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1

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system is investigated in this learning activity to help participants learn how food is broken down and prepared for absorption, and list the components of the digestive system as well as their functions. Organs investigated include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Bidlack, Jim

2

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a section of an online Biology Textbook - developed by Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College - providing a concise overview of the digestive system. It describes the enzymes, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids involved in digestion and outlines the role that each part of the body plays from the mouth the large intestine.

Gregory, Michael

1969-12-31

3

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system is amazing: it takes the foods we eat and breaks them into smaller components that our bodies can use for energy, cell repair and growth. This lesson introduces students to the main parts of the digestive system and how they interact. In addition, students learn about some of the challenges astronauts face when eating in outer space. Engineers figure out how to deal with such challenges.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

4

A systematic quantification of carbonic anhydrase transcripts in the mouse digestive system  

PubMed Central

Background Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are physiologically important enzymes which participate in many gastrointestinal processes such as acid and bicarbonate secretion and metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis. The genomic data suggests that there are thirteen enzymatically active members of the mammalian CA isozyme family. In the present study, we systematically examined the mRNA expression levels of all known CA isozymes by quantitative real-time PCR in eight tissues of the digestive system of male and female mice. Results The CAs expressed in all tissues were Car5b, Car7, and Car15, among which Car5b showed moderate and Car7 and Car15 extremely low expression levels. Car3, Car12, Car13, and Car14 were detected in seven out of eight tissues and Car2 and Car4 were expressed in six tissues. Importantly, Car1, Car3, and Car13 showed very high expression levels in certain tissues as compared to the other CAs, suggesting that these low activity isozymes may also participate in physiological processes other than CA catalysis and high expression levels are required to fulfil their functions in the body. Conclusion A comprehensive mRNA expression profile of the 13 enzymatically active CAs in the murine gastrointestinal tract was produced in the present study. It contributes to a deeper understanding of the distribution of CA isozymes and their potential roles in the mouse digestive system.

Pan, Pei-wen; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Parkkila, Seppo

2007-01-01

5

Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... 30 feet long. Continue How Digestion Works Digestion Begins in the Mouth The process of digestion starts ... under the tongue and near the lower jaw, begin producing saliva. This flow of saliva is set ...

6

Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... of the immune system to a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, and barley ... and even depression when they eat foods with gluten. Symptoms can be managed by following a gluten- ...

7

The Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the prime structures and functions of the digestive system ? First, take a look at Structures and Functions of Digestive System and answer these questions on the handout given. Name 10 main structures of the digestive system. For each 10 structures, name the functions of each structure. Next,examine the Description of the Digestion pathway process. Answer the questions below on the back of the same handout as the first questions: What is ...

Daniel

2010-03-25

8

Daphnia digestive system  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The parts of the digestive system can be difficult to imagine because they are inside of our bodies. This clip demonstrates the Daphnia digestive system. The brown material is feces. Notice the slinky-like motion of the intestine. This acts to move the feces to the anus, where it will eventually be eliminated. The tiny cells making up the intestine allow nutrients to pass into the body of the Daphnia, to be used as energy.

Katie Hale (CSUF;)

2007-08-18

9

Ruminating on the Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will review the functions of basic digestive organs, understand how diet affects digestion, understand how digestive tracks may differ, and then step outside to compare the digestive systems of the buffalo and the zebra in a lively demonstration. This lesson plan includes key vocabulary words, teacher background information, and is standards-based.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

10

Regions of the Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... Citation Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Digestive System » Regions of the Digestive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life ...

11

The digestive system: part 1.  

PubMed

This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the digestive system, explores the structure and function of the digestive system. It is important that nurses understand how the digestive system works and its role in maintaining health. The article describes the gross structure of the gastrointestinal tract along with relevant physiology. It also outlines several disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and their treatment and nursing management. The second article will explain the liver, pancreas and gall bladder and their digestive functions, and provides a brief overview of the disorders of chronic liver disease, pancreatitis and gallstones. PMID:24517694

Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

12

The digestive system: part 2.  

PubMed

This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the second of two articles on the digestive system, explores the structure and function of the liver, gall bladder and pancreas. It is important that nurses understand how the digestive system works and identify its role in maintaining health. The gross structures of the liver, gall bladder and pancreas associated with the gastrointestinal tract are described, along with relevant physiology and pathologies. PMID:24547860

Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn

13

Digestive Systems in Different Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the ThinkQuest Library archives, the fifth site - titled La Casa de Comida - was created by a team of high school students for elementary school children. This section of the site offers a brief and basic comparison of digestive systems in birds, horses, insects, snakes, crustaceans, and mollusks.

1969-12-31

14

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The dual digestion system (DDS) was developed to provide stabilized, pathogen free sludge. DDS consists of a 1-day detention time, pure-oxygen, covered aerobic digester (Step I) followed by an 8-day detention time anaerobic reactor. The temperature in the Step I digester is contr...

15

GlaI digestion of mouse ?-satellite DNA: study of primary structure and ACGT sites methylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Patterns of mouse DNA hydrolysis with restriction enzymes are coincided with calculated diagrams of genomic DNA digestion in silico, except presence of additional bright bands, which correspond to monomer and dimer of ?-satellite DNA. Only small portion of mouse ?-satellite DNA sequences are presented in databases. Methyl-directed endonuclease GlaI cleaves mouse DNA and may be useful for a detailed

Murat A Abdurashitov; Valery A Chernukhin; Danila A Gonchar; Sergey Kh Degtyarev

2009-01-01

16

Digestion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digestion is a complex and miraculous process fundamental to our daily living. The complex nature of our digestive system, however, can also contribute to a variety of disorders. The following websites offer information and resources pertaining to the digestive system and digestive disorders. The first link leads to website for the American Gastroenterological Association which is an online resource for Association members as well as "other medical professionals with an interest in digestive diseases, patients and the general public." The site posts links to related news; and to sections for clinical resources, practice management, educational resources, and publications-to name a few (1). The second link leads to GastroLab, a long-standing online gastrointestinal resource specializing in digestive disorders. The site offers visitors a vast array of endoscopic images and video clips as well as a comprehensive dictionary of gastrointestinal terms (2). The third site presents the Gut Foundation, an organization that "provides professional and public education and promotes research into digestive disorders to improve gastrointestinal health." The Foundation website contains a variety of information about gastrointestinal conditions, diagnoses, medical research, membership, and more (3). The fourth website, from ViaHealth provides a brief overview of the digestive system; and information sections addressing common digestive disorders, rectal and colon cancer, diagnostic procedures, and online resources (4). From the ThinkQuest Library archives, the fifth site-titled La Casa de Comida-was created by a team of high school students for elementary school children. This section of the site offers a brief and basic comparison of digestive systems in birds, horses, insects, snakes, crustaceans, and mollusks (5). The sixth site contains a section of an online Biology Textbook-developed by Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College-providing a concise overview of the digestive system (6). The final link leads to a kid-friendly website from KidsHealth containing a short summary of the digestive system complete with a cartoony diagram illustrating all of the system's major parts (7).

17

Digestive System, a Kinesthetic Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two parallel strips of tape on the floor 3-4 feet apart and width of classroom represent the digestive tract. A large filled bag represents the food particle. Students standing on both lines act out each digestive function of the organs, tissues, and cells in the tract as the food particle comes to them.

Bobbin Cave (Village High School REV)

1995-06-30

18

MOUSE UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The original MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty System) system was designed to deal with the problem of uncertainties in Environmental engineering calculations, such as a set of engineering cost or risk analysis equations. t was especially intended for use by individuals with li...

19

Pre-thickened aerobic digester system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An aerobic treatment process is operated to reduce overall oxygen requirements, to maintain general pH balance and to produce a low-coliform solids effluent. From the system's clarifier a slurry of concentrated solids is moved to a premix basin, where the slurry is vigorously aerated for a sufficient time to raise microbial activity and dissolved oxygen content. The aerated, microbially active sludge is then moved to a gravity thickener basin, in which solids are allowed to settle to the bottom without aeration, to establish a quiescent state in the settled sludge and also an anoxic stage. This causes the sludge to be denitrified by microbial action, raising and stabilizing the pH of the sludge. Separated supernatant liquid is decanted and removed from the gravity thickener. The sludge is moved into an aerobic digester, where the sludge is aerated and nitrification occurs but using less aeration than normally required in a digester, due to the effect of anoxic/aerobic phases. A portion of the slurry in the aerobic digester basin is recycled back to the premix basin. Another important aspect is the use of two digesters, only one in loop with the premix and thickener at any one time, with each digester being taken out of the loop and isolated when a solids content of about 25,000 to 35,000 mg/L (21/2% to 3.5%) is achieved in that digester. The isolation results in a significantly lowered coliform content in the effluent sludge.

1999-10-26

20

Adenylyl cyclases in the digestive system.  

PubMed

Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a group of widely distributed enzymes whose functions are very diverse. There are nine known transmembrane AC isoforms activated by G?s. Each has its own pattern of expression in the digestive system and differential regulation of function by Ca(2+) and other intracellular signals. In addition to the transmembrane isoforms, one AC is soluble and exhibits distinct regulation. In this review, the basic structure, regulation and physiological roles of ACs in the digestive system are discussed. PMID:24521753

Sabbatini, Maria Eugenia; Gorelick, Fred; Glaser, Shannon

2014-06-01

21

Colorado State University: Pathophysiology of the Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website was developed by faculty at Colorado State University as a Biomedical Hypertextbook on the Pathophysiology of the Digestive System. The website is very comprehensive including well-organized sections on the Fundamental Physiology and Anatomy of the Digestive System, Control of Digestive Function, Pregastric Digestion, The Pancreas, and many more. There are even sections exploring the digestive physiology of birds and herbivores. Additional features include self-evaluation tests reviewing the material, a Glossary and Index, and links to other Hypertextbooks.

22

Earth Systems Education. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National concerns about the quality and effectiveness of science teaching have resulted in several efforts directed at restructuring the United States' science curriculum. This digest discusses recent initiatives of the Earth Systems Education. Topics discussed include: (1) efforts to understand the planet Earth; (2) the Program for Leadership in…

Mayer, Victor J.

23

Integrated Library Systems. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An automated library system usually consists of a number of functional modules, such as acquisitions, circulation, cataloging, serials, and an online public access catalog (OPAC). An "integrated" library system is an automated system in which all of the function modules share a common bibliographic database. There are several ways the integration…

Lopata, Cynthia L.

24

Trypsin Digest Protocol to Analyze the Retinal Vasculature of a Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Trypsin digest is the gold standard method to analyze the retinal vasculature 1–5. It allows visualization of the entire network of complex three-dimensional retinal blood vessels and capillaries by creating a two-dimensional flat-mount of the interconnected vascular channels after digestion of the non-vascular components of the retina. This allows one to study various pathologic vascular changes, such as microaneurysms, capillary degeneration, and abnormal endothelial to pericyte ratios. However, the method is technically challenging, especially in mice, which have become the most widely available animal model to study the retina because of the ease of genetic manipulations6,7. In the mouse eye, it is particularly difficult to completely remove the non-vascular components while maintaining the overall architecture of the retinal blood vessels. To date, there is a dearth of literature that describes the trypsin digest technique in detail in the mouse. This manuscript provides a detailed step-by-step methodology of the trypsin digest in mouse retina, while also providing tips on troubleshooting difficult steps.

Chou, Jonathan C.; Rollins, Stuart D.; Fawzi, Amani A.

2014-01-01

25

Digestion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this food science activity, learners explore digestion and proteins by observing the action of meat tenderizer on luncheon meat. This lesson guide includes background information about digestion, enzymes, and proteins.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.

2011-01-01

26

Scaffold-like structures in mouse chromosomes revealed by restriction endonuclease digestion and electron microscopy.  

PubMed

A scaffold-like structure is observed under the electron microscope when mouse chromosomes are digested with the restriction endonuclease Hae III. This structure, located in the inner part of chromatids, may correspond to those fragments of chromatin loops anchored to the chromosome scaffold and is obtained when chromosomes are treated either in suspension or attached to grids. The width of the structure is correlated with the extent of digestion in chromosomes treated in suspension. Those treated on grids show this structure whenever chromatids do not collapse. These results agree with the model of chromosome organization based on a non-histone protein scaffold. PMID:2162703

García de la Vega, C; López-Fernández, C; Esponda, P; Campos, A; Goyanes, V; Gosálvez, J

1990-01-01

27

Nutrition 1: Food and the Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the first of a three part series. Most of this lesson will focus on what nutrients are needed to do particular tasks for the body. More specifically, where the nutrients come from, their different forms, and then their importance for particular tasks in the body. Some of the lesson will focus on the overall digestive system in order to address the latter part of the benchmark-that undigested food is eliminated.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

28

PATHOGEN AND INDICATOR ORGANISM DESTRUCTION BY THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The effectiveness of the dual digestion system (DDS) to destroy pathogenic microorganisms was evaluated at a full-scale treatment facility. The DDS incorporates a pure oxygen aerobic digester (1-day detention time) followed by an anaerobic digester (8-day detention time). Heat bi...

29

Expert system for control of anaerobic digesters  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic digestion is a biochemical process that converts organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide along with the production of bacterial matter. It is primarily used for waste and wastewater treatment but can also be used for energy production. Continuous anaerobic digesters are systems that present challenging control problems including the possibility that an unmeasured disturbance can change the sign of the steady-state process gain. An expert system is developed that recognizes changes in the sign of process gain and implements appropriate control laws. The sole on-line measured variable is the methane production rate, and the manipulated input is the dilution rate. The expert system changes the dilution rate according to one of four possible strategies: a constrained conventional set-point control law, a constant yield control law (CYCL) that is nearly optimal for the most common cause of change in the sign of the process gain, batch operation, or constant dilution rate. The algorithm uses a t test for determining when to switch to the CYCL and returns to the conventional set-point control law with bumpless transfer. The expert system has proved successful in several experimental tests: severe overload; mild, moderate, and severe underload; and addition of phenol in low and high levels. Phenol is an inhibitor that in high concentrations changes the sign of the process gain.

Pullammanappallil, P.C.; Svoronos, S.A.; Chynoweth, D.P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Lyberatos, G. [Univ. of Patras (Greece)] [Univ. of Patras (Greece)

1998-04-05

30

Digestion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about digestion and proteins by observing the action of meat tenderizer on luncheon meat. It is part of the My World activities from Baylor College of Medicine. Additional activities can be accessed at http://www.k8science.org/.

Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

2010-01-01

31

Cancers by Body Location/System: Digestive/Gastrointestinal  

Cancer.gov

In English En español In English En español Cancers by Body Location/System: Digestive/Gastrointestinal To find a cancer: select a body location or system — AIDS-RelatedBreastDigestive/GastrointestinalEndocrine and NeuroendocrineEye GenitourinaryGerm

32

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION OF THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Full-scale performance and costs of an innovative sludge stabilization process were evaluated at the three plants. The DDS incorporates a 1-day-detention-time, pure oxygen aerobic digester followed in series by an 8-day-detention-time anaerobic digester. Heat of biological oxidat...

33

Digestive Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow organs joined ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

34

Energy Integrated Dairy Farm digester and cogeneration system installation  

SciTech Connect

Georgia Tech finished in December, 1983 Phase II (system installation and startup) of its four year Energy Integrated Dairy Farm System (EIDFS) program. This paper outlines the selection and installation of the anaerobic digestion and cogeneration components of the EIDFS.

Ross, C.C.; Walsh, J.L.

1984-01-01

35

Digester  

SciTech Connect

A digester is claimed for producing organic material having a reaction chamber through which organic material is allowed to flow from an inlet opening to an outlet opening, having means for heating the organic material in the reaction chamber, and having means for collecting the fuel gas which is generated within the reaction chamber. The reaction chamber is located in a housing which has a continuous concrete wall within which is located a core of thermal insulating material to form a continuously insulating envelope around the reaction chamber.

Chase, G.J.

1983-08-30

36

Waste heat utilization in an anaerobic digestion system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anaerobic digestion has great potential as an energy source. Not only does it provide an effective method for waste mitigation, but it has the potential to generate significant quantities of fuel and electricity. In order to ensure efficient digestion and biomass utilization, however, the system must be continuously maintained at elevated temperatures. It is technically feasible to supplement such a system with outside energy, but it is more cost effective to heat the system using only the produced biogas. While there is considerable literature covering the theory of anaerobic digestion, there are very few practical studies to show how heat utilization affects system operation. This study considers the effect of major design variables (i.e. heat exchanger efficiencies and biogas conditioning) on promoting a completely self-sustaining digestion system. The thesis considers a real world system and analyzes how it can be improved to avoid the need of an external energy source.

Boissevain, Brett

37

Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.  

PubMed

Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian. PMID:24785191

Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

2014-01-01

38

The circulatory, digestive, and respiratory systems work together.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system breaks down the food we eat into smaller nutrients which are moved throughout our bodies by the circulatory system. The respiratory system captures oxygen from the air and releases toxic carbon dioxide to the air; these chemicals are also moved through the body via the circulatory system.

Katie Hale (CSUF;)

2007-08-18

39

The DNA fragments produced by AluI and BstNI digestion of fixed mouse chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

AluI and BstNI restriction endonucleases were used to study cytological and biochemical effects on centromere DNA in fixed mouse chromosomes. These enzymes were employed, as it is known that AluI is incapable of attacking major satellite DNA, contrary to BstNI that is known to cut this DNA fraction into monomers of 234 bp. After digestion in situ, electrophoretic analysis was

R. Mezzanotte; R. Rossino; M. Nieddu; C. Lopez-Fernandez; J. Gosalvez

1992-01-01

40

A novel fed-batch digestion system for biomethanation of plant biomasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant biomasses, which in the absence of adequate pretreatment pose serious operational problems in biogas production using conventional domestic flow-through digesters, can be successfully digested in a novel fedbatch digestion system that produces a steady rate of biogas. Basically, the system is a batch digestion operated with a regular input of a calculated amount of feed based on first order

Archana Sharma; Bala G. Unni; H. Devendra Singh

1999-01-01

41

Overview of the Immune Dynamics of the Digestive System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Activation of the immune system of poultry can divert nutrients away from growth. As the digestive tract is a major site of pathogen exposure, an understanding of the function and regulation of the immune system may help nutritionists improve performance, and minimize the potential negative impacts of the reduction or loss of the use of growth- promoting antibiotics in

D. R. Korver

2005-01-01

42

Autogenerative high pressure digestion: anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system.  

PubMed

Conventional anaerobic digestion is a widely applied technology to produce biogas from organic wastes and residues. The biogas calorific value depends on the CH, content which generally ranges between 55 and 65%. Biogas upgrading to so-called 'green gas', with natural gas quality, generally proceeds with add-on technologies, applicable only for biogas flows > 100 m3/h. In the concept of autogenerative high pressure digestion (AHPD), methanogenic biomass builds up pressure inside the reactor. Since CO2 has a higher solubility than CH4, it will proportion more to the liquid phase at higher pressures. Therefore, AHPD biogas is characterised by a high CH4 content, reaching equilibrium values between 90 and 95% at a pressure of 3-90 bar. In addition, also H2S and NH3 are theoretically more soluble in the bulk liquid than CO2. Moreover, the water content of the already compressed biogas is calculated to have a dew point <--10 degrees C. Ideally, high-quality biogas can be directly used for electricity and heat generation, or injected in a local natural gas distribution net. In the present study, using sodium acetate as substrate and anaerobic granular sludge as inoculum, batch-fed reactors showed a pressure increase up to 90 bars, the maximum allowable value for our used reactors. However, the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of the sludge decreased on average by 30% compared to digestion at ambient pressure (1 bar). Other results show no effect of pressure exposure on the SMA assessed under atmospheric conditions. These first results show that the proposed AHPD process is a highly promising technology for anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system. PMID:22097043

Lindeboom, R E F; Fermoso, F G; Weijma, J; Zagt, K; van Lier, J B

2011-01-01

43

A Login System Using Mouse Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will describe a login method for accessing computer systems, using mouse dynamics. The user needs to perform a task with his mouse pointer, and based on the performance of that task, the user is granted or denied access to the computer. Such a system could be a replacement for, or an addition to, the ordinary username\\/password system. A

Patrick Bours; Christopher Johnsrud Fullu

2009-01-01

44

Molecular Insights into Congenital Disorders of the Digestive System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work is providing new insights into molecular mechanisms of digestive system development and their alteration in clinically significant disorders. An understanding of these mechanisms has largely been gained through the use of animal models, because many of the basic processes required in embryogenesis are functionally conserved among species. Such conserved factors include cell–cell signaling pathways and the regulation of

Michael D. Bates; Gail H. Deutsch

2003-01-01

45

The DNA fragments produced by AluI and BstNI digestion of fixed mouse chromosomes.  

PubMed

AluI and BstNI restriction endonucleases were used to study cytological and biochemical effects on centromere DNA in fixed mouse chromosomes. These enzymes were employed, as it is known that AluI is incapable of attacking major satellite DNA, contrary to BstNI that is known to cut this DNA fraction into monomers of 234 bp. After digestion in situ, electrophoretic analysis was carried out to characterize the DNA purified (1) from the material remaining on the chromosomes and (2) from the material solubilized from chromosomes. The DNA was then transferred to a nylon filter and 32P-labelled major satellite DNA was used as a probe for hybridization experiments. Other preparations were simply stained with Giemsa after digestion in situ with AluI and BstNI. Our results show that although restriction endonuclease cleavage primarily depends on DNA base sequence, this factor is not always sufficient to explain nuclease-induced cytological effects. In fact, the structural organization of peculiar regions such as the centromeres of mouse chromosomes might affect cleavage efficiency when restriction enzyme digestion is performed in situ. PMID:1424989

Mezzanotte, R; Rossino, R; Nieddu, M; Lopez-Fernandez, C; Gosalvez, J

1992-10-01

46

Effect of buckwheat extract on the antioxidant activity of lipid in mouse brain and its structural change during in vitro human digestion.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench cv. Yangjul No. 2) extract on the antioxidant activity of lipids in mouse brain and the structural change during in vitro human digestion. Buckwheat was collected from a wild farm and extracted with water. The buckwheat extracts were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine juice. The results confirmed that the main phenolics of buckwheat extract were rutin, quercitrin, and quercetin. The rutin content increased with digestion of the buckwheat (from 48.82 to 96.34 ?g/g) and rutin standard samples (from 92.76 to 556.56 ?g/g). Antioxidant activity was more strongly influenced by in vitro human digestion of both buckwheat and rutin standard. After digestion by the small intestine, the antioxidant activity values were dramatically increased (from 5.06 to 87.82%), whereas the antioxidant activity was not influenced by digestion in the stomach for both buckwheat extract and rutin standard. Inhibition of lipid oxidation of buckwheat in mouse brain lipids increased after digestion in the stomach for both buckwheat extract and the rutin standard. The major finding of this study was that in vitro human digestion may be an important modulator of the antioxidant capacity of buckwheat and that this may be because in vitro human digestion increased the antioxidative activity via an increase in antioxidants such as rutin and quercetin. PMID:21882888

Hur, Sun-Jin; Park, Soo-Jeong; Jeong, Chang-Ho

2011-10-12

47

The complexities of hydrolytic enzymes from the termite digestive system.  

PubMed

Abstract The main challenge in second generation bioethanol production is the efficient breakdown of cellulose to sugar monomers (hydrolysis). Due to the recalcitrant character of cellulose, feedstock pretreatment and adapted hydrolysis steps are needed to obtain fermentable sugar monomers. The conventional industrial production process of second-generation bioethanol from biomass comprises several steps: thermochemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar fermentation. This process is undergoing continuous optimization in order to increase the bioethanol yield and reduce the economic cost. Therefore, the discovery of new enzymes with high lignocellulytic activity or new strategies is extremely important. In nature, wood-feeding termites have developed a sophisticated and efficient cellulose degrading system in terms of the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis and exploitation. This system, which represents a model for digestive symbiosis has attracted the attention of biofuel researchers. This review describes the termite digestive system, gut symbionts, termite enzyme resources, in vitro studies of isolated enzymes and lignin degradation in termites. PMID:23036053

Saadeddin, Anas

2014-06-01

48

Anaerobic digestion and wastewater treatment systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) wastewater (pre-)treatment systems represent a proven sustainable technology for a wide range of very different industrial effluents, including those containing toxic\\/inhibitory compounds. The process is also feasible for treatment of domestic wastewater with temperatures as low as 14–16° C and likely even lower. Compared to conventional aerobic treatment systems the anaerobic treatment process merely offers

G. Lettinga

1995-01-01

49

Systems Theory and the Earth Systems Approach in Science Education. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The systems approach provides a framework for integrating different scientific disciplines. This approach is used often in Earth Systems Education. This ERIC Digest describes the systems theory and its influence on science education. (Contains 16 references.) (YDS)

Lee, Hyongyong

50

Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Muller, J. K.; Prather, D. R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.

2003-01-01

51

System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material  

DOEpatents

An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01

52

Medical examination of the digestive system relevant to purchase.  

PubMed

Routine examination of the digestive system relevant to purchase includes gross examination of the feces, auscultation of the abdomen, and examination of the oral cavity and teeth for verification of age and identification of any gross abnormality. Further examination is indicated only when there is a history of diseases such as colic, especially colic surgery, or esophageal obstruction. Special procedures that might be indicated, depending upon the history and findings on the routine physical examination, include rectal palpation of the abdominal viscera; endoscopic examination of the esophagus; abdominal paracentesis; radiographs of the teeth, esophagus, or abdomen; and transabdominal or transrectal ultrasound. PMID:1643550

Bennett, D G

1992-08-01

53

Selective digestion of mouse chromosomes with restriction endonucleases. Oligonucleotide priming of single-stranded DNA produced with exonuclease III.  

PubMed

L-929 mouse chromosomes prepared for electron microscopy have been treated with MspI, EcoRI, and HaeIII restriction endonucleases (REs). RE-induced nicks were amplified with exonuclease III to obtain single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) motifs. The ss-DNA produced was enough to permit hybridization of a series of random oligonucleotides. These can be used as primers, which are extended by the Klenow fragment using non-isotopic labelled dUTP. The incorporation of biotinylated dUTP is detected with a gold-tagged streptoavidin as the reporter molecule. This allows, in mouse chromosomes, the detection of different rates of sensitivity to the digestion with specific REs in distinct intraheterochromatic DNA subsets. In addition, these results show that enzymatic production of ss-DNA seems to be adequate for electron microscopy work since the chromatin fiber is preserved better than in denatured DNA produced with heat, NaOH, or formamide. PMID:8390384

Gosálvez, J; López-Fernández, C; García de la Vega, C; Mezzanotte, R; Fernández, J L; Goyanes, V

1993-04-01

54

Mouse behavioural analysis in systems biology  

PubMed Central

Molecular techniques allowing in vivo modulation of gene expression have provided unique opportunities and challenges for behavioural studies aimed at understanding the function of particular genes or biological systems under physiological or pathological conditions. Although various animal models are available, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) has unique features and is therefore a preferred animal model. The mouse shares a remarkable genetic resemblance and aspects of behaviour with humans. In this review, first we describe common mouse models for behavioural analyses. As both genetic and environmental factors influence behavioural performance and need to be carefully evaluated in behavioural experiments, considerations for designing and interpretations of these experiments are subsequently discussed. Finally, common behavioural tests used to assess brain function are reviewed, and it is illustrated how behavioural tests are used to increase our understanding of the role of histaminergic neurotransmission in brain function.

van Meer, Peter; Raber, Jacob

2005-01-01

55

Prenatal development of the digestive system in the horse.  

PubMed

Since the horse has a highly precocial reproductive strategy, most organs are functionally well developed at birth and thus, embryonic and fetal life is interesting. Data on the development of important organs are very limited. Here, we detailed macroscopically and histologically the equine digestive system, focusing on the first third of gestation. At 21 days, the oral cavity was an empty space, and the liver contained proliferating endodermal cells. At 25 days, a fusiform stomach and the pancreatic bud were present. At 28 days, a small tongue and the esophagus occurred. At 30 days, primary and secondary palates were developed, the liver contained cords of hepatocytes, and the pancreas was triangular. At 40 days, crypts had formed in the intestinal loops, cell differentiation was observed in the hepatic parenchyma, and the pancreas was elongated. Pancreatic acini and islets were observed in fetuses of 50 days and intestines were highly convoluted. Three segments of the pharynx were distinguishable at 75 days. At 105 days, the intestinal villi were wide with round tips; especially, the liver, stomach, and oral cavity showed key steps of anatomical and cellular differentiation in early fetuses, whereas other areas, such as pancreas or pharynx were still immature in the investigated phase. Pluripotency analysis using Oct4 showed initial intense staining in all of the digestive system tissues and a later decreased becoming restricted to specific cell layers. In conclusion, our data may contribute to perform a chronological reference of developmental events for approaches predicting pregnancy disorders in horses. Anat Rec, 297:1218-1227, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24778084

Rodrigues, Marcio N; Carvalho, Rafael C; Franciolli, Andre L R; Rodrigues, Rosângela F; Rigoglio, Nathia N; Jacob, Julio C F; Gastal, Eduardo L; Miglino, Maria A

2014-07-01

56

MPHASYS: a mouse phenotype analysis system  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic, high-throughput studies of mouse phenotypes have been hampered by the inability to analyze individual animal data from a multitude of sources in an integrated manner. Studies generally make comparisons at the level of genotype or treatment thereby excluding associations that may be subtle or involve compound phenotypes. Additionally, the lack of integrated, standardized ontologies and methodologies for data exchange has inhibited scientific collaboration and discovery. Results Here we introduce a Mouse Phenotype Analysis System (MPHASYS), a platform for integrating data generated by studies of mouse models of human biology and disease such as aging and cancer. This computational platform is designed to provide a standardized methodology for working with animal data; a framework for data entry, analysis and sharing; and ontologies and methodologies for ensuring accurate data capture. We describe the tools that currently comprise MPHASYS, primarily ones related to mouse pathology, and outline its use in a study of individual animal-specific patterns of multiple pathology in mice harboring a specific germline mutation in the DNA repair and transcription-specific gene Xpd. Conclusion MPHASYS is a system for analyzing multiple data types from individual animals. It provides a framework for developing data analysis applications, and tools for collecting and distributing high-quality data. The software is platform independent and freely available under an open-source license [1].

Calder, R Brent; Beems, Rudolf B; van Steeg, Harry; Mian, I Saira; Lohman, Paul HM; Vijg, Jan

2007-01-01

57

Is the food-entrainable circadian oscillator in the digestive system?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Food-anticipatory activity (FAA) is the increase in locomotion and core body temperature that precedes a daily scheduled meal. It is driven by a circadian oscillator but is independent of the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Recent results that reveal meal-entrained clock gene expression in rat and mouse peripheral organs raise the intriguing possibility that the digestive system is the site of the feeding-entrained oscillator (FEO) that underlies FAA. We tested this possibility by comparing FAA and Per1 rhythmicity in the digestive system of the Per1-luciferase transgenic rat. First, rats were entrained to daytime restricted feeding (RF, 10 days), then fed ad libitum (AL, 10 days), then food deprived (FD, 2 days). As expected FAA was evident during RF and disappeared during subsequent AL feeding, but returned at the correct phase during deprivation. The phase of Per1 in liver, stomach and colon shifted from a nocturnal to a diurnal peak during RF, but shifted back to nocturnal phase during the subsequent AL and remained nocturnal during food deprivation periods. Second, rats were entrained to two daily meals at zeitgeber time (ZT) 0400 and ZT 1600. FAA to both meals emerged after about 10days of dual RF. However, all tissues studied (all five liver lobes, esophagus, antral stomach, body of stomach, colon) showed entrainment consistent with only the night-time meal. These two results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that FAA arises as an output of rhythms in the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The results also highlight an interesting diversity among peripheral oscillators in their ability to entrain to meals and the direction of the phase shift after RF ends.

Davidson, A. J.; Poole, A. S.; Yamazaki, S.; Menaker, M.

2003-01-01

58

Expression Patterns Suggest that Despite Considerable Functional Redundancy, Galectin-4 and -6 Play Distinct Roles in Normal and Damaged Mouse Digestive Tract  

PubMed Central

The galectin-4 protein is mostly expressed in the digestive tract and is associated with lipid raft stabilization, protein apical trafficking, wound healing, and inflammation. While most mammalian species, including humans, have a single Lgals4 gene, some mice have two paralogues: Lgals4 and Lgals6. So far, their significant similarities have hindered the analysis of their respective expression and function. We took advantage of two antibodies that discriminate between the galectin-4 and galectin-6 proteins to document their patterns of expression in the normal and the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-damaged digestive tract in the mouse. In the normal digestive tract, their pattern of expression from tongue to colon is quite similar, which suggests functional redundancy. However, the presence of galectin-4, but not galectin-6, in the lamina propria of the DSS-damaged colon, its association with luminal colonic bacteria, and differences in subcellular localization of these proteins suggest that they also have distinct roles in the normal and the damaged mouse digestive tract. Our results provide a rare example of ancestral and derived functions evolving after tandem gene duplication.

Reyes-Gomez, Edouard; Maurer, Marie; Netter, Pierre; Higuet, Dominique

2013-01-01

59

Ontogeny of the digestive system of the Octopus bimaculatus paralarvae (Verril, 1883).  

PubMed

The high mortalities registered in the larval stage during octopus culturing are mainly due to nutritional deficiencies of the food provided. To understand the cause of this problem, we studied the ontogenetic development of the digestive system of Octopus bimaculatus paralarvae. An egg batch was obtained from a gravid female collected in the Bay of Los Angeles, Baja California, Mexico, and it was incubated in the laboratory during the summer of 2011. We observed that the formation of the digestive system began at 33 days post-laying (DPL). The newly hatched paralarvae had already formed the organs involved in food ingestion and digestion, although it was not possible to know accurately their degree of maturity. The present research constitutes the first description at the histological level of the ontogenic development of the digestive system of the O. bimaculatus paralarvae. This serves as a basis for future studies of the digestive physiology of this species. PMID:24683531

López-Peraza, Diana Judith; Hernández-Rodríguez, Mónica; Barón-Sevilla, Benjamín

2014-01-01

60

Design of digestion systems for maximum methane production  

SciTech Connect

A computer analysis of microbial kinetics of methane fermentation using the Contois kinetic model has shown that design of continuous flow anaerobic digesters can be based on two criteria: (a) maximum volumetric methane productivity or (b) maximum total daily methane production. The difference in performance of digesters designed on these two criteria is that over a given time period, the methane production from the digester designed for maximum total daily methane production will exceed the gas production of the digester designed for maximum volumetric methane productivity by 43, 74, 56 and 60 percent for dairy, poultry, swine and beef waste respectively. The influent feed concentration of volatile solids (VS), the detention time and the operating temperature are the major design factors which determine the maximum total daily methane production. Maximum volatile solids reduction based on developed kinetic data was 75, 56, 30 and 62 percent for swine, beef, dairy and poultry waste respectively. (Refs. 11).

Hill, D.T.

1982-01-01

61

[Digestive system lesions in relation to AIDS. Diagnostic value].  

PubMed

The histopathological study of the digestive mucosae has a great diagnostic value. It appreciates lymphoid tissue; it may suggest AIDS when it discloses rare inflammatory or tumoral lesions; it may disclose an infectious and/or Kaposi sarcoma lesion which may be the first manifestation of AIDS in a seropositive LAV patient or may be an additional lesion in a patient known to have AIDS. The autopsies have shown the spread of the extension and the evolution of these lesions. The discussion of the histopathological lesions must always include the extra-digestive localisations as well as the "non opportunistic" associated infections. PMID:3814267

Marche, C; Zoubi, D; René, E; Girard, P M

1986-01-01

62

Evaluation of systems for purification of fuel gas from anaerobic digestion. Engineering report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel gas obtained from the anaerobic digestion of waste materials usually needs to be treated before being transmitted in existing pipeline systems. The purification scheme involves the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and moisture from the digester gas to meet pipeline specifications. Gas treatment systems for the handling of 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 MM Scfd of raw feed gas

E. Ashare; D. C. Augenstein; J. C. Yeung; R. J. Hossan; G. L. Duret

1978-01-01

63

Innovative treatment system for digester liquor using anammox process.  

PubMed

This study demonstrated that partial nitritation using nitrifying activated sludge entrapped in a polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel carrier, as a pretreatment to anammox process, could be successfully applied to digester liquor of biogas plant at a nitrogen loading rate of 3.0 kg-N/m(3)/d. The nitritation process produced an effluent with a NO(2)-N/NH(4)-N ratio between 1.0 and 1.4, which was found to be suitable for the subsequent anammox process. A high SS concentration (2000-3000 mg/l) in the digester liquor did not affect partial nitritation treatment performances. Effluent from this partial nitritation reactor was successfully treated in the anammox reactor using anammox sludge entrapped in the PEG gel carrier with T-N removal rates of greater than 4.0 kg-N/m(3)/d. Influent BOD and SS contents did not inhibit anammox activity of the anammox gel carrier. The combination of partial nitritation and anammox reactors using PEG entrapped nitrifying and anammox bacteria was shown to be effective for the removal of high concentration ammonium in the digester liquor of a biogas plant. PMID:19200720

Furukawa, Kenji; Inatomi, Yasuhiko; Qiao, Sen; Quan, Lai; Yamamoto, Taichi; Isaka, Kazuichi; Sumino, Tatsuo

2009-11-01

64

Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD{sub rem} for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

Kheradmand, S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Shiraz, Shiraz 7134851156 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi-Jashni, A., E-mail: akarimi@shirazu.ac.i [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Shiraz, Shiraz 7134851156 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sartaj, M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 841568311 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-06-15

65

Bacteria associated with the digestive system of the slug Deroceras reticulatum are not required for protein digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria were isolated from the crop, digestive glands and salivary glands of the field slug Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). The digestive gland was the most densely populated organ with about ×3 and ×400 more bacterial colony forming units (CFU) mg?1 of tissue than in the crop and salivary glands, respectively. Growth on plate-count agar incorporating gelatin showed that 34, 16 and

Anthony J. Walker; David M. Glen; Peter R. Shewry

1999-01-01

66

[Modern aspects of the prevention of diseases of the digestive system in children ].  

PubMed

The article reviews the modern aspects of the prevention of diseases of the digestive system in children. It analyzes the levels of prevention activities, starting with the first days of a child's life. Great value is given to healthy ways of parents' lives, in the future - of the children: monitoring the course of pregnancy, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnostics of the pathology of the fetus. Heredity plays an important role in the cause-significant factors of diseases of the digestive system, violations of the calendar of vaccination, etc. One of the bases of prevention is a staged treatment of diseases of the digestive system, the identification of risk factors that can cause an aggravation or a continuously-recurrent course. The selection of rehabilitation programmes and hospital replacement technologies to improve and maintain the quality of life of sick children were substantiated. PMID:23951891

Zaprudnov, A M; Grigor'ev, K I; Kharitonova, L A; Bogomaz, L V

2013-01-01

67

Collaborative Development of an Augmented Reality Application for Digestive and Circulatory Systems Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Augmented Reality (AR) appears as a promising technology to improve students motivation and interest and support the learning and teaching process in educational contexts. We present the collaborative development of an AR application to support the teaching of the digestive and circulatory systems. We developed this system with the support of a private Spanish school. The main objective of the

David C. Pérez López; Manuel Contero; Mariano Alcañiz Raya

2010-01-01

68

The Digestive System [and] Instructor's Guide. Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional modular unit wlth instructor's guide provides materials on important aspects of one of the major systems of the human body--the digestive system. Its purpose is to introduce the student to the structures and functions of the human digestive system--and the interrelationships of the two--and to familiarize the student with some…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

69

Prognostic value of circulating microRNA-21 in digestive system cancers: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Circulating microRNAs show aberrant expression in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of circulating microRNA-21 (miR-21) in digestive system cancers. Methods: All the eligible studies were searched by Medline and EMBASE. The hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS), which compared the expression levels of circulating miR-21 in patients with digestive cancer was extracted and estimated. Pooled HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Then a meta-analysis was performed to clarify the prognostic value of the miR-21. Results: A total of seven studies involving 907 subjects were included. The results suggested that higher circulating miR-21 could predict worse OS outcome with the pooled HR of 2.19 (95% CI 1.01-4.75, P = 0.05) in digestive system cancers. Subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated circulating miR-21 was associated with OS in patients with digestive cancer among Asians with the pooled HR of 2.90 (95% CI 1.30-6.45, P = 0.009). However, subgroup analysis by digestive system site revealed that there is no associated with OS in patients with colorectal cancer with the pooled HR of 1.34 (95% CI 0.45-4.00, P = 0.60). Conclusion: The present findings suggest that circulating miR-21 is associated with poor survival in patients with digestive cancer and could be a prognostic biomarker for those patients.

Ye, Ting-Ting; Yang, Yin-Long; Liu, Xin-Ying; Ji, Qian-Qing; Pan, Yi-Fei; Xiang, You-Qun

2014-01-01

70

Validation of a new in vitro dynamic system to simulate infant digestion.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms of infant formula disintegration in the infant gastrointestinal tract is a key step for developing new formulas with health benefits for the neonate. For ethical reasons, the access to in vivo data obtained on infants is limited. The use of animal models can be an alternative but these experiments are labour intensive, expensive and results obtained show high inter-individual variability, making their interpretation difficult. The aim of this work was to develop a simple in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal digestion system, for studying infant formula digestion, and to validate it by comparing the kinetics of proteolysis obtained in vitro with in vivo data collected from piglets. Results showed a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo data and confirmed the rapid hydrolysis of caseins in gastric conditions, whereas whey proteins appeared more resistant to digestion. PMID:24128581

Ménard, Olivia; Cattenoz, Thomas; Guillemin, Hervé; Souchon, Isabelle; Deglaire, Amélie; Dupont, Didier; Picque, Daniel

2014-02-15

71

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND WETLAND TREATMENT CASE STUDY: COMPARING TWO MANURE ODOR CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR DAIRY FARMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A comparison of two existing odor control treatments on dairy farms in NY shows the costs and benefits of each system. On one dairy farm an anaerobic digester is used to stabilize the manure and collect methane for the production of electricity. The effluent is then separated. The solids are sold, and the liquid effluent is then land applied.

Peter E. Wright; Stephen P. Perschke

1998-01-01

72

Cytogenetic Findings in Cancerous and Non-Cancerous Lesions of the Digestive System  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEYWORDS Digestive system; cancer; non-cancerous lesion; chromosomal aberration ABSTRACT Chromosome instability provides a predisposing background to malignancy, contributing to the crucial genetic changes in multistep carcinogenesis. It is generally accepted that cancer is a genetic disease resulting from multiple genome rearrangements. A variety of chromosomal aberrations have been identified in various cancerous and non-cancerous lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Certain

A. L. Calistus; K. Sasikala Jude; T. S. Chandrasekar; R. Ashok Kumar; S. Sudha; M. Vimala Devi; N. Balachandar

2005-01-01

73

The Effects of Swedish Knife Model on Students' Understanding of the Digestive System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to examine the effect of Swedish Knife Model on students' understanding of digestive system. A simple experimental design (pretest-treatment-posttest) was used in the study and internal comparison of the results of the one group was made. The sample consisted of 40 7th grade Turkish students whose ages range from 13 to 15.…

Cerrah Ozsevgec, Lale; Artun, Huseyin; Unal, Melike

2012-01-01

74

Anaerobic Digestion for Reduction and Stabilization of Organic Solid Waste During Space Missions: Systems Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

High Solids Leachbed Anaerobic Digestion (HSLAD) is a biological waste treatment system that has been successfully demonstrated for solid waste treatment in terrestrial applications. The process involves a solid phase leachbed fermentation, employing leachate recycle between new and mature reactors for inoculation, wetting, and removal of volatile organic acids during startup. HSLAD also offers a potential option for treatment of

Qiyong Xu; Tim Townsend; David Chynoweth; Patrick Haley; John Owens; Elana Rich; Sabrina Maxwell; Hong-Lim Choi

75

Nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the enteric nervous system of the developing human digestive tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated indirectly the presence of nitric oxide in the enteric nervous system of the digestive tract of human fetuses and newborns by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunocytochemistry and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry. In the stomach, NOS immunoactivity was confined to the myenteric plexus and nerve fibres in the outer smooth musculature; few immunoreactive nerve cell

Jean-Pierre Timmermans; Martine Barbiers; Dietrich W. Scheuermann; Johannes J. Bogers; Dirk Adriaensen; Eva Fekete; Bernd Mayer; Eric A. Van Marck; Marie H. A. Groodt-Lasseel

1994-01-01

76

Coupled evolution of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and excretory systems: A model investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is developed of evolution of an organism with digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and excretory systems as the single\\u000a system. The model is realized on the basis of the language STEL-LA 8.0. A balance is found between perfection of each individual\\u000a physiological system and necessary energy expenditures for survival of the organism as a whole. The model is based on

V. V. Menshutkin; Yu. V. Natochin

2007-01-01

77

Information Digest 1987-1988. University System of Georgia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collections of facts and statistical data to enhance understanding of the University System of Georgia is presented, updating information from earlier editions. Information was selected on the basis of the most frequently asked questions about the system and its 34 institutions. Eight sections focus on: general information (University System of…

University System of Georgia, Atlanta.

78

MOUSE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in New York City, the MOUSE organization works to empower "underserved students to provide technology support and leadership in their schools, supporting their academic and career success." On their homepage, visitors can learn about their programs, learn about supporting the MOUSE organization, and read up on their resources. In the "Resources" area, visitors can learn about their outreach activities in New York City, Chicago, and California. Visitors working in educational outreach will appreciate the information offered here, including materials on how different groups can receive assistance from the MOUSE organization. Also, visitors can look over the "News" updates to learn about their new programs, their educational seminars, and their outreach activities.

79

Computer-Based Career Information Systems. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-based career information systems (CCIS) provide local labor market information. Guidance counselors frequently use CCIS in conjunction with clients, but youth and adults also access CCIS independently to obtain career information. The best known CCIS are the state-based career information delivery systems (CIDS). Although developed by a…

Imel, Susan

80

Microbial Distribution and Abundance in the Digestive System of Five Shipworm Species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae)  

PubMed Central

Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms) are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) of the gills (ctenidia). These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis). These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose.

Betcher, Meghan A.; Fung, Jennifer M.; Han, Andrew W.; O'Connor, Roberta; Seronay, Romell; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Distel, Daniel L.; Haygood, Margo G.

2012-01-01

81

Microbial distribution and abundance in the digestive system of five shipworm species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae).  

PubMed

Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms) are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) of the gills (ctenidia). These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis). These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:23028923

Betcher, Meghan A; Fung, Jennifer M; Han, Andrew W; O'Connor, Roberta; Seronay, Romell; Concepcion, Gisela P; Distel, Daniel L; Haygood, Margo G

2012-01-01

82

AN IMPROVEMENT TO THE MOUSE COMPUTERIZED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The original MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty System) system was designed to deal with the problem of uncertainties in Environmental engineering calculations, such as a set of engineering cast or risk analysis equations. It was especially intended for use by individuals with l...

