-day detention time, pure-oxygen, covered aerobic digester (Step I) followed by an 8-day detention time anaerobic reactor. The temperature in the Step I digester is contr...



EPA Science Inventory

The original MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty System) system was designed to deal with the problem of uncertainties in Environmental engineering calculations, such as a set of engineering cost or risk analysis equations. t was especially intended for use by individuals with li...


Environmental diseases of the digestive system  

SciTech Connect

Environmental factors are important mediators of many diseases of the digestive system, defined as the alimentary tract and the accessory organs of digestion, the liver and pancreas. In this review, we principally focus on the action of chemical agents which are classified as (1) naturally occurring compounds, (2) occupational hazards, (3) therapeutic drugs, and (4) constituents of substances of abuse. In addition, the putative role of dietary habits in the pathogenesis of malignant diseases of the digestive system is discussed.54 references.

Rubin, E.; Farber, J.L. (Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (USA))



Digestive System, a Kinesthetic Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two parallel strips of tape on the floor 3-4 feet apart and width of classroom represent the digestive tract. A large filled bag represents the food particle. Students standing on both lines act out each digestive function of the organs, tissues, and cells in the tract as the food particle comes to them.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Bobbin Cave N:Cave;Bobbin ORG:Village High School REV:2005-04-09 END:VCARD



The digestive system: linking theory and practice.  


This article, the second in the nutrition series, presents an outline of food chemistry and the digestion of energy-producing foods. It is hoped that this will facilitate understanding of some of the principles of nutrition. A number of 'clinical points' are highlighted to emphasize the link between theory and practice. The processes by which the chemical building blocks (carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen) are formed into more complex molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates and fats are explained. The gross anatomy of the digestive system is outlined and the sites where digestive enzymes are secreted are identified. Regulation of the digestive system by endocrine secretions and the nervous system is described and tabulated. PMID:9470654

Hoyle, T


Trypsin Digest Protocol to Analyze the Retinal Vasculature of a Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Trypsin digest is the gold standard method to analyze the retinal vasculature 1–5. It allows visualization of the entire network of complex three-dimensional retinal blood vessels and capillaries by creating a two-dimensional flat-mount of the interconnected vascular channels after digestion of the non-vascular components of the retina. This allows one to study various pathologic vascular changes, such as microaneurysms, capillary degeneration, and abnormal endothelial to pericyte ratios. However, the method is technically challenging, especially in mice, which have become the most widely available animal model to study the retina because of the ease of genetic manipulations6,7. In the mouse eye, it is particularly difficult to completely remove the non-vascular components while maintaining the overall architecture of the retinal blood vessels. To date, there is a dearth of literature that describes the trypsin digest technique in detail in the mouse. This manuscript provides a detailed step-by-step methodology of the trypsin digest in mouse retina, while also providing tips on troubleshooting difficult steps. PMID:23793268

Chou, Jonathan C.; Rollins, Stuart D.; Fawzi, Amani A.



Colorado State University: Pathophysiology of the Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website was developed by faculty at Colorado State University as a Biomedical Hypertextbook on the Pathophysiology of the Digestive System. The website is very comprehensive including well-organized sections on the Fundamental Physiology and Anatomy of the Digestive System, Control of Digestive Function, Pregastric Digestion, The Pancreas, and many more. There are even sections exploring the digestive physiology of birds and herbivores. Additional features include self-evaluation tests reviewing the material, a Glossary and Index, and links to other Hypertextbooks.


Colorado State University: Pathophysiology of the Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website was developed by faculty at Colorado State University as a Biomedical Hypertextbook on the Pathophysiology of the Digestive System. The website is very comprehensive including well-organized sections on the Fundamental Physiology and Anatomy of the Digestive System, Control of Digestive Function, Pregastric Digestion, The Pancreas, and many more. There are even sections exploring the digestive physiology of birds and herbivores. Additional features include self-evaluation tests reviewing the material, a Glossary and Index, and links to other Hypertextbooks.



Mouse movement behavioral biometric systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biometric system is a pattern-recognition system that recognizes a person based on either physiological or behavioral characteristics. This kind of system is used to provide access control to some valuable assets. In this paper, we proposed a behavioral biometric system that used random mouse movement in identifying a user. We developed a prototype of the proposed system and experiment

Nazirah Abd Hamid; Suhailan Safei; Siti Dhalila Mohd Satar; Suriayati Chuprat; Rabiah Ahmad



Delivery Systems for Distance Education. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC digest provides a brief overview of the video, audio, and computer technologies that are currently used to deliver instruction for distance education programs. The video systems described include videoconferencing, low-power television (LPTV), closed-circuit television (CCTV), instructional fixed television service (ITFS), and cable…

Schamber, Linda


Nutrition 1: Food and the Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the first of a three part series. Most of this lesson will focus on what nutrients are needed to do particular tasks for the body. More specifically, where the nutrients come from, their different forms, and then their importance for particular tasks in the body. Some of the lesson will focus on the overall digestive system in order to address the latter part of the benchmark-that undigested food is eliminated.

Science Netlinks;



Dynamic digestive responses to increased energy demands in the leaf-eared mouse ( Phyllotis darwini )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major area of interest in comparative physiology has been to understand how animals cope with changing environmental demands in time and space. The digestive system has been identified as one of the more sensitive systems to changes in environmental conditions. However, most research on this topic has evaluated these effects during peak energetic demands, which do not allow for

Daniel E. Naya; Leonardo D. Bacigalupe; Diego M. Bustamante; F. Bozinovic



Effects of biopolymer encapsulation on trans fatty acid digestibility in an in vitro human digestion system.  


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of trans fatty acids by using an in vitro human digestion model. We simulated the main components of the human digestive system using a dialysis tubing system that contained synthetic saliva, gastric juice, and digestive enzymes of the small intestine. Trans fatty acid-enriched fat was encapsulated with 1% chitosan, pectin, cellulose, and ?-glucan, and passed through the model system. Samples of trans fatty acid-enriched fat that were unencapsulated were more digestible than those that were encapsulated in biopolymers. Moreover, the levels of trans octadecenoic acids (18 : 1t) formed during the digestion of trans fatty acid-enriched fat were decreased upon biopolymer encapsulation. Fat samples enriched with trans fatty acids that were encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid contents and lipid oxidation values than unencapsulated control samples. These findings improve our understanding of the effects of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and trans fatty acids within the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24169627

Hur, Sun Jin; Kim, Doo Hwan; Chun, Se Chul; Lee, Si Kyung; Keum, Young Soo



Cancers by Body Location/System: Digestive/Gastrointestinal

Cancers by Body Location/System: Digestive/Gastrointestinal To find a cancer: select a body location or system — AIDS-RelatedBreastDigestive/GastrointestinalEndocrine and NeuroendocrineEye GenitourinaryGerm CellGynecologicHead and NeckHematologic/Blood MusculoskeletalNeurologicRespiratory/ThoracicSkinUnknown


Your Digestive System and How It Works  


... and out of the body as a solid matter called stool. Digestive juices contain enzymes that break food down into different nutrients. The small intestine absorbs most digested food molecules, as well as water and minerals, and passes them on to other ...



NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about digestion and proteins by observing the action of meat tenderizer on luncheon meat. It is part of the My World activities from Baylor College of Medicine. Additional activities can be accessed at

Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)



Anaerobic digestion of sludge from intensive recirculating aquaculture systems: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) produce high volumes of biosolid waste which is a potential source of pollution if not properly treated. A reduction in sludge-mass would therefore minimize the potential environmental hazard and economic burden stemming from its disposal. Recently, anaerobic digestion was suggested as an alternative to aquaculture sludge digestion and stabilization in RAS. This practice results not

Natella Mirzoyan; Yossi Tal; Amit Gross



Energy Integrated Dairy Farm digester and cogeneration system installation  

SciTech Connect

Georgia Tech finished in December, 1983 Phase II (system installation and startup) of its four year Energy Integrated Dairy Farm System (EIDFS) program. This paper outlines the selection and installation of the anaerobic digestion and cogeneration components of the EIDFS.

Ross, C.C.; Walsh, J.L.



Kids Health: How the Body Works - Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How the Body Works is an interactive website for children to explore the systems of the body and learn basic anatomy and physiology. In particular this link provides students and teachers to animations, videos and activities related to the digestive system.



Overview of the Immune Dynamics of the Digestive System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Activation of the immune system of poultry can divert nutrients away from growth. As the digestive tract is a major site of pathogen exposure, an understanding of the function and regulation of the immune system may help nutritionists improve performance, and minimize the potential negative impacts of the reduction or loss of the use of growth- promoting antibiotics in

D. R. Korver



Autogenerative high pressure digestion: anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system.  


Conventional anaerobic digestion is a widely applied technology to produce biogas from organic wastes and residues. The biogas calorific value depends on the CH, content which generally ranges between 55 and 65%. Biogas upgrading to so-called 'green gas', with natural gas quality, generally proceeds with add-on technologies, applicable only for biogas flows > 100 m3/h. In the concept of autogenerative high pressure digestion (AHPD), methanogenic biomass builds up pressure inside the reactor. Since CO2 has a higher solubility than CH4, it will proportion more to the liquid phase at higher pressures. Therefore, AHPD biogas is characterised by a high CH4 content, reaching equilibrium values between 90 and 95% at a pressure of 3-90 bar. In addition, also H2S and NH3 are theoretically more soluble in the bulk liquid than CO2. Moreover, the water content of the already compressed biogas is calculated to have a dew point <--10 degrees C. Ideally, high-quality biogas can be directly used for electricity and heat generation, or injected in a local natural gas distribution net. In the present study, using sodium acetate as substrate and anaerobic granular sludge as inoculum, batch-fed reactors showed a pressure increase up to 90 bars, the maximum allowable value for our used reactors. However, the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of the sludge decreased on average by 30% compared to digestion at ambient pressure (1 bar). Other results show no effect of pressure exposure on the SMA assessed under atmospheric conditions. These first results show that the proposed AHPD process is a highly promising technology for anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system. PMID:22097043

Lindeboom, R E F; Fermoso, F G; Weijma, J; Zagt, K; van Lier, J B



Procedures for identifying infectious prions after passage through the digestive system of an avian species.  


Infectious prion (PrP(Res)) material is likely the cause of fatal, neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases(1). Transmission of TSE diseases, such as chronic wasting disease (CWD), is presumed to be from animal to animal(2,3) as well as from environmental sources(4-6). Scavengers and carnivores have potential to translocate PrP(Res) material through consumption and excretion of CWD-contaminated carrion. Recent work has documented passage of PrP(Res) material through the digestive system of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a common North American scavenger(7). We describe procedures used to document passage of PrP(Res) material through American crows. Crows were gavaged with RML-strain mouse-adapted scrapie and their feces were collected 4 hr post gavage. Crow feces were then pooled and injected intraperitoneally into C57BL/6 mice. Mice were monitored daily until they expressed clinical signs of mouse scrapie and were thereafter euthanized. Asymptomatic mice were monitored until 365 days post inoculation. Western blot analysis was conducted to confirm disease status. Results revealed that prions remain infectious after traveling through the digestive system of crows and are present in the feces, causing disease in test mice. PMID:24300668

Fischer, Justin W; Nichols, Tracy A; Phillips, Gregory E; VerCauteren, Kurt C



Mouse behavioural analysis in systems biology  

PubMed Central

Molecular techniques allowing in vivo modulation of gene expression have provided unique opportunities and challenges for behavioural studies aimed at understanding the function of particular genes or biological systems under physiological or pathological conditions. Although various animal models are available, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) has unique features and is therefore a preferred animal model. The mouse shares a remarkable genetic resemblance and aspects of behaviour with humans. In this review, first we describe common mouse models for behavioural analyses. As both genetic and environmental factors influence behavioural performance and need to be carefully evaluated in behavioural experiments, considerations for designing and interpretations of these experiments are subsequently discussed. Finally, common behavioural tests used to assess brain function are reviewed, and it is illustrated how behavioural tests are used to increase our understanding of the role of histaminergic neurotransmission in brain function. PMID:16035954

van Meer, Peter; Raber, Jacob



Anaerobic digestion and wastewater treatment systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) wastewater (pre-)treatment systems represent a proven sustainable technology for a wide range of very different industrial effluents, including those containing toxic\\/inhibitory compounds. The process is also feasible for treatment of domestic wastewater with temperatures as low as 14–16° C and likely even lower. Compared to conventional aerobic treatment systems the anaerobic treatment process merely offers

G. Lettinga



MPHASYS: a mouse phenotype analysis system  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic, high-throughput studies of mouse phenotypes have been hampered by the inability to analyze individual animal data from a multitude of sources in an integrated manner. Studies generally make comparisons at the level of genotype or treatment thereby excluding associations that may be subtle or involve compound phenotypes. Additionally, the lack of integrated, standardized ontologies and methodologies for data exchange has inhibited scientific collaboration and discovery. Results Here we introduce a Mouse Phenotype Analysis System (MPHASYS), a platform for integrating data generated by studies of mouse models of human biology and disease such as aging and cancer. This computational platform is designed to provide a standardized methodology for working with animal data; a framework for data entry, analysis and sharing; and ontologies and methodologies for ensuring accurate data capture. We describe the tools that currently comprise MPHASYS, primarily ones related to mouse pathology, and outline its use in a study of individual animal-specific patterns of multiple pathology in mice harboring a specific germline mutation in the DNA repair and transcription-specific gene Xpd. Conclusion MPHASYS is a system for analyzing multiple data types from individual animals. It provides a framework for developing data analysis applications, and tools for collecting and distributing high-quality data. The software is platform independent and freely available under an open-source license [1]. PMID:17553167

Calder, R Brent; Beems, Rudolf B; van Steeg, Harry; Mian, I Saira; Lohman, Paul HM; Vijg, Jan



Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Muller, J.K.; Prather, D.R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.



The ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi has a flow-through system for digestion with three consecutive phases of extracellular digestion.  


The ctenophore (comb jelly) Mnemiopsis leidyi is a periodically abundant and voracious predator in U.S. coastal waters. Mnemiopsis leidyi is especially competitive at high prey concentrations because of its very efficient extracellular digestion. We investigated the functional basis for these outstanding digestion capabilities. Extracellular digestion takes place in the pharynx and consists of three distinct and consecutive phases. The three phases take place in different regions of the pharynx so that various prey items can be treated simultaneously in each phase. The first phase is acidic, while the second and the third are alkaline. Extracellular digestion is completed by ciliary currents that mechanically disrupt the predigested food. Bulky indigestible food fragments are expelled through the mouth. Except for a small area, the paths for ingestion and egestion are separate. Hence, both ingestion and egestion can occur simultaneously. The flattened and elongated shape of the pharynx provides the morphological basis for this flow-through system with various regions for different digestive treatments of the food. This system is highly elaborated compared with those of other lower invertebrates and allows for an efficient, fast, and simultaneous digestion of many prey items, which accounts for the outstanding feeding capabilities of M. leidyi. PMID:9231370

Bumann, D; Puls, G



An efficient user verification system via mouse movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biometric authentication verifies a user based on its inherent, unique characteristics --- who you are. In addition to physiological biometrics, behavioral biometrics has proven very useful in authenticating a user. Mouse dynamics, with their unique patterns of mouse movements, is one such behavioral biometric. In this paper, we present a user verification system using mouse dynamics, which is both accurate

Nan Zheng; Aaron Paloski; Haining Wang



System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material  


An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)



Anaerobic digestion of food waste: Comparing leachate exchange rates in sequential batch systems digesting food waste and biosolids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 35,000 tonnes of food waste are generated from high concentration point sources (i.e., restaurants, hospitals and markets) in metropolitan Adelaide (Australia) each year. Anaerobic digestion is a preferred method of treatment to degrade highly putrescible waste streams such as food waste due its high methane potential. To maximise methane yield, a sequential batch anaerobic system was chosen as the

B. Dearman; R. H. Bentham



Is the food-entrainable circadian oscillator in the digestive system?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Food-anticipatory activity (FAA) is the increase in locomotion and core body temperature that precedes a daily scheduled meal. It is driven by a circadian oscillator but is independent of the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Recent results that reveal meal-entrained clock gene expression in rat and mouse peripheral organs raise the intriguing possibility that the digestive system is the site of the feeding-entrained oscillator (FEO) that underlies FAA. We tested this possibility by comparing FAA and Per1 rhythmicity in the digestive system of the Per1-luciferase transgenic rat. First, rats were entrained to daytime restricted feeding (RF, 10 days), then fed ad libitum (AL, 10 days), then food deprived (FD, 2 days). As expected FAA was evident during RF and disappeared during subsequent AL feeding, but returned at the correct phase during deprivation. The phase of Per1 in liver, stomach and colon shifted from a nocturnal to a diurnal peak during RF, but shifted back to nocturnal phase during the subsequent AL and remained nocturnal during food deprivation periods. Second, rats were entrained to two daily meals at zeitgeber time (ZT) 0400 and ZT 1600. FAA to both meals emerged after about 10days of dual RF. However, all tissues studied (all five liver lobes, esophagus, antral stomach, body of stomach, colon) showed entrainment consistent with only the night-time meal. These two results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that FAA arises as an output of rhythms in the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The results also highlight an interesting diversity among peripheral oscillators in their ability to entrain to meals and the direction of the phase shift after RF ends.

Davidson, A. J.; Poole, A. S.; Yamazaki, S.; Menaker, M.




E-print Network

The potential of a novel technology consisting of a UASB complemented with a digester (UASB-Digester) for mutual sewage treatment and sludge stabilisation under low temperature conditions was investigated. The performance of the UASB-Digester system was compared with a one stage UASB. The UASB reactor was operated at a HRT of 6 hours and controlled temperature of 15°C, the average sewage temperature in the Middle East countries during wintertime, while the digester was operated at 35 °C. The UASB-Digester provided substantially better removal efficiencies and conversion than the one stage UASB reactor (p<0.05). The achieved removal efficiencies in the UASB-Digester and the one stage UASB for

Nidal Mahmoud; Grietje Zeeman; Huub Gijzen; Gatze Lettinga


Structure and function of the digestive system of solen grandis dunker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structure and function of the digestive system of a bivalve mollusc, Solen grandis, were studied using light microscopy and histochemical methods. The wall of digestive tube consists of four layers: the mucosal epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and fibrosa or serosa (only in the portion of rectum) from the inner to the outer. The ciliated columnar epithelial cells, dispersed by cup-shaped mucous cells, rest on a thin base membrane. There are abundant blood spaces in connective tissue layer. The digestive diverticula are composed of multi-branched duct and digestive tubules. The digestive tubules are lined with digestive and basophilic secretory cells, and surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissues. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, esterase and lipase are detected in the digestive cells, and the epithelia of stomach and intestine, suggesting that these cells are capable of intracellular digesting of food materials and absorbing. Besides, acid phosphatase and esterase activities are present in the posterior portion of esophagus. Phagocytes are abundant in blood spaces and the lumens of stomach and intestine, containing brown granules derived from the engulfed food materials. The present work indicates that phagocytes play important roles in ingestion and digestion of food materials, which is supported as well by the activities of acid phosphatase, esterase and lipase detected in blood spaces.

Xiuzhen, Sheng; Wenbin, Zhan; Sulian, Ren



Roles of F?box proteins in human digestive system tumors (Review).  


F?box proteins (FBPs), the substrate?recognition subunit of E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase, are the important components of Ub proteasome system (UPS). FBPs are involved in multiple cellular processes through ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of their target proteins. Many studies have described the roles of FBPs in human cancers. Digestive system tumors account for a large proportion of all the tumors, and their mortality is very high. This review summarizes for the first time the roles of FBPs in digestive system tumorige-nesis and tumor progression, aiming at finding new routes for the rational design of targeted anticancer therapies in digestive system tumors. PMID:25270675

Gong, Jian; Lv, Liang; Huo, Jirong



An On-Line, High-Pressure Digestion System for Protein Characterization by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange and Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The rapid and complete digestion of proteins is important when protein characterization by hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX) is coupled with mass spectrometry. We developed a single-pump, on-line, high pressure digestion system that relies on UPLC technology to aid in the digestion of proteins. Two model proteins, A?1–42 and NBSA, were used to demonstrate the efficacy of the high pressure system. Both model proteins readily aggregate and are difficult to digest under normal conditions. Our high pressure system successfully digests these proteins into small, overlapping peptides. The extra information afforded by overlapping peptides allows us to pinpoint HDX protection to protein segments smaller than the digested peptide. The calculated average segment length (ASL) for both model proteins decreased by 2-fold for high pressure digestion compared to digestion at ambient pressure. PMID:20095571

Jones, Lisa M.; Zhang, Hao; Vidavsky, Ilan; Gross, Michael L.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in New York City, the MOUSE organization works to empower "underserved students to provide technology support and leadership in their schools, supporting their academic and career success." On their homepage, visitors can learn about their programs, learn about supporting the MOUSE organization, and read up on their resources. In the "Resources" area, visitors can learn about their outreach activities in New York City, Chicago, and California. Visitors working in educational outreach will appreciate the information offered here, including materials on how different groups can receive assistance from the MOUSE organization. Also, visitors can look over the "News" updates to learn about their new programs, their educational seminars, and their outreach activities.


Multi-syringe flow injection system with in-line microwave digestion for the determination of phosphorus.  


A multi-syringe system for spectrophotometric determination of total phosphorus involving in-line digestion is proposed. Sample and digestion solution were dispensed and directed towards a digestion vessel located inside a domestic microwave oven (MWO) where sample digestion took place. Afterwards, the digested sample was merged with the necessary reagents for the colorimetric determination based on the molybdenum blue method. Several digestion conditions were studied regarding composition of digestion solution, digestion time and power set on the MWO. The system was applied to waste water samples and results shown a good agreement with the reference method. Repeatable results (R.S.D.<2.41%) and determination frequency of 12h(-1) were obtained. PMID:18969743

Almeida, M Inês G S; Segundo, Marcela A; Lima, José L F C; Rangel, António O S S



Digestive system dysfunction in cystic fibrosis: challenges for nutrition therapy.  


Cystic fibrosis can affect food digestion and nutrient absorption. The underlying mutation of the cystic fibrosis trans-membrane regulator gene depletes functional cystic fibrosis trans-membrane regulator on the surface of epithelial cells lining the digestive tract and associated organs, where Cl(-) secretion and subsequently secretion of water and other ions are impaired. This alters pH and dehydrates secretions that precipitate and obstruct the lumen, causing inflammation and the eventual degradation of the pancreas, liver, gallbladder and intestine. Associated conditions include exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, impaired bicarbonate and bile acid secretion and aberrant mucus formation, commonly leading to maldigestion and malabsorption, particularly of fat and fat-soluble vitamins. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is used to address this insufficiency. The susceptibility of pancreatic lipase to acidic and enzymatic inactivation and decreased bile availability often impedes its efficacy. Brush border digestive enzyme activity and intestinal uptake of certain disaccharides and amino acids await clarification. Other complications that may contribute to maldigestion/malabsorption include small intestine bacterial overgrowth, enteric circular muscle dysfunction, abnormal intestinal mucus, and intestinal inflammation. However, there is some evidence that gastric digestive enzymes, colonic microflora, correction of fatty acid abnormalities using dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and emerging intestinal biomarkers can complement nutrition management in cystic fibrosis. PMID:25053610

Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn



Mouse Genome Editing Using the CRISPR/Cas System.  


The availability of techniques to create desired genetic mutations has enabled the laboratory mouse as an extensively used model organism in biomedical research including human genetics. A new addition to this existing technical repertoire is the CRISPR/Cas system. Specifically, this system allows editing of the mouse genome much more quickly than the previously used techniques, and, more importantly, multiple mutations can be created in a single experiment. Here we provide protocols for preparation of CRISPR/Cas reagents and microinjection into one-cell mouse embryos to create knockout or knock-in mouse models. Curr. Protoc. Hum. Genet. 83:15.7.1-15.7.27. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25271839

Harms, Donald W; Quadros, Rolen M; Seruggia, Davide; Ohtsuka, Masato; Takahashi, Gou; Montoliu, Lluis; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B



NADPH-diaphorase activity in the digestive system of gastropod molluscs Achatina fulica and Littorina littorea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution and morphological peculiarities of nitroxidergic elements throughout the entire length of digestive tract was\\u000a studied for the first time in gastropod molluscs Littorina littorea (Prosobranchia) and Achatina fulica (Pulmonata) using histochemical detection of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd). NO-ergic cells and fibers were revealed in all parts\\u000a of the mollusc digestive system beginning from esophagus. Intensive NADPHd activity is found in a

O. V. Zaitseva; T. V. Kuznetsova; T. G. Markosova



Identification of transcriptional regulators in the mouse immune system.  


The differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into cells of the immune system has been studied extensively in mammals, but the transcriptional circuitry that controls it is still only partially understood. Here, the Immunological Genome Project gene-expression profiles across mouse immune lineages allowed us to systematically analyze these circuits. To analyze this data set we developed Ontogenet, an algorithm for reconstructing lineage-specific regulation from gene-expression profiles across lineages. Using Ontogenet, we found differentiation stage-specific regulators of mouse hematopoiesis and identified many known hematopoietic regulators and 175 previously unknown candidate regulators, as well as their target genes and the cell types in which they act. Among the previously unknown regulators, we emphasize the role of ETV5 in the differentiation of ?? T cells. As the transcriptional programs of human and mouse cells are highly conserved, it is likely that many lessons learned from the mouse model apply to humans. PMID:23624555

Jojic, Vladimir; Shay, Tal; Sylvia, Katelyn; Zuk, Or; Sun, Xin; Kang, Joonsoo; Regev, Aviv; Koller, Daphne



Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD{sub rem} for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

Kheradmand, S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Shiraz, Shiraz 7134851156 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi-Jashni, A., E-mail: [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Shiraz, Shiraz 7134851156 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sartaj, M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 841568311 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)



[NADPH-diaphorase activity in digestive system of gastropod molluscs Achatina fulica and Littorina littorea].  


Localization and peculiarities of NO-ergic elements were studied for he first time throughout the entire length of digestive tract of the marine gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica (Prosobranchia) and the terrestrial molusc Littorina littorea (Pulmonata) by using histochemical method of detection of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd). NO-ergic cells and fibers were revealed in all parts of the mollusc digestive tract beginning from pharynx. An intensive NADPHd activity was found in many intraepithelial cells of the open type and in their processes in intra- and subepithelial nerve plexuses, single subepithelial neurons, granular connective tissue cells, and numerous nerve fibers among muscle elements of he digestive tract wall as well as in nerves innervating the tract. NADPHd was also present in receptor cells of he oral area and in the central A. fulica ganglia participating in innervation of the digestive tract. The digestive tract NO-ergic system ofA. fulica has a more complex organization that that of L. littorea. In the A. fulica pharynx, stomach, and midgut, directly beneath epithelium, there is revealed a complex system of glomerular structures formed by thin NADPHd-positive nerve fibers coming from the side of epithelium. More superficially under the main groups of muscle elements, small agglomerations of NADPHd-positive neurons are seen, which could be considered as primitive, non-formed microganglia. Peculiarities of distribution and a possible functional role of NO-ergic elements in the digestive tract of molluscs are discussed as compared with other invertebrate and vertebrate animals. PMID:19370997

Za?tseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V; Markosova, T G



Carbohydrases in the digestive system of the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).  


The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris, is a generalist predator of insects and has been used in biological control. However, information on the digestion of food in this insect is lacking. Therefore, we have studied the digestive system in P. maculiventris, and further characterized carbohydrases in the digestive tract. The midgut of all developmental stages was composed of anterior, median, and posterior regions. The volumes of the anterior midgut decreased and the median midgut increased in older instars and adults, suggesting a more important role of the median midgut in food digestion. However, carbohydrase activities were predominant in the anterior midgut. In comparing the specific activity of carbohydrases, ?-amylase activity was more in the salivary glands (with two distinct activity bands in zymograms), and glucosidase and galactosidase activities were more in the midgut. Salivary ?-amylases were detected in the prey hemolymph, demonstrating the role of these enzymes in extra-oral digestion. However, the catalytic efficiency of midgut ?-amylase activity was approximately twofold more than that of the salivary gland enzymes, and was more efficient in digesting soluble starch than glycogen. Midgut ?-amylases were developmentally regulated, as one isoform was found in first instar compared to three isoforms in fifth instar nymphs. Starvation significantly affected carbohydrase activities in the midgut, and acarbose inhibited ?-amylases from both the salivary glands and midgut in vitro and in vivo. The structural diversity and developmental regulation of carbohydrases in the digestive system of P. maculiventris demonstrate the importance of these enzymes in extra-oral and intra-tract digestion, and may explain the capability of the hemipteran to utilize diverse food sources. PMID:24610734

Ghamari, Mahboob; Hosseininaveh, Vahid; Darvishzadeh, Ali; Chougule, Nanasaheb P



Mouse vocal communication system: are ultrasounds learned or innate?  

PubMed Central

Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production. Here we discuss the available data to assess whether male mouse song behavior and the supporting brain circuits resemble those of known vocal non-learning or vocal learning species. Recent neurobiology studies have demonstrated that the mouse USV brain system includes motor cortex and striatal regions, and that the vocal motor cortex sends a direct sparse projection to the brainstem vocal motor nucleus ambiguous, a projection thought be unique to humans among mammals. Recent behavioral studies have reported opposing conclusions on mouse vocal plasticity, including vocal ontogeny changes in USVs over early development that might not be explained by innate maturation processes, evidence for and against a role for auditory feedback in developing and maintaining normal mouse USVs, and evidence for and against limited vocal imitation of song pitch. To reconcile these findings, we suggest that the trait of vocal learning may not be dichotomous but encompass a broad set of behavioral and neural traits we call the continuum hypothesis, and that mice possess some of the traits associated with a capacity for limited vocal learning. PMID:23295209

Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.




EPA Science Inventory

The original MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty System) system was designed to deal with the problem of uncertainties in Environmental engineering calculations, such as a set of engineering cast or risk analysis equations. It was especially intended for use by individuals with l...


Multicenter retrospective analysis of systemic chemotherapy for advanced neuroendocrine carcinoma of the digestive system.  


This study analyzed outcomes of systemic chemotherapy for advanced neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the digestive system. Clinical data from 258 patients with unresectable or recurrent NEC of the gastrointestinal tract (GI) or hepato-biliary-pancreatic system (HBP), who received chemotherapy, were collected from 23 Japanese institutions and analyzed retrospectively. Patients had primary sites in the esophagus (n = 85), stomach (n = 70), small bowel (n = 6), colorectum (n = 31), hepato-biliary system (n = 31) and pancreas (n = 31). Median overall survival (OS) was 13.4 months the esophagus, 13.3 months for the stomach, 29.7 months for the small bowel, 7.6 months for the colorectum, 7.9 months for the hepato-biliary system and 8.5 months for the pancreas. Irinotecan plus cisplatin (IP) and etoposide plus cisplatin (EP) were most commonly selected for GI-NEC and HBP-NEC. For patients treated with IP/EP (n = 160/46), the response rate was 50/28% and median OS was 13.0/7.3 months. Multivariate analysis among patients treated with IP or EP showed that the primary site (GI vs HBP; hazard ratio [HR] 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.97) and baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase levels (not elevated vs elevated; HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0.94) were independent prognostic factors for OS, while the efficacy of IP was slightly better than for EP (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.48-1.33; P = 0.389). IP and EP are the most common treatment regimens for NEC of the digestive system. HBP primary sites and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels are unfavorable prognostic factors for survival. A randomized controlled trial is required to establish the appropriate chemotherapy regimen for advanced NEC of the digestive system. This study was registered at UMIN as trial number 000005176. PMID:24975505

Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Machida, Nozomu; Morizane, Chigusa; Kasuga, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki; Sudo, Kentaro; Nishina, Tomohiro; Tobimatsu, Kazutoshi; Ishido, Kenji; Furuse, Junji; Boku, Narikazu; Okusaka, Takuji



Modelling anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water and faecal matter in accumulation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic mathematical model based on anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was developed for accumulation (AC) system treating concentrated black water and faecal matter at different temperatures. The AC system was investigated for the treatment of waste(water) produced from the following systems: vacuum toilet for black water (VBW), vacuum toilet for faeces with urine separation (VF), dry toilet (DT),

T. Elmitwalli; G. Zeeman; R. Otterpohl



Bacteria associated with the digestive system of the slug Deroceras reticulatum are not required for protein digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria were isolated from the crop, digestive glands and salivary glands of the field slug Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). The digestive gland was the most densely populated organ with about ×3 and ×400 more bacterial colony forming units (CFU) mg?1 of tissue than in the crop and salivary glands, respectively. Growth on plate-count agar incorporating gelatin showed that 34, 16 and

Anthony J. Walker; David M. Glen; Peter R. Shewry



Primary mouse hepatocytes for systems biology approaches: a standardized in vitro system for  

E-print Network

Primary mouse hepatocytes for systems biology approaches: a standardized in vitro system and differentiation of hepatocytes. By combining experimental data with mathematical modelling, systems biology holds for the preparation and cultivation of primary mouse hepatocytes. To reliably monitor the dynamic induction

Timmer, Jens


Histology of the developing digestive system and the effect of food deprivation in larval green sturgeon ( Acipenser medirostris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histological development of the digestive tract in hatchery-reared green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) larvae and the effects of food deprivation on the digestive system organization were studied from hatching until 31 days post-hatching (dph). At hatching, the larval digestive system consisted of two rudiments: a large endodermal yolk sac and a primordial hind-gut. During the endogenous feeding phase, the wall

Enric Gisbert; Serge I Doroshov



Early warning indicators for monitoring the process failure of anaerobic digestion system of food waste.  


To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), alkalinity and their combined indicators were evaluated. Results revealed that operation conditions significantly affect the responses of parameters and thus the optimal early warning indicators of each reactor differ from each other. None of the single indicators was universally valid for all the systems. The universally valid indicators should combine several parameters to supply complementary information. A combination of total VFA, the ratio of VFA to total alkalinity (VFA/TA) and the ratio of bicarbonate alkalinity to total alkalinity (BA/TA) can reflect the metabolism of the digesting system and realize rapid and effective early warning. PMID:25218457

Li, Lei; He, Qingming; Wei, Yunmei; He, Qin; Peng, Xuya



Histological development of the digestive system of the Amazonian pimelodid catfish Pseudoplatystoma punctifer.  


The organogenesis of the digestive system was described in the Amazonian pimelodid catfish species Pseudoplatystoma punctifer from hatching (3.5 mm total length, TL) to 41 days post-fertilization (dpf) (58.1 mm TL) reared at 28°C. Newly hatched larvae showed a simple digestive tract, which appeared as a straight undifferentiated and unfolded tube lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells (future enterocytes). During the endogenous feeding period, comprised between 20 and 96 h post-fertilization (3.5 to 6.1 mm TL), the larval digestive system experienced a fast transformation with the almost complete development and differentiation of most of digestive organs (buccopahrynx, oesophagus, intestine, liver and exocrine pancreas). Yolk reserves were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (4 dpf, 6.1 mm TL), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 6 to 7 dpf (6.8 to 7.3 mm TL) when yolk was definitively exhausted. The stomach was the organ that latest achieved its complete differentiation, characterized by the development of abundant gastric glands in the fundic stomach between 10 and 15 dpf (10.9 to 15.8 mm TL) and the formation of the pyloric sphincter at the junction of the pyloric stomach and the anterior intestine at 15 dpf (15.8 mm TL). The above-mentioned morphological and histological features observed suggested the achievement of a digestive system characteristic of P. punctifer juveniles and adults. The ontogeny of the digestive system in P. punctifer followed the same general pattern as in most Siluriform species so far, although some species-specific differences in the timing of differentiation of several digestive structures were noted, which might be related to different reproductive guilds, egg and larval size or even different larval rearing practices. According to present findings on the histological development of the digestive system in P. punctifer, some recommendations regarding the rearing practices of this species are also provided in order to improve the actual larval rearing techniques of this fast-growing Neotropical catfish species. PMID:25045855

Gisbert, E; Moreira, C; Castro-Ruiz, D; Oztürk, S; Fernández, C; Gilles, S; Nuñez, J; Duponchelle, F; Tello, S; Renno, J F; García-Dávila, C; Darias, M J



Acetylcholine, nitric oxide and their possible colocalization in regulatory cells of the digestive system of gastropods  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that the main neurotransmitter in the digestive system of vertebrates and humans is acetylcholine (ACh). It plays an important role in stimulation of the motor function of the gastrointestinal tract; though its effects vary in different areas, its main effect is excitatory action on the gastric and intestinal activity [1]. It has been shown that ACh is

O. V. Zaitseva; T. G. Markosova



Establishment of Systemic Brucella melitensis Infection through the Digestive Tract Requires Urease, the Type IV Secretion System, and Lipopolysaccharide O Antigen?  

PubMed Central

Human brucellosis is caused mainly by Brucella melitensis, which is often acquired by ingesting contaminated goat or sheep milk and cheese. Bacterial factors required for food-borne infection of humans by B. melitensis are poorly understood. In this study, a mouse model of oral infection was characterized to assess the roles of urease, the VirB type IV secretion system, and lipopolysaccharide for establishing infection through the digestive tract. B. melitensis strain 16M was consistently recovered from the mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and liver beginning at 3 or 7 day postinfection (dpi). In the gut, persistence of the inoculum was observed up to 21 dpi. No inflammatory lesions were observed in the ileum or colon during infection. Mutant strains lacking the ureABC genes of the ure1 operon, virB2, or pmm encoding phosphomannomutase were constructed and compared to the wild-type strain for infectivity through the digestive tract. Mutants lacking the virB2 and pmm genes were attenuated in the spleen (P < 0.05) and MLN (P < 0.001), respectively. The wild-type and mutant strains had similar levels of resistance to low pH and 5 or 10% bile, suggesting that the reduced colonization of mutants was not the result of reduced resistance to acid pH or bile salts. In an in vitro lymphoepithelial cell (M-cell) model, B. melitensis transited rapidly through polarized enterocyte monolayers containing M-like cells; however, transit through monolayers containing only enterocytes was reduced or absent. These results indicate that B. melitensis is able to spread systemically from the digestive tract after infection, most likely through M cells of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. PMID:19651862

Paixao, Tatiane A.; Roux, Christelle M.; den Hartigh, Andreas B.; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Dandekar, Satya; Santos, Renato L.; Tsolis, Renee M.



Modeling a solar-heated anaerobic digester for the developing world using system dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the developing world lacks access to a dependable source of energy. Agricultural societies such as Mozambique and Papua New Guinea could sustain a reliable energy source through the microbacterial decomposition of animal and crop waste. Anaerobic digestion produces methane, which can be used directly for heating, cooking, and lighting. Adding a solar component to the digester provides a catalyst for bacteria activity, accelerating digestion and increasing biogas production. Using methane decreases the amount of energy expended by collecting and preparing firewood, eliminates hazardous health effects linked to inhalation of particles, and provides energy close to where it is needed. The purpose of this work is two fold: initial efforts focus on the development and validation of a computer-based system dynamics model that combines elements of the anaerobic digestion process in order to predict methane output; second, the model is flexed to explore how the addition of a solar component increases robustness of the design, examines predicted biogas generation as a function of varying input conditions, and determines how best to configure such systems for use in varying developing world environments. Therefore, the central components of the system: solar insolation, waste feedstock, bacteria population and consumption rates, and biogas production are related both conceptually and mathematically through a serious of equations, conversions, and a causal loop and feedback diagram. Given contextual constraints and initial assumptions for both locations, it was determined that solar insolation and subsequent digester temperature control, amount of waste, and extreme weather patterns had the most significant impact on the system as a whole. Model behavior was both reproducible and comparable to that demonstrated in existing experimental systems. This tool can thus be flexed to fit specific contexts within the developing world to improve the standard of living of many people, without significantly altering everyday activities.

Bentley, Johanna Lynn


Intact Olfaction in a Mouse Model of Multiple System Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing evidence suggests that olfaction is largely preserved in multiple system atrophy while most patients with Parkinson's disease are hyposmic. Consistent with these observations, recent experimental studies demonstrated olfactory deficits in transgenic Parkinson's disease mouse models, but corresponding data are lacking for MSA models. Methods Olfactory function and underlying neuropathological changes were investigated in a transgenic multiple system atrophy mouse model based on targeted oligodendroglial overexpression of ?-synuclein as well as wild-type controls. The study was divided into (1) a pilot study investigating olfactory preference testing and (2) a long-term study characterizing changes in the olfactory bulb of aging transgenic multiple system atrophy mice. Results In our pilot behavioral study, we observed no significant differences in investigation time in the olfactory preference test comparing transgenic with wild-type animals. These findings were accompanied by unaffected tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cell numbers in the olfactory bulb. Similarly, although a significant age-related increase in the amount of ?-synuclein within the olfactory bulb was detected in the long-term study, progressive degeneration of the olfactory bulb could not be verified. Conclusions Our experimental data show preserved olfaction in a transgenic multiple system atrophy mouse model despite ?-synucleinopathy in the olfactory bulb. These findings are in line with the human disorder supporting the concept of a primary oligodendrogliopathy with variable neuronal involvement. PMID:23691255

Krismer, Florian; Wenning, Gregor K.; Li, Yuntao; Poewe, Werner; Stefanova, Nadia



Immunohistochemical detection of regulatory cells in the digestive system of leeches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digestive system of four leech species,Glossiphonia complanata, Hirudo medicinalis, Haemopis sanguisuga, andErpobdella octoculata, was studied using, as markers, antisera to biologically active peptides, neurotensin, calcitonin, FRMF-amide, and serotonin.\\u000a In the epithelium and the wall of the alimentary tract, regulatory cells were revealed. They differed in shapes and detected\\u000a immunoreactivities; presumably they are elements of the diffuse endocrine system as

M. Yu. Punin; V. K. Kazakov; L. G. Mkrtchyan



Morphology and Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Digestive System of Dermatophagoides farinae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The digestive system of Dermatophagoides farinae remains poorly documented. Methods: In this study, a three-dimensional (3-D) model of the alimentary canal of D. farinae was built for the first time based on hematoxylin-eosin staining, 76 cross-sections of the adult mite and 3-D reconstruction technology. Results: Spatially, the system included the prebuccal cavity, foregut, midgut, hindgut, anus and salivary gland.

Ying-Ying Zhang; Xin Sun; Zhi-Gang Liu



Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during

S. Kheradmand; A. Karimi-Jashni; M. Sartaj



Virtues and limitations of the preimplantation mouse embryo as a model system  

PubMed Central

The mouse is the most widely used model of preimplantation embryo development, but is it a good model? Its small size, prolificacy and ease of handling make the mouse a relatively low cost, readily available and attractive alternative when embryos from other species are difficult or expensive to obtain. However, the real power of the mouse as a model lies in mouse genetics. The development of inbred mouse strains facilitated gene discovery as well as our understanding of gene function and regulation while the development of tools to introduce precise genetic modifications uniquely positioned the mouse as a powerful model system for uncovering gene function. However, all models have limitations; the small size of the mouse limits tissue availability and manipulations that can be performed and differences in physiology among species may make it inappropriate to extrapolate from the mouse to other species. Thus, rather than extrapolating directly from the mouse to other species, it may be more useful to use the mouse as a model system for developing and refining hypotheses to be tested directly in species of interest. In this brief review, the value of the preimplantation mouse embryo as a model is considered, both as a model for other species and as a model for the mouse, as understanding the virtues and limitations of the mouse as a model system is essential to its appropriate use. PMID:18023855

Taft, Robert A



Microbial distribution and abundance in the digestive system of five shipworm species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae).  


Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms) are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) of the gills (ctenidia). These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis). These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:23028923

Betcher, Meghan A; Fung, Jennifer M; Han, Andrew W; O'Connor, Roberta; Seronay, Romell; Concepcion, Gisela P; Distel, Daniel L; Haygood, Margo G



System parameters for erythropoiesis control model: Comparison of normal values in human and mouse model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer model for erythropoietic control was adapted to the mouse system by altering system parameters originally given for the human to those which more realistically represent the mouse. Parameter values were obtained from a variety of literature sources. Using the mouse model, the mouse was studied as a potential experimental model for spaceflight. Simulation studies of dehydration and hypoxia were performed. A comparison of system parameters for the mouse and human models is presented. Aside from the obvious differences expected in fluid volumes, blood flows and metabolic rates, larger differences were observed in the following: erythrocyte life span, erythropoietin half-life, and normal arterial pO2.



Junkyard Digestion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A hands-on exploration of the digestive system organs and their functions for high school students. Grades 10 and up. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2007 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit

Ms. Diana E Hill (Putnam City High School Science)



Understanding Mammalian Genetic Systems: The Challenge of Phenotyping in the Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding mammalian genetic systems is predicated on the determination of the relationship between genetic variation and phenotype. Several international programmes are under way to deliver mutations in every gene in the mouse genome. The challenge for mouse geneticists is to develop approaches that will provide comprehensive phenotype datasets for these mouse mutant libraries. Several factors are critical to success in

Steve D. M. Brown; John M. Hancock; Hilary Gates



Evidence-based benefits of specific mixtures of non-digestible oligosaccharides on the immune system.  


Non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) are natural constituents of many foods. They are mostly referred to as dietary fibre and are associated with many health benefits mostly connected to gut health. NDC have emerged as a promising nutritional concept to modulate immune function as well. In the world of immunology non-digestible carbohydrates are recognized now as key immunomodulating molecules. Both pharma and food industries realize the enormous potency of these immune active components. Although the mechanisms underlying the effects of NDC on the immune system are not totally clear yet many studies have reported beneficial effects on both mucosal and systemic immunity in humans. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence on the immune modulatory effects of specific mixtures of oligosaccharides. Both mechanistic in vitro and in vivo studies have been performed and will be discussed. Finally the potential use of these unique structures will be evaluated. PMID:23465928

Nauta, Alma J; Garssen, Johan



Experimental and modeling study of a two-stage pilot scale high solid anaerobic digester system.  