83

Efficient and Specific Trypsin Digestion of Microgram to Nanogram Quantities of Proteins in Organic-Aqueous Solvent Systems  

SciTech Connect

Mass spectrometry-based identification of the components of multiprotein complexes often involves solution-phase proteolytic digestion of the complex. The affinity purification of individual protein complexes often yields nanogram to low-microgram amounts of protein, which poses several challenges for enzymatic digestion and protein identification. We tested different solvent systems to optimize trypsin digestions of samples containing limited amounts of protein for subsequent analysis by LC-MS-MS. Data collected from digestion of 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2- g portions of a protein standard mixture indicated that an organicaqueous solvent system containing 80% acetonitrile consistently provided the most complete digestion, producing more peptide identifications than the other solvent systems tested. For example, a 1-h digestion in 80% acetonitrile yielded over 52% more peptides than the overnight digestion of 1 g of a protein mixture in purely aqueous buffer. This trend was also observed for peptides from digested ribosomal proteins isolated from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In addition to improved digestion efficiency, the shorter digestion times possible with the organic solvent also improved trypsin specificity, resulting in smaller numbers of semitryptic peptides than an overnight digestion protocol using an aqueous solvent. The technique was also demonstrated for an affinityisolated protein complex, GroEL. To our knowledge, this report is the first using mass spectrometry data to show a linkage between digestion solvent and trypsin specificity. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a widely used method for studying proteins, protein complexes, and whole proteomes because of innovations in soft ionization techniques, bioinformatics, and chromatographic separation techniques.1-7 An example of a high-throughput mass spectrometry strategy commonly used for this purpose is a variation of the "shotgun" approach, involving in-solution digestion of a protein complex followed by onedimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) MS-MS.6-8 One of the applications of this method is for characterizing multiprotein complexes by identifying large numbers of proteins in a single data acquisition.9 Large-scale implementations of this strategy have been reported for yeast and Escherichia coli.10-12 To achieve a goal of characterizing large numbers of protein complexes13 isolated by affinity purification from Rhodopseudomonas palustris,14 an efficient protocol for digesting these complexes is required.

Strader, Michael B [ORNL; Tabb, Dave L [ORNL; Hervey, IV, William Judson [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL

2006-01-01

84

Dual cellulose-digesting system of the wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki.  

PubMed

The distribution of endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (EG) components in the digestive system of the wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was investigated by zymogram analysis using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by N-terminal protein sequencing. EG components similar to glycoside hydrolase family (GHF) 9 members were restricted to the salivary glands, the foregut, and the midgut, whereas components similar to GHF7 members were confined to the hindgut where numerous cellulolytic flagellates were harbored. RT-PCR experiments revealed that five GHF9 EG mRNAs (1348 bp) homologous to other termite EGs were expressed in the salivary glands and the midgut. The crude extract prepared from the midgut as well as that from the hindgut produced glucose from crystalline cellulose. These data suggest that C. formosanus has two independent cellulose-digesting systems: one in the midgut where cellulose digestion is accomplished by endogenous cellulases and the other in the hindgut which makes use of other cellulases possibly from symbiotic flagellates. PMID:12044494

Nakashima, K; Watanabe, H; Saitoh, H; Tokuda, G; Azuma, J-I

2002-07-01

85

[Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].  

PubMed

Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes. PMID:23668159

Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

2013-02-01

86

In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems: calcium ions combine with fatty acids liberated from triglyceride rich lipid solutions to form soaps and reduce the solubilization capacity of colloidal digestion products.  

PubMed

In vitro digestion testing is of practical importance to predict the fate of drugs administered in lipid-based delivery systems. Calcium ions are often added to digestion media to increase the extent of digestion of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), but the effects they have on phase behaviour of the products of digestion, and consequent drug solubilization, are not well understood. This study investigates the effect of calcium and bile salt concentrations on the rate and extent of in vitro digestion of soybean oil, as well as the solubilizing capacity of the digestion products for two poorly water-soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces the availability of liberated fatty acids to form mixed micelles and vesicles, thereby reducing drug solubilization. The use of high calcium concentrations does indeed force in vitro digestion of LCTs but may overestimate the extent of drug precipitation that occurs within the intestinal lumen. PMID:23178598

Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B; Mullertz, Anette; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W

2013-01-30

87

Protein-hydrolyzing enzymes in the digestive systems of the adult Mexican blue abalone, Haliotis fulgens (Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiology of protein digestion by adult abalone was investigated. The female and male digestive systems of blue abalone were studied by using enzymatic techniques, including proteinaceous-substrate hydrolysis, specific synthetic-substrate hydrolysis, specific inhibitors in proteinaceous-substrate hydrolysis, and proteinase composition by substrate SDS-PAGE. The highest proteolytic activity was found in the intestinal and rectal fluids at alkaline pH, followed by hepatopancreas

E. Serviere-Zaragoza; M. A. Navarrete del Toro; F. L. García-Carreño

1997-01-01

88

Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system  

SciTech Connect

The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

Stabnikova, O. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)], E-mail: costab@ntu.edu.sg; Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

2008-07-01

89

The Role of Thyroid Hormone Signaling in the Prevention of Digestive System Cancers  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormones play a critical role in the growth and development of the alimentary tract in vertebrates. Their effects are mediated by nuclear receptors as well as the cell surface receptor integrin ?V?3. Systemic thyroid hormone levels are controlled via activation and deactivation by iodothyronine deiodinases in the liver and other tissues. Given that thyroid hormone signaling has been characterized as a major effector of digestive system growth and homeostasis, numerous investigations have examined its role in the occurrence and progression of cancers in various tissues of this organ system. The present review summarizes current findings regarding the effects of thyroid hormone signaling on cancers of the esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, and colon. Particular attention is given to the roles of different thyroid hormone receptor isoforms, the novel integrin ?V?3 receptor, and thyroid hormone-related nutrients as possible protective agents and therapeutic targets. Future investigations geared towards a better understanding of thyroid hormone signaling in digestive system cancers may provide preventive or therapeutic strategies to diminish risk, improve outcome and avert recurrence in afflicted individuals.

Brown, Adam R.; Simmen, Rosalia C. M.; Simmen, Frank A.

2013-01-01

90

Continuously-stirred anaerobic digester to convert organic wastes into biogas: system setup and basic operation.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a bioprocess that is commonly used to convert complex organic wastes into a useful biogas with methane as the energy carrier. Increasingly, AD is being used in industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste(water) treatment applications. The use of AD technology allows plant operators to reduce waste disposal costs and offset energy utility expenses. In addition to treating organic wastes, energy crops are being converted into the energy carrier methane. As the application of AD technology broadens for the treatment of new substrates and co-substrate mixtures, so does the demand for a reliable testing methodology at the pilot- and laboratory-scale. Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations, including the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow (PF), and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) configurations. The CSTR is frequently used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations. However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with solids or settling of solids in tubing. For that scenario with continuous mixing requirements, lab-scale bioreactors are fed periodically and we refer to such configurations as continuously stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs). This article presents a general methodology for constructing, inoculating, operating, and monitoring a CSAD system for the purpose of testing the suitability of a given organic substrate for long-term anaerobic digestion. The construction section of this article will cover building the lab-scale reactor system. The inoculation section will explain how to create an anaerobic environment suitable for seeding with an active methanogenic inoculum. The operating section will cover operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting. The monitoring section will introduce testing protocols using standard analyses. The use of these measures is necessary for reliable experimental assessments of substrate suitability for AD. This protocol should provide greater protection against a common mistake made in AD studies, which is to conclude that reactor failure was caused by the substrate in use, when really it was improper user operation. PMID:22824993

Usack, Joseph G; Spirito, Catherine M; Angenent, Largus T

2012-01-01

91

Continuously-stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into Biogas: System Setup and Basic Operation  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a bioprocess that is commonly used to convert complex organic wastes into a useful biogas with methane as the energy carrier 1-3. Increasingly, AD is being used in industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste(water) treatment applications 4,5. The use of AD technology allows plant operators to reduce waste disposal costs and offset energy utility expenses. In addition to treating organic wastes, energy crops are being converted into the energy carrier methane 6,7. As the application of AD technology broadens for the treatment of new substrates and co-substrate mixtures 8, so does the demand for a reliable testing methodology at the pilot- and laboratory-scale. Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations, including the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow (PF), and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) configurations 9. The CSTR is frequently used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations. However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with solids or settling of solids in tubing. For that scenario with continuous mixing requirements, lab-scale bioreactors are fed periodically and we refer to such configurations as continuously stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs). This article presents a general methodology for constructing, inoculating, operating, and monitoring a CSAD system for the purpose of testing the suitability of a given organic substrate for long-term anaerobic digestion. The construction section of this article will cover building the lab-scale reactor system. The inoculation section will explain how to create an anaerobic environment suitable for seeding with an active methanogenic inoculum. The operating section will cover operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting. The monitoring section will introduce testing protocols using standard analyses. The use of these measures is necessary for reliable experimental assessments of substrate suitability for AD. This protocol should provide greater protection against a common mistake made in AD studies, which is to conclude that reactor failure was caused by the substrate in use, when really it was improper user operation 10.

Usack, Joseph G.; Spirito, Catherine M.; Angenent, Largus T.

2012-01-01

92

Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as drug targets for diseases of the digestive system  

PubMed Central

Approximately 20 of the 30 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed by specific neurons and cells within the alimentary canal. They subserve important roles in taste, chemesthesis, mechanosensation, pain and hyperalgesia and contribute to the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, absorptive and secretory processes, blood flow, and mucosal homeostasis. In a cellular perspective, TRP channels operate either as primary detectors of chemical and physical stimuli, as secondary transducers of ionotropic or metabotropic receptors, or as ion transport channels. The polymodal sensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPM8, TRPP2, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 enables the digestive system to survey its physical and chemical environment, which is relevant to all processes of digestion. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 contribute to the absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively. TRPM7 participates in intestinal pacemaker activity, and TRPC4 transduces muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation to smooth muscle contraction. Changes in TRP channel expression or function are associated with a variety of diseases/disorders of the digestive system, notably gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pain and hyperalgesia in heartburn, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, cholera, hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, esophageal, gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer, and polycystic liver disease. These implications identify TRP channels as promising drug targets for the management of a number of gastrointestinal pathologies. As a result, major efforts are put into the development of selective TRP channel agonists and antagonists and the assessment of their therapeutic potential.

Holzer, Peter

2011-01-01

93

[Mechanisms and risk factors for type 1 food allergies: the role of gastric digestion].  

PubMed

True food allergens are considered as digestion stable proteins, which are absorbed through the gastrointestinal epithelium in an intact form leading to sensitization and causing systemic symptoms. According to classifications, allergens, which are digestion-labile, cause local symptoms by their cross-reactivity towards inhalative allergens. Our recent studies revealed that digestion labile allergens can also have sensitizing capacity if gastric digestion is hindered. The increase of gastric pH via acid-suppression by proton pump inhibitors, sucralfate or antacids, interferes with protein digestion, and leads to sensitization and allergic reaction in mouse models as well as in human patients. Furthermore, the inhibition of digestion increases the risk for anaphylactic responses in sensitized individuals.Even though also other factors, such as sphingolipid metabolites, are associated with the development of food allergies, it is without any doubt that the stomach has an important gate keeping function against food allergies. PMID:23160973

Diesner, Susanne C; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Untersmayr, Eva

2012-12-01

94

principle method based dissolution minerals kinds food materials closed system microwave digestion method measurement sodium potassium calcium magnesium iron zinc phosphorus concentrations ICP-OS.  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: principle method based dissolution minerals kinds food materials closed system microwave digestion method measurement sodium potassium calcium magnesium iron zinc phosphorus concentrations ICP-OS. ?

95

Virtues and limitations of the preimplantation mouse embryo as a model system  

PubMed Central

The mouse is the most widely used model of preimplantation embryo development, but is it a good model? Its small size, prolificacy and ease of handling make the mouse a relatively low cost, readily available and attractive alternative when embryos from other species are difficult or expensive to obtain. However, the real power of the mouse as a model lies in mouse genetics. The development of inbred mouse strains facilitated gene discovery as well as our understanding of gene function and regulation while the development of tools to introduce precise genetic modifications uniquely positioned the mouse as a powerful model system for uncovering gene function. However, all models have limitations; the small size of the mouse limits tissue availability and manipulations that can be performed and differences in physiology among species may make it inappropriate to extrapolate from the mouse to other species. Thus, rather than extrapolating directly from the mouse to other species, it may be more useful to use the mouse as a model system for developing and refining hypotheses to be tested directly in species of interest. In this brief review, the value of the preimplantation mouse embryo as a model is considered, both as a model for other species and as a model for the mouse, as understanding the virtues and limitations of the mouse as a model system is essential to its appropriate use.

Taft, Robert A

2007-01-01

96

Prospective cohort study of tea consumption and risk of digestive system cancers: results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study123  

PubMed Central

Background: Data from in vitro and animal studies support a protective role for tea in the etiology of digestive system cancers; however, results from prospective cohort studies have been inconsistent. In addition, to our knowledge, no study has investigated the association of tea consumption with the incidence of all digestive system cancers in Chinese women. Objective: We investigated the association of regular tea intake (?3 times/wk for >6 mo) with risk of digestive system cancers. Design: We used the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort study of middle-aged and older Chinese women who were recruited in 1996–2000. Adjusted HRs and associated 95% CIs were derived from Cox regression models. Results: After a mean follow-up of 11 y, 1255 digestive system cancers occurred (stomach, esophagus, colorectal, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder/bile duct cancers) in 69,310 nonsmoking and non–alcohol-drinking women. In comparison with women who never drank tea, regular tea intake (mostly green tea) was associated with reduced risk of all digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98), and the reduction in risk increased as the amount and years of tea consumption increased (P-trend = 0.01 and P-trend < 0.01, respectively). For example, women who consumed ?150 g tea/mo (?2–3 cups/d) had a 21% reduced risk of digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.99). The inverse association was found primarily for colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers. Conclusion: In this large prospective cohort study, tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers in Chinese women.

Nechuta, Sarah; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang

2012-01-01

97

System parameters for erythropoiesis control model: Comparison of normal values in human and mouse model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer model for erythropoietic control was adapted to the mouse system by altering system parameters originally given for the human to those which more realistically represent the mouse. Parameter values were obtained from a variety of literature sources. Using the mouse model, the mouse was studied as a potential experimental model for spaceflight. Simulation studies of dehydration and hypoxia were performed. A comparison of system parameters for the mouse and human models is presented. Aside from the obvious differences expected in fluid volumes, blood flows and metabolic rates, larger differences were observed in the following: erythrocyte life span, erythropoietin half-life, and normal arterial pO2.

1979-01-01

98

Cache Digests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Cache Digest, a novel protocol and optimization technique for cooperativeWeb caching. Cache Digest allows proxies to make information about their cache contentsavailable to peers in a compact form. A peer uses digests to identify neighbors that are likelyto have a given document. Cache Digest is a promising alternative to traditional per-requestquery\\/reply schemes such as ICP.We discuss the

Alex Rousskov; Duane Wessels

1998-01-01

99

Simultaneous treatment of sewage sludge and food waste by the unified high-rate anaerobic digestion system.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the unified high-rate anaerobic digestion (UHAD) system treating co-substrate of sewage sludge and food waste. A 24-hr operating sequence consisted of four steps including fill, react, settle, and draw. The effects of co-substrate and organic loading rate (OLR) on the performance were investigated to verify the system applicability. In each OLR, the UHAD system showed higher CH4 recovery (> 70%), CH4 yield (0.3 L CH4/g VSadded) and CH4 production rate (0.6 L CH4/L/d) than the control system. In the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) tests on thermophilic biomass of the UHAD system, the average SMA of acetate (102 mL CH4/gVSS/d) was much higher than those of butyrate (85 mL CH4/g SS/d) and propionate (42 mL CH4/gVSS/d). It was demonstrated that the UHAD system for co-digestion resulted in higher methane yield and methane production rate due to sequencing batch operation, thermophilic digestion, and co-digestion. The enhanced performance could be attributed to longer retention time of active biomass, faster hydrolysis, higher CH4 conversion rate, and balanced nutrient conditions of co-substrate in the UHAD system. Consequently, this optimized unification could be a viable option for the simultaneous treatment of two types of OFMSW with high stability. PMID:16749436

Kim, H W; Han, S K; Shin, H S

2006-01-01

100

The journey of a sandwich: computer-based laboratory experiments about the human digestive system in high school biology teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school biology. Using a computer equipped with a commercially available data-acquisition system and a couple of sensors, it was possible to illustrate the basic underlying physical and chemical principles of digestion to the students. Students were able to investigate, through hands-on activities, the chewing force of the jaws, importance of the mechanical breakdown of food, enzymatic activity of pepsin and amylase, antibacterial activity of hydrochloric acid, and importance of the villi for absorption. Students found the experiments interesting and helpful for understanding the digestive process. Furthermore, the results from testing indicated that the students had a deeper understanding of the physiological processes.

Andrej Sorgo (Prva gimnazija Maribor); Zdravka Hajdinjak (Prva gimnazija Maribor); Darko Briski (Prva gimnazija Maribor)

2008-01-14

101

Mortality from Cancers of the Digestive System among Grand Multiparous Women in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of grand multiparous (GM) status in the mortality from cancers of the digestive system among a cohort of GM women in Taiwan during the period 1978–2008. The study cohort consisted of 144,922 women with at least five children (GM women) in the Taiwan Birth Register between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 2003. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for cancers of the digestive system including esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, liver, and pancreas were calculated by dividing the numbers of observed cancer deaths to the expected numbers of deaths based on the rates of national female population. Among the 144,922 GM women, a total of 23, 220, 213, 92, 397, and 65 deaths were caused by cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, liver, and pancreas, respectively. The SMRs among GM women were 1.61 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.95–2.27) for esophageal cancer, 1.15 (95% CI: 1.00–1.31) for stomach cancer, 1.07 (95% CI: 0.93–1.22) for colon cancer, 0.94 (95% CI: 0.75–1.14) for rectal cancer, 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06–1.30) for liver cancer, and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.60–0.98) for pancreatic cancer. This study provides evidence that grand multiparity may confer a protective effect on the risk of death from pancreatic cancer. However, the results suggest that GM women may increase the risk of death from cancers of the liver and stomach.

Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

2014-01-01

102

Bioefficacy of tea catechins encapsulated in casein micelles tested on a normal mouse cell line (4D/WT) and its cancerous counterpart (D/v-src) before and after in vitro digestion.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have demonstrated that tea catechins form complexes with milk proteins, especially caseins. Much less work has been conducted to understand the metabolic conversions of tea-milk complexes during gastro-duodenal digestion. The objective of this study was to determine the significance of this association on the digestibility of the milk proteins and on the bioaccessibility of the tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). An in vitro digestion model mimicking the gastric and duodenal phases of the human gastrointestinal tract was employed to follow the fate of the milk proteins during digestion and determine the bioefficacy of EGCG isolated or encapsulated with the caseins. The samples, before and after digestion, were tested using two parallel colonic epithelial cell lines, a normal line (4D/WT) and its cancerous transformed counterpart (D/v-src). EGCG caused a decrease in proliferation of cancer cells, while in normal cells, neither isolated nor encapsulated EGCG affected cell proliferation, at concentrations <0.15 mg ml(-1). At higher concentrations, both isolated and encapsulated produced similar decreases in proliferation. On the other hand, the bioefficacy on the cancer cell line showed some differences at lower concentrations. The results demonstrated that regardless of the extent of digestion of the nanoencapsulated EGCG, the bioefficacy of EGCG was not diminished, confirming that casein micelles are an appropriate delivery system for polyphenols. PMID:24686838

Haratifar, Sanaz; Meckling, Kelly A; Corredig, Milena

2014-06-28

103

An Inducible and Reversible Mouse Genetic Rescue System  

PubMed Central

Inducible and reversible regulation of gene expression is a powerful approach for uncovering gene function. We have established a general method to efficiently produce reversible and inducible gene knockout and rescue in mice. In this system, which we named iKO, the target gene can be turned on and off at will by treating the mice with doxycycline. This method combines two genetically modified mouse lines: a) a KO line with a tetracycline-dependent transactivator replacing the endogenous target gene, and b) a line with a tetracycline-inducible cDNA of the target gene inserted into a tightly regulated (TIGRE) genomic locus, which provides for low basal expression and high inducibility. Such a locus occurs infrequently in the genome and we have developed a method to easily introduce genes into the TIGRE site of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells by recombinase-mediated insertion. Both KO and TIGRE lines have been engineered for high-throughput, large-scale and cost-effective production of iKO mice. As a proof of concept, we have created iKO mice in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene, which allows for sensitive and quantitative phenotypic analyses. The results demonstrated reversible switching of ApoE transcription, plasma cholesterol levels, and atherosclerosis progression and regression. The iKO system shows stringent regulation and is a versatile genetic system that can easily incorporate other techniques and adapt to a wide range of applications.

Madisen, Linda; Pavlova, Maria N.; Gragerova, Galina; Rohde, Alex D.; Schimpf, Brian A.; Liang, Yuqiong; Ojala, Ethan; Kramer, Farah; Roth, Patricia; Slobodskaya, Olga; Dolka, Io; Southon, Eileen A.; Tessarollo, Lino; Bornfeldt, Karin E.; Gragerov, Alexander; Pavlakis, George N.; Gaitanaris, George A.

2008-01-01

104

The Journey of a Sandwich: Computer-Based Laboratory Experiments about the Human Digestive System in High School Biology Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school…

Sorgo, Andrej; Hajdinjak, Zdravka; Briski, Darko

2008-01-01

105

Assessment of pre-digested piggery wastewater treatment operations with surface flow integrated constructed wetland systems.  

PubMed

Non-point source pollution such as land-spreading of nitrogen-rich piggery wastewater poses a significant threat to surface waters. The aim was to examine the treatment of anaerobically digested piggery wastewater using four different meso-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) systems planted with Glyceria maxima. Four replicates were used for each system to assess differences due to nutrient loading, hydraulic loading and effluent recycling. All systems were effective in removing total organic nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen and molybdate reactive phosphorus. However, ammonia-nitrogen removal was the greatest challenge for high flow rates (>100 m(3)/ha/d). Nitrification was higher in summer than winter. Findings show for the first time that effluent recycling within ICW was beneficial to lower ammonia-nitrogen but was associated with higher operational costs. The cost-benefit ratio based on ammonia-nitrogen removal for standard, recycling, high nutrients and high flow rate treatments was 1.08:1.04:1.06:1.00. It follows that a high flow rate was only marginally more cost-effective. PMID:20435471

Harrington, Caolan; Scholz, Miklas

2010-09-01

106

Assessment of pre-digested piggery wastewater treatment operations with surface flow integrated constructed wetland systems.  

PubMed

Non-point source pollution such as land-spreading of nitrogen-rich piggery wastewater poses a significant threat to surface waters. The aim was to examine the treatment of anaerobically digested piggery wastewater using four different meso-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) systems planted with Glyceria maxima. Four replicates were used for each system to assess differences due to nutrient loading, hydraulic loading and effluent recycling. All systems were effective in removing total organic nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen and molybdate reactive phosphorus. However, ammonia-nitrogen removal was the greatest challenge for high flow rates (>100 m³/ha/d). Nitrification was higher in summer than winter. Findings show for the first time that effluent recycling within ICW was beneficial to lower ammonia-nitrogen but was associated with higher operational costs. The cost-benefit ratio based on ammonia-nitrogen removal for standard, recycling, high nutrients and high flow rate treatments was 1.08:1.04:1.06:1.00. It follows that a high flow rate was only marginally more cost-effective. PMID:23738382

Harrington, Caolan; Scholz, Miklas

2010-10-01

107

Expression of Bis in the mouse gastrointestinal system  

PubMed Central

The Bcl-2 interacting death suppressor (Bis) protein is known to be involved in a variety of pathophysiological conditions. We recently generated bis-deficient mice, which exhibited early lethality with typical nutritional deprivation status. To further investigate the molecular basis for the malnutrition phenotype of bis deficient mice, we explored Bis expression in the digestive system of normal mice. Western blot analysis and quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that Bis expression is highest in the esophagus, followed by the stomach, colon, jejunum and ileum. Immunohistochemical data indicated that Bis expression is restricted to the stratified squamous epitheliums in the esophagus and forestomach, and was not notable in the columnar epitheliums in the stomach, small intestine and colon. In addition, strong Bis immunoreactivity was detected in the striated muscles surrounding the esophagus and smooth muscles at a lesser intensity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Ganglionated plexuses, located in submucous layers, as well as intermuscular layers, were specifically immunoreactive for Bis. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that Bis is co-localized in glial fibrillary acidic protein-expressing enteric glial cells. Immunostaining with neuron specific esterase antibodies indicate that Bis is also present in the cell bodies of ganglions in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Our findings indicate that Bis plays a role in regulating GI functions, such as motility and absorption, through modulating signal transmission between the ENS and smooth muscles or the intestinal epitheliums.

Lee, Young Dae; Yoon, Jung-Sook; Yoon, Hye Hyeon; Youn, Ho Joong; Kim, Jin

2012-01-01

108

Biokinetic and molecular studies of methanogens in phased anaerobic digestion systems.  

PubMed

The influence of differing operational conditions of two-stage digesters on biokinetic characteristics and communities of methanogenic archaea was evaluated. Operating temperature of each phase influenced the archaeal communities significantly. Also, a strong correlation was observed between community composition and temperature and pH. The maximum specific substrate utilization rates (k max) of acetoclastic methanogens in the mesophilic and thermophilic 1st phases were 11.4 and 22.0 mgCOD mgCOD(-1)d(-1), respectively, whereas significantly lower k max values were estimated for the mesophilic and thermophilic 2nd-phase digesters which were 7.6 and 16.6 mgCOD mgCOD(-1)d(-1), respectively. It appeared that the biokinetic characteristics of the acetoclastic methanogen communities were reliant on digester loading rates. Also, higher temperature dependency coefficients (?) were observed for the long retention time digesters when compared to the values computed for the 1st-phase digesters. Accordingly, the implementation of two sets of biokinetic parameters for acetoclastic methanogen will improve modeling of phased anaerobic digesters. PMID:24125797

Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Parker, Wayne J; Verastegui, Yris; Neufeld, Josh D

2013-12-01

109

Spare capacity and phenotypic flexibility in the digestive system of a migratory bird: defining the limits of animal design.  

PubMed

Flexible phenotypes enable animals to live in environments that change over space and time, and knowing the limits to and the required time scale for this flexibility provides insights into constraints on energy and nutrient intake, diet diversity and niche width. We quantified the level of immediate and ultimate spare capacity, and thus the extent of phenotypic flexibility, in the digestive system of a migratory bird in response to increased energy demand, and identified the digestive constraints responsible for the limits on sustained energy intake. Immediate spare capacity decreased from approximately 50% for birds acclimated to relatively benign temperatures to less than 20% as birds approached their maximum sustainable energy intake. Ultimate spare capacity enabled an increase in feeding rate of approximately 126% as measured in birds acclimated for weeks at -29°C compared with +21°C. Increased gut size and not tissue-specific differences in nutrient uptake or changes in digestive efficiency or retention time were primarily responsible for this increase in capacity with energy demand, and this change required more than 1-2 days. Thus, the pace of change in digestive organ size may often constrain energy intake and, for birds, retard the pace of their migration. PMID:24718764

McWilliams, Scott R; Karasov, William H

2014-05-22

110

A mitotic recombination system for mouse chromosome 17  

PubMed Central

Mitotic recombination between homologous chromosomes is a genetic technique for mosaic analysis in model organisms. The general application of this technique in the mouse depends on establishment of effective recombination systems for individual chromosomes and reliable and sensitive methods for detection of recombination events. Here, we established a Cre/LoxP-mediated recombination system in mice for mosaic analysis of full-length chromosome 17. Cre-mediated germ-line recombination between the homologous chromosomes was observed with ?9% frequency in a progeny test. Mitotic recombination in somatic tissues was evaluated and scored in B and T lymphocytes with the aid of surface markers and fluorescent-activated cell sorting. We show that a lineage-specific Cre can induce mitotic recombination with a highly reproducible frequency of 0.5–1.0% in lymphoid progenitors. The recombination system established here allows for a simple and accurate detection and isolation of recombination events in live cells, making this system particularly attractive for mosaic analysis or mutagenesis studies in the immune system.

Sun, Lei; Wu, Xiaohui; Han, Min; Xu, Tian; Zhuang, Yuan

2008-01-01

111

Spatial and temporal regulation of a lac Z reporter transgene in a binary transgenic mouse system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transgenic mouse system is a powerful tool for the study of gene function. However, when the analysis involves genes that are critical for the normal developmental process, the usefulness of transgenic mouse systems is limited (for review see Hanahan, 1989; Westphal and Gruss, 1989; Byrneet al., 1991). This is due to potential transgene interference with development in case of

David P. Gardner; Guerard W. Byrne; Frank H. Ruddle; Claudia Kappen

1996-01-01

112

Alterations in the activities of three dehydrogenases in the digestive system of two teleost fishes exposed to mercuric chloride  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the 50% lethal concentration and of a sublethal concentration (0.3 mg/liter) of mercuric chloride on the activities of succinic, lactic, and pyruvic dehydrogenases in the digestive system of two teleost fishes, Ophiocephalus punctatus and Heteropneustes fossilis, respectively, has been studied at intervals of 96 h and 7, 15, and 30 days. The results show that dehydrogenases are not affected much by short-term exposure. However, the activities of all three enzymes are inhibited by chronic exposure to mercury and maximum inhibition is observed after 15 days of exposure. Among the different parts of the digestive system, the liver is the most affected organ, and of the two fishes, Heteropneustes is more sensitive to mercury treatment.

Gupta, P.K.; Sastry, K.V.

1981-02-01

113

Improving methane production and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of particulate saline sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system.  

PubMed

In this study, batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of trehalose and glycine betaine as well as potassium on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of anaerobic biomass and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of saline sludge from a brackish recirculation aquaculture system. The results of ANOVA and Tukey's HSD (honestly significant difference) tests showed that glycine betaine and trehalose enhanced SMA of anaerobic biomass and reactive phosphorus release from the particulate waste. Moreover, SMA tests revealed that methanogenic sludge, which was long-term acclimatized to a salinity level of 17g/L was severely affected by the increase in salinity to values exceeding 35g/L. Addition of compatible solutes, such as glycine betaine and trehalose, could be used to enhance the specific methane production rate and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion from particulate organic waste produced in marine or brackish aquaculture recirculation systems. PMID:24785791

Zhang, Xuedong; Ferreira, Rui B; Hu, Jianmei; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

2014-06-01

114

Biodegradation of polyacrylamide by anaerobic digestion under mesophilic condition and its performance in actual dewatered sludge system.  

PubMed

Polyacrylamide (PAM) used in sludge dewatering widely exists in high-solid anaerobic digestion. Degradation of polyacrylamide accompanied with accumulation of its toxic monomer is important to disposition of biogas residues. The potential of anaerobic digestion activity in microbial utilization of PAM was investigated in this study. The results indicated that the utilization rate of PAM (as nitrogen source) was influenced by accumulation of ammonia, while cumulative removal of amide group was accorded with zeroth order reaction in actual dewatered system. The adjoining amide group can combined into ether group after biodegradation. PAM can be broken down in different position of its carbon chain backbone. In actual sludge system, the hydrolytic PAM was liable to combined tyrosine-rich protein to form colloid complex, and then consumed as carbon source to form monomer when easily degradable organics were exhausted. The accumulation of acrylamide was leveled off ultimately, accompanied with the yield of methane. PMID:24345566

Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Yi, Jing; He, Qunbiao; Dong, Bin

2014-02-01

115

MOUSE (MODULAR ORIENTED UNCERTAINTY SYSTEM): A COMPUTERIZED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM. OPERATIONAL MANUAL.  

EPA Science Inventory

MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty SystEm) deals with the problem of uncertainties in models that consist of one or more algebraic equations. It was especially designed for use by those with little or no knowledge of computer languages or programming. It is compact (and thus can...

116

Mouse Vocal Communication System: Are Ultrasounds Learned or Innate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production.…

Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

2013-01-01

117

The anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable waste and horse manure mixtures in a bench-scale, two-phase anaerobic digestion system.  

PubMed

In this study, the anaerobic digestion of mixtures of food waste (FW) and horse manure was investigated using a bench-scale two-phase reactor system. Both phases were maintained at 35 degrees C for the duration of the 30-day study period. The first phase reactors were prepared with biomass mixtures in deionized water such that each mixture had an initial total solids (TS) concentration of 6 wt%. The second phase reactors were inoculated with cow manure in water two weeks prior to the study period at 3 wt% TS. The biogas from all second phase reactors contained greater than 60 vol% methane in the biogas before they were used in the study, thus indicating the presence of active methanogens. Filtrate (5 mL) from the first phase was used as feed to the second phase reactor. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon, and volatile solids (VS) of the feed from Phase 1 increased with FW content in the biomass mixture, and so the organic loading rates (OLRs) to the Phase 2 reactors also increased. Accordingly, the volume ofbiogas and methane generated from Phase 2 also increased with FW content. The low OLR (<0.2 g VS/L/day), the use of a two-phase system, and the use of filtrate from Phase las feed to Phase 2 allowed for high utilization of the feed; the observed specific methane yields (mL/g COD) were greater than 80% of the theoretical yields for all mixtures. The methane yields were statistically similar to within a 95% confidence interval. PMID:24645468

Smith, David B; Almquist, Catherine B

2014-01-01

118

N-Squad Episode 1. Students learn misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, the role of the digestive system in processing alcohol, and liver histology.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In N-Squad Episode 1 students work with forensic scientists to solve an alcohol related crime. Along the way, they will learn about alcohol's interaction with the digestive system, misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, and liver histology.

Learning, Center F.

2011-09-28

119

Digestive diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... can absorb and use as energy and building blocks for cells. The digestive tract is made up of the esophagus (swallowing tube), stomach, large and small intestines, liver, pancreas, and the gallbladder.

120

Navigating wastewater energy recovery strategies: a life cycle comparison of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and conventional treatment systems with anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate emerging anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology in comparison with conventional wastewater energy recovery technologies. Wastewater treatment process modeling and systems analyses were combined to evaluate the conditions under which AnMBR may produce more net energy and have lower life cycle environmental emissions than high rate activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (HRAS+AD), conventional activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (CAS+AD), and an aerobic membrane bioreactor with anaerobic digestion (AeMBR+AD). For medium strength domestic wastewater treatment under baseline assumptions at 15 °C, AnMBR recovered 49% more energy as biogas than HRAS+AD, the most energy positive conventional technology considered, but had significantly higher energy demands and environmental emissions. Global warming impacts associated with AnMBR were largely due to emissions of effluent dissolved methane. For high strength domestic wastewater treatment, AnMBR recovered 15% more net energy than HRAS+AD, and the environmental emissions gap between the two systems was reduced. Future developments of AnMBR technology in low energy fouling control, increased flux, and management of effluent methane emissions would make AnMBR competitive with HRAS+AD. Rapid advancements in AnMBR technology must continue to achieve its full economic and environmental potential as an energy recovery strategy for domestic wastewater. PMID:24742289

Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Cao, Ling; Love, Nancy G; Raskin, Lutgarde; Skerlos, Steven J

2014-05-20

121

Preliminary Comparison of Five Anaerobic Digestion Systems on Dairy Farms in New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

As environmental regulations controlling direct land application of livestock waste increase, farmers search for ways to cost-effectively handle manure from their farms. Farmers' goals include efficient and effective means to remove the objectionable characteristics of their manure so that it may be recycled in an environmentally friendly manner. Anaerobic digestion is one way to control odors, liquefy manure and decrease

Peter Wright; Scott Inglis; Jianguo Ma; Curt Gooch; Brian Aldrich; Alex Meister; Norman Scott

122

Characterization of Proteases in the Digestive System of Spiny Lobster ( Panulirus interruptus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymes responsible for digestion of food protein were evaluated and characterized in red lobster ( Panulirus interruptus). Several tissues, organs, and body fluids were analyzed. The same composition of proteases was found in gastric juice, midgut gland, and intestinal contents. Using specific substrates and inhibitors, we indentified several isotrypsins and isochymotrypsins by gel electrophoresis. Protease activity was found at pH 3

Laura E. Celis-Guerrero; Fernando L. García-Carreño; M. Angeles Navarrete del Toro

2004-01-01

123

Dynamics of digestive proteolytic system during blood feeding of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ticks are vectors of a wide variety of pathogens causing severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Intestinal digestion of the host blood is an essential process of tick physiology and also a limiting factor for pathogen transmission since the tick gut represents the primary site for pathogen infection and proliferation. Using the model tick Ixodes ricinus, the European

Zden?k Franta; Helena Frantová; Jitka Konvi?ková; Martin Horn; Daniel Sojka; Michael Mareš; Petr Kopá?ek

2010-01-01

124

A replaceable microreactor for on-line protein digestion in a two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis system with tandem mass spectrometry detection  

PubMed Central

We describe a two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis system that incorporates a replaceable enzymatic microreactor for on-line protein digestion. In this system, trypsin is immobilized on magnetic beads. At the start of each experiment, old beads are flushed to waste and replaced with a fresh plug of beads, which is captured by a pair of magnets at the distal tip of the first capillary. For analysis, proteins are separated in the first capillary. A fraction is then parked in the reactor to create peptides. Digested peptides are periodically transferred to the second capillary for separation; a fresh protein fraction is simultaneously moved to the reactor for digestion. An electrospray interface is used to introduce peptides into a mass spectrometer for analysis. This procedure is repeated for several dozen fractions under computer control. The system was demonstrated by the separation and digestion of insulin chain b oxidized and ?-casein as model proteins.

Li, Yihan; Wojcik, Roza; Dovichi, Norman J.

2010-01-01

125

Hormonal regulation of the mouse adrenal melanocortinergic system.  

PubMed

Adrenocortical cells of several species have been reported to express significant levels of Agouti-related protein (Agrp) as well as melanocortin 4-receptor (MC4-R). In this study, we used the mouse tumoral adrenal cell line ATC7- L that secretes corticosterone in basal conditions with a 2- fold increase in response to ACTH treatment. We reported that these cells expressed functional MC4-R. They also expressed Agrp mRNA and secreted immunoreactive Agrp in the culture medium. Long-term treatment of ATC7-L with (Nle4,D-Phe7)-alpha MSH (NDP-alpha MSH) or forskolin as well as Agrp strongly reduced MC4-R level by more than 30%. On the contrary, leptin treatment did not modify this level although it significantly reduced MC2-R level. These results could be correlated to some data obtained in vivo on adrenal glands removed from diet-induced obese mice exhibiting a hyperleptinemia, where the level of both MC2-R and MC4-R appeared to be reduced as Agrp mRNA expression level was increased compared to Control mice. All these data would suggest the existence of a link between the metabolic status and the activation of the adrenal melanocortinergic system. PMID:19337015

Soltani, Y; Doghman, M; Gout, J; Rebuffet, V; Vigier, M; Bekkouche, F Hadj; Naville, D; Begeot, M

2009-01-01

126

FGF signaling facilitates postinjury recovery of mouse hematopoietic system  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling promotes hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion in vitro. However, it is unknown whether FGF promotes HSPC expansion in vivo. Here we examined FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) expression and investigated its in vivo function in HSPCs. Conditional knockout (CKO) of Fgfr1 did not affect phenotypical number of HSPCs and homeostatic hematopoiesis, but led to a reduced engraftment only in the secondary transplantation. When treated with 5-fluorouracil (5FU), the Fgfr1 CKO mice showed defects in both proliferation and subsequent mobilization of HSPCs. We identified megakaryocytes (Mks) as a major resource for FGF production, and further discovered a novel mechanism by which Mks underwent FGF-FGFR signaling dependent expansion to accelerate rapid FGF production under stress. Within HSPCs, we observed an up-regulation of nuclear factor ?B and CXCR4, a receptor for the chemoattractant SDF-1, in response to bone marrow damage only in control but not in Fgfr1 CKO model, accounting for the corresponding defects in proliferation and migration of HSPCs. This study provides the first in vivo evidence that FGF signaling facilitates postinjury recovery of the mouse hematopoietic system by promoting proliferation and facilitating mobilization of HSPCs.

Zhao, Meng; Ross, Jason T.; Itkin, Tomer; Perry, John M.; Venkatraman, Aparna; Haug, Jeffrey S.; Hembree, Mark J.; Deng, Chu-Xia; Lapidot, Tsvee; He, Xi C.

2012-01-01

127

Bioaccessibility of cadmium in fresh and cooked Agaricus blazei Murill assessed by in vitro biomimetic digestion system.  

PubMed

Bioaccessibility of cadmium (Cd) in fresh and cooked Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM) was studied by an in vitro biomimetic digestion system in this paper. The results showed that the Cd content in fresh AbM was 10.27 mg kg(-1) DM. The cooking treatments of boiling and microwaving with water significantly decreased Cd contents in fresh AbM by 36.4% and 30.2% (P<0.05), respectively. Cd in fresh AbM showed the highest bioaccessibility of 77.8% during the biomimetic digestion in stomach, followed by that of 69.4% from the gastrointestinal digestion. Cooking treatments also significantly lowered the bioaccessibility of Cd (P<0.05). Cd in boiled AbM showed 50.7% and 46.1% bioaccessibility during the gastric and gastrointestinal procedures. While, Cd in microwaved AbM showed 58.2% and 50.4% bioaccessibility. This study confirmed that the health risk assessment of AbM depending on the total Cd levels in fresh AbM was inaccurate, especially for the products domestically cooked. PMID:22406327

Sun, Liping; Liu, Gaoxiang; Yang, Meizhizi; Zhuang, Yongliang

2012-05-01

128

Recent developments on polyphenol–protein interactions: effects on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.  

PubMed

Tea and coffee are widely consumed beverages across the world and they are rich sources of various polyphenols. Polyphenols are responsible for the bitterness and astringency of beverages and are also well known to impart antioxidant properties which is beneficial against several oxidative stress related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and aging. On the other hand, proteins are also known to display many important roles in several physiological activities. Polyphenols can interact with proteins through hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions, leading to the formation of soluble or insoluble complexes. According to recent studies, this complex formation can affect the bioavailability and beneficiary properties of both the individual components, in either way. For example, polyphenol-protein complex formation can reduce or enhance the antioxidant activity of polyphenols; similarly it can also affect the digestion ability of several digestive enzymes present in our body. Surprisingly, no review article has been published recently which has focused on the progress in this area, despite numerous articles having appeared in this field. This review summarizes the recent trends and patterns (2005 onwards) in polyphenol-protein interaction studies focusing on the characterization of the complex, the effect of this complex formation on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system. PMID:22465955

Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Ghosh, Amit K; Ghosh, Chandrasekhar

2012-06-01

129

Using a computer-controlled simulated digestion system to predict the energetic value of corn for ducks.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to develop a computer-controlled digestion system to simulate the digestion process of duck for predicting the concentration of ME and the metabolizability of gross energy (GE) in corn. In a calibration experiment, 30 corn-based calibration samples with a previously published ME concentration in 2008 were used to develop the prediction models for in vivo energetic values. The linear relationships were established between in vivo ME concentration and in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) concentration, and between in vivo metabolizability of GE (ME/GE) and in vitro digestibility of GE (IVDE/GE), respectively. In a validation experiment, 6 sources of corn with previously published ME concentration in 2008 randomly selected from the primary corn-growing regions of China were used to validate the prediction models established in the calibration experiment. The results showed that in calibration samples, the IVDE concentration was positively correlated with the AME (r = 0.9419), AMEn (r = 0.9480), TME (r = 0.9403), and TMEn concentration (r = 0.9473). Similarly, the IVDE/GE was positively correlated with the AME/GE (r = 0.95987), AMEn/GE (r = 0.9641), TME/GE (r = 0.9588), and TMEn/GE (r = 0.9637). The coefficient of determination greater than 0.88 and 0.91, and residual SD less than 45 kcal/kg of DM and 1.01% were observed in the prediction models for ME concentrations and ME/GE, respectively. Twenty-nine out of 30 calibration samples showed differences less than 100 kcal/kg of DM and 2.4% between determined and predicted values for 4 ME (AME, AMEn, TME, and TMEn) and for 4 ME/GE (AME/GE, AMEn/GE, TME/GE, and TMEn/GE), respectively. Using prediction models developed from 30 calibration samples, 6 validation samples further showed differences less than 100 kcal/kg of DM and 2% between determined and predicted values for ME and ME/GE, respectively. Therefore, the computer-controlled simulated digestion system can be used to predict the ME and ME/GE of corn for ducks with acceptable accuracy. PMID:24879691

Zhao, F; Zhang, L; Mi, B M; Zhang, H F; Hou, S S; Zhang, Z Y

2014-06-01

130

[Analogues of amylin, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and the digestive system in homeostasis regulation].  

PubMed

The digestive tract plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. The important fact is that cells of the digestive tract are also the place of production of numerous regulatory peptides. Their use in the treatment of diabetes has been subject to study for many years. The paper examines the synthetic analogue of the human hormone amylin, the secretion of which coincides with the secretion of insulin. The synthetic analogue pramlintide is used in treatment of DM1T as well as DM2T. Likewise, a group of intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibitors--acarbose in this country--was introduced into clinical practice some years ago. Both drugs share their glucose-lowering effects, but first of all they influence postprandial hyperglycemia like other antidiabetic agents of this large group affecting PPG such as incretin mimetics, DPP-4, etc. Both pramlintide and acarbose have find their specific in the treatment of postprandial blood glucose. PMID:21612064

Rybka, J

2011-04-01

131

Hoover Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1996, the Hoover Digest is a quarterly publication that features writing on politics, economics, and history from the minds of scholars and researchers affiliated with the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. Visitors to the Digest's homepage will find an illustration of the current issue's cover, flanked on one side by a listing of the featured articles. Further down on the site, users will find a list of the "Most Viewed" articles, along with links to the "Most Printed", "Most Emailed", and "Most Saved" pieces. Along the right-side of the homepage, visitors can elect to browse by topic, date, or author. The topic list is exhaustive, and it includes areas such as "Flat Tax", "Constitution", "Law Enforcement", and "Arms Control". Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive a free print copy of the Digest.

132

Digestion and dewatering characteristics of waste activated sludge treated by an anaerobic biofilm system.  