This study established a comprehensive model to configure a new two-stage high solid anaerobic digester (HSAD) system designed for highly degradable organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW). The HSAD reactor as the first stage was naturally separated into two zones due to biogas floatation and low specific gravity of solid waste. The solid waste was retained in the upper zone while only the liquid leachate resided in the lower zone of the HSAD reactor. Continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and advective-diffusive reactor (ADR) models were constructed in series to describe the whole system. Anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1) was used as reaction kinetics and incorporated into each reactor module. Compared with the experimental data, the simulation results indicated that the model was able to well predict the pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and biogas production. PMID:22989632

Yu, Liang; Zhao, Quanbao; Ma, Jingwei; Frear, Craig; Chen, Shulin



Efficient and Specific Trypsin Digestion of Microgram to Nanogram Quantities of Proteins in Organic-Aqueous Solvent Systems  

SciTech Connect

Mass spectrometry-based identification of the components of multiprotein complexes often involves solution-phase proteolytic digestion of the complex. The affinity purification of individual protein complexes often yields nanogram to low-microgram amounts of protein, which poses several challenges for enzymatic digestion and protein identification. We tested different solvent systems to optimize trypsin digestions of samples containing limited amounts of protein for subsequent analysis by LC-MS-MS. Data collected from digestion of 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2- g portions of a protein standard mixture indicated that an organicaqueous solvent system containing 80% acetonitrile consistently provided the most complete digestion, producing more peptide identifications than the other solvent systems tested. For example, a 1-h digestion in 80% acetonitrile yielded over 52% more peptides than the overnight digestion of 1 g of a protein mixture in purely aqueous buffer. This trend was also observed for peptides from digested ribosomal proteins isolated from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In addition to improved digestion efficiency, the shorter digestion times possible with the organic solvent also improved trypsin specificity, resulting in smaller numbers of semitryptic peptides than an overnight digestion protocol using an aqueous solvent. The technique was also demonstrated for an affinityisolated protein complex, GroEL. To our knowledge, this report is the first using mass spectrometry data to show a linkage between digestion solvent and trypsin specificity. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a widely used method for studying proteins, protein complexes, and whole proteomes because of innovations in soft ionization techniques, bioinformatics, and chromatographic separation techniques.1-7 An example of a high-throughput mass spectrometry strategy commonly used for this purpose is a variation of the "shotgun" approach, involving in-solution digestion of a protein complex followed by onedimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) MS-MS.6-8 One of the applications of this method is for characterizing multiprotein complexes by identifying large numbers of proteins in a single data acquisition.9 Large-scale implementations of this strategy have been reported for yeast and Escherichia coli.10-12 To achieve a goal of characterizing large numbers of protein complexes13 isolated by affinity purification from Rhodopseudomonas palustris,14 an efficient protocol for digesting these complexes is required.

Strader, Michael B [ORNL; Tabb, Dave L [ORNL; Hervey, IV, William Judson [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL



Economic Analysis of Anaerobic Digestion Systems and the Financial Incentives Provided by the New York State Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) Customer-Sited Tier (CST) Anaerobic Digester Gas (ADG)-to-Electricity Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper conducts a financial analysis of anaerobic digestion systems on dairy farms and describes a financial model developed for this purpose. The model is flexible and can be utilized with farm-specific data to assist in the evaluation of an anaerobic digestion system. The model is illustrated with two sources of data. The “base” case is the more flexible model

Dolapo K. Enahoro; Brent A. Gloy



Finger mouse system based on computer vision in complex backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a human-computer interaction system and realizes a real-time virtual mouse. Our system emulates the dragging and selecting functions of a mouse by recognizing bare hands, hence the control style is simple and intuitive. A single camera is used to capture hand images and a DSP chip is embedded as the image processing platform. To deal with complex backgrounds, particularly where skin-like or moving objects appear, we develop novel hand recognition algorithms. Hand segmentation is achieved by skin color cue and background difference. Each input image is corrected according to the luminance and then skin color is extracted by Gaussian model. We employ a Camshift tracking algorithm which receives feedbacks from the recognition module. In fingertip recognition, a method combining template matching and circle drawing is proposed. Our system has advantages of good real-time performance, easy integration and energy conservation. Experiments show that the system is robust to the scaling and rotation of hands.

Xu, Jun; Zhang, Xiong



Immunoreactivity of the 14F7 Mab Raised against N-Glycolyl GM3 Ganglioside in Epithelial Malignant Tumors from Digestive System  

PubMed Central

The limited expression of N-Glycolyl GM3 (NeuGcGM3) ganglioside in human normal tissues, as well as its presence in melanoma and breast carcinoma using 14F7 Mab (anti-NeuGcGM3), has been previously reported. In this work we evaluated for the first time the 14F7 Mab immunorecognition in some digestive system tumors. Immunohistochemical assays were made with 14F7, followed by anti-mouse biotinylated antibody and ABC/HRP system in normal and pathological human tissues were made. No immunoreaction was evidenced in normal tissues. The reactivity of 14F7 was detected in all adenocarcinomas of the stomach (12/12), colon (12/12), and pancreas (11/11). A finely granular immunorecognition in esophageal tumors (5/15), epidermoid carcinoma of the rectum (5/7), and basaloid carcinoma (4/5) of the latter as well as in hepatocellular carcinoma (13/14) was also observed. Our results are in agreement with the assumption that NeuGcGM3 ganglioside may be considered as target for passive and active immunotherapy in digestive system malignancies expressing this molecule. PMID:21991524

Blanco, Rances; Rengifo, Enrique; Cedeno, Mercedes; Rengifo, Charles E.; Alonso, Daniel F.; Carr, Adriana



Treatment of anaerobically digested dairy manure in a two-stage biofiltration system.  


High concentrations of ammonium and phosphate present a challenge to cost-effective treatment of anaerobically digested dairy manure. This study investigated the efficacy of a two-stage biofiltration system for passive treatment of digested dairy manure. The first stage pebble filters were batch loaded. When the slurry-like digested dairy manure was retained on pebble beds, soluble contaminants were removed before liquid infiltrated over 8-17 days. The pebble filters removed 70% of soluble chemical oxygen demand, 71% of soluble biochemical oxygen demand, 75% of ammonium, and 68% of orthophosphate. Nitrogen removal was attributed to the conventional nitrification - denitrification process and novel nitritation - anammox process. Aerobic ammonium oxidizing and anammox bacteria accounted for 25 and 23% of all bacteria, respectively, in the filtrate of the pebble filters. The longer it took for filtration, the greater the removal efficiency of soluble contaminants. The second stage sand filters had removal efficiencies of 17% for soluble chemical oxygen demand, 45% for soluble biochemical oxygen demand, 43% for ammonium, and 16% for orthophosphate during batch operations at a hydraulic retention time of 7 days. Aerobic ammonium oxidation and anammox were primarily responsible for nitrogen removal in the sand filters. Vegetation made an insignificant difference in treatment performance of the sand filters. PMID:22592467

Xia, Mengjing; Tao, Wendong; Wang, Ziyuan; Pei, Yuansheng



Development of an In Vivo Fundus Imaging and Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography System for the Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project is to develop a retinal imaging system suitable for routine examination or screening of mouse models that acquires fundus and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images. The imaging system is composed of a digital camera with an objective for biomicroscopic examination of the fundus, an OCT interferometer, an OCT beam delivery system designed for the mouse

Omer Pars Kocaoglu



Manganese Accumulation in the Mouse Ear Following Systemic Exposure  

PubMed Central

There is evidence in human populations that exposure to manganese (Mn), or Mn in combination with excessive noise exposure, results in hearing loss. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed expression of the metal transporters DMT1, ZIP8, and ZIP14 in control mouse ears. ZIP8 is known to have a high affinity (Km = 2.2 ?M) for Mn transport, and ZIP8 protein was localized to the blood vessels of the ear by immunohistochemistry. We treated mice (strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J) with Mn (100 mg/kg MnCl2, by subcutaneous injection, on three alternating days), and Mn was significantly elevated in the ears of the treated mice. Mn concentrations remained elevated over controls for at least 2 weeks after treatment. These studies demonstrate that metal transporters are present in the mouse ear and that Mn can accumulate in the ear following systemic exposure. Future studies should focus on whether Mn exposure is associated with hearing deficits. PMID:18972394

Ma, Ci; Schneider, Scott N.; Miller, Marian; Nebert, Daniel W.; Lind, Caroline; Roda, Sandy M.; Afton, Scott E.; Caruso, Joseph A.; Genter, Mary Beth



Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system  

SciTech Connect

The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

Stabnikova, O. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)], E-mail:; Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)



Waste activated sludge treatment based on temperature staged and biologically phased anaerobic digestion system.  


The concept of temperature staged and biological phased (TSBP) was proposed to enhance the performance of waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion. Semi-continuous experiments were used to investigate the effect of temperature (35 to 70 degrees C) as well as the hydraulic retention time (HRT) (2, 4 and 6 days) on the acidogenic phase. The results showed that the solubilization degree of waste-activated sludge increased from 14.7% to 30.1% with temperature increasing from 35 to 70 degrees C, while the acidification degree was highest at 45 degrees C (17.6%), and this was quite different from the temperature impact on hydrolysis. Compared with HRT of 2 and 6 days, 4 days was chosen as the appropriate HRT because of its relatively high solubilization degree (24.6%) and acidification degree (20.1%) at 45 degrees C. The TSBP system combined the acidogenic reactor (45 degrees C, 4 days) with the methanogenic reactor (35 degrees C, 16 days) and the results showed 84.8% and 11.4% higher methane yield and volatile solid reduction, respectively, compared with that of the single-stage anaerobic digestion system with HRT of 20 days at 35 degrees C. Moreover, different microbial morphologies were observed in the acidogenic- and methanogenic-phase reactors, which resulted from the temperature control and HRT adjustment. All the above results indicated that 45 degrees C was the optimum temperature to inhibit the activity of methanogenic bacteria in the acidogenic phase, and temperature staging and phase separation was thus accomplished. The advantages of the TSBP process were also confirmed by a full-scale waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion project which was an energy self-sufficient system. PMID:24494492

Yu, Jingwen; Zheng, Mingxia; Tao, Tao; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun



The Role of Thyroid Hormone Signaling in the Prevention of Digestive System Cancers  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormones play a critical role in the growth and development of the alimentary tract in vertebrates. Their effects are mediated by nuclear receptors as well as the cell surface receptor integrin ?V?3. Systemic thyroid hormone levels are controlled via activation and deactivation by iodothyronine deiodinases in the liver and other tissues. Given that thyroid hormone signaling has been characterized as a major effector of digestive system growth and homeostasis, numerous investigations have examined its role in the occurrence and progression of cancers in various tissues of this organ system. The present review summarizes current findings regarding the effects of thyroid hormone signaling on cancers of the esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, and colon. Particular attention is given to the roles of different thyroid hormone receptor isoforms, the novel integrin ?V?3 receptor, and thyroid hormone-related nutrients as possible protective agents and therapeutic targets. Future investigations geared towards a better understanding of thyroid hormone signaling in digestive system cancers may provide preventive or therapeutic strategies to diminish risk, improve outcome and avert recurrence in afflicted individuals. PMID:23924944

Brown, Adam R.; Simmen, Rosalia C. M.; Simmen, Frank A.



On the Morphology of the Digestive System of Two Monomorium Ant Species  

PubMed Central

The digestive system of adults and mature larvae of two ant species of Monomorium Mayr (Hymoneptera: Formicidae) were described with the aid of light and scanning electron microscopy, as there is a lack of studies in this area. These two ant species are recurrently found in urban habitats and are known as ‘tramp species,’ as they cause problems in households, businesses, and hospitals. The most interesting finds of the present study include the existence of spinules in the crop of adults, and the number of Malpighian tubules and rectal pads was constant among different castes, ages, and species. PMID:24224520

Solis, Daniel Russ; Rossi, Monica Lanzoni; Fox, Eduardo Goncalves Paterson; Nogueira, Neusa de Lima; Tanaka, Francisco Andre Ossamu; Bueno, Odair Correa



TNF-?-308 polymorphism and risk of digestive system cancers: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the association between the tumour necrosis factor alpha-308 (TNF-?-308) gene polymorphism and the risk of digestive system cancers. METHODS: All eligible case-control studies published up to December 2012 were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and China National Knowledge Internet without language restrictions. The risk of digestive system cancers associated with the TNF-?-308 polymorphism was estimated for each study using odds ratio (OR) together with its 95%CI, respectively. Cochrane Collaboration RevMan 5.1 was used to perform the analysis. A ?2-test-based Q statistic test and an I2 test were performed to assess the between-study heterogeneity. When the Q test was significant (P < 0.05) or I2 > 50%, the random effects model was used, otherwise the fixed effects model was used. RESULTS: Fifty-eight studies from fifty-five publications with a total of 9986 cancer patients and 15511 healthy controls were included. Overall, a significant association was found between the TNF-?-308 polymorphism and the risk of digestive system cancers [dominant model: OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.09-1.39, (G/A) vs (G/G): OR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.02-1.28, (A/A) vs (G/G): OR = 1.44, 95%CI: 1.19-1.73, recessive model: OR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.15-1.66]. Furthermore, when the analysis was stratified by ethnicity, similar results were observed in both the Asian and Caucasian populations, except for the dominant model and heterozygote comparisons in the Asian population [dominant model: OR = 1.24, 95%CI: 0.99-1.56, (G/A) vs (G/G): OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.96-1.24]. When the cancer type subgroups were examined, similar results were detected in gastric and hepatocellular carcinomas; however, no significant association was observed among other digestive system cancers. CONCLUSION: The TNF-?-308 gene polymorphism may be significantly associated with the risk of gastric and hepatocellular carcinomas, but not colorectal, pancreatic, or oesophageal cancer, in the Asian population. PMID:24409077

Guo, Xu-Feng; Wang, Jun; Yu, Shi-Jie; Song, Jia; Ji, Meng-Yao; Cao, Zhuo; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Wang, Jing; Dong, Wei-Guo



Continuously-stirred anaerobic digester to convert organic wastes into biogas: system setup and basic operation.  


Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a bioprocess that is commonly used to convert complex organic wastes into a useful biogas with methane as the energy carrier. Increasingly, AD is being used in industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste(water) treatment applications. The use of AD technology allows plant operators to reduce waste disposal costs and offset energy utility expenses. In addition to treating organic wastes, energy crops are being converted into the energy carrier methane. As the application of AD technology broadens for the treatment of new substrates and co-substrate mixtures, so does the demand for a reliable testing methodology at the pilot- and laboratory-scale. Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations, including the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow (PF), and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) configurations. The CSTR is frequently used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations. However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with solids or settling of solids in tubing. For that scenario with continuous mixing requirements, lab-scale bioreactors are fed periodically and we refer to such configurations as continuously stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs). This article presents a general methodology for constructing, inoculating, operating, and monitoring a CSAD system for the purpose of testing the suitability of a given organic substrate for long-term anaerobic digestion. The construction section of this article will cover building the lab-scale reactor system. The inoculation section will explain how to create an anaerobic environment suitable for seeding with an active methanogenic inoculum. The operating section will cover operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting. The monitoring section will introduce testing protocols using standard analyses. The use of these measures is necessary for reliable experimental assessments of substrate suitability for AD. This protocol should provide greater protection against a common mistake made in AD studies, which is to conclude that reactor failure was caused by the substrate in use, when really it was improper user operation. PMID:22824993

Usack, Joseph G; Spirito, Catherine M; Angenent, Largus T



Continuously-stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into Biogas: System Setup and Basic Operation  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a bioprocess that is commonly used to convert complex organic wastes into a useful biogas with methane as the energy carrier 1-3. Increasingly, AD is being used in industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste(water) treatment applications 4,5. The use of AD technology allows plant operators to reduce waste disposal costs and offset energy utility expenses. In addition to treating organic wastes, energy crops are being converted into the energy carrier methane 6,7. As the application of AD technology broadens for the treatment of new substrates and co-substrate mixtures 8, so does the demand for a reliable testing methodology at the pilot- and laboratory-scale. Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations, including the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow (PF), and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) configurations 9. The CSTR is frequently used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations. However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with solids or settling of solids in tubing. For that scenario with continuous mixing requirements, lab-scale bioreactors are fed periodically and we refer to such configurations as continuously stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs). This article presents a general methodology for constructing, inoculating, operating, and monitoring a CSAD system for the purpose of testing the suitability of a given organic substrate for long-term anaerobic digestion. The construction section of this article will cover building the lab-scale reactor system. The inoculation section will explain how to create an anaerobic environment suitable for seeding with an active methanogenic inoculum. The operating section will cover operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting. The monitoring section will introduce testing protocols using standard analyses. The use of these measures is necessary for reliable experimental assessments of substrate suitability for AD. This protocol should provide greater protection against a common mistake made in AD studies, which is to conclude that reactor failure was caused by the substrate in use, when really it was improper user operation 10. PMID:22824993

Usack, Joseph G.; Spirito, Catherine M.; Angenent, Largus T.



A mitotic recombination system for mouse chromosome 17  

PubMed Central

Mitotic recombination between homologous chromosomes is a genetic technique for mosaic analysis in model organisms. The general application of this technique in the mouse depends on establishment of effective recombination systems for individual chromosomes and reliable and sensitive methods for detection of recombination events. Here, we established a Cre/LoxP-mediated recombination system in mice for mosaic analysis of full-length chromosome 17. Cre-mediated germ-line recombination between the homologous chromosomes was observed with ?9% frequency in a progeny test. Mitotic recombination in somatic tissues was evaluated and scored in B and T lymphocytes with the aid of surface markers and fluorescent-activated cell sorting. We show that a lineage-specific Cre can induce mitotic recombination with a highly reproducible frequency of 0.5–1.0% in lymphoid progenitors. The recombination system established here allows for a simple and accurate detection and isolation of recombination events in live cells, making this system particularly attractive for mosaic analysis or mutagenesis studies in the immune system. PMID:18326030

Sun, Lei; Wu, Xiaohui; Han, Min; Xu, Tian; Zhuang, Yuan



Mouse Forward Genetics in the Study of the Peripheral Nervous System and Human Peripheral Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forward genetics, the phenotype-driven approach to investigating gene identity and function, has a long history in mouse genetics.\\u000a Random mutations in the mouse transcend bias about gene function and provide avenues towards unique discoveries. The study\\u000a of the peripheral nervous system is no exception; from historical strains such as the trembler mouse, which led to the identification of PMP22 as

Darlene S. Douglas; Brian Popko



Case study of selective catalytic reduction system start-up on digester gas fired combustion turbines  

SciTech Connect

In August 1989, the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) adopted Rule 1134 which imposed strict NO{sub x} emission limits on stationary, non-utility, combustion turbines. The rule was technology-forcing for the owners and operators of digester gas fired combustion turbines since it established a NO{sub x} emission limit of 9 parts per million by volume at 15 percent oxygen. The County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (Districts), operators of three 6.5 MW digester gas fired turbines, elected to retrofit the turbines with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems to achieve compliance with the SCAQMD rule. After four years and costs in excess of four million dollars, the Districts continue to work on achieving system performance goals. This case study provides a brief history of the development of Rule 1134 and the motivation behind the strict NO{sub x} limits. The Districts` rationale in choosing SCR systems as a means of attaining compliance is presented along with a discussion of the physical site constraints which resulted in a less than optimum retrofit installation of the SCR systems. SCR system performance problems are examined including what was suspected to be poisoning of the catalyst by potassium in the turbine exhaust gas. The major actions undertaken by the Districts, its contractor and subcontractors to bring the turbines into compliance are also presented including optimizing exhaust flow distribution through the catalyst reactor, optimizing the ammonia mixing in the exhaust duct, optimizing water injection rates, installing intake combustion air evaporative cooling systems, reactivating the catalyst with resistant coatings, and undertaking structural retrofits to prevent distortion of the reactor house caused by thermal expansion. The case study concludes with a brief summary of the SCR systems` final physical configuration and performance and an update on the pending regulation changes.

Conway, V.O.; Min, S.W.; Adams, G.M. [County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County, Whittier, CA (United States)




EPA Science Inventory

MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty SystEm) deals with the problem of uncertainties in models that consist of one or more algebraic equations. It was especially designed for use by those with little or no knowledge of computer languages or programming. It is compact (and thus can...


The journey of a sandwich: computer-based laboratory experiments about the human digestive system in high school biology teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school biology. Using a computer equipped with a commercially available data-acquisition system and a couple of sensors, it was possible to illustrate the basic underlying physical and chemical principles of digestion to the students. Students were able to investigate, through hands-on activities, the chewing force of the jaws, importance of the mechanical breakdown of food, enzymatic activity of pepsin and amylase, antibacterial activity of hydrochloric acid, and importance of the villi for absorption. Students found the experiments interesting and helpful for understanding the digestive process. Furthermore, the results from testing indicated that the students had a deeper understanding of the physiological processes.

Andrej Sorgo (Prva gimnazija Maribor); Zdravka Hajdinjak (Prva gimnazija Maribor); Darko Briski (Prva gimnazija Maribor)



Identification of transcriptional regulators in the mouse immune system  

PubMed Central

The differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into immune cells has been extensively studied in mammals, but the transcriptional circuitry controlling it is still only partially understood. Here, the Immunological Genome Project gene expression profiles across mouse immune lineages allowed us to systematically analyze these circuits. Using a computational algorithm called Ontogenet, we uncovered differentiation-stage specific regulators of mouse hematopoiesis, identifying many known hematopoietic regulators, and 175 new candidate regulators, their target genes, and the cell types in which they act. Among the novel regulators, we highlight the role of ETV5 in ??T cells differntiation. Since the transcriptional program of human and mouse cells is highly conserved1, it is likely that many lessons learned from the mouse model apply to humans. PMID:23624555

Jojic, Vladimir; Shay, Tal; Sylvia, Katelyn; Zuk, Or; Sun, Xin; Kang, Joonsoo; Regev, Aviv; Koller, Daphne



Analysis of angiogenesis in the developing mouse central nervous system.  


In order to study basic mechanisms of sprouting angiogenesis, researchers worldwide rely on the use of model tissues such as rodent retina, which becomes vascularized postnatally, to study the growth of blood vessels. By definition, models have to be simple, recapitulating angiogenic processes in a stereotyped and relatively easy accessible manner, allowing the application of standardized analyses. These criteria also apply in an ideal manner to the embryonic mouse hindbrain, which becomes vascularized by sprouting angiogenesis from a preformed perineural vascular plexus, leading to the stereotypical formation of a capillary subventricular plexus. Similar to the retina model, between embryonic days 10.5 and 13.5, the hindbrain can be flat-mounted in an "open-book" preparation, allowing the analysis of the vascular bed in two-dimensional extension, of parameters like vessel density, morphology, and remodeling including branching and sprouting. In addition to sprouting angiogenesis, the hindbrain is a suitable model for investigating inductive mechanisms towards the blood-brain barrier phenotype of microvessels in the central nervous system. In this chapter, we describe how to fix, dissect, stain, and analyze the developing hindbrain vasculature. PMID:24510854

Ziegler, Nicole; Plate, Karl H; Liebner, Stefan



FGF signaling facilitates postinjury recovery of mouse hematopoietic system  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling promotes hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion in vitro. However, it is unknown whether FGF promotes HSPC expansion in vivo. Here we examined FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) expression and investigated its in vivo function in HSPCs. Conditional knockout (CKO) of Fgfr1 did not affect phenotypical number of HSPCs and homeostatic hematopoiesis, but led to a reduced engraftment only in the secondary transplantation. When treated with 5-fluorouracil (5FU), the Fgfr1 CKO mice showed defects in both proliferation and subsequent mobilization of HSPCs. We identified megakaryocytes (Mks) as a major resource for FGF production, and further discovered a novel mechanism by which Mks underwent FGF-FGFR signaling dependent expansion to accelerate rapid FGF production under stress. Within HSPCs, we observed an up-regulation of nuclear factor ?B and CXCR4, a receptor for the chemoattractant SDF-1, in response to bone marrow damage only in control but not in Fgfr1 CKO model, accounting for the corresponding defects in proliferation and migration of HSPCs. This study provides the first in vivo evidence that FGF signaling facilitates postinjury recovery of the mouse hematopoietic system by promoting proliferation and facilitating mobilization of HSPCs. PMID:22802336

Zhao, Meng; Ross, Jason T.; Itkin, Tomer; Perry, John M.; Venkatraman, Aparna; Haug, Jeffrey S.; Hembree, Mark J.; Deng, Chu-Xia; Lapidot, Tsvee; He, Xi C.



Modelling anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water and faecal matter in accumulation system.  


A dynamic mathematical model based on anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was developed for accumulation (AC) system treating concentrated black water and faecal matter at different temperatures. The AC system was investigated for the treatment of waste (water) produced from the following systems: vacuum toilet for black water (VBW), vacuum toilet for faeces with urine separation (VF), dry toilet (DT), dry toilets for faeces with urine separation (DF), separated faecal matter from conventional black water by filter bag (FB). For evaluation of the AC system treating the proposed waste (water) sources at 20 and 35 degrees C, two options were studied: (1) The filling period of the AC system was constant for all waste (water) sources (either 1, 3 or 6 months) and for each period, the seed sludge volume was varied; (2) The volume of the AC system was constant for all proposed waste (water) sources. The results showed that the filling period of the AC system was the main parameter affecting the system performance, followed by operational temperature, while the increase of the seed sludge volume slightly enhanced the performance of the system. The model results indicated that the filling period of the AC system should be higher than 150 days for obtaining a stable performance. It was found that the hydrolysis of biodegradable particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD) is the rate limiting step, as volatile fatty acid concentration is very low in all experimental conditions (< 200 mgCOD/L at 20 degrees C and < 100 mgCOD/L at 35 degrees C). Based on the results of the two options, it was found that the concentrated waste (water) sources have better performance than the diluted waste (water) sources, like VBW waste (water). Furthermore, smaller volume will be required for the AC system. PMID:21902047

Elmitwalli, Tarek; Zeeman, Grietje; Otterpohl, Ralf



Ultrastructure of the digestive system and the fate of midgut during embryonic development in Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscopic anatomy of the digestive system in embryos and larvae of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber was investigated by light bright field, fluorescence and electron microscopy. During marsupial ontogenetic development the event-dependent staging was used to discriminate the various embryonic stages. At the late embryo stage the differentiation of the ectodermal part of the gut into the complex filtering

Jasna Štrus; Waltraud Klepal; Janja Repina; Magda Tušek-Žnidari?; Maša Milatovi?; Živa Pipan



Assessment of pre-digested piggery wastewater treatment operations with surface flow integrated constructed wetland systems.  


Non-point source pollution such as land-spreading of nitrogen-rich piggery wastewater poses a significant threat to surface waters. The aim was to examine the treatment of anaerobically digested piggery wastewater using four different meso-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) systems planted with Glyceria maxima. Four replicates were used for each system to assess differences due to nutrient loading, hydraulic loading and effluent recycling. All systems were effective in removing total organic nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen and molybdate reactive phosphorus. However, ammonia-nitrogen removal was the greatest challenge for high flow rates (>100 m(3)/ha/d). Nitrification was higher in summer than winter. Findings show for the first time that effluent recycling within ICW was beneficial to lower ammonia-nitrogen but was associated with higher operational costs. The cost-benefit ratio based on ammonia-nitrogen removal for standard, recycling, high nutrients and high flow rate treatments was 1.08:1.04:1.06:1.00. It follows that a high flow rate was only marginally more cost-effective. PMID:20435471

Harrington, Caolan; Scholz, Miklas



Assessment of pre-digested piggery wastewater treatment operations with surface flow integrated constructed wetland systems.  


Non-point source pollution such as land-spreading of nitrogen-rich piggery wastewater poses a significant threat to surface waters. The aim was to examine the treatment of anaerobically digested piggery wastewater using four different meso-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) systems planted with Glyceria maxima. Four replicates were used for each system to assess differences due to nutrient loading, hydraulic loading and effluent recycling. All systems were effective in removing total organic nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen and molybdate reactive phosphorus. However, ammonia-nitrogen removal was the greatest challenge for high flow rates (>100 m³/ha/d). Nitrification was higher in summer than winter. Findings show for the first time that effluent recycling within ICW was beneficial to lower ammonia-nitrogen but was associated with higher operational costs. The cost-benefit ratio based on ammonia-nitrogen removal for standard, recycling, high nutrients and high flow rate treatments was 1.08:1.04:1.06:1.00. It follows that a high flow rate was only marginally more cost-effective. PMID:23738382

Harrington, Caolan; Scholz, Miklas



Digestive Diseases Statistics  


... 263 KB) * Also see: Celiac Disease Diverticular Disease Hemorrhoids Irritable Bowel Syndrome The Digestive System and How ... deaths (2011) 16 Prescriptions: 938,000 (2004) 8 Hemorrhoids Prevalence: 75 percent of people older than 45 ( ...


Histological study on the digestive system development of Takifugu rubripes larvae and juvenile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digestive tract ofTakifugu rubripes during early life stages was studied with light microscopy. At the beginning of hatching, the digestive tract is represented\\u000a by a simple and undifferentiated straight tube and does not communicate with the exterior, as the mouth and anus are not open\\u000a yet. At 2 d after hatching, a constriction between intestine and rectum that will

Zhenzhen Wan; Tianxiang Gao; Xiumei Zhang; Chao Chen; Changhong Yu



Biokinetic and molecular studies of methanogens in phased anaerobic digestion systems.  


The influence of differing operational conditions of two-stage digesters on biokinetic characteristics and communities of methanogenic archaea was evaluated. Operating temperature of each phase influenced the archaeal communities significantly. Also, a strong correlation was observed between community composition and temperature and pH. The maximum specific substrate utilization rates (k max) of acetoclastic methanogens in the mesophilic and thermophilic 1st phases were 11.4 and 22.0 mgCOD mgCOD(-1)d(-1), respectively, whereas significantly lower k max values were estimated for the mesophilic and thermophilic 2nd-phase digesters which were 7.6 and 16.6 mgCOD mgCOD(-1)d(-1), respectively. It appeared that the biokinetic characteristics of the acetoclastic methanogen communities were reliant on digester loading rates. Also, higher temperature dependency coefficients (?) were observed for the long retention time digesters when compared to the values computed for the 1st-phase digesters. Accordingly, the implementation of two sets of biokinetic parameters for acetoclastic methanogen will improve modeling of phased anaerobic digesters. PMID:24125797

Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Parker, Wayne J; Verastegui, Yris; Neufeld, Josh D



Gamma radiation consequences on desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forsk.) digestive system.  


Schistocera gregaria (Forsk.) (Orthoptera, Acrididae) remains a major insect pest in Africa, more particularly in the Sahelian zone. Present control methods are only partially efficient. In a previous study, we tested the potentiality of a sterile insect technique (SIT). Males of S. gregaria appeared to be much radiosensitive as already a dose of 3 Gy limited their survival. Gamma-radiations are known to damages the epithelial tissue of midgut, which affects the alimentation in insects. In this work, we show how digestive system of S. gregaria males is affected when submitted to a dose of 4 gamma rays. Nutrition is affected as males stop feeding soon after irradiation and progressively lose weight. Histological analyses on the midgut showed important epithelium damages. The regenerative cells by which the epithelial cells are replaced were damaged on the first days following irradiation. Consequently, regenerative cells are unable to divide and replace the normal loss of midgut cell. After nine days, the entire midgut epithelium was destroyed and only longitudinal muscles layer remained intact. This indicates that low radiation doses should be used if SIT will be applied. PMID:21539264

Dushimirimana, S; Muratori, F; Damiens, D; Hance, T



Merits of the fat-tailed Barbarine sheep raised in different production systems in Tunisia: digestive, productive and reproductive characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barbarine sheep is the dominant breed in Tunisia. This fat-tailed breed present in all production systems is characterised\\u000a by metabolic and digestive adaptation to the contrasting environment conditions prevailing in the country (heat stress, water\\u000a deprivation, salinity etc.). The fat tail (1.5 to 7 kg) is an energy reservoir that is used in periods of feed scarcity. Moreover,\\u000a the rumen of

Hichem Ben Salem; Narjess Lassoued; Mourad Rekik



Evaluating a model of anaerobic digestion of organic wastes through system identification  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW), on its own or co-digested with primary sewage sludge (PSS), produces high quality biogas, suitable as renewable energy. Parameter estimation and evaluation of a two-stage mathematical model of the anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of MSW and PSS are described. Measured data are from a bench scale laboratory experiment using a continuously stirred tank reactor and operated at 36 C for 115 days. The two-stage model simulates acidogenesis and methanogenesis, including ammonia inhibition. Model parameters are estimated using an output error, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm. Sensitivity of the estimated parameter values and the model outputs to non-estimated model parameters and measurement errors are evaluated. The estimated mathematical model successfully predicts the performance of the anaerobic reactor. Sensitivity results provide guidance for improving the model structure and experimental procedures.

Anex, R.P.; Kiely, G.



N-Squad Episode 1. Students learn misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, the role of the digestive system in processing alcohol, and liver histology.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In N-Squad Episode 1 students work with forensic scientists to solve an alcohol related crime. Along the way, they will learn about alcohol's interaction with the digestive system, misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, and liver histology.

Learning, Center F.



An Ultrahigh Resolution SPECT System for I-125 Mouse Brain Imaging Studies  

PubMed Central

This paper presents some initial experimental results obtained with a dual-head prototype single photon emission microscope system (SPEM) that is dedicated to mouse brain studies using I-125 labeled radiotracers. In particular, this system will be used for in vivo tacking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain. This system is based on the use of the intensified electron multiplying charge-coupled device (I-EMCCD) camera that offers the combination of an excellent intrinsic spatial resolution, a good signal-to-noise ratio, a large active area and a reasonable detection efficiency over an energy range between 27–140keV. In this study, the dual-head SPEM system was evaluated using both resolution phantoms and a mouse with locally injected T cells labelled with I-125. It was demonstrated that for a relatively concentrated source object, the current dual-head SPEM system is capable of visualizing the tiny amount of radioactivity (~12 nCi) carried by a very small number (<1000) of T cells. The current SPEM system design allows four or six camera heads to be installed in a stationary system configuration that offers a doubled or tripled sensitivity at a spatial resolution similar to that obtained with the dualhead system. This development would provide a powerful tool for in vivo and non-invasive tracking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain and potentially for other rodent brain imaging studies. PMID:20161174

Meng, L. J.; Fu, G.; Roy, E. J.; Suppe, B.; Chen, C. T.



Navigating wastewater energy recovery strategies: a life cycle comparison of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and conventional treatment systems with anaerobic digestion.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate emerging anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology in comparison with conventional wastewater energy recovery technologies. Wastewater treatment process modeling and systems analyses were combined to evaluate the conditions under which AnMBR may produce more net energy and have lower life cycle environmental emissions than high rate activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (HRAS+AD), conventional activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (CAS+AD), and an aerobic membrane bioreactor with anaerobic digestion (AeMBR+AD). For medium strength domestic wastewater treatment under baseline assumptions at 15 °C, AnMBR recovered 49% more energy as biogas than HRAS+AD, the most energy positive conventional technology considered, but had significantly higher energy demands and environmental emissions. Global warming impacts associated with AnMBR were largely due to emissions of effluent dissolved methane. For high strength domestic wastewater treatment, AnMBR recovered 15% more net energy than HRAS+AD, and the environmental emissions gap between the two systems was reduced. Future developments of AnMBR technology in low energy fouling control, increased flux, and management of effluent methane emissions would make AnMBR competitive with HRAS+AD. Rapid advancements in AnMBR technology must continue to achieve its full economic and environmental potential as an energy recovery strategy for domestic wastewater. PMID:24742289

Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Cao, Ling; Love, Nancy G; Raskin, Lutgarde; Skerlos, Steven J



Serine/threonine kinase 15 gene polymorphism and risk of digestive system cancers: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have reported an association between the two coding polymorphisms (91T>A and 169G>A) of the serine/threonine kinase 15 (STK15) gene and the risk of digestive system cancers; however, the results are inconsistent. In the present study, a meta-analysis was carried out to assess the association between the two STK15 polymorphisms and the risk of digestive system cancers. Relevant studies were identified using PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang and VIP databases up to February 18, 2014. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using the fixed or random effects model. A total of 15 case-control studies from 14 publications were included. Of these, 15 studies concerned the 91T>A polymorphism and included 7,619 cases and 7,196 controls and four studies concerned the 161G>A polymorphism and included 826 cases and 713 controls. A significantly increased risk of digestive system cancers was observed for the 91T>A polymorphism (recessive model: OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07–1.31). In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significant association was detected in Asian populations (recessive model: OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08–1.36) but not in Caucasian and mixed populations. Stratification by tumor type indicated that the 91T>A polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of esophageal and colorectal cancers under the recessive model (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03–1.38; and OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04–1.46; respectively); however, no significant association was observed between the 169G>A polymorphism and the risk of digestive system cancers in any of the genetic models. Furthermore, in subgroup analysis by ethnicity, similar results were observed in the Asian and Caucasian populations. The present meta-analysis demonstrated that the STK15 gene 91T>A polymorphism, but not the 169G>A polymorphism, may be a risk factor for digestive system cancers, particularly for esophageal and colorectal cancers.




E2F transcription factors and digestive system malignancies: How much do we know?  

PubMed Central

The E2F proteins comprise a family of 8 members that function as transcription factors. They are key targets of the retinoblastoma protein (RB) and were initially divided into groups of activators and repressors. Accumulating data suggest that there is no specific role for each individual E2F member. Instead, each E2F can exert a variety of cellular effects, some of which represent opposing ones. For instance, specific E2Fs can activate transcription and repression, promote or hamper cell proliferation, augment or inhibit apoptosis, all being dependent on the cellular context. This complexity reflects the importance that these transcription factors have on a cell’s fate. Thus, delineating the specific role for each E2F member in specific malignancies, although not easy, is a challenging and continuously pursued task, especially in view of potential E2F targeted therapies. Therefore, several reviews are continuously trying to evaluate available data on E2F status in various malignancies. Such reviews have attempted to reach a consensus, often in the simplistic form of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes for the E2Fs. However they frequently miss spatial and temporal alterations of these factors during tumor development, which should also be considered in conjunction with the status of the regulatory networks that these factors participate in. In the current ‘‘Letter to the Editor’’, we comment on the flaws, misinterpretations and omissions in one such review article published recently in the World Journal of Gastroenterology regarding the role of E2Fs in digestive system malignancies. PMID:25110451

Evangelou, Konstantinos; Havaki, Sophia; Kotsinas, Athanassios



Influence of Surfactants on Lipase Fat Digestion in a Model Gastro-intestinal System  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we use a model gastro-intestinal system to study the influence of different food-grade surface-active molecules (Sn-2 monopalmitin, ?-lactoglobulin, or lysophosphatodylcholine) on lipase activity. The interfacial activity of lipase and surfactants are assessed with the pendant drop technique, a commonly used tensiometry instrument. A mathematical model is adopted which enables quantitative determination of the composition of the water–oil interface as a function of bulk surfactant concentration in the water–oil mixtures. Our results show a decrease in gastric lipolysis when interfacially active molecules are incorporated into a food matrix. However, only the Sn-2 monopalmitin caused a systematic decrease in triglyceride hydrolysis throughout the gastro-intestinal tract. This effect is most likely due to exclusion of both lipase and triglyceride from the water–oil interface together with a probable saturation of the solubilization capacity of bile with monoglycerides. Addition of ?-lactoglobulin or lysophopholipids increased the hydrolysis of fat after the gastric phase. These results can be attributed to an increasing interfacial area with lipase and substrate present at the interface. Otherwise, ?-lactoglobulin, or lysophopholipids reduced fat hydrolysis in the stomach. From the mathematical modeling of the interface composition, we can conclude that Sn-2 monopalmitin can desorb lipase from the interface, which, together with exclusion of substrate from the interface, explains the gradually decreased triglyceride hydrolysis that occurs during the digestion. Our results provide a biophysics approach on lipolysis that can bring new insights into the problem of fat uptake. PMID:20401181

Reis, Pedro M.; Raab, Thomas W.; Chuat, Jean Y.; Leser, Martin E.; Miller, Reinhard; Watzke, Heribert J.



The effect of heat treatment on the digestibility of wheat gluten in a model food system containing wheat gluten, corn starch and corn oil  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE DIGESTIBILITY OF WHEAT GLUTEN IN A MODEL FOOD SYSTEM CONTAINING WHEAT GLUTEN. CORN STARCH AND CORN OIL A Thesis by DEBRA MARIE RUZICKA FOX Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1984 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology The Effect of Heat Treatment on the Digestibility of Wheat Gluten in A Model Food System Containing Wheat Gluten, Corn...

Fox, Debra Marie Ruzicka



Illuminating Cancer Systems With Genetically-Engineered Mouse Models and Coupled Luciferase Reporters In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is a powerful non-invasive tool that has dramatically accelerated the in vivo interrogation of cancer systems and longitudinal analysis of mouse models of cancer over the past decade. Various luciferase enzymes have been genetically engineered into mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer which permit investigation of cellular and molecular events associated with oncogenic transcription, post-transcriptional processing, protein-protein interactions, transformation and oncogene addiction in live cells and animals. Luciferase-coupled GEMMs ultimately serve as a non-invasive, repetitive, longitudinal, and physiological means by which cancer systems and therapeutic responses can be investigated accurately within the autochthonous context of a living animal. PMID:23585416

Kocher, Brandon; Piwnica-Worms, David



In Vitro Digestion of Proteins and Growth Factors in a Bovine Whey Protein Extract as Determined Using a Computer-Controlled Dynamic Gastrointestinal System (TIM1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digestion of major whey proteins\\/peptides, transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-?2) and insulin-like growth factor-I\\u000a (IGF-I) in a bovine whey protein extract (BWPE) was investigated in vitro using a dynamic gastrointestinal digestion system\\u000a (TIM-1). ?-lactoglobulin and glycomacropeptide were the whey components most resistant to 3 h of gastric digestion (pepsin)\\u000a and were also the last to be cleared from the gastric compartment.

Samira Nabil; Sylvie F. Gauthier; Réjean Drouin; Patrice E. Poubelle; Yves Pouliot


Behavior of vitamin E acetate delivery systems under simulated gastrointestinal conditions: lipid digestion and bioaccessibility of low-energy nanoemulsions.  


Colloidal delivery systems are needed to incorporate oil-soluble vitamins into aqueous-based foods and beverage products. In this study, we encapsulated vitamin E acetate into oil-in-water nanoemulsions produced using either a low-energy method (Emulsion Phase Inversion, EPI) or a high energy method (microfluidization). Oil-in-water nanoemulsions (d<200 nm) could be produced using both low- and high-energy methods from a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 80) and medium chain triglycerides (MCTs). The influence of surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR) on lipid digestion and vitamin bioaccessibility of EPI nanoemulsions was determined using a gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model that simulated the mouth, stomach, and small intestine. There were increases in the size and negative charge of the oil droplets after passage through the GIT, which was attributed to droplet coalescence and changes in interfacial composition. The rate and extent of lipid digestion decreased with increasing surfactant concentration, but the bioaccessibility of vitamin E acetate was high in all of the samples (>95%). No appreciable influence of the preparation method (low-energy versus high-energy) on lipid digestion and vitamin bioaccessibility was observed. The major advantage of the EPI method for forming nanoemulsions is that no expensive equipment is required, but relatively high surfactant concentrations are needed compared to microfluidization. PMID:23721832

Mayer, Sinja; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David Julian



An efficient SNP system for mouse genome scanning and elucidating strain relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 1638 informative SNP markers easily assayed by the Amplifluor genotyping system were tested in 102 mouse strains, including the majority of the common and wild-derived inbred strains available from The Jackson Laboratory. Selected from publicly available databases, the markers are on average approximately 1.5 Mb apart and, whenever possible, represent the rare allele in at least two

P. M. Petkov; Y Ding; M A Cassell; W Zhang; G Wagner; E E Sargent; S Asquith; V Crew; K A Johnson; P Robinson; V E Scott; M V Wiles



Mechanisms of entry of poliovirus into the central nervous system in a mouse model  

E-print Network

Poliovirus has been proposed to enter the central nervous system (CNS) by the hematogenous route and/or by axonal transport along nerves. The objective of this research, using a mouse model, was to determine the possible routes by which poliovirus...

Ting, Jing-Wen



Efficient Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus from Mouse Central Nervous System Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades, numerous ex vivo studies have documented that latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivates efficiently from ganglia, but rarely from the central nervous systems (CNS), of mice when assayed by mincing tissues before explant culture, despite the presence of viral genomes in both sites. Here we show that 88% of mouse brain stems reactivated latent virus when they were

Shih-Heng Chen; Hui-Wen Yao; Wen-Yen Huang; Kuei-Sen Hsu; Huan-Yao Lei; Ai-Li Shiau; Shun-Hua Chen



Mouse forward genetics in the study of the peripheral nervous system and human peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Forward genetics, the phenotype-driven approach to investigating gene identity and function, has a long history in mouse genetics. Random mutations in the mouse transcend bias about gene function and provide avenues towards unique discoveries. The study of the peripheral nervous system is no exception; from historical strains such as the trembler mouse, which led to the identification of PMP22 as a human disease gene causing multiple forms of peripheral neuropathy, to the more recent identification of the claw paw and sprawling mutations, forward genetics has long been a tool for probing the physiology, pathogenesis, and genetics of the PNS. Even as spontaneous and mutagenized mice continue to enable the identification of novel genes, provide allelic series for detailed functional studies, and generate models useful for clinical research, new methods, such as the piggyBac transposon, are being developed to further harness the power of forward genetics. PMID:18481175

Douglas, Darlene S.; Popko, Brian



Mouse forward genetics in the study of the peripheral nervous system and human peripheral neuropathy.  


Forward genetics, the phenotype-driven approach to investigating gene identity and function, has a long history in mouse genetics. Random mutations in the mouse transcend bias about gene function and provide avenues towards unique discoveries. The study of the peripheral nervous system is no exception; from historical strains such as the trembler mouse, which led to the identification of PMP22 as a human disease gene causing multiple forms of peripheral neuropathy, to the more recent identification of the claw paw and sprawling mutations, forward genetics has long been a tool for probing the physiology, pathogenesis, and genetics of the PNS. Even as spontaneous and mutagenized mice continue to enable the identification of novel genes, provide allelic series for detailed functional studies, and generate models useful for clinical research, new methods, such as the piggyBac transposon, are being developed to further harness the power of forward genetics. PMID:18481175

Douglas, Darlene S; Popko, Brian



[Ultrastructure of the digestive system in Dermatophagoides farinae (Acariformes:Pyroglyphidae)].  


Fifty living mites (Dermatophagoides farinae) were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde, postfixed in 1% osmium tetroxide, dehydrated in a graded ethanol series, embedded in embedding medium. The ultrastructure of the digestive tract in D. farinae was observed by serial ultrathin sections with a transmission electron microscope. The alimentary canal of D. farinae consists of the cuticle-lined foregut and hindgut separated by a microvilli-lined midgut (anterior midgut, posterior midgut). There are different types of epithelial cells in the anterior midgut The microvilli of epithelial cells in posterior midgut are longer than that of the anterior midgut In posterior midgut, the food bolus is surrounded by the peritrophic membrane. The midgut is the main site of digestion and absorption. PMID:24818423

Wang, Yue-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Cong-Li; Huang, Li-Nian; Sun, Xin; Liu, Zhi-Gang



Hoover Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1996, the Hoover Digest is a quarterly publication that features writing on politics, economics, and history from the minds of scholars and researchers affiliated with the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. Visitors to the Digest's homepage will find an illustration of the current issue's cover, flanked on one side by a listing of the featured articles. Further down on the site, users will find a list of the "Most Viewed" articles, along with links to the "Most Printed", "Most Emailed", and "Most Saved" pieces. Along the right-side of the homepage, visitors can elect to browse by topic, date, or author. The topic list is exhaustive, and it includes areas such as "Flat Tax", "Constitution", "Law Enforcement", and "Arms Control". Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive a free print copy of the Digest.


Genetic labelling of specific axonal pathways in the mouse central nervous system.  


We report on transgenic mouse lines in which several sensory systems in the brain are specifically visualized genetically. We employed GAP-lacZ as an axon-targeted reporter protein that was constructed by fusing the membrane-anchoring domain of the GAP-43 protein to lacZ. The reporter gene was introduced into the genome under the control of a promoter element of Brn3b transcription factor to establish transgenic mouse lines. The individual lines thus generated afforded clear images of specific axonal pathways of the visual, vomeronasal, pontocerebellar, and auditory systems. The reporter protein labelled the entire axonal process as well as the cell body of developing and mature neurons on staining with X-gal. We show that these lines facilitate the developmental and anatomical study of these neural systems. This strategy should be applicable to a variety of neural systems by using various specific promoter elements. PMID:11906522

Zubair, Mohamad; Watanabe, Eiji; Fukada, Masahide; Noda, Masaharu



Influence of gastrointestinal digestion and edible plant combination on oral bioavailability of triterpene saponins, using a biomimetic digestion and absorption system and determination by HPLC.  


Saponins have many biological activities, but their overload could cause toxicity to the human body. Bionic gastrointestinal digestion and monolayer liposome extraction were used for oral bioavailability assessment of triterpene saponins (notoginsenoside R1, ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd1) in an edible herb (San-Chi) and its compound herbal medicine (Pien Tze Huang, PZH). The concentrations of affinity-monolayer liposome saponins in the chyme were determined by HPLC and used for oral bioavailability assessment. With the digestion of San-Chi and PZH from the stomach to the intestine, the release of saponins in their chyme was increased. The intestinal absorption ratios of N-R1, G-Rb1, G-Rd1, and total saponins from San-Chi were 86.57, 18.56, 73.30, and 40.20%, respectively, which were more than those from PZH (i.e., 19.56, 10.11, 30.11, and 16.08%). The oral bioavailability of saponins was controlled by saponin species, gastrointestinal digestion, and edible plants combination. PMID:24099303

Li, Shun-Xing; Mu, Yang; Zheng, Feng-Ying



Digestion Experiments.  

E-print Network

....................................... M.. FRANCIS. .Veterinarian ...................................... E. J. KYLE. .Horticulturist ............................. JOHN C. BURNS. .Animal Husbandry ................................ R. L. BENNETT. Cotton Specialist 0. M. BALL...-To secure some information regarding the relative feeding of ltaffir corn, milo maize, and molasses by means of a determi- uauvu of the quantity of these feeds which is digested by steers. Seconcl-To determine the percentages of sugar, starch...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)



Nonruminant Nutrition Symposium: Involvement of gut neural and endocrine systems in pathological disorders of the digestive tract.  


The functioning of the gastrointestinal tract is under the control of the most extensive system of peripheral neurons in the body, the enteric nervous system, and the largest endocrine system of the body, the GEP endocrine system. The enteric nervous system in large mammals contains 500 million neurons, and the GEP endocrine system produces more than 30 hormones. Numerous enteric neuropathies affecting both humans and animals have been described and digestive disorders affect commercially important species, such as horses and cattle. The most severe enteric neuropathies (e.g., lethal white syndrome in horses or Hirschsprung's disease in humans) can be fatal. Also, horses with ileus or other digestive disorders are commonly euthanized. In this review we discuss examples of enteric neuropathies that affect agricultural animals and humans: prion disease, postoperative ileus, distal enteric aganglionosis, and infective diarrhea. Enteric neurons and glia are a location of prion proteins and are involved in transmission of the infection from gut to brain and brain to gut. Postoperative ileus is a complex disorder involving the local inhibitory effects of sympathetic nervous system activation and the release of opioids, presumably from enteric neurons. Intestinal inflammation, especially of the external muscle that includes enteric ganglia, also occurs in ileus. Congenital distal bowel aganglionosis, responsible for lethal white syndrome in horses, Hirschsprung's disease in humans, and similar conditions in mice and rats, is a fatal condition if untreated. Mutations of the same genes can cause the condition in each of these species. The only effective current treatment is surgical removal of the aganglionic bowel. Infectious diarrheas involve activation of enteric secretomotor neurons by pathogens and the toxins they produce, which causes substantial fluid loss. Strategies to target enteric neurons in the treatment of secretory diarrheas have not been developed. Disorders of enteroendocrine cells, other than GEP endocrine tumors, are less well documented. However, evidence for the involvement of gut endocrine cells in a subset of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, and in the symptomology of celiac disease, has been demonstrated. Further investigation of the involvement of enteric neural and endocrine signaling systems in digestive disorders, especially in agricultural and companion animals, may lead to diagnostic and therapeutic advances. PMID:22178854

Furness, J B; Poole, D P



Short-term exposure to dimethylformamide and the impact on digestive system disease: an outdoor study for volatile organic compound.  


Occupational and experimental studies have revealed the organs most affected by dimethylformamide (DMF) are liver and gastrointestinal tract. However, few studies have focused on the potential effect of outdoor pollution of DMF. This study examined the health risk of hospitalization due to digestive system disease by time series studies in a case city Longwan, China. The urine metabolite of DMF was correlated well with DMF exposure concentration (EC). A 101.0-?g/m(3) (interquartile range) increase in the two-day moving average of DMF EC was associated with a 1.10 (1.01 ˜ 1.20), 1.22 (1.10 ˜ 1.35), and 1.05 (0.90 ˜ 1.22) increase in hospitalization for total digestive system diseases, liver disease, and gastrointestinal tract disease, respectively. The exposure-dose response between DMF and the relative risk of liver disease was linear only below 350 ?g/m(3). These findings highlight a previously unrecognized health problem related to VOCs released into the outdoor environment. PMID:24747345

Wang, Cui; Huang, Canke; Wei, Yumei; Zhu, Qi; Tian, Weili; Zhang, Qingyu



Ultrastructure of the digestive system and the fate of midgut during embryonic development in Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).  


Microscopic anatomy of the digestive system in embryos and larvae of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber was investigated by light bright field, fluorescence and electron microscopy. During marsupial ontogenetic development the event-dependent staging was used to discriminate the various embryonic stages. At the late embryo stage the differentiation of the ectodermal part of the gut into the complex filtering foregut and the hindgut with absorptive and transporting functions is accomplished. The gut of the marsupial manca larva is fully developed and similar to that of the adult. In early embryos the endodermal midgut gland primordia are filled with yolk and lipid globules. In late embryos the epithelium of paired midgut gland tubes is composed of two cell types; one of them exhibits orange autofluorescence. The endodermal cells located between the foregut and the midgut glands of late embryos form the prospective midgut. The cells have electron dense cytoplasm, abundant glycogen fields, endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosomes and numerous vesicles. In the adults the endodermal cells of the midgut remain only in the midgut gland ducts which connect the midgut glands and the foregut. Details of the cellular ultrastructure and morphogenesis of the ectodermal and endodermal parts of the digestive system during embryonic development of Porcellio scaber provide data for further phylogenetic and comparative studies in peracaridan crustaceans and other arthropods. PMID:18440863

Strus, Jasna; Klepal, Waltraud; Repina, Janja; Tusek-Znidaric, Magda; Milatovic, Masa; Pipan, Ziva



1274 Full-Open Reading Frames of Transcripts Expressed in the Developing Mouse Nervous System  

PubMed Central

As part of the trans-National Institutes of Health (NIH) Mouse Brain Molecular Anatomy Project (BMAP), and in close coordination with the NIH Mammalian Gene Collection Program (MGC), we initiated a large-scale project to clone, identify, and sequence the complete open reading frame (ORF) of transcripts expressed in the developing mouse nervous system. Here we report the analysis of the ORF sequence of 1274 cDNAs, obtained from 47 full-length-enriched cDNA libraries, constructed by using a novel approach, herein described. cDNA libraries were derived from size-fractionated cytoplasmic mRNA isolated from brain and eye tissues obtained at several embryonic stages and postnatal days. Altogether, including the full-ORF MGC sequences derived from these libraries by the MGC sequencing team, NIH_BMAP full-ORF sequences correspond to ?20% of all transcripts currently represented in mouse MGC. We show that NIH_BMAP clones comprise 68% of mouse MGC cDNAs ?5 kb, and 54% of those ?4 kb, as of March 15, 2004. Importantly, we identified transcripts, among the 1274 full-ORF sequences, that are exclusively or predominantly expressed in brain and eye tissues, many of which encode yet uncharacterized proteins. PMID:15489326

Bonaldo, Maria F.; Bair, Thomas B.; Scheetz, Todd E.; Snir, Einat; Akabogu, Ike; Bair, Jennifer L.; Berger, Brian; Crouch, Keith; Davis, Aja; Eyestone, Mari E.; Keppel, Catherine; Kucaba, Tamara A.; Lebeck, Mark; Lin, Jenny L.; de Melo, Anna I.R.; Rehmann, Joshua; Reiter, Rebecca S.; Schaefer, Kelly; Smith, Christina; Tack, Dylan; Trout, Kurtis; Sheffield, Val C.; Lin, Jim J-C.; Casavant, Thomas L.; Soares, Marcelo B.



Identification of transcriptional regulators in the mouse immune system  

E-print Network

The differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into cells of the immune system has been studied extensively in mammals, but the transcriptional circuitry that controls it is still only partially understood. Here, the ...

Regev, Aviv


A landmark-free morphometric staging system for the mouse limb bud  

PubMed Central

We have created a 2D morphometric analysis of the developing mouse hindlimb bud. This analysis has provided two useful resources for the study of limb development. First, a temporally accurate numerical description of shape changes during normal mouse limb development. Second, a web-based morphometric staging system, which has the advantage of being easy to use, and with a reproducibility of about ±2 hours. It allows users to upload a dorsal-view photo of a limb bud, draw a spline curve and thereby stage the bud within a couple of minutes. We describe how the system is constructed, its robustness to user variation and illustrate one application: the accurate tracking of spatiotemporal dynamics of gene expression patterns. PMID:21307091

Boehm, Bernd; Rautschka, Michael; Quintana, Laura; Raspopovic, Jelena; Jan, Ziga; Sharpe, James



Dog and mouse: toward a balanced view of the mammalian olfactory system  

PubMed Central

Although the most intensively studied mammalian olfactory system is that of the mouse, in which olfactory chemical cues of one kind or another are detected in four different nasal areas [the main olfactory epithelium (MOE), the septal organ (SO), Grüneberg's ganglion, and the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ (VNO)], the extraordinarily sensitive olfactory system of the dog is also an important model that is increasingly used, for example in genomic studies of species evolution. Here we describe the topography and extent of the main olfactory and vomeronasal sensory epithelia of the dog, and we report finding no structures equivalent to the Grüneberg ganglion and SO of the mouse. Since we examined adults, newborns, and fetuses we conclude that these latter structures are absent in dogs, possibly as the result of regression or involution. The absence of a vomeronasal component based on VR2 receptors suggests that the VNO may be undergoing a similar involutionary process. PMID:25309347

Barrios, Arthur W.; Sanchez-Quinteiro, Pablo; Salazar, Ignacio



Pumilio-2 Function in the Mouse Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coordinated mRNA translation at the synapse is increasingly recognized as a critical mechanism for neuronal regulation. Pumilio, a translational regulator, is known to be involved in neuronal homeostasis and memory formation in Drosophila. Most recently, the mammalian Pumilio homolog Pumilio-2 (Pum2) has been found to play a role in the mammalian nervous system, in particular in regulating morphology, arborization and

Henrike Siemen; Damien Colas; H. Craig Heller; Oliver Brüstle; Renee A. Reijo Pera; Xiaoxi Zhuang



PalladianDigest Transportation  

E-print Network

PalladianDigest CONNECT. EMPOWER. GROW. Tackling Transportation Challenges Nebraska has been a vital link in the nation's transportation system since the days when carts, wagons to University of Nebraska­Lincoln research. That's fine with UNL transportation researchers, said Larry Rilett

Farritor, Shane


Exceptionally Preserved Cambrian Trilobite Digestive System Revealed in 3D by Synchrotron-Radiation X-Ray Tomographic Microscopy  

PubMed Central

The Cambrian ‘Orsten’ fauna comprises exceptionally preserved and phosphatised microscopic arthropods. The external morphology of these fossils is well known, but their internal soft-tissue anatomy has remained virtually unknown. Here, we report the first non-biomineralised tissues from a juvenile polymerid trilobite, represented by digestive structures, glands, and connective strands harboured in a hypostome from the Swedish ‘Orsten’ fauna. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy enabled three-dimensional internal recordings at sub-micrometre resolution. The specimen provides the first unambiguous evidence for a J-shaped anterior gut and the presence of a crop with a constricted alimentary tract in the Trilobita. Moreover, the gut is Y-shaped in cross section, probably due to a collapsed lumen of that shape, another feature which has not previously been observed in trilobites. The combination of anatomical features suggests that the trilobite hypostome is functionally analogous to the labrum of euarthropods and that it was a sophisticated element closely integrated with the digestive system. This study also briefly addresses the preservational bias of the ‘Orsten’ fauna, particularly the near-absence of polymerid trilobites, and the taphonomy of the soft-tissue-harbouring hypostome. PMID:22558180

Eriksson, Mats E.; Terfelt, Fredrik



MicroRNA expression in the adult mouse central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

microRNAs are ;22 nucleotide endogenous noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally repress expression of protein-coding genes by base-pairing with the 39-untranslated regions of the target mRNAs. We present here an inventory of miRNA expression profiles from 13 neuroanatomically distinct areas of the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). Microarray profiling in combination with real-time RT-PCR and LNA (locked nucleic acid)-based in situ




Pnn and SR family proteins are differentially expressed in mouse central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pinin (pnn) is an SR-related protein that is ubiquitously expressed in most cell types and functions in regulating pre-mRNA\\u000a splicing and mRNA export. Previously, we demonstrated that pnn is expressed in all tissues during mouse embryonic development\\u000a with highest levels of expression in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that pnn and other SR proteins including\\u000a SC35 are

Shu-Yuan HsuYen-Jung; Yen-Jung Chen; Pin Ouyang



Vanadium Inhalation in a Mouse Model for the Understanding of Air-Suspended Particle Systemic Repercussion  

PubMed Central

There is an increased concern about the health effects that air-suspended particles have on human health which have been dissected in animal models. Using CD-1 mouse, we explore the effects that vanadium inhalation produce in different tissues and organs. Our findings support the systemic effects of air pollution. In this paper, we describe our findings in different organs in our conditions and contrast our results with the literature. PMID:21716674

Fortoul, T. I.; Rodriguez-Lara, V.; Gonzalez-Villalva, A.; Rojas-Lemus, M.; Cano-Gutierrez, G.; Ustarroz-Cano, M.; Colin-Barenque, L.; Montano, L. F.; Garcia-Pelez, I.; Bizarro-Nevares, P.; Lopez-Valdez, N.; Falcon-Rodriguez, C. I.; Jimenez-Martinez, R. S.; Ruiz-Guerrero, M. L.; Lopez-Zepeda, L. S.; Morales-Rivero, A.; Muniz-Rivera-Cambas, A.



Investigation of the biopharmaceutical behavior of theophylline hydrophilic matrix tablets using USP methods and an artificial digestive system.  


This work aimed to investigate the biopharmaceutical behavior of hydrophilic matrix tablets of theophylline using different in vitro methods: USP II, USP IV, and a novel in vitro system simulating the gastrointestinal tract in man called the artificial digestive system (ADS). The potentiality of each method was evaluated by establishing in vitro/in vivo correlation. Using USP methods, the drug release was pH-independent and dependent on agitation intensity. Level A IVIVCs could be established using the different in vitro methods but one to one correlation was established only when the ADS method was used. For the prediction of in vivo drug dosage form behavior based on in vitro methods, the ADS showed a high predictability when compared to USP in vitro methods. PMID:17523011

Souliman, Sabah; Beyssac, Eric; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Denis, Sylvain; Alric, Monique



Manure's allure: Variation of the financial, environmental, and economic benefits from combined heat and power systems integrated with anaerobic digesters at hog farms across geographic and economic regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have shown that anaerobic digesters integrated with combined heat and power systems (CHP\\/AD) are a financially attractive way to generate electricity, reduce odor, and improve nutrient management on hog farms; yet only very few systems have been installed to date. Employing published financial, economic, and environmental indicators, this study tests whether the benefits from CHP\\/AD identified in these

Steffen Mueller



Atmosphere behavior in gas-closed mouse-algal systems - An experimental and modelling study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA-sponsored research program initiated using mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas-exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere is studied. The development of control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels is considered. A mathematical model simulating the behavior of a gas-closed mouse-algal system under varying environmental conditions is described. To verify and validate the model simulations, an analytical system with which algal growth and gas exchange characteristics can be manipulated and measured is designed, fabricated, and tested. The preliminary results are presented.

Averner, M. M.; Moore, B., III; Bartholomew, I.; Wharton, R.



Cloning and characterization of an apolipoprotein C2 promoter in the mouse central nervous system?  

PubMed Central

Apolipoprotein C2 is an important member of the apolipoprotein C family, and is a potent activator of lipoprotein lipase. In the central nervous system, apolipoprotein C2 plays an important role in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Studies into the exact regulatory mechanism of mouse apolipoprotein C2 expression have not been reported. In this study, seven luciferase expression vectors, which contained potential mouse apolipoprotein C2 gene promoters, were constructed and co-transfected with pRL-TK into HEK293T cells to investigate apolipoprotein C2 promoter activity. Luciferase assays indicated that the apolipoprotein C2 promoter region was mainly located in the +104 bp to +470 bp region. The activity of the different lengths of apolipoprotein C2 promoter region varied. This staggered negative-positive-negative arrangement indicates the complex regulation of apolipoprotein C2 expression and provides important clues for elucidating the regulatory mechanism of apolipoprotein C2 gene transcription.

Li, Zhaoyang; Du, Bing; Li, Shengyang; Lv, Xiangchuan; Zhou, Shenglai; Yu, Yang; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Zhihong



Linking susceptibility genes and pathogenesis mechanisms using mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) represents a challenging autoimmune disease from a clinical perspective because of its varied forms of presentation. Although broad-spectrum steroids remain the standard treatment for SLE, they have many side effects and only provide temporary relief from the symptoms of the disease. Thus, gaining a deeper understanding of the genetic traits and biological pathways that confer susceptibility to SLE will help in the design of more targeted and effective therapeutics. Both human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and investigations using a variety of mouse models of SLE have been valuable for the identification of the genes and pathways involved in pathogenesis. In this Review, we link human susceptibility genes for SLE with biological pathways characterized in mouse models of lupus, and discuss how the mechanistic insights gained could advance drug discovery for the disease. PMID:25147296

Crampton, Steve P.; Morawski, Peter A.; Bolland, Silvia



Biosolids digester and process for biosolids production  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to methods and apparatuses for producing Class A biosolids. In yet another embodiment, the invention relates to a method comprising digesting waste material by anaerobic digestion, and yielding Class A biosolids. In still yet another embodiment, the invention relates to a system for anaerobic digestion of waste material to produce Class A biosolids. In still yet another embodiment, the invention relates to a system for anaerobic digestion of waste material comprising a mixing chamber, a digester, a heating pit, and an effluent pit.



Closeout final report on a demonstration test and evaluation of the Cannon Low-NOx Digester System  

SciTech Connect

Cannon Boiler Works Inc. has been investigating a system for removing NOx from the exhaust gases of furnaces, gas turbines, chemical reactors, incinerators, and boilers. Computer simulations, bench-scale and pilot plant tests have proved that the system is capable of removing substantially all of the NOx from natural gas fired equipment exhaust streams. Originally designated as the Cannon NOx Digester, it has recently been renamed the Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO) System for NOx and SOx Reduction. The principal elements in the system are a fan, heat exchanger, oxidation chamber, spray chamber acting as a gas/liquid absorber, demister, an ozone generator, liquid oxygen storage or dry air supply system for the ozonator, chemical storage and metering system for the caustic neutralizer, and a data acquisition and control system. Most of the ozone is consumed in converting NOx to N{sub 2}O{sub 5} which hydrates to nitric acid which is then scrubbed out of the gas as it passes through the absorber. CO also reacts with ozone to form CO{sub 2} which is subsequently scrubbed out with NaOH. A demonstration, planned for the Alta Dena Dairy located near Los Angeles and in violation of California`s air quality regulations for natural gas fired boilers, was started, delayed due to boiler modifications, and will be continued shortly with new funding. This paper describes the LTO process and presents results from the initial demonstration.




A Support System for Mouse Operations Using Eye-Gaze Input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an eye-gaze input system for people with severe physical disabilities, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. This system utilizes a personal computer and a home video camera to detect eye-gaze under natural light. The system detects both vertical and horizontal eye-gaze by simple image analysis, and does not require special image processing units or sensors. Our conventional eye-gaze input system can detect horizontal eye-gaze with a high degree of accuracy. However, it can only classify vertical eye-gaze into 3 directions (up, middle and down). In this paper, we propose a new method for vertical eye-gaze detection. This method utilizes the limbus tracking method for vertical eye-gaze detection. Therefore our new eye-gaze input system can detect the two-dimension coordinates of user's gazing point. By using this method, we develop a new support system for mouse operation. This system can move the mouse cursor to user's gazing point.

Abe, Kiyohiko; Nakayama, Yasuhiro; Ohi, Shoichi; Ohyama, Minoru


Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331  

SciTech Connect

Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)



Two-phase anaerobic digestion within a solid waste/wastewater integrated management system  

SciTech Connect

A two-phase, wet anaerobic digestion process was tested at laboratory scale using mechanically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) as the substrate. The proposed process scheme differs from others due to the integration of the MSW and wastewater treatment cycles, which makes it possible to avoid the recirculation of process effluent. The results obtained show that the supplying of facultative biomass, drawn from the wastewater aeration tank, to the solid waste acidogenic reactor allows an improvement of the performance of the first phase of the process which is positively reflected on the second one. The proposed process performed successfully, adopting mesophilic conditions and a relatively short hydraulic retention time in the methanogenic reactor, as well as high values of organic loading rate. Significant VS removal efficiency and biogas production were achieved. Moreover, the methanogenic reactor quickly reached optimal conditions for a stable methanogenic phase. Studies conducted elsewhere also confirm the feasibility of integrating the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW with that of wastewater.

De Gioannis, G. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Diaz, L.F. [CalRecovery, Inc., 2454 Stanwell Drive, Concord, California 94520 (United States); Muntoni, A. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy)], E-mail:; Pisanu, A. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy)



Two-phase anaerobic digestion within a solid waste/wastewater integrated management system.  


A two-phase, wet anaerobic digestion process was tested at laboratory scale using mechanically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) as the substrate. The proposed process scheme differs from others due to the integration of the MSW and wastewater treatment cycles, which makes it possible to avoid the recirculation of process effluent. The results obtained show that the supplying of facultative biomass, drawn from the wastewater aeration tank, to the solid waste acidogenic reactor allows an improvement of the performance of the first phase of the process which is positively reflected on the second one. The proposed process performed successfully, adopting mesophilic conditions and a relatively short hydraulic retention time in the methanogenic reactor, as well as high values of organic loading rate. Significant VS removal efficiency and biogas production were achieved. Moreover, the methanogenic reactor quickly reached optimal conditions for a stable methanogenic phase. Studies conducted elsewhere also confirm the feasibility of integrating the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW with that of wastewater. PMID:18191559

De Gioannis, G; Diaz, L F; Muntoni, A; Pisanu, A



Phenotyping the central nervous system of the embryonic mouse by magnetic resonance microscopy.  


Genetic mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders are being massively generated, but technologies for their high-throughput phenotyping are missing. The potential of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for structural phenotyping has been demonstrated before. However, application to the embryonic mouse central nervous system has been limited by the insufficient anatomical detail. Here we present a method that combines staining of live embryos with a contrast agent together with MR microscopy after fixation, to provide unprecedented anatomical detail at relevant embryonic stages. By using this method we have phenotyped the embryonic forebrain of Robo1/2(-/-) double mutant mice enabling us to identify most of the well-known anatomical defects in these mutants, as well as novel more subtle alterations. We thus demonstrate the potential of this methodology for a fast and reliable screening of subtle structural abnormalities in the developing mouse brain, as those associated to defects in disease-susceptibility genes of neurologic and psychiatric relevance. PMID:24769183

Martínez-Martínez, M A; Pacheco-Torres, J; Borrell, V; Canals, S



Merits of the fat-tailed Barbarine sheep raised in different production systems in Tunisia: digestive, productive and reproductive characteristics.  


Barbarine sheep is the dominant breed in Tunisia. This fat-tailed breed present in all production systems is characterised by metabolic and digestive adaptation to the contrasting environment conditions prevailing in the country (heat stress, water deprivation, salinity etc.). The fat tail (1.5 to 7 kg) is an energy reservoir that is used in periods of feed scarcity. Moreover, the rumen of this breed harbours a microflora enabling it to valorize low-quality roughages and native range vegetation. Barbarine sheep could make benefit from a wide range of local feed resources like fodder shrubs (e.g. cactus and oldman saltbushes), tannin-containing shrubs (e.g. Acacia cyanophylla) and agro-industrial by-products (e.g. olive cake, bran etc. conserved in the form of feed blocks or pellets). It has a very shallow anoestrous, the intensity of which is dependant upon nutrition conditions rather than day length as temperate breeds. Productive and reproductive performances of late pregnant-early suckling, pre-mating ewes and also rams of this breed are not affected when some alternative feed resources replace common feedstuffs which are expensive and cannot afford regularly to smallholders. In brief, the merits of the Barbarine sheep in the production systems and other main adaptive mechanisms of this breed are discussed in this paper. The prospective of Barbarine sheep husbandry in the system dynamics, climate change and the evolution of the socioeconomic context are also envisaged. PMID:21533615

Ben Salem, Hichem; Lassoued, Narjess; Rekik, Mourad



Yersinia enterocolitica Targets Cells of the Innate and Adaptive Immune System by Injection of Yops in a Mouse Infection Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye) evades the immune system of the host by injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) via a type three secretion system into host cells. In this study, a reporter system comprising a YopE-?-lactamase hybrid protein and a fluorescent staining sensitive to ?-lactamase cleavage was used to track Yop injection in cell culture and in an experimental Ye mouse

Martin Köberle; Annegret Klein-Günther; Monika Schütz; Michaela Fritz; Susanne Berchtold; Eva Tolosa; Ingo B. Autenrieth; Erwin Bohn



Mouse chimeras as a system to investigate development, cell and tissue function, disease mechanisms and organ regeneration  

PubMed Central

Chimeras are organisms composed of at least two genetically distinct cell lineages originating from different zygotes. In the laboratory, mouse chimeras can be produced experimentally; various techniques allow combining different early stage mouse embryos with each other or with pluripotent stem cells. Identification of the progeny of the different lineages in chimeras permits to follow cell fate and function, enabling correlation of genotype with phenotype. Mouse chimeras have become a tool to investigate critical developmental processes, including cell specification, differentiation, patterning and the function of specific genes. In addition, chimeras can also be generated to address biological processes in the adult, including mechanisms underlying diseases or tissue repair and regeneration. This review summarizes the different types of chimeras and how they have been generated and provides examples of how mouse chimeras offer a unique and powerful system to investigate questions pertaining to cell and tissue function in the developing and adult organism. PMID:21606677

McLaughlin, K John; Willenbring, Holger



DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) system studies digest  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has sponsored system studies to support the evaluation of alternative configurations and operations for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) and the development of system requirements and design specifications. These studies are generally directed toward evaluating the impacts of alternatives to the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and fuel rod consolidation, waste form and characteristics sequences, cask and canister concepts, allocation of waste acceptance rights, and system throughput rates. The objectives of this document are: To present major system issues and related system element issues in a structured manner; to discuss key results of major system studies and explain the basis for certain current system assumptions; to summarize the scope and results of completed system studies that are still relevant at the time this document is published; and to provide the background needed for identifying and prioritizing system issues to be resolved. Consistent with the objectives, the document does not include low-level subsystem studies addressing system element issues that do not interact with overall system issues. The document is expected to be updated as major new system studies are completed and significant new results are available.

McLeod, N.B. (Johnson and Associates Inc., Fairfax, Virginia (United States)); Nguyen, T.D.; Drexelius, R. (USDOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC (United States)); McKee, R.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))



Naval Surface Warfare Center Technical Digest. Research and Technology - Shaping Future Naval Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: A vision of naval surface force structure in 2030; System challenges of technology transition; Objectives, principles, and attributes: A structured approach to system engineering; Advanced distributed processing technology and ADMRALS; A chemica...



Non-steady peristaltic propulsion with exponential variable viscosity: a study of transport through the digestive system.  


A theoretical study is presented for transient peristaltic flow of an incompressible fluid with variable viscosity in a finite length cylindrical tube as a simulation of transport in physiological vessels and biomimetic peristaltic pumps. The current axisymmetric analysis is qualitatively similar to two-dimensional analysis but exhibits quantitative variations. The current analysis is motivated towards further elucidating the physiological migration of gastric suspensions (food bolus) in the human digestive system. It also applies to variable viscosity industrial fluid (waste) peristaltic pumping systems. First, an axisymmetric model is analysed in the limit of large wavelength ([Formula: see text]) and low Reynolds number ([Formula: see text]) for axial velocity, radial velocity, pressure, hydromechanical efficiency and stream function in terms of radial vibration of the wall ([Formula: see text]), amplitude of the wave ([Formula: see text]), averaged flow rate ([Formula: see text]) and variable viscosity ([Formula: see text]). Subsequently, the peristaltic flow of a fluid with an exponential viscosity model is examined, which is based on the analytical solutions for pressure, wall shear stress, hydromechanical efficiency and streamline patterns in the finite length tube. The results are found to correlate well with earlier studies using a constant viscosity formulation. This study reveals some important features in the flow characteristics including the observation that pressure as well as both number and size of lower trapped bolus increases. Furthermore, the study indicates that hydromechanical efficiency reduces with increasing magnitude of viscosity parameter. PMID:22817394

Tripathi, Dharmendra; Pandey, S K; Siddiqui, Abdul; Bég, O Anwar



Systemic and local injections of lupeol inhibit tumor growth in a melanoma-bearing mouse model  

PubMed Central

Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and it is procured from activated or genetically altered epidermal melanocytes. In the present study, the tumor-suppressive effects of systemic and local injections of lupeol, a triterpene extracted from Indian lettuce (Lactuca indica), in a melanoma-bearing mouse model were evaluated. Mice were injected once with lupeol or olive oil (solvent control) subcutaneously into the skin of the back or into the tumor tissue. Seven days after the injection, the tumor growth rates were calculated and the tumor tissues were collected. Immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were performed. The tumor growth rates in the lupeol-injected group were significantly decreased compared to those observed in the non-treated (NT) and solvent control groups. Lupeol also significantly decreased the areas positively stained for Ki-67 and PCNA in the tumor tissues compared to those in the NT and solvent control groups. The results of the present study demonstrated that systemic and local injections of lupeol suppress tumor growth and induce cell cycle arrest in a melanoma-bearing mouse model. These data suggest that lupeol may be effective as a novel therapeutic option for melanoma patients. PMID:24649001




Regulatable in vivo biotinylation expression system in mouse embryonic stem cells.  


Embryonic stem (ES) cells have several unique attributes, the two most important of which are they can differentiate into all cell types in the body and they can proliferate indefinitely. To study the regulation of these phenomena, we developed a regulatable in vivo biotinylation expression system in mouse ES cells. The E. coli biotin ligase gene BirA, whose protein product can biotinylate a 15-aa peptide sequence, called the AviTag, was cloned downstream of an IRES. The primary vector containing the doxycycline controlled transactivator gene tTA and IRES-BirA was knocked into the ROSA26 locus by homologous recombination. The secondary vector containing the AviTag tagged hKlf4 gene was exchanged into the ROSA26 locus using Cre recombinase. Western blot analysis showed that the doxycycline induced BirA protein can biotinylate the doxycycline induced AviTag tagged hKlf4 protein. The induction of hKlf4 repressed cell growth in the presence or absence of LIF. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using streptavidin beads showed that the AviTag tagged hKlf4 protein could enrich the Nanog enhancer. Our results suggested that the regulatable biotinylation system is promising for the gene function studies in mouse ES cells. PMID:23667633

Wang, Qin; Wagner, Ryan T; Cooney, Austin J



75 FR 82428 - VASRD Improvement Forum-Updating Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Dental Conditions, and Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional...Dental Conditions, and Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional...four body systems: (1) Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and...



A microbial clock provides an accurate estimate of the postmortem interval in a mouse model system.  


Establishing the time since death is critical in every death investigation, yet existing techniques are susceptible to a range of errors and biases. For example, forensic entomology is widely used to assess the postmortem interval (PMI), but errors can range from days to months. Microbes may provide a novel method for estimating PMI that avoids many of these limitations. Here we show that postmortem microbial community changes are dramatic, measurable, and repeatable in a mouse model system, allowing PMI to be estimated within approximately 3 days over 48 days. Our results provide a detailed understanding of bacterial and microbial eukaryotic ecology within a decomposing corpse system and suggest that microbial community data can be developed into a forensic tool for estimating PMI. DOI: PMID:24137541

Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lauber, Christian L; Knights, Dan; Ackermann, Gail; Humphrey, Gregory C; Gebert, Matthew J; Van Treuren, Will; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Keepers, Kyle; Guo, Yan; Bullard, James; Fierer, Noah; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob



A microbial clock provides an accurate estimate of the postmortem interval in a mouse model system  

PubMed Central

Establishing the time since death is critical in every death investigation, yet existing techniques are susceptible to a range of errors and biases. For example, forensic entomology is widely used to assess the postmortem interval (PMI), but errors can range from days to months. Microbes may provide a novel method for estimating PMI that avoids many of these limitations. Here we show that postmortem microbial community changes are dramatic, measurable, and repeatable in a mouse model system, allowing PMI to be estimated within approximately 3 days over 48 days. Our results provide a detailed understanding of bacterial and microbial eukaryotic ecology within a decomposing corpse system and suggest that microbial community data can be developed into a forensic tool for estimating PMI. DOI: PMID:24137541

Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lauber, Christian L; Knights, Dan; Ackermann, Gail; Humphrey, Gregory C; Gebert, Matthew J; Van Treuren, Will; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Keepers, Kyle; Guo, Yan; Bullard, James; Fierer, Noah; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob



Peripheral nervous system defects in a mouse model for peroxisomal biogenesis disorders.  


Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are autosomal recessive disorders in humans characterized by skeletal, eye and brain abnormalities. Despite the fact that neurological deficits, including peripheral nervous system (PNS) defects, can be observed at birth in some PBD patients including those with PEX10 mutations, the embryological basis of the PNS defects is unclear. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified a mouse model for Pex10 deficiency that exhibits neurological abnormalities during fetal development. Homozygous Pex10 mutant mouse embryos display biochemical abnormalities related to a PBD deficiency. During late embryogenesis, Pex10 homozygous mutant mice experience progressive loss of movement and at birth they become cyanotic and die shortly thereafter. Homozygous Pex10 mutant fetuses display decreased integrity of axons and synapses, over-extension of axons in the diaphragm and decreased Schwann cell numbers. Our neuropathological, molecular and electrophysiological studies provide new insights into the embryological basis of the PNS deficits in a PBD model. Our findings identify PEX10 function, and likely other PEX proteins, as an essential component of the spinal locomotor circuit. PMID:25176044

Hanson, M Gartz; Fregoso, Veronica L; Vrana, Justin D; Tucker, Chandra L; Niswander, Lee A



Systems Biology-Based Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence Genes in Mouse Lungs  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence genes is important for developing novel drugs to shorten the duration of tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We developed computational algorithms that predict M. tuberculosis genes required for long-term survival in mouse lungs. As the input, we used high-throughput M. tuberculosis mutant library screen data, mycobacterial global transcriptional profiles in mice and macrophages, and functional interaction networks. We selected 57 unique, genetically defined mutants (18 previously tested and 39 untested) to assess the predictive power of this approach in the murine model of TB infection. We observed a 6-fold enrichment in the predicted set of M. tuberculosis genes required for persistence in mouse lungs relative to randomly selected mutant pools. Our results also allowed us to reclassify several genes as required for M. tuberculosis persistence in vivo. Finally, the new results implicated additional high-priority candidate genes for testing. Experimental validation of computational predictions demonstrates the power of this systems biology approach for elucidating M. tuberculosis persistence genes. PMID:24549847

Dutta, Noton K.; Bandyopadhyay, Nirmalya; Veeramani, Balaji; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Karakousis, Petros C.; Bader, Joel S.



3-Dimensional Resin Casting and Imaging of Mouse Portal Vein or Intrahepatic Bile Duct System  

PubMed Central

In organs, the correct architecture of vascular and ductal structures is indispensable for proper physiological function, and the formation and maintenance of these structures is a highly regulated process. The analysis of these complex, 3-dimensional structures has greatly depended on either 2-dimensional examination in section or on dye injection studies. These techniques, however, are not able to provide a complete and quantifiable representation of the ductal or vascular structures they are intended to elucidate. Alternatively, the nature of 3-dimensional plastic resin casts generates a permanent snapshot of the system and is a novel and widely useful technique for visualizing and quantifying 3-dimensional structures and networks. A crucial advantage of the resin casting system is the ability to determine the intact and connected, or communicating, structure of a blood vessel or duct. The structure of vascular and ductal networks are crucial for organ function, and this technique has the potential to aid study of vascular and ductal networks in several ways. Resin casting may be used to analyze normal morphology and functional architecture of a luminal structure, identify developmental morphogenetic changes, and uncover morphological differences in tissue architecture between normal and disease states. Previous work has utilized resin casting to study, for example, architectural and functional defects within the mouse intrahepatic bile duct system that were not reflected in 2-dimensional analysis of the structure1,2, alterations in brain vasculature of a Alzheimer's disease mouse model3, portal vein abnormalities in portal hypertensive and cirrhotic mice4, developmental steps in rat lymphatic maturation between immature and adult lungs5, immediate microvascular changes in the rat liver, pancreas, and kidney in response in to chemical injury6. Here we present a method of generating a 3-dimensional resin cast of a mouse vascular or ductal network, focusing specifically on the portal vein and intrahepatic bile duct. These casts can be visualized by clearing or macerating the tissue and can then be analyzed. This technique can be applied to virtually any vascular or ductal system and would be directly applicable to any study inquiring into the development, function, maintenance, or injury of a 3-dimensional ductal or vascular structure. PMID:23128398

Walter, Teagan J.; Sparks, Erin E.; Huppert, Stacey S.



Fast synchronized dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging system for monitoring hemodynamic changes in a stroke mouse model  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we describe a newly developed synchronized dual-wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging (SDW-LSCI) system, which contains two cameras that are synchronously triggered to acquire data. The system can acquire data at a high spatiotemporal resolution (up to 500Hz for ~1000×1000 pixels). A mouse model of stroke is used to demonstrate the capability for imaging the fast changes (within tens of milliseconds) in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and the relative changes in blood flow in the mouse brain, through an intact cranium. This novel imaging technology will enable the study of fast hemodynamics and metabolic changes in vascular diseases. PMID:23027260

Qin, Jia; Shi, Lei; Dziennis, Suzan; Reif, Roberto; Wang, Ruikang K.



Two-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography of tryptic bovine albumin digest using normal- and reverse-phase systems with silanized silica stationary phase.  


Among many advantages of planar techniques, two-dimensional (2D) separation seems to be the most important for analysis of complex samples. Here we present quick, simple and efficient two-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography (2D HPTLC) of bovine albumin digest using commercial HPTLC RP-18W plates (silica based stationary phase with chemically bonded octadecyl ligands of coverage density 0.5?mol/m(2) from Merck, Darmstadt). We show, that at low or high concentration of water in the mobile phase comprised methanol and some additives the chromatographic systems with the plates mentioned demonstrate normal- or reversed-phase liquid chromatography properties, respectively, for separation of peptides obtained. These two systems show quite different separation selectivity and their combination into 2D HPTLC process provides excellent separation of peptides of the bovine albumin digest. PMID:24034973

Gwarda, Rados?aw ?ukasz; Dzido, Tadeusz Henryk



Voluntary intake, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of fresh forages fed to Guinea pigs in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bindelle, J., Ilunga, Y., Delacollette, M., Muland Kayij, M., Umba di M’Balu, J., Kindele, E. and Buldgen, A. Voluntary intake,\\u000a chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of fresh forages fed to Guinea pigs in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa\\u000a (Democratic Republic of Congo). Tropical Animal Health and Production.\\u000a \\u000a The daily voluntary intake (DVI) of Guinea pigs (GP) fed 15 fresh

J. Bindelle; Y. Ilunga; M. Delacollette; M. Muland Kayij; J. Umba di M’Balu; E. Kindele; A. Buldgen



Investigation of the interaction of cardiotoxic anticancer agents using the fetal mouse heart organ culture system  

SciTech Connect

The fetal mouse heart organ culture system was utilized in an effort to document and predict the potential cardiotoxic effects of ionizing radiation, Adriamycin (ADR), and Dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHAQ); alone and in combination. These antineoplastic agents have been shown to produce clinical cardiomyopathy which is often dose-limiting. Fetal mouse hearts (gestational day 17) were removed and placed in a culture system of 6-well microtiter plates. A single heart was placed in each well on a piece of aluminium mesh, above the culture medium but bathed by capillary action. The plates were then placed in a 100% oxygen environment and incubated at 37/sup 0/C. Treatments performed on day 1 after culture were Cs-137 irradiation (10, 20, or 40 Gy); ADR (10, 30, or 100 micrograms/ml); DHAQ (5, 20, or 50 micrograms/ml); or various combinations of drugs and radiation. Hearts were checked every day for functional activity as evidenced by continuous heart best. Untreated hearts beat rhythmically for up to 9 days (average = 6.8 days); treated hearts stopped beating between 2 and 7 days after treatment. Using this endpoint of functional retention time (FRT), dose response curves were obtained for all individual agents. Combinations of ADR and DHAQ (at concentrations that resulted in FRTs of 3.5 days) produced no greater effect than either agent alone. However, the combination of radiation (FRT = 5.3 days) with ADR, DHAQ or both drugs was more effective than was drug alone. This system may help to predict the cardiotoxic effects that result from the use of these drugs and radiation.

Kimler, B.F.; Rethorst, R.D.; Cox, G.G.



Use of a Hierarchical Oligonucleotide Primer Extension Approach for Multiplexed Relative Abundance Analysis of Methanogens in Anaerobic Digestion Systems  

PubMed Central

In this study, we established a rapid multiplex method to detect the relative abundances of amplified 16S rRNA genes from known cultivatable methanogens at hierarchical specificities in anaerobic digestion systems treating industrial wastewater and sewage sludge. The method was based on the hierarchical oligonucleotide primer extension (HOPE) technique and combined with a set of 27 primers designed to target the total archaeal populations and methanogens from 22 genera within 4 taxonomic orders. After optimization for their specificities and detection sensitivity under the conditions of multiple single-nucleotide primer extension reactions, the HOPE approach was applied to analyze the methanogens in 19 consortium samples from 7 anaerobic treatment systems (i.e., 513 reactions). Among the samples, the methanogen populations detected with order-level primers accounted for >77.2% of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes detected using an Archaea-specific primer. The archaeal communities typically consisted of 2 to 7 known methanogen genera within the Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales and displayed population dynamic and spatial distributions in anaerobic reactor operations. Principal component analysis of the HOPE data further showed that the methanogen communities could be clustered into 3 distinctive groups, in accordance with the distribution of the Methanosaeta, Methanolinea, and Methanomethylovorans, respectively. This finding suggested that in addition to acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, the methylotrophic methanogens might play a key role in the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrated that the HOPE approach is a specific, rapid, and multiplexing platform to determine the relative abundances of targeted methanogens in PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene products. PMID:24077716

Chuang, Hui-Ping; Hsu, Mao-Hsuan; Chen, Wei-Yu



Different timings of Dicer deletion affect neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the developing mouse central nervous system.  


MicroRNAs, processed by the RNAase III enzyme Dicer, are approximately 22 nucleotide endogenous noncoding small RNAs. The function of Dicer in the mouse central nervous system (CNS) development is not well understood. Here, we show that specifically deleting Dicer expression in the CNS and in the cerebral cortex using two Cre lines results in reduced progenitor numbers, abnormal neuronal differentiation, and thinner cortical wall. Incomplete Dicer deletion during early embryonic stages contributes to normal development of early-born neurons in the cortex and motor neurons in the spinal cord. However, at late embryonic stages when Dicer is completely ablated in the CNS, the migration of late-born neurons in the cortex and oligodendrocyte precursor expansion and differentiation in the spinal cord are greatly affected. Our studies of different timings of Dicer deletion demonstrate the importance of the Dicer-mediated microRNA pathway in regulating distinct phases of neurogenesis and gliogenesis during the CNS development. PMID:19806666

Kawase-Koga, Yoko; Otaegi, Gaizka; Sun, Tao



Conservation and divergence in the transcriptional programs of the human and mouse immune systems.  


Much of the knowledge about cell differentiation and function in the immune system has come from studies in mice, but the relevance to human immunology, diseases, and therapy has been challenged, perhaps more from anecdotal than comprehensive evidence. To this end, we compare two large compendia of transcriptional profiles of human and mouse immune cell types. Global transcription profiles are conserved between corresponding cell lineages. The expression patterns of most orthologous genes are conserved, particularly for lineage-specific genes. However, several hundred genes show clearly divergent expression across the examined cell lineages, and among them, 169 genes did so even with highly stringent criteria. Finally, regulatory mechanisms--reflected by regulators' differential expression or enriched cis-elements--are conserved between the species but to a lower degree, suggesting that distinct regulation may underlie some of the conserved transcriptional responses. PMID:23382184

Shay, Tal; Jojic, Vladimir; Zuk, Or; Rothamel, Katherine; Puyraimond-Zemmour, David; Feng, Ting; Wakamatsu, Ei; Benoist, Christophe; Koller, Daphne; Regev, Aviv



A developmental switch of axon targeting in the continuously regenerating mouse olfactory system.  