PubMed

Immobilization of microorganisms for sludge anaerobic digestion was investigated in this study. The effects of filler properties on anaerobic digestion and dewaterability of waste activated sludge were assessed at mesophilic temperature in batch mode. The results showed that the duration of the methanogenic stage of reactors without filler, with only filler, and with pre-incubated filler was 39days, 19days and 13days, respectively, during which time the protein was degraded by 45.0%, 29.4% and 30.0%, and the corresponding methane yield was 193.9, 107.2 and 108.2mL/g volatile suspended solids added, respectively. On day 39, the final protein degradation efficiency of the three reactors was 45.0%, 40.9% and 42.0%, respectively. The results of normalized capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration suggested that the reactor incorporating pre-incubated filler could improve the dewaterability of digested sludge, while the effect of the reactor incorporating only filler on sludge dewaterability was uncertain. PMID:24355503

Wang, Tianfeng; Shao, Liming; Li, Tianshui; Lü, Fan; He, Pinjing

2014-02-01

133

Mesophylic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN GENERAL<\\/strong>In this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).For this purpose were researched:1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestion process for energy production on dairy farms.2. Digestion of manure at lower temperatures.The goal of the first mentioned research

G. Zeeman

1991-01-01

134

A genetic variant in MiR-146a modifies digestive system cancer risk: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate gene expression and act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in oncogenesis. The association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in miR-146a rs2910164 and susceptibility to digestive system cancers was inconsistent in previous studies. In this study, we conducted a literature search of PubMed to identify all relevant studies published before August 31, 2013. A total of 21 independent case-control studies were included in this updated meta-analysis with 9,558 cases and 10,614 controls. We found that the miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased risk of digestive system cancers in an allele model (OR=0.90, 95%CI 0.87-0.94), homozygote model (OR=0.84, 95%CI 0.77-0.91), dominant model (OR=0.90, 95%CI 0.84-0.96), and recessive model (OR=0.85, 95%CI 0.79-0.91), while in a heterozygous model (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.89-1.11) the association showed marginal significance. Subgroup analysis by cancer site revealed decreased risk in colorectal cancer above allele model (OR=0.90, 95%CI 0.83- 0.97) and homozygote model (OR=0.85, 95%CI 0.72-1.00). Similarly, decreased cancer risk was observed when compared with allele model (OR=0.87, 95%CI 0.81-0.93) and recessive model (OR=0.81, 95%CI 0.72-0.90) in gastric cancer. When stratified by ethnicity, genotyping methods and quality score, decreased cancer risks were also observed. This current meta-analysis indicated that miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism may decrease the susceptibility to digestive system cancers, especially in Asian populations. PMID:24528016

Li, Ying-Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Mao, Ying-Ying; Jin, Ming-Juan; Jing, Fang-Yuan; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Kun

2014-01-01

135

Prognostic Value of CD166 Expression in Cancers of the Digestive System: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Many studies have reported the prognostic predictive value of CD166 as a cancer stem cell marker in cancers of the digestive system; however, its predictive value remains controversial. Here, we investigate the correlation between CD166 positivity in digestive system cancers and clinicopathological features using meta-analysis. Methods A comprehensive search in PubMed and ISI Web of Science through March of 2013 was performed. Only articles containing CD166 antigen immunohistochemical staining in cancers of the digestive system were included,including pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. Data comparing 3- and 5-year overall survival along with other clinicopathological features were collected. Results Nine studies with 2553 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included for the analysis. The median rate of CD166 immunohistochemical staining expression was 56% (25.4%–76.3%). In colorectal cancer specifically, the results of a fixed-effects model indicated that CD166-positive expression was an independent marker associated with a smaller tumor burden (T category; RR?=?0.93, 95%, CI: 0.88–0.98) but worse spread to nearby lymph nodes (N category; RR?=?1.17, 95% CI: 1.05–1.30). The 5-year overall survival rate was showed relationship with cytoplasmic positive staining of CD166 (RR?=?1.47 95% 1.21–1.79), but no significant association was found in the pool or any other stratified analysis with 3- or 5- year overall survival rate. Conclusion Based on the published studies, different cellular location of CD166 has distinct prognostic value and cytoplasmic positive expression is associated with worse prognosis outcome. Besides, our results also find CD166 expression indicate advanced T category and N-positive status in colorectal cancer specifically.

Zhu, Xiaotao; Liu, Yang; Qu, Dihong; Wu, Ping; Huang, Jian; Xu, A-xiang

2013-01-01

136

Application of super-twisting observers to the estimation of state and unknown inputs in an anaerobic digestion system.  

PubMed

This paper presents the estimation of the unknown states and inputs of an anaerobic digestion system characterized by a two-step reaction model. The estimation is based on the measurement of the two substrate concentrations and of the outflow rate of biogas and relies on the use of an observer, consisting of three parts. The first is a generalized super-twisting observer, which estimates a linear combination of the two input concentrations. The second is an asymptotic observer, which provides one of the two biomass concentrations, whereas the third is a super-twisting observer for one of the input concentrations and the second biomass concentration. PMID:24473314

Sbarciog, M; Moreno, J A; Vande Wouwer, A

2014-01-01

137

Simulating the digestion of lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS): overview of in vitro lipolysis models.  

PubMed

One of the greatest challenges in the pharmaceutical science is the improvement of oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Lately, one of the most attractive approaches has been formulation of lipid based drug delivery systems. However, the emerging popularity of these systems in the last decade has brought to light the need for efficient methods for their in vitro evaluation that would serve as their in vivo behaviour prediction tool. Because lipids are subject to lipid digestion and multiple absorption pathways in vivo, simple dissolution tests are not predictive enough when testing lipid based delivery systems. To assert these needs, the in vitro lipolysis model has been developed, utilizing pancreatic enzymes, bile and phospholipids in a temperature controlled chamber to simulate in vivo digestion. However, with very variable physiological conditions in gastrointestinal tract, this model has not been yet standardised and experiments vary among different laboratories. This review discusses in vivo events following oral application of lipid based delivery, in vitro lipolysis models to emulate them and their future perspectives. PMID:24664320

Bolko, Katarina; Zvonar, Alenka; Gašperlin, Mirjana

2014-01-01

138

77 FR 38075 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Health National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases...Committee: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Type 1 Diabetes Mouse Resource. Date: July...

2012-06-26

139

The role of capecitabine in the management of tumors of the digestive system.  

PubMed

Capecitabine has been developed as a prodrug of FU, with the goal of improving tolerability and intratumor drug concentration through tumor-specific conversion to the active drug. The purpose of this article is to review the available information on capecitabine with respect to clinical efficacy for tumors of the digestive tract, adverse-effect profile, documented drug interactions, dosage and administration, and future directions of ongoing research. Relevant English-language literature was identified through searches of NCI, PubMed, ASCO.org and ESMO, ECCO meetings proceedings. PMID:19149758

Gennatas, Constantine; Michalaki, Vasiliki; Gennatas, Spyridon

2009-01-01

140

A Comparative Analysis Shows Morphofunctional Differences between the Rat and Mouse Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Systems  

PubMed Central

Sub-populations of neurons producing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) are characterized by distinct projection patterns, birthdates and CART/NK3 expression in rat. Evidence for such sub-populations has not been reported in other species. However, given that genetically engineered mouse lines are now commonly used as experimental models, a better characterization of the anatomy and morphofunctionnal organization of MCH system in this species is then necessary. Combining multiple immunohistochemistry experiments with in situ hybridization, tract tracing or BrdU injections, evidence supporting the hypothesis that rat and mouse MCH systems are not identical was obtained: sub-populations of MCH neurons also exist in mouse, but their relative abundance is different. Furthermore, divergences in the distribution of MCH axons were observed, in particular in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These differences suggest that rat and mouse MCH neurons are differentially involved in anatomical networks that control feeding and the sleep/wake cycle.

Croizier, Sophie; Franchi-Bernard, Gabrielle; Colard, Claude; Poncet, Fabrice; La Roche, Annie; Risold, Pierre-Yves

2010-01-01

141

Short-term exposure to dimethylformamide and the impact on digestive system disease: an outdoor study for volatile organic compound.  

PubMed

Occupational and experimental studies have revealed the organs most affected by dimethylformamide (DMF) are liver and gastrointestinal tract. However, few studies have focused on the potential effect of outdoor pollution of DMF. This study examined the health risk of hospitalization due to digestive system disease by time series studies in a case city Longwan, China. The urine metabolite of DMF was correlated well with DMF exposure concentration (EC). A 101.0-?g/m(3) (interquartile range) increase in the two-day moving average of DMF EC was associated with a 1.10 (1.01 ˜ 1.20), 1.22 (1.10 ˜ 1.35), and 1.05 (0.90 ˜ 1.22) increase in hospitalization for total digestive system diseases, liver disease, and gastrointestinal tract disease, respectively. The exposure-dose response between DMF and the relative risk of liver disease was linear only below 350 ?g/m(3). These findings highlight a previously unrecognized health problem related to VOCs released into the outdoor environment. PMID:24747345

Wang, Cui; Huang, Canke; Wei, Yumei; Zhu, Qi; Tian, Weili; Zhang, Qingyu

2014-07-01

142

Neuroendocrine system of the digestive tract in Rhamdia quelen juvenile: an immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

In this work, an immunohistochemical study was performed to determine the distribution and relative frequencies of some neuromodulators of the digestive tract of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The digestive tract of silver catfish was divided into six portions; the oesophagus, stomach, intestine (ascendant, descendant and convoluted segments), and rectum. Immunohistochemical method using a pool of specific antisera against-gastrin, -cholecystokinin-8, -leu-enkephalin, -neuropeptide Y, -calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and -vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was employed. Immunoreactivity to all antisera was identified in neuroendocrine cells (NECs) localized in the gut epithelium, although no reaction was observed in the oesophagus or stomach. The morphology of NECs immunopositive to each antibody was similar. They were slender in shape, with basally located nucleus, and their main axis perpendicular to the basement membrane. The number of NECs immunoreactive to all antisera was higher in the ascendant and descendant intestine, exhibiting a decreasing trend toward distal segments of the gut. In addition, immunoreactivity to CGRP and VIP was observed in the myenteric plexus and nerve fibers distributed in the mucosal, submucosal and muscular layers. The higher number of immunopositive NECs in the ascendant and descendant intestine may indicate the primary role of these segments in the control of food intake by means of orexigenic and anorexigenic peripheral signals. PMID:22537686

Hernández, D R; Vigliano, F A; Sánchez, S; Bermúdez, R; Domitrovic, H A; Quiroga, M I

2012-08-01

143

ERIC Digests Index Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can search the entire ERIC Digests database from the index page. ERIC, part of the National Library of Education (NLE), is a nationwide education information system sponsored by the US Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI).

144

Biodistribution and stability of CdSe core quantum dots in mouse digestive tract following per os administration: Advantages of double polymer/silica coated nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New QDs coated with combination of polythiol ligands and silica shell were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the QDs stability in digestive tract of mice after per os administration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymer/silica shell prevents QDs degradation and fluorescence quenching in vivo. -- Abstract: CdSe-core, ZnS-capped semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are of great potential for biomedical applications. However, applications in the gastrointestinal tract for in vivo imaging and therapeutic purposes are hampered by their sensitivity to acidic environments and potential toxicity. Here we report the use of coatings with a combination of polythiol ligands and silica shell (QDs PolyT-APS) to stabilize QDs fluorescence under acidic conditions. We demonstrated the stability of water-soluble QDs PolyT-APS both in vitro, in strong acidic solutions, and in vivo. The biodistribution, stability and photoluminescence properties of QDs in the gastrointestinal tract of mice after per os administration were assessed. We demonstrated that QDs coated with current traditional materials - mercapto compounds (QDs MPA) and pendant thiol group (QDs PolyT) - are not capable of protecting QDs from chemically induced degradation and surface modification. Polythiol ligands and silica shell quantum dots (QDs PolyT-APS) are suitable for biological and biomedical applications in the gastrointestinal tract.

Loginova, Y.F. [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation)] [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Dezhurov, S.V. [Trial Center For Science and Technology 'Nanotech-Dubna', Dubna, Moscow Region 141983 (Russian Federation)] [Trial Center For Science and Technology 'Nanotech-Dubna', Dubna, Moscow Region 141983 (Russian Federation); Zherdeva, V.V.; Kazachkina, N.I. [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation)] [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Wakstein, M.S. [Trial Center For Science and Technology 'Nanotech-Dubna', Dubna, Moscow Region 141983 (Russian Federation)] [Trial Center For Science and Technology 'Nanotech-Dubna', Dubna, Moscow Region 141983 (Russian Federation); Savitsky, A.P., E-mail: apsavitsky@inbi.ras.ru [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation)

2012-03-02

145

The physiology of digestion in fish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The acquisition, digestion, and assimilation of food is critical for the growth and survival of fish larvae; a fish larva either grows or it perishes. Fish larvae are characterized by digestive systems and diets that differ from adults. Larvae undergo a pattern of trophic ontogeny, changing diet with increasing size, and these changes result in differences in digestive requirements.

John J. Govoni; George W. Boehlert; Yoshirou Watanabej

1986-01-01

146

Effects of temperature on post?methanation of digested dairy cow manure in a farm?scale biogas production system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A post?methanation process that could be adopted at farm?scale, operating at temperatures prevailing in farm manure digester post?storage tanks, was evaluated. Digested manure samples from a farm digester (35 °C) and post?storage tank (5–10 °C) were incubated in parallel batches at 5–20 °C and as reference at 35 and 55 °C. Specific methane yields (kg\\

P. L. N. Kaparaju; J. A. Rintala

2003-01-01

147

An Ultrahigh Resolution SPECT System for I-125 Mouse Brain Imaging Studies  

PubMed Central

This paper presents some initial experimental results obtained with a dual-head prototype single photon emission microscope system (SPEM) that is dedicated to mouse brain studies using I-125 labeled radiotracers. In particular, this system will be used for in vivo tacking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain. This system is based on the use of the intensified electron multiplying charge-coupled device (I-EMCCD) camera that offers the combination of an excellent intrinsic spatial resolution, a good signal-to-noise ratio, a large active area and a reasonable detection efficiency over an energy range between 27–140keV. In this study, the dual-head SPEM system was evaluated using both resolution phantoms and a mouse with locally injected T cells labelled with I-125. It was demonstrated that for a relatively concentrated source object, the current dual-head SPEM system is capable of visualizing the tiny amount of radioactivity (~12 nCi) carried by a very small number (<1000) of T cells. The current SPEM system design allows four or six camera heads to be installed in a stationary system configuration that offers a doubled or tripled sensitivity at a spatial resolution similar to that obtained with the dualhead system. This development would provide a powerful tool for in vivo and non-invasive tracking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain and potentially for other rodent brain imaging studies.

Meng, L. J.; Fu, G.; Roy, E. J.; Suppe, B.; Chen, C. T.

2009-01-01

148

Closeout final report on a demonstration test and evaluation of the Cannon Low-NOx Digester System  

SciTech Connect

Cannon Boiler Works Inc. has been investigating a system for removing NOx from the exhaust gases of furnaces, gas turbines, chemical reactors, incinerators, and boilers. Computer simulations, bench-scale and pilot plant tests have proved that the system is capable of removing substantially all of the NOx from natural gas fired equipment exhaust streams. Originally designated as the Cannon NOx Digester, it has recently been renamed the Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO) System for NOx and SOx Reduction. The principal elements in the system are a fan, heat exchanger, oxidation chamber, spray chamber acting as a gas/liquid absorber, demister, an ozone generator, liquid oxygen storage or dry air supply system for the ozonator, chemical storage and metering system for the caustic neutralizer, and a data acquisition and control system. Most of the ozone is consumed in converting NOx to N{sub 2}O{sub 5} which hydrates to nitric acid which is then scrubbed out of the gas as it passes through the absorber. CO also reacts with ozone to form CO{sub 2} which is subsequently scrubbed out with NaOH. A demonstration, planned for the Alta Dena Dairy located near Los Angeles and in violation of California`s air quality regulations for natural gas fired boilers, was started, delayed due to boiler modifications, and will be continued shortly with new funding. This paper describes the LTO process and presents results from the initial demonstration.

NONE

1995-04-01

149

Illuminating cancer systems with genetically engineered mouse models and coupled luciferase reporters in vivo.  

PubMed

Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is a powerful noninvasive tool that has dramatically accelerated the in vivo interrogation of cancer systems and longitudinal analysis of mouse models of cancer over the past decade. Various luciferase enzymes have been genetically engineered into mouse models (GEMM) of cancer, which permit investigation of cellular and molecular events associated with oncogenic transcription, posttranslational processing, protein-protein interactions, transformation, and oncogene addiction in live cells and animals. Luciferase-coupled GEMMs ultimately serve as a noninvasive, repetitive, longitudinal, and physiologic means by which cancer systems and therapeutic responses can be investigated accurately within the autochthonous context of a living animal. PMID:23585416

Kocher, Brandon; Piwnica-Worms, David

2013-06-01

150

Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331  

SciTech Connect

Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

151

Two-phase anaerobic digestion within a solid waste/wastewater integrated management system  

SciTech Connect

A two-phase, wet anaerobic digestion process was tested at laboratory scale using mechanically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) as the substrate. The proposed process scheme differs from others due to the integration of the MSW and wastewater treatment cycles, which makes it possible to avoid the recirculation of process effluent. The results obtained show that the supplying of facultative biomass, drawn from the wastewater aeration tank, to the solid waste acidogenic reactor allows an improvement of the performance of the first phase of the process which is positively reflected on the second one. The proposed process performed successfully, adopting mesophilic conditions and a relatively short hydraulic retention time in the methanogenic reactor, as well as high values of organic loading rate. Significant VS removal efficiency and biogas production were achieved. Moreover, the methanogenic reactor quickly reached optimal conditions for a stable methanogenic phase. Studies conducted elsewhere also confirm the feasibility of integrating the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW with that of wastewater.

De Gioannis, G. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Diaz, L.F. [CalRecovery, Inc., 2454 Stanwell Drive, Concord, California 94520 (United States); Muntoni, A. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy)], E-mail: amuntoni@unica.it; Pisanu, A. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy)

2008-07-01

152

Elastase Digests  

PubMed Central

Despite many advances in membrane proteomics during the last decade the fundamental problem of accessing the transmembrane regions itself has only been addressed to some extent. The present study establishes a method for the nano-LC-based analysis of complex membrane proteomes on the basis of a methanolic porcine pancreatic elastase digest to increase transmembrane coverage. Halobacterium salinarium purple and Corynebacterium glutamicum membranes were successfully analyzed by using the new protocol. We demonstrated that elastase digests yield a large proportion of transmembrane peptides, facilitating membrane protein identification. The potential for characterization of a membrane protein through full sequence coverage using elastase is there but is restricted to the higher abundance protein components. Compatibility of the work flow with the two most common mass spectrometric ionization techniques, ESI and MALDI, was shown. Currently better results are obtained using ESI mainly because of the low response of MALDI for strictly neutral peptides. New findings concerning elastase specificity in complex protein mixtures reveal a new prospect beyond the application in shotgun experiments. Furthermore peptide mass fingerprinting with less specific enzymes might be done in the near future but requires an adaptation of current search algorithms to the new proteases.

Rietschel, Benjamin; Arrey, Tabiwang N.; Meyer, Bjoern; Bornemann, Sandra; Schuerken, Malte; Karas, Michael; Poetsch, Ansgar

2009-01-01

153

Automouse: An improvement to the mouse computerized uncertainty analysis system operational manual  

SciTech Connect

Under a mandate of national environmental laws, the agency strives to formulate and implement actions leading to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life. The Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory is responsible for planning, implementing, and managing research development, and demonstration programs to provide an authoritative, defensible engineering basis in support of the policies, programs, and regulations of the EPA with respect to drinking water, wastewater, pesticides, toxic substances, solid and hazardous wastes, and Superfund-related activities. The publication is one of the products of that research and provides a vital communication link between the researcher and the user community. The manual describes a system, called MOUSE (for Modular Oriented Uncertainty SystEm), for dealing with the computational problems of uncertainty, specifically in models that consist of a set of one or more equations. Since such models are frequently encountered in the fields of environmental science, risk analysis, economics, and engineering, the system has broad application throughout these fields. An important part of the MOUSE system is AutoMOUSE which actually writes the computer programs required for the uncertainty analysis computations. Thus, no prior programming knowledge is needed to learn or use MOUSE and, because of its transportability and compactness, the system can be run on a wide variety of personal computers available to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and/or its contractors and grantees.

Klee, A.J.

1992-08-01

154

A demonstration test and evaluation of the Cannon Low-NO{sub x} Digester System. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Since 1985, Cannon Boiler Works, Inc. has been carrying out research and development efforts to perfect a system for removing nitrogen oxides, NO{sub x}, from the exhaust gases of furnaces, gas turbines, chemical reactors, incinerators and boilers.Computer simulations, bench-scale tests and pilot plant testing have proved that the system is capable of removing substantially all of the NO{sub x} from natural gas-fired equipment exhaust streams. Furthermore when retrofit to industrial boilers, both capital costs and operating costs are lower than for competing processes, while performance is much better. The Cannon system for removing NO{sub x}, originally designated as the Cannon NO{sub x} Digester, has recently been renamed the Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO) System for NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} Reduction. It will be engineered and marketed by Cannon Technology, Inc, a wholly owned subsidiary of Cannon Boiler Works, Inc. Cannon has US patents for the process and for the associated equipment and has patent applications pending in Europe. Cannon`s Low Temperature Oxidation, LTO, process has proved effective for reducing the levels of NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and particulates from boiler flue gases.

NONE

1995-08-01

155

Elimination of mouse allergens in the working environment: Assessment of individually ventilated cage systems and ventilated cabinets in the containment of mouse allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Laboratory animal allergy is an important occupational disease that is preventable by reduction of exposure to mammalian allergens. Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of safety equipment in containing mouse urinary protein (MUP)—specifically, individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems and class I–type and class II ventilated cabinets. Methods: Six IVC systems (which are used to

Susan Gordon; Stanley W. Fisher; Ronald H. Raymond

2001-01-01

156

MARS: a mouse atlas registration system based on planar x-ray projector and optical camera  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces a mouse atlas registration system (MARS), composed of a stationary top-view x-ray projector and a side-view optical camera, coupled to a mouse atlas registration algorithm. This system is using the x-ray and optical images to guide a fully automatic co-registration of a mouse atlas with each subject, in order to provide anatomical reference for small animal molecular imaging systems such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). To facilitate the registration, a statistical atlas that accounts for inter-subject anatomical variations was constructed based on 83 organ-labeled mouse micro-CT images. The statistical shape model and conditional Gaussian model techniques were used to register the atlas with the x-ray image and optical photo. The accuracy of the atlas registration was evaluated by comparing the registered atlas with the organ-labeled micro-CT images of the test subjects. The results showed excellent registration accuracy of the whole-body region, and good accuracy for the brain, liver, heart, lungs and kidneys. In its implementation, the MARS system was integrated with a preclinical PET scanner to deliver combined PET/MARS imaging, and to facilitate atlas-assisted analysis of the preclinical PET images.

Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B; Taschereau, Richard; Gu, Zheng; Vu, Nam T; Prout, David L; Chatziioannou, Arion F

2012-01-01

157

INDUCED HEPATOCYTES AS A METABOLIC ACTIVATION SYSTEM FOR THE MOUSE-LYMPHOMA ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

We have developed methods for the coculture of hepatocytes and mouse lymphoma cells and have shown the utility of this system for testing promutagens from several chemical classes (Brock et al., 1987). In the present study we investigated the use of hepatocytes isolated from rats...

158

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTACT HEPATOCYTE ACTIVATION SYSTEM FOR ROUTINE USE WITH THE MOUSE LYMPHOMA ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed a method for cocultivating primary rat hepatocytes with L5178Y/TK+/- 3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cells. The system should provide a means to simulate more closely in vivo metabolism compared to metabolism by liver homogenates, while still being useful for rou...

159

Avoiding digester upset.  

PubMed

The acetate uptake bioassay (AUB) is a predictive measure for determining the stability of anaerobic digesters, but its use is rare due to the limited availability of gas chromatography equipment at wastewater treatment facilities. A water displacement system was compared and evaluated as an alternative to gas chromatography analysis for conducting the AUB. Results indicated that methane generation rates measured by the two methods were statistically the same. Precision of the method varied by less than 5%. Accuracy was quantified by measuring near stoichiometric volumes of carbon dioxide gas production from abiotic tests using sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. The method detection limit (MDL) was 0.6 mL. The effective use of a water displacement system as a surrogate for gas chromatography analysis could make the adoption of the AUB for predicting digester stability a practical option for treatment facilities. PMID:23697236

Thompson, Phillip L; Jiencke, Frederick W; Reinhart, Shawn W; Reha, Meghan E; Byrne, Samuel S

2013-04-01

160

Development of the mouse vestibular system in the absence of gravity perception  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tilted mutant mouse, which lacks otoconia in the inner ear, was used to study development of the mouse vestibular system in the absence of gravity perception. Otoconia are dense particles composed of proteins and calcium carbonate crystals suspended in the gelatinous macular membrane. They enhance, and are largely responsible for, sensitivity to gravity. Morphometric analysis of the vestibular ganglion showed that the mutant developed more slowly than the normal controls, both in rate of development and cell number, particularly during the first week of post-natal development. The mutant ganglia also exhibited a reduction of cells during the first 6 days of post-natal development.

Smith, Michael; Yuan Wang, Xiang; Wolgemuth, Debra J.; Murashov, Alexander K.

2003-01-01

161

Merits of the fat-tailed Barbarine sheep raised in different production systems in Tunisia: digestive, productive and reproductive characteristics.  

PubMed

Barbarine sheep is the dominant breed in Tunisia. This fat-tailed breed present in all production systems is characterised by metabolic and digestive adaptation to the contrasting environment conditions prevailing in the country (heat stress, water deprivation, salinity etc.). The fat tail (1.5 to 7 kg) is an energy reservoir that is used in periods of feed scarcity. Moreover, the rumen of this breed harbours a microflora enabling it to valorize low-quality roughages and native range vegetation. Barbarine sheep could make benefit from a wide range of local feed resources like fodder shrubs (e.g. cactus and oldman saltbushes), tannin-containing shrubs (e.g. Acacia cyanophylla) and agro-industrial by-products (e.g. olive cake, bran etc. conserved in the form of feed blocks or pellets). It has a very shallow anoestrous, the intensity of which is dependant upon nutrition conditions rather than day length as temperate breeds. Productive and reproductive performances of late pregnant-early suckling, pre-mating ewes and also rams of this breed are not affected when some alternative feed resources replace common feedstuffs which are expensive and cannot afford regularly to smallholders. In brief, the merits of the Barbarine sheep in the production systems and other main adaptive mechanisms of this breed are discussed in this paper. The prospective of Barbarine sheep husbandry in the system dynamics, climate change and the evolution of the socioeconomic context are also envisaged. PMID:21533615

Ben Salem, Hichem; Lassoued, Narjess; Rekik, Mourad

2011-10-01

162

A pilot plant two-phase anaerobic digestion system for bioenergy recovery from swine wastes and garbage.  

PubMed

A pilot plant bioenergy recovery system from swine waste and garbage was constructed. A series of experiments was performed using swine feces (SF); a mixture of swine feces and urine (MSFU); a mixture of swine feces, urine and garbage (MSFUG); garbage and a mixture of urine and garbage (AUG). The system performed well for treating the source materials at a high organic loading rate (OLR) and short hydraulic retention time (HRT). In particular, the biogas production for the MSFUG was the highest, accounting for approximately 865-930 L kg(-1)-VS added at the OLR of 5.0-5.3 kg-VS m(-3) day(-1) and the HRT of 9 days. The removal of VS was 67-75%, and that of COD was 73-74%. Therefore, co-digestion is a promising method for the recovery of bioenergy from swine waste and garbage. Furthermore, the results obtained from this study provide fundamental information for scaling up a high-performance anaerobic system in the future. PMID:17904349

Feng, Chuanping; Shimada, Sadoru; Zhang, Zhenya; Maekawa, Takaaki

2008-01-01

163

Dopaminergic brain system in the quaking mutant mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quaking mice (qkqk), autosomal recessive mutants with central nervous system dysmyelinization, characterized behaviorally by abnormal locomotion and tremor, are found to have altered brain dopaminergic system parameters, in comparison with phenotypically normal heterozygous littermates. Dopamine metabolism is enhanced in structures of both nigrostriatal and mesolimbic systems, as revealed by increased metabolites content (that of homovanillic acid in striatum and concentration

Ella M. Nikulina; Julia A. Skrinskaya; Damira F. Avgustinovich; Nina K. Popova

1995-01-01

164

A Protocol for Quantifying and Reporting the Performance of Anaerobic Digestion Systems for Livestock Manures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent construction of a number of successful biogas systems for livestock manures and an increased awareness of their merits has produced an increased level of interest by livestock producers. Concurrently, the number of system developers has increased and several different system design approaches have emerged with claims of performance superiority. In some instances, these claims are supported by results of

J. H. Martin

165

Pressurized Pepsin Digestion in Proteomics  

PubMed Central

Integrated top-down bottom-up proteomics combined with on-line digestion has great potential to improve the characterization of protein isoforms in biological systems and is amendable to high throughput proteomics experiments. Bottom-up proteomics ultimately provides the peptide sequences derived from the tandem MS analyses of peptides after the proteome has been digested. Top-down proteomics conversely entails the MS analyses of intact proteins for more effective characterization of genetic variations and/or post-translational modifications. Herein, we describe recent efforts toward efficient integration of bottom-up and top-down LC-MS-based proteomics strategies. Since most proteomics separations utilize acidic conditions, we exploited the compatibility of pepsin (where the optimal digestion conditions are at low pH) for integration into bottom-up and top-down proteomics work flows. Pressure-enhanced pepsin digestions were successfully performed and characterized with several standard proteins in either an off-line mode using a Barocycler or an on-line mode using a modified high pressure LC system referred to as a fast on-line digestion system (FOLDS). FOLDS was tested using pepsin and a whole microbial proteome, and the results were compared against traditional trypsin digestions on the same platform. Additionally, FOLDS was integrated with a RePlay configuration to demonstrate an ultrarapid integrated bottom-up top-down proteomics strategy using a standard mixture of proteins and a monkey pox virus proteome.

Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Robinson, Errol W.; Hixson, Kim K.; Tian, Zhixin; Lee, Jung Hwa; Lee, Sang-Won; Tolic, Nikola; Weitz, Karl K.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

2011-01-01

166

Atmosphere stabilization and element recycle in an experimental mouse-algal system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life support systems based on bioregeneration rely on the control and manipulation of organisms. Experiments conducted with a gas-closed mouse-algal system designed to investigate principles of photosynthetic gas exchange focus primarily on observing gas exchange phenomena under varying algal environmental conditions and secondarily on studying element cycling through compartments of the experimental system. Inherent instabilities exit between the uptake and release of carbon dioxide CO2 and oxygen O2 by the mouse and algae. Variations in light intensity and cell density alter the photosynthetic rate of the algae and enable maintenance of physiologic concentrations of CO2 and O2. Different nitrogen sources (urea and nitrate) result in different algal assimilatory quotients (AQ). Combinations of photosynthetic rate and AQ ratio manipulations have been examined for their potential in stabilizing atmospheric gas concentrations in the gas-closed algal-mouse system. Elemental mass balances through the experimental systems compartments are being studied with the concurrent development of a mathematical simulation model. Element cycling experiments include quantification of elemental flows through system compartments and wet oxidation of system waste materials for use as an algal nutrient source. Oxidized waste products demonstrate inhibitory properties although dilution has been shown to allow normal growth.

Smernoff, David T.

1986-01-01

167

Immunohistochemical study on the neuroendocrine system of the digestive tract of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), infected by Enteromyxum scophthalmi (Myxozoa).  

PubMed

In recent years a new parasite, causing severe losses, has been detected in farmed turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), in Northwestern Spain. Dead fish showed emaciation and cachexia caused by severe necrotizing enteritis, which affected all areas of the digestive tract. The parasite was classified as a myxosporean and named Enteromyxum scophthalmi. This study was designed to assess the response of the turbot neuroendocrine system against E. scophthalmi infection. Immunohistochemical tests were applied to sections of the gastrointestinal tract of uninfected and E. scophthalmi-infected turbot, and the presence of cholecystokinin (CCK-8), serotonin (5-HT), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were documented. A higher abundance of both endocrine epithelial cells (ECs) and nerve cell bodies and fibres for CCK-8, 5-HT and SP were recorded in the gastrointestinal tract of infected turbot, whereas VIP-like substance decreased. The results indicate that E. scophthalmi infection in turbot induced changes in the neuroendocrine system, which may cause alterations in gut motility, electrolyte and fluid secretion, and vascular and immune functions. PMID:16844386

Bermúdez, R; Vigliano, F; Quiroga, M I; Nieto, J M; Bosi, G; Domeneghini, C

2007-03-01

168

What have we learnt after two years working with the da Vinci robot system in digestive surgery?  

PubMed

Robotic- assisted surgery has been introduced recently in order to overcome some of the difficulties surgeons encounter during advanced laparoscopic surgery. Due to the 3D vision equipment, higher number of degrees of freedom in manipulating instruments and better ergonomics it is hoped that by using robot techniques the indications of minimally invasive surgery in the field of digestive surgery can be broadened or that difficult procedures will be easier to perform. Since the introduction of the system in our hospital now almost two years ago 70 procedures have been performed with the aid of the da Vinci system covering the whole spectrum of GI surgery. Conversion took place in 2.5% and peroperative morbidity related to the use of robotic techniques was 10%. Although we had the subjective feeling that the procedures were indeed easier to perform and more relaxing for the surgeon, some major problems still exist as the complete lack of tactile feedback and the cost effectiveness of these procedures. Before robotics can be introduced in the every day clinical practice of the surgeon, its true benefit still needs to be established. This can only be done by well randomised prospective studies comparing one technique with the other. PMID:15663261

Hubens, G; Ruppert, M; Balliu, L; Vaneerdeweg, W

2004-01-01

169

Effects of temperature on post-methanation of digested dairy cow manure in a farm-scale biogas production system.  

PubMed

A post-methanation process that could be adopted at farm-scale, operating at temperatures prevailing in farm manure digester post-storage tanks, was evaluated. Digested manure samples from a farm digester (35 degrees C) and post-storage tank (5-10 degrees C) were incubated in parallel batches at 5-20 degrees C and as reference at 35 and 55 degrees C. Specific methane yields (kg(-1) volatile solids (VS)(added waste)) were 0.20-0.26 m3 at 35-55 degrees C and 0.085-0.09 m3 at 10-20 degrees C for digester material (345 days of incubation) and 0.16-0.21 m3 at 35-55 degrees C, 0.053-0.087 kg(-1) VS(added waste) m3 at 15-20 degrees C and 0.026 m3 at 10 degrees C for post-storage tank material (250 days). Both materials produced less than 0.005 m3 at 5 degrees C. However, an increase in temperature to 35 degrees C (40 days) improved methane production in assays pre-incubated at 5-20 degrees C (9 months). These results suggest that the untapped methane potential of the digested manure cannot effectively be recovered at temperatures prevailing in farm digested manure storage tanks during the winter in Northern latitudes. Nevertheless, as ambient temperatures increase during the late spring, an increase in methanogenesis can be expected. PMID:14669812

Kaparaju, P L N; Rintala, J A

2003-10-01

170

Determination of fructosyl amino acids and fructosyl peptides in protease-digested blood sample by a flow-injection system with an enzyme reactor.  

PubMed

A flow-injection system with an enzyme reactor was proposed for the measurement of fructosyl amino acids and fructosyl peptides in protease-digested blood samples. A fructosyl-amino acid oxidase (FAOX-TE) and two fructosyl-peptide oxidases (FPOX-CE and FPOX-CET) were covalently immobilized onto an inert support. They were used as the enzyme reactor in a FIA system with a hydrogen peroxide electrode. In particular, the FPOX-CET reactor possessed high selectivity for the detection of fructosyl valine (FV) and fructosyl valyl histidine (FVH) and an excellent operational stability. The proposed FIA system with the FPOX-CET reactor responded linearly to the concentration of FV over the dynamic range of 7.8 x 10(-6) to 5.8 x 10(-4) M. The present method could be successfully applied to the assay of FV and FVH in the protease-digested blood samples. PMID:16896258

Nanjo, Yoko; Hayashi, Ryuzo; Yao, Toshio

2006-08-01

171

38 CFR 4.114 - Schedule of ratings-digestive system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...associated with nausea, sweating, circulatory disturbance after meals...disorders with characteristic mild circulatory symptoms after meals but with...distress with characteristic mild circulatory symptoms or continuous mild... See Hemic and Lymphatic Systems. 7319Irritable colon...

2012-07-01

172

An Improved Microwave Digestion System for Rapid Wet Ashing of Biological Fluids and Tissues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus for the rapid, convenient, and safe wet ashing of most biological fluids and tissues in a microwave oven, used in combination with the acid scrubber and vapor exhaust system, is described. Exogenous contamination is minimal during the procedu...

V. D. Anand M. C. Lancaster R. G. Troxler D. M. Ducharme

1977-01-01

173

Regulation of embryonic size in early mouse development in vitro culture system.  

PubMed

Summary Mammals self-regulate their body size throughout development. In the uterus, embryos are properly regulated to be a specific size at birth. Previously, size and cell number in aggregated embryos, which were made from two or more morulae, and half embryos, which were halved at the 2-cell stage, have been analysed in vivo in preimplantation and post-implantation development in mice. Here, we examined whether or not the mouse embryo has the capacity to self-regulate growth using an in vitro culture system. To elucidate embryonic histology, cells were counted in aggregated or half embryos in comparison with control embryos. Both double- and triple-aggregated embryos contained more cells than did control embryos during all culture periods, and the relative growth ratios showed no growth inhibition in an in vitro culture system. Meanwhile, half embryos contained fewer cells than control embryos, but the number grew throughout the culture period. Our data suggest that the growth of aggregated embryos is not affected and continues in an in vitro culture system. On the other hand, the growth of half embryos accelerates and continues in an in vitro culture system. This situation, in turn, implied that post-implantation mouse embryos might have some potential to regulate their own growth and size as seen by using an in vitro culture system without uterus factors. In conclusion, our results indicated that embryos have some ways in which to regulate their own size in mouse early development. PMID:23331667

Hisaki, Tomoka; Kawai, Ikuma; Sugiura, Koji; Naito, Kunihiko; Kano, Kiyoshi

2014-08-01

174

Integrated CZE-ESI-MS/MS system with an immobilized trypsin microreactor for online digestion and analysis of picogram amounts of RAW 264.7 cell lysate  

PubMed Central

A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) system was integrated with an immobilized trypsin microreactor. The system was evaluated and then applied for online digestion and analysis of picogram loadings of RAW 264.7 cell lysate. Protein samples were dissolved in a buffer containing 50% (v/v) acetonitrile (ACN), and then directly loaded into the capillary for digestion, followed by CZE separation and MS/MS identification. The organic solvent (50% (v/v) ACN) assisted the immobilized trypsin digestion and simplified the protein sample preparation protocol. Neither protein reduction nor alkylation steps were employed, which minimized sample loss and contamination. The integrated CZE-ESI-MS/MS system generated confident identification of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with 19% sequence coverage and 14 peptide IDs when 20 fmole was loaded. When only 1 fmole BSA was injected, one BSA peptide was consistently detected. For the analysis of a standard protein mixture, the integrated system produced efficient protein digestion and confident identification for proteins with different molecular weights and isoelectric points when low fmole amount was loaded for each protein. We further applied the system for triplicate analysis of a RAW 264.7 cell lysate; 2 ± 1 and 7 ± 2 protein groups were confidently identified from only 300 pg and 3 ng loadings, respectively. The 300 pg sample loading corresponds to the protein content of three RAW 264.7 cells. In addition to high sensitivity analysis, the integrated CZE-ESI-MS/MS system produces good reproducibility in terms of peptide and protein IDs, peptide migration time, and peptide intensity.

Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Dovichi, Norman J.

2013-01-01

175

Prospective randomized comparison between axial- and lateral-viewing capsule endoscopy systems in patients with obscure digestive bleeding.  

PubMed

Background and study aim: Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is recommended as the first exploration in obscure digestive bleeding. The efficiency of the PillCam SB2 (Given Imaging) has been widely reported. The CapsoCam capsule (Capsovision) has four cameras allowing the exploration of the small bowel through 360° lateral viewing. This system does not include a recording system so the capsule has to be retrieved by the patient after expulsion in order for the film to be downloaded. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic concordance (kappa value) of the PillCam SB2 and CapsoCam capsules in the same patients. Methods: This was a prospective comparative study in four French referral endoscopy units. Consecutive patients ingested the two capsules 1 hour apart and in a randomized order. Results: In the 73 included patients there were 13 technical issues (11 CapsoCam, 2 PillCam SB2). Of the 60 patients with analyzable data, and following expert review of all discordant cases, a concordant positive diagnosis was obtained in 23 (38.3?%) and a negative diagnosis was obtained and 26 patients (43.3?%). Concordance was good, with a kappa value of 0.63 in analyzable patients, and 46.7?% diagnosis with CapsoCam vs. 48.3?% with PillCam SB2.?CapsoCam and PillCam SB2 procedures identified 81.8?% (27?/33) and 84.8?% (28?/33) of positive patients, respectively (P?=?0.791). In a per lesion analysis, the CapsoCam capsule detected significantly more lesions (108 vs. 85 lesions; P?=?0.001). Reading time was longer for CapsoCam procedures (32.0 vs. 26.2 minutes; P?=?0.002). Conclusion: This study shows comparable efficiency of the CapsoCam and PillCam SB2 capsule systems in terms of diagnostic yield and image quality. PMID:24285122

Pioche, Mathieu; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Jacob, Philippe; Duburque, Clothilde; Gincul, Rodica; Filoche, Bernard; Daudet, Jacques; Filippi, Jérôme; Saurin, Jean-Christophe

2014-06-01

176

Quantification of Gordona amarae Strains in Foaming Activated Sludge and Anaerobic Digester Systems with Oligonucleotide Hybridization Probes  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown the predominance of mycolic acid-containing filamentous actinomycetes (mycolata) in foam layers in activated sludge systems. Gordona (formerly Nocardia) amarae often is considered the major representative of this group in activated sludge foam. In this study, small-subunit rRNA genes of four G. amarae strains were sequenced, and the resulting sequences were compared to the sequence of G. amarae type strain SE-6. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the five strains used represent two lines of evolutionary descent; group 1 consists of strains NM23 and ASAC1, and group 2 contains strains SE-6, SE-102, and ASF3. The following three oligonucleotide probes were designed: a species-specific probe for G. amarae, a probe specific for group 1, and a probe targeting group 2. The probes were characterized by dissociation temperature and specificity studies, and the species-specific probe was evaluated for use in fluorescent in situ hybridizations. By using the group-specific probes, it was possible to place additional G. amarae isolates in their respective groups. The probes were used along with previously designed probes in membrane hybridizations to determine the abundance of G. amarae, group 1, group 2, bacterial, mycolata, and Gordona rRNAs in samples obtained from foaming activated sludge systems in California, Illinois, and Wisconsin. The target groups were present in significantly greater concentrations in activated sludge foam than in mixed liquor and persisted in anaerobic digesters. Hybridization results indicated that the presence of certain G. amarae strains may be regional or treatment plant specific and that previously uncharacterized G. amarae strains may be present in some systems.

de los Reyes, M. Fiorella; de los Reyes, Francis L.; Hernandez, Mark; Raskin, Lutgarde

1998-01-01

177

Information Digest, University System of Georgia, 1985-1986. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistical data and summary information concerning the University System of Georgia for 1985-1986 are presented. Data are provided on students, academic programs, faculty and staff, finance, facilities, and research and service. Information is included on: headcount and full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollment; enrollment by class, ethnic group,…

University System of Georgia, Atlanta.

178

A high bandwidth fully implantable mouse telemetry system for chronic ECG measurement.  

PubMed

We report on the development of a novel system that enables the wireless transmission of high-bandwidth physiological data from a freely moving mouse. The system employs inductive power transfer (IPT) to continuously power a battery-less transmitter using an array of overlapping planar coils placed under the animal. This arrangement provides a minimum of 20 mW at all locations and orientations across the mouse cage by selecting a coil which will sufficiently power the transmitter. Coil selection is performed by feedback control across the 2.4 GHz wireless link. A device was constructed utilizing this novel IPT system and was used to capture high-fidelity electrocardiogram (ECG) signal sampled at 2 kHz in mice. Various attributes of the ECG signal such as QT, QRS, and PR intervals could be obtained with a high degree of accuracy. This system potentially provides lifetime continuous high bandwidth measurement of physiological signals from a fully implanted telemeter in a freely moving mouse. PMID:22256114

Russell, David M; McCormick, Daniel; Taberner, Andrew J; Malpas, Simon C; Budgett, David M

2011-01-01

179

Establishment of NOD/SCID mouse model of central nervous system leukemia.  

PubMed

In the present study, we successfully established a NOD/SCID mouse model of central nervous system leukemia by injection of acute monocytic leukemia cell line SHI-1 cells into the lateral ventricle. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect human leukocyte common antigen in brain slices. Nested PCR assay was used to detect MLL/AF6 fusion gene expression. After injection, the condition of the mice gradually progressed to cachexia and death (median survival time, 25 days). Leukemic cells were identified in the lung, bone marrow, and lymph node of one mouse. Brain tissue sections showed invasion into the subdural space, pia mater, arachnoid, along the Virchow-Robin space and into the deep brain parenchyma. In summary, a central nervous system leukemia (CNSL) model was established in NOD/SCID mice. PMID:24927394

Li, Dongfang; Li, Pinggan; He, Zhanwen; Meng, Zhe; Luo, Xiangyang; Fang, Jianpei

2014-08-01

180

ENU-based gene-driven mutagenesis in the mouse: a next-generation gene-targeting system.  

PubMed

As a new mouse mutant resource, the RIKEN ENU-based gene-driven mutagenesis system in the mouse has been available to the research community since 2002. By using random base-substitution mutagenesis with ENU, a new reverse genetics infrastructure has been developed as a next-generation gene-targeting system. The construction of a large-scale mutant mouse library and high-throughput mutation discovery systems were the keys making it practically feasible. The RIKEN mutant mouse library consists of ~ 10,000 G1 mice, within which 100-150 mutant strains have been established based on users' requests every year. Use of the system is very simple: users 1) download an application form from our web site and send to us, and 2) design the PCR primers for the target gene. Then, we screen the RIKEN mutant mouse library and report all the detected mutations to the user. From among the allelic series of discovered mutations, users decide which mutant strain(s) to analyze and request the live mutant strain for functional studies of the target gene. Users have been reporting various functional mutations in the RIKEN mutant mouse library: e.g., missense, knockout-type and even functional non-coding mutations. In the near future, next-generation re-sequencing systems should drastically enhance the utility of the ENU-based gene-driven mutagenesis not only for the mouse but also for other species. PMID:21030782

Gondo, Yoichi; Fukumura, Ryutaro; Murata, Takuya; Makino, Shigeru

2010-01-01

181

Use of a Hierarchical Oligonucleotide Primer Extension Approach for Multiplexed Relative Abundance Analysis of Methanogens in Anaerobic Digestion Systems  

PubMed Central

In this study, we established a rapid multiplex method to detect the relative abundances of amplified 16S rRNA genes from known cultivatable methanogens at hierarchical specificities in anaerobic digestion systems treating industrial wastewater and sewage sludge. The method was based on the hierarchical oligonucleotide primer extension (HOPE) technique and combined with a set of 27 primers designed to target the total archaeal populations and methanogens from 22 genera within 4 taxonomic orders. After optimization for their specificities and detection sensitivity under the conditions of multiple single-nucleotide primer extension reactions, the HOPE approach was applied to analyze the methanogens in 19 consortium samples from 7 anaerobic treatment systems (i.e., 513 reactions). Among the samples, the methanogen populations detected with order-level primers accounted for >77.2% of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes detected using an Archaea-specific primer. The archaeal communities typically consisted of 2 to 7 known methanogen genera within the Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales and displayed population dynamic and spatial distributions in anaerobic reactor operations. Principal component analysis of the HOPE data further showed that the methanogen communities could be clustered into 3 distinctive groups, in accordance with the distribution of the Methanosaeta, Methanolinea, and Methanomethylovorans, respectively. This finding suggested that in addition to acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, the methylotrophic methanogens might play a key role in the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrated that the HOPE approach is a specific, rapid, and multiplexing platform to determine the relative abundances of targeted methanogens in PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene products.

Chuang, Hui-Ping; Hsu, Mao-Hsuan; Chen, Wei-Yu

2013-01-01

182

Behavioral assessment of the aging mouse vestibular system.  

PubMed

Age related decline in balance performance is associated with deteriorating muscle strength, motor coordination and vestibular function. While a number of studies show changes in balance phenotype with age in rodents, very few isolate the vestibular contribution to balance under either normal conditions or during senescence. We use two standard behavioral tests to characterize the balance performance of mice at defined age points over the lifespan: the rotarod test and the inclined balance beam test. Importantly though, a custom built rotator is also used to stimulate the vestibular system of mice (without inducing overt signs of motion sickness). These two tests have been used to show that changes in vestibular mediated-balance performance are present over the murine lifespan. Preliminary results show that both the rotarod test and the modified balance beam test can be used to identify changes in balance performance during aging as an alternative to more difficult and invasive techniques such as vestibulo-ocular (VOR) measurements. PMID:25045963

Tung, Victoria W K; Burton, Thomas J; Dababneh, Edward; Quail, Stephanie L; Camp, Aaron J

2014-01-01

183

Imaging of biological tissues with optical coherence tomography system using Jones-Mueller calculus; Technical Digest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) system provides useful informations about the biological tissues. The exact tissue parameters measurement and comparison predicts about the malignant and normal tissues. The degree of polarization changes with the depth of tissue samples. We have established the analytical modeling with Jones-Mueller matrix for imaging technique, which experimentally extract the birefringence, depolarization, absorption and scattering information of tissues. The Jones matrix of thermally treated porcine tendon showed a reduction of birefringence from thermal damage. The Jones matrices of porcine skin and bovine cartilage also revealed that the density and orientation of the collagen fibers in porcine skin and bovine cartilage are not distributed as uniformly as in porcine tendon. Birefringence is sensitive to changes in tissue because it is based on phase contrast.

Firdous, Shamaraz; Ikram, Masroor

2005-05-01

184

The Wired Campus. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC Digest examines some of the trends and issues in academic information systems design and describes the policies of several universities that are taking creative advantage of these systems as educational tools. The current emphasis on microcomputers in campus information networks instead of terminals connected to a mainframe computer is…

Schamber, Linda

185

A novel sex determination system in a close relative of the house mouse.  

PubMed

Therian mammals have an extremely conserved XX/XY sex determination system. A limited number of mammal species have, however, evolved to escape convention and present aberrant sex chromosome complements. In this study, we identified a new case of atypical sex determination in the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, a close evolutionary relative of the house mouse. The pygmy mouse is characterized by a very high proportion of XY females (74%, n = 27) from geographically widespread Southern and Eastern African populations. Sequencing of the high mobility group domain of the mammalian sex determining gene Sry, and karyological analyses using fluorescence in situ hybridization and G-banding data, suggest that the sex reversal is most probably not owing to a mutation of Sry, but rather to a chromosomal rearrangement on the X chromosome. In effect, two morphologically different X chromosomes were identified, one of which, designated X*, is invariably associated with sex-reversed females. The asterisk designates the still unknown mutation converting X*Y individuals into females. Although relatively still unexplored, such an atypical sex chromosome system offers a unique opportunity to unravel new genetic interactions involved in the initiation of sex determination in mammals. PMID:20007182

Veyrunes, Frederic; Chevret, Pascale; Catalan, Josette; Castiglia, Riccardo; Watson, Johan; Dobigny, Gauthier; Robinson, Terence J; Britton-Davidian, Janice

2010-04-01

186

Fate of pathogen indicators in a domestic blend of food waste and wastewater through a two-stage anaerobic digestion system.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion is a viable on-site treatment technology for rich organic waste streams such as food waste and blackwater. In contrast to large-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants which are typically located away from the community, the effluent from any type of on-site system is a potential pathogenic hazard because of the intimacy of the system to the community. The native concentrations of the pathogen indicators Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and somatic coliphage were tracked for 30 days under stable operation (organic loading rate (OLR) = 1.8 kgCOD m(-3) day(-1), methane yield = 52% on a chemical oxygen demand (COD) basis) of a two-stage laboratory-scale digester treating a mixture of food waste and blackwater. E. coli numbers were reduced by a factor of 10(6.4) in the thermophilic stage, from 10(7.5±0.3) to 10(1.1±0.1) cfu 100 mL(-1), but regenerated by a factor of 10(4) in the mesophilic stage. Neither the thermophilic nor mesophilic stages had any significant impact on C. perfringens concentrations. Coliphage concentrations were reduced by a factor of 10(1.4) across the two stages. The study shows that anaerobic digestion only reduces pathogen counts marginally but that counts in effluent samples could be readily reduced to below detection limits by filtration through a 0.22 µm membrane, to investigate membrane filtration as a possible sanitation technique. PMID:23168637

Rounsefell, B D; O'Sullivan, C A; Chinivasagam, N; Batstone, D; Clarke, W P

2013-01-01

187

Microtubule Depolymerization Suppresses ?-Synuclein Accumulation in a Mouse Model of Multiple System Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by an accumulation of ?-synuclein (?-syn) in oligodendrocytes. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which ?-syn accumulation causes neuronal degeneration in MSA. Our previous research, however, revealed that in a mouse model of MSA, oligodendrocytic inclusions of ?-syn induced neuronal accumulation of ?-syn, as well as progressive neuronal degeneration. Here we identify the mechanisms that underlie neuronal accumulation of ?-syn in a mouse MSA model. We found that the ?-syn protein binds to ?-III tubulin in microtubules to form an insoluble complex. The insoluble ?-syn complex progressively accumulates in neurons and leads to neuronal dysfunction. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the neuronal accumulation of insoluble ?-syn is suppressed by treatment with a microtubule depolymerizing agent. The underlying pathological process appeared to also be inhibited by this treatment, providing promise for future therapeutic approaches.

Nakayama, Kimiko; Suzuki, Yasuyo; Yazawa, Ikuru

2009-01-01

188

A Mouse Model of Conduction System Patterning Abnormalities in Heterotaxy Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Duplication or absence of parts of the specialized cardiac conduction system in patients with heterotaxy syndrome causes significant clinical disease, but the mechanistic basis by which embryonic disruption of left-right patterning alters conduction system patterning in these patients is not well understood. We sought to determine whether a mouse model of X-linked human heterotaxy recapitulates conduction system abnormalities identified in heterotaxy patients. Cardiac structure and conduction system patterning were evaluated in Zic3 null embryos from e9.5 – 16.5 using genetic and molecular methods. Severe structural abnormalities involving atrial, ventricular and conotruncal development were associated with a spectrum of disorganized and ambiguous arrangements throughout the conduction system, including the appearance of duplicated structures. The severity and location of conduction system abnormalities correlated with the severity and location of associated structural heart disease and were identifiable at the earliest stages examined. The Zic3 mouse model provides a novel tool to dissect the mechanistic underpinnings of conduction system patterning and dysfunction and its relationship to cardiovascular malformations, making it a promising model to improve understanding and risk assessment in the clinical arena.

Czosek, Richard J.; Haaning, Allison; Ware, Stephanie M.

2010-01-01

189

Impact of immune system stimulation on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of methionine plus cysteine intake for whole-body protein deposition in growing pigs.  

PubMed

The impact of immune system stimulation (ISS) on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of dietary methionine plus cysteine (SAA) intake for whole-body protein deposition (PD) was evaluated in growing pigs. For this purpose, sixty barrows were used in two experiments: thirty-six pigs in Expt I and twenty-four pigs in Expt II. Pigs were feed restricted and assigned to five levels of dietary SAA allowance (three and two levels in Expt I and II, respectively) from SAA-limiting diets. Following adaptation, pigs at each dietary SAA level were injected with either increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+; eight and six pigs per dietary SAA level in Expt I and II, respectively) or saline (ISS - ; four and six pigs in Expt I and II, respectively) while measuring the whole-body nitrogen (N) balance. After N-balance observations, pigs were euthanised, organs were removed and ileal digesta were collected for determining nutrient digestibility. Ileal digestibility of gross energy, crude protein and amino acids was not affected by ISS (P>0·20). ISS reduced PD at all levels of dietary SAA intake (P< 0·01). The linear relationship between daily dietary SAA intake and PD observed at the three lowest dietary SAA intake levels indicated that ISS increased extrapolated maintenance SAA requirements (P< 0·05), but had no effect on the partial efficiency of the utilisation of dietary SAA intake for PD (P>0·20). Physiological and metabolic changes associated with systemic ISS had no effect on the ileal digestibility of nutrients per se, but altered SAA requirements for PD in growing pigs. PMID:23803219

Rakhshandeh, Anoosh; Htoo, John K; Karrow, Neil; Miller, Stephen P; de Lange, Cornelis F M

2014-01-14

190

Development and Function of the Mouse Vestibular System in the Absence of Gravity Perception  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypothesis that was tested in this research was that the absence of gravity perception, such as would occur in space, would affect the development and function of the vestibular and central nervous systems. Further, we postulated that these effects would be more significant at specific stages of post-natal development of the animal. We also proposed the use of molecular genetic approaches that would provide important information as to the hierarchy of gene function during the development and subsequent function of the vestibular system. The tilted (tlt) mutant mouse has been characterized as lacking the ability to provide sensory input to the gravity receptors. The tlt/tlt mutant mice were a particularly attractive model for the study of vestibular function since the primary defect was limited to the receptor part of the vestibular system, and there were no detectable abnormal phenotypes in other organ systems. The goal of the proposed studies was to assess immediate and delayed effects of the lack of gravity perception on the vestibular system. Particular attention was paid to characterizing primarily affected periods of vestibular morphogenesis, and to identifying downstream genetic pathways that are altered in the CNS of the tlt/tlt mutant mouse. The specific aims were: (1) to characterize the postnatal morphogenesis of the CNS in the tlt mutant mouse, using detailed morphometric analysis of isolated vestibular ganglia and brain tissue at different stages of postnatal development and assessment of apoptotic cell death; (2) to examine the expression of selected genes implicated by mutational analysis to be important in vestibular development or function by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry in the mutant mice; and (3) to identify other genes involved in vestibular development and function, using differential cloning strategies to isolate genes whose expression is changed in the mutant versus normal vestibular system.

Wolgemuth, Debra J.

2005-01-01

191

Your Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... finished, you take a last drink of milk, wipe your mouth, and head to your next class. ... food mixture even more so your body can absorb all the vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates , and fats. ...

192

Phenotyping the central nervous system of the embryonic mouse by magnetic resonance microscopy.  

PubMed

Genetic mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders are being massively generated, but technologies for their high-throughput phenotyping are missing. The potential of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for structural phenotyping has been demonstrated before. However, application to the embryonic mouse central nervous system has been limited by the insufficient anatomical detail. Here we present a method that combines staining of live embryos with a contrast agent together with MR microscopy after fixation, to provide unprecedented anatomical detail at relevant embryonic stages. By using this method we have phenotyped the embryonic forebrain of Robo1/2(-/-) double mutant mice enabling us to identify most of the well-known anatomical defects in these mutants, as well as novel more subtle alterations. We thus demonstrate the potential of this methodology for a fast and reliable screening of subtle structural abnormalities in the developing mouse brain, as those associated to defects in disease-susceptibility genes of neurologic and psychiatric relevance. PMID:24769183

Martínez-Martínez, M A; Pacheco-Torres, J; Borrell, V; Canals, S

2014-08-15

193

Modulatory influence of arecanut on the mouse hepatic xenobiotic detoxication system and skin papillomagenesis.  

PubMed

The modulatory influence of arecanut, a masticatory in several human populations, on the levels of biotransformation system enzymes in mouse liver has been studied. Swiss albino mice of either sex (4 weeks old) were fed on diets containing 0.25%, 0.5%, or 1% arecanut (w/w) for 5 weeks. In addition, a group of mice received a 1% arecanut diet for 36 weeks. The findings revealed a significant increase in hepatic levels of cytochrome b5, cytochrome P-450, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The hepatic -SH content was depressed by 0.5% and 1% arecanut diets. Long-term feeding of a 1% arecanut diet elicited changes similar to those seen following treatment for 5 weeks. Arecanut-modulated profiles of biotransformation enzymes and antioxidant levels are suggestive of its influence in the process of carcinogenesis induced by bioactivated electrophilic species of potential chemical carcinogens among habitual arecanut chewers. Arecanut was also tested for its potency either to induce or to alter 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced papillomagenesis in the skin of the mouse. Animals put on a 1% arecanut diet and treated with a standard two-stage protocol for tumor induction developed a 5.41 tumor burden (control value: 5.76) along with 100% incidence of mice bearing papillomas (control value: 94.4%), thus signifying that dietary intake of 1% arecanut for 18 weeks could not induce/alter the mouse skin tumorigenesis pattern. PMID:8584985

Singh, A; Rao, A R

1995-01-01

194

NEONATAL MOUSE-DERIVED ENGINEERED CARDIAC TISSUE: A NOVEL MODEL SYSTEM FOR STUDYING GENETIC HEART DISEASE  

PubMed Central

Rationale Cardiomyocytes cultured in a mechanically active three-dimensional configuration can be used for studies that correlate contractile performance to cellular physiology. Current engineered cardiac tissue (ECT) models employ cells derived from either rat or chick hearts. Development of a murine ECT would provide access to many existing models of cardiac disease, and open the possibility of performing targeted genetic manipulation with the ability to directly assess contractile and molecular variables. Objective To generate, characterize and validate mouse ECT using a physiologically relevant model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods and Results We generated mechanically integrated ECT using isolated neonatal mouse cardiac cells derived from both wild type and myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) null mouse hearts. The murine ECT's produce consistent contractile forces that follow the Frank-Starling law, accept physiologic pacing. cMyBP-C null ECT show characteristic acceleration of contraction kinetics. Adenoviral-mediated expression of human cMyBP-C in murine cMyBP-C null ECT restores contractile properties to levels indistinguishable from those of wild type ECT. Importantly, the cardiomyocytes used to construct the cMyBP-C?/? ECT have yet to undergo the significant hypertrophic remodeling that occurs in vivo. Thus, this murine ECT model reveals a contractile phenotype that is specific to the genetic mutation rather than to secondary remodeling events. Conclusions Data presented here show mouse ECT to be an efficient and cost effective platform to study the primary effects of genetic manipulation on cardiac contractile function. This model provides a previously unavailable tool to study specific sarcomeric protein mutations in an intact mammalian muscle system.

de Lange, W.J.; Hegge, L.F.; Grimes, A.C.; Tong, C.W.; Brost, T.M.; Moss, R.L.; Ralphe, J.C.

2011-01-01

195

Activation of the IGF-IR system contributes to malignant growth of human and mouse medulloblastomas.  

PubMed

Insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) has been implicated in the normal and malignant growth of many cell types including cells from the central nervous system. In the cerebellar cortex IGF-IR mRNA is found in granular cells and IGF-I stimulation is mitogenic and protects cells from low-potassium-induced apoptosis. Since primitive neuroectodermal tumors/medulloblastomas (PNETs/medulloblastomas) are suspected to originate from the external cerebellar granular layer, it is reasonable to postulate that IGF-IR and/or its signaling molecules may contribute to the transformation of these poorly differentiated cells. To study activation of the IGF-IR system in medulloblastomas, we have utilized an antibody (anti-pY1316) that specifically recognizes the phosphorylated (active) form of the IGF-IR. Medulloblastoma biopsy specimens were positive when examined immunohistochemically with anti-Y1316 antibody. Further analysis of the IGF-IR system was performed in three human (Daoy, TE-671, D283 Med) and four mouse (BsB8, BsB13, Bs-1b, Bs-1c) medulloblastoma cell lines. All the murine cell lines examined express IGF-IR and PI3-kinase at relatively normal levels, and grossly overexpress IRS-1, when compared with normal mouse cerebellum. Within 15 min following IGF-I stimulation both mouse and human cell lines phosphorylate the beta subunit of the IGF-IR, IRS-1, Akt, and MAP kinases. They respond with cell proliferation when stimulated solely with IGF-I and are strongly inhibited when challenged with a dominant negative mutant of the IGF-IR (486/STOP), or with antisense oligonucleotides against the IGF-IR mRNA. PMID:11439349

Wang, J Y; Del Valle, L; Gordon, J; Rubini, M; Romano, G; Croul, S; Peruzzi, F; Khalili, K; Reiss, K

2001-06-28

196

The dynamics of polycomb group proteins in early embryonic nervous system in mouse and human.  

PubMed

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcription regulatory proteins that control the expression of a variety of genes and the antero-posterior neural patterning from early embryogenesis. Although expression of PcG genes in the nervous system has been noticed, but the expression pattern of PcG proteins in early embryonic nervous system is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the expression pattern of PRC1 complex members (BMI-1 and RING1B) and PRC2 complex members (EED, SUZ12 and EZH2) in early embryonic nervous system in mouse and human by Western blot and Immunohistochemistry. The results of Western blot showed that EED protein was significantly up-regulated with the increase of the day of pregnancy during the early embryogenesis in mouse. BMI-1 protein level was significantly increased from the day 10 of pregnancy, when compared with the day 9 of pregnancy. But the SUZ12, EZH2 and RING1B protein level did not change significantly. From the results of Immunohistochemistry, we found that the four PcG proteins were all expressed in the fetal brain and fetal spinal cord in mouse. In human, the expression of EED, SUZ12, and EZH2 was not significantly different in cerebral cortex and sacral spinal cord, but BMI-1 and RING1B expression was enhanced with the development of embryos in early pregnancy. Collectively, our findings showed that PRC1 and PRC2 were spatiotemporally expressed in brain and spinal cord of early embryos. PMID:23727134

Qi, Lu; Cao, Jing-Li; Hu, Yi; Yang, Ji-Gao; Ji, Yuan; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Da-Guang; Xia, Hong-Fei; Ma, Xu

2013-11-01

197

Acid digestion of combustible waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioactive acid digestion test unit (RADTU), which was constructed to process combustible transuranic waste, is presented. Laboratory testing, pilot plant testing, engineering studies, and safety studies were completed and incorporated in the system design. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Keywords (in text query field) Abstract Text

C. Allen; R. Cowan; J. Divine

1978-01-01

198

Iron-stimulated ring-opening of benzene in a mouse liver microsomal system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we investigated the mechanism(s) of ring-opening of benzene in a mouse liver microsomal system in the presence of Fe2+. HPLC analysis based on coelution with authentic standards and on-line UV spectra obtained using a diode array detector indicated that benzene is metabolized to phenol, hydroquinone (HQ), trans,trans-muconaldehyde (muconaldehyde, MUC), 6-oxo-trans,trans-2,4-hexadienoic acid (COOH?M?CHO), 6-hydroxy-trans,trans-2,4-hexadienal (CHO?M?OH), and 6-hydroxy-trans,trans-2,4-hexadienoic

Zhang Zhihua; Bernard D. Goldstein; Gisela Witz

1995-01-01

199

Establishment of neurovascular congruency in the mouse whisker system by an independent patterning mechanism.  

PubMed

Nerves and vessels often run parallel to one another, a phenomenon that reflects their functional interdependency. Previous studies have suggested that neurovascular congruency in planar tissues such as skin is established through a "one-patterns-the-other" model, in which either the nervous system or the vascular system precedes developmentally and then instructs the other system to form using its established architecture as a template. Here, we find that, in tissues with complex three-dimensional structures such as the mouse whisker system, neurovascular congruency does not follow the previous model but rather is established via a mechanism in which nerves and vessels are patterned independently. Given the diversity of neurovascular structures in different tissues, guidance signals emanating from a central organizer in the specific target tissue may act as an important mechanism to establish neurovascular congruency patterns that facilitate unique target tissue function. PMID:24139045

Oh, Won-Jong; Gu, Chenghua

2013-10-16

200

Opportunities & Challenges in Digestive Diseases Research: Recommendations of the National Commission on Digestive Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The digestive system can be affected by a wide diversity of acute and chronic diseases or conditions that, collectively, place a substantial burden on the U.S. healthcare system. At least 60-70 million Americans are affected each year by digestive disease...

2009-01-01

201

Self-heating of anaerobic digesters using energy crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing application of energy crops in agricultural biogas plants and increasing digester volumes, the phenomenon of self-heating in anaerobic digesters appeared in some cases. Until now this development was just known from aerobic systems. To get an idea of the thermodynamics inside an anaerobic digester, a detailed analysis of all heat fluxes in a full scale agricultural biogas

H. Lindorfer; R. Braun; R. Kirchmayr

2006-01-01

202

Effect of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Mouse Resistance to Systemic Candida albicans Infection  

PubMed Central

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana, is known to suppress the immune responses to bacterial, viral and protozoan infections, but its effects on fungal infections have not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic ?9-THC treatment on mouse resistance to systemic Candida albicans (C. albicans) infection. To determine the outcome of chronic ?9-THC treatment on primary, acute systemic candidiasis, c57BL/6 mice were given vehicle or ?9-THC (16 mg/kg) in vehicle on days 1–4, 8–11 and 15–18. On day 19, mice were infected with 5×105 C. albicans. We also determined the effect of chronic ?9-THC (4–64 mg/kg) treatment on mice infected with a non-lethal dose of 7.5×104 C. albicans on day 2, followed by a higher challenge with 5×105 C. albicans on day 19. Mouse resistance to the infection was assessed by survival and tissue fungal load. Serum cytokine levels were determine to evaluate the immune responses. In the acute infection, chronic ?9-THC treatment had no effect on mouse survival or tissue fungal load when compared to vehicle treated mice. However, ?9-THC significantly suppressed IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 as well as marginally suppressed IL-17 versus vehicle treated mice. In comparison, when mice were given a secondary yeast infection, ?9-THC significantly decreased survival, increased tissue fungal burden and suppressed serum IFN-? and IL-12p40 levels compared to vehicle treated mice. The data showed that chronic ?9-THC treatment decreased the efficacy of the memory immune response to candida infection, which correlated with a decrease in IFN-? that was only observed after the secondary candida challenge.

Blumstein, Gideon W.; Parsa, Arya; Park, Anthony K.; McDowell, Beverly L. P.; Arroyo-Mendoza, Melissa; Girguis, Marie; Adler-Moore, Jill P.; Olson, Jon; Buckley, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

203

A primary culture system of mouse thick ascending limb cells with preserved function and uromodulin processing.  

PubMed

The epithelial cells lining the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the loop of Henle perform essential transport processes and secrete uromodulin, the most abundant protein in normal urine. The lack of differentiated cell culture systems has hampered studies of TAL functions. Here, we report a method to generate differentiated primary cultures of TAL cells, developed from microdissected tubules obtained in mouse kidneys. The TAL tubules cultured on permeable filters formed polarized confluent monolayers in ?12 days. The TAL cells remain differentiated and express functional markers such as uromodulin, NKCC2, and ROMK at the apical membrane. Electrophysiological measurements on primary TAL monolayers showed a lumen-positive transepithelial potential (+9.4?±?0.8 mV/cm(2)) and transepithelial resistance similar to that recorded in vivo. The transepithelial potential is abolished by apical bumetanide and in primary cultures obtained from ROMK knockout mice. The processing, maturation and apical secretion of uromodulin by primary TAL cells is identical to that observed in vivo. The primary TAL cells respond appropriately to hypoxia, hypertonicity, and stimulation by desmopressin, and they can be transfected. The establishment of this primary culture system will allow the investigation of TAL cells obtained from genetically modified mouse models, providing a critical tool for understanding the role of that segment in health and disease. PMID:23887378

Glaudemans, Bob; Terryn, Sara; Gölz, Nadine; Brunati, Martina; Cattaneo, Angela; Bachi, Angela; Al-Qusairi, Lama; Ziegler, Urs; Staub, Olivier; Rampoldi, Luca; Devuyst, Olivier

2014-02-01

204

Genetic Alterations in Cancer Knowledge System: Analysis of Gene Mutations in Mouse and Human Liver and Lung Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutational incidence and spectra for genes examined in both human and mouse lung and liver tumors were analyzed using the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Genetic Alterations in Cancer (GAC) knowledge system. GAC is a publicly available, web-based system for evaluating data ob- tained from peer-reviewed studies of genetic changes in tumors associated with exposure to chemical, physical,

Marcus A. Jackson; Isabel Lea; Asif Rashid; Shyamal D. Peddada; June K. Dunnick

2005-01-01

205

Effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field on the antioxidant defense system in mouse brain: a chemiluminescence study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the putative mechanisms, by which extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field (MF) may affect biological systems is that of increasing free radical life span in organisms. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether ELF (60 Hz) MF can modulate antioxidant system in mouse brain by detecting chemiluminescence and measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in homogenates of the organ. Compared

Byung-Cheon Lee; Hyeon-Min Johng; Jae-Kwan Lim; Ji Hoon Jeong; Ku Youn Baik; Tae Jeong Nam; Jung Ho Lee; Jungdae Kim; Uy Dong Sohn; Gilwon Yoon; Sanghoon Shin; Kwang-Sup Soh

2004-01-01

206

On-farm anaerobic digester and fuel alcohol plant  

SciTech Connect

An anaerobic digestion system was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm. The anaerobic digestion system was designed to be coupled with a fuel alcohol plant constructed by the farm family as part of an integrated farm energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas from the digester can be used as fuel for the alcohol production. The anaerobic digestion system is made up of the following components. A hog finishing house, which already had a slotted floor and manure pit beneath it, was fitted with a system to scrape the manure into a feed slurry pit constructed at one end of the hog house. A solids handling pump feeds the manure from the feed slurry pit into the digester, a 13,000 gallon tank car body which has been insulated with styrofoam and buried underground. Another pump transfers effluent (digested manure) from the digester to a 150,000 gallon storage tank. The digested manure is then applied to cropland at appropriate times of the year. The digester temperature is maintained at the required level by automated hot water circulation through an internal heat exchanger. The biogas produced in the digester is pumped into a 32,000 gallon gas storage tank.

Not Available

1985-01-01

207

Digestion rate of dietary starch affects the systemic circulation of lipid profiles and lipid metabolism-related gene expression in weaned pigs.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of digestion rate of dietary starch on postprandial systemic circulating glucose, insulin and lipid profiles, and the activity and gene expression of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in weaned pigs. A total of twenty-four weaned pigs, surgically fitted with a catheter in the jugular vein, were randomly assigned to three dietary treatment groups, representing the high digestion rate starch (HDRS) group, the moderate-digestion rate starch (MDRS) group and the low-digestion rate starch (LDRS) group. The amylopectin:amylose ratios in the diets of each group were 27·6:1, 27·6:8·5 and 1:27·6, respectively. The serum concentrations of glucose, TAG, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in the HDRS group were increased to the peak point at postprandial 1·5, 2·5, 2·5, 1·5 and 1·5 h, those in the MDRS group were at postprandial 2·5, 3·5, 3·5, 3·5 and 3·5 h and those in the LDRS group were at postprandial 2·5, 3·5, 3·5, 1·5 and 3·5 h, respectively. The serum concentration of insulin in the HDRS group was higher (P < 0·05) than those in the MDRS group, and those in the MDRS group was also higher (P < 0·05) than those in the LDRS group at postprandial 0·5, 1·5 and 2·5 h, respectively. The serum concentrations of acetate, propionate and butyrate in the HDRS group were higher (P < 0·05) than those in the MDRS group, and those in the MDRS group were higher (P < 0·05) than in the LDRS group in each feeding cycle, in turn, respectively. The activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the liver and abdominal adipose tissues, that of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) in the myocardium and interscapular brown adipose tissues and that of the ATP-citrate lyase (ATP-CL) in the liver and interscapular brown adipose tissues in pigs of the HDRS group were higher (P < 0·05) than that of the MDRS group. The mRNA levels of FAS in the myocardium, liver and interscapular brown adipose tissues of pigs in the HDRS group were higher (P < 0·05) than those of the MDRS group. The activities and mRNA levels of FAS, ACC and ATP-CL in the myocardium, liver, abdominal and interscapular brown adipose tissues of the HDRS group were higher than those of the LDRS group. We conclude that the digestion rate of dietary starch affected not only the postprandial systemic circulating levels of glucose and insulin but also the lipid metabolism in weaned pigs. Dietary starch with higher digestion rate produces higher blood glucose and insulin response, ameliorates the blood lipid profiles and up-regulates the activity and gene expression profile of lipid metabolism-related genes in weaned pigs. PMID:21342605

Yin, Fugui; Yin, Yulong; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Xie, Mingyong; Huang, Ju; Huang, Ruilin; Li, Tiejun

2011-08-01

208

A microbial clock provides an accurate estimate of the postmortem interval in a mouse model system  

PubMed Central

Establishing the time since death is critical in every death investigation, yet existing techniques are susceptible to a range of errors and biases. For example, forensic entomology is widely used to assess the postmortem interval (PMI), but errors can range from days to months. Microbes may provide a novel method for estimating PMI that avoids many of these limitations. Here we show that postmortem microbial community changes are dramatic, measurable, and repeatable in a mouse model system, allowing PMI to be estimated within approximately 3 days over 48 days. Our results provide a detailed understanding of bacterial and microbial eukaryotic ecology within a decomposing corpse system and suggest that microbial community data can be developed into a forensic tool for estimating PMI. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01104.001

Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lauber, Christian L; Knights, Dan; Ackermann, Gail; Humphrey, Gregory C; Gebert, Matthew J; Van Treuren, Will; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Keepers, Kyle; Guo, Yan; Bullard, James; Fierer, Noah; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

2013-01-01

209

A microbial clock provides an accurate estimate of the postmortem interval in a mouse model system.  

PubMed

Establishing the time since death is critical in every death investigation, yet existing techniques are susceptible to a range of errors and biases. For example, forensic entomology is widely used to assess the postmortem interval (PMI), but errors can range from days to months. Microbes may provide a novel method for estimating PMI that avoids many of these limitations. Here we show that postmortem microbial community changes are dramatic, measurable, and repeatable in a mouse model system, allowing PMI to be estimated within approximately 3 days over 48 days. Our results provide a detailed understanding of bacterial and microbial eukaryotic ecology within a decomposing corpse system and suggest that microbial community data can be developed into a forensic tool for estimating PMI. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01104.001. PMID:24137541

Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lauber, Christian L; Knights, Dan; Ackermann, Gail; Humphrey, Gregory C; Gebert, Matthew J; Van Treuren, Will; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Keepers, Kyle; Guo, Yan; Bullard, James; Fierer, Noah; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

2013-01-01

210

Poultry waste digester. Final progress report  

SciTech Connect

A simple and low-cost poultry waste digester (PWD) was constructed at North Carolina State University's Poultry Research Farm at Raleigh, N.C. The PWD system was designed to process a daily output of 600 kg of manure from 4000 caged laying hens. The system consisted of two digesters connected in series, a heating system, a hot water tank, and other metering equipment. The primary and secondary digesters were horizontal cylinders located partially below ground level. They were made of Red Mud plastic lining, supported in the insulated trenches, and covered with insulated roofs. The primary digester volume was 15 m/sup 3/ with an 8 m/sup 3/ liquid volume and a gas head-space above the liquid. The secondary digester volume was 30 m/sup 3/ with a 16 m/sup 3/ liquid volume. The temperature (50/sup 0/C) of the primary digester was maintained by the hot dilution water added with manure and a SolaRoll heating mat laid underneath the plastic lining. The design, operation, performance, energy balance, and economics of the digester are discussed and evaluated in this final progress report.

Shih, J.C.H.

1983-01-01

211

Full Scale Conversion of Anaerobic Digesters to Heated Aerobic Digesters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Full plant scale experiments were made to determine the effect of heated aerobic digesters on digestion of waste water treatment plant sludge. Existing heated, floating cover equipped, anaerobic digesters, which had failed under excessive paper mill waste...

1972-01-01

212

Functional Analysis of Dopaminergic Systems in a DYT1 Knock-in Mouse Model of Dystonia  

PubMed Central

The dystonias are a group of disorders characterized by involuntary twisting movements and abnormal posturing. The most common of the inherited dystonias is DYT1 dystonia, which is due to deletion of a single GAG codon (?E) in the TOR1A gene that encodes torsinA. Since some forms of dystonia have been linked with dysfunction of brain dopamine pathways, the integrity of these pathways was explored in a knock-in mouse model of DYT1 dystonia. In DYT1(?E) knock-in mice, neurochemical measures revealed only small changes in the content of dopamine or its metabolites in tissue homogenates from caudoputamen or midbrain, but microdialysis studies revealed robust decreases in baseline and amphetamine-stimulated extracellular dopamine in the caudoputamen. Quantitative stereological methods revealed no evidence for striatal or midbrain atrophy, but substantia nigra neurons immunopositive for tyrosine hydroxylase were slightly reduced in numbers and enlarged in size. Behavioral studies revealed subtle abnormalities in gross motor activity and motor coordination without overt dystonia. Neuropharmacological challenges of dopamine systems revealed normal behavioral responses to amphetamine and a minor increase in sensitivity to haloperidol. These results demonstrate that this DYT1(?E) knock-in mouse model of dystonia harbors neurochemical and structural changes of the dopamine pathways, as well as motor abnormalities.

Song, Chang-Hyun; Fan, Xueliang; Exeter, Cicely J.; Hess, Ellen J.; Jinnah, H. A.

2012-01-01

213

Fast synchronized dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging system for monitoring hemodynamic changes in a stroke mouse model  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we describe a newly developed synchronized dual-wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging (SDW-LSCI) system, which contains two cameras that are synchronously triggered to acquire data. The system can acquire data at a high spatiotemporal resolution (up to 500Hz for ~1000×1000 pixels). A mouse model of stroke is used to demonstrate the capability for imaging the fast changes (within tens of milliseconds) in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and the relative changes in blood flow in the mouse brain, through an intact cranium. This novel imaging technology will enable the study of fast hemodynamics and metabolic changes in vascular diseases.

Qin, Jia; Shi, Lei; Dziennis, Suzan; Reif, Roberto; Wang, Ruikang K.

2014-01-01

214

Ultrasound assisted microwave digestion.  

PubMed

Simultaneous microwave and ultrasound irradiation is shown as a new technique for digestion of solid and liquid samples suitable for chemical and food analysis. Its application in analytical chemistry has been shown by decreases in digestion time: determination of copper in edible oils and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. PMID:14624979

Chemat, Smain; Lagha, Ahcene; Ait Amar, Hamid; Chemat, Farid

2004-01-01

215

A Novel Feeder-Free Culture System for Expansion of Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs, also called germline stem cells) are self-renewing unipotent stem cells that produce differentiating germ cells in the testis. SSCs can be isolated from the testis and cultured in vitro for long-term periods in the presence of feeder cells (often mouse embryonic fibroblasts). However, the maintenance of SSC feeder culture systems is tedious because preparation of feeder cells is needed at each subculture. In this study, we developed a Matrigel-based feeder-free culture system for long-term propagation of SSCs. Although several in vitro SSC culture systems without feeder cells have been previously described, our Matrigel-based feeder-free culture system is time- and cost- effective, and preserves self-renewability of SSCs. In addition, the growth rate of SSCs cultured using our newly developed system is equivalent to that in feeder cultures. We confirmed that the feeder-free cultured SSCs expressed germ cell markers both at the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the functionality of feeder-free cultured SSCs was confirmed by their transplantation into germ cell-depleted mice. These results suggest that our newly developed feeder-free culture system provides a simple approach to maintaining SSCs in vitro and studying the basic biology of SSCs, including determination of their fate.

Choi, Na Young; Park, Yo Seph; Ryu, Jae-Sung; Lee, Hye Jeong; Arauzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Ko, Kisung; Han, Dong Wook; Scholer, Hans R.; Ko, Kinarm

2014-01-01

216

A developmental switch of axon targeting in the continuously regenerating mouse olfactory system.  

PubMed

The mammalian olfactory system has the natural capacity to regenerate throughout the animal's life span. Despite constant neurogenesis, olfactory sensory neurons project to precise, stereotypical positions in the brain. Here, we identify a critical period of olfactory sensory axon targeting during postnatal development in mouse. Perturbing axon projection beyond postnatal day 7 permanently disrupts targeting specificity of the sensory neurons. In addition, we find that the establishment of the convergence map requires perinatal sensory neurons. Late-born neurons appear to connect with prospective glomeruli based on homotypic interactions among neurons expressing the same odorant receptor. Our results reveal a developmental switch in axon guidance and a mechanism of circuit integration of adult-born neurons. PMID:24723610

Ma, Limei; Wu, Yunming; Qiu, Qiang; Scheerer, Hayley; Moran, Andrea; Yu, C Ron

2014-04-11

217

Anatomical organization of the sexually dimorphic perineal neuromuscular system in the house mouse.  

PubMed

The anatomy of the sexually dimorphic motoneuron nuclei of the bulbocavernosus (BC) and ischiocavernosus (IC) muscles, as well as the non-sexually dimorphic external and sphincter (EAS), was examined in hybrid B6D2F1 mice using the retrograde tracer, cholera toxin-bound horseradish peroxidase. Motoneurons innervating the BC were located in the dorsomedial nucleus (DM), as well as in the ventral nucleus (V) and in the mid-region of the ventral horn (MVH). Following injections restricted to the IC, labelled neurons were found in the dorsolateral nucleus (DL), as well as in V, DM and MVH. Cells innervating the EAS in both males and females were located in the DM, as well as in the V and MVH. An elaborate network of dendrites extended between all labelled nuclei. The present results demonstrate that the anatomical specificity of the sexually dimorphic neuromuscular system of the mouse differs from that observed in other species. PMID:2804674

Wagner, C K; Clemens, L G

1989-10-01

218

Conservation and divergence in the transcriptional programs of the human and mouse immune systems  

PubMed Central

Much of the knowledge about cell differentiation and function in the immune system has come from studies in mice, but the relevance to human immunology, diseases, and therapy has been challenged, perhaps more from anecdotal than comprehensive evidence. To this end, we compare two large compendia of transcriptional profiles of human and mouse immune cell types. Global transcription profiles are conserved between corresponding cell lineages. The expression patterns of most orthologous genes are conserved, particularly for lineage-specific genes. However, several hundred genes show clearly divergent expression across the examined cell lineages, and among them, 169 genes did so even with highly stringent criteria. Finally, regulatory mechanisms—reflected by regulators’ differential expression or enriched cis-elements—are conserved between the species but to a lower degree, suggesting that distinct regulation may underlie some of the conserved transcriptional responses.

Shay, Tal; Jojic, Vladimir; Zuk, Or; Rothamel, Katherine; Puyraimond-Zemmour, David; Feng, Ting; Wakamatsu, Ei; Benoist, Christophe; Koller, Daphne; Regev, Aviv

2013-01-01

219

Morphometric studies on mouse bone using a computer-based image-analysis system.  

PubMed

The morphological structure of the ilium, femur, third lumbar vertebra and a central caudal vertebra of the female CBA mouse has been studied using 5 micrometer thick, plastic embedded, transverse and longitudinal sections. The sections were analysed on a Quantimet 720, system 30, image analyser connected on-line to a PDP11 computer. Separate endosteal and periosteal surface to volume ratios were calculated for each position of sampling in each bone. For this calculation the anisotrophy of the bone was estimated from measurements of mean chord lengths in longitudinal sections of the bone using a new analytical technique. Chord length distributions in transverse sections of bone were also measured and the relevance of such measurements to the study of morphological changes in the bone and its included marrow are briefly discussed. PMID:7012370

Green, D; Howells, G R; Thorne, M C

1981-04-01

220

MONICA: a compact, portable dual gamma camera system for mouse whole-body imaging  

SciTech Connect

Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named "MONICA" for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed ?looking up? through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV?10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1 cm), 2.2 mm; sensitivity, 149 cps (counts per seconds)/MBq (5.5 cps/μCi); energy resolution (FWHM, full width at half maximum), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2=0.99 for 0?185 MBq (0?5 mCi) in the field of view (FOV); spatial uniformity, <3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-min images acquired throughout the 168-h study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g., limited imaging space, portability and, potentially, cost are important.

Choyke, Peter L.; Xia, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Kakareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.

2010-04-01

221

MONICA: A Compact, Portable Dual Gamma Camera System for Mouse Whole-Body Imaging  

PubMed Central

Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named “MONICA” for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed “looking up” through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV ± 10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1-cm), 2.2-mm; sensitivity, 149 cps/MBq (5.5 cps/?Ci); energy resolution (FWHM), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2 = 0.99 for 0–185 MBq (0–5 mCi) in the field-of-view (FOV); spatial uniformity, < 3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-minute images acquired throughout the 168-hour study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g. limited imaging space, portability, and, potentially, cost are important.

Xi, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Karkareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.; Choyke, Peter L.

2009-01-01

222

A novel method for somatic transgenesis of the mouse prostate using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In vivo ectopic gene expression is a common approach for prostate research through the use of transgenes in germline transgenic mice. For some other organs, somatic transgenesis with the Sleeping Beauty transposon system has allowed in vivo ectopic gene expression with higher throughput and lower cost than germline transgenic approaches. METHODS Mouse e16 urogenital sinuses (UGSs) were co-injected with plasmids expressing the Sleeping Beauty transposase and plasmids with control or activated BRAF expressing transposons. Following electroporation, the transduced UGSs were grown as allografts in mouse hosts for 8 weeks, and the resulting allografts were evaluated for several endpoints. RESULTS Transposon-transduced UGS allografts developed into prostatic tissue with normal tissue structure and cellular differentiation. Integration of transposon vectors into the genomes of transduced allografts was confirmed using linker-mediated PCR, sequencing, and in situ PCR. Transduction of UGS allografts with transposons expressing activated BRAF resulted in ectopic BRAF expression that was detectable at both the mRNA and protein levels. Prostatic ducts over-expressing activated BRAF also had ectopic activation of the ERK1/2 mitogen activated kinases and increased epithelial cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS The Sleeping Beauty transposon system can be used to achieve somatic transgenesis of prostatic allografts. This new method for achieving ectopic gene expression in the prostate will complement other existing approaches such as ectopic gene expression in cell lines and in germline transgenic mice. Advantages of this new approach include preservation of stromal-epithelial interactions not possible with cell lines, and higher throughput and lower cost than traditional germline transgenic approaches.

Hammer, Kimberly D.P.; Alsop, Jim; Buresh-Stiemke, Rita A.; Frantskevich, Katsiaryna; Malinowski, Rita; Roethe, Laura; Powers, Ginny L; Marker, Paul C.

2014-01-01

223

Population dynamics at digester overload conditions.  

PubMed

Two different case studies concerning potential overload situations of anaerobic digesters were investigated and mathematically modelled by means of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). The first scenario included a digester failure at a municipal WWTP which occurred during revision works of the upstream digester within a two-step digestion system when the sludge was directly by-passed to the 2nd-step reactor. Secondly, the non-occurrence of a highly expected upset situation in a lab-scale digester fed with cattle manure was investigated. ADM1 was utilized to derive indicators which were used to investigate the relationship between digester stability and biomass population dynamics. Conventional design parameters such as the organic loading rate appeared unsuitable for process description under dynamic conditions. Indicators reflecting the biokinetic state (e.g. F(net)/M(net) or the VFA/alkalinity ratio) are more adequate for the assessment of the stability of reactors in transient situations. PMID:19586768

Schoen, Michael A; Sperl, Daniel; Gadermaier, Maria; Goberna, Marta; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid; Insam, Heribert; Ablinger, Josef; Wett, Bernhard

2009-12-01

224

Immunoglobulin gene expression in a coupled transcription\\/translation system from mouse plasmacytoma cell-free extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse plasmacytoma cytoplasmic extracts and sonicated nuclei have been incubated under conditions which resulted in translation and transcription, respectively. When the cell-free systems were combined, incorporation of radioactive precursors into RNA and protein was enhanced and extended. Coupling of transcription and translation was indicated by the inhibition of protein synthesis, and specifically immunoglobulin synthesis, by actinomycin D and a-amanitin. When

Janie J. Harrison

1981-01-01

225

The role of co-culture systems on developmental competence of preimplantation mouse embryos against pH fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To determine the effect of pH fluctuations of culture media, and the role of co-culture systems on embryo development.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Mouse embryos were incubated in phosphate buffered solutions (PBSs) with different pH for various lengths of time. After 3 h\\u000a incubation of embryos at various pH, the embryos were transferred into four media with human (HEF) and mouse (MEF) embryonic\\u000a fibroblast cells,

Seyed Noureddin Nematollahi-mahani; Amirmehdi Nematollahi-mahani; Ghazaleh Moshkdanian; Zhinoosossadat Shahidzadehyazdi; Fatemeh Labibi

2009-01-01

226

Influence of tumor size on the main drug-metabolizing enzyme systems in mouse colon adenocarcinoma Co38  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse colon adenocarcinoma Co38 is widely used as a screening model for human colon tumors. To understand better the influence of tumor size on the main drug-metabolizing enzyme systems, we tested 15 mouse Co38 tumors at different sizes. The average weight was 917±444 mg (range, 300–1,400 mg). Cytochromes P-450 (1A1\\/1A2, 2B1\\/B2, 2C8–10, 2E1, 3A4), epoxide hydrolase (EH), and glutathione-S-transferases (GST-a,-µ,

Liliane Massaad; Guy G. Chabotl; Caroline Toussaint; Serge Koscielny; Jackie Morizetl; Marie-Christine Bissery; Alain Gouyettel

1994-01-01

227

Digest Your Food!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a multi-week experiment, student teams gather biogas data from the mini-anaerobic digesters that they build to break down different types of food waste with microbes. Using plastic soda bottles for the mini-anaerobic digesters and gas measurement devices, they compare methane gas production from decomposing hot dogs, diced vs. whole. They monitor and measure the gas production, then graph and analyze the collected data. Students learn how anaerobic digestion can be used to biorecycle waste (food, poop or yard waste) into valuable resources (nutrients, biogas, energy).

Membrane Biotechnology Laboratory

228

World Court Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law provides this resource, an electronic version of the first two volumes of the printed work. It presents digested views of the International Court of Justice on various issues in international law, as expressed in their judgements, advisory opinions, and orders. The Digest covers 1986-1995 at present. The digest can be browsed or searched, and a case decision and opinion summary can be found at the end of the table of contents.