The mammalian olfactory system has the natural capacity to regenerate throughout the animal's life span. Despite constant neurogenesis, olfactory sensory neurons project to precise, stereotypical positions in the brain. Here, we identify a critical period of olfactory sensory axon targeting during postnatal development in mouse. Perturbing axon projection beyond postnatal day 7 permanently disrupts targeting specificity of the sensory neurons. In addition, we find that the establishment of the convergence map requires perinatal sensory neurons. Late-born neurons appear to connect with prospective glomeruli based on homotypic interactions among neurons expressing the same odorant receptor. Our results reveal a developmental switch in axon guidance and a mechanism of circuit integration of adult-born neurons. PMID:24723610

Ma, Limei; Wu, Yunming; Qiu, Qiang; Scheerer, Hayley; Moran, Andrea; Yu, C Ron



[Distribution of acetylcholinesterase activity in the digestive system of the gastropod molluscs Littorina littorea and Achatina fulica].  


With the use of the histochemical procedure for the demonstration of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, the distribution cholinergic regulatory elements was studied in the esophagus, the pharynx, the stomach, the liver (the digestive gland) and the intestine in sea and terrestrial gastropod molluscs that differed in their general organization level, lifestyle, habitat and feeding type. In both molluscs, all the parts of the digestive tract contained the significant amount of intraepithelial AchE-positive cells of the open type, single subepithelial neurons and the nervous fibers localized among the muscle cells of the wall of the organs. The basal processes of the AchE-positive intraepithelial cells were shown to form the intraepithelial nerve plexus and to pass under the epithelium. The peculiarities and common principles in the distribution of the nervous elements detected, their possible function and the regulatory role in the digestion in gastropod molluscs and other animals are discussed. PMID:19069417

Za?tseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V



[Role of risk factors in the development of chronic digestive system diseases in children].  


The spread, patterns, and risk factors of alimentary diseases were examined in children residing in areas of petroleum-refining, petrochemical, and chemical industries. A total of 4816 children aged 3 to 14 years who lived in Ufa areas differing in the level and nature of ambient air pollution were examined. Those living in the poorer ecological areas (high total pollution and levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, and phenol) had more commonly gastroenterological diseases with prevailing hepatobiliary disorders in the pattern of diseases. The specific features of the diseases in these children are earlier onset, more frequent recurrences, more prolonged exacerbations involving other organs and systems than in those living in more favourable areas. PMID:11030097

Ivleva, N A; Sabirova, Z F



MONICA: a compact, portable dual gamma camera system for mouse whole-body imaging  

SciTech Connect

Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named "MONICA" for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed ?looking up? through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV?10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1 cm), 2.2 mm; sensitivity, 149 cps (counts per seconds)/MBq (5.5 cps/μCi); energy resolution (FWHM, full width at half maximum), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2=0.99 for 0?185 MBq (0?5 mCi) in the field of view (FOV); spatial uniformity, <3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-min images acquired throughout the 168-h study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g., limited imaging space, portability and, potentially, cost are important.

Choyke, Peter L.; Xia, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Kakareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.



A novel method for somatic transgenesis of the mouse prostate using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In vivo ectopic gene expression is a common approach for prostate research through the use of transgenes in germline transgenic mice. For some other organs, somatic transgenesis with the Sleeping Beauty transposon system has allowed in vivo ectopic gene expression with higher throughput and lower cost than germline transgenic approaches. METHODS Mouse e16 urogenital sinuses (UGSs) were co-injected with plasmids expressing the Sleeping Beauty transposase and plasmids with control or activated BRAF expressing transposons. Following electroporation, the transduced UGSs were grown as allografts in mouse hosts for 8 weeks, and the resulting allografts were evaluated for several endpoints. RESULTS Transposon-transduced UGS allografts developed into prostatic tissue with normal tissue structure and cellular differentiation. Integration of transposon vectors into the genomes of transduced allografts was confirmed using linker-mediated PCR, sequencing, and in situ PCR. Transduction of UGS allografts with transposons expressing activated BRAF resulted in ectopic BRAF expression that was detectable at both the mRNA and protein levels. Prostatic ducts over-expressing activated BRAF also had ectopic activation of the ERK1/2 mitogen activated kinases and increased epithelial cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS The Sleeping Beauty transposon system can be used to achieve somatic transgenesis of prostatic allografts. This new method for achieving ectopic gene expression in the prostate will complement other existing approaches such as ectopic gene expression in cell lines and in germline transgenic mice. Advantages of this new approach include preservation of stromal-epithelial interactions not possible with cell lines, and higher throughput and lower cost than traditional germline transgenic approaches. PMID:24647932

Hammer, Kimberly D.P.; Alsop, Jim; Buresh-Stiemke, Rita A.; Frantskevich, Katsiaryna; Malinowski, Rita; Roethe, Laura; Powers, Ginny L; Marker, Paul C.



Fate of pathogen indicators in a domestic blend of food waste and wastewater through a two-stage anaerobic digestion system.  


Anaerobic digestion is a viable on-site treatment technology for rich organic waste streams such as food waste and blackwater. In contrast to large-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants which are typically located away from the community, the effluent from any type of on-site system is a potential pathogenic hazard because of the intimacy of the system to the community. The native concentrations of the pathogen indicators Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and somatic coliphage were tracked for 30 days under stable operation (organic loading rate (OLR) = 1.8 kgCOD m(-3) day(-1), methane yield = 52% on a chemical oxygen demand (COD) basis) of a two-stage laboratory-scale digester treating a mixture of food waste and blackwater. E. coli numbers were reduced by a factor of 10(6.4) in the thermophilic stage, from 10(7.5±0.3) to 10(1.1±0.1) cfu 100 mL(-1), but regenerated by a factor of 10(4) in the mesophilic stage. Neither the thermophilic nor mesophilic stages had any significant impact on C. perfringens concentrations. Coliphage concentrations were reduced by a factor of 10(1.4) across the two stages. The study shows that anaerobic digestion only reduces pathogen counts marginally but that counts in effluent samples could be readily reduced to below detection limits by filtration through a 0.22 µm membrane, to investigate membrane filtration as a possible sanitation technique. PMID:23168637

Rounsefell, B D; O'Sullivan, C A; Chinivasagam, N; Batstone, D; Clarke, W P



Changes in Function of Cardiac Receptors Mediating the Effects of the Autonomic Nervous System in the Muscular Dystrophy (MDX) Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

S. Lu and A. Hoey. Changes in Function of Cardiac Receptors Mediating the Effects of the Autonomic Nervous System in the Muscular Dystrophy (MDX) Mouse. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology (2000) 32, 143–152. Adrenergic and muscarinic receptor mediated effects on the force of contraction and heart rate were studied in the isolated left atria and right atria from dystrophin-deficient

Sai Lu; Andrew Hoey



Impact of immune system stimulation on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of methionine plus cysteine intake for whole-body protein deposition in growing pigs.  


The impact of immune system stimulation (ISS) on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of dietary methionine plus cysteine (SAA) intake for whole-body protein deposition (PD) was evaluated in growing pigs. For this purpose, sixty barrows were used in two experiments: thirty-six pigs in Expt I and twenty-four pigs in Expt II. Pigs were feed restricted and assigned to five levels of dietary SAA allowance (three and two levels in Expt I and II, respectively) from SAA-limiting diets. Following adaptation, pigs at each dietary SAA level were injected with either increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+; eight and six pigs per dietary SAA level in Expt I and II, respectively) or saline (ISS - ; four and six pigs in Expt I and II, respectively) while measuring the whole-body nitrogen (N) balance. After N-balance observations, pigs were euthanised, organs were removed and ileal digesta were collected for determining nutrient digestibility. Ileal digestibility of gross energy, crude protein and amino acids was not affected by ISS (P>0·20). ISS reduced PD at all levels of dietary SAA intake (P< 0·01). The linear relationship between daily dietary SAA intake and PD observed at the three lowest dietary SAA intake levels indicated that ISS increased extrapolated maintenance SAA requirements (P< 0·05), but had no effect on the partial efficiency of the utilisation of dietary SAA intake for PD (P>0·20). Physiological and metabolic changes associated with systemic ISS had no effect on the ileal digestibility of nutrients per se, but altered SAA requirements for PD in growing pigs. PMID:23803219

Rakhshandeh, Anoosh; Htoo, John K; Karrow, Neil; Miller, Stephen P; de Lange, Cornelis F M



Incentives for Accountability. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policymakers and educators are taking a new look at incentives as they work to improve accountability systems. This ERIC Digest examines the role of rewards and sanctions in school reform and identifies key issues in implementing incentive systems. The new accountability is based on five components: carefully designed standards, assessments…

Lashway, Larry


Immobilization of trypsin onto multifunctional meso-/macroporous core-shell microspheres: a new platform for rapid enzymatic digestion.  


A simple, fast, efficient, and reusable microwave-assisted tryptic digestion system which was constructed by immobilization of trypsin onto porous core-shell Fe3O4@fTiO2 microspheres has been developed. The nanostructure with magnetic core and titania shell has multiple pore sizes (2.4 and 15.0 nm), high pore volume (0.25 cm(3) g(-1)), and large surface area (50.45 m(2) g(-1)). For the proteins, the system can realize fast and efficient microwave-assisted tryptic digestion. Various standard proteins (e.g., cytochrome c (cyt-c), myoglobin (MYO), ?-lactoglobulin (?-LG), and bovine serum albumin (BSA)) used can be digested in 45 s under microwave radiation, and they can be confidently identified by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis; even the concentration of substrate is as low as 5 ng ?L(-1). Furthermore, the system for the 45 s microwave-assisted tryptic digestion is still effective after the trypsin-immobilized microspheres have been reused for 5 times. Importantly, 1715 unique proteins from 10 ?g mouse brain proteins can be identified with high confidence after treatment of 45 s microwave-assisted tryptic digestion. PMID:24491766

Cheng, Gong; Chen, Ping; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Sui, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Ni, Jia-Zuan



A metabolomic and systems biology perspective on the brain of the fragile X syndrome mouse model.  


Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the first cause of inherited intellectual disability, due to the silencing of the X-linked Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 gene encoding the RNA-binding protein FMRP. While extensive studies have focused on the cellular and molecular basis of FXS, neither human Fragile X patients nor the mouse model of FXS--the Fmr1-null mouse--have been profiled systematically at the metabolic and neurochemical level to provide a complementary perspective on the current, yet scattered, knowledge of FXS. Using proton high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H HR-MAS NMR)-based metabolic profiling, we have identified a metabolic signature and biomarkers associated with FXS in various brain regions of Fmr1-deficient mice. Our study highlights for the first time that Fmr1 gene inactivation has profound, albeit coordinated consequences in brain metabolism leading to alterations in: (1) neurotransmitter levels, (2) osmoregulation, (3) energy metabolism, and (4) oxidative stress response. To functionally connect Fmr1-deficiency to its metabolic biomarkers, we derived a functional interaction network based on the existing knowledge (literature and databases) and show that the FXS metabolic response is initiated by distinct mRNA targets and proteins interacting with FMRP, and then relayed by numerous regulatory proteins. This novel "integrated metabolome and interactome mapping" (iMIM) approach advantageously unifies novel metabolic findings with previously unrelated knowledge and highlights the contribution of novel cellular pathways to the pathophysiology of FXS. These metabolomic and integrative systems biology strategies will contribute to the development of potential drug targets and novel therapeutic interventions, which will eventually benefit FXS patients. PMID:21900387

Davidovic, Laetitia; Navratil, Vincent; Bonaccorso, Carmela M; Catania, Maria Vincenza; Bardoni, Barbara; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel



Single-neuron diversity generated by Protocadherin-? cluster in mouse central and peripheral nervous systems  

PubMed Central

The generation of complex neural circuits depends on the correct wiring of neurons with diverse individual characteristics. To understand the complexity of the nervous system, the molecular mechanisms for specifying the identity and diversity of individual neurons must be elucidated. The clustered protocadherins (Pcdh) in mammals consist of approximately 50 Pcdh genes (Pcdh-?, Pcdh-?, and Pcdh-?) that encode cadherin-family cell surface adhesion proteins. Individual neurons express a random combination of Pcdh-? and Pcdh-?, whereas the expression patterns for the Pcdh-? genes, 22 one-exon genes in mouse, are not fully understood. Here we show that the Pcdh-? genes are expressed in a 3?-polyadenylated form in mouse brain. In situ hybridization using a pan-Pcdh-? probe against a conserved Pcdh-? sequence showed widespread labeling in the brain, with prominent signals in the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and cerebellum. In situ hybridization with specific probes for individual Pcdh-? genes showed their expression to be scattered in Purkinje cells from P10 to P150. The scattered expression patterns were confirmed by performing a newly developed single-cell 3?-RACE analysis of Purkinje cells, which clearly demonstrated that the Pcdh-? genes are expressed monoallelically and combinatorially in individual Purkinje cells. Scattered expression patterns of individual Pcdh-? genes were also observed in pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, neurons in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglion, GABAergic interneurons, and cholinergic neurons. Our results extend previous observations of diversity at the single-neuron level generated by Pcdh expression and suggest that the Pcdh-? cluster genes contribute to specifying the identity and diversity of individual neurons. PMID:22969705

Hirano, Keizo; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Izawa, Takeshi; Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Yagi, Takeshi



SUCCESS STORY DIGEST Success Story Digest  

E-print Network

NIH LRP SUCCESS STORY DIGEST Success Story Digest In the profiles below, researchers describe how student loan debt was more than $275,000, and because the program is so competitive, I applied to the Loan Repayment Programs three times before receiving the award. With each new application, I had to make

Rau, Don C.


A novel transgenic chimaeric mouse system for the rapid functional evaluation of genes encoding secreted proteins  

PubMed Central

A major challenge of the post-genomic era is the functional characterization of anonymous open reading frames (ORFs) identified by the Human Genome Project. In this context, there is a strong requirement for the development of technologies that enhance our ability to analyze gene functions at the level of the whole organism. Here, we describe a rapid and efficient procedure to generate transgenic chimaeric mice that continuously secrete a foreign protein into the systemic circulation. The transgene units were inserted into the genomic site adjacent to the endogenous immunoglobulin (Ig) ? locus by homologous recombination, using a modified mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell line that exhibits a high frequency of homologous recombination at the Ig? region. The resultant ES clones were injected into embryos derived from a B-cell-deficient host strain, thus producing chimaerism-independent, B-cell-specific transgene expression. This feature of the system eliminates the time-consuming breeding typically implemented in standard transgenic strategies and allows for evaluating the effect of ectopic transgene expression directly in the resulting chimaeric mice. To demonstrate the utility of this system we showed high-level protein expression in the sera and severe phenotypes in human EPO (hEPO) and murine thrombopoietin (mTPO) transgenic chimaeras. PMID:15914664

Kakitani, Makoto; Oshima, Takeshi; Horikoshi, Kaori; Yoshitome, Tetsuo; Ueda, Akiko; Kajikawa, Miwa; Iba, Yumi; Ozone, Yoshinao; Ijima, Yuki; Yoshino, Tohko; Itoh, Mikiko; Seki, Sachiko; Aoki, Ayako; Ishihara, Toshie; Shionoya, Michiyo; Makino, Utako; Kitada, Rina; Ohguma, Atsuko; Ohta, Takami; Yoshida, Yoshimasa; Kudoh, Hiroe; Hanaoka, Kazunori; Sibuya, Kazunori; Ishida, Isao; Kakeda, Minoru; Yagi, Mikio; Yoneya, Takashi; Tomizuka, Kazuma



Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of the sea hare, Aplysia kurodai: Unique properties of two ?-amylases and two ?-glucosidases.  


Sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa) is a nuisance species of green algae that is found all over the world. East-Asian species of the marine gastropod, the sea hare Aplysia kurodai, shows a clear feeding preference for sea lettuce. Compared with cellulose, sea lettuce contains a higher amount of starch as a storage polysaccharide. However, the entire amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai has not been studied in detail. We purified ?-amylases and ?-glucosidases from the digestive fluid of A. kurodai and investigated the synergistic action of these enzymes on sea lettuce. A. kurodai contain two ?-amylases (59 and 80 kDa) and two ?-glucosidases (74 and 86 kDa). The 59-kDa ?-amylase, but not the 80-kDa ?-amylase, was markedly activated by Ca(2+) or Cl(-). Both ?-amylases degraded starch and maltoheptaose, producing maltotriose, maltose, and glucose. Glucose production from starch was higher with 80-kDa ?-amylase than with 59-kDa ?-amylase. Kinetic analysis indicated that 74-kDa ?-glucosidase prefers short ?-1,4-linked oligosaccharide, whereas 86-kDa ?-glucosidase prefers large ?-1,6 and ?-1,4-linked polysaccharides such as glycogen. When sea lettuce was used as a substrate, a 2-fold greater amount of glucose was released by treatment with 59-kDa ?-amylase and 74-kDa ?-glucosidase than by treatment with 45-kDa cellulase and 210-kDa ?-glucosidase of A. kurodai. Unlike mammals, sea hares efficiently digest sea lettuce to glucose by a combination of two ?-amylases and two ?-glucosidases in the digestive fluids without membrane-bound maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase complexes. PMID:25161866

Tsuji, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Ohshima, Miki; Maniwa, Saori; Kuwamura, Shuji; Shiraishi, Masataka; Yuasa, Keizo



Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of the sea hare, Aplysia kurodai: Unique properties of two ?-amylases and two ?-glucosidases  

PubMed Central

Sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa) is a nuisance species of green algae that is found all over the world. East-Asian species of the marine gastropod, the sea hare Aplysia kurodai, shows a clear feeding preference for sea lettuce. Compared with cellulose, sea lettuce contains a higher amount of starch as a storage polysaccharide. However, the entire amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai has not been studied in detail. We purified ?-amylases and ?-glucosidases from the digestive fluid of A. kurodai and investigated the synergistic action of these enzymes on sea lettuce. A. kurodai contain two ?-amylases (59 and 80 kDa) and two ?-glucosidases (74 and 86 kDa). The 59-kDa ?-amylase, but not the 80-kDa ?-amylase, was markedly activated by Ca2+ or Cl?. Both ?-amylases degraded starch and maltoheptaose, producing maltotriose, maltose, and glucose. Glucose production from starch was higher with 80-kDa ?-amylase than with 59-kDa ?-amylase. Kinetic analysis indicated that 74-kDa ?-glucosidase prefers short ?-1,4-linked oligosaccharide, whereas 86-kDa ?-glucosidase prefers large ?-1,6 and ?-1,4-linked polysaccharides such as glycogen. When sea lettuce was used as a substrate, a 2-fold greater amount of glucose was released by treatment with 59-kDa ?-amylase and 74-kDa ?-glucosidase than by treatment with 45-kDa cellulase and 210-kDa ?-glucosidase of A. kurodai. Unlike mammals, sea hares efficiently digest sea lettuce to glucose by a combination of two ?-amylases and two ?-glucosidases in the digestive fluids without membrane-bound maltase–glucoamylase and sucrase–isomaltase complexes. PMID:25161866

Tsuji, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Ohshima, Miki; Maniwa, Saori; Kuwamura, Shuji; Shiraishi, Masataka; Yuasa, Keizo



Video Games: Research, Ratings, Recommendations. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The Digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders played at least one…

Cesarone, Bernard


A Throughput-Optimized Array System for Multiple-Mouse MRI  

PubMed Central

MRI is a versatile tool for systematically assessing anatomical and functional changes in small animal models of human disease. Its noninvasive nature makes MRI an ideal candidate for longitudinal evaluations of disease progression, but relatively long scan times limit the number of observations that can be made in a given interval of time, imposing restrictions on experiment design and potentially compromising statistical power. Methods that reduce the overall time that is required to scan multiple cohorts of animals in distinct experimental groups are therefore highly desirable. Multiple-mouse MRI, in which several animals are simultaneously scanned in a common MRI system, has been successfully used to improve study throughput. However, to best utilize the next generation of small-animal MRI systems that will be equipped with an increased number of receive channels, a paradigm shift from simultaneously scanning as many animals as possible to scanning a more manageable number, at a faster rate, must be considered. This work explores the tradeoffs between the number of animals to scan at once and the number of array elements dedicated to each animal, to maximize throughput in systems with 16 receive channels. An array system consisting of 15 receive and five transmit coils allows acceleration by a combination of multi-animal and parallel imaging techniques. The array system was designed and fabricated for use on a 7.0-T/30-cm Bruker Biospec MRI system, and tested for high-throughput imaging performance in phantoms and live mice. Results indicate that up to a ninefold throughput improvement of a single sequence is possible compared to an unaccelerated single-animal acquisition. True data throughput of a contrast-enhanced anatomical study is estimated to be improved by just over six-fold. PMID:22887122

Ramirez, Marc S.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Bankson, James A.



Growth Arrest Specific 1 (GAS1) Is Abundantly Expressed in the Adult Mouse Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Growth arrest specific 1 (GAS1) is a pleiotropic protein that induces apoptosis and cell arrest in different tumors, but it is also involved in the development of the nervous system and other tissues and organs. This dual ability is likely caused by its capacity to interact both by inhibiting the intracellular signaling cascade induced by glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor and by facilitating the activity of the sonic hedgehog pathway. The presence of GAS1 mRNA has been described in adult mouse brain, and here we corroborated this observation. We then proceeded to determine the distribution of the protein in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We detected, by western blot analysis, expression of GAS1 in olfactory bulb, caudate-putamen, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, mesencephalon, medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and cervical spinal cord. To more carefully map the expression of GAS1, we performed double-label immunohistochemistry and noticed expression of GAS1 in neurons in all brain areas examined. We also observed expression of GAS1 in astroglial cells, albeit the pattern of expression was more restricted than that seen in neurons. Briefly, in the present article, we report the widespread distribution and cellular localization of the GAS1 native protein in adult mammalian CNS. PMID:23813868

Zarco, Natanael; Bautista, Elizabeth; Cuellar, Manola; Vergara, Paula; Flores-Rodriguez, Paola; Aguilar-Roblero, Raul



Rapid generation of mouse models with defined point mutations by the CRISPR/Cas9 system  

PubMed Central

Introducing a point mutation is a fundamental method used to demonstrate the roles of particular nucleotides or amino acids in the genetic elements or proteins, and is widely used in in vitro experiments based on cultured cells and exogenously provided DNA. However, the in vivo application of this approach by modifying genomic loci is uncommon, partly due to its technical and temporal demands. This leaves many in vitro findings un-validated under in vivo conditions. We herein applied the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate mice with point mutations in their genomes, which led to single amino acid substitutions in proteins of interest. By microinjecting gRNA, hCas9 mRNA and single-stranded donor oligonucleotides (ssODN) into mouse zygotes, we introduced defined genomic modifications in their genome with a low cost and in a short time. Both single gRNA/WT hCas9 and double nicking set-ups were effective. We also found that the distance between the modification site and gRNA target site was a significant parameter affecting the efficiency of the substitution. We believe that this is a powerful technique that can be used to examine the relevance of in vitro findings, as well as the mutations found in patients with genetic disorders, in an in vivo system. PMID:24953798

Inui, Masafumi; Miyado, Mami; Igarashi, Maki; Tamano, Moe; Kubo, Atsushi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Asahara, Hiroshi; Fukami, Maki; Takada, Shuji



The natural organosulfur compound dipropyltetrasulfide prevents HOCl-induced systemic sclerosis in the mouse  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study was to test the naturally occurring organosulfur compound dipropyltetrasulfide (DPTTS), found in plants, which has antibiotic and anticancer properties, as a treatment for HOCl-induced systemic sclerosis in the mouse. Methods The prooxidative, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic effects of DPTTS were evaluated ex vivo on fibroblasts from normal and HOCl mice. In vivo, the antifibrotic and immunomodulating properties of DPTTS were evaluated in the skin and lungs of HOCl mice. Results H2O2 production was higher in fibroblasts derived from HOCl mice than in normal fibroblasts (P?mouse through the selective killing of diseased fibroblasts and its immunomodulating properties. DPTTS may be a potential treatment for systemic sclerosis. PMID:24286210



Carbohydrate digestion in Penaeus monodon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using crude homogenates from the digestive system of pond-cultured Penaeus monodon, carbohydrase activity was demonstrated toward a wide variety of substrates differing in sources and complexity. The largest concentration of this activity was found to be localised within the midgut gland. Multiple pH optima for the hydrolysis of starch suggested the presence of more than one amylase, which was confirmed

J. M. Wigglesworth; D. R. W. Griffith



Interactions between cellulose ethers and a bile salt in the control of lipid digestion of lipid-based systems.  


In order to gain new insights into the potential of specific dietary fibres to control lipid digestion, the goal of this work is to study the main interactions between commercial cellulose ethers, as dietary fibre, and a bile salt, as an important duodenal component present during the digestibility of lipids. These interactions have been evaluated in two different scenarios found for an oil-in-water emulsion on its transit through the duodenum. Namely, interactions in the continuous phase and competitive adsorption at the oil-water interface have been looked at by means of micro-differential scanning calorimetry (micro-DSC) and interfacial tension (IT). Micro-DSC revealed that the presence of the bile salt affects the thermogelation process of cellulose derivatives, suggesting binding to cellulose ethers. The effect on thermogelation seems to be cellulose type-dependent. IT measurements proved the ability of cellulose ethers to compete for the oil-water interface in the presence of the bile salt. Interactions in the bulk might have an impact on this interfacial scenario. These findings may have implications in the digestion of emulsified lipids, hence providing a springboard to develop new cellulose-based food products with improved functional properties. PMID:25256458

Torcello-Gómez, Amelia; Foster, Timothy J



The organic osmolytes betaine and proline are transported by a shared system in early preimplantation mouse embryos.  


Betaine and proline protect preimplantation mouse embryos against increased osmolarity and decreased cell volume, implying that they may function as organic osmolytes. However, the transport system(s) that mediates their accumulation in fertilized eggs and early embryos was unknown, and previously identified mammalian organic osmolyte transporters could not account for their transport. Here, we report that there is a single saturable transport component shared by betaine and proline in 1-cell mouse embryos. A series of inhibitors had nearly identical effects on both betaine and proline transport by this system. In addition, K(i) values for reciprocal inhibition of betaine and proline transport were approximately 100-300 microM, similar to K(m) values ( approximately 200-300 microM) for their transport, and both had similar maximal transport rates (V(max)). The K(i) values for inhibition of betaine and proline transport by dimethylglycine were similar ( approximately 2 mM), further supporting transport of both substrates by a single transport system. Finally, betaine and proline transport each required Na(+)- and Cl(-). These data were consistent with a single, Na(+)- and Cl(-)-requiring, betaine/proline transport system in 1-cell mouse embryos. While betaine was only transported by a single saturable system, we found an additional, less conspicuous proline transport route that was betaine-insensitive, Na(+)-sensitive, and inhibited by alanine, leucine, cysteine, and methionine. Furthermore, we showed that betaine, like proline, is present in the mouse oviduct and thus could serve as a physiological substrate. Finally, accumulation of both betaine and proline increased with increasing osmolarity, consistent with a possible role as organic osmolytes in early embryos. PMID:17044075

Anas, Mohamed-Kheir Idris; Hammer, Mary-Anne; Lever, Michael; Stanton, Jo-Ann L; Baltz, Jay M



Sulfated glycosaminoglycan-assisted receptor specificity of human fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 signaling in a mouse system is different from that in a human system.  


The endocrine action of human (h) intestine-derived fibroblast growth factor 19 (hFGF19) toward liver cells necessitates a highly specific recognition system. We previously reported that at physiological concentrations (~30 pM), hFGF19 requires sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) for its signaling via human FGF receptor 4 (hFGFR4) in the presence of a co-receptor, human ?Klotho (hKLB), thus establishing specific targeting. Here we report that the specificity of hFGF19 signaling is greatly altered in a mouse model system. In in vitro cellular systems, at concentrations achievable in transgenic animals and in pharmacologic animal experiments (1-100 nM), hFGF19 activates mouse (m)FGFR1c, mFGFR2c, and mFGFR3c but not mFGFR4 in the presence of mKLB and nonheparin authentic sGAGs. Furthermore, in the presence of hepatic sGAGs or heparin, nanomolar hFGF19 activates mFGFR4, even in the absence of co-expressed mKLB. Taken together, these results indicate that the sGAG-assisted receptor specificity of hFGF19 signaling achieved in experimental mouse systems differs greatly from that in physiological human systems. This suggests the function and mechanism of hFGF19 signaling identified using mouse systems should be reevaluated. PMID:23064887

Nakamura, Masao; Uehara, Yuriko; Asada, Masahiro; Suzuki, Masashi; Imamura, Toru



Guiding the osteogenic fate of mouse and human mesenchymal stem cells through feedback system control.  


Stem cell-based disease modeling presents unique opportunities for mechanistic elucidation and therapeutic targeting. The stable induction of fate-specific differentiation is an essential prerequisite for stem cell-based strategy. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) initiates receptor-regulated Smad phosphorylation, leading to the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) in vitro; however, it requires supra-physiological concentrations, presenting a bottleneck problem for large-scale drug screening. Here, we report the use of a double-objective feedback system control (FSC) with a differential evolution (DE) algorithm to identify osteogenic cocktails of extrinsic factors. Cocktails containing significantly reduced doses of BMP-2 in combination with physiologically relevant doses of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate, heparin, retinoic acid and vitamin D achieved accelerated in vitro mineralization of mouse and human MSC. These results provide insight into constructive approaches of FSC to determine the applicable functional and physiological environment for MSC in disease modeling, drug screening and tissue engineering. PMID:24305548

Honda, Yoshitomo; Ding, Xianting; Mussano, Federico; Wiberg, Akira; Ho, Chih-Ming; Nishimura, Ichiro



Quantification, Distribution, and Possible Source of Bacterial Biofilm in Mouse Automated Watering Systems  

PubMed Central

The use of automated watering systems for providing drinking water to rodents has become commonplace in the research setting. Little is known regarding bacterial biofilm growth within the water piping attached to the racks (manifolds). The purposes of this project were to determine whether the mouse oral flora contributed to the aerobic bacterial component of the rack biofilm, quantify bacterial growth in rack manifolds over 6 mo, assess our rack sanitation practices, and quantify bacterial biofilm development within sections of the manifold. By using standard methods of bacterial identification, the aerobic oral flora of 8 strains and stocks of mice were determined on their arrival at our animal facility. Ten rack manifolds were sampled before, during, and after sanitation and monthly for 6 mo. Manifolds were evaluated for aerobic bacterial growth by culture on R2A and trypticase soy agar, in addition to bacterial ATP quantification by bioluminescence. In addition, 6 racks were sampled at 32 accessible sites for evaluation of biofilm distribution within the watering manifold. The identified aerobic bacteria in the oral flora were inconsistent with the bacteria from the manifold, suggesting that the mice do not contribute to the biofilm bacteria. Bacterial growth in manifolds increased while they were in service, with exponential growth of the biofilm from months 3 to 6 and a significant decrease after sanitization. Bacterial biofilm distribution was not significantly different across location quartiles of the rack manifold, but bacterial levels differed between the shelf pipe and connecting elbow pipes. PMID:18351724

Meier, Thomas R; Maute, Carrie J; Cadillac, Joan M; Lee, Ji Young; Righter, Daniel J; Hugunin, Kelly MS; Deininger, Rolf A; Dysko, Robert C



Central CRF System Perturbation in an Alzheimer's Disease Knock-in Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is often accompanied by changes in mood as well as increases in circulating cortisol levels, suggesting that regulation of the stress responsive Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is disturbed. Here, we show that APP is endogenously expressed in important limbic, hypothalamic, and midbrain nuclei that regulate HPA axis activity. Furthermore, in a knock-in mouse model of AD that expresses familial AD (FAD) mutations of both APP with humanized A?, and PS1, in their endogenous patterns (APP/hA?/PS1 animals), Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) levels are increased in key stress-related nuclei, resting corticosteroid levels are elevated and animals display increased anxiety-related behavior. Endocrine and behavioral phenotypes can be normalized by loss of one copy of Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor type-1 (Crfr1), consistent with a perturbation of central CRF signaling in APP/hA?/PS1 animals. However, reductions in anxiety and corticosteroid levels conferred by hemizygosity of Crfr1 do not improve a deficit in working memory observed in APP/hA?/PS1 mice, suggesting that perturbations of the CRF system are not the primary cause of decreased cognitive performance. PMID:22336193

Guo, Qinxi; Zheng, Hui; Justice, Nicholas John



Peripheral immune system and neuroimmune communication impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.  


Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be understood in the context of the aging of neuroimmune communication. Although the contribution to AD of the immune cells present in the brain is accepted, the role of the peripheral immune system is less well known. The present review examines the behavior and the function and redox state of peripheral immune cells in a triple-transgenic mouse model (3×Tg-AD). These animals develop both beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles with a temporal- and regional-specific profile that closely mimics their development in the human AD brain. We have observed age and sex-related changes in several aspects of behavior and immune cell functions, which demonstrate premature aging. Lifestyle strategies such as physical exercise and environmental enrichment can improve these aspects. We propose that the analysis of the function and redox state of peripheral immune cells can be a useful tool for measuring the progression of AD. PMID:22823438

Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Maté, Ianire; Manassra, Rashed; Vida, Carmen; De la Fuente, Mónica



Guiding the osteogenic fate of mouse and human mesenchymal stem cells through feedback system control  

PubMed Central

Stem cell-based disease modeling presents unique opportunities for mechanistic elucidation and therapeutic targeting. The stable induction of fate-specific differentiation is an essential prerequisite for stem cell-based strategy. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) initiates receptor-regulated Smad phosphorylation, leading to the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) in vitro; however, it requires supra-physiological concentrations, presenting a bottleneck problem for large-scale drug screening. Here, we report the use of a double-objective feedback system control (FSC) with a differential evolution (DE) algorithm to identify osteogenic cocktails of extrinsic factors. Cocktails containing significantly reduced doses of BMP-2 in combination with physiologically relevant doses of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate, heparin, retinoic acid and vitamin D achieved accelerated in vitro mineralization of mouse and human MSC. These results provide insight into constructive approaches of FSC to determine the applicable functional and physiological environment for MSC in disease modeling, drug screening and tissue engineering. PMID:24305548

Honda, Yoshitomo; Ding, Xianting; Mussano, Federico; Wiberg, Akira; Ho, Chih-ming; Nishimura, Ichiro



Renin-angiotensin system regulates neurodegeneration in a mouse model of normal tension glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Glaucoma, one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness, is characterized by progressive degeneration of optic nerves and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In the mammalian retina, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is expressed in neural cells, including RGCs, and the loss of EAAC1 leads to RGC degeneration without elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). In the present study, we found that expressions of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are increased in RGCs and retinal Müller glia in EAAC1-deficient (KO) mice. The orally active AT1-R antagonist candesartan suppressed TLR4 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions in the EAAC1 KO mouse retina. Sequential in vivo retinal imaging and electrophysiological analysis revealed that treatment with candesartan was effective for RGC protection in EAAC1 KO mice without affecting IOP. In cultured Müller glia, candesartan suppressed LPS-induced iNOS production by inhibiting the TLR4-apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 pathway. These results suggest that the renin–angiotensin system is involved in the innate immune responses in both neural and glial cells, which accelerate neural cell death. Our findings raise intriguing possibilities for the management of glaucoma by utilizing widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of high blood pressure, in combination with conventional treatments to lower IOP. PMID:25032856

Semba, K; Namekata, K; Guo, X; Harada, C; Harada, T; Mitamura, Y



Human monoclonal antibodies specific to hepatitis B virus generated in a human/mouse radiation chimera: the Trimera system.  

PubMed Central

An approach to develop fully human monoclonal antibodies in a human/mouse radiation chimera, the Trimera system, is described. In this system, functional human lymphocytes are engrafted in normal strains of mice which are rendered immuno-incompetent by lethal total body irradiation followed by radioprotection with severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse bone marrow. Following transplantation, human lymphocytes colonize murine lymphatic organs and secrete human immunoglobulins. We have established this system as a tool to develop fully human monoclonal antibodies, and applied it for the generation of monoclonal antibodies specific for hepatitis B virus surface antigen. A strong memory response to hepatitis B surface antigen was elicited in Trimera engrafted with lymphocytes from human donors positive for antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen. The human specific antibody fraction in the Trimera was 10(2)-10(3)-fold higher as compared with that found in the donors. Spleens were harvested from Trimera mice showing high specific-antibody titres and cells were fused to a human-mouse heteromyeloma fusion partner. Several stable hybridoma clones were isolated and characterized. These hybridomas produce high-affinity, IgG, anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibodies demonstrating the potential of the Trimera system for generating fully human monoclonal antibodies. The biological function and the neutralizing activity of these antibodies are currently being tested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9616363

Eren, R; Lubin, I; Terkieltaub, D; Ben-Moshe, O; Zauberman, A; Uhlmann, R; Tzahor, T; Moss, S; Ilan, E; Shouval, D; Galun, E; Daudi, N; Marcus, H; Reisner, Y; Dagan, S



Effects of steam-treated rice straw feeding on growth, digestibility, and plasma volatile fatty acids of goats under different housing systems.  


In order to use rice straw as forage in livestock feeding, the effects of steam-treated rice straw (at 15.5 kgf/cm(2) for 120 s) feeding on growth performance, plasma volatile fatty acid profile, and nutrient digestibility of goats were determined. Twenty male goats (18.69?±?0.34 kg) were used in an 84-day trial. The goats were divided into four groups of five goats each to receive steam-treated (STRS) or untreated (UTRS) rice straw diet under closed house (CH) and open house (OH) systems. The results revealed that the goats fed with STRS had significantly higher dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility; similarly, the average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were higher for STRS groups under both CH and OH systems than those for UTRS. The plasma protein and insulin in STRS and cholesterol in UTRS groups was higher (P??0.05) at 30 days. The plasma amylase, lipase, T3, T4 and glucagon at 30 and 60 days were not different (P?>?0.05) among the groups. The plasma acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total volatile fatty acid were higher (P??0.05) on these parameters. It could be concluded that steam treatment of rice straw at 15.5 kgf/cm(2) for 120 s increased apparent nutrient digestibility, hence increased the growth and feed efficiency of growing goats. PMID:25277493

Muhammad, Naeem; Nasir, Rajput; Li, Dong; Lili, Zhang; Tian, Wang



Demonstration of nutrient pathway from the digestive system to oocytes in the gonad intestinal loop of the scallop Pecten maximus L.  


The mechanism of nutrient transfer from the digestive system to the gonad acini and developing oocytes was investigated in the gonad-intestinal loop system of the queen scallop Pecten maximus L. Ferritin was injected directly into the purged intestine of specimens from the wild. Subsequently, a histochemical reaction and transmission electron microscopy were used to localize ferritin in various cell types. Ferritin was rapidly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium, and then appeared in hemocytes in the surrounding connective tissue. In the hemocytes, ferritin was stored in variously sized inclusions, as well as in the general cytoplasm. In all sections examined for the 12 experimental individuals, hemocytes were always found in association with connective tissue fibers extending from the base of the intestinal epithelium to gonad acini. After 30-min incubation, ferritin appeared inside the acini of all individuals. Ferritin-bearing cells were rarely found in association with male acini or gametes, nor with mature female gametes, but often with developing female gametes. Not all individuals showed the same temporal dynamics of ferritin transport, suggesting that nutrient transfer to oocytes is either not a continuous process, or that among individuals, transfer is not synchronized on short time scales. This is the first demonstration of a pathway of nutrient transfer from the intestine, and more generally the digestive system, to developing oocytes in the Bivalvia. PMID:12917225

Beninger, Peter G; Le Pennec, Gaël; Le Pennec, Marcel



Characteristic development of the GABA-removal system in the mouse spinal cord.  


GABA is a predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Released GABA is removed from the synaptic cleft by two GABA transporters (GATs), GAT-1 and GAT-3, and their dysfunction affects brain functions. The present study aimed to reveal the ontogeny of the GABA-removal system by examining the immunohistochemical localization of GAT-1 and GAT-3 in the embryonic and postnatal mouse cervical spinal cord. In the dorsal horn, GAT-1 was localized within the presynapses of inhibitory axons after embryonic day 15 (E15), a little prior to GABAergic synapse formation. The GAT-1-positive dots increased in density until postnatal day 21 (P21). By contrast, in the ventral horn, GAT-1-positive dots were sparse during development, although many transient GABAergic synapses were formed before birth. GAT-3 was first localized within the radial processes of radial glia in the ventral part on E12 and the dorsal part on E15. The initial localization of the GAT-3 was almost concomitant with the dispersal of GABAergic neurons. GAT-3 continued to be localized within the processes of astrocytes, and increased in expression until P21. These results suggested the following: (1) before synapse formation, GABA may be transported into the processes of radial glia or immature astrocytes by GAT-3. (2) At the transient GABAergic synapses in the ventral horn, GABA may not be reuptaken into the presynapses. (3) In the dorsal horn, GABA may start to be reuptaken by GAT-1 a little prior to synapse formation. (4) After synapse formation, GAT-3 may continue to remove GABA from immature and mature synaptic clefts into the processes of astrocytes. (5) Development of the GABA-removal system may be completed by P21. PMID:24412234

Kim, J; Kosaka, Y; Shimizu-Okabe, C; Niizaki, A; Takayama, C



Digestion rate of dietary starch affects the systemic circulation of lipid profiles and lipid metabolism-related gene expression in weaned pigs.  


The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of digestion rate of dietary starch on postprandial systemic circulating glucose, insulin and lipid profiles, and the activity and gene expression of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in weaned pigs. A total of twenty-four weaned pigs, surgically fitted with a catheter in the jugular vein, were randomly assigned to three dietary treatment groups, representing the high digestion rate starch (HDRS) group, the moderate-digestion rate starch (MDRS) group and the low-digestion rate starch (LDRS) group. The amylopectin:amylose ratios in the diets of each group were 27·6:1, 27·6:8·5 and 1:27·6, respectively. The serum concentrations of glucose, TAG, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in the HDRS group were increased to the peak point at postprandial 1·5, 2·5, 2·5, 1·5 and 1·5 h, those in the MDRS group were at postprandial 2·5, 3·5, 3·5, 3·5 and 3·5 h and those in the LDRS group were at postprandial 2·5, 3·5, 3·5, 1·5 and 3·5 h, respectively. The serum concentration of insulin in the HDRS group was higher (P < 0·05) than those in the MDRS group, and those in the MDRS group was also higher (P < 0·05) than those in the LDRS group at postprandial 0·5, 1·5 and 2·5 h, respectively. The serum concentrations of acetate, propionate and butyrate in the HDRS group were higher (P < 0·05) than those in the MDRS group, and those in the MDRS group were higher (P < 0·05) than in the LDRS group in each feeding cycle, in turn, respectively. The activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the liver and abdominal adipose tissues, that of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) in the myocardium and interscapular brown adipose tissues and that of the ATP-citrate lyase (ATP-CL) in the liver and interscapular brown adipose tissues in pigs of the HDRS group were higher (P < 0·05) than that of the MDRS group. The mRNA levels of FAS in the myocardium, liver and interscapular brown adipose tissues of pigs in the HDRS group were higher (P < 0·05) than those of the MDRS group. The activities and mRNA levels of FAS, ACC and ATP-CL in the myocardium, liver, abdominal and interscapular brown adipose tissues of the HDRS group were higher than those of the LDRS group. We conclude that the digestion rate of dietary starch affected not only the postprandial systemic circulating levels of glucose and insulin but also the lipid metabolism in weaned pigs. Dietary starch with higher digestion rate produces higher blood glucose and insulin response, ameliorates the blood lipid profiles and up-regulates the activity and gene expression profile of lipid metabolism-related genes in weaned pigs. PMID:21342605

Yin, Fugui; Yin, Yulong; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Xie, Mingyong; Huang, Ju; Huang, Ruilin; Li, Tiejun



Neuroanatomical Assessment of the Integrin ?3 Mouse Model Related to Autism and the Serotonin System Using High Resolution MRI  

PubMed Central

The integrin?3 (ITG?3) gene has been associated with both autism and the serotonin system. The purpose of this study was to examine the volumetric differences in the brain of an ITG?3 homozygous knockout mouse model compared with a corresponding wild-type mouse using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and detailed statistical analyses. The most striking difference found was an 11% reduction in total brain volume. Moreover, 32 different regions were found to have significantly different relative volumes (percentage total brain volume) in the ITG?3 mouse. A number of interesting differences relevant to autism were discovered including a smaller corpus callosum volume and bilateral decreases in the hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum. Relative volume increases were also found in the frontal and parieto-temporal lobes as well as in the amygdala. Particularly intriguing were the changes in the lateral wings of the dorsal raphe nuclei since that nucleus is so integral to the development of many different brain regions and the serotonin system in general. PMID:22557981

Ellegood, Jacob; Henkelman, R. Mark; Lerch, Jason P.



TRAIL Mediates Liver Injury by the Innate Immune System in the Bile Duct-Ligated Mouse  

PubMed Central

The contribution of tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a death ligand expressed by cells of the innate immune system, to cholestatic liver injury has not been explored. Our aim was to ascertain if TRAIL contributes to liver injury in the bile duct–ligated (BDL) mouse. C57/BL6 wild-type (wt), TRAIL heterozygote (TRAIL+/?), and TRAIL knockout (TRAIL?/?) mice were used for these studies. Liver injury and fibrosis were examined 7 and 14 days after BDL, respectively. Hepatic TRAIL messenger RNA(mRNA) was 6-fold greater in BDL animals versus sham-operated wt animals (P < 0.01). The increased hepatic TRAIL expression was accompanied by an increase in liver accumulation of natural killer 1.1 (NK 1.1)–positive NK and natural killer T (NKT) cells, the predominant cell types expressing TRAIL. Depletion of NK 1.1–positive cells reduced hepatic TRAIL mRNA expression and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values. Consistent with a role for NK/NKT cells in this model of liver injury, stress ligands necessary for their recognition of target cells were also up-regulated in hepatocytes following BDL. Compared to sham-operated wt mice, BDL mice displayed a 13-fold increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and an 11-fold increase in caspase 3/7–positive hepatocytes (P < 0.01). The number of TUNEL and caspase 3/7–positive cells was reduced by >80% in BDL TRAIL knockout animals (P < 0.05). Likewise, liver histology, number of bile infarcts, serum ALT values, hepatic fibrosis, and animal survival were also improved in BDL TRAIL?/? animals as compared to wt animals. Conclusion These observations support a pivotal role for TRAIL in cholestatic liver injury mediated by NK 1.1–positive NK/NKT cells. PMID:18220275

Kahraman, Alisan; Barreyro, Fernando J.; Bronk, Steven F.; Werneburg, Nathan W.; Mott, Justin L.; Akazawa, Yuko; Masuoka, Howard C.; Howe, Charles L.; Gores, Gregory J.