1997-01-01

229

Single-neuron diversity generated by Protocadherin-? cluster in mouse central and peripheral nervous systems  

PubMed Central

The generation of complex neural circuits depends on the correct wiring of neurons with diverse individual characteristics. To understand the complexity of the nervous system, the molecular mechanisms for specifying the identity and diversity of individual neurons must be elucidated. The clustered protocadherins (Pcdh) in mammals consist of approximately 50 Pcdh genes (Pcdh-?, Pcdh-?, and Pcdh-?) that encode cadherin-family cell surface adhesion proteins. Individual neurons express a random combination of Pcdh-? and Pcdh-?, whereas the expression patterns for the Pcdh-? genes, 22 one-exon genes in mouse, are not fully understood. Here we show that the Pcdh-? genes are expressed in a 3?-polyadenylated form in mouse brain. In situ hybridization using a pan-Pcdh-? probe against a conserved Pcdh-? sequence showed widespread labeling in the brain, with prominent signals in the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and cerebellum. In situ hybridization with specific probes for individual Pcdh-? genes showed their expression to be scattered in Purkinje cells from P10 to P150. The scattered expression patterns were confirmed by performing a newly developed single-cell 3?-RACE analysis of Purkinje cells, which clearly demonstrated that the Pcdh-? genes are expressed monoallelically and combinatorially in individual Purkinje cells. Scattered expression patterns of individual Pcdh-? genes were also observed in pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, neurons in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglion, GABAergic interneurons, and cholinergic neurons. Our results extend previous observations of diversity at the single-neuron level generated by Pcdh expression and suggest that the Pcdh-? cluster genes contribute to specifying the identity and diversity of individual neurons.

Hirano, Keizo; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Izawa, Takeshi; Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Yagi, Takeshi

2012-01-01

230

A comparative study of experimental mouse models of central nervous system demyelination.  

PubMed

Several mouse models of multiple sclerosis (MS) are now available. We have established a mouse model, in which ocular infection with a recombinant HSV-1 that expresses murine interleukin (IL)-2 constitutively (HSV-IL-2) causes central nervous system demyelination in different strains of mice. This model differs from most other models, in which it represents a mixture of viral and immune triggers. In the present study, we directly compared MOG35-55, MBP35-47 and PLP190-209 models of experimental autoimmune encephalitis with our HSV-IL-2-induced MS model. Mice with HSV-IL-2- and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced demyelinating diseases demonstrated a similar pattern and distribution of demyelination in their brain, spinal cord (SC) and optic nerves (ONs). In contrast, no demyelination was detected in the ONs of myelin basic protein (MBP)- and proteolipid protein (PLP)-injected mice. Interferon-? (IFN-?) injections significantly reduced demyelination in brains of all groups, in the SCs of the MOG and MBP groups, and completely blocked it in the SCs of the PLP and HSV-IL-2 groups as well as in ONs of MOG and HSV-IL-2 groups. In contrast to IFN-? treatment, IL-12p70 protected the HSV-IL-2 group from demyelination, whereas IL-4 was not effective at all in preventing demyelination. MOG-injected mice showed clinical signs of paralysis and disease-related mortality, whereas mice in the other treatment groups did not. Collectively, the results indicate that the HSV-IL-2 model and the MOG model complement each other and, together, provide unique insights into the heterogeneity of human MS. PMID:24718267

Dumitrascu, O M; Mott, K R; Ghiasi, H

2014-06-01

231

MARS: a mouse atlas registration system based on a planar x-ray projector and an optical camera.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a mouse atlas registration system (MARS), composed of a stationary top-view x-ray projector and a side-view optical camera, coupled to a mouse atlas registration algorithm. This system uses the x-ray and optical images to guide a fully automatic co-registration of a mouse atlas with each subject, in order to provide anatomical reference for small animal molecular imaging systems such as positron emission tomography (PET). To facilitate the registration, a statistical atlas that accounts for inter-subject anatomical variations was constructed based on 83 organ-labeled mouse micro-computed tomography (CT) images. The statistical shape model and conditional Gaussian model techniques were used to register the atlas with the x-ray image and optical photo. The accuracy of the atlas registration was evaluated by comparing the registered atlas with the organ-labeled micro-CT images of the test subjects. The results showed excellent registration accuracy of the whole-body region, and good accuracy for the brain, liver, heart, lungs and kidneys. In its implementation, the MARS was integrated with a preclinical PET scanner to deliver combined PET/MARS imaging, and to facilitate atlas-assisted analysis of the preclinical PET images. PMID:22968224

Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B; Taschereau, Richard; Gu, Zheng; Vu, Nam T; Prout, David L; Chatziioannou, Arion F

2012-10-01

232

MARS: a mouse atlas registration system based on a planar x-ray projector and an optical camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a mouse atlas registration system (MARS), composed of a stationary top-view x-ray projector and a side-view optical camera, coupled to a mouse atlas registration algorithm. This system uses the x-ray and optical images to guide a fully automatic co-registration of a mouse atlas with each subject, in order to provide anatomical reference for small animal molecular imaging systems such as positron emission tomography (PET). To facilitate the registration, a statistical atlas that accounts for inter-subject anatomical variations was constructed based on 83 organ-labeled mouse micro-computed tomography (CT) images. The statistical shape model and conditional Gaussian model techniques were used to register the atlas with the x-ray image and optical photo. The accuracy of the atlas registration was evaluated by comparing the registered atlas with the organ-labeled micro-CT images of the test subjects. The results showed excellent registration accuracy of the whole-body region, and good accuracy for the brain, liver, heart, lungs and kidneys. In its implementation, the MARS was integrated with a preclinical PET scanner to deliver combined PET/MARS imaging, and to facilitate atlas-assisted analysis of the preclinical PET images.

Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B.; Taschereau, Richard; Gu, Zheng; Vu, Nam T.; Prout, David L.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

2012-10-01

233

Type II fuzzy systems for amyloid plaque segmentation in transgenic mouse brains for Alzheimer's disease quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid plaques (AP). Using animal models, AP loads have been manually measured from histological specimens to understand disease etiology, as well as response to treatment. Due to the manual nature of these approaches, obtaining the AP load is labourious, subjective and error prone. Automated algorithms can be designed to alleviate these challenges by objectively segmenting AP. In this paper, we focus on the development of a novel algorithm for AP segmentation based on robust preprocessing and a Type II fuzzy system. Type II fuzzy systems are much more advantageous over the traditional Type I fuzzy systems, since ambiguity in the membership function may be modeled and exploited to generate excellent segmentation results. The ambiguity in the membership function is defined as an adaptively changing parameter that is tuned based on the local contrast characteristics of the image. Using transgenic mouse brains with AP ground truth, validation studies were carried out showing a high degree of overlap and low degree of oversegmentation (0.8233 and 0.0917, respectively). The results highlight that such a framework is able to handle plaques of various types (diffuse, punctate), plaques with varying A? concentrations as well as intensity variation caused by treatment effects or staining variability.

Khademi, April; Hosseinzadeh, Danoush

2014-03-01

234

Correction of CNS defects in the MPSII mouse model via systemic enzyme replacement therapy  

PubMed Central

Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII), or Hunter syndrome, is a devastating disorder associated with a shortened life expectancy. Patients affected by MPSII have a variety of symptoms that affect all organs of the body and may include progressive cognitive impairment. MPSII is due to inactivity of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS), which results in the accumulation of storage material in the lysosomes, such as dermatan and heparan sulfates, with consequent cell degeneration in all tissues including, in the severe phenotype, neurodegeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). To date, the only treatment available is systemic infusion of IDS, which ameliorates exclusively certain visceral defects. Therefore, it is important to simultaneously treat the visceral and CNS defects of the MPSII patients. Here, we have developed enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) protocols in a mouse model that allow the IDS to reach the brain, with the substantial correction of the CNS phenotype and of the neurobehavioral features. Treatments were beneficial even in adult and old MPSII mice, using relatively low doses of infused IDS over long intervals. This study demonstrates that CNS defects of MPSII mice can be treated by systemic ERT, providing the potential for development of an effective treatment for MPSII patients.

Polito, Vinicia Assunta; Abbondante, Serena; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Nusco, Edoardo; Salvia, Rosaria; Cosma, Maria Pia

2010-01-01

235

Cardiac systems biology and parameter sensitivity analysis: intracellular Ca2+ regulatory mechanisms in mouse ventricular myocytes.  

PubMed

Intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics of cardiac myocytes are regulated by complex mechanisms of a variety of ion channels, transporters, and exchangers. Alterations of these Ca(2+) regulatory components might lead to development of cardiac diseases. To investigate the regulatory mechanisms and hidden Ca(2+) dynamics we use integrative systems analysis. Herein, we briefly summarize cardiac systems biology and, within the context of cardiac systems biology, identify the functional role of key Ca(2+) regulatory proteins and their influence on intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics (i.e., Ca(2+) transient, SR Ca(2+) content, CICR gain, half-decay time) using parameter sensitivity analysis based on an experimentally validated mathematical model of mouse ventricular myocytes. In addition, we analyze the influence of the pacing period (frequency) of a stimulus current since most of the Ca(2+) regulatory proteins react with different timescales. Throughout the parameter sensitivity analysis, we found that alteration of SERCA or LTCC has a more significant effect on the Ca(2+) dynamics than that of RyR or NCX. In particular, for the 70% down-regulation of LTCC, the Ca(2+) influx through LTCC failed to initialize the SR Ca(2+) release and thereby the intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics was dramatically changed. We also found that the pacing period has a significant effect on the half-decay time of the Ca(2+) transients. These findings provide us with new insights into the pathophysiology of cardiac failure as well as the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:18437298

Shin, Sung-Young; Choo, Sang-Mok; Woo, Sun-Hee; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

2008-01-01

236

A Throughput-Optimized Array System for Multiple-Mouse MRI  

PubMed Central

MRI is a versatile tool for systematically assessing anatomical and functional changes in small animal models of human disease. Its noninvasive nature makes MRI an ideal candidate for longitudinal evaluations of disease progression, but relatively long scan times limit the number of observations that can be made in a given interval of time, imposing restrictions on experiment design and potentially compromising statistical power. Methods that reduce the overall time that is required to scan multiple cohorts of animals in distinct experimental groups are therefore highly desirable. Multiple-mouse MRI, in which several animals are simultaneously scanned in a common MRI system, has been successfully used to improve study throughput. However, to best utilize the next generation of small-animal MRI systems that will be equipped with an increased number of receive channels, a paradigm shift from simultaneously scanning as many animals as possible to scanning a more manageable number, at a faster rate, must be considered. This work explores the tradeoffs between the number of animals to scan at once and the number of array elements dedicated to each animal, to maximize throughput in systems with 16 receive channels. An array system consisting of 15 receive and five transmit coils allows acceleration by a combination of multi-animal and parallel imaging techniques. The array system was designed and fabricated for use on a 7.0-T/30-cm Bruker Biospec MRI system, and tested for high-throughput imaging performance in phantoms and live mice. Results indicate that up to a ninefold throughput improvement of a single sequence is possible compared to an unaccelerated single-animal acquisition. True data throughput of a contrast-enhanced anatomical study is estimated to be improved by just over six-fold.

Ramirez, Marc S.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Bankson, James A.

2012-01-01

237

Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

Tuross, N.

2013-12-01

238

Steam Digest 2001  

SciTech Connect

Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

Not Available

2002-01-01

239

Digestive Diseases Materials  

MedlinePLUS

... TO... NIDDK Health Education NIDDK Home Digestive Diseases Materials by Title A-Z List by Publication Type Awareness and Prevention Series Online Only Publications Other Materials Patient Education Booklets (easy-to-read) Patient Education ...

240

Anémies d'origine digestive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaemia induced by digestive diseases refers to those types of anaemia due to iron, cobalamin, or folate deficiencies. The body contents of iron, cobalamin, folate depends on the digestive tract integrity. Inflammatory anaemias (or anaemias of chronic diseases), aregenerative anaemias in relation with digestive cancer bone marrow metastasis, rare haemolytic anaemias observed in the course of digestive cancers are described

D. Cattan

2005-01-01

241

Climate Information Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Columbia University's International Research Institute for Climate Prediction Web site (last mentioned in the October 27, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) offers a monthly publication called the Climate Information Digest, which is described as "a global quick look at seasonal climate, its impacts and outlooks." The free digest offers timely climate summaries, predictions, and other information for those involved in related research or study.

1998-01-01

242

Teaching and Learning about the Earth. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC Digest investigates the earth and space science guidelines of the National Science Education Standards. These guidelines are frequently referred to as the earth system and include components such as plate tectonics, the water cycle, and the carbon cycle. This Digest describes the development of earth systems science and earth systems

Lee, Hyonyong

243

The 'GO' system--a novel method of microculture for in vitro development of mouse zygotes to the blastocyst stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ovel system of in vitro culture termed the 'glass oviduct' or 'GO' culture system is described. Mouse zygotes were cultured in pairs to the blastocyst stage in open-ended 1 l glass capillaries. 'GO' culture supported the development of significantly more hatching or hatched blastocysts than did a standard microdroplet (10 zygotes per 20 l) control culture (48.3 versus 3.3%,

G. A. Thouas; G. M. Jones; A. O. Trounson

2003-01-01

244

Immunochemical analysis of the N-acetyl hexosaminidases in human-mouse hybrids made using a double selective system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human-mouse hybrid, DUR 4 (Solomon et al., 1976), containing a human X\\/15 translocation chromosome and also chromosome 5, among other human chromosomes, was used in a double selection system to obtain hybrids of four different types: X\\/15+ 5+, X\\/15– 5+, X\\/15+ 5, and X\\/15– 5–. Standard positive and negative selection systems were used for the X chromosome, and negative

D. M. Swallow; E. Solomon; L. Pajunen

1977-01-01

245

Peripheral nervous system manifestations in a Sandhoff disease mouse model: nerve conduction, myelin structure, lipid analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Sandhoff disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by a mutation in the gene for the ?-subunit (Hexb gene) of ?-hexosaminidase A (??) and B (??). The ?-subunit together with the GM2 activator protein catabolize ganglioside GM2. This enzyme deficiency results in GM2 accumulation primarily in the central nervous system. To investigate how abnormal GM2 catabolism affects the peripheral nervous system in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease (Hexb-/-), we examined the electrophysiology of dissected sciatic nerves, structure of central and peripheral myelin, and lipid composition of the peripheral nervous system. Results We detected no significant difference in signal impulse conduction velocity or any consistent change in the frequency-dependent conduction slowing and failure between freshly dissected sciatic nerves from the Hexb+/- and Hexb-/- mice. The low-angle x-ray diffraction patterns from freshly dissected sciatic and optic nerves of Hexb+/- and Hexb-/- mice showed normal myelin periods; however, Hexb-/- mice displayed a ~10% decrease in the relative amount of compact optic nerve myelin, which is consistent with the previously established reduction in myelin-enriched lipids (cerebrosides and sulfatides) in brains of Hexb-/- mice. Finally, analysis of lipid composition revealed that GM2 content was present in the sciatic nerve of the Hexb-/- mice (undetectable in Hexb+/-). Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the absence of significant functional, structural, or compositional abnormalities in the peripheral nervous system of the murine model for Sandhoff disease, but do show the potential value of integrating multiple techniques to evaluate myelin structure and function in nervous system disorders.

McNally, Melanie A; Baek, Rena C; Avila, Robin L; Seyfried, Thomas N; Strichartz, Gary R; Kirschner, Daniel A

2007-01-01

246

Influence of mouse genotype on passive systemic anaphylaxis by immune complexes.  

PubMed Central

The influence of mouse genotype on passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA) by immune complexes was studied. PSA was induced by using Brucella abortus endotoxin as the antigen and rabbit anti-Brucella endotoxin antisera. Experiments using syngeneic mice as well as mice congenic for H-2 showed that the H-2 haplotype influenced the sensitivity of mice to PSA. Among the H-2 haplotypes studied, H-2b was the most sensitive, followed by H-2k and H-2d. Experiments using passive transfer of serum as well as the complement inhibitors suramin and flufenamic acid indicated that variations in complement levels under control of H-2 may be responsible for the effects described. Cyproheptadine, a blocker of serotonin and histamine receptors, and imidazol-alpha-ketoglutarate, an inhibitor of thromboxane synthesis, inhibited PSA, indicating that platelet aggregation, possibly mediated by activated components of the complement cascade, is an important feature in the development of PSA reactions in this system. Differences between strains for protection by cyproheptadine and for the effect of complement inhibitors indicated a role of early components of the classical pathway in this model.

Portoles, A; Rojo, J M; Diaz, R

1986-01-01

247

Systemic anti-VEGF treatment strongly reduces skin inflammation in a mouse model of psoriasis.  

PubMed

Although(,) vascular remodeling is a hallmark of many chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, anti-vascular strategies to treat these conditions have received little attention to date. We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of systemic blockade of VEGF-A by the inhibitory monoclonal antibody G6-31, employing a therapeutic trial in a mouse model of psoriasis. Simultaneous deletion of JunB and c-Jun (DKO*) in the epidermis of adult mice leads to a psoriasis-like phenotype with hyper- and parakeratosis and increased subepidermal vascularization. Moreover, an inflammatory infiltrate and elevated levels of cytokines/chemokines including TNFalpha, IL-1alpha/beta, IL-6, and the innate immune mediators IL-22, IL-23, IL-23R, and IL-12p40 are detected. Here we show that anti-VEGF antibody treatment of mice already displaying disease symptoms resulted in an overall improvement of the psoriatic lesions leading to a reduction in the number of blood vessels and a significant decrease in the size of dermal blood and lymphatic vessels. Importantly, anti-VEGF-treated mice showed a pronounced reduction of inflammatory cells within the dermis and a normalization of epidermal differentiation. These results demonstrate that systemic blockade of VEGF by an inhibitory antibody might be used to treat patients who have inflammatory skin disorders such as psoriasis. PMID:19995970

Schonthaler, Helia B; Huggenberger, Reto; Wculek, Stefanie K; Detmar, Michael; Wagner, Erwin F

2009-12-15

248

Systemic anti-VEGF treatment strongly reduces skin inflammation in a mouse model of psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Although, vascular remodeling is a hallmark of many chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, anti-vascular strategies to treat these conditions have received little attention to date. We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of systemic blockade of VEGF-A by the inhibitory monoclonal antibody G6–31, employing a therapeutic trial in a mouse model of psoriasis. Simultaneous deletion of JunB and c-Jun (DKO*) in the epidermis of adult mice leads to a psoriasis-like phenotype with hyper- and parakeratosis and increased subepidermal vascularization. Moreover, an inflammatory infiltrate and elevated levels of cytokines/chemokines including TNF?, IL-1?/?, IL-6, and the innate immune mediators IL-22, IL-23, IL-23R, and IL-12p40 are detected. Here we show that anti-VEGF antibody treatment of mice already displaying disease symptoms resulted in an overall improvement of the psoriatic lesions leading to a reduction in the number of blood vessels and a significant decrease in the size of dermal blood and lymphatic vessels. Importantly, anti-VEGF–treated mice showed a pronounced reduction of inflammatory cells within the dermis and a normalization of epidermal differentiation. These results demonstrate that systemic blockade of VEGF by an inhibitory antibody might be used to treat patients who have inflammatory skin disorders such as psoriasis.

Schonthaler, Helia B.; Huggenberger, Reto; Wculek, Stefanie K.; Detmar, Michael; Wagner, Erwin F.

2009-01-01

249

Rapid generation of mouse models with defined point mutations by the CRISPR/Cas9 system  

PubMed Central

Introducing a point mutation is a fundamental method used to demonstrate the roles of particular nucleotides or amino acids in the genetic elements or proteins, and is widely used in in vitro experiments based on cultured cells and exogenously provided DNA. However, the in vivo application of this approach by modifying genomic loci is uncommon, partly due to its technical and temporal demands. This leaves many in vitro findings un-validated under in vivo conditions. We herein applied the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate mice with point mutations in their genomes, which led to single amino acid substitutions in proteins of interest. By microinjecting gRNA, hCas9 mRNA and single-stranded donor oligonucleotides (ssODN) into mouse zygotes, we introduced defined genomic modifications in their genome with a low cost and in a short time. Both single gRNA/WT hCas9 and double nicking set-ups were effective. We also found that the distance between the modification site and gRNA target site was a significant parameter affecting the efficiency of the substitution. We believe that this is a powerful technique that can be used to examine the relevance of in vitro findings, as well as the mutations found in patients with genetic disorders, in an in vivo system.

Inui, Masafumi; Miyado, Mami; Igarashi, Maki; Tamano, Moe; Kubo, Atsushi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Asahara, Hiroshi; Fukami, Maki; Takada, Shuji

2014-01-01

250

The natural organosulfur compound dipropyltetrasulfide prevents HOCl-induced systemic sclerosis in the mouse  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study was to test the naturally occurring organosulfur compound dipropyltetrasulfide (DPTTS), found in plants, which has antibiotic and anticancer properties, as a treatment for HOCl-induced systemic sclerosis in the mouse. Methods The prooxidative, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic effects of DPTTS were evaluated ex vivo on fibroblasts from normal and HOCl mice. In vivo, the antifibrotic and immunomodulating properties of DPTTS were evaluated in the skin and lungs of HOCl mice. Results H2O2 production was higher in fibroblasts derived from HOCl mice than in normal fibroblasts (P?mouse through the selective killing of diseased fibroblasts and its immunomodulating properties. DPTTS may be a potential treatment for systemic sclerosis.

2013-01-01

251

Sulfated glycosaminoglycan-assisted receptor specificity of human fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 signaling in a mouse system is different from that in a human system.  

PubMed

The endocrine action of human (h) intestine-derived fibroblast growth factor 19 (hFGF19) toward liver cells necessitates a highly specific recognition system. We previously reported that at physiological concentrations (~30 pM), hFGF19 requires sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) for its signaling via human FGF receptor 4 (hFGFR4) in the presence of a co-receptor, human ?Klotho (hKLB), thus establishing specific targeting. Here we report that the specificity of hFGF19 signaling is greatly altered in a mouse model system. In in vitro cellular systems, at concentrations achievable in transgenic animals and in pharmacologic animal experiments (1-100 nM), hFGF19 activates mouse (m)FGFR1c, mFGFR2c, and mFGFR3c but not mFGFR4 in the presence of mKLB and nonheparin authentic sGAGs. Furthermore, in the presence of hepatic sGAGs or heparin, nanomolar hFGF19 activates mFGFR4, even in the absence of co-expressed mKLB. Taken together, these results indicate that the sGAG-assisted receptor specificity of hFGF19 signaling achieved in experimental mouse systems differs greatly from that in physiological human systems. This suggests the function and mechanism of hFGF19 signaling identified using mouse systems should be reevaluated. PMID:23064887

Nakamura, Masao; Uehara, Yuriko; Asada, Masahiro; Suzuki, Masashi; Imamura, Toru

2013-03-01

252

A Self-regulatory System of Interlinked Signaling Feedback Loops Controls Mouse Limb Patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developmental pathways need to be robust against environmental and genetic variation to enable reliable morphogenesis. Here, we take a systems biology approach to explain how robustness is achieved in the developing mouse limb, a classical model of organogenesis. By combining quantitative genetics with computational modeling we established a computational model of multiple interlocked feedback modules, involving sonic hedgehog (SHH) morphogen, fibroblast growth factor (FGFs) signaling, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and its antagonist GREM1. Earlier modeling work had emphasized the versatile kinetic characteristics of interlocked feedback loops operating at different time scales. Here we develop and then validate a similar computational model to show how BMP4 first initiates and SHH then propagates feedback in the network through differential transcriptional regulation of Grem1 to control digit specification. This switch occurs by linking a fast BMP4/GREM1 module to a slower SHH/GREM1/FGF feedback loop. Simulated gene expression profiles modeled normal limb development as well those of single-gene knockouts. Sensitivity analysis showed how the model was robust and insensitive to variability in parameters. A surprising prediction of the model was that an early Bmp4 signal is essential to kick-start Grem1 expression and the digit specification system. We experimentally validated the prediction using inducible alleles and showed that early, but not late, removal of Bmp4 dramatically disrupted limb development. Sensitivity analysis showed how robustness emerges from this circuitry. This study shows how modeling and computation can help us understand how self-regulatory signaling networks achieve robust regulation of limb development, by exploiting interconnectivity among the three signaling pathways. We expect that similar computational analyses will shed light on the origins of robustness in other developmental systems, and I will discuss some recent examples from our ongoing research on developmental patterning.

Benazet, Jean-Denis; Bischofberger, Mirko; Tiecke, Eva; Gonalves, Alexandre; Martin, James F.; Zuniga, Aime; Naef, Felix; Zeller, Rolf

253

Research Resource: Comprehensive Expression Atlas of the Fibroblast Growth Factor System in Adult Mouse  

PubMed Central

Although members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family and their receptors have well-established roles in embryogenesis, their contributions to adult physiology remain relatively unexplored. Here, we use real-time quantitative PCR to determine the mRNA expression patterns of all 22 FGFs, the seven principal FGF receptors (FGFRs), and the three members of the Klotho family of coreceptors in 39 different mouse tissues. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis of the mRNA expression data reveals that most FGFs and FGFRs fall into two groups the expression of which is enriched in either the central nervous system or reproductive and gastrointestinal tissues. Interestingly, the FGFs that can act as endocrine hormones, including FGF15/19, FGF21, and FGF23, cluster in a third group that does not include any FGFRs, underscoring their roles in signaling between tissues. We further show that the most recently identified Klotho family member, Lactase-like, is highly and selectively expressed in brown adipose tissue and eye and can function as an additional coreceptor for FGF19. This FGF atlas provides an important resource for guiding future studies to elucidate the physiological functions of FGFs in adult animals.

Fon Tacer, Klementina; Bookout, Angie L.; Ding, Xunshan; Kurosu, Hiroshi; John, George B.; Wang, Lei; Goetz, Regina; Mohammadi, Moosa; Kuro-o, Makoto; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Kliewer, Steven A.

2010-01-01

254

Guiding the osteogenic fate of mouse and human mesenchymal stem cells through feedback system control  

PubMed Central

Stem cell-based disease modeling presents unique opportunities for mechanistic elucidation and therapeutic targeting. The stable induction of fate-specific differentiation is an essential prerequisite for stem cell-based strategy. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) initiates receptor-regulated Smad phosphorylation, leading to the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) in vitro; however, it requires supra-physiological concentrations, presenting a bottleneck problem for large-scale drug screening. Here, we report the use of a double-objective feedback system control (FSC) with a differential evolution (DE) algorithm to identify osteogenic cocktails of extrinsic factors. Cocktails containing significantly reduced doses of BMP-2 in combination with physiologically relevant doses of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate, heparin, retinoic acid and vitamin D achieved accelerated in vitro mineralization of mouse and human MSC. These results provide insight into constructive approaches of FSC to determine the applicable functional and physiological environment for MSC in disease modeling, drug screening and tissue engineering.

Honda, Yoshitomo; Ding, Xianting; Mussano, Federico; Wiberg, Akira; Ho, Chih-ming; Nishimura, Ichiro

2013-01-01

255

Establishment of a Conditional Transgenic System Using the 2A Peptide in the Female Mouse Germline  

PubMed Central

Transgenic mice are essential research tools in developmental biology studies. The 2A peptide allows multiple genes to be expressed simultaneously at comparable levels in somatic cells, but there are no reports of it being used successfully in germ cells. We constructed a Cre/loxP-based conditional vector containing the 2A peptide to significantly enhance the expression of a reporter and target gene from a constitutive promoter in oocytes. Mice with a transgene insertion containing the chicken ?-actin promoter, floxed EGFP-polyA cassette, mCherry reporter, 2A peptide and target gene DNA methyltransferase 3A2 (Dnmt3a2) were crossed with TNAP- or Vasa-Cre mice to produce offspring, in which mCherry and DNMT3A2 proteins were highly expressed in oocytes upon Cre-mediated removal of EGFP-polyA. This novel transgenic mouse line based on the 2A expression system can serve as a useful tool for examining gene function during oogenesis.

HARA, Satoshi; TAKANO, Takashi; OGATA, Mio; YAMAKAMI, Reina; SATO, Yusuke; KONO, Tomohiro; OBATA, Yayoi

2014-01-01

256

Establishment of a Conditional Transgenic System Using the 2A Peptide in the Female Mouse Germline.  

PubMed

Transgenic mice are essential research tools in developmental biology studies. The 2A peptide allows multiple genes to be expressed simultaneously at comparable levels in somatic cells, but there are no reports of it being used successfully in germ cells. We constructed a Cre/loxP-based conditional vector containing the 2A peptide to significantly enhance the expression of a reporter and target gene from a constitutive promoter in oocytes. Mice with a transgene insertion containing the chicken ?-actin promoter, floxed EGFP-polyA cassette, mCherry reporter, 2A peptide and target gene DNA methyltransferase 3A2 (Dnmt3a2) were crossed with TNAP- or Vasa-Cre mice to produce offspring, in which mCherry and DNMT3A2 proteins were highly expressed in oocytes upon Cre-mediated removal of EGFP-polyA. This novel transgenic mouse line based on the 2A expression system can serve as a useful tool for examining gene function during oogenesis. PMID:24632680

Hara, Satoshi; Takano, Takashi; Ogata, Mio; Yamakami, Reina; Sato, Yusuke; Kono, Tomohiro; Obata, Yayoi

2014-07-01

257

Quantification, Distribution, and Possible Source of Bacterial Biofilm in Mouse Automated Watering Systems  

PubMed Central

The use of automated watering systems for providing drinking water to rodents has become commonplace in the research setting. Little is known regarding bacterial biofilm growth within the water piping attached to the racks (manifolds). The purposes of this project were to determine whether the mouse oral flora contributed to the aerobic bacterial component of the rack biofilm, quantify bacterial growth in rack manifolds over 6 mo, assess our rack sanitation practices, and quantify bacterial biofilm development within sections of the manifold. By using standard methods of bacterial identification, the aerobic oral flora of 8 strains and stocks of mice were determined on their arrival at our animal facility. Ten rack manifolds were sampled before, during, and after sanitation and monthly for 6 mo. Manifolds were evaluated for aerobic bacterial growth by culture on R2A and trypticase soy agar, in addition to bacterial ATP quantification by bioluminescence. In addition, 6 racks were sampled at 32 accessible sites for evaluation of biofilm distribution within the watering manifold. The identified aerobic bacteria in the oral flora were inconsistent with the bacteria from the manifold, suggesting that the mice do not contribute to the biofilm bacteria. Bacterial growth in manifolds increased while they were in service, with exponential growth of the biofilm from months 3 to 6 and a significant decrease after sanitization. Bacterial biofilm distribution was not significantly different across location quartiles of the rack manifold, but bacterial levels differed between the shelf pipe and connecting elbow pipes.

Meier, Thomas R; Maute, Carrie J; Cadillac, Joan M; Lee, Ji Young; Righter, Daniel J; Hugunin, Kelly MS; Deininger, Rolf A; Dysko, Robert C

2008-01-01

258

Systemic multicompartmental effects of the gut microbiome on mouse metabolic phenotypes  

PubMed Central

To characterize the impact of gut microbiota on host metabolism, we investigated the multicompartmental metabolic profiles of a conventional mouse strain (C3H/HeJ) (n=5) and its germ-free (GF) equivalent (n=5). We confirm that the microbiome strongly impacts on the metabolism of bile acids through the enterohepatic cycle and gut metabolism (higher levels of phosphocholine and glycine in GF liver and marked higher levels of bile acids in three gut compartments). Furthermore we demonstrate that (1) well-defined metabolic differences exist in all examined compartments between the metabotypes of GF and conventional mice: bacterial co-metabolic products such as hippurate (urine) and 5-aminovalerate (colon epithelium) were found at reduced concentrations, whereas raffinose was only detected in GF colonic profiles. (2) The microbiome also influences kidney homeostasis with elevated levels of key cell volume regulators (betaine, choline, myo-inositol and so on) observed in GF kidneys. (3) Gut microbiota modulate metabotype expression at both local (gut) and global (biofluids, kidney, liver) system levels and hence influence the responses to a variety of dietary modulation and drug exposures relevant to personalized health-care investigations.

Claus, Sandrine P; Tsang, Tsz M; Wang, Yulan; Cloarec, Olivier; Skordi, Eleni; Martin, Francois-Pierre; Rezzi, Serge; Ross, Alastair; Kochhar, Sunil; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K

2008-01-01

259

Lipid digestion as a trigger for supersaturation: evaluation of the impact of supersaturation stabilization on the in vitro and in vivo performance of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

The generation of supersaturation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is an increasingly popular means of promoting oral absorption for poorly water-soluble drugs. The current study examined the impact of changes to the quantities of medium-chain (MC) lipid (Captex 300:Capmul MCM), surfactant (Cremophor EL) and cosolvent (EtOH), and the addition of polymeric precipitation inhibitors (PPI), on supersaturation during the dispersion and digestion of MC self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) containing danazol. The data suggest that digestion acts as a "trigger" for enhanced supersaturation and that solubilization/precipitation behavior is correlated with the degree of supersaturation on dispersion (S(M)DISP) or digestion (S(M)DIGEST). The ability of the formulation to maintain solubilization in vitro decreased as the S(M) of the formulation increased. PPI significantly increased supersaturation stabilization and precipitation was inhibited where S(M)DISP < 3.5 and S(M)DIGEST < 4. In the presence of polymer, some degree of supersaturation was maintained up to S(M)DIGEST ? 8. Differentiation in the ability of SEDDS to maintain drug solubilization stems from the ability to stabilize supersaturation and for MC SEDDS, utilization of lower drug loads, higher surfactant levels (balanced against increases in S(M)DISP), lower cosolvent and the addition of PPI enhanced formulation performance. In vivo studies confirmed the ability of PPI to promote drug exposure at moderate drug loads (40% of saturated solubility in the formulation). At higher drug loads (80% saturation) and in lipid-free SEDDS, this effect was lost, suggesting that the ability of PPIs to stabilize supersaturation in vitro may, under some circumstances, overestimate utility in vivo. PMID:22656917

Anby, Mette U; Williams, Hywel D; McIntosh, Michelle; Benameur, Hassan; Edwards, Glenn A; Pouton, Colin W; Porter, Christopher J H

2012-07-01

260

On-Farm Anaerobic Digester and Fuel Alcohol Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An anaerobic digestion system, coupled with a fuel alcohol plant, was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm as part of an integrated farm energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas ...

H. H. Bengtson

1985-01-01

261

Recent advances in transport of water-soluble vitamins in organs of the digestive system: a focus on the colon and the pancreas.  

PubMed

This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) transport in the large intestine and pancreas, two important organs of the digestive system that have only recently received their fair share of attention. WSV, a group of structurally unrelated compounds, are essential for normal cell function and development and, thus, for overall health and survival of the organism. Humans cannot synthesize WSV endogenously; rather, WSV are obtained from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption. The intestine is exposed to two sources of WSV: a dietary source and a bacterial source (i.e., WSV generated by the large intestinal microbiota). Contribution of the latter source to human nutrition/health has been a subject of debate and doubt, mostly based on the absence of specialized systems for efficient uptake of WSV in the large intestine. However, recent studies utilizing a variety of human and animal colon preparations clearly demonstrate that such systems do exist in the large intestine. This has provided strong support for the idea that the microbiota-generated WSV are of nutritional value to the host, and especially to the nutritional needs of the local colonocytes and their health. In the pancreas, WSV are essential for normal metabolic activities of all its cell types and for its exocrine and endocrine functions. Significant progress has also been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in the uptake of WSV and the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on the uptake processes. PMID:23989008

Said, Hamid M

2013-11-01

262

[Cytochrome p450 system components and nitric oxide synthase activity in mouse liver under conditions of retinoid stores absence].  

PubMed

p-Hydroxylase and N-demethylase activities of cytochrome P450 system, NO-synthase activity and the intensity of nitric oxide and superoxide anion production in mitochondrial, postmicrosomal and microsomal cellular fractions were studied in mouse liver under conditions of retinoid stores absence. It is determined, that under conditions of retinoid stores absence the activation of NO-synthase is occurring with decreasedp-hydroxylase activity of cytochrome P450 system. The results of the generation intensity analysis showed the level of NO and O(2-) in liver mitochondrial fraction of knock-out mice, and changes in NADPH-dependent O(2-) production in microsomal fraction of mouse liver cells. PMID:23289296

Kopyl'chuk, G P; Shmarakov, I A; Buchkovskaia, I M; Marchenko, M M; Blener, V S

2012-01-01

263

Development of a mouse model to determine the systemic activity of potential flea-control compounds.  

PubMed

Probe studies were performed to determine if the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis), the most common ectoparasite of companion animals, will feed on laboratory mice and, if so, to incorporate this into a small animal assay to detect systemically active compounds. Consequently, a protocol was developed which incorporated acepromazine maleate to temporarily sedate various strains of mice and allow fleas a window of time to feed undisturbed. For validation of the model, CD-1 mice were dosed per os with seven known insecticides at 30, 10 and 1mg/kg. Mice were sedated with 0.0125 ml acepromazine maleate intraperitoneally, and infested with fleas. After 2h, fleas were removed, one-third were examined immediately to confirm the occurrence of feeding, and 77% were found to have ingested a blood meal. The remaining fleas were incubated for 24h to determine mortality. Nitenpyram, the active ingredient in Capstar, was highly active (>94%) at 1mg/kg. Selamectin, the active ingredient in Revolution, was very active (86%) at 10mg/kg, but inactive at 1mg/kg. Fipronil, the active ingredient of Frontline Topspot, was very active (83%) at 30 mg/kg, moderately active (54%) at 10mg/kg and inactive at 1mg/kg. Cythioate, the active ingredient in Proban, and nodulisporic acid, a recently discovered oral insecticide, were moderately active (64 and 55%, respectively) at 10mg/kg, but both were inactive at 1mg/kg. Lufenuron and ivermectin exhibited no efficacy at any level tested. These findings suggest that this mouse model can effectively identify systemic flea-control leads and, subsequently, reduce the use of large animals in research. PMID:11812623

Santora, Karen A; Zakson-Aiken, Michelle; Rasa, Cordelia; Shoop, Wes

2002-03-20

264

Efficacy of Caspofungin in a Juvenile Mouse Model of Central Nervous System Candidiasis ?  

PubMed Central

Neonatal candidiasis is an increasingly common occurrence causing significant morbidity and mortality and a higher risk of dissemination to the central nervous system (CNS) than that seen with older patients. The current understanding of optimal antifungal therapy in this setting is limited. We have developed a model of disseminated candidiasis with CNS involvement in juvenile mice to assess the efficacy of the echinocandin caspofungin relative to amphotericin B (AmB). Juvenile mice were inoculated intravenously with 5.64 × 104 CFU of Candida albicans MY1055. Treatment with caspofungin at 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg of body weight/day, AmB at 1 mg/kg/day, or a vehicle control (VC) was initiated 30 h after infection and continued for 7 days. Pharmacokinetic parameters for caspofungin were also determined. Culture and histology showed evidence of disseminated candidiasis with multifocal encephalitis at the start of antifungal therapy. Survival was 100% in all treated groups, while mortality was 100% in the VC by day 11 after infection. By day 5, all mice in the caspofungin treatment (four doses) groups showed reductions in kidney and brain burden relative to the VC, while AmB treatment reduced kidney burden but gave no reduction of brain fungal burden. Systemic levels of caspofungin were similar in infected and uninfected mice, while brain levels were higher in infected animals. In this juvenile mouse model, caspofungin demonstrated dose-dependent activity, equivalent to or better than that of AmB at 1 mg/kg, against disseminated candidiasis with CNS involvement.

Flattery, Amy M.; Hickey, Emily; Gill, Charles J.; Powles, Mary Ann; Misura, Andrew S.; Galgoci, Andrew M.; Ellis, Joan D.; Zhang, Rena; Sandhu, Punam; Ronan, John; Abruzzo, George K.

2011-01-01

265

Unique properties of the ATP-sensitive K? channel in the mouse ventricular cardiac conduction system.  

PubMed

Background- The specialized cardiac conduction system (CCS) expresses a unique complement of ion channels that confer a specific electrophysiological profile. ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels in these myocytes have not been systemically investigated. Methods and Results- We recorded K(ATP) channels in isolated CCS myocytes using Cntn2-EGFP reporter mice. The CCS K(ATP) channels were less sensitive to inhibitory cytosolic ATP compared with ventricular channels and more strongly activated by MgADP. They also had a smaller slope conductance. The 2 types of channels had similar intraburst open and closed times, but the CCS K(ATP) channel had a prolonged interburst closed time. CCS K(ATP) channels were strongly activated by diazoxide and less by levcromakalim, whereas the ventricular K(ATP) channel had a reverse pharmacological profile. CCS myocytes express elevated levels of Kir6.1 but reduced Kir6.2 and SUR2A mRNA compared with ventricular myocytes (SUR1 expression was negligible). SUR2B mRNA expression was higher in CCS myocytes relative to SUR2A. Canine Purkinje fibers expressed higher levels of Kir6.1 and SUR2B protein relative to the ventricle. Numeric simulation predicts a high sensitivity of the Purkinje action potential to changes in ATP:ADP ratio. Cardiac conduction time was prolonged by low-flow ischemia in isolated, perfused mouse hearts, which was prevented by glibenclamide. Conclusions- These data imply a differential electrophysiological response (and possible contribution to arrhythmias) of the ventricular CCS to K(ATP) channel opening during periods of ischemia. PMID:21984445

Bao, Li; Kefaloyianni, Eirini; Lader, Joshua; Hong, Miyoun; Morley, Gregory; Fishman, Glenn I; Sobie, Eric A; Coetzee, William A

2011-12-01

266

Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Multiple System Atrophy: Immunomodulation and Neuroprotection  

PubMed Central

Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are currently strong candidates for cell-based therapies. They are well known for their differentiation potential and immunoregulatory properties and have been proven to be potentially effective in the treatment of a large variety of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Currently there is no treatment that provides consistent long-term benefits for patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), a fatal late onset ?-synucleinopathy. Principally neuroprotective or regenerative strategies, including cell-based therapies, represent a powerful approach for treating MSA. In this study we investigated the efficacy of intravenously applied MSCs in terms of behavioural improvement, neuroprotection and modulation of neuroinflammation in the (PLP)-?synuclein (?SYN) MSA model. Methodology/Principal Findings MSCs were intravenously applied in aged (PLP)-?SYN transgenic mice. Behavioural analyses, defining fine motor coordination and balance capabilities as well as stride length analysis, were performed to measure behavioural outcome. Neuroprotection was assessed by quantifying TH neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). MSC treatment on neuroinflammation was analysed by cytokine measurements (IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, GM-CSF, INF?, MCP-1, TGF-?1, TNF-?) in brain lysates together with immunohistochemistry for T-cells and microglia. Four weeks post MSC treatment we observed neuroprotection in the SNc, as well as downregulation of cytokines involved in neuroinflammation. However, there was no behavioural improvement after MSC application. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge this is the first experimental approach of MSC treatment in a transgenic MSA mouse model. Our data suggest that intravenously infused MSCs have a potent effect on immunomodulation and neuroprotection. Our data warrant further studies to elucidate the efficacy of systemically administered MSCs in transgenic MSA models.

Stemberger, Sylvia; Jamnig, Angelika; Stefanova, Nadia; Lepperdinger, Gunter; Reindl, Markus; Wenning, Gregor K.

2011-01-01

267

Changes in chemical composition and digestibility of three maize stover components digested by white-rot fungi.  

PubMed

Maize stover (total stem and leaves) is not considered a ruminant feed of high nutritive value. Therefore, an improvement in its digestibility may increase the viability of total forage maize production systems in marginal growth regions. The objective of this study was to describe the changes in chemical composition during the storage of contrasting components of maize stover (leaf, upper stem and lower stem) treated with either of two lignin degrading white-rot fungi (WRF; Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor). Three components of maize stover (leaf, upper stem and lower stem), harvested at a conventional maturity for silage production, were digested with either of two WRF for one of four digestion durations (1-4 months). Samples taken prior to fungal inoculation were used to benchmark the changes that occurred. The degradation of acid detergent lignin was observed in all sample types digested with P. ostreatus; however, the loss of digestible substrate in all samples inoculated with P. ostreatus was high, and therefore, P. ostreatus-digested samples had a lower dry matter digestibility than samples prior to inoculation. Similarly, T. veriscolor-digested leaf underwent a non-selective degradation of the rumen-digestible components of fibre. The changes in chemical composition of leaf, upper stem and lower stem digested with either P. ostreatus or T. veriscolor were not beneficial to the feed value of the forage, and incurred high DM losses. PMID:24112093

Lynch, J P; O'Kiely, P; Murphy, R; Doyle, E M

2014-08-01

268

Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the anaerobic co-digestion of agro-industrial wastes in a two-stage CSTR system.  

PubMed

A two-stage anaerobic digestion system consisting of two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) operating at mesophilic conditions (37°C) were used to investigate the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on hydrogen and methane production. The acidogenic reactor was fed with a mixture consisting of olive mill wastewater, cheese whey and liquid cow manure (in a ratio 55:40:5, v/v/v) and operated at five different HRTs (5, 3, 2, 1 and 0.75d) aiming to evaluate hydrogen productivity and operational stability. The highest system efficiency was achieved at HRT 0.75d with a maximum hydrogen production rate of 1.72L/LRd and hydrogen yield of 0.54molH2/mol carbohydrates consumed. The methanogenic reactor was operated at HRTs 20 and 25d with better stability observed at HRT 25d, whereas accumulation of volatile fatty acids took place at HRT 20d. The methane production rate at the steady state of HRT 25d reached 0.33LCH4/LRd. PMID:25000396

Dareioti, Margarita Andreas; Kornaros, Michael

2014-09-01

269

Biofilms promote survival and virulence of Salmonella enterica sv. Tennessee during prolonged dry storage and after passage through an in vitro digestion system.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica serotypes have been linked to outbreaks associated with low water activity foods. While the biofilm-forming abilities of Salmonella improve its survival during thermal processing and sanitation it is unclear whether biofilms enhance survival to desiccation and gastric stresses. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of physiological state (planktonic versus biofilm) and prior exposure to desiccation and storage in dry milk powder on Salmonella survival and gene expression after passage through an in vitro digestion model. Planktonic cells of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee were deposited onto membranes while biofilms were formed on glass beads. The cells were subsequently dried at room temperature and stored in dried milk powder (a(w)=0.3) for up to 30 days. Salmonella survival was quantified by serial dilution onto Brilliant Green Agar before desiccation, after desiccation, after 1-day storage and after 30-day storage. At each sampling period both physiological states were tested for survival through a simulated gastrointestinal system. RNA was extracted at the identical time points and Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to determine relative expression for genes associated with stress response (rpoS, otsB), virulence (hilA, invA, sipC) and a housekeeping gene 16S rRNA. The physiological state and length of storage affected the survival and gene expression of Salmonella within the desiccated milk powder environment and after passage through an in vitro digestion system (p<0.05). Larger numbers of S. Tennessee were recovered by plate counts for biofilms compared to planktonic, however, the numbers of Salmonella genomes detected by qPCR were not significantly different suggesting entry of the planktonic cells of S. Tennessee into a viable but non-culturable state. The increased expression of stress response genes rpoS and otsB correlated with survival, indicating cross-protection to low water activity and acid stress. Increased expression of virulence-associated genes was seen in cells exposed to dry storage for short periods, however the largest amount of expression occurred in biofilm cells stored for 30 days at aw 0.3, suggesting increased virulence potential. PMID:23454816

Aviles, Bryan; Klotz, Courtney; Eifert, Joseph; Williams, Robert; Ponder, Monica

2013-04-01

270

Mouse Oocyte Toxicity Assay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A standard toxicity assay based on the mouse oocyte system is described. Its application to toxicity determinations of complex mixtures as well as of pure compounds is shown. Because its oocytes are especially sensitive, the juvenile mouse is used. To fac...