Gene Expression in Mouse Ovarian Follicle Development In Vivo versus an Ex Vivo Alginate Culture System  

PubMed Central

Ovarian follicle maturation results from a complex interplay of endocrine, paracrine, and direct cell-cell interactions. This study compared the dynamic expression of key developmental genes during folliculogenesis in vivo and during in vitro culture in a three-dimensional alginate hydrogel system. Candidate gene expression profiles were measured within mouse two-layered secondary follicles (2LS), multi-layered secondary follicles (MLS), and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). The expression of 20 genes involved in endocrine communication, growth signaling, and oocyte development was investigated by real-time PCR. Gene product levels were compared between i) follicles of similar stage and ii) COCs derived either in vivo or by in vitro culture. For follicles cultured for 4 days, the expression pattern and the expression level of 12 genes was the same in vivo and in vitro. Some endocrine (Cyp19a1, Inh?a) and growth related genes (Bmp15, Kitl, Tgf?r2) were down-regulated relative to in vivo follicles. For COCs obtained from cultured follicles, endocrine related genes (Inh? and Inh?a) had increased expression relative to in vivo counterparts, whereas growth related genes (Bmp15, Gdf9, Kit) and zona pellucida genes were decreased. However, most of the oocyte specific genes (e.g., Figl?, Jag1, Mater) were expressed in vitro at the same level and with the same pattern as in vivo-derived follicles. These studies establish the similarities and differences between in vivo and in vitro cultured follicles, guiding the creation of environments that maximize follicle development and oocyte quality. PMID:21610168

Parrish, Elizabeth M.; Siletz, Anaar; Xu, Min; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Shea, Lonnie D.



The cerebellum and spatial ability: dissection of motor and cognitive components with a mouse model system.  


The cerebellum has recently been linked to spatial navigation, as indicated by the inferior performance of cerebellar mutant or cerebellar lesioned animals in the water maze. The inability to dissociate motor from cognitive deficits in the impaired water maze performance has been a confounding variable in previous studies, however. In this study, we sought to define clearly the role of the cerebellar system in spatial navigation outside of motor control by creating a mouse model of Purkinje cell loss with intact motor ability, and testing these mice in the water maze. To this end, we made aggregation chimeras between Lc/+ mice, which lose all Purkinje cells postnatally, and +/+ control mice. Lc/+ mice are ataxic and show impaired rotor-rod performance. By contrast, we show that Lc/+ left arrow over right arrow +/+ chimeras above a threshold of Purkinje cell loss show no outward signs of motor impairment and demonstrated normal rotor-rod ability. In the water maze, we found that Lc/+ mice showed impaired performance in the place, cue and platform removal tasks, whereas Lc/+ left arrow over right arrow +/+ chimeras performed similarly to controls in all tasks. We found that the impaired performance in the water maze of Lc/+ mice resulted from both motor as well as cognitive impairment that could be separated from one another by statistical means. In addition, through the analysis of individual chimeric mice, the relationships between these deficits and the total number of Purkinje cells were determined and a specific role for Purkinje cells in search strategy was identified. PMID:14622233

Martin, Loren A; Goldowitz, Dan; Mittleman, Guy



Nanobiocatalysis for protein digestion in proteomic analysis  

PubMed Central

The process of protein digestion is a critical step for successful protein identification in the bottom-up proteomic analysis. To substitute the present practice of in-solution protein digestion, which is long, tedious, and difficult to automate, a lot of efforts have been dedicated for the development of a rapid, recyclable and automated digestion system. Recent advances of nanobiocatalytic approaches have improved the performance of protein digestion by using various nanomaterials such as nanoporous materials, magnetic nanoparticles, and polymer nanofibers. Especially, the unprecedented success of trypsin stabilization in the form of trypsin-coated nanofibers, showing no activity decrease under repeated uses for one year and retaining good resistance to proteolysis, has demonstrated its great potential to be employed in the development of automated, high-throughput, and on-line digestion systems. This review discusses recent developments of nanobiocatalytic approaches for the improved performance of protein digestion in speed, detection sensitivity, recyclability, and trypsin stability. In addition, we also introduce the protein digestions under unconventional energy inputs for protein denaturation and the development of microfluidic enzyme reactors that can benefit from recent successes of these nanobiocatalytic approaches. PMID:19953546

Kim, Jungbae; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Smith, Richard D.



Gene expression of opioid and dopamine systems in mouse striatum: effects of CB 1 receptors, age and sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Endocannabinoid, opioid, and dopamine systems interact to exhibit cannabinoid receptor neuromodulation of opioid peptides\\u000a and D4 dopamine receptor gene expression in CB1-cannabinoid-deficient mouse striatum.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  Using CB1-transgenic mice, we examine primary age–sex influences and interactions on opioid and dopamine system members’ gene expression\\u000a in striatum.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze gene expression of opioid peptides

Tonya M. Gerald; Allyn C. Howlett; Gregg R. Ward; Cheryl Ho; Steven O. Franklin




EPA Science Inventory

The L5178Y/TK t/- TK-/- mouse lymphoma mutagen assay, which allows selection of forward mutations at the autosomal thymidine kinase (TK) locus, uses a TK t/- heterozygous cell line, TK t/- 3.7.2C Quantitation of colonies of mutant TK-/- cells in the assay forms the basis for calc...


Mouse neuropathogenic poliovirus strains cause damage in the central nervous system distinct from poliomyelitis.  


Poliomyelitis as a consequence of poliovirus infection is observed only in primates. Despite a host range restricted to primates, experimental infection of rodents with certain genetically well defined poliovirus strains produces neurological disease. The outcome of infection of mice with mouse-adapted poliovirus strains has been described previously mainly in terms of paralysis and death, and it was generally assumed that these strains produce the same disease syndromes in normal mice and in mice transgenic for the human poliovirus receptor (hPVR-tg mice). We report a comparison of the clinical course and the histopathological features of neurological disease resulting from intracerebral virus inoculation in normal mice with those of murine poliomyelitis in hPVR-tg mice. The consistent pattern of clinical deficits in poliomyelitic transgenic mice contrasted with highly variable neurologic disease that developed in mice infected with different mouse-adapted polioviruses. Histopathological analysis showed a diffuse encephalomyelitis induced by specific poliovirus serotype 2 isolates in normal mice, that affected neuronal cell populations without discrimination, whereas in hPVR-tg animals, damage was restricted to spinal motor neurons. Mouse neurovirulent strains of poliovirus type 2 differed from mouse neurovirulent poliovirus type 1 derivatives in their ability to induce CNS lesions. Our findings indicate that the characteristic clinical appearance and highly specific histopathological features of poliomyelitis are mediated by the hPVR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7476091

Gromeier, M; Lu, H H; Wimmer, E



The IRP/IRE system in vivo: insights from mouse models  

PubMed Central

Iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2) post-transcriptionally control the expression of several mRNAs encoding proteins of iron, oxygen and energy metabolism. The mechanism involves their binding to iron responsive elements (IREs) in the untranslated regions of target mRNAs, thereby controlling mRNA translation or stability. Whereas IRP2 functions solely as an RNA-binding protein, IRP1 operates as either an RNA-binding protein or a cytosolic aconitase. Early experiments in cultured cells established a crucial role of IRPs in regulation of cellular iron metabolism. More recently, studies in mouse models with global or localized Irp1 and/or Irp2 deficiencies uncovered new physiological functions of IRPs in the context of systemic iron homeostasis. Thus, IRP1 emerged as a key regulator of erythropoiesis and iron absorption by controlling hypoxia inducible factor 2? (HIF2?) mRNA translation, while IRP2 appears to dominate the control of iron uptake and heme biosynthesis in erythroid progenitor cells by regulating the expression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2) mRNAs, respectively. Targeted disruption of either Irp1 or Irp2 in mice is associated with distinct phenotypic abnormalities. Thus, Irp1?/? mice develop polycythemia and pulmonary hypertension, while Irp2?/? mice present with microcytic anemia, iron overload in the intestine and the liver, and neurologic defects. Combined disruption of both Irp1 and Irp2 is incombatible with life and leads to early embryonic lethality. Mice with intestinal- or liver-specific disruption of both Irps are viable at birth but die later on due to malabsorption or liver failure, respectively. Adult mice lacking both Irps in the intestine exhibit a profound defect in dietary iron absorption due to a “mucosal block” that is caused by the de-repression of ferritin mRNA translation. Herein, we discuss the physiological function of the IRE/IRP regulatory system. PMID:25120486

Wilkinson, Nicole; Pantopoulos, Kostas



Subcellular localization and function of mouse radial spoke protein 3 in mammalian cells and central nervous system.  


Radial spoke protein 3 (RSP3) was first identified in Chlamydomonas as a component of the radial spoke. The mammalian homologue of the Chlamydomonas RSP3 gene is mainly expressed in testis and developing central nervous system (CNS). However, the subcellular localization and function of mammalian RSP3 in the developing brain and mammalian cells remain poorly understood. Here we show that the mouse RSP3 accumulates at the perinuclear region of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and 293T cells. Detailed analysis shows that the mouse RSP3 is not co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus markers in CHO cells. Using in utero electroporation, we found that over-expression of mammalian RSP3 increases the percentage of neurons reaching the upper cortical plate. In vivo analysis shows that the mouse RSP3 mainly accumulates in the proximal cytoplasmic dilation of the leading process of the migrating cortical neurons. Furthermore, we find that the mammalian RSP3 concentrates in the ependymal cilia as a component of the cilia. Thus, our data provide the first evidence for the subcellular localization and function of mammalian RSP3 in mammalian cells and developing CNS. PMID:25079589

Hu, Xinde; Yan, Runchuan; Song, Lingzhen; Lu, Xi; Chen, Shulin; Zhao, Shanting



Mouse tales from Kresge: the deafness mouse.  


Mouse models for human deafness have not only proven instrumental in the identification of genes for hereditary hearing loss, but are excellent model systems in which to examine gene function as well as the resulting pathophysiology. One mouse model for human nonsyndromic deafness is the deafness (dn) mouse, a spontaneous mutation in the curly-tail (ct) stock. The dn gene is on mouse Chromosome 19 and it was recently shown to be a novel gene called Tmc1. A mutation in Tmc1 is also found in Beethoven (Bth), which is another deaf mouse mutant. In humans, one autosomal dominant form of nonsyndromic hearing loss (DFNA36) and two autosomal recessive forms (DFNB7 and DFNB11) are associated with mutations in TMC1, the human homologue of Tmc1. The transmembrane protein encoded by this gene is required for normal cochlear hair cell function and the mouse models will facilitate the elucidation of the molecular pathway that is disrupted when mutations are present. PMID:14552423

Drury, Stacy S; Keats, Bronya J B



Kinetics and Modeling of Anaerobic Digestion Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems\\u000a became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also\\u000a there were computational limitations. Thus, the first models were very simple and consisted of a limited number of equations.\\u000a During the

Hariklia Gavala; Irini Angelidaki; Birgitte Ahring


(Na + , K + )ATPase Activity in tubular systems of mouse cardiac and skeletal muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATPase activity sensitive to ouabain was examined in both cardiac (ventricular) and skeletal (tibialis anterior) muscle cells of the mouse. Short-term fixation was combined with incubation in a medium designed to reduce artifactual deposition of lead phosphate. With incubation medium containing Na+ and K+, Pb3 (PO4)2 precipitate appears throughout the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of both cardiac and skeletal cells. The

M. S. Forbes; N. Sperelakis



Residual biogas potential from the storage tanks of non-separated digestate and digested liquid fraction.  


Biogas plants daily produce enormous volumes of digestate that can be handled in its raw form or after mechanical separation. In Italy, effluents are usually stored within aboveground, uncovered tanks, which make them potential emitters of biogas into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of biogas emitted to the atmosphere during the storage phase of non-separated digestate and digested liquid fraction. The trials were performed at two northwest Italy 1 MWel. biogas plants. A floating system for the residual biogas recovery, and a set of three wind tunnels for NH3 emission measurement were used. The experiment demonstrated significant loss to the atmosphere for each of the gases; specifically, on average, 19.5 and 7.90 N m3 biogas MWhel.(-1) were emitted daily from the storage tanks of non-separated digestate and digested liquid fraction, respectively. PMID:21963905

Gioelli, F; Dinuccio, E; Balsari, P



Digest Your Food!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a multi-week experiment, student teams gather biogas data from the mini-anaerobic digesters that they build to break down different types of food waste with microbes. Using plastic soda bottles for the mini-anaerobic digesters and gas measurement devices, they compare methane gas production from decomposing hot dogs, diced vs. whole. They monitor and measure the gas production, then graph and analyze the collected data. Students learn how anaerobic digestion can be used to biorecycle waste (food, poop or yard waste) into valuable resources (nutrients, biogas, energy).

Membrane Biotechnology Laboratory


World Court Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law provides this resource, an electronic version of the first two volumes of the printed work. It presents digested views of the International Court of Justice on various issues in international law, as expressed in their judgements, advisory opinions, and orders. The Digest covers 1986-1995 at present. The digest can be browsed or searched, and a case decision and opinion summary can be found at the end of the table of contents.



Three-Dimensional Atlas System for Mouse and Rat Brain Imaging Data  

PubMed Central

Tomographic neuroimaging techniques allow visualization of functionally and structurally specific signals in the mouse and rat brain. The interpretation of the image data relies on accurate determination of anatomical location, which is frequently obstructed by the lack of structural information in the data sets. Positron emission tomography (PET) generally yields images with low spatial resolution and little structural contrast, and many experimental magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) paradigms give specific signal enhancements but often limited anatomical information. Side-by-side comparison of image data with conventional atlas diagram is hampered by the 2-D format of the atlases, and by the lack of an analytical environment for accumulation of data and integrative analyses. We here present a method for reconstructing 3-D atlases from digital 2-D atlas diagrams, and exemplify 3-D atlas-based analysis of PET and MRI data. The reconstruction procedure is based on two seminal mouse and brain atlases, but is applicable to any stereotaxic atlas. Currently, 30 mouse brain structures and 60 rat brain structures have been reconstructed. To exploit the 3-D atlas models, we have developed a multi-platform atlas tool (available via The Rodent Workbench, which allows combined visualization of experimental image data within the 3-D atlas space together with 3-D viewing and user-defined slicing of selected atlas structures. The tool presented facilitates assignment of location and comparative analysis of signal location in tomographic images with low structural contrast. PMID:18974799

Hjornevik, Trine; Leergaard, Trygve B.; Darine, Dmitri; Moldestad, Olve; Dale, Anders M.; Willoch, Frode; Bjaalie, Jan G.



Automated phenotyping of mouse social behavior  

E-print Network

Inspired by the connections between social behavior and intelligence, I have developed a trainable system to phenotype mouse social behavior. This system is of immediate interest to researchers studying mouse models of ...

Edelman, Nicholas (Nicholas A.)



Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of guinea pig manure in low-cost tubular digesters at high altitude.  


Guinea pig is one of the most common livestock in rural communities of the Andes. The aim of this research was to study the anaerobic digestion of guinea pig manure in low-cost unheated tubular digesters at high altitude. To this end, the performance of two pilot digesters was monitored during 7 months; and two greenhouse designs were compared. In the dome roof digester the temperature and biogas production were significantly higher than in the shed roof digester. However, the biogas production rate was low (0.04 m(biogas)(3)m(digester)(-3) d(-1)), which is attributed to the low organic loading rate (0.6 kg(VS)m(digester)(-3)d(-1)) and temperature (23°C) of the system, among other factors. In a preliminary fertilization study, the potato yield per hectare was increased by 100% using the effluent as biofertilizer. Improving manure management techniques, increasing the organic loading rate and co digesting other substrates may be considered to enhance the process. PMID:21450457

Garfí, Marianna; Ferrer-Martí, Laia; Villegas, Vidal; Ferrer, Ivet



Report from the Fifth National Cancer Institute Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium Nervous System Tumors Workshop  

PubMed Central

Cancers of the nervous system are clinically challenging tumors that present with varied histopathologies and genetic etiologies. While the prognosis for the most malignant of these tumors is essentially unchanged despite decades of basic and translational science research, the past few years have witnessed the identification of numerous targetable molecular alterations in these cancers. With the advent of advanced genomic sequencing methodologies and the development of accurate small-animal models of these nervous system cancers, we are now ideally positioned to develop personalized therapies that target the unique cellular and molecular changes that define their formation and drive their continued growth. Recently, the National Cancer Institute convened a workshop to advance our understanding of nervous system cancer mouse models and to inform clinical trials by reconsidering these neoplasms as complex biological systems characterized by heterogeneity at all levels. PMID:21727208

Gutmann, David H.; Stiles, Charles D.; Lowe, Scott W.; Bollag, Gideon E.; Furnari, Frank B.; Charest, Al



In vivo mouse brain tomography by fast dual-scanning photoacoustic imaging system based on array transducer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A full-view photoacoustic tomography system with dual-scanning using a linear transducer array for fast imaging of complicated blood network was developed. In this system, a 128-element linear transducer array was used to detect photoacoustic signals by combined scanning of electronic scan and mechanical scan. An improved limited-field filtered back projection algorithm with directivity factors was applied to reconstruct the distribution of the absorbed optical energy deposit. An in vivo experiment on a mouse brain was performed to evaluate the ability of this composite system. A clear view of the cerebrovascular network on the brain cortex was acquired successfully. Furthermore, the reconstruct images with different number of scanning positions were also investigated and analyzed to induce a compromised proposal between scanning time and scanning number. The experimental results demonstrate the multi-element photoacoustic imaging system has the potential to acquire the time-resolved functional information for fundamental research of small animal brain imaging.

Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da



Teaching and Learning about the Earth. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC Digest investigates the earth and space science guidelines of the National Science Education Standards. These guidelines are frequently referred to as the earth system and include components such as plate tectonics, the water cycle, and the carbon cycle. This Digest describes the development of earth systems science and earth systems

Lee, Hyonyong


Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

Tuross, N.



Anaerobic digestion in rural China  

SciTech Connect

The People`s Republic of China has been promoting underground, individual, anaerobic digesters to process rural organic materials. This strategy has resulted in approximately five million household anaerobic digesters installed in China today. Simple reactors provide energy and fertilizer for Chinese farms and villages. Another benefit includes improved household sanitation. Reactor design has evolved over time. In the standard modern design, effluent is removed from the reactor at the top of the water column, meaning that supernatant is collected rather than sludge. Additionally, no mixing of the system occurs when effluent is removed. In some systems, a vertical cylindrical pull-rod port is added to the base of the effluent port. Effluent is removed by moving the pull-rod - simply a wooden shaft with a metal disk on the bottom - up and down in the port. A bucket can be placed directly under the pull-rod port, simplifying effluent removal, while the movement of the wooden shaft provides some mixing in the reactor. The gas primarily is used for cooking and lighting. A digester can provide approximately 60 percent of a family`s energy needs. Effluent from the reactors is an odorless, dark colored slurry, primarily used as an agricultural fertilizer. 3 figs.

Henderson, J.P. [City of Vancouver (Canada)



Steam Digest 2001  

SciTech Connect

Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

Not Available



Arnold Schwarzenegger ANAEROBIC DIGESTER  

E-print Network

rights. This report has not been approved or disapproved by the California Energy Commission nor has to reduce odor and use the digested solids as animal bedding. Neither of these factors was a motivator


Technical Digests - Electrical Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Technical Help to Exporters (T.H.E.) is organized to provide comprehensive technical help to exporting manufacturers. PB-244 674 contains a number of digests which detail the technical requirements and approval procedures applying in various countries...



A Systems Biology Study on NF?B Signaling in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) is one of the key factors during the priming phase of liver regeneration as well as in hepatocarcinogenesis. TNF? activates the nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF?B) signaling pathway and contributes to the conversion of quiescent hepatocytes to activated hepatocytes that are able to proliferate in response to growth factor stimulation. Different mathematical models have been previously established for TNF?/NF?B signaling in the context of tumor cells. Combining these mathematical models with time-resolved measurements of expression and phosphorylation of TNF?/NF?B pathway constituents in primary mouse hepatocytes revealed that an additional phosphorylation step of the NF?B isoform p65 has to be considered in the mathematical model in order to sufficiently describe the dynamics of pathway activation in the primary cells. Also, we addressed the role of basal protein turnover by experimentally measuring the degradation rate of pivotal players in the absence of TNF? and including this information in the model. To elucidate the impact of variations in the protein degradation rates on TNF?/NF?B signaling on the overall dynamic behavior we used global sensitivity analysis that accounts for parameter uncertainties and showed that degradation and translation of p65 had a major impact on the amplitude and the integral of p65 phosphorylation. Finally, our mathematical model of TNF?/NF?B signaling was able to predict the time-course of the complex formation of p65 and of the inhibitor of NF?B (I?B) in primary mouse hepatocytes, which was experimentally verified. Hence, we here present a mathematical model for TNF?/NF?B signaling in primary mouse hepatocytes that provides an important basis to quantitatively disentangle the complex interplay of multiple factors in liver regeneration and tumorigenesis. PMID:23293603

Pinna, Federico; Sahle, Sven; Beuke, Katharina; Bissinger, Michaela; Tuncay, Selcan; D'Alessandro, Lorenza A.; Gauges, Ralph; Raue, Andreas; Timmer, Jens; Klingmuller, Ursula; Schirmacher, Peter; Kummer, Ursula; Breuhahn, Kai



A detailed analysis of the erythropoietic control system in the human, squirrel, monkey, rat and mouse  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The erythropoiesis modeling performed in support of the Body Fluid and Blood Volume Regulation tasks is described. The mathematical formulation of the species independent model, the solutions to the steady state and dynamic versions of the model, and the individual species specific models for the human, squirrel monkey, rat and mouse are outlined. A detailed sensitivity analysis of the species independent model response to parameter changes and how those responses change from species to species is presented. The species to species response to a series of simulated stresses directly related to blood volume regulation during space flight is analyzed.

Nordheim, A. W.



Functional promiscuity in a mammalian chemosensory system: extensive expression of vomeronasal receptors in the main olfactory epithelium of mouse lemurs  

PubMed Central

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is functional in most terrestrial mammals, though progressively reduced in the primate lineage, and is used for intraspecific communication and predator recognition. Vomeronasal receptor (VR) genes comprise two families of chemosensory genes (V1R and V2R) that have been considered to be specific for the VNO. However, recently a large number of VRs were reported to be expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of mice, but there is little knowledge of the expression of these genes outside of rodents. To explore the function of VR genes in mammalian evolution, we analyzed and compared the expression of 64 V1R and 2 V2R genes in the VNO and the MOE of the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), the primate with the largest known VR repertoire. We furthermore compared expression patterns in adults of both sexes and seasons, and in an infant. A large proportion (83–97%) of the VR loci was expressed in the VNO of all individuals. The repertoire in the infant was as rich as in adults, indicating reliance on olfactory communication from early postnatal development onwards. In concordance with mice, we also detected extensive expression of VRs in the MOE, with proportions of expressed loci in individuals ranging from 29 to 45%. TRPC2, which encodes a channel protein crucial for signal transduction via VRs, was co-expressed in the MOE in all individuals indicating likely functionality of expressed VR genes in the MOE. In summary, the large VR repertoire in mouse lemurs seems to be highly functional. Given the differences in the neural pathways of MOE and VNO signals, which project to higher cortical brain centers or the limbic system, respectively, this raises the intriguing possibility that the evolution of MOE-expression of VRs enabled mouse lemurs to adaptively diversify the processing of VR-encoded olfactory information. PMID:25309343

Hohenbrink, Philipp; Dempewolf, Silke; Zimmermann, Elke; Mundy, Nicholas I.; Radespiel, Ute



Antidepressants reduce neuroinflammatory responses and astroglial alpha-synuclein accumulation in a transgenic mouse model of Multiple System Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the pathological accumulation of alpha-synuclein (?-syn) within oligodendroglial cells. This accumulation is accompanied by neuroinflammation with astrogliosis and microgliosis, that leads to neuronal death and subsequent parkinsonism and dysautonomia. Antidepressants have been explored as neuroprotective agents as they normalize neurotrophic factor levels, increase neurogenesis and reduce neurodegeneration, but their anti-inflammatory properties have not been fully characterized. We analyzed the anti-inflammatory profiles of three different antidepressants (fluoxetine, olanzapine and amitriptyline) in the MBP1-h?-syn transgenic (tg) mouse model of MSA. We observed that antidepressant treatment decreased the number of ?-syn-positive cells in the basal ganglia of 11-month old tg animals. This reduction was accompanied with a similar decrease in the colocalization of ?-syn with astrocyte markers in this brain structure. Consistent with these results, antidepressants reduced astrogliosis in the hippocampus and basal ganglia of the MBP1-h?-syn tg mice, and modulated the expression levels of key cytokines that were dysregulated in the tg mouse model, such as IL-1?. In vitro experiments in the astroglial cell line C6 confirmed that antidepressants inhibited NF-?B translocation to the nucleus and reduced IL-1? protein levels. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory properties of antidepressants in the MBP1-h?-syn tg mouse model of MSA might be related to their ability to inhibit ?-syn propagation from oligodendrocytes to astroglia and to regulate transcription factors involved in cytokine expression. Our results suggest that antidepressants might be of interest as anti-inflammatory and ?-syn-reducing agents for MSA and other ?-synucleinopathies. PMID:24310907

Valera, Elvira; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer



A transgenic mouse line for collecting ribosome-bound mRNA using the tetracycline transactivator system  

PubMed Central

Acquiring the gene expression profiles of specific neuronal cell-types is important for understanding their molecular identities. Genome-wide gene expression profiles of genetically defined cell-types can be acquired by collecting and sequencing mRNA that is bound to epitope-tagged ribosomes (TRAP; translating ribosome affinity purification). Here, we introduce a transgenic mouse model that combines the TRAP technique with the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) system by expressing EGFP-tagged ribosomal protein L10a (EGFP-L10a) under control of the tetracycline response element (tetO-TRAP). This allows both spatial control of EGFP-L10a expression through cell-type specific tTA expression, as well as temporal regulation by inhibiting transgene expression through the administration of doxycycline. We show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic mice expressing tTA under the Camk2a promoter (Camk2a-tTA) results in offspring with cell-type specific expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed that EGFP-L10a integrates into a functional ribosomal complex. In addition, collection of ribosome-bound mRNA from the hippocampus yielded the expected enrichment of genes expressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons, as well as a depletion of genes expressed in other hippocampal cell-types. Finally, we show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic Fos-tTA mice enables the expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons that are activated during a fear conditioning trial. The tetO-TRAP mouse can be combined with other tTA mouse lines to enable gene expression profiling of a variety of different cell-types.

Drane, Laurel; Ainsley, Joshua A.; Mayford, Mark R.; Reijmers, Leon G.



Feasibility of infectious prion digestion using mild conditions and commercial subtilisin.  


Two serine protease enzymes, subtilisin 309 and subtilisin 309-v, were used to digest brain homogenates containing high levels of prion infectivity using mildly alkaline conditions to investigate prion decontamination methods. To establish that PrP(res) infectivity was eliminated, we utilized the Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML) mouse-adapted scrapie model system for bioassay. Only one digestion condition (subtilisin 309 at 138mAU/ml, 55 degrees C and 14h digestion time pH 7.9) was considered to be highly relevant statistically (P<0.001) compared to control, with 52% of challenged mice surviving until the end of the study period. In contrast, treatment of PrP(res) by autoclaving at 134 degrees C or treatment with hypochlorite at a concentration of 20,000 ppm completely protected mice from prionosis. Further, in vitro assays suggest that potential proteolytic based PrP(res) decontamination methods must use high enzyme concentration, pH values >9.0, and elevated temperatures to be a safely efficacious, thereby limiting applicability on delicate surgical instruments and use in the environment. PMID:19467265

Pilon, John L; Nash, Paul B; Arver, Terry; Hoglund, Don; Vercauteren, Kurt C



Molecular and functional diversity of GABA-A receptors in the enteric nervous system of the mouse colon.  


The enteric nervous system (ENS) provides the intrinsic neural control of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and regulates virtually all GI functions. Altered neuronal activity within the ENS underlies various GI disorders with stress being a key contributing factor. Thus, elucidating the expression and function of the neurotransmitter systems, which determine neuronal excitability within the ENS, such as the GABA-GABAA receptor (GABAAR) system, could reveal novel therapeutic targets for such GI disorders. Molecular and functionally diverse GABAARs modulate rapid GABAergic-mediated regulation of neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. However, the cellular and subcellular GABAAR subunit expression patterns within neurochemically defined cellular circuits of the mouse ENS, together with the functional contribution of GABAAR subtypes to GI contractility remains to be determined. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that immunoreactivity for the GABAAR gamma (?) 2 and alphas (?) 1, 2, 3 subunits was located on somatodendritic surfaces of neurochemically distinct myenteric plexus neurons, while being on axonal compartments of submucosal plexus neurons. In contrast, immunoreactivity for the ?4-5 subunits was only detected in myenteric plexus neurons. Furthermore, ?-?2 subunit immunoreactivity was located on non-neuronal interstitial cells of Cajal. In organ bath studies, GABAAR subtype-specific ligands had contrasting effects on the force and frequency of spontaneous colonic longitudinal smooth muscle contractions. Finally, enhancement of ?2-GABAAR function with alprazolam reversed the stress-induced increase in the force of spontaneous colonic contractions. The study demonstrates the molecular and functional diversity of the GABAAR system within the mouse colon providing a framework for developing GABAAR-based therapeutics in GI disorders. PMID:25080596

Seifi, Mohsen; Brown, James F; Mills, Jeremy; Bhandari, Pradeep; Belelli, Delia; Lambert, Jeremy J; Rudolph, Uwe; Swinny, Jerome D



Recent advances in transport of water-soluble vitamins in organs of the digestive system: a focus on the colon and the pancreas.  


This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) transport in the large intestine and pancreas, two important organs of the digestive system that have only recently received their fair share of attention. WSV, a group of structurally unrelated compounds, are essential for normal cell function and development and, thus, for overall health and survival of the organism. Humans cannot synthesize WSV endogenously; rather, WSV are obtained from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption. The intestine is exposed to two sources of WSV: a dietary source and a bacterial source (i.e., WSV generated by the large intestinal microbiota). Contribution of the latter source to human nutrition/health has been a subject of debate and doubt, mostly based on the absence of specialized systems for efficient uptake of WSV in the large intestine. However, recent studies utilizing a variety of human and animal colon preparations clearly demonstrate that such systems do exist in the large intestine. This has provided strong support for the idea that the microbiota-generated WSV are of nutritional value to the host, and especially to the nutritional needs of the local colonocytes and their health. In the pancreas, WSV are essential for normal metabolic activities of all its cell types and for its exocrine and endocrine functions. Significant progress has also been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in the uptake of WSV and the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on the uptake processes. PMID:23989008

Said, Hamid M



A BAC Transgenic Mouse Model to Analyze the Function of Astroglial SPARCL1 (SC1) in the Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Extracellular matrix associated Sparc-like 1 (SC1/SPARCL1) can influence the function of astroglial cells in the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS). To examine SC1’s significance in the CNS, we generated a BAC transgenic mouse model in which Sc1 is expressed in radial glia and their astrocyte derivatives using the astroglial-specific Blbp (Brain-lipid binding protein; [Feng et al., (1994) Neuron 12:895–908]) regulatory elements. Characterization of these Blbf-Sc1 transgenic mice show elevated Sc1 transcript and protein in an astroglial selective pattern throughout the CNS. This model provides a novel in vivo system for evaluating the role of SC1 in brain development and function, in general, and for understanding SC1’s significance in the fate and function of astroglial cells, in particular. PMID:18381651

Weimer, Jill M.; Stanco, Amelia; Cheng, Jr-Gang; Vargo, Ana C.; Voora, Santhi; Anton, E. S.



Simultaneous submicrometric 3D imaging of the micro-vascular network and the neuronal system in a mouse spinal cord  

E-print Network

Defaults in vascular (VN) and neuronal networks of spinal cord are responsible for serious neurodegenerative pathologies. Because of inadequate investigation tools, the lacking knowledge of the complete fine structure of VN and neuronal systems is a crucial problem. Conventional 2D imaging yields incomplete spatial coverage leading to possible data misinterpretation, whereas standard 3D computed tomography imaging achieves insufficient resolution and contrast. We show that X-ray high-resolution phase-contrast tomography allows the simultaneous visualization of three-dimensional VN and neuronal systems of mouse spinal cord at scales spanning from millimeters to hundreds of nanometers, with neither contrast agent nor a destructive sample-preparation. We image both the 3D distribution of micro-capillary network and the micrometric nerve fibers, axon-bundles and neuron soma. Our approach is a crucial tool for pre-clinical investigation of neurodegenerative pathologies and spinal-cord-injuries. In particular, it s...

Fratini, Michela; Campi, Gaetano; Brun, Francesco; Tromba, Giuliana; Modregger, Peter; Bucci, Domenico; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Spadon, Raffaele; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Requardt, Herwig; Giove, Federico; Bravin, Alberto; Cedola, Alessia



Cellular expression of the K+-Cl- cotransporter KCC3 in the central nervous system of mouse.  


Potassium/Chloride cotransporters are transmembrane proteins that regulate cell volume and control neuronal activity by transporting K(+) and Cl(-) ions across the plasma membrane. Potassium/Chloride cotransporter 3 (KCC3) mutations are responsible for hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC), which is a severe sensory and motor neuropathy. Two major splice variants, KCC3a and KCC3b, were shown to be expressed in adult mouse tissues. Although KCC3a is mainly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), its specific cellular expression patterns have not been determined. Here, we used an approach combining in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques to determine the cellular expression of KCC3 in the mouse CNS and showed that KCC3 is mainly expressed in neurons, including a subpopulation of interneurons. Finally, we showed that some non-neuronal cells, such as radial glial-like cells in the spinal cord, also express KCC3. PMID:21147077

Shekarabi, Masoud; Salin-Cantegrel, Adèle; Laganière, Janet; Gaudet, Rébecca; Dion, Patrick; Rouleau, Guy A



A comparative study of experimental mouse models of central nervous system demyelination  

PubMed Central

Several mouse models of multiple sclerosis (MS) are now available. We have established a mouse model, in which ocular infection with a recombinant HSV-1 that expresses murine IL-2 constitutively (HSV-IL-2) causes CNS demyelination in different strains of mice. This model differs from most other models in that it represents a mixture of viral and immune triggers. In the present study, we directly compared MOG35–55, MBP35–47, and PLP190–209 models of EAE with our HSV-IL-2-induced MS model. Mice with HSV-IL-2-induced and MOG-induced demyelinating diseases demonstrated a similar pattern and distribution of demyelination in their brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. In contrast, no demyelination was detected in the optic nerves of MBP- and PLP-injected mice. IFN-? injections significantly reduced demyelination in brains of all groups, in the spinal cords of the MOG and MBP groups, and completely blocked it in the spinal cords of the PLP and HSV-IL-2 groups as well as in optic nerves of MOG and HSV-IL-2 groups. In contrast to IFN-? treatment, IL-12p70 protected the HSV-IL-2 group from demyelination, while IL-4 was not effective at all in preventing demyelination. MOG-injected mice showed clinical signs of paralysis and disease-related mortality whereas mice in the other treatment groups did not. Collectively, the results indicate that the HSV-IL-2 model and the MOG model complement each other and, together, provide unique insights into the heterogeneity of human MS. PMID:24718267

Dumitrascu, Oana M.; Mott, Kevin R.; Ghiasi, Homayon



Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the anaerobic co-digestion of agro-industrial wastes in a two-stage CSTR system.  


A two-stage anaerobic digestion system consisting of two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) operating at mesophilic conditions (37°C) were used to investigate the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on hydrogen and methane production. The acidogenic reactor was fed with a mixture consisting of olive mill wastewater, cheese whey and liquid cow manure (in a ratio 55:40:5, v/v/v) and operated at five different HRTs (5, 3, 2, 1 and 0.75 d) aiming to evaluate hydrogen productivity and operational stability. The highest system efficiency was achieved at HRT 0.75 d with a maximum hydrogen production rate of 1.72 L/LRd and hydrogen yield of 0.54 mol H2/mol carbohydrates consumed. The methanogenic reactor was operated at HRTs 20 and 25 d with better stability observed at HRT 25 d, whereas accumulation of volatile fatty acids took place at HRT 20 d. The methane production rate at the steady state of HRT 25 d reached 0.33 L CH4/LRd. PMID:25000396

Dareioti, Margarita Andreas; Kornaros, Michael



Metformin and digestive disorders.  


Digestive disorders (diarrhoea, vomiting) represent the most common metformin side-effects (around 30%) with this first-line drug treatment for type 2 diabetes. In healthy individuals, metformin affects glucose, vitamin B12 and the digestive uptake of bile salts. In the colon, it acts locally by modifying glucose cell metabolism. Different pathophysiological hypotheses have been proposed to explain the metformin-induced diarrhoea and vomiting, which can sometimes cause the patient to stop an effective treatment. These theories include stimulation of intestinal secretion of serotonin, changes in incretin and glucose metabolism, and bile-salt malabsorption. However, none of these hypotheses can be considered an adequate pathophysiological explanation of metformin digestive side-effects. In addition, there is a lack of experimental data to explain these highly patient-dependent adverse effects. PMID:21236717

Bouchoucha, M; Uzzan, B; Cohen, R



Biofilms promote survival and virulence of Salmonella enterica sv. Tennessee during prolonged dry storage and after passage through an in vitro digestion system.  


Salmonella enterica serotypes have been linked to outbreaks associated with low water activity foods. While the biofilm-forming abilities of Salmonella improve its survival during thermal processing and sanitation it is unclear whether biofilms enhance survival to desiccation and gastric stresses. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of physiological state (planktonic versus biofilm) and prior exposure to desiccation and storage in dry milk powder on Salmonella survival and gene expression after passage through an in vitro digestion model. Planktonic cells of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee were deposited onto membranes while biofilms were formed on glass beads. The cells were subsequently dried at room temperature and stored in dried milk powder (a(w)=0.3) for up to 30 days. Salmonella survival was quantified by serial dilution onto Brilliant Green Agar before desiccation, after desiccation, after 1-day storage and after 30-day storage. At each sampling period both physiological states were tested for survival through a simulated gastrointestinal system. RNA was extracted at the identical time points and Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to determine relative expression for genes associated with stress response (rpoS, otsB), virulence (hilA, invA, sipC) and a housekeeping gene 16S rRNA. The physiological state and length of storage affected the survival and gene expression of Salmonella within the desiccated milk powder environment and after passage through an in vitro digestion system (p<0.05). Larger numbers of S. Tennessee were recovered by plate counts for biofilms compared to planktonic, however, the numbers of Salmonella genomes detected by qPCR were not significantly different suggesting entry of the planktonic cells of S. Tennessee into a viable but non-culturable state. The increased expression of stress response genes rpoS and otsB correlated with survival, indicating cross-protection to low water activity and acid stress. Increased expression of virulence-associated genes was seen in cells exposed to dry storage for short periods, however the largest amount of expression occurred in biofilm cells stored for 30 days at aw 0.3, suggesting increased virulence potential. PMID:23454816

Aviles, Bryan; Klotz, Courtney; Eifert, Joseph; Williams, Robert; Ponder, Monica



Mouse Party  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity from The University of Utah, examine the molecular mechanisms that affect the brains of mice on drugs. Learn how different drugs create different responses in the brain and alter the natural state of a mouse.

Foundation, Wgbh E.



Highly efficient targeted mutagenesis in one-cell mouse embryos mediated by the TALEN and CRISPR/Cas systems  

PubMed Central

Since the establishment of embryonic stem (ES) cell lines, the combined use of gene targeting with homologous recombination has aided in elucidating the functions of various genes. However, the ES cell technique is inefficient and time-consuming. Recently, two new gene-targeting technologies have been developed: the transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) system, and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system. In addition to aiding researchers in solving conventional problems, these technologies can be used to induce site-specific mutations in various species for which ES cells have not been established. Here, by targeting the Fgf10 gene through RNA microinjection in one-cell mouse embryos with the TALEN and CRISPR/Cas systems, we produced the known limb-defect phenotypes of Fgf10-deficient embryos at the F0 generation. Compared to the TALEN system, the CRISPR/Cas system induced the limb-defect phenotypes with a strikingly higher efficiency. Our results demonstrate that although both gene-targeting technologies are useful, the CRISPR/Cas system more effectively elicits single-step biallelic mutations in mice. PMID:25027812

Yasue, Akihiro; Mitsui, Silvia Naomi; Watanabe, Takahito; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro; Tanaka, Eiji



Privacy Impact Assessment Chandra Digest Request  

E-print Network

Privacy Impact Assessment Chandra Digest Request I. System Identification 1. IT System Name-3 times per month via email. Subscription is a free, voluntary service that the user signs up for online by filling in a web form. II. Privacy Assessment 1. What information is being (or will be) collected

Mathis, Wayne N.


Anaerobic treatment of intensive fish culture effluents: digestion of fish feed and release of volatile fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of organic matter and nitrate was studied in a laboratory-scale treatment system consisting of a digestion basin and a fluidized bed reactor. Fish feed was anaerobically degraded in the digestion basin and supernatant from the digestion basin, rich in dissolved organic degradation products, was used to fuel nitrate removal by denitrifying organisms in the fluidized bed reactor. Anaerobic digestion

Jaap van Rijn; Nicolai Fonarev; Brian Berkowitz



Hexokinase 2 is required for tumor initiation and maintenance and its systemic deletion is therapeutic in mouse models of cancer.  


Accelerated glucose metabolism is a common feature of cancer cells. Hexokinases catalyze the first committed step of glucose metabolism. Hexokinase 2 (HK2) is expressed at high level in cancer cells, but only in a limited number of normal adult tissues. Using Hk2 conditional knockout mice, we showed that HK2 is required for tumor initiation and maintenance in mouse models of KRas-driven lung cancer, and ErbB2-driven breast cancer, despite continued HK1 expression. Similarly, HK2 ablation inhibits the neoplastic phenotype of human lung and breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Systemic Hk2 deletion is therapeutic in mice bearing lung tumors without adverse physiological consequences. Hk2 deletion in lung cancer cells suppressed glucose-derived ribonucleotides and impaired glutamine-derived carbon utilization in anaplerosis. PMID:23911236

Patra, Krushna C; Wang, Qi; Bhaskar, Prashanth T; Miller, Luke; Wang, Zebin; Wheaton, Will; Chandel, Navdeep; Laakso, Markku; Muller, William J; Allen, Eric L; Jha, Abhishek K; Smolen, Gromoslaw A; Clasquin, Michelle F; Robey, R Brooks; Hay, Nissim



Hexokinase 2 is required for tumor initiation and maintenance and its systemic deletion is therapeutic in mouse models of cancer  

PubMed Central

Summary Accelerated glucose metabolism is a common feature of cancer cells. Hexokinases catalyze the first committed step of glucose metabolism. Hexokinase 2 (HK2) is expressed at high level in cancer cells, but only in a limited number of normal adult tissues. Using Hk2 conditional knockout mice, we showed that HK2 is required for tumor initiation and maintenance in mouse models of KRas-driven lung cancer, and ErbB2-driven breast cancer, despite continued HK1 expression. Similarly HK2 ablation inhibits the neoplastic phenotype of human lung and breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Systemic Hk2 deletion is therapeutic in mice bearing lung tumors without adverse physiological consequences. Hk2 deletion in lung cancer cells suppressed glucose-derived ribonucleotides and impaired glutamine-derived carbon utilization in anaplerosis. PMID:23911236

Patra, Krushna C.; Miller, Luke; Wang, Zebin; Wheaton, Will; Chandel, Navdeep; Laakso, Markku; Muller, William J.; Allen, Eric L.; Jha, Abhishek K.; Smolen, Gromoslaw A.; Clasquin, Michelle F.; Robey, Brooks; Hay, Nissim



Lewy Body Digest  


... Book Excerpt - Window of Opportunity: Living with the Reality of Parkinson's and the Threat of Dementia August ... Former First Lady Rosalynn Carter About LBD Immunotherapy Shows Promise in New Mouse Model of Lewy Body ...


A new mouse model for infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, inad mouse, maps to mouse chromosome 1.  


Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary neurodegenerative disease of humans. So far, no responsible gene has been cloned or mapped to any chromosome. For chromosome mapping and positional cloning of the responsible gene, establishment of an animal model would be useful. Here we describe a new mouse model for INAD, named inad mouse. In this mouse, the phenotype is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, symptoms occur in the infantile period, and the mouse dies before sexual maturity. Axonal dystrophic change appearing as spheroid bodies in central and peripheral nervous system was observed. These features more closely resembled human INAD than did those of the gad mouse, the traditional mouse model for INAD. Linkage analysis linked the inad gene to mouse Chromosome 1, with the highest LOD score (=128.6) at the D1Mit45 marker, and haplotype study localized the inad gene to a 7.5-Mb region between D1Mit84 and D1Mit25. In this linkage area some 60 genes exist: Mutation of one of these 60 genes is likely responsible for the inad mouse phenotype. Our preliminary mutation analysis in 15 genes examining the nucleotide sequence of exons of these genes did not find any sequence difference between inad mouse and C57BL/6 mouse. PMID:15859351

Matsushima, Yoshibumi; Kikuchi, Tateki; Kikuchi, Hisae; Ichihara, Nobutsune; Ishikawa, Akira; Ishijima, Yasushi; Tachibana, Masayoshi



Career Transitions: ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some intervention programs have responded to the magnitude of the difficulties that career transitions present for adults. This digest examines one program which aims to improve the career adaptability of adults seeking employment. The interventional procedures outlined here are intended to accelerate vocational development by helping people…

Riverin-Simard, Danielle


Coaching Certification. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest focuses on coaching certification, its importance, its current status, and types of certification programs currently in existence. The discussion also covers the status of women coaches and the issue of national certification requirements. The list of addresses of certification programs given includes commercial agencies state…

Schweitzer, Cathie


Media Literacy. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that children today are growing up in a "media saturated" world in which mass media, including the Internet, have a commanding presence in daily life, this Digest argues that it is imperative for educators to teach what M. Megee (1997) calls "the new basic"--media literacy--so that learners can be producers of effective media messages as…

Abdullah, Mardziah Hayati


Exercise Adherence. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest discusses exercise adherence, noting its vital role in maximizing the benefits associated with physical activity. Information is presented on the following: (1) factors that influence adherence to self-monitored programs of regular exercise (childhood eating habits, and psychological, physical, social, and situational factors); (2)…

Sullivan, Pat


Preventing Bullying. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students who are the target of bullying episodes commonly suffer serious, long-term academic, physical, and emotional consequences. Unfortunately, school personnel often minimize, underestimate, tolerate, or ignore the extent of bullying and the harm it can cause. This digest examines the problem of bullying and some of its effects, and discusses…

Lumsden, Linda


Principal Mentoring. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help new principals succeed, school districts are capitalizing on senior administrators' expertise by adding mentor programs to the practical training programs for beginning principals. This digest examines the nature of mentorships and discusses how they can prepare principals for the next stage of their careers. Although mentoring has existed…

Malone, Robert J.


Bibliotherapy. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest suggests that bibliotherapy is a potentially powerful method for school teachers and counselors to use on many levels and in every school grade. It begins with a brief review of the history of bibliotherapy; continues with a discussion of some approaches to bibliotherapy (interactive, clinical, and developmental); then addresses the…

Abdullah, Mardziah Hayati



EPA Science Inventory

EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...


Heat and energy requirements in thermophilic anaerobic sludge digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heating requirements of the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process were studied. Biogas production was studied in laboratory experiments at retention times from 1 to 10 days. The data gathered in the experiments was then used to perform a heat and energy analysis. The source of heat was a conventional CHP unit system. The results showed that thermophilic digestion is much

G. D. Zupan?i?; M. Roš



Cleaning up the River: A Metaphor for Functional Digestive Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by abdominal pain, altered bowel habits and various other digestive symptoms. Emotional factors are important in some patients. I describe here a metaphor which links the altered motility of the digestive system to the emotional contents it may embody. A metaphor of a river is used to evoke both a smooth, coordinated flow through

Joseph Zimmerman



Ultrastructural Pathology of Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection in Cultured Mouse Nervous System Tissue  

PubMed Central

Mouse spinal cord-ganglia cultures were innoculated with murine cytomegalo-virus 14 days after explantation. Intranuclear virus was first observed 4 days after infection. The viruses, which occurred in four forms, were observed in increasing numbers during the ensuing 4 days. Differences were noted in the relative prevalence of certain of these forms in older as compared to younger cultures. This suggests that variations in virus form are related to virus maturation. Cytoplasmic viruses were occasionally observed, but their site of origin is not certain. A variety of cytoplasmic inclusions were seen, particularly in the older cultures. It seems likely that they represent specific cell responses to the presence of the virus. They were not observed in the control cultures, even though some of the latter did show severe degenerative changes. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Figs 3-4p[477]-dFig 8Fig 9Fig 10Figs 11-12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Figs 17-18Fig 19 PMID:4360827

Willson, Nicholas J.; Schneider, Joseph F.; Rosen, Moshe; Belisle, Elizabeth H.



Fetal Mouse Skin Heals Scarlessly in a Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Model System  

PubMed Central

In mammals, the early-gestation fetus has the regenerative ability to heal skin wounds without scar formation. This observation was first reported more than 3 decades ago, and has been confirmed in a number of in vivo animal models. Although an intensive research effort has focused on unraveling the mechanisms underlying scarless fetal wound repair, no suitable model of in vitro fetal skin healing has been developed. In this article, we report a novel model for the study of fetal wound healing. Fetal skin from gestational day 16.5 Balb/c mice (total gestation, 20 days) was grafted onto the chorioallantoic membrane of 12-day-old chicken embryos and cultured for up to 7 days. At 48 hours postengraftment, circular wounds (diameter = 1 mm) were made in the fetal skin using a rotating titanium sapphire laser (N = 45). The tissue was examined daily by visual inspection to look for signs of infection and ischemia. The grafts and the surrounding host tissue were examined histologically. In all fetal skin grafts, the wounds completely reepithelialized by postinjury day 7, with regeneration of the dermis. Fetal mouse skin xenografts transplanted onto the chorioallantoic membrane of fertilized chicken eggs provides a useful model for the study of fetal wound healing. This model can be used as an adjunct to traditional in vivo mammalian models of fetal repair. PMID:21712703

Carre, Antoine L.; Larson, Barrett J.; Knowles, Joseph A.; Kawai, Kenichiro; Longaker, Michael T.; Lorenz, H. Peter



Bi-compartmental elderly or adult dynamic digestion models applied to interrogate protein digestibility.  


The world's population is inevitably ageing thanks to modern progress; however, the development of food and oral formulations tailored to the needs of the elderly is still in its infancy. In vitro digestion models offer high throughput, robust and practically ethics free evaluation of the digestive fate of ingested products. To date, no data have been made publicly available to facilitate the development or application of an in vitro model mirroring the physicochemical conditions of the elderly gastrointestinal system. This study reports the development of a novel and highly bio-relevant in vitro model based on two serially connected bioreactors recreating the dynamic conditions of the adult or elderly alimentary canal. This report and its supplementary material describe in detail the set-up of the system, the applied physicochemical parameters and the development of the controlling software. These are intended to openly depict a versatile platform, which could assist future efforts to develop age-tailored oral formulations. SDS-PAGE analyses of samples collected from the in vitro digestion of ?-lactoglobulin, ?-lactalbumin and lactoferrin suggest the bioaccessibility of "slow digesting" and "fast digesting" proteins identified in adult models do not necessarily maintain this trait under elderly gastro-intestinal conditions. Overall, this study brings forward a new generic yet advanced model that could facilitate age-tailoring the digestive fate of liquid formulations. PMID:25131440

Levi, Carmit Shani; Lesmes, Uri



An optimized and simplified system of mouse embryonic stem cell cardiac differentiation for the assessment of differentiation modifiers.  


Generating cardiomyocytes from embryonic stem cells is an important technique for understanding cardiovascular development, the origins of cardiovascular diseases and also for providing potential reagents for cardiac repair. Numerous methods have been published but often are technically challenging, complex, and are not easily adapted to assessment of specific gene contributions to cardiac myocyte differentiation. Here we report the development of an optimized protocol to induce the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells to cardiac myocytes that is simplified and easily adapted for genetic studies. Specifically, we made four critical findings that distinguish our protocol: 1) mouse embryonic stem cells cultured in media containing CHIR99021 and PD0325901 to maintain pluripotency will efficiently form embryoid bodies containing precardiac mesoderm when cultured in these factors at a reduced dosage, 2) low serum conditions promote cardiomyocyte differentiation and can be used in place of commercially prepared StemPro nutrient supplement, 3) the Wnt inhibitor Dkk-1 is dispensable for efficient cardiac differentiation and 4) tracking differentiation efficiency may be done with surface expression of PDGFR? alone. In addition, cardiac mesodermal precursors generated by this system can undergo lentiviral infection to manipulate the expression of specific target molecules to assess effects on cardiac myocyte differentiation and maturation. Using this approach, we assessed the effects of CHF1/Hey2 on cardiac myocyte differentiation, using both gain and loss of function. Overexpression of CHF1/Hey2 at the cardiac mesoderm stage had no apparent effect on cardiac differentiation, while knockdown of CHF1/Hey2 resulted in increased expression of atrial natriuretic factor and connexin 43, suggesting an alteration in the phenotype of the cardiomyocytes. In summary we have generated a detailed and simplified protocol for generating cardiomyocytes from mES cells that is optimized for investigating factors that affect cardiac differentiation. PMID:24667642

Hartman, Matthew E; Librande, Jason R; Medvedev, Ivan O; Ahmad, Rabiah N; Moussavi-Harami, Farid; Gupta, Pritha P; Chien, Wei-Ming; Chin, Michael T



The effect of acid digestion technique on the performance of nebulization systems used in inductively coupled plasma spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pneumatic nebulization systems used in inductively coupled plasma spectrometry generally consist of a concentric glass (Meinhard type) or v?groove (Babington principle) nebulizer in combination with a cyclonic, cone or Scott double pass cloud chamber. The characteristic mode of action of each nebulizer produces an aerosol, the droplet size distribution of which depends on the solution matrix. Before reaching the

Bernhard A. Zarcinas; Michael J. McLaughlin; Michelle K. Smart



Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) in the mouse central nervous system: A neuroprotective role?  

SciTech Connect

The aims of this study were to characterize the expression of paraoxonase 2 (PON2) in mouse brain and to assess its antioxidant properties. PON2 levels were highest in the lung, intestine, heart and liver, and lower in the brain; in all tissues, PON2 expression was higher in female than in male mice. PON2 knockout [PON2{sup -/-}] mice did not express any PON2, as expected. In the brain, the highest levels of PON2 were found in the substantia nigra, the nucleus accumbens and the striatum, with lower levels in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and brainstem. A similar regional distribution of PON2 activity (measured by dihydrocoumarin hydrolysis) was also found. PON3 was not detected in any brain area, while PON1 was expressed at very low levels, and did not show any regional difference. PON2 levels were higher in astrocytes than in neurons isolated from all brain regions, and were highest in cells from the striatum. PON2 activity and mRNA levels followed a similar pattern. Brain PON2 levels were highest around birth, and gradually declined. Subcellular distribution experiments indicated that PON2 is primarily expressed in microsomes and in mitochondria. The toxicity in neurons and astrocytes of agents known to cause oxidative stress (DMNQ and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was higher in cells from PON2{sup -/-} mice than in the same cells from wild-type mice, despite similar glutathione levels. These results indicate that PON2 is expressed in the brain, and that higher levels are found in dopaminergic regions such as the striatum, suggesting that this enzyme may provide protection against oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity.

Giordano, Gennaro [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cole, Toby B. [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States) [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Dept. of Medicine (Div. of Medical Genetics), University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Dept. of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Furlong, Clement E. [Dept. of Medicine (Div. of Medical Genetics), University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States) [Dept. of Medicine (Div. of Medical Genetics), University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Dept. of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Costa, Lucio G., E-mail: [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Dept. of Human Anatomy, Pharmacology and Forensic Science, University of Parma Medical School, Parma (Italy)



Packaged digester for treating animal wastes  

SciTech Connect

A new range of packaged digesters to process animal or organic wastes has been developed by Bovis Civil Engineering. The unit, known as the Polygester is suitable for use on factory farms, isolated communities and manufacturing industries. The unit consists of an anaerobic digester together with associated pumps, heat exchangers and pipework ready-assembled on a rigid common chassis and separate gas holder as a packaged system. Based on an undiluted solids input of 11% pig slurry, performance figures show up to 85% reduction of COD, 95% reduction of BOD and 18 m3 of biogas per day (equivalent to about 10 litres fuel oil).

Not Available



Development of Gut Microbiota in a Mouse Model of Ovalbumin-induced Allergic Diarrhea under Sub-barrier System  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to present a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA) induced allergic diarrhea under a sub-barrier system and investigate the development of gut microbiota in this model. Male BALB/c mice were systemically sensitized with OVA or sham-sensitized with saline, and followed by oral OVA intubation, leading to OVA-specific acute diarrhea. Compared with sham-sensitized mice, sera OVA-specific IgG1 and total IgE in OVA-sensitized mice were dramatically elevated, and the number of mast cells was greatly increased in the jejunum of the OVA-sensitized mice. Principle component analysis of the DGGE profile showed that samples from group of OVA-sensitized mice and group of sham-sensitized mice were scattered into two different regions. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the number of 16S rRNA gene copies of Lactobacillus in the colon of OVA-sensitized mice decreased significantly, while there was no significant difference in the number of Bifidobacterium and total bacteria. In conclusion, OVA-specific allergic diarrhea was successfully induced under a sub-barrier system, and changes of allergic reactions during induction was coupled with changes in gut microbiota, especially the number of colonic Lactobacillus, but the role of gut microbiota in the development of food allergic reactions needs to be further evaluated. PMID:25049821

Wang, Juan-Hong; Fan, Song-Wei; Zhu, Wei-Yun



FCPP application to utilize anaerobic digester gas  

SciTech Connect

Toshiba and a municipal organization of Yokohama city are jointly conducting a program to utilize ADG (Anaerobic Digester Gas) more effectively. ADG which contains about 60% methane is produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge and has been used as an energy source for heating digestion tanks in sewage treatment plants and/or for combustion engine fuel. This program is focused on operating a commercial Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) power plant on ADG because of its inherently high fuel efficiency and low emissions characteristics. According to the following joint program, we have successfully demonstrated an ADG fueled FCPP The success of this study promises that the ADG fueled FCPP, an environment-friendly power generation system, will be added to the line-up of PC25{trademark}C applications.

Nakayama, Yoshio; Kusama, Nobuyuki; Wada, Katsuya [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)



Atmosphere Behavior in Gas-Closed Mouse-Algal Systems: An Experimental and Modelling Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dual approach of mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere was initiated. The development of control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels is examined. A mathematical model simulating the atmospheric behavior in these systems was developed and an experimental gas closed system was constructed. These systems are described and preliminary results are presented.

Averner, M. M.; Moore, B., III; Bartholomew, I.; Wharton, R.



Migrant Farmworkers and Their Children. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest reviews the population characteristics of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their children. Since the 1960s, federal programs for migrant workers and their families have multiplied. However, these programs have differing definitions for "migrant and seasonal farmworker," and no current data system provides a reliable count or…

Martin, Philip


Knowledge Management in Instructional Design. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest reviews what instructional designers do, describes knowledge management, and indicates how knowledge management is influencing instructional design. The first section defines instructional design (ID) and briefly describes the ID process. The second section covers knowledge management (KM), including definitions of KM and systems,…

Spector, J. Michael; Edmonds, Gerald S.


Diagnostic reasoning model validation in digestive endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a computer-assisted diagnostic system in digestive endoscopy implies to understand the reasoning process of endoscopists. The aim of this study is to validate a reasoning model and a knowledge base previously defined. Eight endoscopists have participated to a diagnostic test including 5 video-sequences and using a \\

J. M. Cauvin; C. Le Guillou; B. Solaiman; M. Robaszkiewicz; H. Gouerou; C. Roux



Spatio-temporal characterization of the pleiotrophinergic system in mouse cerebellum: evidence for its key role during ontogenesis.  


The development of the central nervous system requires an appropriate micro-environment that is conditioned by a combination of various extracellular components. Most of the known signaling factors, such as neurotransmitters or neuropeptides, are soluble and diffuse into the extracellular matrix. However, other secreted molecules like proteoglycans or glycosaminoglycans anchor in the extracellular matrix to influence cerebral ontogenesis. As such, pleiotrophin (PTN), which binds the proteoglycans syndecan-3 (SDC3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta (PTP?), has been described as a pro-migratory and a pro-differentiating secreted cytokine on cortical neurons. In rat cerebellum, PTN is highly expressed during the first postnatal week, suggesting that this cytokine could participate to the development of the cerebellar cortex. According to this hypothesis, our spatio-temporal cartography of PTN, PTP? and SDC3 indicated that, in mouse, the PTNergic system was present in the cerebellum at least from the first postnatal day (P0). Until P12, PTN was mainly expressed by granule cell precursors and located in the extracellular matrix, while SDC3 was expressed by Purkinje cells, Golgi cells and granule cell precursors, and PTP? was present on Purkinje cells and Bergmann fibers. In vitro studies confirmed the presence of SDC3 on immature granule cells and demonstrated that PTN could stimulate directly their velocity in culture. In contrast, subarachnoidal injection of PTN in the cerebellum significantly reduced the rate of migration of granule cells, exacerbated their apoptosis and induced an atrophy of the Purkinje cell dendritic tree. Since differentiated granule cells did not express SDC3 or PTP?, the PTN effect observed on migration and apoptosis may be indirectly mediated by Purkinje and/or Bergmann cells. From P21 to adulthood, the distribution of PTN, SDC3 and PTP? changed and their expression dramatically decreased even if they were still detectable. PTN and SDC3 immunolabeling was restricted around Purkinje cell bodies and Golgi cells, whereas PTP? was located around interneurons. These data suggested that, in the cerebellum of adult mice, PTN participates to the perineuronal nets that control neuronal plasticity. To conclude, the present work represents the first spatio-temporal characterization of the PTNergic system in the mouse cerebellum and indicates that PTN may contribute to cerebellum ontogenesis during the postnatal development as well as to neuronal plasticity at adulthood. PMID:23454176

Basille-Dugay, Magali; Hamza, Magda M; Tassery, Céline; Parent, Bénédicte; Raoult, Emilie; Bénard, Magalie; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Vaudry, David; Burel, Delphine C




EPA Science Inventory

The study compared conventional, anaerobic sludge digestion and three stage, anaerobic sludge digestion. The conventional digester and the first two stages of the multiple stage system were operated at 35 deg C; the third stage was maintained at 49 deg C. The influent feed sludge...


China News Digest (CND)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

China News Digest (CND) is a non-profit organization aiming at providing news and other information services to readers who are concerned primarily about China-related affairs. All CND services are free of charge, and rely on CND volunteers to make this possible. CND is independent of any other organizations and strives to be impartial at the issues and news it reports. The history of CND began on March 6, 1989. Topics include: News digest about China and Chinese; Comprehensive Weekly Chinese Magazine in the Chinese Language; Collection of Chinese Classics (Lao Tsu, Chuang Tsu, Confucius, some novels); Software (public domain and shareware) to read/write Chinese code; Scenery pictures of China; map of China; Chinese calendar (check for the next Chinese New Year); Links to web sites in Mainland China and Taiwan; China Internet Info.


Perspectives for anaerobic digestion.  


The modern society generates large amounts of waste that represent a tremendous threat to the environment and human and animal health. To prevent and control this, a range of different waste treatment and disposal methods are used. The choice of method must always be based on maximum safety, minimum environmental impact and, as far as possible, on valorization of the waste and final recycling of the end products. One of the main trends of today's waste management policies is to reduce the stream of waste going to landfills and to recycle the organic material and the plant nutrients back to the soil. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one way of achieving this goal and it will furthermore, reduce energy consumption or may even be net energy producing. This chapter aims at provide a basic understanding of the world in which anaerobic digestion is operating today. The newest process developments as well as future perspectives will be discussed. PMID:12747559

Ahring, Birgitte K



Changes in the antioxidant activity of loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) protein hydrolysates during a simulated gastrointestinal digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-stage in vitro digestion model system (a pepsin treatment for 2h followed by a pancreatin treatment for 2h, both at 37°C) was used to simulate the process of human gastrointestinal (GI) digestion to determine the changes in antioxidant activities of loach peptide previously prepared by papain digestion. Results showed that the final GI digests contained 38.1% free amino acids,

Lijun You; Mouming Zhao; Joe M. Regenstein; Jiaoyan Ren



Web Digest for Marketers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Larry Chase, Web Digest for Marketers (WDM) was started in 1995, nearly a lifetime in Internet years. The site offers an archived weekly publication of "15 mercifully short reviews of marketing-oriented Web sites." Broken into catagories including Research, HTML, JavaScript, and FAQs, the sites are reviewed in a helpful, conversational style. Interested users are encouraged to subscribe to the email version of WDM.


Visualization of specific DNA sequences in living mouse embryonic stem cells with a programmable fluorescent CRISPR/Cas system.  


Labeling and tracing of specific sequences in living cells has been a major challenge in studying the spatiotemporal dynamics of native chromatin. Here we repurposed the prokaryotic CRISPR/Cas adaptive immunity system to specifically detect endogenous genomic loci in mouse embryonic stem cells. We constructed a catalytically inactive version of the Cas9 endonuclease, fused it with eGFP (dCas9-eGFP) and co-expressed small guide RNAs (gRNAs) to target pericentric, centric, and telomeric repeats, which are enriched in distinct nuclear structures. With major satellite specific gRNAs we obtained a characteristic chromocenter (CC) pattern, while gRNAs targeting minor satellites and telomeres highlighted smaller foci coinciding with centromere protein B (CENP-B) and telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2), respectively. DNA sequence specific labeling by gRNA/dCas9-eGFP complexes was directly shown with 3D-fluorescent in situ hybridization (3D-FISH). Structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) of gRNA/dCas9-eGFP expressing cells revealed chromatin ultrastructures and demonstrated the potential of this approach for chromatin conformation studies by super resolution microscopy. This programmable dCas9 labeling system opens new perspectives to study functional nuclear architecture. PMID:24637835

Anton, Tobias; Bultmann, Sebastian; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Markaki, Yolanda



Pravastatin inhibits farnesol production in Candida albicans and improves survival in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis.  


Candidemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients. A strategy of reducing virulence and virulence factors of Candida spp. is an attractive approach for the treatment of serious infections caused by these yeasts. Recently, farnesol has been reported to be a quorum-sensing autoinducer, as well as a virulence factor of C. albicans. In the present study, we examined the effects of pravastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor on the in vitro production of farnesol. In addition, the synergistic effects of pravastatin with fluconazole (FLC) were examined in a mouse model of systemic infections. In vitro experiments demonstrated that pravastatin had synergistic activity with FLC as judged by fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) and suppression of farnesol production at sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, significant improvement of survival in systemic infection models was shown with pravastatin supplementation. The survival benefits of pravastatin were correlated with reductions of fungal burden. These data suggest the potential of pravastatin as a supportive therapy against C. albicans infections. Synergistic antifungal activity and suppression of HMG-CoA reductase-associated Candida virulence factors, including farnesol, may explain, at least in part, the in vivo efficacy of pravastatin. PMID:21954955

Tashiro, Masato; Kimura, Soichiro; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Saga, Tomoo; Ohno, Akira; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Izumikawa, Koichi; Tashiro, Takayoshi; Kohno, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Keizo



Conditional ablation of orexin/hypocretin neurons: a new mouse model for the study of narcolepsy and orexin system function.  


The sleep disorder narcolepsy results from loss of hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons. Although narcolepsy onset is usually postpubertal, current mouse models involve loss of either orexin peptides or orexin neurons from birth. To create a model of orexin/hypocretin deficiency with closer fidelity to human narcolepsy, diphtheria toxin A (DTA) was expressed in orexin neurons under control of the Tet-off system. Upon doxycycline removal from the diet of postpubertal orexin-tTA;TetO DTA mice, orexin neurodegeneration was rapid, with 80% cell loss within 7 d, and resulted in disrupted sleep architecture. Cataplexy, the pathognomic symptom of narcolepsy, occurred by 14 d when ?5% of the orexin neurons remained. Cataplexy frequency increased for at least 11 weeks after doxycycline. Temporary doxycycline removal followed by reintroduction after several days enabled partial lesion of orexin neurons. DTA-induced orexin neurodegeneration caused a body weight increase without a change in food consumption, mimicking metabolic aspects of human narcolepsy. Because the orexin/hypocretin system has been implicated in the control of metabolism and addiction as well as sleep/wake regulation, orexin-tTA; TetO DTA mice are a novel model in which to study these functions, for pharmacological studies of cataplexy, and to study network reorganization as orexin input is lost. PMID:24806676

Tabuchi, Sawako; Tsunematsu, Tomomi; Black, Sarah W; Tominaga, Makoto; Maruyama, Megumi; Takagi, Kazuyo; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Sakurai, Takeshi; Kilduff, Thomas S; Yamanaka, Akihiro



Systemic administration of interferon-?-expressing plasmid reduces late allergic bronchitis in a mouse model of asthma  

PubMed Central

Asthma might be caused by a helper T(Th)2 immune response. We hypothesized that the systemic administration of the Th1 cytokines may reduce the Th2 type late asthmatic response (LAR). We examined the effect of the intraperitoneal injection of interferon(IFN)-?-expressing plasmid, a Th1 cytokine, or interleukin(IL)-4-expressing plasmid, a Th2 cytokine, at the time of sensitization on a mouse model of asthma induced by ovalbumin in BALB/c mice. We demonstrated that the IFN-?-expressing plasmid reduced the LAR, whereas the IL-4-expressing plasmid enhanced the LAR as compared with the saline or plasmid-only treated group. The present study suggests that the systemic administration of IFN-?-expressing plasmid may have a modulating ability of Th1/Th2 balance to down-regulate Th2 response by a mutual inhibitory mechanism between Th1 and Th2 cells, leading to the reduction of the LAR. PMID:12084044

Hayashi, T; Maeda, K; Hasegawa, K; Nakai, S; Hamachi, T; Iwata, H



Conditional Ablation of Orexin/Hypocretin Neurons: A New Mouse Model for the Study of Narcolepsy and Orexin System Function  

PubMed Central

The sleep disorder narcolepsy results from loss of hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons. Although narcolepsy onset is usually postpubertal, current mouse models involve loss of either orexin peptides or orexin neurons from birth. To create a model of orexin/hypocretin deficiency with closer fidelity to human narcolepsy, diphtheria toxin A (DTA) was expressed in orexin neurons under control of the Tet-off system. Upon doxycycline removal from the diet of postpubertal orexin-tTA;TetO DTA mice, orexin neurodegeneration was rapid, with 80% cell loss within 7 d, and resulted in disrupted sleep architecture. Cataplexy, the pathognomic symptom of narcolepsy, occurred by 14 d when ?5% of the orexin neurons remained. Cataplexy frequency increased for at least 11 weeks after doxycycline. Temporary doxycycline removal followed by reintroduction after several days enabled partial lesion of orexin neurons. DTA-induced orexin neurodegeneration caused a body weight increase without a change in food consumption, mimicking metabolic aspects of human narcolepsy. Because the orexin/hypocretin system has been implicated in the control of metabolism and addiction as well as sleep/wake regulation, orexin-tTA; TetO DTA mice are a novel model in which to study these functions, for pharmacological studies of cataplexy, and to study network reorganization as orexin input is lost. PMID:24806676

Tabuchi, Sawako; Tsunematsu, Tomomi; Black, Sarah W.; Tominaga, Makoto; Maruyama, Megumi; Takagi, Kazuyo; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Sakurai, Takeshi



Hypoxic preconditioning involves system Xc- regulation in mouse neural stem cells.  


In animals, hypoxic preconditioning has been used as a form of neuroprotection. The exact mechanism involved in neuroprotective hypoxic preconditioning has not been described, yet could be valuable for possible neuroprotective strategies. The overexpression of the cystine-glutamate exchanger, system Xc-, has been demonstrated as being neuroprotective (Shih, Erb et al. 2006). Here, using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that C57BL/6 mice exposed to hypoxia showed an increase in system Xc- expression, with the highest level of intensity in the hippocampus. Western Blot analysis also showed an almost 2-fold increase in system Xc- protein in hypoxia-exposed versus control mice. The mRNA for the regulatory subunit of system Xc-, xCT, and the xCT/actin ratio were also increased under hypoxic conditions. Experiments using hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1?) siRNA showed a statistically significant decrease in HIF-1? and system Xc- expression. Under hypoxic conditions, system Xc- activity, as determined by cystine uptake, increased 2-fold. Importantly, hypoxic preconditioning was attenuated in neural stem cells by pharmacological inhibition of system Xc- activity with S4-carboxyphenylglycine. These data provide the first evidence of hypoxic regulation of the cystine glutamate exchanger system Xc-. PMID:22056639

Sims, Brian; Clarke, Melinda; Francillion, Ludwig; Kindred, Elijah; Hopkins, Elana Shuford; Sontheimer, Harald



Yersinia enterocolitica Targets Cells of the Innate and Adaptive Immune System by Injection of Yops in a Mouse Infection Model  

PubMed Central

Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye) evades the immune system of the host by injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) via a type three secretion system into host cells. In this study, a reporter system comprising a YopE-?-lactamase hybrid protein and a fluorescent staining sensitive to ?-lactamase cleavage was used to track Yop injection in cell culture and in an experimental Ye mouse infection model. Experiments with GD25, GD25-?1A, and HeLa cells demonstrated that ?1-integrins and RhoGTPases play a role for Yop injection. As demonstrated by infection of splenocyte suspensions in vitro, injection of Yops appears to occur randomly into all types of leukocytes. In contrast, upon infection of mice, Yop injection was detected in 13% of F4/80+, 11% of CD11c+, 7% of CD49b+, 5% of Gr1+ cells, 2.3% of CD19+, and 2.6% of CD3+ cells. Taking the different abundance of these cell types in the spleen into account, the highest total number of Yop-injected cells represents B cells, particularly CD19+CD21+CD23+ follicular B cells, followed by neutrophils, dendritic cells, and macrophages, suggesting a distinct cellular tropism of Ye. Yop-injected B cells displayed a significantly increased expression of CD69 compared to non-Yop-injected B cells, indicating activation of these cells by Ye. Infection of IFN-?R (receptor)- and TNFRp55-deficient mice resulted in increased numbers of Yop-injected spleen cells for yet unknown reasons. The YopE-?-lactamase hybrid protein reporter system provides new insights into the modulation of host cell and immune responses by Ye Yops. PMID:19680448

Koberle, Martin; Klein-Gunther, Annegret; Schutz, Monika; Fritz, Michaela; Berchtold, Susanne; Tolosa, Eva; Autenrieth, Ingo B.; Bohn, Erwin



Development of a database system for mapping insertional mutations onto the mouse genome with large-scale experimental data  

PubMed Central

Background Insertional mutagenesis is an effective method for functional genomic studies in various organisms. It can rapidly generate easily tractable mutations. A large-scale insertional mutagenesis with the piggyBac (PB) transposon is currently performed in mice at the Institute of Developmental Biology and Molecular Medicine (IDM), Fudan University in Shanghai, China. This project is carried out via collaborations among multiple groups overseeing interconnected experimental steps and generates a large volume of experimental data continuously. Therefore, the project calls for an efficient database system for recording, management, statistical analysis, and information exchange. Results This paper presents a database application called MP-PBmice (insertional mutation mapping system of PB Mutagenesis Information Center), which is developed to serve the on-going large-scale PB insertional mutagenesis project. A lightweight enterprise-level development framework Struts-Spring-Hibernate is used here to ensure constructive and flexible support to the application. The MP-PBmice database system has three major features: strict access-control, efficient workflow control, and good expandability. It supports the collaboration among different groups that enter data and exchange information on daily basis, and is capable of providing real time progress reports for the whole project. MP-PBmice can be easily adapted for other large-scale insertional mutation mapping projects and the source code of this software is freely available at Conclusion MP-PBmice is a web-based application for large-scale insertional mutation mapping onto the mouse genome, implemented with the widely used framework Struts-Spring-Hibernate. This system is already in use by the on-going genome-wide PB insertional mutation mapping project at IDM, Fudan University. PMID:19958505



The mifepristone-inducible gene regulatory system in mouse models of disease and gene therapy.  


The mifepristone (Mfp)-inducible gene regulatory system is designed to allow control of the spatiotemporal expression of transgenes in vivo in a ligand-dependent manner. This regulatory system is composed of two components: (1) a chimeric transactivator protein that activates transgene transcription only in the presence of the progesterone antagonist Mfp, and (2) a target transgene placed in the context of a promoter which is responsive only to the Mfp-bound chimeric transactivator. Incorporation of the components of the Mfp-inducible gene regulatory system into transgenic mice has resulted in the establishment of several novel, Mfp-dependent models of disease. Similarly, adaptation of the Mfp-inducible system for use in gene knockout models has resulted in the development of new gene ablation technology which is both tissue-specific and Mfp-dependent. Additionally, the Mfp-inducible gene regulatory system has been used in animal experiments involving somatic gene therapy, where it has shown considerable promise in the regulation of both reporter and therapeutic gene expression. This review focuses on recent application of the Mfp-inducible system to transgenic models, gene knockout models, and somatic gene therapy experiments. In so doing, it demonstrates the considerable promise that future use of this system holds for better understanding and treatment of human disease. PMID:12240599

Ngan, Elly S W; Schillinger, Kurt; DeMayo, Francesco; Tsai, Sophia Y



Prenatal methylmercury exposure hampers glutathione antioxidant system ontogenesis and causes long-lasting oxidative stress in the mouse brain  

SciTech Connect

During the perinatal period, the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely sensitive to metals, including methylmercury (MeHg). Although the mechanism(s) associated with MeHg-induced developmental neurotoxicity remains obscure, several studies point to the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system as an important molecular target for this toxicant. To extend our recent findings of MeHg-induced GSH dyshomeostasis, the present study was designed to assess the developmental profile of the GSH antioxidant system in the mouse brain during the early postnatal period after in utero exposure to MeHg. Pregnant mice were exposed to different doses of MeHg (1, 3 and 10 mg/l, diluted in drinking water, ad libitum) during the gestational period. After delivery, pups were killed at different time points - postnatal days (PND) 1, 11 and 21 - and the whole brain was used for determining biochemical parameters related to the antioxidant GSH system, as well as mercury content and the levels of F{sub 2}-isoprostane. In control animals, cerebral GSH levels significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period; gestational exposure to MeHg caused a dose-dependent inhibition of this developmental event. Cerebral glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period in control animals; gestational MeHg exposure induced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both developmental phenomena. These adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure were corroborated by marked increases in cerebral F{sub 2}-isoprostanes levels at all time points. Significant negative correlations were found between F{sub 2}-isoprostanes and GSH, as well as between F{sub 2}-isoprostanes and GPx activity, suggesting that MeHg-induced disruption of the GSH system maturation is related to MeHg-induced increased lipid peroxidation in the pup brain. In utero MeHg exposure also caused a dose-dependent increase in the cerebral levels of mercury at birth. Even though the cerebral mercury concentration decreased to nearly basal levels at postnatal day 21, GSH levels, GPx and GR activities remained decreased in MeHg-exposed mice, indicating that prenatal exposure to MeHg affects the cerebral GSH antioxidant systems by inducing biochemical alterations that endure even when mercury tissue levels decrease and become indistinguishable from those noted in pups born to control dams. This study is the first to show that prenatal exposure to MeHg disrupts the postnatal development of the glutathione antioxidant system in the mouse brain, pointing to an additional molecular mechanism by which MeHg induces pro-oxidative damage in the developing CNS. Moreover, our experimental observation corroborates previous reports on the permanent functional deficits observed after prenatal MeHg exposure.

Stringari, James; Nunes, Adriana K.C.; Franco, Jeferson L. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Bohrer, Denise [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Solange C. [Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Dafre, Alcir L. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Milatovic, Dejan [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Souza, Diogo O. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rocha, Joao B.T. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Farina, Marcelo [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail:



Definition of the locus responsible for systemic carnitine deficiency within a 1.6-cM region of mouse chromosome 11 by detailed linkage analysis  

SciTech Connect

Carnitine is an essential cofactor for oxidation of mitochondrial fatty acids. Carnitine deficiency results in failure of energy production by mitochondria and leads to metabolic encephalopathy, lipid-storage myopathy, and cardiomyopathy. The juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse, an animal model of systemic carnitine deficiency, inherits the JVS phenotype in autosomal recessive fashion, through a mutant allele mapped to mouse chromosome 11. As a step toward identifying the gene responsible for JVS by positional cloning, we attempted to refine the jvs locus in the mouse by detailed linkage analysis with 13 microsatellite markers, using 190 backcross progeny. Among the 13 loci tested, 5 (defined by markers D11Mit24, D11Mit111,D11Nds9, D11Mit86, and D11Mit23) showed no recombination, with a maximum lod score of 52.38. Our results implied that the jvs gene can be sought on mouse chromosome 11 within a genetic distance no greater than about 1.6 cM. 21 refs., 2 figs.

Okita, Kohei; Tokino, Takashi; Nishimori, Hiroyuki [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)] [and others] [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); and others




EPA Science Inventory

Several studies have shown strain differences in allergic lung responses following ovalbumin (OVA) antigen sensitization and challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these differences were maintained between systemic and mucosal sensitization routes, and to ...


System for remote multichannel real-time monitoring of mouse ECG via the Internet  

E-print Network

A hardware/software system was developed to allow real-time monitoring of multiple physiological signals simultaneously via the Internet. The hardware is specifically designed for measuring ECG signals from mice, while the ...

Oefinger, Matthew Blake, 1976-



Conservation and divergence in the transcriptional programs of the human and mouse immune systems  

E-print Network

Much of the knowledge about cell differentiation and function in the immune system has come from studies in mice, but the relevance to human immunology, diseases, and therapy has been challenged, perhaps more from anecdotal ...

Shay, Tal


A robust and high-throughput Cre reporting and characterization system for the whole mouse brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cre\\/lox system is widely used in mice to achieve cell-type-specific gene expression. However, a strong and universally responding system to express genes under Cre control is still lacking. We have generated a set of Cre reporter mice with strong, ubiquitous expression of fluorescent proteins of different spectra. The robust native fluorescence of these reporters enables direct visualization of fine

Linda Madisen; Theresa A Zwingman; Susan M Sunkin; Seung Wook Oh; Hatim A Zariwala; Hong Gu; Lydia L Ng; Richard D Palmiter; Michael J Hawrylycz; Allan R Jones; Ed S Lein; Hongkui Zeng



Chronic administration of troxerutin protects mouse brain against d-galactose-induced impairment of cholinergic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous evidence showed that administration of d-galactose (d-gal) increased ROS production and resulted in impairment of cholinergic system. Troxerutin, a natural bioflavonoid, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of troxerutin against d-gal-induced impairment of cholinergic system, and explored the potential mechanism of its action. Our results displayed that

Jun Lu; Dong-mei Wu; Bin Hu; Wei Cheng; Yuan-lin Zheng; Zi-feng Zhang; Qin Ye; Shao-hua Fan; Qun Shan; Yong-jian Wang



Whole Mouse Cryo-Imaging  

PubMed Central

The Case cryo-imaging system is a section and image system which allows one to acquire micron-scale, information rich, whole mouse color bright field and molecular fluorescence images of an entire mouse. Cryo-imaging is used in a variety of applications, including mouse and embryo anatomical phenotyping, drug delivery, imaging agents, metastastic cancer, stem cells, and very high resolution vascular imaging, among many. Cryo-imaging fills the gap between whole animal in vivo imaging and histology, allowing one to image a mouse along the continuum from the mouse ? organ ? tissue structure ? cell ? sub-cellular domains. In this overview, we describe the technology and a variety of exciting applications. Enhancements to the system now enable tiled acquisition of high resolution images to cover an entire mouse. High resolution fluorescence imaging, aided by a novel subtraction processing algorithm to remove sub-surface fluorescence, makes it possible to detect fluorescently-labeled single cells. Multi-modality experiments in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cryo-imaging of a whole mouse demonstrate superior resolution of cryo-images and efficiency of registration techniques. The 3D results demonstrate the novel true-color volume visualization tools we have developed and the inherent advantage of cryo-imaging in providing unlimited depth of field and spatial resolution. The recent results continue to demonstrate the value cryo-imaging provides in the field of small animal imaging research. PMID:19756215

Wilson, David; Roy, Debashish; Steyer, Grant; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Stone, Meredith; McKinley, Eliot



The AERO System: A 3D-Like Approach for Recording Gene Expression Patterns in the Whole Mouse Embryo  

PubMed Central

We have recently constructed a web-based database of gene expression in the mouse whole embryo, EMBRYS ( To allow examination of gene expression patterns to the fullest extent possible, this database provides both photo images and annotation data. However, since embryos develop via an intricate process of morphogenesis, it would be of great value to track embryonic gene expression from a three dimensional perspective. In fact, several methods have been developed to achieve this goal, but highly laborious procedures and specific operational skills are generally required. We utilized a novel microscopic technique that enables the easy capture of rotational, 3D-like images of the whole embryo. In this method, a rotary head equipped with two mirrors that are designed to obtain an image tilted at 45 degrees to the microscope stage captures serial images at 2-degree intervals. By a simple operation, 180 images are automatically collected. These 2D images obtained at multiple angles are then used to reconstruct 3D-like images, termed AERO images. By means of this system, over 800 AERO images of 191 gene expression patterns were captured. These images can be easily rotated on the computer screen using the EMBRYS database so that researchers can view an entire embryo by a virtual viewing on a computer screen in an unbiased or non-predetermined manner. The advantages afforded by this approach make it especially useful for generating data viewed in public databases. PMID:24146773

Hashimoto, Megumi; Yokoyama, Shigetoshi; Takada, Shuji; Mitsuoka, Kazuhiko; Asahara, Hiroshi



Histology atlas of the developing mouse hepatobiliary system with emphasis on embryonic days 9.5-18.5.  


Animal model phenotyping, in utero exposure toxicity studies, and investigation into causes of embryonic, fetal, or perinatal deaths have required pathologists to recognize and diagnose developmental disorders in spontaneous and engineered mouse models of disease. In mammals, the liver is the main site of hematopoiesis during fetal development, has endocrine and exocrine functions important for maintaining homeostasis in fetal and adult life; and performs other functions including waste detoxification, production and removal of glucose, glycogen storage, triglyceride and fatty acid processing, and serum protein production. Due to its role in many critical functions, alterations in the size, morphology, or function(s) of the liver often lead to embryonic lethality. Many publications and websites describe individual aspects of hepatobiliary development at defined stages. However, no single resource provides a detailed histological evaluation of H&E-stained sections of the developing murine liver and biliary systems using high-magnification and high-resolution color images. The work herein provides a histology atlas of hepatobiliary development between embryonic days 9.5-18.5. Although the focus of this work is normal hepatobiliary development, common defects in liver development are also described as a reference for pathologists who may be asked to phenotype mice with congenital, inherited, or treatment-related hepatobiliary defects. Authors' note: All digital images can be viewed online at with the username "ToxPathLiver" and the password "embryolivers." PMID:20805319

Crawford, Laura Wilding; Foley, Julie F; Elmore, Susan A



Systemic Delivery of MeCP2 Rescues Behavioral and Cellular Deficits in Female Mouse Models of Rett Syndrome  

PubMed Central

De novo mutations in the X-linked gene encoding the transcription factor methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) are the most frequent cause of the neurological disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). Hemizygous males usually die of neonatal encephalopathy. Heterozygous females survive into adulthood but exhibit severe symptoms including microcephaly, loss of purposeful hand motions and speech, and motor abnormalities, which appear after a period of apparently normal development. Most studies have focused on male mouse models because of the shorter latency to and severity in symptoms, yet how well these mice mimic the disease in affected females is not clear. Very few therapeutic treatments have been proposed for females, the more gender-appropriate model. Here, we show that self-complementary AAV9, bearing MeCP2 cDNA under control of a fragment of its own promoter (scAAV9/MeCP2), is capable of significantly stabilizing or reversing symptoms when administered systemically into female RTT mice. To our knowledge, this is the first potential gene therapy for females afflicted with RTT. PMID:23966684

Garg, Saurabh K.; Lioy, Daniel T.; Cheval, Helene; McGann, James C.; Bissonnette, John M.; Murtha, Matthew J.; Foust, Kevin D.; Kaspar, Brian K.; Bird, Adrian



Impact of early life ovariectomy on blood pressure and body composition in a female mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus.  


Because of the preponderance of women affected by the chronic autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), estrogen is thought to contribute to SLE disease progression. This is supported by evidence from experimental animal models of SLE showing that removal of estrogen in young female mice delays autoantibody production and renal injury and lengthens survival. Blood pressure and changes in body composition are important cardiovascular risk factors that can be regulated by estrogens. Because cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with SLE, we used an established female mouse model of SLE (NZBWF1) to test whether early life removal of estrogen impacts the development of hypertension and changes in body composition commonly associated with SLE. Eight-week-old female SLE and control mice (NZW/LacJ) underwent either a sham operation or ovariectomy. Body weight, body composition (fat and lean masses), and renal injury (albuminuria) were monitored until mice reached 34 wk of age, at which time mean arterial pressure was assessed in conscious animals by a carotid catheter. Early life removal of the ovaries delayed the onset of autoantibody production and albuminuria while causing an increase in body weight and fat mass. Blood pressure in the adult was not altered by early life removal of the ovaries. These data suggest that estrogens may have a permissive role for the development of SLE while helping to maintain normal body weight and composition, which is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. PMID:25324553

Gilbert, Emily L; Ryan, Michael J



Adenosine 5' triphosphate evoked mobilization of intracellular calcium in central nervous system white matter of adult mouse optic nerve.  


Although it has been established that immature glial cells express functional purinergic receptors, the responsiveness of mature glial cells in vivo had not been elucidated. This question was addressed using fura-2 ratiometric measurements of [Ca2+]i in the adult mouse optic nerve, a central nervous system (CNS) white matter tract, taking advantage of the facts that (i), the optic nerve contains glial cells but not neurons and (ii), that fura-2 loads primarily astrocytes in isolated intact optic nerves. We show that adenosine 5' triphosphate (ATP) evoked an increase in [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner with a half-maximal effect at 3 microm ATP, and with a rank order of agonist potency of ATP > ADP > alpha,beta-methyline-ATP > UDP > adenosine. The results indicate mainly P2Y and P2X components, consistent with the in vitro astroglial purinergic receptor profile. The in vivo response of mature glia to ATP may be important in their response to CNS damage. PMID:10400076

James, G; Butt, A M



Promoting Myelination in an In Vitro Mouse Model of the Peripheral Nerve System: The Effect of Wine Ingredients  

PubMed Central

Protective properties of moderate wine consumption against cancers, cardiovascular, metabolic and degenerative diseases have been reported in various clinical studies. Here, we analysed the effect of red wine (RW) and white wine (WW) on myelination using an in vitro embryonic co-culture mouse model. The total amount of myelin was found to be significantly increased after RW and WW treatment, while only RW significantly increased the number of internodes. Both types of wine increased rat Schwann cell- (rSC) expression of the NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-two-homolog 2 (Sirt2), a protein known to be involved in myelination. Detailed chemical analysis of RW revealed a broad spectrum of anthocyanins, piceids, and phenolics, including resveratrol (RSV). In our assay system RSV in low concentrations induced myelination. Furthermore RSV raised intracellular glutathione concentrations in rSCs and in co-cultures and therefore augmented antioxidant capacity. We conclude that wine promotes myelination in a rodent in vitro model by controlling intracellular metabolism and SC plasticity. During this process, RSV exhibits protective properties; however, the fostering effect on myelinaton during exposure to wine appears to be a complex interaction of various compounds. PMID:23762469

Stettner, Mark; Wolffram, Kathleen; Mausberg, Anne K.; Albrecht, Philipp; Derksen, Angelika; Methner, Axel; Dehmel, Thomas; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Dietrich, Helmut; Kieseier, Bernd C.



Alpinia katsumadai Hayata prevents mouse sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture through promoting bacterial clearance and downregulating systemic inflammation.  