J. S. Felton R. L. Dobson

1982-01-01

271

Analysis of Digester Design Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is in...

E. Ashare E. H. Wilson

1979-01-01

272

The Planning Digest: Newcastle, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Planning Digest is essentially a statement of policy for the physical development of the community of Newcastle. The Planning Digest has four major elements: Introduction, Community Analysis, Plan Development and Plan Implementation. The Plan maps are...

1973-01-01

273

Nonlinear optical techniques for imaging and manipulating the mouse central nervous system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spinal cord of vertebrates serves as the conduit for somatosensory information and motor control, as well as being the locus of neural circuits that govern fast reflexes and patterned behaviors, such as walking in mammals or swimming in fish. Consequently, pathologies of the spinal cord -such as spinal cord injury (SCI)- lead to loss of motor control and sensory perception, with accompanying decline in life expectancy and quality of life. Despite the devastating effects of these diseases, few therapies exist to substantially ameliorate patient outcome. In part, studies of spinal cord pathology have been limited by the inability to perform in vivo imaging at the level of cellular processes. The focus of this thesis is to present the underlying theory for and demonstration of novel multi-photon microscopy (MPM) and optical manipulation techniques as they apply to studies the mouse central nervous system (CNS), with an emphasis on the spinal cord. The scientific findings which have resulted from the implementation of these techniques are also presented. In particular, we have demonstrated that third harmonic generation is a dye-free method of imaging CNS myelin, a fundamental constituent of the spinal cord that is difficult to label using exogenous dyes and/or transgenic constructs. Since gaining optical access to the spinal cord is a prerequisite for spinal cord imaging, we review our development of a novel spinal cord imaging chamber and surgical procedure which allowed us to image for multiple weeks following implantation without the need for repeated surgeries. We also have used MPM to characterize spinal venous blood flow before and after point occlusions. We review a novel nonlinear microscopy technique that may serve to show optical interfaces in three dimensions inside scattering tissue. Finally, we discuss a model and show results of optoporation, a means of transfecting cells with genetic constructs. Brief reviews of MPM and SCI are also presented.

Farrar, Matthew John

274

Gene Expression in Mouse Ovarian Follicle Development In Vivo versus an Ex Vivo Alginate Culture System  

PubMed Central

Ovarian follicle maturation results from a complex interplay of endocrine, paracrine, and direct cell-cell interactions. This study compared the dynamic expression of key developmental genes during folliculogenesis in vivo and during in vitro culture in a three-dimensional alginate hydrogel system. Candidate gene expression profiles were measured within mouse two-layered secondary follicles (2LS), multi-layered secondary follicles (MLS), and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). The expression of 20 genes involved in endocrine communication, growth signaling, and oocyte development was investigated by real-time PCR. Gene product levels were compared between i) follicles of similar stage and ii) COCs derived either in vivo or by in vitro culture. For follicles cultured for 4 days, the expression pattern and the expression level of 12 genes was the same in vivo and in vitro. Some endocrine (Cyp19a1, Inh?a) and growth related genes (Bmp15, Kitl, Tgf?r2) were down-regulated relative to in vivo follicles. For COCs obtained from cultured follicles, endocrine related genes (Inh? and Inh?a) had increased expression relative to in vivo counterparts, whereas growth related genes (Bmp15, Gdf9, Kit) and zona pellucida genes were decreased. However, most of the oocyte specific genes (e.g., Figl?, Jag1, Mater) were expressed in vitro at the same level and with the same pattern as in vivo-derived follicles. These studies establish the similarities and differences between in vivo and in vitro cultured follicles, guiding the creation of environments that maximize follicle development and oocyte quality.

Parrish, Elizabeth M.; Siletz, Anaar; Xu, Min; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Shea, Lonnie D.

2011-01-01

275

Chronic hydroxychloroquine improves endothelial dysfunction and protects kidney in a mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Hydroxychloroquine has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus. Hydroxychloroquine-treated lupus patients showed a lower incidence of thromboembolic disease. Endothelial dysfunction, the earliest indicator of the development of cardiovascular disease, is present in lupus. Whether hydroxychloroquine improves endothelial function in lupus is not clear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of hydroxychloroquine on hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and renal injury in a female mouse model of lupus. NZBWF1 (lupus) and NZW/LacJ (control) mice were treated with hydroxychloroquine 10 mg/kg per day by oral gavage, or with tempol and apocynin in the drinking water, for 5 weeks. Hydroxychloroquine treatment did not alter lupus disease activity (assessed by plasma double-stranded DNA autoantibodies) but prevented hypertension, cardiac and renal hypertrophy, proteinuria, and renal injury in lupus mice. Aortae from lupus mice showed reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and enhanced contraction to phenylephrine, which were normalized by hydroxychloroquine or antioxidant treatments. No differences among all experimental groups were found in both the relaxant responses to acetylcholine and the contractile responses to phenylephrine in rings incubated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester. Vascular reactive oxygen species content and mRNA levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits NOX-1 and p47(phox) were increased in lupus mice and reduced by hydroxychloroquine or antioxidants. Chronic hydroxychloroquine treatment reduced hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and organ damage in severe lupus mice, despite the persistent elevation of anti-double-stranded DNA, suggesting the involvement of new additional mechanisms to improve cardiovascular complications. PMID:24842914

Gómez-Guzmán, Manuel; Jiménez, Rosario; Romero, Miguel; Sánchez, Manuel; Zarzuelo, María José; Gómez-Morales, Mercedes; O'Valle, Francisco; López-Farré, Antonio José; Algieri, Francesca; Gálvez, Julio; Pérez-Vizcaino, Francisco; Sabio, José Mario; Duarte, Juan

2014-08-01

276

An interspecies conserved motif of the mouse immune system-released activating agent (ISRAA) induces proliferative effects on human cells  

PubMed Central

We have recently described an immune system-released activating agent (ISRAA) as a nervous system-induced factor that stimulates immune responses in the mouse spleen. However, the human ISRAA has not yet been identified. In this study, we examined the effects of the mouse ISRAA protein on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), to observe if the biological activity of this molecule is consistent between the two different species. Mouse ISRAA demonstrated dose-dependent dualistic effects on human cells, as 5 ?g exhibited positive apoptosis and 50 pg exhibited significant proliferation (P<0.05). Furthermore, immunosuppressed cells from patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy demonstrated significant proliferation to 50 pg ISRAA (P<0.05). Studies to compare sequences in different species revealed a preserved motif, exhibiting 72% similarity with the interspecies conserved signal peptide motif of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1). A mutant ISRAA lacking this motif was produced and tested for its biological effects. The mutant ISRAA demonstrated neither apoptotic nor proliferative effects compared with wild type. Therefore, an interspecies conserved domain of ISRAA constitutes the active site of the molecule, and its effects on immunocompromised cells should be investigated for future therapies in the treatment of immunosuppressive disorders.

TAHA, SAFA; FATHALLAH, MOHAMED DAHMANI; BAKHIET, MOIZ

2014-01-01

277

An interspecies conserved motif of the mouse immune system-released activating agent (ISRAA) induces proliferative effects on human cells.  

PubMed

We have recently described an immune system-released activating agent (ISRAA) as a nervous system-induced factor that stimulates immune responses in the mouse spleen. However, the human ISRAA has not yet been identified. In this study, we examined the effects of the mouse ISRAA protein on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), to observe if the biological activity of this molecule is consistent between the two different species. Mouse ISRAA demonstrated dose-dependent dualistic effects on human cells, as 5 µg exhibited positive apoptosis and 50 pg exhibited significant proliferation (P<0.05). Furthermore, immunosuppressed cells from patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy demonstrated significant proliferation to 50 pg ISRAA (P<0.05). Studies to compare sequences in different species revealed a preserved motif, exhibiting 72% similarity with the interspecies conserved signal peptide motif of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1). A mutant ISRAA lacking this motif was produced and tested for its biological effects. The mutant ISRAA demonstrated neither apoptotic nor proliferative effects compared with wild type. Therefore, an interspecies conserved domain of ISRAA constitutes the active site of the molecule, and its effects on immunocompromised cells should be investigated for future therapies in the treatment of immunosuppressive disorders. PMID:24821660

Taha, Safa; Fathallah, Mohamed Dahmani; Bakhiet, Moiz

2014-07-01

278

The transcobalamin receptor knockout mouse: a model for vitamin B12 deficiency in the central nervous system.  

PubMed

The membrane receptor (TCblR/CD320) for transcobalamin (TC)-bound cobalamin (Cbl) facilitates the cellular uptake of Cbl. A genetically modified mouse model involving ablation of the CD320 gene was generated to study the effects on cobalamin homeostasis. The nonlethal nature of this knockout and the lack of systemic cobalamin deficiency point to other mechanisms for cellular Cbl uptake in the mouse. However, severe cobalamin depletion in the central nervous system (CNS) after birth (P<0.01) indicates that TCblR is the only receptor responsible for Cbl uptake in the CNS. Metabolic Cbl deficiency in the brain was evident from the increased methylmalonic acid (P<0.01-0.04), homocysteine (P<0.01), cystathionine (P<0.01), and the decreased S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosyl homocysteine ratio (P<0.01). The CNS pathology of Cbl deficiency seen in humans may not manifest in this mouse model; however, it does provide a model with which to evaluate metabolic pathways and genes affected. PMID:23430977

Lai, Shao-Chiang; Nakayama, Yasumi; Sequeira, Jeffrey M; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J; Cabrera, Robert M; Finnell, Richard H; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Quadros, Edward V

2013-06-01

279

Climate Change Policy and the Adoption of Methane Digesters on Livestock Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methane digesters - biogas recovery systems that use methane from manure to generate electricity - have not been widely adopted in the United States because costs have exceeded benefits to operators. Burning methane in a digester reduces greenhouse gas em...

N. Key S. Sneeringer

2011-01-01

280

On-farm anaerobic digester and fuel-alcohol plant. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An anaerobic-digestion system, coupled with a fuel-alcohol plant, was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm as part of an integrated farm-energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas from the digester can be used as fuel for the alcohol production. The anaerobic digestion system is made up of the following components; a hog finishing house with a manure pit; a solids handling pump to feed the manure; and a 13,000-gallon railroad tank car as the main digester vessel and pump to transfer effluent from the digester to a 150,000 gallon storage tank. The digester was operated for sufficient time to demonstrate the use of hot water in an automated digester temperature control system. Sufficient biogas was produced to demonstrate the use of biogas in a converted propane boiler.

Bengtson, H.H.

1985-12-01

281

Enzymatic digestion of the milk protein ?-casein releases potent chemotactic peptide(s) for monocytes and macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins in the milk release biologically active peptides upon enzymatic digestion. In the present study, we report the identification of novel monocyte\\/macrophage chemotactic peptides derived from enzymatically digested bovine ?-casein, a casein family member that is a major constituent of milk. ?-casein fragments generated by actinase E showed potent chemotactic activity for human and mouse monocytes\\/macrophages, but not neutrophils, T

Haruki Kitazawa; Kumiko Yonezawa; Masanori Tohno; Takeshi Shimosato; Yasushi Kawai; Tadao Saito; Ji Ming Wang

2007-01-01

282

Library Funding. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC Digest focuses on library funding, and discusses funding sources, technology funding, and private fundraising and grantmanship. The following information is presented. Library funds are accumulated from a mixture of local, state, federal, and other sources. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (1997), 77.6% of public…

Bremer, Tracey L.

283

Reader's Digest At Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is billed as a resource providing information on "how to do just about anything." It is a virtual smorgasbord of concise information on home repair, cooking, health, and gardening. The "how to library" highlights this site; it contains more than 400 different projects, tips, recipes, and other information. Content is derived from Reader's Digest books.

284

Thanksgiving with Reader's Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers a number of resources to help users cook, decorate, and keep the kids busy at Thanksgiving. Thanksgiving with Reader's Digest site contains 80 classic Thanksgiving recipes, vegetarian and breakfast ideas, tips on hosting, and some holiday projects and crafts.

285

Polypectate digestion by Yersinia.  

PubMed Central

The ability of Yersinia to digest polypectate may be of some value in differentiating Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis from some of the other fermenting gram-negative bacilli, such as Enterobacter agglomerans, with which they can be confused. Pectolytic activity in Yersinia may also have some teleologic or taxonomic significance about which we do not care to speculate.

von Riesen, V L

1975-01-01

286

Analysis of digester design concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is included. The digester designs included in the analyses are CSTR, plug flow, batch, CSTR in series, multi-stage digestion and biomethanation. Other process options investigated included pretreatment processes such

E. Ashare; E. H. Wilson

1979-01-01

287

Dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion is an attractive technology for solid waste management. This thesis describes the technological potentials of dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using batch systems. In 1985 a research programme was started to develop the so- called BIOCEL system based on batchwise anaerobic digestion yielding biogas and compost. The research programme was financially

E. ten Brummeler

1993-01-01

288

Digestion et absorption des nutriments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digestion is initiated as soon as the aliments are ingested. Then it is pursued in the digestive tract, by the action of the main enzymes of saliva, gastric juice, pancreatic juice, bile and intestine. Pancreas plays a major role in digestion since it produces the key enzymes of sugars (?-amylase), proteins (trypsin) and lipids (lipase), which change the main aliments

Stéphane Lecleire

2008-01-01

289

Aerobic sludge digestion under low dissolved oxygen concentrations.  

PubMed

Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations occur commonly in aerobic digesters treating thickened sludge, with benefits of smaller digester size, much reduced aeration cost, and higher digestion temperature (especially important for plants in colder areas). The effects of low DO concentrations on digestion kinetics were studied using the sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants in Akron, Ohio, and Los Lunas, New Mexico. The experiments were conducted in both batch digestion and a mixed mode of continuous, fed-batch, and batch operations. The low DO condition was clearly advantageous in eliminating the need for pH control because of the simultaneous occurrence of nitrification and denitrification. However, when compared with fully aerobic (high DO) systems under constant pH control (rare in full-scale plants), low DO concentrations and a higher solids loading had a negative effect on the specific volatile solids (VS) digestion kinetics. Nonetheless, the overall (volumetric) digestion performance depends not only on the specific digestion kinetics, but also the solids concentration, pH, and digester temperature. All of the latter factors favor the low DO digestion of thickened sludge. The significant effect of temperature on low DO digestion was confirmed in the mixed-mode study with the Akron sludge. When compared with the well-known empirical correlation between VS reduction and the product (temperature x solids retention time), the experimental data followed the same trend, but were lower than the correlation predictions. The latter was attributed to the lower digestible VS in the Akron sludge, the slower digestion at low DO concentrations, or both. Through model simulation, the first-order decay constant (kd) was estimated as 0.004 h(-1) in the mixed-mode operations, much lower than those (0.011 to 0.029 h(-1)) obtained in batch digestion. The findings suggested that the interactions among sludges with different treatment ages may have a substantially negative effect on digestion kinetics. The use of multistage digesters, especially with small front-end reactors, may be advantageous in both "process" kinetics and "biological reaction" kinetics for sludge digestion. PMID:15523791

Arunachalam, RaviSankar; Shah, Hemant K; Ju, Lu-Kwang

2004-01-01

290

Voluntary intake, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of fresh forages fed to guinea pigs in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo).  

PubMed

The daily voluntary intake (DVI) of Guinea pigs (GP) fed 15 fresh forages used in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo) was investigated. In order to determine the best forages combination for GP diet, DVI was compared to their nutritional value measured in vitro using (1) a pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, (2) an gas fermentation test on the hydrolysed residues with an inoculum prepared from GP faeces, and (3) the chemical composition of the offered feeds and the hydrolysis residues. The forages ranking based on the DVI was correlated to the NDF content, but not to their nutritional values determined in vitro. According to their high DVI (from 4.23 to 7.75 g/kg liveweigth), and their valuable in vitro nutritional values (crude protein ranging from 261 to 279 g crude protein kg(-1) DM, pepsin-pancreatin digestibilities of the dry matter from 0.55 to 0.59 and final gas production from 170 to 196 1 kg(-1) DM), Desmodium intortum, Euphorbia heterophylla or Amaranthus hybridus, can be suggested to the farmers to complement the usual diet distributed to the GP based on Panicum maximum. PMID:17966272

Bindelle, J; Ilunga, Y; Delacollette, M; Kayij, M Muland; di M'Balu, J Umba; Kindele, E; Buldgen, A

2007-08-01

291

Acid phase digestion phenomena. Final report, February 1983-February 1984  

SciTech Connect

A review of the microbiology and biochemistry of anaerobic digestion of biomass to methane gas is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on the degradation of mono- and polysaccharides that are found in marine macrophytes. Specific research on the control and mechanisms of algin and mannitol degradation in some important microbial strains isolated from a Macrocystis-fed digester system is described.

Forro, J.R.

1984-02-01

292

TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...

293

Axonal Transport and Sorting of Herpes Simplex Virus Components in a Mature Mouse Visual System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time course for delivery and transport of two major proteins of herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been determined for mature mouse retinal ganglion cell axons in vivo. Twenty-four hours after intravitreal injection of HSV, valacyclovir was introduced into the drinking water of the mice to inhibit subsequent viral replication. Without treatment, viral spread and replication in periaxonal glial cells

Jennifer H. LaVail; Andrew N. Tauscher; Elda Aghaian; Ons Harrabi; Sukhvinder S. Sidhu

2003-01-01

294

XactMice: A Xenochimaeric Mouse with Tumor and Hematopoietic System Obtained from the Same Patient.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lack of faithful animal models limits cancer research. One of the major factors is that regular animal models are a mixture of human tumor cells supported by mouse stroma cells, and this can have a major negative impact in research, particularly that ...

A. Jimeno

2011-01-01

295

MuTrack: a genome analysis system for large-scale mutagenesis in the mouse  

PubMed Central

Background Modern biological research makes possible the comprehensive study and development of heritable mutations in the mouse model at high-throughput. Using techniques spanning genetics, molecular biology, histology, and behavioral science, researchers may examine, with varying degrees of granularity, numerous phenotypic aspects of mutant mouse strains directly pertinent to human disease states. Success of these and other genome-wide endeavors relies on a well-structured bioinformatics core that brings together investigators from widely dispersed institutions and enables them to seamlessly integrate data, observations and discussions. Description MuTrack was developed as the bioinformatics core for a large mouse phenotype screening effort. It is a comprehensive collection of on-line computational tools and tracks thousands of mutagenized mice from birth through senescence and death. It identifies the physical location of mice during an intensive phenotype screening process at several locations throughout the state of Tennessee and collects raw and processed experimental data from each domain. MuTrack's statistical package allows researchers to access a real-time analysis of mouse pedigrees for aberrant behavior, and subsequent recirculation and retesting. The end result is the classification of potential and actual heritable mutant mouse strains that become immediately available to outside researchers who have expressed interest in the mutant phenotype. Conclusion MuTrack demonstrates the effectiveness of using bioinformatics techniques in data collection, integration and analysis to identify unique result sets that are beyond the capacity of a solitary laboratory. By employing the research expertise of investigators at several institutions for a broad-ranging study, the TMGC has amplified the effectiveness of any one consortium member. The bioinformatics strategy presented here lends future collaborative efforts a template for a comprehensive approach to large-scale analysis.

Baker, Erich J; Galloway, Leslie; Jackson, Barbara; Schmoyer, Denise; Snoddy, Jay

2004-01-01

296

Protein digestion in penaeid shrimp: digestive proteinases, proteinase inhibitors and feed digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein is the most abundant ingredient in both natural and prepared diets of penaeid shrimp. The assessment of protein digestion through the developmental stages of penaeids may contribute to the development of more suitable feeding schedules for their cultivation. Among the techniques to study protein digestion, detection and characterization of digestive proteinase inhibitors in proteinaceous feed ingredients can be achieved

D. Lemos; J. M. Ezquerra; F. L. Garcia-Carreno

2000-01-01

297

Long-Term Expression of Human Coagulation Factor VIII in a Tolerant Mouse Model Using the ?C31 Integrase System  

PubMed Central

Abstract We generated a mouse model for hemophilia A that combines a homozygous knockout for murine factor VIII (FVIII) and a homozygous addition of a mutant human FVIII (hFVIII). The resulting mouse, having no detectable FVIII protein or activity and tolerant to hFVIII, is useful for evaluating FVIII gene-therapy protocols. This model was used to develop an effective gene-therapy strategy using the ?C31 integrase to mediate permanent genomic integration of an hFVIII cDNA deleted for the B-domain. Various plasmids encoding ?C31 integrase and hFVIII were delivered to the livers of these mice by using hydrodynamic tail-vein injection. Long-term expression of therapeutic levels of hFVIII was observed over a 6-month time course when an intron was included in the hFVIII expression cassette and wild-type ?C31 integrase was used. A second dose of the hFVIII and integrase plasmids resulted in higher long-term hFVIII levels, indicating that incremental doses were beneficial and that a second dose of ?C31 integrase was tolerated. We observed a significant decrease in the bleeding time after a tail-clip challenge in mice treated with plasmids expressing hFVIII and ?C31 integrase. Genomic integration of the hFVIII expression plasmid was demonstrated by junction PCR at a known hotspot for integration in mouse liver. The ?C31 integrase system provided a nonviral method to achieve long-term FVIII gene therapy in a relevant mouse model of hemophilia A.

Chavez, Christopher L.; Keravala, Annahita; Chu, Jacqueline N.; Farruggio, Alfonso P.; Cuellar, Vanessa E.; Voorberg, Jan

2011-01-01

298

Distinct Human and Mouse Membrane Trafficking Systems for Sweet Taste Receptors T1r2 and T1r3  

PubMed Central

The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system.

Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

2014-01-01

299

Quantification of Gordona amarae Strains in Foaming Activated Sludge and Anaerobic Digester Systems with Oligonucleotide Hybridization Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown the predominance of mycolic acid-containing filamentous actinomycetes (my- colata) in foam layers in activated sludge systems. Gordona (formerly Nocardia) amarae often is considered the major representative of this group in activated sludge foam. In this study, small-subunit rRNA genes of four G. amarae strains were sequenced, and the resulting sequences were compared to the sequence of

M. FIORELLA DE LOS REYES; MARK HERNANDEZ; LUTGARDE RASKIN

1998-01-01

300

Histopathological Alterations in the Digestive System of Larval and Juvenile Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus Reared on Four Feeding Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathological effects of different feeding levels on the organ systems of larval and juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus (also known as olive flounder) were studied sequentially from 3 to 45 d posthatch. The flounder were fed enriched live foods—the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and brine shrimp in the genus Artemia–at four feeding levels (L1–L4). The respective food densities at L1,

S. M. A. Mobin; Kinya Kanai; Kazuma Yoshikoshi

2000-01-01

301

In-line system containing porous polymer monoliths for protein digestion with immobilized pepsin, peptide preconcentration and nano-liquid chromatography separation coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The use of two different monoliths located in capillaries for on-line protein digestion, preconcentration of peptides and their separation has been demonstrated. The first monolith was used as support for covalent immobilization of pepsin. This monolith with well defined porous properties was prepared by in situ copolymerization of 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone and ethylene dimethacrylate. The second, poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith with a different porous structure served for the preconcentration of peptides from the digest and their separation in reversed-phase liquid chromatography mode. The top of the separation capillary was used as a preconcentrator, thus enabling the digestion of very dilute solutions of proteins in the bioreactor and increasing the sensitivity of the mass spectrometric detection of the peptides using a time of flight mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization. Myoglobin, albumin, and hemoglobin were digested to demonstrate feasibility of the concept of using the two monoliths in-line. Successive protein injections confirmed both the repeatability of the results and the ability to reuse the bioreactor for at least 20 digestions.

Geiser, Laurent; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Svec, Frantisek; Frechet, Jean M. J.

2008-01-01

302

Evaluation of methods for estimating starch digestibility and digestion kinetics in ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the paper is to review literature concerning the methods used to estimate starch digestibility in different segments of the digestive tract of ruminants and the kinetics of starch digestion. Starch digestibility and site of starch digestion have a profound effect on the amount and profile of substrates absorbed from the digestive tract. The prediction of starch digestibility

Pekka Huhtanen; Jóhannes Sveinbjörnsson

2006-01-01

303

Development of Real-time Subcellular Dynamic Multicolor Imaging of Cancer-Cell Trafficking in Live Mice with a Variable-Magnification Whole-Mouse Imaging System  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the use of dual-color fluorescent cells and a highly sensitive whole-mouse imaging system with both macro-optics and micro-optics, we report here the development of subcel- lular real-time imaging of cancer cell trafficking in live mice. To observe cytoplasmic and nuclear dynamics in the living mouse, tumor cells were labeled in the nucleus with green fluorescent protein and with red

Kensuke Yamauchi; Meng Yang; Ping Jiang; Mingxu Xu; Norio Yamamoto; Hiroyuki Tsuchiya; Katsuro Tomita; Abdool R. Moossa; Michael Bouvet

2006-01-01

304

Spatiotemporal Expression Patterns of Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter Transcription Factors in the Developing Mouse Central Nervous System: Evidence for a Role in Segmental Patterning of the Diencephalon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor (COUP-TF) genes encode transcription factors belonging to the orphan subfamily of the steroid\\/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. Two COUP-TF counterparts have been cloned from mouse. In an attempt to study the function of these genes in the developing central nervous system (CNS), the spatiotemporal expression patterns of the two mouse genes have been examined by in

Yuhong Qiu; Austin J. Cooney; Shigeru Kuratani; Francesco J. Demayo; Sophia Y. Tsai; Ming-Jer Tsai

1994-01-01

305

Environmental Literacy. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest presents a case for the development of a precise definition of environmental literacy (EL) as a prerequisite to setting standards for environmental education. The discussion includes the following: (1) establishment of the relationship between EL, environmental education, and goals of the formal education system; (2) the development of…

Disinger, John F.; Roth, Charles E.

306

Looping: Adding Time, Strengthening Relationships. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Looping" is an essentially simple concept: a teacher moves with his or her students to the next grade level, rather than sending them to another teacher at the end of the school year. This Digest explores the practitioners' perspectives on looping, the experience of European school systems, and research on looping. Practitioners report positive…

Burke, Daniel L.

307

Hypertext: Behind the Hype. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest begins by defining the concept of hypertext and describing the two types of hypertext--static and dynamic. Three prototype applications are then discussed: (1) Intermedia, a large-scale multimedia system at Brown University; (2) the Perseus Project at Harvard University, which is developing interactive courseware on classical Greek…

Bevilacqua, Ann F.

308

DrugDigest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DrugDigest is a "noncommercial, evidence-based, consumer health and drug information site dedicated to empowering consumers to make informed choices about drugs and treatment options." This exhaustive Web site offers a variety of resources to help readers manage their health, including easy-to-read reference materials, a potentially life-saving drug interactions database, informative news and features, and eBulletins -- an email service that delivers news and information on selected health conditions, free of charge.

309

Cultural Entomology Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cultural Entomology Digest was published in four issues from 1993 to 1997. All issues are available online. More than 30 short articles on the use of insects in human culture are presented, covering a wide variety of fascinating topics from butterflies in mythology to insects in psychiatry to the use of beetles as religious symbols. The articles are both informative and entertaining, and are written by recognized authorities.

0002-11-30

310

Systemic administration of candidate antivesicants to protect against topically applied sulfur mustard in the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM).  

PubMed

The mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) provides a quantitative edema response as well as histopathological and biochemical endpoints as measurements of inflammation and tissue damage following exposure to the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD). In the MEVM, several topically applied anti-inflammatory agents provided a significant degree of protection against HD-induced edema and dermal-epidermal separation. This study evaluated the protective effects of three of these pharmacological compounds when administered systemically in the MEVM. Alzet osmotic pumps were used to deliver a subcutaneous dose of the appropriate anti-inflammatory agent, starting 24 h before exposure to sulfur mustard and continuing until 24 h post-exposure to HD. Twenty-four hours after pump implantation, 5 microl of a 195 mM (0.16 mg) solution of sulfur mustard (density = 1.27 g ml(-1); MW = 159; purity = 97.5%) in methylene chloride was applied to the inner surface of the right ear of each mouse. Sulfur mustard injury in the mouse ear was measured by both edema response (fluid accumulation) and histopathological damage (necrosis, epidermal-dermal separation). The systemic administration of hydrocortisone, indomethacin and olvanil provided a significant reduction in edema (24%, 26% and 22%, respectively) from the positive control. Compared to HD-positive controls, hydrocortisone, indomethacin and olvanil caused a significant reduction in subepidermal blisters (71%, 52% and 57%, respectively) whereas only hydrocortisone produced a significant reduction in contralateral epidermal necrosis (41%). We show here that these anti-inflammatory drugs are effective when administered systemically in the MEVM. PMID:11428627

Babin, M C; Ricketts, K; Skvorak, J P; Gazaway, M; Mitcheltree, L W; Casillas, R P

2000-12-01

311

Factor VIIa binding to endothelial cell protein C receptor: Differences between mouse and human systems  

PubMed Central

Summary Recent in vitro studies have shown that the zymogen and activated form of FVII bind to endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR). At present, there is no evidence that FVIIa binds to EPCR on vascular endothelium in vivo in the presence of circulating protein C, a primary ligand for EPCR. The present study was carried out to investigate the interaction of murine and human ligands with murine EPCR both in vivo and in vitro. Measurement of endogenous plasma levels of FVII in wild-type, EPCR-deficient and EPCR-over expressing mice showed slightly lower levels of FVII in EPCR-over expressing mice. However, infusion of high concentrations of competing ligands, either human APCi or FVIIai, to EPCR-over expressing mice failed to increase plasma levels of mouse FVII whereas they increased the plasma levels of protein C by 2 to 3-fold. Examining the association of exogenously administered mouse FVIIa or human FVIIa by immunohistochemistry revealed that human, but not murine FVIIa, binds to the murine endothelium in an EPCR-dependent manner. In vitro binding studies performed using surface plasmon resonance and endothelial cells revealed that murine FVIIa binds murine EPCR negligibly. Human FVIIa binding to EPCR, particularly to mouse EPCR, is markedly enhanced by availability of Mg2+ ions. In summary, our data show that murine FVIIa binds poorly to murine EPCR, whereas human FVIIa binds efficiently to both murine and human EPCR. Our data suggest that one should consider the use of human FVIIa in mouse models to investigate the significance of FVIIa and EPCR interaction.

Sen, Prosenjit; Clark, Curtis A.; Gopalakrishnan, Ramakrishnan; Hedner, Ulla; Esmon, Charles T.; Pendurthi, Usha R.; Rao, L. Vijaya Mohan

2013-01-01

312

Comparative genetic analysis: the utility of mouse genetic systems for studying human monogenic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the long-term goals of mutagenesis programs in the mouse has been to generate mutant lines to facilitate the functional\\u000a study of every mammalian gene. With a combination of complementary genetic approaches and advances in technology, this aim\\u000a is slowly becoming a reality. One of the most important features of this strategy is the ability to identify and compare

Peter L. Oliver; Emmanuelle Bitoun; Kay E. Davies

2007-01-01

313

[Comparative analysis of the antioxidant system of mouse liver and blood during exposure to toxins, extracted from drinking water].  

PubMed

A comparative analysis of the antioxidant system of mouse liver and blood was done during one month after a single per os administration of oil solutions of hexane--ether extracts from the drinking water sources with different proportions of benz(o)pyrene and polychlorbiphenyls. The absence of a linear dependence dose-effect on the extract concentration and a change in the scale and direction of interrelations between the parameters examined (the antioxidant activity of lipids, the content of peroxides, and the content of products interacting with 2-thiobarbituric acid) were revealed, indicating a high sensitivity and the absence of normalization of the antioxidant status in animal tissues. PMID:14515497

Urnysheva, V V; Shishkina, L N

2003-01-01

314

A 20-Channel Receive-Only Mouse Array Coil for a 3T Clinical MRI System  

PubMed Central

A 20-channel phased-array coil for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of mice has been designed, constructed and validated with bench measurements and high resolution accelerated imaging. The technical challenges of designing a small, high density array have been overcome using individual small-diameter coil elements arranged on a cylinder in a hexagonal overlapping design with adjacent low impedance preamplifiers to further decouple the array elements. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise amplification in accelerated imaging were simulated and quantitatively evaluated in phantoms and in vivo mouse images. Comparison between the 20-channel mouse array and a length-matched quadrature driven small animal birdcage coil showed an SNR increase at the periphery and in the center of the phantom of 3-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively. Comparison to a shorter but SNR-optimized birdcage coil (aspect ratio 1:1 and only half mouse coverage) showed an SNR gain of 2-fold at the edge of the phantom and similar SNR in the center. G-factor measurements indicate that the coil is well suited to acquire highly accelerated images.

Keil, Boris; Wiggins, Graham C.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wald, Lawrence L.; Meise, Florian M.; Schreiber, Laura M.; Klose, Klaus J.; Heverhagen, Johannes T.

2010-01-01

315

DESTRUCTION AND STABILIZATION OF SLUDGE BY MULTIPLE-STATE DIGESTION AND THERMAL TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The study compared conventional, anaerobic sludge digestion and three stage, anaerobic sludge digestion. The conventional digester and the first two stages of the multiple stage system were operated at 35 deg C; the third stage was maintained at 49 deg C. The influent feed sludge...

316

Genome typing of mouse adenoviruses.  

PubMed Central

Restriction endonuclease cleavage site analysis was used to differentiate between mouse adenovirus (MAV) types 1 and 2 strains. Viral DNA of suitable purity and quantity for multiple enzymatic digestions was obtained from cloned CMT-93 mouse tumor cells infected with each type of MAV. Clear differences between the MAV-1 (FL) and MAV-2 (K87) genomes were observed after cleavage with restriction enzymes such as BglII, EcoRI, and PaeR7. Fast electrophoresis of DNA fragments in miniature agarose slab gels allowed rapid and unequivocal identification of the MAV strains. This relatively simple and accurate method should be quite useful to determine the different modes of transmission of mouse adenoviruses and their presence in various animal populations. Images

Hamelin, C; Jacques, C; Lussier, G

1988-01-01

317

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 29  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the twenty-ninth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It is a double issue covering two issues of the Soviet Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine Journal. Issue 29 contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A review of a book on environmental hygiene and a list of papers presented at a Soviet conference on space biology and medicine are also included. The materials in this issue were identified as relevant to 28 areas of space biology and medicine. The areas are: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, digestive system, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, space biology and medicine, and the economics of space flight.

Stone, Lydia Razran (editor); Teeter, Ronald (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)

1991-01-01

318

The influence of stocking rate and grazing system on the crude protein content and digestibility of Tarchonanthus veld in the northern cape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four stocking rates (10, 7, 6 and 4 ha\\/large stock unit), in both rotational and continuous grazing, have been applied with cattle on Tarchonanthus veld. The crude protein content and digestibility of organic matter of handcut samples and herbage samples collected by means of oesophageal fistulated steers in the different treatments, were determined.The results indicated that the crude protein content

J H Fourie; E A N Engels; Heila L H C DeBruyn

1986-01-01

319

A Systems Biology Study on NF?B Signaling in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) is one of the key factors during the priming phase of liver regeneration as well as in hepatocarcinogenesis. TNF? activates the nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF?B) signaling pathway and contributes to the conversion of quiescent hepatocytes to activated hepatocytes that are able to proliferate in response to growth factor stimulation. Different mathematical models have been previously established for TNF?/NF?B signaling in the context of tumor cells. Combining these mathematical models with time-resolved measurements of expression and phosphorylation of TNF?/NF?B pathway constituents in primary mouse hepatocytes revealed that an additional phosphorylation step of the NF?B isoform p65 has to be considered in the mathematical model in order to sufficiently describe the dynamics of pathway activation in the primary cells. Also, we addressed the role of basal protein turnover by experimentally measuring the degradation rate of pivotal players in the absence of TNF? and including this information in the model. To elucidate the impact of variations in the protein degradation rates on TNF?/NF?B signaling on the overall dynamic behavior we used global sensitivity analysis that accounts for parameter uncertainties and showed that degradation and translation of p65 had a major impact on the amplitude and the integral of p65 phosphorylation. Finally, our mathematical model of TNF?/NF?B signaling was able to predict the time-course of the complex formation of p65 and of the inhibitor of NF?B (I?B) in primary mouse hepatocytes, which was experimentally verified. Hence, we here present a mathematical model for TNF?/NF?B signaling in primary mouse hepatocytes that provides an important basis to quantitatively disentangle the complex interplay of multiple factors in liver regeneration and tumorigenesis.

Pinna, Federico; Sahle, Sven; Beuke, Katharina; Bissinger, Michaela; Tuncay, Selcan; D'Alessandro, Lorenza A.; Gauges, Ralph; Raue, Andreas; Timmer, Jens; Klingmuller, Ursula; Schirmacher, Peter; Kummer, Ursula; Breuhahn, Kai

2012-01-01

320

Studies on the metabolism of catecholamines in the central nervous system of the mouse  

PubMed Central

1 The distribution of the metabolites of noradrenaline, 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethane-1,2-diol (DOPEG) and 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethane-1,2-diol (MOPEG), in the brain of the mouse has been investigated. 2 The rate of disappearance of the metabolites after inhibition of the enzyme monoamine oxidase has been used to estimate their turnover rates in the mouse hypothalamus. It was concluded that the turnover of DOPEG was much faster than that of MOPEG. 3 When mice were treated with reserpine dissolved in 5% ascorbic acid solution there was an increase in the hypothalamic concentration of both MOPEG and DOPEG. However, similar increases in the concentrations of the two metabolites were seen when the animals were treated with 5% ascorbic acid solution alone. 4 The administration of tropolone, an inhibitor of the enzyme catechol-O-methyl transferase, resulted in an increase in the concentration of DOPEG. 5 Mice, exposed to a temperature of -15° C showed increased hypothalamic concentrations of both DOPEG and MOPEG. 6 The rates of formation in the mouse striatum of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid (HVA), acidic metabolites of dopamine, were compared with the turnover rate of dopamine, estimated from the rate at which this catecholamine disappears after treatment with ?-methyl-p-tyrosine. It was concluded that the estimate of dopamine turnover obtained by this method is likely to be too large because of the compensatory feedback mechanism which is thought to play a role in the metabolism of dopamine in the brain.

Ceasar, P.M.; Hague, P.; Sharman, D.F.; Werdinius, B.

1974-01-01

321

A detailed analysis of the erythropoietic control system in the human, squirrel, monkey, rat and mouse  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The erythropoiesis modeling performed in support of the Body Fluid and Blood Volume Regulation tasks is described. The mathematical formulation of the species independent model, the solutions to the steady state and dynamic versions of the model, and the individual species specific models for the human, squirrel monkey, rat and mouse are outlined. A detailed sensitivity analysis of the species independent model response to parameter changes and how those responses change from species to species is presented. The species to species response to a series of simulated stresses directly related to blood volume regulation during space flight is analyzed.

Nordheim, A. W.

1985-01-01

322

Vortex-assisted tryptic digestion.  

PubMed

The effect of vortex-induced vibration during tryptic digestion was investigated by applying different vibrational speeds (0, 600, 1200, or 2500?rpm) to digestion solutions for varying durations (10, 20, 30, 40, or 60?min) at two different incubation temperatures (25°C or 37°C). The most rapid digestion was observed with the highest vibrational speed and temperature. With the application of 2500?rpm at 37°C, the tryptic digestion of each of three standard proteins (cytochrome c, myoglobin, or bovine serum albumin) provided complete disappearance of the protein within 60?min, as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Compared to conventional overnight digestion, 60-min vortex-assisted tryptic digestion generated longer peptides, due primarily to the limited digestion time and provided better sequence coverages (89% vs. 78% for cytochrome c, 100% vs. 87% for myoglobin, and 38% vs. 26% for BSA). The longer peptides should be advantageous to analytical methods such as the middle-down approach that benefit from increased sequence coverage of proteins. Vortex-assisted tryptic digestion is expected to be a useful method for rapid tryptic digestion of proteins. PMID:21154656

Yang, Hyo-Jik; Shin, Seongjae; Kim, Jinhee; Hong, Jangmi; Lee, Sunyoung; Kim, Jeongkwon

2011-01-15

323

Smoking and Your Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... of potential life lost, and productivity losses—United States, 2000–2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report . 2008;57(45):1226–1228. 3 The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General . Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers ...

324

Automatic flow-injection system for the determination of heavy metals in sewage sludge by microwave digestion and detection by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MW-ICP/AES).  

PubMed

Results are shown obtained in the optimization of an automatic flow injection system that combines microwave digestion with atomic spectrometric detection (FAAS, ICP/AES) for the determination of heavy metals in sewage sludge. Digestion is performed by preparing a suspension of the sample in 1.5 mol/l HNO(3) and making it flow through a PTFE capillary tube placed inside a conventional microwave oven. The effects of the length and inner diameter of the capillary tube, as well as that of the pumping rate, have been studied in order to find the experimental conditions that allow a quantitative elemental recovery in the shortest period of time possible. The optimization study was carried out on a certified sample (BCR No. 146), and the elements determined were Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr. The experimental data (percent recovery vs. digestion time) have been fitted to a mathematical model in order to quantify the influence of each of the variables studied. The optimized procedure (MW-ICP/AES) has been applied to one ordinary and one certified sewage sludge sample. In comparison with the conventional methods of sewage sludge analysis, the one proposed is less time consuming, while being equally precise and accurate. PMID:15045433

Bordera, L; Hernandis, V; Canals, A

1996-05-01

325

Acid Digestion of Combustible Waste. Status Report 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) has been constructed at Hanford to process combustible transuranic waste. Laboratory testing, pilot plant testing, engineering studies, and safety studies have been completed and incorporated in the system ...

C. Allen R. Cowan J. Divine

1978-01-01

326

Acid digestion of combustible waste. Status report 2. [RADTU  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) has been constructed at Hanford to process combustible transuranic waste. Laboratory testing, pilot plant testing, engineering studies, and safety studies have been completed and incorporated in the system design. 44 figures, 7 tables.

C. Allen; R. Cowan; J. Divine

1978-01-01

327

A new mouse model of Canavan leukodystrophy displays hearing impairment due to central nervous system dysmyelination.  

PubMed

Canavan disease is a leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the ASPA gene. This gene encodes the enzyme that converts N-acetylaspartate into acetate and aspartic acid. In Canavan disease, spongiform encephalopathy of the brain causes progressive mental retardation, motor deficit and death. We have isolated a mouse with a novel ethylnitrosourea-induced mutation in Aspa. This mutant, named deaf14, carries a c.516T>A mutation that is predicted to cause a p.Y172X protein truncation. No full-length ASPA protein is produced in deaf14 brain and there is extensive spongy degeneration. Interestingly, we found that deaf14 mice have an attenuated startle in response to loud noise. The first auditory brainstem response peak has normal latency and amplitude but peaks II, III, IV and V have increased latency and decreased amplitude in deaf14 mice. Our work reveals a hitherto unappreciated pathology in a mouse model of Canavan disease, implying that auditory brainstem response testing could be used in diagnosis and to monitor the progression of this disease. PMID:24682784

Carpinelli, Marina R; Voss, Anne K; Manning, Michael G; Perera, Ashwyn A; Cooray, Anne A; Kile, Benjamin T; Burt, Rachel A

2014-06-01

328

Genistein nanoparticles protect mouse hematopoietic system and prevent proinflammatory factors after gamma irradiation.  

PubMed

Previous studies demonstrated that genistein protects mice from radiation-induced bone marrow failure. To overcome genistein's extremely low water solubility, a nanoparticle suspension of genistein has been formulated for more rapid dissolution. In the current study, we evaluated the radioprotective effects of a nanoparticle formulation of genistein on survival and hematopoietic recovery in mice exposed to total-body gamma irradiation. A single intramuscular injection of a saline-based genistein nanosuspension (150 mg/kg) administered to CD2F1 mice 24 h before 9.25 Gy (60)Co radiation exposure resulted in a 30-day survival rate of 95% compared to 25% in vehicle-treated animals. In mice irradiated at 7 Gy, the genistein nanosuspension increased mouse bone marrow cellularity from approximately 2.9% (vehicle treated) to 28.3% on day 7 postirradiation. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated decreased radiation-induced hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC, Lineage(-)/cKit(+)) death from 77.0% (vehicle) to 43.9% (genistein nanosuspension) with a significant recovery of clonogenicity 7 days after irradiation. The genistein nanosuspension also attenuated the radiation-induced elevation of proinflammatory factors interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), IL-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in mouse bone marrow and spleen, which may contribute to protecting HSPCs. PMID:23952576

Ha, Cam T; Li, Xiang-Hong; Fu, Dadin; Xiao, Mang; Landauer, Michael R

2013-09-01

329

A new mouse model of Canavan leukodystrophy displays hearing impairment due to central nervous system dysmyelination  

PubMed Central

Canavan disease is a leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the ASPA gene. This gene encodes the enzyme that converts N-acetylaspartate into acetate and aspartic acid. In Canavan disease, spongiform encephalopathy of the brain causes progressive mental retardation, motor deficit and death. We have isolated a mouse with a novel ethylnitrosourea-induced mutation in Aspa. This mutant, named deaf14, carries a c.516T>A mutation that is predicted to cause a p.Y172X protein truncation. No full-length ASPA protein is produced in deaf14 brain and there is extensive spongy degeneration. Interestingly, we found that deaf14 mice have an attenuated startle in response to loud noise. The first auditory brainstem response peak has normal latency and amplitude but peaks II, III, IV and V have increased latency and decreased amplitude in deaf14 mice. Our work reveals a hitherto unappreciated pathology in a mouse model of Canavan disease, implying that auditory brainstem response testing could be used in diagnosis and to monitor the progression of this disease.

Carpinelli, Marina R.; Voss, Anne K.; Manning, Michael G.; Perera, Ashwyn A.; Cooray, Anne A.; Kile, Benjamin T.; Burt, Rachel A.

2014-01-01

330

Lasers in digestive endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lasers were introduced in digestive endoscopy to stop active gastroduodenal hemorrhages. Their use spread progressively to the treatment of chronic hemorrhages from vascular malformations and sessile tumors. Laser face competition from other endoscopic techniques such as electrocoagulation, injection techniques, dilation, stents, and brachytherapy. Many series have reported the efficacy of lasers in digestive endoscopy used for their thermal or photochemical effects. However, they were gradually abandoned for the treatment of hemorrhages because of competition from nonlaser techniques. Lasers are still used for ablation of sessile tumors, but their true impact is difficult to evaluate. Modern methods of technology assessment did not allow gastroenterologists to clearly define the place of lasers among surgery, radio-chemotherapy, and other endoscopic techniques, and data on the daily use of lasers are not available. Therefore, the conclusion can only be subjective. The best current application of thermal lasers appears to be in the treatment of rectosigmoid villous adenomas in elderly patients. Small superficial rectal cancers may also become a good subject due to the impact of endoscopic ultrasonography. Early lesions with multifocal or diffuse disease such as early esophageal cancers could be the most promising subject of application for photodynamic therapy in the future.