Sepsis continues to be a challenge in clinic. Therapeutic strategies focus on local host defenses and the inhibition of overwhelming inflammation response. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects and the underlying mechanisms of the ethanol extract of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata seeds (EAKH) on polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice. It was shown that oral administration of EAKH at 1 h before and 2 h after CLP significantly elevated the survival rate and the mean arterial pressure of mice. Histological examination and serum ALT/AST assessment demonstrated that EAKH protected the animals from lung and liver tissue injury and dysfunction. Although EAKH was devoid of direct bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal activities, it facilitated peritoneal bacteria clearance and increased leukocyte migration into peritoneal cavity of septic mice. Furthermore, EAKH remarkably decreased serum pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and NO) levels in septic mice. These findings demonstrated that EAKH has preventive effects on mouse sepsis induced by CLP, which may be attributed to elevating local defense via promoting leukocyte migration to infection focus and attenuating systemic inflammation. PMID:18844287

Yang, Jian; Dai, Yue; Xia, Yu-Feng; Huang, Wen-Zhe; Wang, Zheng-Tao



Comparative systems biology of human and mouse as a tool to guide the modeling of human placental pathology  

PubMed Central

Placental abnormalities are associated with two of the most common and serious complications of human pregnancy, maternal preeclampsia (PE) and fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), each disorder affecting ?5% of all pregnancies. An important question for the use of the mouse as a model for studying human disease is the degree of functional conservation of genetic control pathways from human to mouse. The human and mouse placenta show structural similarities, but there have been no systematic attempts to assess their molecular similarities or differences. We collected protein and mRNA expression data through shot-gun proteomics and microarray expression analysis of the highly vascular exchange region, microdissected from the human and mouse near-term placenta. Over 7000 ortholog genes were detected with 70% co-expressed in both species. Close to 90% agreement was found between our human proteomic results and 1649 genes assayed by immunohistochemistry for expression in the human placenta in the Human Protein Atlas. Interestingly, over 80% of genes known to cause placental phenotypes in mouse are co-expressed in human. Several of these phenotype-associated proteins form a tight protein–protein interaction network involving 15 known and 34 novel candidate proteins also likely important in placental structure and/or function. The entire data are available as a web-accessible database to guide the informed development of mouse models to study human disease. PMID:19536202

Cox, Brian; Kotlyar, Max; Evangelou, Andreas I; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Ignatchenko, Alex; Whiteley, Kathie; Jurisica, Igor; Adamson, S Lee; Rossant, Janet; Kislinger, Thomas



Atmosphere behavior in gas-closed mouse-algal systems: an experimental and modelling study.  


Concepts of biologically-based regenerative life support systems anticipate the use of photosynthetic organisms for air revitalization. However, mismatches in the rates of production and uptake of oxygen or carbon dioxide between the crew and the plants will lead to an accumulation or depletion of these gases beyond tolerable limits. One method for correcting these atmospheric changes is to use physiochemical devices. This would conflict with the constraint of minimal size and weight imposed upon the successful development of a competitive bioregenerative system. An alternate control strategy is based upon reducing the gas exchange mismatch by manipulation of those environmental parameters known to affect plant or algae gas exchange ratios. We have initiated a research program using a dual approach of mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere. Our goal is to develop control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels. A mathematical model simulating the atmospheric behavior in these systems has been developed and an experimental gas-closed system has been constructed. These will be described and preliminary results will be presented. PMID:11537780

Averner, M M; Moore B 3rd; Bartholomew, I; Wharton, R



OMR-Arena: Automated Measurement and Stimulation System to Determine Mouse Visual Thresholds Based on Optomotor Responses  

PubMed Central

Measurement of the optomotor response is a common way to determine thresholds of the visual system in animals. Particularly in mice, it is frequently used to characterize the visual performance of different genetically modified strains or to test the effect of various drugs on visual performance. Several methods have been developed to facilitate the presentation of stimuli using computer screens or projectors. Common methods are either based on the measurement of eye movement during optokinetic reflex behavior or rely on the measurement of head and/or body-movements during optomotor responses. Eye-movements can easily and objectively be quantified, but their measurement requires invasive fixation of the animals. Head movements can be observed in freely moving animals, but until now depended on the judgment of a human observer who reported the counted tracking movements of the animal during an experiment. In this study we present a novel measurement and stimulation system based on open source building plans and software. This system presents appropriate 360 stimuli while simultaneously video-tracking the animal's head-movements without fixation. The on-line determined head gaze is used to adjust the stimulus to the head position, as well as to automatically calculate visual acuity. Exemplary, we show that automatically measured visual response curves of mice match the results obtained by a human observer very well. The spatial acuity thresholds yielded by the automatic analysis are also consistent with the human observer approach and with published results. Hence, OMR-arena provides an affordable, convenient and objective way to measure mouse visual performance. PMID:24260105

Kretschmer, Friedrich; Kretschmer, Viola; Kunze, Vincent P.; Kretzberg, Jutta



Digestive System general organization throughout  

E-print Network

's diverticulum large intestine cecum vermiform appendix colon (ileocecal valve, ascending, right colic flexure notch fundus body, lesser and greater curvatures pylorus small intestine duodenum jejunum ileum Meckel

Houde, Peter


Problems of the Digestive System  


... are available that may help reduce your symptoms. Antacids reduce the acid content in the stomach. Other ... cancer • have had colon polyps • have a family history of familial adenomatous polyposis or hereditary nonpolyposis colon ...


Stability Analysis of Large Scale Networks of Autono-mous Work Systems with Delays  

E-print Network

. Production Planning and Control (PPC) has become more challenging as manufac- turing companies adapt to a fast changing market [12]-[14]. Current PPC methods often do not deal with unplanned orders and other. Understanding the dynamic na- #12;3 ture of production systems requires new approaches for the design of PPC

Dashkovskiy, Sergey


Rapid changes on nitrinergic system in female mouse hippocampus during the ovarian cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluctuating levels of estradiol and progesterone during the estrous cycle may induce structural changes in several brain nuclei including the hippocampus, where some neurons express estrogen receptors. Nitric oxide plays a wide range of functions in the nervous system generally by acting as a neurotransmitter-like molecule. It has been demonstrated that long-term treatments with estradiol in ovariectomized females and with

Stefano Gotti; Mariangela Martini; Monica Pradotto; Carla Viglietti-Panzica; GianCarlo Panzica




EPA Science Inventory

Under a mandate of national environmental laws, the agency strives to formulate and implement actions leading to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life. The Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory is responsible ...


Spatiotemporal Fate Map of Neurogenin1 (Neurog1) Lineages in the Mouse Central Nervous System  

E-print Network

factor; neural progenitor; brain development; genetic fate mapping; Ngn1 The central nervous system (CNS and extensive migration of neuronal precursors, it has been challenging to understand the full comple- ment and contribute to diverse but discrete populations in each brain region. In the forebrain, Neurog1 lineages

Goodrich, Lisa V.


The effect of very low food intake on digestive physiology and forage digestibility in horses.  


Equid digestion is often conceptualized as a high-throughput/low-efficiency system, in particular compared with ruminants. It is commonly assumed that ruminants have an advantage when resources are limited; the effect of low food intake on digestive physiology of horses has, however, not been explored to our knowledge. We used four adult ponies [initial body mass (BM) 288 ± 65 kg] in two subsequent trials with grass hay-only diets [in dry matter (DM): hay1, mid-early cut, crude protein (CP) 10.5%, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) 67.6%; hay2, late cut, CP 5.8%, NDF 69.5%], each fed subsequently at four different dry matter intake (DMI) levels: ad libitum and at 75, 55 and 30 g/kg(0.75) /day. We particularly expected digesta mean retention times (MRT) to increase, and hence fibre digestibility to increase, with decreasing DMI. Ponies maintained BM on the first, but lost BM and body condition on DMI55 and DMI30. MRTs were negatively correlated to DMI and ranged (for particles <2 mm) from 23/31 h (hay1/2) on the ad libitum to 38/48 h on DMI30. Digestibilities of DM, nutrients and fibre components decreased from DMI75 to DMI30; apparent digestibilities of organic matter and NDF (hay1/2) dropped from 47/43% and 42/37%, respectively, on the ad libitum DMI to 35/35% and 30/28% on DMI30. Additional differences evident between the two hays included a higher estimated 'true' protein digestibility for hay1 and finer faecal particles on hay2; there were no differences in faecal particle size between intake levels. The results suggest that below a certain food intake threshold, the major digestive constraint is not fermentation time but nutrient supply to gut bacteria. The threshold for such an effect probably varies between feeds and might differ between ruminants and equids. PMID:23402587

Clauss, M; Schiele, K; Ortmann, S; Fritz, J; Codron, D; Hummel, J; Kienzle, E



Effect of Farnesol on a Mouse Model of Systemic Candidiasis, Determined by Use of a DPP3 Knockout Mutant of Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work extends our previous observation that the fungus Candida albicans secretes micromolar levels of farnesol and that accumulation of farnesol in vitro prevents the yeast-to-mycelium conversion in a quorumsensing manner. What does farnesol do in vivo? The purpose of this study was to determine the role of farnesol during infection with a well-established mouse model of systemic candidiasis with

Dhammika H. M. L. P. Navarathna; Jacob M. Hornby; Navasona Krishnan; Anne M. Parkhurst; Gerald E. Duhamel; Kenneth Nickerson



A Brain Site for the Antigonadal Action of Melatonin in the White-Footed Mouse (Peromyscus (leucopus): Involvement of the Immunoreactive GnRH Neuronal System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative assessment of immunocytochemical staining for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was undertaken to determine the effects of an intracranial implant of melatonin on the GnRH neuronal system in the male white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). Melatonin-containing pellets stereotaxically placed in the anterior hypothalamic area (AH) caused a 60% reduction in testes weight relative to control mice with melatonin-free pellets in the AH

David Glass; Lori K. Knotts



Modulation of the basal ganglia dopaminergic system in a transgenic mouse exhibiting dystonia-like features  

PubMed Central

Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary excessive muscle activity and abnormal postures. There are data supporting the hypothesis that basal ganglia dysfunction, and specifically dopaminergic system dysfunction, plays a role in dystonia. In the present study, we used hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and compared the basal ganglia dopaminergic system between transgenic mice exhibiting hyperkinesia (affected) transgenic mice not showing movement abnormalities (unaffected), and non-transgenic littermates A decrease in the density of striatal D2 binding sites, measured by [3H]raclopride binding, and D2 mRNA expression in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) was revealed in affected an unaffected transgenic mice when compared with non-transgenic. No difference in D1 receptor binding and DAT binding, measured by [3H]SCH23390 and [3H]WIN35428 binding, respectively, was found in striatum of transgenic animals. In SNpc, increased levels of DAT binding sites were observed in affected and unaffected animals compared to non-transgenic, whereas no change in DAT mRNA expression was found. Our results show selective neurochemical changes in the basal ganglia dopaminergic system, suggesting a possible involvement in the pathophysiology of dystonialike motor hyperactivity. PMID:21136125

Giannakopoulou, D.; Armata, I. A.; Mitsacos, A.; Shashidharan, P.; Giompres, P.



Systemic inflammation is associated with a reduction in Synaptopodin expression in the mouse hippocampus.  


Systemic inflammation is known to affect memory function through the activation of immune cells and the release of inflammatory cytokines. However, the neuronal targets by which inflammatory signaling pathways affect synaptic plasticity remain not well understood. Here, we addressed the question of whether systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation influences the expression of Synaptopodin (SP). SP is an actin-binding protein, which is considered to control the ability of neurons to express synaptic plasticity by regulating the actin-cytoskeleton and/or intracellular Ca(2+) stores. This makes SP an interesting target molecule in the context of inflammation-induced alterations in synaptic plasticity. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR)-analysis and immunohistochemistry we here demonstrate that intraperitoneal LPS-injection in two-month old male Balb/c mice leads to a reduction in hippocampal SP-levels (area CA1; 24h after injection). These changes are accompanied by a defect in the ability to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) of Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, similar to what is observed in SP-deficient mice. We therefore propose that systemic inflammation could exert its effects on neural plasticity, at least in part, through the down-regulation of SP in vivo. PMID:24837317

Strehl, Andreas; Lenz, Maximilian; Itsekson-Hayosh, Zeev; Becker, Denise; Chapman, Joab; Deller, Thomas; Maggio, Nicola; Vlachos, Andreas



A new x-ray computed tomography system for laboratory mouse imaging  

SciTech Connect

Two versions of a new high-resolution x-ray computed tomography system are being developed to screen mutagenized mice in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Mammalian Genetics Research Facility. The first prototype employs a single-pixel cadmium zinc telluride detector with a pinhole collimator operating in pulse counting mode. The second version employs a phosphor screen/CCD detector operating in current mode. The major system hardware includes a low-energy X-ray tube, two linear translation stages and a rotational stage. For the single-pixel detector, image resolution is determined by the step size of the detector stage; preliminary images have been acquired at 100 {micro}m and 250 {micro}m resolutions. The resolution of the phosphor screen detector is determined by the modulation transfer function of the phosphor screen; images with resolutions approaching 50 {micro}m have been acquired. The system performance with the two detectors is described and recent images are presented.

Paulus, M.J.; Sari-Sarraf, H.; Gleason, S.S.; Bobrek, M.; Hicks, J.S.; Johnson, D.K.; Behel, J.K.; Thompson, L.H.; Allen, W.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)



Osteoblasts isolated from mouse calvaria initiate matrix mineralization in culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for isolating osteoblasts from newborn mouse calvaria without the use of digestive enzymes. The procedure is based on the ability of osteoblasts to migrate from bone onto small glass fragments (Jones, S. J., and A. Boyde, 1977, Cell Tissue Res., 184:179-193). The isolated cells were cultured for up to 14 d in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium




Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.


Molecular and cellular neuroinflammatory status of mouse brain after systemic lipopolysaccharide challenge: importance of CCR2/CCL2 signaling  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic and environmental factors are critical elements influencing the etiology of major depression. It is now accepted that neuroinflammatory processes play a major role in neuropsychological disorders. Neuroinflammation results from the dysregulation of the synthesis and/or release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines with central or peripheral origin after various insults. Systemic bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge is commonly used to study inflammation-induced depressive-like behaviors in rodents. In the present study, we investigated immune-to-brain communication in mice by examining the effects of peripheral LPS injection on neuroinflammation encompassing cytokine and chemokine production, microglia and central nervous system (CNS)-associated phagocyte activation, immune cell infiltration and serotonergic neuronal function. Methods LPS was administered to C57BL/6 J mice by intraperitoneal injection; brains were collected and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA and proteins were measured. To examine the relative contribution of the different populations of brain immune cells to the occurrence of neuroinflammation after acute systemic inflammation, we precisely characterized them by flow cytometry, studied changes in their proportions and level of activation, and measured the amount of cytokines they released by Cytometric Bead Array™ after cell sorting and ex vivo culture. Because of the central role that the chemokine CCL2 seems to play in our paradigm, we studied the effect of CCL2 on the activity of serotonergic neurons of the raphe nucleus using electrophysiological recordings. Results We report that systemic LPS administration in mice caused a marked increase in pro-inflammatory IL-1?, IL-6, TNF? and CCL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) mRNA and protein levels in the brain. Moreover, we found that LPS caused microglia and CNS-associated phagocyte activation characterized by upregulation of CCR2, TLR4/CD14, CD80 and IL-4R?, associated with overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, especially CCL2. LPS also induced a marked and selective increase of CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes within the brain. Finally, we showed that CCL2 hyperpolarized serotonergic raphe neurons in mouse midbrain slices, thus probably reducing the serotonin tone in projection areas. Conclusion Together, we provide a detailed characterization of the molecular and cellular players involved in the establishment of neuroinflammation after systemic injection of LPS. This highlights the importance of the CCL2/CCR2 signaling and suggests a possible link with depressive disorders. PMID:25065370



Effect of type 2 cell mitosis on the surfactant system of injured mouse lungs  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to evaluate the effect of type 2 cell proliferation, and specifically mitosis, on the surfactant system after lung injury. Lung injury was produced in mice with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The lamellar body (LB) volume density and the LB area of tritiated thymidine (/sup 3/H-T) labeled and mitotic type 2 cells were determined by combining light microscopic autoradiography with electron microscopic morphometry. Over a 48-hour period, the LB volume density of proliferating (/sup 3/H-T-labeled) type 2 cells decreased from 20.7% to 7.6% and the LB area per cell decreased from 9.1 to 2.4 2/. These changes were closely related to type 2 cell mitosis, since the LB volume density decreased from 19.2% to 2.9% and the LB area per cell decreased from 9.1 to 1.7 m/sup 2/ between prophase and telophase, but they were independent of the time elapsed since injury. These results indicate that mitosis influenced the LB content of type 2 cells after lung injury and suggest a previously unrecognized link between cell division and the surfactant system of the lung. 38 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

Smith, L.J.



A Sensitive Assay System To Test Antisense Oligonucleotides for Splice Suppression Therapy in the Mouse Liver  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated the efficacy of antisense therapy for splicing defects in cellular models of metabolic diseases, suppressing the use of cryptic splice sites or pseudoexon insertions. To date, no animal models with these defects are available. Here, we propose exon skipping of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (Pah) gene expressed in liver and kidney to generate systemic hyperphenylalaninemia in mice as a sensitive in vivo assay to test splice suppression. Systemic elevation of blood L-Phe can be quantified using tandem MS/MS. Exon 11 and/or 12 skipping for the normal PAH gene was validated in hepatoma cells for comparing two oligonucleotide chemistries, morpholinos and locked nucleic acids. Subsequently, Vivo-morpholinos (VMO) were tested in wild-type and in phenotypically normal Pahenu2/+ heterozygous mice to target exon 11 and/or 12 of the murine Pah gene using different VMO dosing, mode of injection and treatment regimes. Consecutive intravenous injections of VMO resulted in transient hyperphenylalaninemia correlating with complete exon skipping and absence of PAH protein and enzyme activity. Sustained effect required repeated injection of VMOs. Our results provide not only a sensitive in vivo assay to test for splice-modulating antisense oligonucleotides, but also a simple method to generate murine models for genetic liver diseases. PMID:25226162

Gallego-Villar, Lorena; Viecelli, Hiu Man; Perez, Belen; Harding, Cary O; Ugarte, Magdalena; Thony, Beat; Desviat, Lourdes R



Establishment of a quantitative PCR system for discriminating chitinase-like proteins: catalytically inactive breast regression protein-39 and Ym1 are constitutive genes in mouse lung  

PubMed Central

Background Mice and humans produce chitinase-like proteins (CLPs), which are highly homologous to chitinases but lack chitinolytic activity. Mice express primarily three CLPs, including breast regression protein-39 (BRP-39) [chitinase 3-like-1 (Chi3l1) or 38-kDa glycoprotein (gp38k)], Ym1 (Chi3l3) and Ym2 (Chi3l4). Recently, CLPs have attracted considerable attention due to their increased expression in a number of pathological conditions, including asthma, allergies, rheumatoid arthritis and malignant tumors. Although the exact functions of CLPs are largely unknown, the significance of their increased expression levels during pathophysiological states needs to be determined. The quantification of BRP-39, Ym1 and Ym2 is an important step in gaining insight into the in vivo regulation of the CLPs. Methods We constructed a standard DNA for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) by containing three CLPs target fragments and five reference genes cDNA in a one-to-one ratio. We evaluated this system by analyzing the eight target cDNA sequences. Tissue cDNAs obtained by reverse transcription from total RNA from four embryonic stages and eight adult tissues were analyzed using the qPCR system with the standard DNA. Results We established a qPCR system detecting CLPs and comparing their expression levels with those of five reference genes using the same scale in mouse tissues. We found that BRP-39 and Ym1 were abundant in the mouse lung, whereas Ym2 mRNA was abundant in the stomach, followed by lung. The expression levels of BRP-39 and Ym1 in the mouse lung were higher than those of two active chitinases and were comparable to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a housekeeping gene which is constitutively expressed in all tissues. Conclusion Our results indicate that catalytically inactive BRP-39 and Ym1 are constitutive genes in normal mouse lung. PMID:25294623



Enhanced anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge digestion by the addition of zero valent iron.  


Anaerobic digestion is promising technology to recover energy from waste activated sludge. However, the sludge digestion is limited by its low efficiency of hydrolysis-acidification. Zero valent iron (ZVI) as a reducing material is expected to enhance anaerobic process including the hydrolysis-acidification process. Considering that, ZVI was added into an anaerobic sludge digestion system to accelerate the sludge digestion in this study. The results indicated that ZVI effectively enhanced the decomposition of protein and cellulose, the two main components of the sludge. Compared to the control test without ZVI, the degradation of protein increased 21.9% and the volatile fatty acids production increased 37.3% with adding ZVI. More acetate and less propionate are found during the hydrolysis-acidification with ZVI. The activities of several key enzymes in the hydrolysis and acidification increased 0.6-1 time. ZVI made the methane production raise 43.5% and sludge reduction ratio increase 12.2 percent points. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the abundances of hydrogen-consuming microorganisms including homoacetogens and hydrogenotrophic methanogens with ZVI were higher than the control, which reduced the H2 accumulation to create a beneficial condition for the sludge digestion in thermodynamics. PMID:24275106

Feng, Yinghong; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Suo



Breakdown of B cell tolerance in a mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus.  


Anti-DNA antibodies, specifically those that stain nuclei in a homogenous nuclear (HN) fashion, are diagnostic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the MRL-lpr/lpr SLE murine model. We have used a heavy chain transgene that increases the frequency of anti-HN antibodies to address whether their production in SLE is the consequence of a defect in B cell tolerance. Anti-HN B cells were undetectable in nonautoimmune-prone transgenic mice, but in MRL-lpr/lpr transgenic mice their Ig was evident in the sera and they were readily retrievable as hybridomas. We conclude that nonautoimmune animals actively delete anti-HN-specific B cells, and that MRL-lpr/lpr mice are defective in this process possibly because of the lpr defect in the fas gene. PMID:7532679

Roark, J H; Kuntz, C L; Nguyen, K A; Caton, A J; Erikson, J



Serotonergic systems are implicated in antinociceptive effect of m-trifluoromethyl diphenyl diselenide in the mouse glutamate test.  


The organoselenium compound m-trifluoromethyl diphenyl diselenide (m-CF3-PhSe)2 has antinociceptive actions in several animal models, which are mediated by interaction with endogenous opioid systems. It also shows antidepressant-like action mediated by both opioid and serotonergic systems. Considering that serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in the descending control of pain, this study further investigated the role of serotonergic systems in the antinociceptive action of (m-CF3-PhSe)2 in the glutamate-induced licking behavior model in mice. (m-CF3-PhSe)2 (1-50mg/kg, p.o.), morphine (2.5mg/kg, s.c.) or paroxetine (5mg/kg, i.p.) reduced glutamate-induced nociception. Selective 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, WAY100635 (0.7mg/kg, i.p.) and ketanserin (0.3mg/kg, i.p.), but not the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), prevented the antinociceptive effect of (m-CF3-PhSe)2 (10mg/kg) in the glutamate test. In biochemical studies, (m-CF3-PhSe)2 (10 and 50mg/kg) decreased [(3)H]5-HT uptake in crude synaptosomes of mouse brains and slightly inhibited in vitro [(3)H]5-HT binding. In kinetic studies, the selenium (Se) distribution was determined at different time points after the administration of (m-CF3-PhSe)2 (500mg/kg, p.o.) to mice. After 30min, a high amount of Se was found in liver and kidneys, followed by the lung, red blood cells, serum and brain. A significant amount of Se accumulated in fat over the course of 8h. Urine was an important route of Se excretion originating from (m-CF3-PhSe)2. Collectively, results of this study indicate an involvement of the serotonergic systems in the antinociceptive effect of (m-CF3-PhSe)2 and a wide distribution of Se derived from this compound. PMID:25135115

Brüning, César Augusto; Gai, Bibiana Mozzaquatro; Soares, Suelen Mendonça; Martini, Franciele; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne



Children and Grief. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the death of a loved one brings grief to children as well as adults, this Digest draws on research to examine how children respond to death and the role of parents and teachers in helping children cope with loss. The Digest delineates children's "tasks" during mourning that are essential to their adjustment to loss, such as accepting…

McEntire, Nancy


Anaerobic digestion of high-strength cheese whey utilizing semicontinuous digesters and chemical flocculant addition  

SciTech Connect

Semicontinuous digesters were used to anaerobically treat high-strength whey (70 kg/cubic m COD). A maximum loading of 16.1 kg COD/cubic m/day was obtained with soluble COD removal efficiencies greater than 99%. The use of a chemical flocculant resulted in an increased biomass concentration in the digester compared to a control, thus enabling correspondingly higher space loadings to be applied. With the onset of substantial levels of granulation of the biomass, flocculant dosage was able to be discontinued. This article discusses the performance of the digesters in detail and, briefly, the long-term operational difficulties experienced and the control strategies employed on such systems. 24 references.

Barford, J.P.; Cail, R.G.; Callander, I.J.; Floyd, E.J.



Mouse A-myb encodes a trans-activator and is expressed in mitotically active cells of the developing central nervous system, adult testis and B lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

C-myb encodes a transcriptional activator that is essential for the development of the hematopoietic system but appears to lack major roles in non-hematopoietic cells. The identification of two conserved myb-related genes, designated A-myb and B-myb, has raised the possibility that these genes are functional equivalents of c-myb in non-hematopoietic cells. Here, we report the isolation and preliminary characterization of the mouse A-myb gene. Mouse A-myb maps to the proximal region of chromosome 1 and encodes a transcriptional activator with properties similar to those of the c-myb and v-myb proteins. During embryo-genesis A-myb is predominantly expressed in several regions of the developing central nervous system (CNS) and the urogenital ridge. Expression in the CNS is confined to the neural tube, the hindbrain, the neural retina and the olfactory epithelium, and coincides with the presence of proliferating immature neuronal precursor cells. In the adult mouse, A-myb is expressed during the early stages of sperm cell differentiation and in B lymphocytes located in germinal centers of the spleen. Taken together, these results suggest a role for A-myb in the proliferation and/or differentiation of neurogenic, spermatogenic and B-lymphoid cells. Images PMID:7813437

Trauth, K; Mutschler, B; Jenkins, N A; Gilbert, D J; Copeland, N G; Klempnauer, K H



Local and systemic tolerability of a 2'O-methoxyethyl antisense oligonucleotide targeting interleukin-4 receptor-? delivery by inhalation in mouse and monkey.  


Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) bind and facilitate degradation of RNA and inhibit protein expression in pathways not easily targeted with small molecules or antibodies. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 potentiate signaling through the shared IL-4 receptor-? (IL-4R?) subunit of their receptors. ASO targeting of IL-4R? mRNA in a mouse model of asthma led to attenuation of airway hyperactivity, demonstrating potential benefit in asthma patients. This study focused on tolerability of inhaled IL-4R?-targeting ASOs. Toxicity studies were performed with mouse- (ISIS 23189) and human-specific (ISIS 369645) sequences administered by inhalation. Four week (monkey) or 13 week (mouse) repeat doses at levels of up to 15 mg/kg/exposure (exp) and 50 mg/kg/exp, respectively, demonstrated dose-dependent effects limited to increases in macrophage size and number in lung and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. The changes were largely non-specific, reflecting adaptive responses that occur during active exposure and deposition of ASO and other material in the lung. Reversibility was observed at a rate consistent with the kinetics of tissue clearance of ASO. Systemic bioavailability was minimal, and no systemic toxicity was observed at exposure levels appreciably above pharmacological doses and doses proposed for clinical trials. PMID:24932560

Fey, Robert A; Templin, Michael V; McDonald, Jacob D; Yu, Rosie Z; Hutt, Julie A; Gigliotti, Andrew P; Henry, Scott P; Reed, Matthew D



Spread of Oropouche Virus into the Central Nervous System in Mouse  

PubMed Central

Oropouche virus (OROV) is an important cause of arboviral illness in Brazil and other Latin American countries, with most cases clinically manifested as acute febrile illness referred to as Oropouche fever, including myalgia, headache, arthralgia and malaise. However, OROV can also affect the central nervous system (CNS) with clinical neurological implications. Little is known regarding OROV pathogenesis, especially how OROV gains access to the CNS. In the present study, neonatal BALB/c mice were inoculated with OROV by the subcutaneous route and the progression of OROV spread into the CNS was evaluated. Immunohistochemistry revealed that OROV infection advances from posterior parts of the brain, including the periaqueductal gray, toward the forebrain. In the early phases of the infection OROV gains access to neural routes, reaching the spinal cord and ascending to the brain through brainstem regions, with little inflammation. Later, as infection progresses, OROV crosses the blood-brain barrier, resulting in more intense spread into the brain parenchyma, with more severe manifestations of encephalitis. PMID:25310583

Santos, Rodrigo I.; Bueno-Junior, Lezio S.; Ruggiero, Rafael N.; Almeida, Mariana F.; Silva, Maria L.; Paula, Flavia E.; Correa, Vani M. A.; Arruda, Eurico



Functional macrophage heterogeneity in a mouse model of autoimmune central nervous system pathology.  


Functional macrophage heterogeneity is well appreciated outside the CNS in wound healing and cancer, and was recently also demonstrated in several CNS compartments after "sterile" insults. Yet, such heterogeneity was largely overlooked in the context of inflammatory autoimmune pathology, in which macrophages were mainly associated with disease induction and propagation. In this article, we show the diversity of monocyte-derived macrophages along the course of experimental autoimmune uveitis, an inflammatory condition affecting the ocular system, serving as a model for CNS autoimmune pathology. Disease induction resulted in the appearance of a distinct myeloid population in the retina, and in the infiltration of monocyte-derived macrophages that were absent from control eyes. During the disease course, the frequency of CX3CR1(high) infiltrating macrophages that express markers associated with inflammation-resolving activity was increased, along with a decrease in the frequency of inflammation-associated Ly6C(+) macrophages. Inhibition of monocyte infiltration at the induction phase of experimental autoimmune uveitis prevented disease onset, whereas monocyte depletion at the resolution phase resulted in a decrease in Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and in exacerbated disease. Thus, monocyte-derived macrophages display distinct phenotypes throughout the disease course, even in an immune-induced pathology, reflecting their differential roles in disease induction and resolution. PMID:23447691

London, Anat; Benhar, Inbal; Mattapallil, Mary J; Mack, Matthias; Caspi, Rachel R; Schwartz, Michal



Pentagastrin-stimulated DNA synthesis in mouse gut is influenced by the circadian system.  


Gastrin is trophic for rodent gut mucosa. Proglumide, a competitive inhibitor of gastrin, can exert an antitrophic effect and can block pentagastrin-stimulated DNA synthesis. We have examined the influence of the circadian system on pentagastrin-stimulated DNA synthesis in the murine stomach (glandular and nonglandular stomach) and colon. We studied 224 male CD2F1 mice divided into four groups. Group A was ad lib fed (controls). Groups B, C, and D received 6-9 intraperitoneal injections of either NaCl, pentagastrin or pentagastrin + proglumide, at 8-h intervals prior to sacrifice. Mice from each group (A-D) were killed (by cervical dislocation) at 3-h intervals for 24 h. Incorporation of tritiated thymidine (DNA synthesis) was measured, and significant (p less than 0.001) circadian rhythms were found, which were not eliminated after treatment with either pentagastrin or pentagastrin + proglumide. DNA synthesis in the glandular stomach increased significantly after treatment with pentagastrin , but only during the span of time when DNA synthesis was increasing also in control mice; it had no effect at other times. Proglumide blocked the effect of pentagastrin only during the time of increasing DNA synthesis; it had no effect at other times. The identical regimen given at different times in the circadian cycle yielded significantly different results. In the intact animal, studies on the effects of various stimulators or inhibitors of DNA synthesis should be time-qualified. PMID:1923922

Wofford, D C; Rubin, N H; Rayford, P L; Townsend, C M; Thompson, J C



A Systems Genetic Analysis of High Density Lipoprotein Metabolism and Network Preservation across Mouse Models  

PubMed Central

We report a systems genetics analysis of high density lipoproteins (HDL) levels in an F2 intercross between inbred strains CAST/EiJ and C57BL/6J. We previously showed that there are dramatic differences in HDL metabolism in a cross between these strains, and we now report co-expression network analysis of HDL that integrates global expression data from liver and adipose with relevant metabolic traits. Using data from a total of 293 F2 intercross mice, we constructed weighted gene co-expression networks and identified modules (subnetworks) associated with HDL and clinical traits. These were examined for genes implicated in HDL levels based on large human genome-wide associations studies (GWAS) and examined with respect to conservation between tissue and sexes in a total of 9 data sets. We identify genes that are consistently ranked high by association with HDL across the 9 data sets. We focus in particular on two genes, Wfdc2 and Hdac3, that are located in close proximity to HDL QTL peaks where causal testing indicates that they may affect HDL. Our results provide a rich resource for studies of complex metabolic interactions involving HDL. PMID:21807117

Langfelder, Peter; Castellani, Lawrence W.; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Paul, Eric; Davis, Richard; Schadt, Eric E.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Horvath, Steve; Mehrabian, Margarete



Spread of Oropouche virus into the central nervous system in mouse.  


Oropouche virus (OROV) is an important cause of arboviral illness in Brazil and other Latin American countries, with most cases clinically manifested as acute febrile illness referred to as Oropouche fever, including myalgia, headache, arthralgia and malaise. However, OROV can also affect the central nervous system (CNS) with clinical neurological implications. Little is known regarding OROV pathogenesis, especially how OROV gains access to the CNS. In the present study, neonatal BALB/c mice were inoculated with OROV by the subcutaneous route and the progression of OROV spread into the CNS was evaluated. Immunohistochemistry revealed that OROV infection advances from posterior parts of the brain, including the periaqueductal gray, toward the forebrain. In the early phases of the infection OROV gains access to neural routes, reaching the spinal cord and ascending to the brain through brainstem regions, with little inflammation. Later, as infection progresses, OROV crosses the blood-brain barrier, resulting in more intense spread into the brain parenchyma, with more severe manifestations of encephalitis. PMID:25310583

Santos, Rodrigo I; Bueno-Júnior, Lézio S; Ruggiero, Rafael N; Almeida, Mariana F; Silva, Maria L; Paula, Flávia E; Correa, Vani M A; Arruda, Eurico



Histopathological Analysis of Salmonella Chronic Carriage in the Mouse Hepatopancreatobiliary System  

PubMed Central

Salmonella Typhi asymptomatic chronic carriage represents a challenge for the diagnosis and prevention of typhoid fever in endemic areas. Such carriers are thought to be reservoirs for further spread of the disease. Gallbladder carriage has been demonstrated to be mediated by biofilm formation on gallstones and by intracellular persistence in the gallbladder epithelium of mice. In addition, both gallstones and chronic carriage have been associated with chronic inflammation and the development of gallbladder carcinoma. However, the pathogenic relationship between typhoid carriage and the development of pre-malignant and/or malignant lesions in the hepatopancreatobiliary system as well as the host-pathogen interactions occurring during chronic carriage remains unclear. In this study, we monitored the histopathological features of chronic carriage up to 1 year post-infection. Chronic cholecystitis and hepatitis ranging from mild to severe were present in infected mice regardless of the presence of gallstones. Biliary epithelial hyperplasia was observed more commonly in the gallbladder of mice with gallstones (uninfected or infected). However, pre-malignant lesions, atypical hyperplasia and metaplasia of the gallbladder and exocrine pancreas, respectively, were only associated with chronic Salmonella carriage. This study has implications regarding the role of Salmonella chronic infection and inflammation in the development of pre-malignant lesions in the epithelium of the gallbladder and pancreas that could lead to oncogenesis. PMID:24349565

Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; La Perle, Krista M. D.; Gunn, John S.



Co-digestion to support low temperature anaerobic pretreatment of municipal sewage in a UASB-digester.  


The aim of this work was to demonstrate that co-digestion improves soluble sewage COD removal efficiency in treatment of low temperature municipal sewage by a UASB-digester system. A pilot scale UASB-digester system was applied to treat real municipal sewage, and glucose was chosen as a model co-substrate. Co-substrate was added in the sludge digester to produce additional methanogenic biomass, which was continuously recycled to inoculate the UASB reactor. Soluble sewage COD removal efficiency increased from 6 to 23%, which was similar to its biological methane potential (BMP). Specific methanogenic activity of the UASB and of the digester sludge at 15°C tripled to a value respectively of 43 and 39 mg CH4-COD/(g VSS d). Methane production in the UASB reactor increased by more than 90% due to its doubled methanogenic capacity. Therefore, co-digestion is a suitable approach to support a UASB-digester for pretreatment of low temperature municipal sewage. PMID:24080295

Zhang, Lei; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Kampman, Christel; Temmink, Hardy; Zeeman, Grietje



Generation of a mouse scFv library specific for porcine aminopeptidase N using the T7 phage display system.  


Porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN) is a common cellular receptor for swine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). To investigate single-chain fragment variable (scFv) repertoire against pAPN, the genes encoding the immunoglobulin light chain variable region (VL) and heavy chain variable region (VH) were amplified by reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using a series of degenerate primers from the spleen of BABL/c mice immunized with native pAPN. The VL and VH amplicons were combined randomly by a 12 amino acid flexible linker by splicing by overlap extension PCR (SOE-PCR), which produced the scFv gene repertoire. After ligation of the scFv gene repertoire into the T7Select10-3b vector, a mouse scFv phage library specific for pAPN was produced through in vitro packaging. The primary scFv library against pAPN contained 2.0×10(7) recombinant phage clones, and the titer of the amplified library was 3.6×10(9)pfu/mL. BstNI restriction analysis and DNA sequencing revealed that 28 phage clones from the primary pAPN scFv library showed excellent diversity. The effectiveness of the scFv library against pAPN was verified further by phage ELISA using the recombinant protein of the pAPN C subunit as coating antigen. The construction and evaluation of a murine scFv library against the common receptor pAPN of porcine coronaviruses TGEV and PEDV using the T7 phage display system are described. PMID:22481024

Sun, Dongbo; Shi, Hongyan; Chen, Jianfei; Shi, Da; Zhu, Qinghe; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Shengwang; Wang, Yunfeng; Qiu, Huaji; Feng, Li



Systemic Delivery of a Glucosylceramide Synthase Inhibitor Reduces CNS Substrates and Increases Lifespan in a Mouse Model of Type 2 Gaucher Disease  

PubMed Central

Neuropathic Gaucher disease (nGD), also known as type 2 or type 3 Gaucher disease, is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GC). This deficiency impairs the degradation of glucosylceramide (GluCer) and glucosylsphingosine (GluSph), leading to their accumulation in the brains of patients and mouse models of the disease. These accumulated substrates have been thought to cause the severe neuropathology and early death observed in patients with nGD and mouse models. Substrate accumulation is evident at birth in both nGD mouse models and humans affected with the most severe type of the disease. Current treatment of non-nGD relies on the intravenous delivery of recombinant human glucocerebrosidase to replace the missing enzyme or the administration of glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors to attenuate GluCer production. However, the currently approved drugs that use these mechanisms do not cross the blood brain barrier, and thus are not expected to provide a benefit for the neurological complications in nGD patients. Here we report the successful reduction of substrate accumulation and CNS pathology together with a significant increase in lifespan after systemic administration of a novel glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor to a mouse model of nGD. To our knowledge this is the first compound shown to cross the blood brain barrier and reduce substrates in this animal model while significantly enhancing its lifespan. These results reinforce the concept that systemically administered glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors could hold enhanced therapeutic promise for patients afflicted with neuropathic lysosomal storage diseases. PMID:22912851

Cabrera-Salazar, Mario A.; DeRiso, Matthew; Bercury, Scott D.; Li, Lingyun; Lydon, John T.; Weber, William; Pande, Nilesh; Cromwell, Mandy A.; Copeland, Diane; Leonard, John; Cheng, Seng H.; Scheule, Ronald K.



Mouse maternal systemic inflammation at the zygote stage causes blunted cytokine responsiveness in lipopolysaccharide-challenged adult offspring  

PubMed Central

Background The preimplantation embryo is sensitive to culture conditions in vitro and poor maternal diet in vivo. Such environmental perturbations can have long-lasting detrimental consequences for offspring health and physiology. However, early embryo susceptibility to other aspects of maternal health and their potential long-term influence into adulthood is relatively unexplored. In this study, we established an in vivo mouse model of maternal periconceptional systemic inflammation by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration on the day of zygote formation and investigated the consequences into adulthood. Results In the short term, maternal LPS challenge induced a transient and typical maternal sickness response (elevated serum proinflammatory cytokines and hypoactive behaviour). Maternal LPS challenge altered preimplantation embryo morphogenesis and cell lineage allocation, resulting in reduced blastocyst inner cell mass (ICM) cell number and a reduced ICM:trophectoderm cell ratio. In the long term, diverse aspects of offspring physiology were affected by maternal LPS treatment. Whilst birthweight, growth and adult blood pressure were unaltered, reduced activity in an open-field behaviour test, increased fat pad:body weight ratio and increased body mass index were observed in male, but not female, offspring. Most importantly, the maternal LPS challenge caused corticosterone-independent blunting of the serum proinflammatory cytokine response to innate immune challenge in both male and female offspring. The suppressed state of innate immunity in challenged offspring was dose-dependent with respect to the maternal LPS concentration administered. Conclusions These results demonstrate for the first time that the preimplantation embryo in vivo is sensitive to maternal systemic inflammation, with effects on blastocyst cell lineage allocation and consequences for behaviour, adiposity and innate immune response in adult offspring. Critically, we identify a novel mechanism mediated through maternal-embryonic interactions that confers plasticity in the development of the innate immune system, which is potentially important in setting postnatal tolerance to environmental pathogens. Our study extends the concept of developmental programming of health and disease to include maternal health at the time of conception. PMID:21771319



In vitro organoid culture of primary mouse colon tumors.  


Several human and murine colon cancer cell lines have been established, physiologic integrity of colon tumors such as multiple cell layers, basal-apical polarity, ability to differentiate, and anoikis are not maintained in colon cancer derived cell lines. The present study demonstrates a method for culturing primary mouse colon tumor organoids adapted from Sato T et al. (1), which retains important physiologic features of colon tumors. This method consists of mouse colon tumor tissue collection, adjacent normal colon epithelium dissociation, colon tumor cells digestion into single cells, embedding colon tumor cells into matrigel, and selective culture based on the principle that tumor cells maintain growth on limiting nutrient conditions compared to normal epithelial cells. The primary tumor organoids if isolated from genetically modified mice provide a very useful system to assess tumor autonomous function of specific genes. Moreover, the tumor organoids are amenable to genetic manipulation by virus meditated gene delivery; therefore signaling pathways involved in the colon tumorigenesis could also be extensively investigated by overexpression or knockdown. Primary tumor organoids culture provides a physiologic relevant and feasible means to study the mechanisms and therapeutic modalities for colon tumorigenesis. PMID:23711911

Xue, Xiang; Shah, Yatrik M



Anaerobic digestion of livestock manures: A current opportunities casebook  

SciTech Connect

Growth and concentration of the livestock industry creates new opportunities for proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products, including a renewable fuel. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, based on estimates of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return are developed from the evaluations. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes}, are provided as a reality check.

Lusk, P.D.



Resistance of Soil-Bound Prions to Rumen Digestion  

PubMed Central

Before prion uptake and infection can occur in the lower gastrointestinal system, ingested prions are subjected to anaerobic digestion in the rumen of cervids and bovids. The susceptibility of soil-bound prions to rumen digestion has not been evaluated previously. In this study, prions from infectious brain homogenates as well as prions bound to a range of soils and soil minerals were subjected to in vitro rumen digestion, and changes in PrP levels were measured via western blot. Binding to clay appeared to protect noninfectious hamster PrPc from complete digestion, while both unbound and soil-bound infectious PrPSc proved highly resistant to rumen digestion. In addition, no change in intracerebral incubation period was observed following active rumen digestion of unbound hamster HY TME prions and HY TME prions bound to a silty clay loam soil. These results demonstrate that both unbound and soil-bound prions readily survive rumen digestion without a reduction in infectivity, further supporting the potential for soil-mediated transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) and scrapie in the environment. PMID:22937149

Saunders, Samuel E.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Bartz, Jason C.



Comprehensive Enzymatic Analysis of the Cellulolytic System in Digestive Fluid of the Sea Hare Aplysia kurodai. Efficient Glucose Release from Sea Lettuce by Synergistic Action of 45 kDa Endoglucanase and 210 kDa ss-Glucosidase  

PubMed Central

Although many endo-ß-1,4-glucanases have been isolated in invertebrates, their cellulolytic systems are not fully understood. In particular, gastropod feeding on seaweed is considered an excellent model system for production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from third-generation feedstocks (microalgae and seaweeds). In this study, enzymes involved in the conversion of cellulose and other polysaccharides to glucose in digestive fluids of the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) were screened and characterized to determine how the sea hare obtains glucose from sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa). Four endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (21K, 45K, 65K, and 95K cellulase) and 2 ß-glucosidases (110K and 210K) were purified to a homogeneous state, and the synergistic action of these enzymes during cellulose digestion was analyzed. All cellulases exhibited cellulase and lichenase activities and showed distinct cleavage specificities against cellooligosaccharides and filter paper. Filter paper was digested to cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose by 21K cellulase, whereas 45K and 65K enzymes hydrolyzed the filter paper to cellobiose and glucose. 210K ß-glucosidase showed unique substrate specificity against synthetic and natural substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU)-ß-glucoside, 4MU–ß-galactoside, cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin, and lichenan were suitable substrates. Furthermore, 210K ß-glucosidase possesses lactase activity. Although ß-glucosidase and cellulase are necessary for efficient hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose to glucose, laminarin is hydrolyzed to glucose only by 210K ß-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 210K ß-glucosidase by D-glucono-1,5-lactone suggested the presence of 2 active sites similar to those of mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Saccharification of sea lettuce was considerably stimulated by the synergistic action of 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase. Our results indicate that 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase are the core components of the sea hare digestive system for efficient production of glucose from sea lettuce. These findings contribute important new insights into the development of biofuel processing biotechnologies from seaweed. PMID:23762366

Tsuji, Akihiko; Tominaga, Keiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Yuasa, Keizo



Microarray and comparative genomics-based identification of genes and gene regulatory regions of the mouse immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In this study we have built and mined a gene expression database composed of 65 diverse mouse tissues for genes preferentially expressed in immune tissues and cell types. Using expression pattern criteria, we identified 360 genes with preferential expression in thymus, spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, lymph nodes (unstimulated or stimulated), or in vitro activated T-cells. RESULTS: Gene clusters,

John J Hutton; Anil G Jegga; Sue Kong; Ashima Gupta; Catherine Ebert; Sarah Williams; Jonathan D Katz; Bruce J Aronow



Mouse Genome-Wide Association and Systems Genetics Identify Asxl2 As a Regulator of Bone Mineral Density and Osteoclastogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant advances have been made in the discovery of genes affecting bone mineral density (BMD); however, our understanding of its genetic basis remains incomplete. In the current study, genome-wide association (GWA) and co-expression network analysis were used in the recently described Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP) to identify and functionally characterize novel BMD genes. In the HMDP, a GWA of

Charles R. Farber; Brian J. Bennett; Luz Orozco; Wei Zou; Ana Lira; Emrah Kostem; Hyun Min Kang; Nicholas Furlotte; Ani Berberyan; Anatole Ghazalpour; Jaijam Suwanwela; Thomas A. Drake; Eleazar Eskin; Q. Tian Wang; Steven L. Teitelbaum; Aldons J. Lusis



USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 30  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the thirtieth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 47 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 20 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, biospheric research, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal system, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

Stone, Lydia Razran (editor); Teeter, Ronald (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)



USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 28  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the twenty-eighth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 3 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 20 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, aviation medicine, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, and space medicine.