Brunetaud, Jean Marc; Maunoury, Vincent; Cochelard, Dominique

1997-01-01

331

Novel trends in anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion capacity has been installed on a large scale for the treatment of biowaste coming from municipal solid waste in the 90's. However, in recent years, a new trend has developed in which anaerobic digestion is applied more and more for the treatment of mixed or grey waste. It is expected that the installed capacity for grey/mixed waste will surpass the capacity installed for biowaste digestion. Five years ago, more than 85% of the treatment capacity was for biowaste digestion and only 15% for grey/mired waste digestion, derived from two old plants that were constructed prior to 1990. By the end of 2004, a digestion capacity of 1,285,000 ton per year will be available in Europe for the treatment of grey or mixed MSW, while digestion capacity for biowaste will only amount to 1,270,000 ton per year. Especially dry digestion offers new perspectives. Dry digestion is particularly suited for the treatment of grey/mixed waste due to its insensitivity to the presence of heavy inerts and light materials. Heavy inerts such as sand, glass and stones cause sedimentation and the light materials cause floatation and scum formation in the more conventional wet and semi-dry systems. Due to the high initial dry solids content, the digestate coming from dry digestion can be treated in a variety of ways. Besides the conventional mechanical dewatering, drying with waste heat or aerobic drying by addition of a fresh waste can be utilized for the production of a high-quality compost in case of the treatment of biowaste. Digestate from mixed or grey waste is not immediately suitable for the production of a high-quality compost. However, integration with incineration plants and landfills can be optimized easily with such a dry digestate and offers various interesting alternatives. In case a maximum of recyclables is pursued, the dry digestion can be followed by a wet separation in order to produce marketable endproducts such as sand and fibers. PMID:15296145

De Baere, Luc

2003-01-01

332

Effects of instant coffee consumption on oxidative DNA damage, DNA repair, and redox system in mouse liver.  

PubMed

To examine the effects of instant coffee consumption on cancer risk, we analyzed the oxidative DNA damage levels and the DNA repair and redox systems in the livers of coffee-fed mice. Three-week-old male ICR mice were fed with/without 0.1% (w/v) instant coffee solution. At 2, 4, and 8 mo, the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), a major form of oxidative DNA damage, and the expression of mouse 8-OH-dG repair-associated genes and redox system-associated genes, the SOD activity, and the LPO level were analyzed. Simultaneously, half of the mice were fed a low vitamin (LV) diet (autoclaved diet) to disturb the defense system against oxidative stresses. As a result, the 8-OH-dG level was increased in the livers of LV diet (+ water)-fed mice for 8 mo, in comparison to those of the 0 M control mice and normal diet (+ water)-fed mice. However, no significant differences between water drinking and coffee drinking were observed, in terms of the 8-OH-dG level. In addition, the 8-OH-dG repair-associated gene expression, the SOD activity, and the LPO level also showed no significant differences between water drinking and coffee drinking in all mouse groups. On the other hand, among the redox system-associated genes, only the expression of GPx1 was changed. These results suggest that instant coffee consumption has little, if any, effect on the risk of liver cancer due to oxidative stresses. PMID:19723199

Morii, H; Kuboyama, A; Nakashima, T; Kawai, K; Kasai, H; Tamae, K; Hirano, T

2009-08-01

333

Large-scale mutagenesis of the mouse to understand the genetic bases of nervous system structure and function  

PubMed Central

N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis is presented as a powerful approach to developing models for human disease. The efforts of three NIH Mutagenesis Centers established for the detection of neuroscience-related phenotypes are described. Each center has developed an extensive panel of phenotype screens that assess nervous system structure and function. In particular, these screens focus on complex behavioral traits from drug and alcohol responses to circadian rhythms to epilepsy. Each of these centers has developed a bioinformatics infrastructure to track the extensive number of transactions that are inherent in these large-scale projects. Over 100 new mouse mutant lines have been defined through the efforts of these three mutagenesis centers and are presented to the research community via the centralized Web presence of the Neuromice.org consortium (http://www.neuromice.org). This community resource provides visitors with the ability to search for specific mutant phenotypes, to view the genetic and phenotypic details of mutant mouse lines, and to order these mice for use in their own research program.

Goldowitz, Dan; Frankel, Wayne N.; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Holtz-Vitaterna, Martha; Bult, Carol; Kibbe, Warren A.; Snoddy, Jay; Li, Yanxia; Pretel, Stephanie; Yates, Jeana; Swanson, Douglas J.

2013-01-01

334

New reliable scoring system, Toyama mouse score, to evaluate locomotor function following spinal cord injury in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Among the variety of methods used to evaluate locomotor function following a spinal cord injury (SCI), the Basso Mouse Scale score (BMS) has been widely used for mice. However, the BMS mainly focuses on hindlimb movement rather than on graded changes in body support ability. In addition, some of the scoring methods include double or triple criteria within a single score, which likely leads to an increase in the deviation within the data. Therefore we aimed to establish a new scoring method reliable and easy to perform in mice with SCI. Findings Our Toyama Mouse Score (TMS) was established by rearranging and simplifying the BMS score and combining it with the Body Support Scale score (BSS). The TMS reflects changes in both body support ability and hindlimb movement. The definition of single score is made by combing multiple criteria in the BMS. The ambiguity was improved in the TMS. Using contusive SCI mice, hindlimb function was measured using the TMS, BMS and BSS systems. The TMS could distinguish changes in hindlimb movements that were evaluated as the same score by the BMS. An analysis of the coefficient of variation (CV) of score points recorded for 11 days revealed that the CV for the TMS was significantly lower than the CV obtained using the BMS. A variation in intra evaluators was lower in the TMS than in the BMS. Conclusion These results suggest that the TMS may be useful as a new reliable method for scoring locomotor function for SCI models.

2014-01-01

335

CORN GRAIN PROCESSING AND DIGESTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Grains are fed to livestock primarily to supply energy, and the major energy source in cereal grains is starch. For maximum starch digestion, corn and sorghum grain must be processed. For non-ruminants, starch from finely ground grain is fully digested, but for ruminants fed concentrate diets, finely ground grain can cause metabolic diseases. Hence, steam rolling or flaking and

Fred Owens

336

Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the semi-arid tropics worldwide, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated by farmers on a subsistence level and consumed as food by humans. A nutritional limitation to its use is the poor digestibility of sorghum protein when wet cooked. The factors affecting wet cooked sorghum protein digestibility may be categorised into two main groups: exogenous factors (grain organisational structure,

K. G Duodu; J. R. N Taylor; P. S Belton; B. R Hamaker

2003-01-01

337

Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU), 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was constructed at the Hanford Site, Richland, WA to demonstrate application of the acid digestion process for treating combustible transuranic wastes and scrap materials. Using its original tray digester v...

C. R. Allen

1980-01-01

338

Maternal obesity, infertility and mitochondrial dysfunction: potential mechanisms emerging from mouse model systems.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with ovulatory disorders, decreased rates of conception, infertility, early pregnancy loss and congenital abnormalities. Poor oocyte quality and reduced IVF success have also been reported in obese women. Recent attempts to understand the mechanism by which these defects occur have focused on mitochondria, essential organelles that are critical for oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development. The oocyte relies on maternally supplied mitochondria until the resumption of mitochondrial replication in the peri-implantation period. Here we review current literature addressing the roles of mitochondria in oocyte function and how mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to fertility problems. The relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and oocyte function is evaluated by examining the following examples of environmental exposures: tobacco smoke, aging, caloric restriction and hyperglycemia. Finally, we present new data from a mouse model of obesity that has demonstrated that oocyte mitochondria play a key role in obesity-associated reproductive disorders. PMID:23612738

Grindler, Natalia M; Moley, Kelle H

2013-08-01

339

The use of an open-freezing system with self-seeding for cryopreservation of mouse ovarian tissue.  

PubMed

Chemoradiotherapy in young women with cancer has substantially improved life expectancy in these patients, but these treatments often cause infertility. One method of preserving fertility is to cryopreserve ovarian tissue. In this study, an automatic open-vessel freezing system with self-seeding was tested for cryopreservation of murine ovarian tissue; the mouse is a species widely used in human and veterinary medical research. The freezing system concerned, is used for cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos in Europe. Twenty severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice were ovariectomized. The ovarian tissue was either directly transplanted heterotopically into the neck muscle (group 1, n = 6) or cryopreserved after equilibration with 1.5 M dimethylsulphoxide and propanediol. After thawing, the tissue was transplanted in SCID mice (group 2, n = 6). Before and after thawing, a part of the ovarian tissue was examined with the LIVE/DEAD fluorescent viability staining. The count of follicles revealed intact (fresh 24.1%/thawed 21.7%), impaired (fresh 35.1%/thawed 35.4%), and dead follicles (fresh 40.8%/thawed 42.9%). The healthy follicular loss because of the cryopreservation was 10.0%. All recipient mice were killed after 3 weeks. Transplanted ovarian tissue was found macroscopically in all mice. Histological examination showed several growing follicles in all developmental phases in both groups of SCID mice [group 1 (fresh grafts): 315 +/- 76.3 (mean +/- SD); group 2 (cryopreserved grafts): 237 +/- 63.4]. These results demonstrate that the use of an open-freezing system allows the survival of cryopreserved mouse ovarian tissue. PMID:15943700

Maltaris, T; Dimmler, A; Müller, A; Binder, H; Hoffmann, I; Kohl, J; Siebzehnrübl, E; Beckmann, M W; Dittrich, R

2005-06-01

340

High-solids anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste in comparison with mono digestions: stability and performance.  

PubMed

System stability and performance of high-solids anaerobic co-digestion of dewatered sludge (DS) and food waste (FW) in comparison with mono digestions were investigated. System stability was improved in co-digestion systems with co-substrate acting as a diluting agent to toxic chemicals like ammonia or Na(+). For high-solids digestion of DS, the addition of FW not only improved system stability but also greatly enhanced volumetric biogas production. For high-solids digestion of FW, the addition of DS could reduce Na(+) concentration and help maintain satisfactory stability during the conversion of FW into biogas. System performances of co-digestion systems were mainly determined by the mixing ratios of DS and FW. Biogas production and volatile solids (VSs) reduction in digestion of the co-mixture of DS and FW increased linearly with higher ratios of FW. A kinetic model, which aimed to forecast the performance of co-digestion and to assist reactor design, was developed from long-term semi-continuous experiments. Maximum VS reduction for DS and FW was estimated to be 44.3% and 90.3%, respectively, and first order constant k was found to be 0.17d(-1) and 0.50 d(-1), respectively. Experimental data of co-digestion were in good conformity to the predictions of the model. PMID:23177568

Dai, Xiaohu; Duan, Nina; Dong, Bin; Dai, Lingling

2013-02-01

341

Highly efficient targeted mutagenesis in one-cell mouse embryos mediated by the TALEN and CRISPR/Cas systems  

PubMed Central

Since the establishment of embryonic stem (ES) cell lines, the combined use of gene targeting with homologous recombination has aided in elucidating the functions of various genes. However, the ES cell technique is inefficient and time-consuming. Recently, two new gene-targeting technologies have been developed: the transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) system, and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system. In addition to aiding researchers in solving conventional problems, these technologies can be used to induce site-specific mutations in various species for which ES cells have not been established. Here, by targeting the Fgf10 gene through RNA microinjection in one-cell mouse embryos with the TALEN and CRISPR/Cas systems, we produced the known limb-defect phenotypes of Fgf10-deficient embryos at the F0 generation. Compared to the TALEN system, the CRISPR/Cas system induced the limb-defect phenotypes with a strikingly higher efficiency. Our results demonstrate that although both gene-targeting technologies are useful, the CRISPR/Cas system more effectively elicits single-step biallelic mutations in mice.

Yasue, Akihiro; Mitsui, Silvia Naomi; Watanabe, Takahito; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro; Tanaka, Eiji

2014-01-01

342

Highly efficient targeted mutagenesis in one-cell mouse embryos mediated by the TALEN and CRISPR/Cas systems.  

PubMed

Since the establishment of embryonic stem (ES) cell lines, the combined use of gene targeting with homologous recombination has aided in elucidating the functions of various genes. However, the ES cell technique is inefficient and time-consuming. Recently, two new gene-targeting technologies have been developed: the transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) system, and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system. In addition to aiding researchers in solving conventional problems, these technologies can be used to induce site-specific mutations in various species for which ES cells have not been established. Here, by targeting the Fgf10 gene through RNA microinjection in one-cell mouse embryos with the TALEN and CRISPR/Cas systems, we produced the known limb-defect phenotypes of Fgf10-deficient embryos at the F0 generation. Compared to the TALEN system, the CRISPR/Cas system induced the limb-defect phenotypes with a strikingly higher efficiency. Our results demonstrate that although both gene-targeting technologies are useful, the CRISPR/Cas system more effectively elicits single-step biallelic mutations in mice. PMID:25027812

Yasue, Akihiro; Mitsui, Silvia Naomi; Watanabe, Takahito; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro; Tanaka, Eiji

2014-01-01

343

Involvement of carbohydrates in the hardening of the zona pellucida of mouse oocytes.  

PubMed

The effect of lectins with different saccharide specificity (ConA, LCA, DBA, WGA and PNA) on enzymatic digestion of the zona pellucida (ZP) of mouse oocytes was studied. All lectins tested, except PNA, induced ZP hardening with different degrees of efficiency. Moreover, extensive ZP digestion with mixed exoglycosidase prevented "spontaneous" ZP hardening. These observations suggest that changes of the carbohydrate moieties can be involved in the hardening of the zona pellucida of mouse oocytes. PMID:1934081

Dolci, S; Bertolani, M V; Canipari, R; De Felici, M

1991-07-01

344

Co-digestion to support low temperature anaerobic pretreatment of municipal sewage in a UASB-digester.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to demonstrate that co-digestion improves soluble sewage COD removal efficiency in treatment of low temperature municipal sewage by a UASB-digester system. A pilot scale UASB-digester system was applied to treat real municipal sewage, and glucose was chosen as a model co-substrate. Co-substrate was added in the sludge digester to produce additional methanogenic biomass, which was continuously recycled to inoculate the UASB reactor. Soluble sewage COD removal efficiency increased from 6 to 23%, which was similar to its biological methane potential (BMP). Specific methanogenic activity of the UASB and of the digester sludge at 15°C tripled to a value respectively of 43 and 39 mg CH4-COD/(g VSS d). Methane production in the UASB reactor increased by more than 90% due to its doubled methanogenic capacity. Therefore, co-digestion is a suitable approach to support a UASB-digester for pretreatment of low temperature municipal sewage. PMID:24080295

Zhang, Lei; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Kampman, Christel; Temmink, Hardy; Zeeman, Grietje

2013-11-01

345

Offspring from Mouse Embryos Developed Using a Simple Incubator-Free Culture System with a Deoxidizing Agent  

PubMed Central

To culture preimplantation embryos in vitro, water-jacketed CO2 incubators are used widely for maintaining an optimal culture environment in terms of gas phase, temperature and humidity. We investigated the possibility of mouse embryo culture in a plastic bag kept at 37°C. Zygotes derived from in vitro fertilization or collected from naturally mated B6D2F1 female mice were put in a drop of medium on a plastic culture dish and then placed in a commercially available plastic bag. When these were placed in an oven under air at 37°C for 96 h, the rate of blastocyst development and the cell numbers of embryos decreased. However, when the concentration of O2 was reduced to 5% using a deoxidizing agent and a small oxygen meter, most zygotes developed into blastocysts. These blastocysts were judged normal according to their cell number, Oct3/4 and Cdx2 gene expression levels, the apoptosis rate and the potential for full-term development after embryo transfer to pseudopregnant recipients. Furthermore, using this system, normal offspring were obtained simply by keeping the bag on a warming plate. This culture method was applied successfully to both hybrid and inbred strains. In addition, because the developing embryos could be observed through the transparent wall of the bag, it was possible to capture time-lapse images of live embryos until the blastocyst stage without needing an expensive microscope-based incubation chamber. These results suggest that mouse zygotes are more resilient to their environment than generally believed. This method might prove useful in economical culture systems or for the international shipment of embryos.

Itoi, Fumiaki; Tokoro, Mikiko; Terashita, Yukari; Yamagata, Kazuo; Fukunaga, Noritaka; Asada, Yoshimasa; Wakayama, Teruhiko

2012-01-01

346

Revealing system-level correlations between aging and calorie restriction using a mouse transcriptome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although systems biology is a perfect framework for investigating system-level declines during aging, only a few reports have\\u000a focused on a comprehensive understanding of system-level changes in the context of aging systems. The present study aimed\\u000a to understand the most sensitive biological systems affected during aging and to reveal the systems underlying the crosstalk\\u000a between aging and the ability of

Seong-Eui Hong; Hyoung-Sam Heo; Dae Hyun Kim; Min-Sun Kim; Chul Hong Kim; Jaewon Lee; Mi-Ae Yoo; Byung Pal Yu; Christiaan Leeuwenburgh; Hae Young Chung

2010-01-01

347

Food microstructure and starch digestion.  

PubMed

Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition. PMID:23722096

Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Singh, Harjinder

2013-01-01

348

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 28  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the twenty-eighth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 3 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 20 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, aviation medicine, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, and space medicine.

Stone, Lydia Razran (editor); Teeter, Ronald (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)

1990-01-01

349

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 30  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the thirtieth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 47 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 20 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, biospheric research, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal system, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

Stone, Lydia Razran (editor); Teeter, Ronald (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)

1991-01-01

350

Comprehensive Enzymatic Analysis of the Cellulolytic System in Digestive Fluid of the Sea Hare Aplysia kurodai. Efficient Glucose Release from Sea Lettuce by Synergistic Action of 45 kDa Endoglucanase and 210 kDa ss-Glucosidase  

PubMed Central

Although many endo-ß-1,4-glucanases have been isolated in invertebrates, their cellulolytic systems are not fully understood. In particular, gastropod feeding on seaweed is considered an excellent model system for production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from third-generation feedstocks (microalgae and seaweeds). In this study, enzymes involved in the conversion of cellulose and other polysaccharides to glucose in digestive fluids of the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) were screened and characterized to determine how the sea hare obtains glucose from sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa). Four endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (21K, 45K, 65K, and 95K cellulase) and 2 ß-glucosidases (110K and 210K) were purified to a homogeneous state, and the synergistic action of these enzymes during cellulose digestion was analyzed. All cellulases exhibited cellulase and lichenase activities and showed distinct cleavage specificities against cellooligosaccharides and filter paper. Filter paper was digested to cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose by 21K cellulase, whereas 45K and 65K enzymes hydrolyzed the filter paper to cellobiose and glucose. 210K ß-glucosidase showed unique substrate specificity against synthetic and natural substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU)-ß-glucoside, 4MU–ß-galactoside, cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin, and lichenan were suitable substrates. Furthermore, 210K ß-glucosidase possesses lactase activity. Although ß-glucosidase and cellulase are necessary for efficient hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose to glucose, laminarin is hydrolyzed to glucose only by 210K ß-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 210K ß-glucosidase by D-glucono-1,5-lactone suggested the presence of 2 active sites similar to those of mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Saccharification of sea lettuce was considerably stimulated by the synergistic action of 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase. Our results indicate that 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase are the core components of the sea hare digestive system for efficient production of glucose from sea lettuce. These findings contribute important new insights into the development of biofuel processing biotechnologies from seaweed.

Tsuji, Akihiko; Tominaga, Keiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Yuasa, Keizo

2013-01-01

351

Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the cellulolytic system in digestive fluid of the Sea Hare Aplysia kurodai. Efficient glucose release from sea lettuce by synergistic action of 45 kDa endoglucanase and 210 kDa ß-glucosidase.  

PubMed

Although many endo-ß-1,4-glucanases have been isolated in invertebrates, their cellulolytic systems are not fully understood. In particular, gastropod feeding on seaweed is considered an excellent model system for production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from third-generation feedstocks (microalgae and seaweeds). In this study, enzymes involved in the conversion of cellulose and other polysaccharides to glucose in digestive fluids of the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) were screened and characterized to determine how the sea hare obtains glucose from sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa). Four endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (21K, 45K, 65K, and 95K cellulase) and 2 ß-glucosidases (110K and 210K) were purified to a homogeneous state, and the synergistic action of these enzymes during cellulose digestion was analyzed. All cellulases exhibited cellulase and lichenase activities and showed distinct cleavage specificities against cellooligosaccharides and filter paper. Filter paper was digested to cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose by 21K cellulase, whereas 45K and 65K enzymes hydrolyzed the filter paper to cellobiose and glucose. 210K ß-glucosidase showed unique substrate specificity against synthetic and natural substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU)-ß-glucoside, 4MU-ß-galactoside, cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin, and lichenan were suitable substrates. Furthermore, 210K ß-glucosidase possesses lactase activity. Although ß-glucosidase and cellulase are necessary for efficient hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose to glucose, laminarin is hydrolyzed to glucose only by 210K ß-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 210K ß-glucosidase by D-glucono-1,5-lactone suggested the presence of 2 active sites similar to those of mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Saccharification of sea lettuce was considerably stimulated by the synergistic action of 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase. Our results indicate that 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase are the core components of the sea hare digestive system for efficient production of glucose from sea lettuce. These findings contribute important new insights into the development of biofuel processing biotechnologies from seaweed. PMID:23762366

Tsuji, Akihiko; Tominaga, Keiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Yuasa, Keizo

2013-01-01

352

Ultrastructural Pathology of Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection in Cultured Mouse Nervous System Tissue  

PubMed Central

Mouse spinal cord-ganglia cultures were innoculated with murine cytomegalo-virus 14 days after explantation. Intranuclear virus was first observed 4 days after infection. The viruses, which occurred in four forms, were observed in increasing numbers during the ensuing 4 days. Differences were noted in the relative prevalence of certain of these forms in older as compared to younger cultures. This suggests that variations in virus form are related to virus maturation. Cytoplasmic viruses were occasionally observed, but their site of origin is not certain. A variety of cytoplasmic inclusions were seen, particularly in the older cultures. It seems likely that they represent specific cell responses to the presence of the virus. They were not observed in the control cultures, even though some of the latter did show severe degenerative changes. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Figs 3-4p[477]-dFig 8Fig 9Fig 10Figs 11-12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Figs 17-18Fig 19

Willson, Nicholas J.; Schneider, Joseph F.; Rosen, Moshe; Belisle, Elizabeth H.

1974-01-01

353

Characterization of the lysosomal cystine transport system in mouse L-929 fibroblasts.  

PubMed

We characterize here a lysosomal cystine transporter in mouse L-929 fibroblasts. Granular fractions from cells preloaded with cystine demonstrated countertransport that showed no dependence on Na+ or K+. The Michaelis constant for infinite-trans influx was 0.27 +/- 0.06 mM (n = 3), and a nonsaturable component of cystine entry was observed with Kd = 0.8-1.8 nmol of cystine.min-1.unit of hexosaminidase-1.mM-1. We found no evidence that cystine was also carried on any of the other known lysosomal amino acid transporters. Over 50 analogs were tested for their ability to inhibit countertransport. The inhibition constants are reported for selenocystine, cystathionine, selenomethionine, and leucine. Significant requirements for recognition by the transporter were the presence of amino groups, L configuration, and a chain length not greater than eight atoms. A net positive or negative charge was not required. Some di- as well as tetrapolar amino acids were recognized. We have surmised that the binding site has polar and apolar domains, the latter being large enough to accommodate branching on C-3 and the substitution of selenium or carbon in place of sulfur. PMID:2141024

Greene, A A; Marcusson, E G; Morell, G P; Schneider, J A

1990-06-15

354

Recovery of two independent sweet taste systems during regeneration of the mouse chorda tympani nerve after nerve crush.  

PubMed

In rodents, section of the taste nerve results in degeneration of the taste buds. Following regeneration of the cut taste nerve, however, the taste buds reappear. This phenomenon can be used to study the functional reformation of the peripheral neural system responsible for sweet taste. In this study we examined the recovery of sweet responses by the chorda tympani (CT) nerve after nerve crush as well as inhibition of these responses by gurmarin (Gur), a sweet response inhibitor. After about 2 weeks of CT nerve regeneration, no significant response to any taste stimuli could be observed. At 3 weeks, responses to sweet stimuli reappeared but were not significantly inhibited by Gur. At 4 weeks, Gur inhibition of sweet responses reached statistically significant levels. Thus, the Gur-sensitive (GS) component of the sweet response reappeared about 1 week later than the Gur-insensitive (GI) component. Moreover, single CT fibers responsive to sucrose could be classified into distinct GS and GI groups at 4 weeks. After 5 weeks or more, responses to sweet compounds before and after treatment with Gur became indistinguishable from responses in the intact group. During regeneration, the GS and GI components of the sucrose response could be distinguished based on their concentration-dependent responses to sucrose. These results suggest that mice have two different sweet-reception systems, distinguishable by their sensitivity to Gur (the GS and GI systems). These two sweet-reception systems may be reconstituted independently during regeneration of the mouse CT nerve. PMID:17714496

Yasumatsu, Keiko; Kusuhara, Yoko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

2007-09-01

355

Digesters and demographics: identifying support for anaerobic digesters on dairy farms.  

PubMed

The dairy industry in the United States is amidst a long-running trend toward fewer, larger dairy farms. This development has created a backlash in some communities over concerns such as odor, waste management, and environmental degradation. Separately, anaerobic digestion has advanced as a waste management technology that potentially offers solutions to some of these issues, providing odor control and a combustible biogas among other things. These digesters require significant capital investments. Voluntary consumer premiums for the renewable energy produced have been used in some instances as a means to move adoption of such systems toward financial feasibility. This project employed a survey to measure Ohio consumers' willingness to pay a premium for renewable energy produced by anaerobic digesters on dairy farms. Cluster analysis was used to segment consumers by willingness to pay, age, education, income, self-identified political inclination, and a composite variable that served as a proxy for respondents' environmental stewardship. Four distinctive groups emerged from the data. Older, less educated respondents were found to have the least amount of support for digesters on dairy farms, whereas politically liberal, environmentally proactive respondents demonstrated the strongest support. Well-educated, affluent respondents and young respondents fell between these 2 groups. Most large dairy farms are generally met with fairly negative responses from their local communities; in contrast, this research finds some popular support for anaerobic digestion technology. Going forward, establishing a positive link between support for anaerobic digesters and for their use on large dairies could open up a new route for less-contested large dairy farm developments. Evaluation of community demographics could become an important part of finding an optimal location for a large dairy farm. PMID:20965366

Sanders, D J; Roberts, M C; Ernst, S C; Thraen, C S

2010-11-01

356

Mouse Party  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity from The University of Utah, examine the molecular mechanisms that affect the brains of mice on drugs. Learn how different drugs create different responses in the brain and alter the natural state of a mouse.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

357

Assessing amendment and fertilizing properties of digestates from anaerobic digestion through a comparative study with digested sludge and compost.  

PubMed

Digestate, with biogas represents the final products of anaerobic digestion (AD). The methane-rich biogas is used to produce electricity and heat, whereas the digestate could be valorized in agriculture. Contrarily to well-recognized biomasses such as digested sludge and compost, the properties of the digestate are not well known and its agricultural use remains unexplored. In this work, a first attempt to study the agronomic properties of digestates was performed by comparing the chemical, spectroscopic, and biological characteristics of digestates with those of compost and digested sludge, used as reference organic matrices. A total of 23 organic matrices were studied, which include eight ingestates and relative digestates, three composts, and four digested sludges. The analytical data obtained was analyzed using principal component analysis to better show in detail similarities or differences between the organic matrices studied. The results showed that digestates differed from ingestates and also from compost, although the starting organic mix influenced the digestate final characteristics. With respect to amendment properties, it seems that biological parameters, more than chemical characteristics, were more important in describing these features. In this way, amendment properties could be ranked as follows: compost?digestate>digested sludge?ingestate. As to fertilizer properties, AD allowed getting a final product (digestate) with very good fertilizing properties because of the high nutrient content (N, P, K) in available form. In this way, the digestate appears to be a very good candidate to replace inorganic fertilizers, also contributing, to the short-term soil organic matter turnover. PMID:20825964

Tambone, Fulvia; Scaglia, Barbara; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Schievano, Andrea; Orzi, Valentina; Salati, Silvia; Adani, Fabrizio

2010-10-01

358

An ENU mutagenesis-derived mouse model with a dominant Jak1 mutation resembling phenotypes of systemic autoimmune disease.  

PubMed

Within the Munich, Germany, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mouse mutagenesis program, we isolated a dominant Jak1 mouse model resembling phenotypic characteristics related to autoimmune disease. Chromosomal sequencing revealed a new Jak1 (p.Ser645Pro) point mutation at the conserved serine of the pseudokinase domain, corresponding to a somatic human mutation (p.Ser646Phe) inducing a constitutive activation of the Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT pathway. Morphologically, all Jak1(S645P+/-) mice showed a progressive structural deterioration of ears starting at the age of 4 months, with mononuclear cell infiltration into the dermis. Female mutant mice, in particular, developed severe skin lesions in the neck from 7 months of age. The IHC analysis of these lesions showed an activation of Stat3 downstream to Jak1(S645P) and elevated tissue levels of IL-6. Histopathological analysis of liver revealed a nodular regenerative hyperplasia. In the spleen, the number of Russell bodies was doubled, correlating with significant increased levels of all immunoglobulin isotypes and anti-DNA antibodies in serum. Older mutant mice developed thrombocytopenia and altered microcytic red blood cell counts. Jak1(S645P+/-) mice showed phenotypes related to impaired bone metabolism as increased carboxy-terminal collagen cross-link-1 levels and alkaline phosphatase activities in plasma, hypophosphatemia, and strongly decreased bone morphometric values. Taken together, Jak1(S645P+/-) mice showed an increased activation of the IL-6-JAK-STAT pathway leading to a systemic lupus erythematosus-like phenotype and offering a new valuable tool to study the role of the JAK/STAT pathway in disease development. PMID:23791841

Sabrautzki, Sibylle; Janas, Eva; Lorenz-Depiereux, Bettina; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan A; Rathkolb, Birgit; Adler, Thure; Cohrs, Christian; Hans, Wolfgang; Diener, Susanne; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Busch, Dirk H; Höfler, Heinz; Ollert, Markus; Strom, Tim M; Wolf, Eckhard; Neff, Frauke; Hrab? de Angelis, Martin

2013-08-01

359

Mouse genome-wide association and systems genetics identify Asxl2 as a regulator of bone mineral density and osteoclastogenesis.  

PubMed

Significant advances have been made in the discovery of genes affecting bone mineral density (BMD); however, our understanding of its genetic basis remains incomplete. In the current study, genome-wide association (GWA) and co-expression network analysis were used in the recently described Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP) to identify and functionally characterize novel BMD genes. In the HMDP, a GWA of total body, spinal, and femoral BMD revealed four significant associations (-log10P>5.39) affecting at least one BMD trait on chromosomes (Chrs.) 7, 11, 12, and 17. The associations implicated a total of 163 genes with each association harboring between 14 and 112 genes. This list was reduced to 26 functional candidates by identifying those genes that were regulated by local eQTL in bone or harbored potentially functional non-synonymous (NS) SNPs. This analysis revealed that the most significant BMD SNP on Chr. 12 was a NS SNP in the additional sex combs like-2 (Asxl2) gene that was predicted to be functional. The involvement of Asxl2 in the regulation of bone mass was confirmed by the observation that Asxl2 knockout mice had reduced BMD. To begin to unravel the mechanism through which Asxl2 influenced BMD, a gene co-expression network was created using cortical bone gene expression microarray data from the HMDP strains. Asxl2 was identified as a member of a co-expression module enriched for genes involved in the differentiation of myeloid cells. In bone, osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells of myeloid origin, suggesting that Asxl2 may play a role in osteoclast differentiation. In agreement, the knockdown of Asxl2 in bone marrow macrophages impaired their ability to form osteoclasts. This study identifies a new regulator of BMD and osteoclastogenesis and highlights the power of GWA and systems genetics in the mouse for dissecting complex genetic traits. PMID:21490954

Farber, Charles R; Bennett, Brian J; Orozco, Luz; Zou, Wei; Lira, Ana; Kostem, Emrah; Kang, Hyun Min; Furlotte, Nicholas; Berberyan, Ani; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Suwanwela, Jaijam; Drake, Thomas A; Eskin, Eleazar; Wang, Q Tian; Teitelbaum, Steven L; Lusis, Aldons J

2011-04-01

360

Mouse Genome-Wide Association and Systems Genetics Identify Asxl2 As a Regulator of Bone Mineral Density and Osteoclastogenesis  

PubMed Central

Significant advances have been made in the discovery of genes affecting bone mineral density (BMD); however, our understanding of its genetic basis remains incomplete. In the current study, genome-wide association (GWA) and co-expression network analysis were used in the recently described Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP) to identify and functionally characterize novel BMD genes. In the HMDP, a GWA of total body, spinal, and femoral BMD revealed four significant associations (?log10P>5.39) affecting at least one BMD trait on chromosomes (Chrs.) 7, 11, 12, and 17. The associations implicated a total of 163 genes with each association harboring between 14 and 112 genes. This list was reduced to 26 functional candidates by identifying those genes that were regulated by local eQTL in bone or harbored potentially functional non-synonymous (NS) SNPs. This analysis revealed that the most significant BMD SNP on Chr. 12 was a NS SNP in the additional sex combs like-2 (Asxl2) gene that was predicted to be functional. The involvement of Asxl2 in the regulation of bone mass was confirmed by the observation that Asxl2 knockout mice had reduced BMD. To begin to unravel the mechanism through which Asxl2 influenced BMD, a gene co-expression network was created using cortical bone gene expression microarray data from the HMDP strains. Asxl2 was identified as a member of a co-expression module enriched for genes involved in the differentiation of myeloid cells. In bone, osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells of myeloid origin, suggesting that Asxl2 may play a role in osteoclast differentiation. In agreement, the knockdown of Asxl2 in bone marrow macrophages impaired their ability to form osteoclasts. This study identifies a new regulator of BMD and osteoclastogenesis and highlights the power of GWA and systems genetics in the mouse for dissecting complex genetic traits.

Farber, Charles R.; Bennett, Brian J.; Orozco, Luz; Zou, Wei; Lira, Ana; Kostem, Emrah; Kang, Hyun Min; Furlotte, Nicholas; Berberyan, Ani; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Suwanwela, Jaijam; Drake, Thomas A.; Eskin, Eleazar; Wang, Q. Tian; Teitelbaum, Steven L.; Lusis, Aldons J.

2011-01-01

361

Physiological role of dietary free glutamate in the food digestion.  

PubMed

Gustatory and anticipatory cephalic stimuli during a meal yield nutritional information and aid efficient food digestion. Mammals, including humans, can detect the amount of dietary protein and its quality via cephalic relay to initiate proper digestion in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In addition to gustatory stimuli, visceral sensing by the abdominal vagus conveys primary afferent nutritional information from the digestive system to the brain. Electrophysiological studies indicated that abdominal vagal afferents, which were innervated into the stomach and intestine sending information to the brain, were activated by luminal glutamate. Histochemical analysis also revealed the existence of a glutamate signalling system (metabotrophic glutamate receptors) in the GI tract. Luminal glutamate in the stomach and intestine provides the efferent reflection of the abdominal vagus, supporting the modulation of exocrine and endocrine excretion during digestion. These results strongly indicate that glutamate has regulatory effects on the food digestive processes through the gut nutrient-sensing system. It plays physiological and nutritional roles and initiates digestion in the stomach as well as anticipates subsequent processes in the small intestine and the liver. We reviewed recent studies on glutamate physiology in the gut including our research, and discussed the physiological significance of dietary free glutamate in the regulation of gut function, focusing on the visceral sensation from the stomach. PMID:18296382

Uneyama, Hisayuki; San Gabriel, Ana; Kawai, Misako; Tomoe, Miki; Torii, Kunio

2008-01-01

362

Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) in the mouse central nervous system: a neuroprotective role?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of paraoxonase 2 (PON2) in mouse brain and to assess its antioxidant properties. PON2 levels were highest in lung, intestine, heart and liver, and lower in brain; in all tissues, PON2 expression was higher in female than in male mice. PON2 knockout [PON2-/-] mice did not express any PON2, as expected. In brain, the highest levels of PON2 were found in the substantia nigra, the nucleus accumbens and the striatum, with lower levels in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and brainstem. A similar regional distribution of PON2 activity (measured by dihydrocoumarin hydrolysis) was also found. PON3 was not detected in any brain area, while PON1 was expressed at very low levels, and did not show any regional difference. PON2 levels were higher in astrocytes than in neurons isolated from all brain regions, and were highest in cells from the striatum. PON2 activity and mRNA levels followed a similar pattern. Brain PON2 levels were highest around birth, and gradually declined. Subcellular distribution experiments indicated that PON2 is primarily expressed in microsomes and in mitochondria. The toxicity in neurons and astrocytes of agents known to cause oxidative stress (DMNQ and H2O2) was higher in cells from PON2-/- mice than in the same cells from wild-type mice, despite similar glutathione levels. These results indicate that PON2 is expressed in brain, and that higher levels are found in dopaminergic regions such as the striatum, suggesting that this enzyme may provide protection against oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity.

Giordano, Gennaro; Cole, Toby B.; Furlong, Clement E.; Costa, Lucio G.

2011-01-01

363

Axonal transport and sorting of herpes simplex virus components in a mature mouse visual system.  

PubMed

The time course for delivery and transport of two major proteins of herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been determined for mature mouse retinal ganglion cell axons in vivo. Twenty-four hours after intravitreal injection of HSV, valacyclovir was introduced into the drinking water of the mice to inhibit subsequent viral replication. Without treatment, viral spread and replication in periaxonal glial cells confound study of axonal transport. At 2 to 5 days after infection, the animals were sacrificed and contiguous segments of the optic pathway were removed. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that the number of infected astrocytes was reduced in the proximal optic nerve and eliminated in the optic tract. Western blots of the retina with antibodies for envelope and capsid components, glycoprotein D (gD) and VP5, respectively, revealed that both components were expressed in retinal homogenates by 2 days. Results of reverse transcription-PCR indicated that there was no gD mRNA present in the treated optic tract 5 days after infection. Therefore, we conclude that gD is transcribed from viral mRNA in the retinal ganglion cell bodies. The gD accumulated in the proximal ganglion cell axon by 2 days and reached the most distal segment after 3 days. The VP5 first appeared in the proximal axons at 4 days, about 48 h after the appearance of gD. Thus, gD entered the axon earlier and independent of VP5. These finding confirm the subassembly model of viral transport in neurons and suggest that there is a 4- to 5-day window for initiation of effective antiviral treatment with valacyclovir. PMID:12743269

LaVail, Jennifer H; Tauscher, Andrew N; Aghaian, Elda; Harrabi, Ons; Sidhu, Sukhvinder S

2003-06-01

364

Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) in the mouse central nervous system: A neuroprotective role?  

SciTech Connect

The aims of this study were to characterize the expression of paraoxonase 2 (PON2) in mouse brain and to assess its antioxidant properties. PON2 levels were highest in the lung, intestine, heart and liver, and lower in the brain; in all tissues, PON2 expression was higher in female than in male mice. PON2 knockout [PON2{sup -/-}] mice did not express any PON2, as expected. In the brain, the highest levels of PON2 were found in the substantia nigra, the nucleus accumbens and the striatum, with lower levels in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and brainstem. A similar regional distribution of PON2 activity (measured by dihydrocoumarin hydrolysis) was also found. PON3 was not detected in any brain area, while PON1 was expressed at very low levels, and did not show any regional difference. PON2 levels were higher in astrocytes than in neurons isolated from all brain regions, and were highest in cells from the striatum. PON2 activity and mRNA levels followed a similar pattern. Brain PON2 levels were highest around birth, and gradually declined. Subcellular distribution experiments indicated that PON2 is primarily expressed in microsomes and in mitochondria. The toxicity in neurons and astrocytes of agents known to cause oxidative stress (DMNQ and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was higher in cells from PON2{sup -/-} mice than in the same cells from wild-type mice, despite similar glutathione levels. These results indicate that PON2 is expressed in the brain, and that higher levels are found in dopaminergic regions such as the striatum, suggesting that this enzyme may provide protection against oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity.

Giordano, Gennaro [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cole, Toby B. [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States) [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Dept. of Medicine (Div. of Medical Genetics), University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Dept. of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Furlong, Clement E. [Dept. of Medicine (Div. of Medical Genetics), University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States) [Dept. of Medicine (Div. of Medical Genetics), University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Dept. of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Costa, Lucio G., E-mail: lgcosta@u.washington.edu [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Dept. of Human Anatomy, Pharmacology and Forensic Science, University of Parma Medical School, Parma (Italy)

2011-11-15

365

Sensory Transduction and Adaptation in Inner and Outer Hair Cells of the Mouse Auditory System  

PubMed Central

Auditory function in the mammalian inner ear is optimized by collaboration of two classes of sensory cells known as inner and outer hair cells. Outer hair cells amplify and tune sound stimuli that are transduced and transmitted by inner hair cells. Although they subserve distinct functions, they share a number of common properties. Here we compare the properties of mechanotransduction and adaptation recorded from inner and outer hair cells of the postnatal mouse cochlea. Rapid outer hair bundle deflections of about 0.5 micron evoked average maximal transduction currents of about 325 pA, whereas inner hair bundle deflections of about 0.9 micron were required to evoke average maximal currents of about 310 pA. The similar amplitude was surprising given the difference in the number of stereocilia, 81 for outer hair cells and 48 for inner hair cells, but may be reconciled by the difference in single-channel conductance. Step deflections of inner and outer hair bundles evoked adaptation that had two components: a fast component that consisted of about 60% of the response occurred over the first few milliseconds and a slow component that consisted of about 40% of the response followed over the subsequent 20 –50 ms. The rate of the slow component in both inner and outer hair cells was similar to the rate of slow adaptation in vestibular hair cells. The rate of the fast component was similar to that of auditory hair cells in other organisms and several properties were consistent with a model that proposes calcium-dependent release of tension allows transduction channel closure.

Stauffer, Eric A.; Holt, Jeffrey R.

2009-01-01

366

Genes Regulated in Metastatic Osteosarcoma: Evaluation by Microarray Analysis in Four Human and Two Mouse Cell Line Systems  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma (OS) is a rare bone neoplasm that affects mainly adolescents. It is associated with poor prognosis in case of metastases formation. The search for metastasis predicting markers is therefore imperative to optimize treatment strategies for patients at risk and important for the search of new drugs for the treatment of this devastating disease. Here, we have analyzed by microarray the differential gene expression in four human and two mouse OS cell line systems consisting of parental cell lines with low metastatic potential and derivatives thereof with increased metastatic potential. Using two osteoblastic cell line systems, the most common OS phenotype, we have identified forty-eight common genes that are differentially expressed in metastatic cell lines compared to parental cells. The identified subset of metastasis relevant genes in osteoblastic OS overlapped only minimally with differentially expressed genes in the other four preosteoblast or nonosteoblastic cell line systems. The results imply an OS phenotype specific expression pattern of metastasis regulating proteins and form a basis for further investigation of gene expression profiles in patients' samples combined with survival analysis with the aim to optimize treatment strategies to develop new drugs and to consequently improve the survival of patients with the most common form of osteoblastic OS.

Muff, Roman; Ram Kumar, Ram Mohan; Botter, Sander M.; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno

2012-01-01

367

Biodistribution of (137)Cs in a mouse model of chronic contamination by ingestion and effects on the hematopoietic system.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to define the possible occurrence of hematological changes during the course of a chronic ingestion of (137)Cs. A mouse model was used, with ingestion through drinking water with a cesium concentration of 20 kBq l(-1). Ingestion started in parent animals before mating, and (137)Cs intake and its effect on the hematopoietic system was studied in offspring at various ages between birth and 20 weeks. (137)Cs content was measured in various organs, indicating that (137)Cs was distributed throughout the organism including lympho-hematopoietic organs, i.e., femurs, spleen and thymus. However, we did not observe any effect on the hematopoietic system, whatever the parameter used. In fact, blood cell counts, mononuclear cell counts and progenitor frequency in bone marrow and spleen, and Flt3-ligand, Erythropoietin, G-CSF and SDF-1 concentration in plasma remained unchanged when compared to control animals. Moreover, phenotypic analysis did not show any change in the proportions of bone marrow cell populations. These results indicate that, although (137)Cs was found in all organs implicated in the hematopoietic system, this did not induce any changes in bone marrow function. PMID:20157720

Bertho, Jean-Marc; Louiba, Sonia; Faure, Marie-Cécile; Tourlonias, Elie; Stefani, Johanna; Siffert, Baptiste; Paquet, François; Dublineau, Isabelle

2010-05-01

368

B-Lymphocyte Depletion Reduces Skin Fibrosis and Autoimmunity in the Tight-Skin Mouse Model for Systemic Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) is an autoimmune disease characterized by excessive extracellular matrix deposition in the skin. A direct role for B lymphocytes in disease development or progression has remained controversial, although autoantibody production is a feature of this disease. To address this issue, skin sclerosis and autoimmunity were assessed in tight-skin mice, a genetic model of human systemic sclerosis, after circulating and tissue B-cell depletion using an anti-mouse CD20 monoclonal antibody before (day 3 after birth) and after disease development (day 56). CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment (10 to 20 ?g) depleted the majority (85 to 99%) of circulating and tissue B cells in newborn and adult tight-skin mice by days 56 and 112, respectively. B-cell depletion in newborn tight-skin mice significantly suppressed (?43%) the development of skin fibrosis, autoantibody production, and hypergammaglobulinemia. B-cell depletion also restored a more normal balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokine mRNA expression in the skin. By contrast, B-cell depletion did not affect skin fibrosis, hypergammaglobulinemia, and autoantibody levels in adult mice with established disease. Thereby, B-cell depletion during disease onset suppressed skin fibrosis, indicating that B cells contribute to the initiation of systemic sclerosis pathogenesis in tight-skin mice but are not required for disease maintenance.

Hasegawa, Minoru; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Yanaba, Koichi; Bouaziz, Jean-David; Uchida, Junji; Fujimoto, Manabu; Matsushita, Takashi; Matsushita, Yukiyo; Horikawa, Mayuka; Komura, Kazuhiro; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Sato, Shinichi; Tedder, Thomas F.