Stone, Lydia Razran (editor); Teeter, Ronald (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)



Vibrio cholerae RND family efflux systems are required for antimicrobial resistance, optimal virulence factor production, and colonization of the infant mouse small intestine.  


Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative human intestinal pathogen that causes the diarrheal disease cholera. Humans acquire cholera by ingesting V. cholerae-contaminated food or water. Upon ingestion, V. cholerae encounters several barriers to colonization, including bile acid toxicity and antimicrobial products of the innate immune system. In many gram-negative bacteria, resistance to the antimicrobial effects of these products is mediated by RND (resistance-nodulation-division) family efflux systems. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the V. cholerae RND efflux systems are required for antimicrobial resistance and virulence. The six V. cholerae genes encoding RND efflux pumps were deleted from the genome of the O1 El Tor strain N16961, resulting in the generation of 14 independent RND deletion mutants, including one RND-null strain. Determination of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the mutants revealed that the RND efflux systems were responsible for resistance to multiple antimicrobial compounds, including bile acids, antimicrobial peptides, and antibiotics. VexB (VC0164) was found to be the RND efflux pump primarily responsible for the resistance of V. cholerae to multiple antimicrobial compounds in vitro. In contrast, VexD (VC1757) and VexK (VC1673) encoded efflux pumps with detergent-specific substrate specificities that were redundant with VexB. A strain lacking VexB, VexD, and VexK was attenuated in the infant mouse model, and its virulence factor production was unaffected. In contrast, a V. cholerae RND-null strain produced significantly less cholera toxin and fewer toxin-coregulated pili than the wild type and was unable to colonize the infant mouse. The decreased virulence factor production in the RND-null strain was linked to reduced transcription of tcpP and toxT. Our findings show that the V. cholerae RND efflux systems are required for antimicrobial resistance, optimal virulence factor production, and colonization of the infant mouse. PMID:18490456

Bina, Xiaowen R; Provenzano, Daniele; Nguyen, Nathalie; Bina, James E



Combined anaerobic and aerobic digestion for increased solids reduction and nitrogen removal.  


A unique sludge digestion system consisting of anaerobic digestion followed by aerobic digestion and then a recycle step where thickened sludge from the aerobic digester was recirculated back to the anaerobic unit was studied to determine the impact on volatile solids (VS) reduction and nitrogen removal. It was found that the combined anaerobic/aerobic/anaerobic (ANA/AER/ANA) system provided 70% VS reduction compared to 50% for conventional mesophilic anaerobic digestion with a 20 day SRT and 62% for combined anaerobic/aerobic (ANA/AER) digestion with a 15 day anaerobic and a 5 day aerobic SRT. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal for the ANA/AER/ANA system was 70% for sludge wasted from the aerobic unit and 43.7% when wasted from the anaerobic unit. TKN removal was 64.5% for the ANA/AER system. PMID:20801476

Novak, John T; Banjade, Sarita; Murthy, Sudhir N



Revealing biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion in sludge digesters: detection of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria within full-scale digesters.  


Biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion (BSA) is a costly problem affecting both sewerage infrastructure and sludge handling facilities such as digesters. The aim of this study was to verify BSA in full-scale digesters by identifying the microorganisms involved in the concrete corrosion process, that is, sulfate-reducing (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). To investigate the SRB and SOB communities, digester sludge and biofilm samples were collected. SRB diversity within digester sludge was studied by applying polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) targeting the dsrB-gene (dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit). To reveal SOB diversity, cultivation dependent and independent techniques were applied. The SRB diversity studies revealed different uncultured SRB, confirming SRB activity and H2S production. Comparable DGGE profiles were obtained from the different sludges, demonstrating the presence of similar SRB species. By cultivation, three pure SOB strains from the digester headspace were obtained including Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Thiomonas intermedia and Thiomonas perometabolis. These organisms were also detected with PCR-DGGE in addition to two new SOB: Thiobacillus thioparus and Paracoccus solventivorans. The SRB and SOB responsible for BSA were identified within five different digesters, demonstrating that BSA is a problem occurring not only in sewer systems but also in sludge digesters. In addition, the presence of different SOB species was successfully associated with the progression of microbial corrosion. PMID:25353947

Huber, B; Drewes, J E; Lin, K C; König, R; Müller, E



Analysis of the action of gymnodimine-A and 13-desmethyl spirolide C on the mouse neuromuscular system in vivo.  


Gymnodimine-A and 13-desmethyl spirolide C are marine toxins belonging to the cyclic imine group produced by Karenia selliformis and Alexandrium ostenfeldii/peruvianum dinoflagellates, respectively. The aim of this work was to analyze the pharmacological properties of both toxins (at sub-lethal doses) on neuromuscular excitability, when injected locally to isoflurane-anesthetized mice, using a multimodal minimally-invasive in vivo electrophysiological approach. The main effect of both toxins was a marked reversible time- and dose-dependent decrease of the compound muscle action potential recorded from the tail muscle in response to caudal motor nerve stimulation. The dose-response curves of gymnodimine-A and 13-desmethyl spirolide C effect on the maximal amplitude of compound muscle action potential revealed 50% inhibitory doses of 51 ng/mouse (i.e. 1.6 ?g/kg or 3.3 nmol/kg mouse) and 0.18 ng/mouse (i.e. 6 ng/kg or 0.01 nmol/kg mouse), respectively. The blocking effect occurred without significant modification of motor nerve excitability parameters. It is concluded that the inhibition of the mouse compound muscle action potential, induced by gymnodimine-A and 13-desmethyl spirolide C, results from an action of these toxins at the level of the skeletal neuromuscular junction, since both cyclic imine toxins are known to interact and block muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In the present in vivo study, 13-desmethyl spirolide C was about 300 fold more active than gymnodimine-A on equimolar basis. The present in vivo approach, associated to recent progress in chemical synthesis of cyclic imine toxins, paves the way for more detailed structure-activity studies to obtain new and more potent synthetic analogs. PMID:23954513

Marrouchi, Riadh; Rome, Guillaume; Kharrat, Riadh; Molgó, Jordi; Benoit, Evelyne



Novel insights into embryonic stem cell self-renewal revealed through comparative human and mouse systems biology networks.  


Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), characterized by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell lineages, are a powerful model for biomedical research and developmental biology. Human and mouse ESCs share many features, yet have distinctive aspects, including fundamental differences in the signaling pathways and cell cycle controls that support self-renewal. Here, we explore the molecular basis of human ESC self-renewal using Bayesian network machine learning to integrate cell-type-specific, high-throughput data for gene function discovery. We integrated high-throughput ESC data from 83 human studies (~1.8 million data points collected under 1,100 conditions) and 62 mouse studies (~2.4 million data points collected under 1,085 conditions) into separate human and mouse predictive networks focused on ESC self-renewal to analyze shared and distinct functional relationships among protein-coding gene orthologs. Computational evaluations show that these networks are highly accurate, literature validation confirms their biological relevance, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation supports our predictions. Our results reflect the importance of key regulatory genes known to be strongly associated with self-renewal and pluripotency in both species (e.g., POU5F1, SOX2, and NANOG), identify metabolic differences between species (e.g., threonine metabolism), clarify differences between human and mouse ESC developmental signaling pathways (e.g., leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-activated JAK/STAT in mouse; NODAL/ACTIVIN-A-activated fibroblast growth factor in human), and reveal many novel genes and pathways predicted to be functionally associated with self-renewal in each species. These interactive networks are available online at for stem cell researchers to develop new hypotheses, discover potential mechanisms involving sparsely annotated genes, and prioritize genes of interest for experimental validation. PMID:24307629

Dowell, Karen G; Simons, Allen K; Bai, Hao; Kell, Braden; Wang, Zack Z; Yun, Kyuson; Hibbs, Matthew A



Digesters and demographics: identifying support for anaerobic digesters on dairy farms.  


The dairy industry in the United States is amidst a long-running trend toward fewer, larger dairy farms. This development has created a backlash in some communities over concerns such as odor, waste management, and environmental degradation. Separately, anaerobic digestion has advanced as a waste management technology that potentially offers solutions to some of these issues, providing odor control and a combustible biogas among other things. These digesters require significant capital investments. Voluntary consumer premiums for the renewable energy produced have been used in some instances as a means to move adoption of such systems toward financial feasibility. This project employed a survey to measure Ohio consumers' willingness to pay a premium for renewable energy produced by anaerobic digesters on dairy farms. Cluster analysis was used to segment consumers by willingness to pay, age, education, income, self-identified political inclination, and a composite variable that served as a proxy for respondents' environmental stewardship. Four distinctive groups emerged from the data. Older, less educated respondents were found to have the least amount of support for digesters on dairy farms, whereas politically liberal, environmentally proactive respondents demonstrated the strongest support. Well-educated, affluent respondents and young respondents fell between these 2 groups. Most large dairy farms are generally met with fairly negative responses from their local communities; in contrast, this research finds some popular support for anaerobic digestion technology. Going forward, establishing a positive link between support for anaerobic digesters and for their use on large dairies could open up a new route for less-contested large dairy farm developments. Evaluation of community demographics could become an important part of finding an optimal location for a large dairy farm. PMID:20965366

Sanders, D J; Roberts, M C; Ernst, S C; Thraen, C S




PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) recruited to demyelinating lesions often fail to mature into oligodendrocytes (OLs) that remyelinate spared axons. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) accumulates in demyelinating lesions and has been implicated in the failure of OPC maturation and remyelination. We tested the hypothesis that OPCs in demyelinating lesions express a specific hyaluronidase, and that digestion products of this enzyme inhibit OPC maturation. METHODS Mouse OPCs grown in vitro were analyzed for hyaluronidase expression and activity. Gain of function studies were used to define the hyaluronidases that blocked OPC maturation. Mouse and human demyelinating lesions were assessed for hyaluronidase expression. Digestion products from different hyaluronidases and a hyaluronidase inhibitor were tested for their effects on OPC maturation and functional remyelination in vivo. RESULTS OPCs demonstrated hyaluronidase activity in vitro and expressed multiple hyaluronidases including HYAL1, HYAL2, and PH20. HA digestion by PH20 but not other hyaluronidases inhibited OPC maturation into OLs. In contrast, inhibiting HA synthesis did not influence OPC maturation. PH20 expression was elevated in OPCs and reactive astrocytes in both rodent and human demyelinating lesions. HA-digestion products generated by the PH20 hyaluronidase but not another hyaluronidase inhibited remyelination following lysolecithin-induced demyelination. Inhibition of hyaluronidase activity lead to increased OPC maturation and promoted increased conduction velocities through lesions. INTERPRETATION We determined that PH20 is elevated in demyelinating lesions and that increased PH20 expression is sufficient to inhibit OPC maturation and remyelination. Pharmacological inhibition of PH20 may therefore be an effective way to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis and related conditions. PMID:23463525

Preston, Marnie; Gong, Xi; Su, Weiping; Matsumoto, Steven G.; Banine, Fatima; Winkler, Clayton; Foster, Scott; Xing, Rubing; Struve, Jaime; Dean, Justin; Baggenstoss, Bruce; Weigel, Paul H.; Montine, Thomas J.; Back, Stephen A.; Sherman, Larry S.



Digest of Education Statistics 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In late January, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) released this new publication. Published January 26th 2001, the Digest of Education Statistics, 2000 "provides a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of education from prekindergarten through graduate school." Data in the digest cover "the number of schools and colleges; teachers; enrollments; graduates; educational attainment; finances; federal funds for education; employment and income of graduates; libraries; technology; and international comparisons." (The Digest of Education Statistics, 1999 was featured in the April 4th, 2000 Scout Report for the Social Sciences.) The publication is in .pdf format and may be downloaded in its entirety or in selected chapters.



The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): from genes to mice--a community resource for mouse biology  

PubMed Central

The Mouse Genome Database (MGD) forms the core of the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) system (, a model organism database resource for the laboratory mouse. MGD provides essential integration of experimental knowledge for the mouse system with information annotated from both literature and online sources. MGD curates and presents consensus and experimental data representations of genotype (sequence) through phenotype information, including highly detailed reports about genes and gene products. Primary foci of integration are through representations of relationships among genes, sequences and phenotypes. MGD collaborates with other bioinformatics groups to curate a definitive set of information about the laboratory mouse and to build and implement the data and semantic standards that are essential for comparative genome analysis. Recent improvements in MGD discussed here include the enhancement of phenotype resources, the re-development of the International Mouse Strain Resource, IMSR, the update of mammalian orthology datasets and the electronic publication of classic books in mouse genetics. PMID:15608240

Eppig, Janan T.; Bult, Carol J.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.; Blake, Judith A.



Effect of post-digestion temperature on serial CSTR biogas reactor performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of post-digestion temperature on a lab-scale serial continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system performance was investigated. The system consisted of a main reactor operated at 55°C with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days followed by post-digestion reactors with HRT of 5.3 days. Three post-digestion temperatures (55°C, 37°C and 15°C) were compared in terms of biogas production, process

Kanokwan Boe; Dimitar Karakashev; Eric Trably; Irini Angelidaki



Anaerobic digestion of secondary residuals from an anaerobic bioreactor at a brewery to enhance bioenergy generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many beer breweries use high-rate anaerobic digestion (AD) systems to treat their soluble high-strength wastewater. Biogas\\u000a from these AD systems is used to offset nonrenewable energy utilization in the brewery. With increasing nonrenewable energy\\u000a costs, interest has mounted to also digest secondary residuals from the high-rate digester effluent, which consists of yeast\\u000a cells, bacteria, methanogens, and small (hemi)cellulosic particles. Mesophilic

Benjamin T. Bocher; Matthew T. Agler; Marcelo L. Garcia; Allen R. Beers; Largus T. Angenent



Establishment of Eubacterium cellulosolvens in the digestive tract of axenic and meroxenic mice: influence of feed cellulose content.  


The cellulolytic bacterial species present in the caecum and colon contents of conventionally reared mature mice did not become established in the digestive tract when inoculated to axenic mice, whatever the size of the inoculum or the cellulose content of the diet. The cellulolytic bacterium Eubacterium cellulosolvens SC 10 isolated from mouse digestive flora was unable to become established in the digestive tract of axenic mice whatever the cellulose content of the diet; it requires a feed rich in cellulose and a highly diversified microflora. PMID:1855647

Boulahrouf, A; Fonty, G; Gouet, P



Performance and microbial community dynamics in a two-phase anaerobic co-digestion system using cassava dregs and pig manure.  


The two-phase anaerobic co-digestion of cassava dregs (CD) with pig manure (PM) was evaluated using four sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The effect of seven different PM to CD volatile solid ratios (10:0, 8:2, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, 2:8 and 0:10) on the acidification phase was investigated. Results indicated the concentrations of soluble chemical oxygen demand, NH4-N and volatile fatty acids increased substantially at seven ratios. Co-acidification of PM and CD performed well. Methanogenic fermentation of the acidification products at seven ratios was steady in CSTR. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 0.352m(3)/kg VSadded and 68.5% were achieved at PM:CD (4:6). The microbial population in CSTR was analyzed using molecular methods. Findings revealed that bacteria such as Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, archaea such as Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales were advantageous populations. Co-digestion of PM and CD supported higher quantity and diversity of methanogens. PMID:24463413

Ren, Jiwei; Yuan, Xufeng; Li, Jie; Ma, Xuguang; Zhao, Ye; Zhu, Wanbing; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun



USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 32  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the thirty-second issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 34 journal or conference papers published in Russian and of 4 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 18 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, biospherics, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, exobiology, habitability and environmental effects, human performance, hematology, mathematical models, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, operational medicine, and reproductive system.

Stone, Lydia Razran (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)



USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 31  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the thirty first issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 55 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 5 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 18 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, biological rhythms, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, endocrinology, enzymology, genetics, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, life support systems, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

Hooke, Lydia Razran (editor); Teeter, Ronald (editor); Garshnek, Victoria (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)



EEEEK--A Mouse!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the concept of how engineering solved the problem of human/computer interface. Learners disassemble a mouse and explore the movement on the X/Y axis that determines mouse positioning. Learners explore design enhancements to the mouse over time, and as a team of "engineers" add further enhancements to current mouse design.




Gas in the Digestive Tract  


... and small intestine do not fully digest some carbohydrates—sugars, starches, and fiber found in many foods. ... intestine to the large intestine. Once there, undigested carbohydrates are broken down by bacteria in the large ...


Distribution of the receptor EphA7 and its ligands in development of the mouse nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

EphA7 is a receptor tyrosine kinase of the Eph family. We have mapped EphA7 immunoreactivity and ligand binding in mouse embryo heads and developing brain. Immunoreactivity for the full-length receptor is found in all the cell populations that express EphA7 mRNA. In particular, it is located on growing axons from EphA7-expressing neurons, both in the trigeminal nerve and in developing

J. H Rogers; T Ciossek; A Ullrich; M Hoare; E. M Muir



(Molecular genetics at the mouse)  

SciTech Connect

I visited the Medical Research Council's (MRC) Clinical and Population Cytogenetics Unit (CAPCU) in Edinburgh, Scotland, and then attended the Sixth International Workshop in Molecular Genetics of the Mouse (SIWMGM), in Cambridge, England. The visit to MRC-CAPCU at the invitation of Dr. Ian Jackson, was to discuss the setup of an important collaboration to analyze molecularly a series of Oak Ridge radiation-induced b deletion mutations. I also gave a one-hour lecture entitled Molecular and mutational analyses of regions of the mouse genome,'' as part of CAPCU's weekly seminar series. The SIWMGM is the latest of a biannual series of meetings devoted to bringing together European and American scientists who work with all aspects of genetics of the laboratory mouse. This Workshop is extremely valuable to me both for establishing European contacts (as well as keeping up with previously formed contacts) and for keeping up-to-date on rapidly evolving areas of molecular-genetics research in the mouse model system. Two papers from my laboratory were presented, which described our current work on molecular and genetic fine-structure mapping of a subregion of mouse Chromosome 7. The wide variety of agent-induced germ-line mutations of the mouse, generated and maintained at ORNL, and their use as reagents for molecular genetics, were of particular interest to many at the meeting.

Rinchik, E.M.



The Mouse That Soared  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have used an X-ray image to make the first detailed study of the behavior of high-energy particles around a fast moving pulsar. The image, from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, shows the shock wave created as a pulsar plows supersonically through interstellar space. These results will provide insight into theories for the production of powerful winds of matter and antimatter by pulsars. Chandra's image of the glowing cloud, known as the Mouse, shows a stubby bright column of high-energy particles, about four light years in length, swept back by the pulsar's interaction with interstellar gas. The intense source at the head of the X-ray column is the pulsar, estimated to be moving through space at about 1.3 million miles per hour. VLA Radio Image of the Mouse, Full Field VLA Radio Image of the Mouse, Full Field A cone-shaped cloud of radio-wave-emitting particles envelopes the X-ray column. The Mouse, a.k.a. G359.23-0.82, was discovered in 1987 by radio astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array in New Mexico. It gets its name from its appearance in radio images that show a compact snout, a bulbous body, and a remarkable long, narrow, tail that extends for about 55 light years. "A few dozen pulsar wind nebulae are known, including the spectacular Crab Nebula, but none have the Mouse's combination of relatively young age and incredibly rapid motion through interstellar space," said Bryan Gaensler of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and lead author of a paper on the Mouse that will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "We effectively are seeing a supersonic cosmic wind tunnel, in which we can study the effects of a pulsar's motion on its pulsar wind nebula, and test current theories." Illustration of the Mouse System Illustration of the Mouse System Pulsars are known to be rapidly spinning, highly magnetized neutron stars -- objects so dense that a mass equal to that of the Sun is packed into a diameter of about 12 miles. Their formation is associated with a Type II supernova, the collapse and subsequent explosion of a massive star. The origin of a pulsar's high velocity is not known, but many astrophysicists suspect that it is directly related to the explosive circumstances involved in the birth of the pulsar. The rapid rotation and strong magnetic field of a pulsar can generate a wind of high-energy matter and antimatter particles that rush out at near the speed of light. These pulsar winds create large, magnetized bubbles of high-energy particles called pulsar wind nebulae. The X-ray and radio data on the Mouse have enabled Gaensler and his colleagues to constrain the properties of the ambient gas, to estimate the velocity of the pulsar, and to analyze the structure of the various shock waves created by the pulsar, the flow of particles away from the pulsar, and the magnetic field in the nebula. Zoom into Chandra's Image of the Mouse Zoom into Chandra's Image of the Mouse Other members of the research team were Eric van der Swaluw (FOM Institute of Physics, The Netherlands), Fernando Camilo (Columbia Univ., New York), Vicky Kaspi (McGill Univ., Montreal), Frederick K. Baganoff (MIT, Cambridge, Mass.), Farhad Yusef-Zadeh (Northwestern), and Richard Manchester (Australia Telescope National Facility). The pulsar in the Mouse was originally detected by Camilo et al. in 2002 using Australia's Parkes radio telescope. Chandra observed the Mouse on October 23 and 24, 2002. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, Calif., formerly TRW, Inc., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: and



Starch digestion capacity of poultry.  


Starch is quantitatively the most important nutrient in poultry diets and will to a large extent be present as intact starch granules due to very limited extent of gelatinization during pelleting. Although native starch is difficult to digest due to a semi-crystalline structure, even fast-growing broiler chickens appears to be able to digest this starch more or less completely during passage through the jejunum. However, reduced starch digestibility has been observed, particularly in pelleted diets containing large quantities of wheat. Although properties of the starch granule such as size and components on the granule surface may affect digestibility, the entrapment of starch granules in cell walls and a protein matrix may be even more important factors impeding starch digestion. In that case, this and the fact that amylase secretion is normally very high in poultry may explain the lack of convincing effects of exogenous ?-amylase added to the diet. However, few well-designed experiments assessing mechanisms of starch digestion and the effect of ?-amylase supplementation have been carried out, and thus more research is needed in this important area. PMID:25012853

Svihus, B



[Esophago-digestive anastomosis dehiscence].  


This paper aim is to discuss the main etiopathogenic aspects responsible for eso-digestive anastomotic leakage, as well as prophylactic and therapeutic measures of this postoperative complication. There were studied 173 consecutive eso-digestive anastomosis: 103 anastomosis performed for malignancy and 70 anastomosis for benign conditions. Surgical operations followed by an eso-digestive anastomosis were: esophageal reconstruction for benign esophageal caustic strictures (n=67); total gastrectomy (n=55); total esophagectomy (n=13); total esophagectomy plus total gastrectomy (one case); eso-gastrectomies (n=34); upper gastric pole resection (n=2); distal esophageal resection (n=1). Eso-digestive anastomosis topography were cervical (n=81), intrathoracic (n=37) and abdominal (n=57). There were 30 eso-gastrostomies, 81 eso-jejunostomies, and 62 eso-colostomies. There were recorded 24 eso-digestive anastomotic dehiscences (13.8%): 14 in the cervical region (17.2% out of 81 cervical anastomosis); 5 intrathoracic leakages (14.2% out of 35 anastomosis); 5 intraabdominal anastomotic dehiscences (8.7% out of 57 intraabdominal anastomosis). Four patients died as an anastomotic leakage consequence: two patients died after cervical eso-gastrostomy dehiscences, one patient died after an intrathoracic eso-jejunostomy leakage, and one patient died after intraabdominal eso-gastrostomy leakage. In conclusion, we analyze postoperative results, emphasizing the role of discovering and removal of predisposing factors which may lead to an eso-digestive anastomotic leakage. PMID:19601459

Vasile, I; Mirea, C; Vîlcea, I D; Pa?alega, M; Calot?, F; Me?in?, C; Cheie, M; Dumitrescu, T; Mogoan??, S; Tenea, T; Radu, V; Moraru, E



Improved design of anaerobic digesters for household biogas production in indonesia: one cow, one digester, and one hour of cooking per day.  


A government-sponsored initiative in Indonesia to design and implement low-cost anaerobic digestion systems resulted in 21 full-scale systems with the aim to satisfy the cooking fuel demands of rural households owning at least one cow. The full-scale design consisted of a 0.3 m diameter PVC pipe, which was operated as a conventional plug-flow system. The system generated enough methane to power a cooking stove for ? 1 h. However, eventual clogging from solids accumulation inside the bioreactor proved to be a major drawback. Here, we improved the digester configuration to remedy clogging while maintaining system performance. Controlled experiments were performed using four 9-L laboratory-scale digesters operated at a temperature of 27 ± 1 °C, a volatile solids loading rate of 2.0 g VS · L(-1) · day(-1), and a 21-day hydraulic retention time. Two of the digesters were replicates of the original design (control digesters), while the other two digesters included internal mixing or effluent recycle (experimental digesters). The performance of each digester was compared based on methane yields, VS removal efficiencies, and steady-state solids concentrations during an operating period of 311 days. Statistical analyses revealed that internal mixing and effluent recycling resulted in reduced solids accumulation compared to the controls without diminishing methane yields or solids removal efficiencies. PMID:24715809

Usack, Joseph G; Wiratni, Wiratni; Angenent, Largus T



Baltimore Zoo digester project. Final report. [Elephants  

SciTech Connect

The results of a project to produce methane using the manure from zoo animals as a feedstock is presented. Two digesters are in operation, the first (built in 1974) utilizing wastes from the Hippo House and a second (built in 1980) utilizing wastes from the Elephant House. Demonstrations on the utilization of the gas were performed during zoo exhibits. The Elephant House Digester has a capacity of 4200 gallons and a floating gas dome which can retain at least 150 cu ft of gas. Solar energy has been incorporated into the design to maintain digester temperature at 95/sup 0/F. The system produces 50 cu ft per day. After cleaning the gas, it is used to generate electricity to power an electric light, a roof fan, and an air conditioner. The gas is also used to operate a gas range and a gas lamp. During the opening day exhibit, 50 meals were cooked using the bio-gas from just 2 elephants. (DMC)

Gibson, P.W.



Microbial community structure and dynamics during co-digestion of whey permeate and cow manure in continuous stirred tank reactor systems.  


Microbial community profiles in two parallel CSTR biogas reactors fed with whey permeate and cow manure were investigated. The operating conditions for these two reactors were identical, yet only one of them (R1) showed stable performance, whereas the other (R2) showed a decrease in methane production accompanied by accumulation of propionic acid and, later, acetic acid. This gave a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of the microbial communities in two biogas reactors apparently operating close to the edge of stability. The microbial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and the methanogens Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales in both reactors, but with larger fluctuations in R2. Correlation analyses showed that the depletion of propionic acid in R1 and the late increase of acetic acid in R2 was related to several bacterial groups. The biogas production in R1 shows that stable co-digestion of manure and whey can be achieved with reasonable yields. PMID:25222739

Hagen, Live Heldal; Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Linjordet, Roar; Pope, Phillip B; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J



Carbohydrate digestion in Lutzomyia longipalpis' larvae (Diptera - Psychodidae).  


Lutzomyia longipalpis is the principal species of phlebotomine incriminated as vector of Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. Despite its importance as vector, almost nothing related to the larval biology, especially about its digestive system has been published. The objective of the present study was to obtain an overview of carbohydrate digestion by the larvae. Taking in account that phlebotomine larvae live in the soil rich in decaying materials and microorganisms we searched principally for enzymes capable to hydrolyze carbohydrates present in this kind of substrate. The principal carbohydrases encountered in the midgut were partially characterized. One of them is a ?-amylase present in the anterior midgut. It is probably involved with the digestion of glycogen, the reserve carbohydrate of fungi. Two other especially active enzymes were present in the posterior midgut, a membrane bound ?-glucosidase and a membrane bound trehalase. The first, complete the digestion of glycogen and the other probably acts in the digestion of trehalose, a carbohydrate usually encountered in microorganisms undergoing hydric stress. In a screening done with the use of p-nitrophenyl-derived substrates other less active enzymes were also observed in the midgut. A general view of carbohydrate digestion in L. longipalpis was presented. Our results indicate that soil microorganisms appear to be the main source of nutrients for the larvae. PMID:22841889

Vale, Vladimir F; Moreira, Bruno H; Moraes, Caroline S; Pereira, Marcos H; Genta, Fernando A; Gontijo, Nelder F



Insights into digestion and absorption of major nutrients in humans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nutrient digestion and absorption is necessary for the survival of living organisms and has evolved into the complex and specific task of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. While most people simply assume that their GI tract will work properly to use nutrients, provide energy, and release wastes, few non-scientists know the details about how various nutrients are digested and how the breakdown products traverse the cells lining the small intestine to reach the blood stream and to be used by the other cells of the body. There have been several recent discoveries of new transporters that likely contribute to the absorption of oligopeptides and fatty acids. In addition, details are being clarified about how transporters work and in what forms nutrients can be absorbed. The enzymes that digest basic carbohydrates, proteins, and fats have been identified in various segments of the GI tract, and details are becoming clearer about what types of bonds they hydrolyze. Usually, detailed information about the digestion of basic nutrients is presented and learned in biochemistry courses and detailed information about absorption via transepithelial transport of the breakdown products of digestion is studied in physiology courses. The goal of this Staying Current article is to combine the details of the biochemistry of digestion with the updated information about the physiology of nutrient absorption into one source for teachers of physiology. Insights are included about some of the diseases and conditions that can bring about malabsorption of food in the GI tract and their consequences.

Barbara E. Goodman (Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota Basic Biomedical Sciences)



Decentralized direct adaptive Fuzzy-Neural control of an anaerobic digestion bioprocess plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposed to use Fuzzy-Neural Multi-Model (FNMM) identification and control system for decentralized control of distributed parameter anaerobic wastewater treatment digestion bioprocess, carried out in a fixed bed and a recirculation tank. The distributed parameter analytical model of the digestion bioprocess is reduced to a lumped system using the orthogonal collocation method, applied in three collocation points (plus the

Ieroham S. Baruch; Rosalba Galvan-Guerra



Anaerobic Digestion II. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson is the second of a two-part series on anaerobic digestion. Topics discussed include classification of digester by function, roof design, and temperature range, mixing systems, gas system components, operational control basics, and general safety considerations. The lesson includes an instructor's guide and student workbook. The…

Arasmith, E. E.


Systemic Administration of Abeta mAb Reduces Retinal Deposition of Abeta and Activated Complement C3 in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of legal blindness in the Western world. There are effective treatments for the vascular complications of neo-vascular AMD, but no effective therapies are available for the dry/atrophic form of the disease. A previously described transgenic CFH-gene deficient mouse model, (cfh?/?), shows hallmarks of early AMD. The ocular phenotype has been further analysed to demonstrate amyloid beta (A?) rich basement membrane deposits associated with activated complement C3. Cfh?/? mice were treated systemically in both prophylactic and therapeutic regimes with an anti-A? monoclonal antibody (mAb), 6F6, to determine the effect on the cfh?/? retinal phenotype. Prophylactic treatment with 6F6 demonstrated a dose dependent reduction in the accumulation of both A? and activated C3 deposition. A similar reduction in the retinal endpoints could be seen after therapeutic treatment. Serum A? levels after systemic administration of 6F6 show accumulation of A? in the periphery suggestive of a peripheral sink mechanism. In summary, anti-A? mAb treatment can partially prevent or reverse ocular phenotypes of the cfh?/? mouse. The data support this therapeutic approach in humans potentially modulating two key elements in the pathogenesis of AMD – A? and activated, complement C3. PMID:23799019

Lundh von Leithner, Peter; Ford, Susannah; Gough, Gerald; Adamson, Peter; Overend, Philip; Hilpert, Jan; Lopez, Francisco J.; Ng, Yin Shan Eric; Coffey, Pete; Jeffery, Glen



Nutrition, digestive system and digestion specificity in phytophagous bats  

E-print Network

large intestine (19.9 to 23.3 % of the total intestine length, versus 5.2 to 18.0 % in carnivorous in proteins, occurs in the diet), is manifested by : 1) an increase of the stomach-intestinal tract volume at the expense of cardial atrium, fornix and stomach pyloric part volume; certain intestine extension (3.5 to 4

Boyer, Edmond


A novel transchromosomic system: stable maintenance of an engineered Mb-sized human genomic fragment translocated to a mouse chromosome terminal region.  


Transchromosomic (Tc) technology using human chromosome fragments (hCFs), or human artificial chromosomes (HACs), has been used for generating mice containing Mb-sized segments of the human genome. The most significant problem with freely segregating chromosomes with human centromeres has been mosaicism, possibly due to the instability of hCFs or HACs in mice. We report a system for the stable maintenance of Mb-sized human chromosomal fragments following translocation to mouse chromosome 10 (mChr.10). The approach utilizes microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and a combination of site-specific loxP insertion, telomere-directed chromosome truncation, and precise reciprocal translocation for the generation of Tc mice. Human chromosome 21 (hChr.21) was modified with a loxP site and truncated in homologous recombination-proficient chicken DT40 cells. Following transfer to mouse embryonic stem cells harboring a loxP site at the distal region of mChr.10, a ~4 Mb segment of hChr.21 was translocated to the distal region of mChr.10 by transient expression of Cre recombinase. The residual hChr.21/mChr.10ter fragment was reduced by antibiotic negative selection. Tc mice harboring the translocated ~4 Mb fragment were generated by chimera formation and germ line transmission. The hChr.21-derived Mb fragment was maintained stably in tissues in vivo and expression profiles of genes on hChr.21 were consistent with those seen in humans. Thus, Tc technology that enables translocation of human chromosomal regions onto host mouse chromosomes will be useful for studying in vivo functions of the human genome, and generating humanized model mice. PMID:24488595

Takehara, Shoko; Schulz, Thomas C; Abe, Satoshi; Takiguchi, Masato; Kazuki, Kanako; Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Tomizuka, Kazuma; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Kazuki, Yasuhiro



Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) and Knockout Mouse Production and  

E-print Network

will be of the highest reliability. � The risk of not finding a phenotype will be greatly reduced. � Important with The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium #12;- � KOMP2 Tests Multiple Systems General Immune Musculo- skeletal Sensory Pulmonary Cardiovascular Metabolism Neurological/ Behaviour Modified SHIRPA

Rau, Don C.


In vitro digestion characteristics of unprocessed and processed whole grains and their components.  


Chemical composition and in vitro digestion properties of select whole grains, before and after processing, and their components were measured. Substrates included barley, corn, oat, rice, and wheat. In addition to whole grain flours, processed substrates also were tested as were corn bran, oat bran, wheat bran, and wheat germ. Processing of most substrates resulted in higher dry matter and digestible starch and lower resistant starch concentrations. Dietary fiber fractions varied among substrates with processing. Digestion profiles for most substrates correlated well with their chemical composition. Corn bran and rice substrates were the least fermentable. Extrusion rendered barley, corn, and wheat more hydrolytically digestible and barley and oat more fermentatively digestible. Except for corn bran, all components had greater or equal fermentability compared with their native whole grains. Understanding digestion characteristics of whole grains and their components will allow for more accurate utilization of these ingredients in food systems. PMID:18983157

Hernot, David C; Boileau, Thomas W; Bauer, Laura L; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C



Animal and industrial waste anaerobic digestion: USA status report  

SciTech Connect

Pollutants from unmanaged animal and bio-based industrial wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing wastes may contribute to global climate change. One waste management system prevents pollution and converts a disposal problem into a new profit center. Case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel. Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities to properly dispose of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Beyond the farm, extension of the anaerobic digestion process to recover methane has considerable potential for certain classified industries - with a waste stream characterization similar to livestock manures. More than 35 example industries have been identified, and include processors of chemicals, fiber, food, meat, milk, and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries already recover methane for energy. This status report examines some current opportunities for recovering methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes in the US. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned,{close_quotes} are included as a reality check. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some anaerobic digestion projects fail, are provided. The role of management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at facilities willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. Anaerobic digestion can provide monetary benefits and mitigate possible pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality.

Lusk, P.D. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)



The beta3 integrin gene is expressed at high levels in the major haematopoietic and lymphoid organs, vascular system, and skeleton during mouse embryo development.  


Integrins are a family of cell surface molecules that mediate the attachment of cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM). These alphabeta heterodimers are involved in many biological processes. We used northern blotting and in situ hybridization to study the pattern of beta3 integrin gene expression during mouse embryogenesis. Northern blotting detected two species of beta3 mRNA from 7 to 17 days post coitum (dpc). These transcripts were abundant in the adult testis, kidney, liver, spleen, and heart. In situ hybridization experiments detected high levels of beta3 in the major haematopoietic and lymphoid organs: yolk sac, liver, and thymus. Moreover, beta3 transcripts were also detected in the vascular system, where beta3 integrin probably plays a key role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. We also detected a hybridization signal in the gut, the bronchioles of the lungs, and the bladder wall. beta3 transcripts were also present in the medullary regions of the adrenal glands and in the developing skeleton. Our study shows that beta3 gene expression is not restricted to the liver and gut during mouse development. We also detected beta3 integrin mRNA in the yolk sac, vessels, lung, bladder, and developing bones. Our data suggest that beta3 integrin plays a key role in many important physiological processes like haematopoiesis, angiogenesis, phagocytosis, and bone resorption. PMID:14668060

Le Gat, Laurence; Gogat, Karïn; Van Den Berghe, Loïc; Brizard, Mara; Kobetz, Alexandra; Marchant, Dominique; Abitbol, Marc; Ménasche, Maurice



Muscle and Heart Function Restoration in a Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I) Mouse Model by Systemic FKRP Gene Delivery.  


Mutations in fukutin-related protein (FKRP) gene cause a wide spectrum of disease phenotypes including the mild limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I), the severe Walker-Warburg syndrome, and muscle-eye-brain disease. FKRP deficiency results in ?-dystroglycan (?-DG) hypoglycosylation in the muscle and heart, which is a biochemical hallmark of dystroglycanopathies. To study gene replacement therapy, we generated and characterized a new mouse model of LGMD2I harboring the human mutation leucine 276 to isoleucine (L276I) in the mouse alleles. The homozygous knock-in mice (L276I(KI)) mimic the classic late onset phenotype of LGMD2I in both skeletal and cardiac muscles. Systemic delivery of human FKRP gene by AAV9 vector in the L276I(KI) mice, at either neonatal age or at the age of 9 months, rendered body wide FKRP expression and restored glycosylation of ?-DG in both skeletal and cardiac muscles. FKRP gene therapy ameliorated dystrophic pathology and cardiomyopathy such as muscle degeneration, fibrosis, and myofiber membrane leakage, resulting in restoration of muscle and heart contractile functions. Thus, these results demonstrated that the treatment based on FKRP gene replacement was effective. PMID:25048216

Qiao, Chunping; Wang, Chi-Hsien; Zhao, Chunxia; Lu, Peijuan; Awano, Hiroyuki; Xiao, Bin; Li, Jianbin; Yuan, Zhenhua; Dai, Yi; Martin, Carrie Bette; Li, Juan; Lu, Qilong; Xiao, Xiao



Neurodegeneration of mouse nigrostriatal dopaminergic system induced by repeated oral administration of rotenone is prevented by 4-phenylbutyrate, a chemical chaperone.  


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is primarily characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic systemic exposure of Lewis rats to rotenone produced many features of PD, and cerebral tauopathy was also detected in the case of severe weight loss. The present study was designed to assess the neurotoxicity of rotenone after daily oral administration for 28 days at several doses in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, we examined the protective effects of 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) on nigral dopamine (DA) neurons in rotenone-treated mice. 4-PBA was injected intraperitoneally daily 30 min before each oral administration of rotenone. Chronic oral administration of rotenone at high doses induced specific nigrostriatal DA neurodegeneration, motor deficits and the up-regulation of alpha-synuclein in the surviving DA neurons. In contrast to the Lewis rat model, cerebral tauopathy was not detected in this mouse model. 4-PBA inhibited rotenone-induced neuronal death and decreased the protein level of alpha-synuclein. These results suggest that this rotenone mouse model may be useful for understanding the mechanism of DA neurodegeneration in PD, and that 4-PBA has a neuroprotective effect in the treatment of PD. PMID:17459145

Inden, Masatoshi; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Takeuchi, Hiroki; Yanagida, Takashi; Takata, Kazuyuki; Kobayashi, Yuka; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Kaneko, Masahiko; Okuma, Yasunobu; Taira, Takahiro; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Shimohama, Shun



Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure  

SciTech Connect

The authors tested several solid liquid separation systems suitable for processing dairy manure prior to anaerobic digestion. None of the systems tried have completely satisfied the requirements. Evaluated effects of separation on biogas production. Unseparated dairy manure produced more biogas than the liquid fraction.

Haugen, V.; Dahlberg, S.; Lindley, J.A.



NCI Mouse Repository - Information

General Information About the NCI Mouse Repository Pricing Ordering Information Ordering Live Mice Ordering Cryoarchived Strains Health Reports Getting Assistance / Reporting a Problem Submitting Strains to the NCI Mouse Repository Material Transfer



E-print Network

, the evolutionary forces acting on four wild populations of the house mouse Mus musculus were analysed by high and introgression of haplotypes in natural populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus). PLoS Genet. 8, e1002891

Petrov, Dmitri


Mouse Model for the Preclinical Study of Metastatic Disease

The successful development of new cancer therapeutics requires reliable preclinical data that are obtained from mouse models for cancer. Human tumor xenografts, which require transplantation of human tumor cells into an immune compromised mouse, represent the current standard mouse model for cancer. Since the immune system plays an important role in tumor growth, progression and metastasis, the current standard mouse model is not ideal for accurate prediction of therapeutic effectiveness in patients.



SciTech Connect

GEW has been operating the first fuel cell in Europe producing heat and electricity from digester gas in an environmentally friendly way. The first 9,000 hours in operation were successfully concluded in August 2001. The fuel cell powered by digester gas was one of the 25 registered ''Worldwide projects'' which NRW presented at the EXPO 2000. In addition to this, it is a key project of the NRW State Initiative on Future Energies. All of the activities planned for the first year of operation were successfully completed: installing and putting the plant into operation, the transition to permanent operation as well as extended monitoring till May 2001.

Dr.-Eng. Dirk Adolph; Dipl.-Eng. Thomas Saure



Direct Analysis of Reversed-Phase HPTLC Separated Tryptic Protein Digests using a Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe/ESI-MS System  

SciTech Connect

The sampling, ionization and detection of tryptic peptides separated in one-dimension on reversed phase HPTLC plates was performed using liquid microjunction surface sampling probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Tryptic digests of five proteins (cytochrome c., myoglobin, beta-casein, lysozyme, and bovine serum albumin) were spotted on reversed phase HPTLC RP-8 F254s and HPTLC RP-18 F254s plates. The plates were then developed using 70/30 methanol/water with 0.1 M ammonium acetate. A dual purpose extraction/electrospray solution containing 70/30/0.1 water/methanol/formic acid was infused through the sampling probe during analysis of the developed lanes. Both full scan mass spectra and data dependent tandem mass spectra were acquired for each development lane to detect and verify the peptide distributions. Data dependent tandem mass spectra provided both protein identification and sequence coverage information. Highest sequence coverages were achieved for cytochrome c. and myoglobin (62.5% and 58.3%, respectively) on reversed phase RP-8 plates. While the tryptic peptides were separated enough for identification, the peptide bands did show some overlap with most peptides located in the lower half of the development lane. Proteins whose peptides were more separated gave higher sequence coverage. Larger proteins such as beta-casein and BSA which were spotted in lower relative amounts gave much lower sequence coverage than the smaller proteins.

Emory, Joshua F [ORNL; Walworth, Matthew J [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Schulz, Michael [Merck Research Laboratories; Minarik, susanne [Merck Research Laboratories



USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, Issue 18  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the 18th issue of NASA's USSR Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 50 papers published in Russian language periodicals or presented at conferences and of 8 new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A review of a recent Aviation Medicine Handbook is also included. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 37 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas are: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, exobiology, gastrointestinal system, genetics, gravitational biology, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, man-machine systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive biology, space biology and medicine, and space industrialization.

Hooke, Lydia Razran (editor); Donaldson, P. Lynn (editor); Teeter, Ronald (editor); Garshnek, Victoria (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)



USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 16  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the sixteenth issue of NASA's USSR Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 57 papers published in Russian language periodicals or presented at conferences and of 2 new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. An additional feature is the review of a book concerned with metabolic response to the stress of space flight. The abstracts included in this issue are relevant to 33 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, bionics, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, exobiology, gastrointestinal system, genetics, gravitational biology, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, man-machine systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive biology, and space biology.

Hooke, Lydia Razran (editor); Teeter, Ronald (editor); Siegel, Bette (editor); Donaldson, P. Lynn (editor); Leveton, Lauren B. (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)



Building a Brainier Mouse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a genetic engineering project to build an intelligent mouse. Cites understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory as a very important step. Concludes that while science will never create a genius mouse that plays the stock market, it can turn a mouse into a quick learner with a better memory. (YDS)

Tsien, Joe Z.



The Knockout Mouse Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse knockout technology provides a powerful means of elucidating gene function in vivo, and a publicly available genome-wide collection of mouse knockouts would be significantly enabling for biomedical discovery. To date, published knockouts exist for only about 10% of mouse genes. Furthermore, many of these are limited in utility because they have not been made or phenotyped in standardized ways,

James F Battey; Allan Bradley; Maja Bucan; Mario Capecchi; Francis S Collins; William F Dove; Geoffrey Duyk; Susan Dymecki; Janan T Eppig; Franziska B Grieder; Nathaniel Heintz; Geoff Hicks; Thomas R Insel; Alexandra Joyner; Beverly H Koller; K C Kent Lloyd; Terry Magnuson; Mark W Moore; Andras Nagy; Jonathan D Pollock; Allen D Roses; Arthur T Sands; Brian Seed; William C Skarnes; Jay Snoddy; Philippe Soriano; David J Stewart; Francis Stewart; Bruce Stillman; Harold Varmus; Lyuba Varticovski; Inder M Verma; Thomas F Vogt; Harald von Melchner; Jan Witkowski; Richard P Woychik; Wolfgang Wurst; George D Yancopoulos; Stephen G Young; Brian Zambrowicz; Christopher P Austin