2006-01-01

369

Development of Gut Microbiota in a Mouse Model of Ovalbumin-induced Allergic Diarrhea under Sub-barrier System  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to present a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA) induced allergic diarrhea under a sub-barrier system and investigate the development of gut microbiota in this model. Male BALB/c mice were systemically sensitized with OVA or sham-sensitized with saline, and followed by oral OVA intubation, leading to OVA-specific acute diarrhea. Compared with sham-sensitized mice, sera OVA-specific IgG1 and total IgE in OVA-sensitized mice were dramatically elevated, and the number of mast cells was greatly increased in the jejunum of the OVA-sensitized mice. Principle component analysis of the DGGE profile showed that samples from group of OVA-sensitized mice and group of sham-sensitized mice were scattered into two different regions. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the number of 16S rRNA gene copies of Lactobacillus in the colon of OVA-sensitized mice decreased significantly, while there was no significant difference in the number of Bifidobacterium and total bacteria. In conclusion, OVA-specific allergic diarrhea was successfully induced under a sub-barrier system, and changes of allergic reactions during induction was coupled with changes in gut microbiota, especially the number of colonic Lactobacillus, but the role of gut microbiota in the development of food allergic reactions needs to be further evaluated.

Wang, Juan-Hong; Fan, Song-Wei; Zhu, Wei-Yun

2013-01-01

370

Iran Weekly Press Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Iran Weekly Press Digest, a weekly review of the Iranian press in English, contains a number of articles on the summit of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference and its significance for Iran in its archived and current issues. The eighth summit of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference was recently held in Tehran, Iran. Iran recently hosted representatives from 55 countries to a three-day Muslim summit in Tehran in a move which is being seen as a new phase in the country's re-emergence after years of relative isolation. The acceptance of Iran's invitations by senior figures from former enemies such as Saudi Arabia and Iraq has been portrayed by Iranian leaders and many others as a strong setback for US attempts to politically quarantine that country. Representatives considered 142 resolutions prepared by foreign ministers on issues including Middle East peace, regional conflicts, terrorism and human rights. However, perhaps the most significant outcome of the summit has been a reintroduction of Iran into the Muslim community of nations. Capitalizing on current anti-American sentiments and the recent election of a relatively moderate president, Iran hopes to rebuild its relationships with its neighbors and once again become a regional leader, a position it held for approximately 3000 years.

1997-01-01

371

Anaerobic digestion of space mission wastes.  

PubMed

The technical feasibility of applying leachbed high-solids anaerobic digestion for reduction and stabilization of the organic fraction of solid wastes generated during space missions was investigated. This process has the advantages of not requiring oxygen or high temperature and pressure while producing methane, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and compost as valuable products. Anaerobic biochemical methane potential assays run on several waste feedstocks expected during space missions resulted in ultimate methane yields ranging from 0.23 to 0.30 L g-1 VS added. Modifications for operation of a leachbed anaerobic digestion process in space environments were incorporated into a new design, which included; (1) flooded operation to force leachate through densified feedstock beds; and (2) separation of biogas from leachate in a gas collection reservoir. This mode of operation resulted in stable performance with 85% conversion of a typical space solid waste blend, and a methane yield of 0.3 Lg per g VS added after a retention time of 15 days. These results were reproduced in a full-scale prototype system. A detailed analysis of this process was conducted to design the system sized for a space mission with a six-person crew. Anaerobic digestion compared favorably with other technologies for solid waste stabilization. PMID:16784202

Chynoweth, D P; Owens, J M; Teixeira, A A; Pullammanappallil, P; Luniya, S S

2006-01-01

372

Acid digestion demonstration (WeDID)  

SciTech Connect

Acid digestion process development began at the Hanford Site in 1972 with a beaker of laboratory acid and progressed through laboratory and pilot-scale development culminating in the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU). The RADTU was operational from 1977 through 1982 and processed over 5,000 kg of synthetic and combustible waste forms from Hanford Site operations. It routinely reacted plastics, wood, paper, cloth, ion-exchange resins, metals, and solvents. Operation of RADTU routinely gave volume reductions of 100:1 for most plastics and other combustibles. The residue was inert and was disposed of both as generated and after application of other immobilization techniques, such as calcination, addition to glass, and cement addition. The system was designed to accommodate offgas surges from highly reactive nitrated organics and successfully demonstrated that capability. The system was designed and operated under very stringent safety standards. The Weapons Destruction Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) program required a technology that could dispose of an assortment of weapon components, such as complex electronics, neutron generators, thermal batteries, plastics, cases, cables, and others. A program objective was to recycle and reuse materials wherever possible, but many unique components would need to be rendered inactive, inert, and suitable for disposal under current environmental laws. Acid digestion technology was a key candidate for treating many of the above components; it provided accepted technology for treatment of chemicals and elements that have posed disposal difficulties designated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Crippen, M.D.

1993-11-01

373

Two-phased hyperthermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge with kitchen garbage  

Microsoft Academic Search

For co-digestion of waste activated sludge with kitchen garbage, hyperthermophilic digester systems that consisted of an acidogenic reactor operated at hyperthermophilic (70 °C) and a methanogenic reactor operated at mesophilic (35 °C), thermophilic (55 °C) or hyperthermophilic (65 °C) conditions in series were studied by comparing with a thermophilic digester system that consisted of thermophilic (55 °C) acidogenic and methanogenic reactors. Laboratory scale reactors were

Myungyeol Lee; Taira Hidaka; Hiroshi Tsuno

2009-01-01

374

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 31  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the thirty first issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 55 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 5 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 18 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, biological rhythms, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, endocrinology, enzymology, genetics, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, life support systems, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

Hooke, Lydia Razran (editor); Teeter, Ronald (editor); Garshnek, Victoria (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)

1990-01-01

375

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 32  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the thirty-second issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 34 journal or conference papers published in Russian and of 4 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 18 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, biospherics, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, exobiology, habitability and environmental effects, human performance, hematology, mathematical models, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, operational medicine, and reproductive system.

Stone, Lydia Razran (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)

1992-01-01

376

Performance and microbial community dynamics in a two-phase anaerobic co-digestion system using cassava dregs and pig manure.  

PubMed

The two-phase anaerobic co-digestion of cassava dregs (CD) with pig manure (PM) was evaluated using four sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The effect of seven different PM to CD volatile solid ratios (10:0, 8:2, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, 2:8 and 0:10) on the acidification phase was investigated. Results indicated the concentrations of soluble chemical oxygen demand, NH4-N and volatile fatty acids increased substantially at seven ratios. Co-acidification of PM and CD performed well. Methanogenic fermentation of the acidification products at seven ratios was steady in CSTR. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 0.352m(3)/kg VSadded and 68.5% were achieved at PM:CD (4:6). The microbial population in CSTR was analyzed using molecular methods. Findings revealed that bacteria such as Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, archaea such as Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales were advantageous populations. Co-digestion of PM and CD supported higher quantity and diversity of methanogens. PMID:24463413

Ren, Jiwei; Yuan, Xufeng; Li, Jie; Ma, Xuguang; Zhao, Ye; Zhu, Wanbing; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun

2014-03-01

377

The effect of selective decontamination of the digestive tract with the addition of systemic cefotaxime on the aerobic faecal flora of mice.  

PubMed Central

The administration per-orally to mice of the non-absorbable antibiotics polymyxin E, tobramycin and amphotericin B resulted in the elimination of detectable aerobic gram-negative rods from the faecal flora without affecting the total viable aerobic count. The addition of parental cefotaxime to the regime caused a fall in the number of aerobic lactobacilli and an increase in the number of enterococci. The rise was associated with the translocation of viable enterococci to the mesenteric lymph nodes and the spleen. The changes induced by cefotaxime were reversed when the antibiotic was withdrawn. Following withdrawal of all antibiotics the total aerobic faecal flora increased to above normal levels, but there was no associated diarrhoea. Attempts to implant exogenous enterobacteria into the digestive tract resulted in only low level colonization both in treated mice and in control mice. These results may have implications for the use of this antibiotic regime for selective decontamination of the digestive tract in humans, particularly those who are immunocompromised.

Speekenbrink, A. B.; Alcock, S. R.; Forrester, J.; Parrott, D. M.

1987-01-01

378

Metabolites of amygdalin under simulated human digestive fluids.  

PubMed

In the present study, degradation of amygdalin in the human digestive fluids and absorption of its metabolites by the human small intestine were evaluated by simulating a gastrointestinal digestion model combined with a human intestinal cell culture. Orally administered amygdalin was degraded into prunasin by digestive enzymes after passing through the salivary and gastrointestinal phases. Prunasin, the major metabolite of amygdalin in the digestive fluids, was incubated in a caco-2 cell culture system. Prunasin was degraded into the mandelonitrile by ?-glucosidase and then hydroxylated across the small intestinal wall, producing hydroxymandelonitrile (149 Da). Results from this study suggest that risk assessment of amygdalin from food consumption can be done in a more accurate way by determining a pathway of amygdalin metabolism in the simulating human upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:20528582

Shim, Soon-Mi; Kwon, Hoonjeong

2010-12-01

379

Membrane-coupled anaerobic digestion of municipal sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Membrane-coupled anaerobic digestion utilizes a concept of simultaneous sludge digestion and thickening. Membranes may successfully be applied to eliminate the need for thickening polymers and avoid their likely inhibitory effect on anaerobic biomass. A 550 L completely mixed anaerobic digester was operated under mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C). Two ultrafiltration membrane systems were evaluated for their potential in membrane-coupled anaerobic digestion: vibrating and cross flow. A volatile solids reduction of 590% was achieved at an average mixed liquor suspended solids concentration of 1.8%. The substrate utilization rate was 1.3 d(-1). The vibrating membrane operated at a flux of 1.6-2.0 m3/m2-d and the tubular membrane fluxes in the range 3.4-3.6 m3/m2-d. PMID:16180436

Pierkiel, A; Lanting, J

2005-01-01

380

[Esophago-digestive anastomosis dehiscence].  

PubMed

This paper aim is to discuss the main etiopathogenic aspects responsible for eso-digestive anastomotic leakage, as well as prophylactic and therapeutic measures of this postoperative complication. There were studied 173 consecutive eso-digestive anastomosis: 103 anastomosis performed for malignancy and 70 anastomosis for benign conditions. Surgical operations followed by an eso-digestive anastomosis were: esophageal reconstruction for benign esophageal caustic strictures (n=67); total gastrectomy (n=55); total esophagectomy (n=13); total esophagectomy plus total gastrectomy (one case); eso-gastrectomies (n=34); upper gastric pole resection (n=2); distal esophageal resection (n=1). Eso-digestive anastomosis topography were cervical (n=81), intrathoracic (n=37) and abdominal (n=57). There were 30 eso-gastrostomies, 81 eso-jejunostomies, and 62 eso-colostomies. There were recorded 24 eso-digestive anastomotic dehiscences (13.8%): 14 in the cervical region (17.2% out of 81 cervical anastomosis); 5 intrathoracic leakages (14.2% out of 35 anastomosis); 5 intraabdominal anastomotic dehiscences (8.7% out of 57 intraabdominal anastomosis). Four patients died as an anastomotic leakage consequence: two patients died after cervical eso-gastrostomy dehiscences, one patient died after an intrathoracic eso-jejunostomy leakage, and one patient died after intraabdominal eso-gastrostomy leakage. In conclusion, we analyze postoperative results, emphasizing the role of discovering and removal of predisposing factors which may lead to an eso-digestive anastomotic leakage. PMID:19601459

Vasile, I; Mirea, C; Vîlcea, I D; Pa?alega, M; Calot?, F; Me?in?, C; Cheie, M; Dumitrescu, T; Mogoan??, S; Tenea, T; Radu, V; Moraru, E

2009-01-01

381

Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes.  

PubMed

Sludge management accounts for approximately 60% of the total wastewater treatment plant expenditure and laws for sludge disposal are becoming increasingly stringent, therefore much consideration is required when designing a solids handling process. A membrane thickening aerobic digestion process integrates a controlled aerobic digestion process with pre-thickening waste activated sludge using membrane technology. This process typically features an anoxic tank, an aerated membrane thickener operating in loop with a first-stage digester followed by second-stage digestion. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes can handle sludge from any liquid treatment process and is best for facilities obligated to meet low total phosphorus and nitrogen discharge limits. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes offer many advantages including: producing a reusable quality permeate with minimal levels of total phosphorus and nitrogen that can be recycled to the head works of a plant, protecting the performance of a biological nutrient removal liquid treatment process without requiring chemical addition, providing reliable thickening up to 4% solids concentration without the use of polymers or attention to decanting, increasing sludge storage capacities in existing tanks, minimizing the footprint of new tanks, reducing disposal costs, and providing Class B stabilization. PMID:24718344

Woo, Bryen

2014-01-01

382

Spatio-temporal characterization of the pleiotrophinergic system in mouse cerebellum: evidence for its key role during ontogenesis.  

PubMed

The development of the central nervous system requires an appropriate micro-environment that is conditioned by a combination of various extracellular components. Most of the known signaling factors, such as neurotransmitters or neuropeptides, are soluble and diffuse into the extracellular matrix. However, other secreted molecules like proteoglycans or glycosaminoglycans anchor in the extracellular matrix to influence cerebral ontogenesis. As such, pleiotrophin (PTN), which binds the proteoglycans syndecan-3 (SDC3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta (PTP?), has been described as a pro-migratory and a pro-differentiating secreted cytokine on cortical neurons. In rat cerebellum, PTN is highly expressed during the first postnatal week, suggesting that this cytokine could participate to the development of the cerebellar cortex. According to this hypothesis, our spatio-temporal cartography of PTN, PTP? and SDC3 indicated that, in mouse, the PTNergic system was present in the cerebellum at least from the first postnatal day (P0). Until P12, PTN was mainly expressed by granule cell precursors and located in the extracellular matrix, while SDC3 was expressed by Purkinje cells, Golgi cells and granule cell precursors, and PTP? was present on Purkinje cells and Bergmann fibers. In vitro studies confirmed the presence of SDC3 on immature granule cells and demonstrated that PTN could stimulate directly their velocity in culture. In contrast, subarachnoidal injection of PTN in the cerebellum significantly reduced the rate of migration of granule cells, exacerbated their apoptosis and induced an atrophy of the Purkinje cell dendritic tree. Since differentiated granule cells did not express SDC3 or PTP?, the PTN effect observed on migration and apoptosis may be indirectly mediated by Purkinje and/or Bergmann cells. From P21 to adulthood, the distribution of PTN, SDC3 and PTP? changed and their expression dramatically decreased even if they were still detectable. PTN and SDC3 immunolabeling was restricted around Purkinje cell bodies and Golgi cells, whereas PTP? was located around interneurons. These data suggested that, in the cerebellum of adult mice, PTN participates to the perineuronal nets that control neuronal plasticity. To conclude, the present work represents the first spatio-temporal characterization of the PTNergic system in the mouse cerebellum and indicates that PTN may contribute to cerebellum ontogenesis during the postnatal development as well as to neuronal plasticity at adulthood. PMID:23454176

Basille-Dugay, Magali; Hamza, Magda M; Tassery, Céline; Parent, Bénédicte; Raoult, Emilie; Bénard, Magalie; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Vaudry, David; Burel, Delphine C

2013-09-01

383

A mass transfer model of ammonia volatilisation from anaerobic digestate  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is becoming increasingly popular for treating organic waste. The methane produced can be burned to generate electricity and the digestate, which is high in mineral nitrogen, can be used as a fertiliser. In this paper we evaluate potential losses of ammonia via volatilisation from food waste anaerobic digestate using a closed chamber system equipped with a sulphuric acid trap. Ammonia losses represent a pollution source and, over long periods could reduce the agronomic value of the digestate. Observed ammonia losses from the experimental system were linear with time. A simple non-steady-state partitioning model was developed to represent the process. After calibration, the model was able to describe the behaviour of ammonia in the digestate and in the trap very well. The average rate of volatilisation was approximately 5.2 g N m{sup -2} week{sup -1}. The model was used to extrapolate the findings of the laboratory study to a number of AD storage scenarios. The simulations highlight that open storage of digestate could result in significant losses of ammonia to the atmosphere. Losses are predicted to be relatively minor from covered facilities, particularly if depth to surface area ratio is high.

Whelan, M.J., E-mail: m.j.whelan@cranfield.ac.u [School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, College Road, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Everitt, T.; Villa, R. [School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, College Road, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15

384

Semi-artificial mouse skin membrane feeding technique for adult tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis  

PubMed Central

Background An in vitro artificial feeding technique for hard ticks is quite useful for studying the tick-pathogen interactions. Here, we report a novel semi-artificial feeding technique for the adult parthenogenetic tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, using mouse skin membrane. Findings Skin with attached adult ticks was removed from the mouse body at 4 to 5 days post-infestation for the construction of the feeding system. This system supplied with rabbit blood was kept in >95% relative humidity at 30°C during the feeding, and ticks were fully engorged (artificially engorged, AE) within 12 to 48 h. For comparison, ticks were fed to engorgement solely on rabbit or mouse for 5 days as controls (naturally engorged on rabbit, NEr, or mouse, NEm). Blood digestion-related gene expression in the midgut and reproductive fitness were compared. Body weight, egg mass weight, egg conversion ratio, and hatchability of eggs did not show any significant differences. We analyzed transcription profiles of selected genes assayed by quantitative RT-PCR and revealed similar patterns of expression between NEr and AE but some differences between NEm and AE or NEm and NEr. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that this semi-artificial feeding technique mimics natural feeding processes of ticks and can be utilized as a standardized method to inoculate pathogens, especially Babesia protozoa, into H. longicornis and possibly other tick species as well.

2012-01-01

385

DIGESTION PRODUCTS OF THE PH20 HYALURONIDASE INHIBIT REMYELINATION  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) recruited to demyelinating lesions often fail to mature into oligodendrocytes (OLs) that remyelinate spared axons. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) accumulates in demyelinating lesions and has been implicated in the failure of OPC maturation and remyelination. We tested the hypothesis that OPCs in demyelinating lesions express a specific hyaluronidase, and that digestion products of this enzyme inhibit OPC maturation. METHODS Mouse OPCs grown in vitro were analyzed for hyaluronidase expression and activity. Gain of function studies were used to define the hyaluronidases that blocked OPC maturation. Mouse and human demyelinating lesions were assessed for hyaluronidase expression. Digestion products from different hyaluronidases and a hyaluronidase inhibitor were tested for their effects on OPC maturation and functional remyelination in vivo. RESULTS OPCs demonstrated hyaluronidase activity in vitro and expressed multiple hyaluronidases including HYAL1, HYAL2, and PH20. HA digestion by PH20 but not other hyaluronidases inhibited OPC maturation into OLs. In contrast, inhibiting HA synthesis did not influence OPC maturation. PH20 expression was elevated in OPCs and reactive astrocytes in both rodent and human demyelinating lesions. HA-digestion products generated by the PH20 hyaluronidase but not another hyaluronidase inhibited remyelination following lysolecithin-induced demyelination. Inhibition of hyaluronidase activity lead to increased OPC maturation and promoted increased conduction velocities through lesions. INTERPRETATION We determined that PH20 is elevated in demyelinating lesions and that increased PH20 expression is sufficient to inhibit OPC maturation and remyelination. Pharmacological inhibition of PH20 may therefore be an effective way to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis and related conditions.

Preston, Marnie; Gong, Xi; Su, Weiping; Matsumoto, Steven G.; Banine, Fatima; Winkler, Clayton; Foster, Scott; Xing, Rubing; Struve, Jaime; Dean, Justin; Baggenstoss, Bruce; Weigel, Paul H.; Montine, Thomas J.; Back, Stephen A.; Sherman, Larry S.

2012-01-01

386

Conditional ablation of orexin/hypocretin neurons: a new mouse model for the study of narcolepsy and orexin system function.  

PubMed

The sleep disorder narcolepsy results from loss of hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons. Although narcolepsy onset is usually postpubertal, current mouse models involve loss of either orexin peptides or orexin neurons from birth. To create a model of orexin/hypocretin deficiency with closer fidelity to human narcolepsy, diphtheria toxin A (DTA) was expressed in orexin neurons under control of the Tet-off system. Upon doxycycline removal from the diet of postpubertal orexin-tTA;TetO DTA mice, orexin neurodegeneration was rapid, with 80% cell loss within 7 d, and resulted in disrupted sleep architecture. Cataplexy, the pathognomic symptom of narcolepsy, occurred by 14 d when ?5% of the orexin neurons remained. Cataplexy frequency increased for at least 11 weeks after doxycycline. Temporary doxycycline removal followed by reintroduction after several days enabled partial lesion of orexin neurons. DTA-induced orexin neurodegeneration caused a body weight increase without a change in food consumption, mimicking metabolic aspects of human narcolepsy. Because the orexin/hypocretin system has been implicated in the control of metabolism and addiction as well as sleep/wake regulation, orexin-tTA; TetO DTA mice are a novel model in which to study these functions, for pharmacological studies of cataplexy, and to study network reorganization as orexin input is lost. PMID:24806676

Tabuchi, Sawako; Tsunematsu, Tomomi; Black, Sarah W; Tominaga, Makoto; Maruyama, Megumi; Takagi, Kazuyo; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Sakurai, Takeshi; Kilduff, Thomas S; Yamanaka, Akihiro

2014-05-01

387

Visualization of specific DNA sequences in living mouse embryonic stem cells with a programmable fluorescent CRISPR/Cas system.  

PubMed

Labeling and tracing of specific sequences in living cells has been a major challenge in studying the spatiotemporal dynamics of native chromatin. Here we repurposed the prokaryotic CRISPR/Cas adaptive immunity system to specifically detect endogenous genomic loci in mouse embryonic stem cells. We constructed a catalytically inactive version of the Cas9 endonuclease, fused it with eGFP (dCas9-eGFP) and co-expressed small guide RNAs (gRNAs) to target pericentric, centric, and telomeric repeats, which are enriched in distinct nuclear structures. With major satellite specific gRNAs we obtained a characteristic chromocenter (CC) pattern, while gRNAs targeting minor satellites and telomeres highlighted smaller foci coinciding with centromere protein B (CENP-B) and telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2), respectively. DNA sequence specific labeling by gRNA/dCas9-eGFP complexes was directly shown with 3D-fluorescent in situ hybridization (3D-FISH). Structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) of gRNA/dCas9-eGFP expressing cells revealed chromatin ultrastructures and demonstrated the potential of this approach for chromatin conformation studies by super resolution microscopy. This programmable dCas9 labeling system opens new perspectives to study functional nuclear architecture. PMID:24637835

Anton, Tobias; Bultmann, Sebastian; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Markaki, Yolanda

2014-03-01

388

Conditional Ablation of Orexin/Hypocretin Neurons: A New Mouse Model for the Study of Narcolepsy and Orexin System Function  

PubMed Central

The sleep disorder narcolepsy results from loss of hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons. Although narcolepsy onset is usually postpubertal, current mouse models involve loss of either orexin peptides or orexin neurons from birth. To create a model of orexin/hypocretin deficiency with closer fidelity to human narcolepsy, diphtheria toxin A (DTA) was expressed in orexin neurons under control of the Tet-off system. Upon doxycycline removal from the diet of postpubertal orexin-tTA;TetO DTA mice, orexin neurodegeneration was rapid, with 80% cell loss within 7 d, and resulted in disrupted sleep architecture. Cataplexy, the pathognomic symptom of narcolepsy, occurred by 14 d when ?5% of the orexin neurons remained. Cataplexy frequency increased for at least 11 weeks after doxycycline. Temporary doxycycline removal followed by reintroduction after several days enabled partial lesion of orexin neurons. DTA-induced orexin neurodegeneration caused a body weight increase without a change in food consumption, mimicking metabolic aspects of human narcolepsy. Because the orexin/hypocretin system has been implicated in the control of metabolism and addiction as well as sleep/wake regulation, orexin-tTA; TetO DTA mice are a novel model in which to study these functions, for pharmacological studies of cataplexy, and to study network reorganization as orexin input is lost.

Tabuchi, Sawako; Tsunematsu, Tomomi; Black, Sarah W.; Tominaga, Makoto; Maruyama, Megumi; Takagi, Kazuyo; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Sakurai, Takeshi

2014-01-01

389

Targeting the Cannabinoid Pathway Limits the Development of Fibrosis and Autoimmunity in a Mouse Model of Systemic Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to evaluate the roles of the cannabinoid pathway in the induction and propagation of systemic sclerosis (SSc) in a mouse model of diffuse SSc induced by hypochlorite injections. BALB/c mice injected subcutaneously every day for 6 weeks with PBS or hypochlorite were treated intraperitoneally with either WIN-55,212, an agonist of the cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1) and receptors 2 (CB2), with JWH-133, a selective agonist of CB2, or with PBS. Skin and lung fibrosis were then assessed by histological and biochemical methods, and the proliferation of fibroblasts purified from diseased skin was assessed by thymidine incorporation. Autoantibodies were detected by ELISA, and spleen cell populations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Experiments were also performed in mice deficient for CB2 receptors (Cnr2?/?). Injections of hypochlorite induced cutaneous and lung fibrosis as well as increased the proliferation rate of fibroblasts isolated from fibrotic skin, splenic B cell counts, and levels of anti-DNA topoisomerase-1 autoantibodies. Treatment with WIN-55,212 or with the selective CB2 agonist JWH-133 prevented the development of skin and lung fibrosis as well as reduced fibroblast proliferation and the development of autoantibodies. Experiments performed in CB2-deficient mice confirmed the influence of CB2 in the development of systemic fibrosis and autoimmunity. Therefore, we demonstrate that the CB2 receptor is a potential target for the treatment of SSc because it controls both skin fibroblast proliferation and the autoimmune reaction.

Servettaz, Amelie; Kavian, Niloufar; Nicco, Carole; Deveaux, Vanessa; Chereau, Christiane; Wang, Andrew; Zimmer, Andreas; Lotersztajn, Sophie; Weill, Bernard; Batteux, Frederic

2010-01-01

390

Effect of simulated gastro-duodenal digestion on the allergenic reactivity of beta-lactoglobulin  

PubMed Central

Background Cow's milk (CM) allergy affects about 2% of infants. The allergenicity of dietary proteins, including those from CM, has been related to their digestibility although the generality of the link and its causality remains to be demonstrated. In this study we use an in vitro digestion system, to investigate the digestibility of ?-lactoglobulin (blg) during gastrointestinal transit and to assess the impact of this process on blg allergenic reactivity in CM allergic children. Methods Blg digesta were prepared using an in vitro digestion protocol simulating either gastric digestion alone or followed by duodenal digestion with or without phosphatidylcholine (PC). Biochemical analysis of blg digesta was performed by SDS-PAGE and their concentration was measured by a sandwich ELISA. Assessment of their allergenic reactivity was done in vitro by EAST inhibition, specific basophil activation (basotest) and lymphocyte proliferation (PCNA-flow cytometry) assays using sera and cells from patients allergic to blg and in vivo by skin prick testing (SPT) of these patients. Results Blg was only broken down to smaller peptides after gastro-duodenal digestion although a sizeable amount of intact protein still remained. Digestion did not modify the IgE binding capacity of blg except for gastro-duodenal digestion performed in the absence of PC. These results are consistent with the quantity of intact blg remaining in the digesta. Overall both gastric and gastroduodenal digestion enhanced activation of sensitized basophils and proliferation of sensitized lymphocytes by blg. However, there was a tendency towards reduction in mean diameter of SPT following digestion, the PC alone during phase 1 digestion causing a significant increase in mean diameter. Conclusions Digestion did not reduce the allergenic reactivity of blg to a clinically insignificant extent, PC inhibiting digestion and thereby protecting blg allergenic reactivity. SPT reactivity was reduced compared to blg immunoreactivity in in vitro tests.

2011-01-01

391

Improved design of anaerobic digesters for household biogas production in indonesia: one cow, one digester, and one hour of cooking per day.  

PubMed

A government-sponsored initiative in Indonesia to design and implement low-cost anaerobic digestion systems resulted in 21 full-scale systems with the aim to satisfy the cooking fuel demands of rural households owning at least one cow. The full-scale design consisted of a 0.3 m diameter PVC pipe, which was operated as a conventional plug-flow system. The system generated enough methane to power a cooking stove for ? 1 h. However, eventual clogging from solids accumulation inside the bioreactor proved to be a major drawback. Here, we improved the digester configuration to remedy clogging while maintaining system performance. Controlled experiments were performed using four 9-L laboratory-scale digesters operated at a temperature of 27 ± 1 °C, a volatile solids loading rate of 2.0 g VS · L(-1) · day(-1), and a 21-day hydraulic retention time. Two of the digesters were replicates of the original design (control digesters), while the other two digesters included internal mixing or effluent recycle (experimental digesters). The performance of each digester was compared based on methane yields, VS removal efficiencies, and steady-state solids concentrations during an operating period of 311 days. Statistical analyses revealed that internal mixing and effluent recycling resulted in reduced solids accumulation compared to the controls without diminishing methane yields or solids removal efficiencies. PMID:24715809

Usack, Joseph G; Wiratni, Wiratni; Angenent, Largus T

2014-01-01

392

Two-stage anaerobic digestion of energy crops: methane production, nitrogen mineralisation and heavy metal mobilisation.  

PubMed

Energy crops (willow, sugar beet and grass silage) were digested in pilot scale two-stage anaerobic digesters. The specific methane yields obtained were 0.16, 0.38 and 0.39 m3 kg(-1) added volatile solids (VSadded) for willow, sugar beet and grass, respectively, corresponding to yearly gross energy yields of 15, 53 and 26 megawatt-hours (MWh) per hectare. With grass and sugar beets as substrate, 84-85% of the harvestable methane was obtained within 30 days. In pilot scale two-stage digestion of willow and sugar beet, 56 and 85% of the laboratory scale methane yields were obtained, but digestion of grass in two-stage reactors yielded 5% more methane than digestion in laboratory scale completely mixed low solids systems, possibly due to the pH conditions favourable to hydrolysis in the two-stage system. In digestion of grass and sugar beet the liquid at the end of digestion was rich in ammonium nitrogen, and the nitrogen in the substrate was efficiently mineralised. The results show that heavy metal concentrations are not likely to limit the utilisation of residues from digestion of nonmetal accumulating crops. Efficient mobilisation of heavy metals during the acidic phase of digestion revealed the possibility of removing metals from leachate generated in two-stage anaerobic digestion of phytoextracting crops. PMID:16506517

Lehtomäki, A; Björnsson, L

2006-02-01

393

Follistatin-like 5 is expressed in restricted areas of the adult mouse brain: Implications for its function in the olfactory system.  

PubMed

Follistatin-like 5 (Fstl5), a member of the follistatin family of genes, encodes a secretory glycoprotein. Previous studies revealed that other members of this family including Fstl1 and Fstl3 play an essential role in development, homeostasis, and congenital disorders. However, the in vivo function of Fstl5 is poorly understood. To gain insight into the function of Fstl5 in the mouse central nervous system, we examined the Fstl5 expression pattern in the adult mouse brain. The results of in situ hybridization analysis showed a highly restricted pattern of Fstl5, namely, with localization in the olfactory system, hippocampal CA3 area and granular cell layer of the cerebellum. Restricted expression in the olfactory system suggests a possible role for Fstl5 in maintaining odor perception. PMID:24588779

Masuda, Tomoyuki; Sakuma, Chie; Nagaoka, Atsuko; Yamagishi, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Shuichi; Nagase, Takahiro; Yaginuma, Hiroyuki

2014-02-01

394

Imaging of pharmacokinetic rates of indocyanine green in mouse liver with a hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography/x-ray computed tomography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pharmacokinetic rates have the potential to provide quantitative physiological and pathological information for biological studies and drug development. Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is an attractive imaging tool for three-dimensionally resolving fluorophore distribution in small animals. In this letter, pharmacokinetic rates of indocyanine green (ICG) in mouse liver are imaged with a hybrid FMT and x-ray computed tomography (XCT) system. A recently developed FMT method using structural priors from an XCT system is adopted to improve the quality of FMT reconstruction. In the in vivo experiments, images of uptake and excretion rates of ICG in mouse liver are obtained, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate liver function. The accuracy of the results is validated by a fiber-based fluorescence measurement system.

Zhang, Guanglei; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Bin; He, Yun; Luo, Jianwen; Bai, Jing

2013-04-01

395

Fabrication of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Layered Cardiac Cell Sheets Using a Bioreactor Culture System  

PubMed Central

Bioengineered functional cardiac tissue is expected to contribute to the repair of injured heart tissue. We previously developed cardiac cell sheets using mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell-derived cardiomyocytes, a system to generate an appropriate number of cardiomyocytes derived from ES cells and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we established a cultivation system with suitable conditions for expansion and cardiac differentiation of mES cells by embryoid body formation using a three-dimensional bioreactor. Daily conventional medium exchanges failed to prevent lactate accumulation and pH decreases in the medium, which led to insufficient cell expansion and cardiac differentiation. Conversely, a continuous perfusion system maintained the lactate concentration and pH stability as well as increased the cell number by up to 300-fold of the seeding cell number and promoted cardiac differentiation after 10 days of differentiation. After a further 8 days of cultivation together with a purification step, around 1×108 cardiomyocytes were collected in a 1-L bioreactor culture, and additional treatment with noggin and granulocyte colony stimulating factor increased the number of cardiomyocytes to around 5.5×108. Co-culture of mES cell-derived cardiomyocytes with an appropriate number of primary cultured fibroblasts on temperature-responsive culture dishes enabled the formation of cardiac cell sheets and created layered-dense cardiac tissue. These findings suggest that this bioreactor system with appropriate medium might be capable of preparing cardiomyocytes for cell sheet-based cardiac tissue.

Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Wada, Masanori; Konishi, Kanako; Sato, Michi; Iwamoto, Ushio; Sato, Yuko; Tachibana, Aki; Kikuchi, Tetsutaro; Iwamiya, Takahiro; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Jun K.; Yamato, Masayuki; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Okano, Teruo

2012-01-01

396

Towards a hybrid anaerobic digester-microbial fuel cell integrated energy recovery system: an overview of the development of an electrogenic biofilm.  

PubMed

An electrogenic biofilm was developed on a macroporous chitosan-carbon nanotube (CHIT-CNT) electrode under constant poised potential (-0.25V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode) and flow through conditions utilizing the effluent of an anaerobic digester as both the inoculant and substrate for the electrogenic biofilm. After 125 days of inoculation the bioelectrode demonstrated an open circuit potential of -0.62V and a current density of 9.43?Acm(-3) (at -0.25V). Scanning electron microscopy images indicate thorough surface coverage of the biofilm with a high density of bacterial nanowires physically connecting bacteria to bacteria and bacteria to carbon nanotube (electrode surface) suggesting the nanowires are electrically conductive. DGGE was used to identify the major bacterial and archaeal populations. PMID:23608503

Higgins, Scott R; Lopez, Ryan J; Pagaling, Eulyn; Yan, Tao; Cooney, Michael J

2013-05-10

397

Conditional gene targeting in the mouse nervous system: Insights into brain function and diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditional gene knockout represents an extremely powerful approach to study the function of single genes in the nervous system. The Cre-LoxP system is the most advanced technology for spatial and temporal control of genetic inactivation, and there is rapid progress using this methodology in neuroscience research. In this approach, mice with LoxP sites flanking the gene of interest (floxed mice)

Claire Gavériaux-Ruff; Brigitte L. Kieffer

2007-01-01

398

Mouse embryonic stem cell expansion in a microcarrier-based stirred culture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the ability to differentiate in vitro into a wide variety of cell types with potential applications for tissue regeneration. However, a large number of cells are required, thus strengthening the need to develop large-scale systems using chemically defined media for ES cell production and\\/or controlled differentiation.In the present studies, a stirred culture system (i.e. spinner

A. M. Fernandes; T. G. Fernandes; M. M. Diogo; C. Lobato da Silva; D. Henrique; J. M. S. Cabral

2007-01-01

399

Mouse Housing System Using Pressurized Cages Intraventilated by Direct-Current Microfans  

PubMed Central

We performed the initial assessment of an alternative pressurized intraventilated (PIV) caging system for laboratory mice that uses direct-current microfans to achieve cage pressurization and ventilation. Twenty-nine pairs of female SPF BALB/c mice were used, with 19 experimental pairs kept in PIV cages and 10 control pairs kept in regular filter-top (FT) cages. Both groups were housed in a standard housing room with a conventional atmospheric control system. For both systems, intracage temperatures were in equilibrium with ambient room temperature. PIV cages showed a significant difference in pressure between days 1 and 8. Air speed (and consequently airflow rate) and the number of air changes hourly in the PIV cages showed decreasing trends. In both systems, ammonia concentrations increased with time, with significant differences between groups starting on day 1. Overall, the data revealed that intracage pressurization and ventilation by using microfans is a simple, reliable system, with low cost, maintenance requirements, and incidence of failures. Further experiments are needed to determine the potential influence of this system on the reproductive performance and pulmonary integrity in mice.

Martinewski, Alexandre; Correia, Caio SC; de Souza, Nivea L; Merusse, Jose LB

2012-01-01

400

Prenatal methylmercury exposure hampers glutathione antioxidant system ontogenesis and causes long-lasting oxidative stress in the mouse brain  

SciTech Connect

During the perinatal period, the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely sensitive to metals, including methylmercury (MeHg). Although the mechanism(s) associated with MeHg-induced developmental neurotoxicity remains obscure, several studies point to the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system as an important molecular target for this toxicant. To extend our recent findings of MeHg-induced GSH dyshomeostasis, the present study was designed to assess the developmental profile of the GSH antioxidant system in the mouse brain during the early postnatal period after in utero exposure to MeHg. Pregnant mice were exposed to different doses of MeHg (1, 3 and 10 mg/l, diluted in drinking water, ad libitum) during the gestational period. After delivery, pups were killed at different time points - postnatal days (PND) 1, 11 and 21 - and the whole brain was used for determining biochemical parameters related to the antioxidant GSH system, as well as mercury content and the levels of F{sub 2}-isoprostane. In control animals, cerebral GSH levels significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period; gestational exposure to MeHg caused a dose-dependent inhibition of this developmental event. Cerebral glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period in control animals; gestational MeHg exposure induced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both developmental phenomena. These adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure were corroborated by marked increases in cerebral F{sub 2}-isoprostanes levels at all time points. Significant negative correlations were found between F{sub 2}-isoprostanes and GSH, as well as between F{sub 2}-isoprostanes and GPx activity, suggesting that MeHg-induced disruption of the GSH system maturation is related to MeHg-induced increased lipid peroxidation in the pup brain. In utero MeHg exposure also caused a dose-dependent increase in the cerebral levels of mercury at birth. Even though the cerebral mercury concentration decreased to nearly basal levels at postnatal day 21, GSH levels, GPx and GR activities remained decreased in MeHg-exposed mice, indicating that prenatal exposure to MeHg affects the cerebral GSH antioxidant systems by inducing biochemical alterations that endure even when mercury tissue levels decrease and become indistinguishable from those noted in pups born to control dams. This study is the first to show that prenatal exposure to MeHg disrupts the postnatal development of the glutathione antioxidant system in the mouse brain, pointing to an additional molecular mechanism by which MeHg induces pro-oxidative damage in the developing CNS. Moreover, our experimental observation corroborates previous reports on the permanent functional deficits observed after prenatal MeHg exposure.

Stringari, James; Nunes, Adriana K.C.; Franco, Jeferson L. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Bohrer, Denise [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Solange C. [Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Dafre, Alcir L. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Milatovic, Dejan [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Souza, Diogo O. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rocha, Joao B.T. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Farina, Marcelo [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: farina@ccb.ufsc.br

2008-02-15

401

Insights into digestion and absorption of major nutrients in humans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nutrient digestion and absorption is necessary for the survival of living organisms and has evolved into the complex and specific task of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. While most people simply assume that their GI tract will work properly to use nutrients, provide energy, and release wastes, few non-scientists know the details about how various nutrients are digested and how the breakdown products traverse the cells lining the small intestine to reach the blood stream and to be used by the other cells of the body. There have been several recent discoveries of new transporters that likely contribute to the absorption of oligopeptides and fatty acids. In addition, details are being clarified about how transporters work and in what forms nutrients can be absorbed. The enzymes that digest basic carbohydrates, proteins, and fats have been identified in various segments of the GI tract, and details are becoming clearer about what types of bonds they hydrolyze. Usually, detailed information about the digestion of basic nutrients is presented and learned in biochemistry courses and detailed information about absorption via transepithelial transport of the breakdown products of digestion is studied in physiology courses. The goal of this Staying Current article is to combine the details of the biochemistry of digestion with the updated information about the physiology of nutrient absorption into one source for teachers of physiology. Insights are included about some of the diseases and conditions that can bring about malabsorption of food in the GI tract and their consequences.

Barbara E. Goodman (Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota Basic Biomedical Sciences)

2010-06-01

402

Restoring Systemic GDF11 Levels Reverses Age-Related Dysfunction in Mouse Skeletal Muscle.  

PubMed

Parabiosis experiments indicate that impaired regeneration in aged mice is reversible by exposure to a young circulation, suggesting that young blood contains humoral "rejuvenating" factors that can restore regenerative function. Here, we demonstrate that the circulating protein growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a rejuvenating factor for skeletal muscle. Supplementation of systemic GDF11 levels, which normally decline with age, by heterochronic parabiosis or systemic delivery of recombinant protein, reversed functional impairments and restored genomic integrity in aged muscle stem cells (satellite cells). Increased GDF11 levels in aged mice also improved muscle structural and functional features and increased strength and endurance exercise capacity. These data indicate that GDF11 systemically regulates muscle aging and may be therapeutically useful for reversing age-related skeletal muscle and stem cell dysfunction. PMID:24797481

Sinha, Manisha; Jang, Young C; Oh, Juhyun; Khong, Danika; Wu, Elizabeth Y; Manohar, Rohan; Miller, Christine; Regalado, Samuel G; Loffredo, Francesco S; Pancoast, James R; Hirshman, Michael F; Lebowitz, Jessica; Shadrach, Jennifer L; Cerletti, Massimiliano; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Serwold, Thomas; Goodyear, Laurie J; Rosner, Bernard; Lee, Richard T; Wagers, Amy J

2014-05-01

403

Signal-to-noise ratio of a mouse brain (13) C CryoProbe™ system in comparison with room temperature coils: spectroscopic phantom and in vivo results.  

PubMed

MRI and MRS in small rodents demand very high sensitivity. Cryogenic transmit/receive radiofrequency probes (CryoProbes) designed for (1) H MRI of mouse brain provide an attractive option for increasing the performance of small-animal MR systems. As the Larmor frequency of (13) C nuclei is four times lower than that for (1) H nuclei, an even larger sensitivity improvement is expected for (13) C applications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of a prototype (13) C CryoProbe™ for mouse brain MRS. To investigate the possible gain of the (13) C CryoProbe™, we acquired localized single-voxel (13) C spectra and chemical shift images of a dimethyl sulfoxide phantom with the CryoProbe™, as well as with two room temperature resonators. The cryogenically cooled resonator achieved approximately four-fold higher signal-to-noise ratio in phantom tests when compared with the best-performing room temperature coil. In addition, we present localized (13) C spectra of mouse brain obtained with the CryoProbe™, as well as with one of the room temperature coils, demonstrating the performance in vivo. In summary, the cryogenic cooling technique significantly enhances the (13) C signal sensitivity at 9.4?T and enables the investigation of metabolism within mouse brain. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24692120

Sack, M; Wetterling, F; Sartorius, A; Ende, G; Weber-Fahr, W

2014-06-01

404

Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion  

SciTech Connect

The digestibility of an aquatic biomass (water hyacinth), a land-based biomass (Coastal Bermuda grass), and a biomass-waste blend (a mixture of hyacinth, grass, MSW, and sludge) under various digestion conditions was studied. Anaerobic digestion of hemicellulose consists of the steps of enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose to glucans, mannans, galactans, xylans, and arabans, and then to simple hexose and pentose sugars; production of C/sub 2/ and higher fatty acids from the simple sugars; conversion of higher fatty acids to acetate; and finally, production of methane and CO/sub 2/ from acetate, and CO/sub 2/ and hydrogen. The conversion of hemicellulose was higher under mesophilic conditions than those of cellulose or protein for all biomass test feeds, probably because the hemicellulose structure was more vulnerable to enzymatic attack than that of the lignocellulosic component. Cellulose conversion efficiencies at the mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures were about the same. However, hemicellulose was converted at a much lower efficiency than cellulose during thermophilic digestion - a situation that was the reverse of that observed at the mesophilic temperature. Cellulose was utilized in preference to hemicellulose during mesophilic digestion of nitrogen-supplemented Bermuda grass. It was speculated that Bermuda grass cellulose was converted at a higher efficiency than hemicellulose in the presence of external nitrogen because the metabolism of the breakdown product (glucose) of cellulose requires the least investment of enzymes and energy.

Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Christopher, R.W.

1982-01-01

405

Mouse maternal systemic inflammation at the zygote stage causes blunted cytokine responsiveness in lipopolysaccharide-challenged adult offspring  

PubMed Central

Background The preimplantation embryo is sensitive to culture conditions in vitro and poor maternal diet in vivo. Such environmental perturbations can have long-lasting detrimental consequences for offspring health and physiology. However, early embryo susceptibility to other aspects of maternal health and their potential long-term influence into adulthood is relatively unexplored. In this study, we established an in vivo mouse model of maternal periconceptional systemic inflammation by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration on the day of zygote formation and investigated the consequences into adulthood. Results In the short term, maternal LPS challenge induced a transient and typical maternal sickness response (elevated serum proinflammatory cytokines and hypoactive behaviour). Maternal LPS challenge altered preimplantation embryo morphogenesis and cell lineage allocation, resulting in reduced blastocyst inner cell mass (ICM) cell number and a reduced ICM:trophectoderm cell ratio. In the long term, diverse aspects of offspring physiology were affected by maternal LPS treatment. Whilst birthweight, growth and adult blood pressure were unaltered, reduced activity in an open-field behaviour test, increased fat pad:body weight ratio and increased body mass index were observed in male, but not female, offspring. Most importantly, the maternal LPS challenge caused corticosterone-independent blunting of the serum proinflammatory cytokine response to innate immune challenge in both male and female offspring. The suppressed state of innate immunity in challenged offspring was dose-dependent with respect to the maternal LPS concentration administered. Conclusions These results demonstrate for the first time that the preimplantation embryo in vivo is sensitive to maternal systemic inflammation, with effects on blastocyst cell lineage allocation and consequences for behaviour, adiposity and innate immune response in adult offspring. Critically, we identify a novel mechanism mediated through maternal-embryonic interactions that confers plasticity in the development of the innate immune system, which is potentially important in setting postnatal tolerance to environmental pathogens. Our study extends the concept of developmental programming of health and disease to include maternal health at the time of conception.

2011-01-01

406

OMR-arena: automated measurement and stimulation system to determine mouse visual thresholds based on optomotor responses.  

PubMed

Measurement of the optomotor response is a common way to determine thresholds of the visual system in animals. Particularly in mice, it is frequently used to characterize the visual performance of different genetically modified strains or to test the effect of various drugs on visual performance. Several methods have been developed to facilitate the presentation of stimuli using computer screens or projectors. Common methods are either based on the measurement of eye movement during optokinetic reflex behavior or rely on the measurement of head and/or body-movements during optomotor responses. Eye-movements can easily and objectively be quantified, but their measurement requires invasive fixation of the animals. Head movements can be observed in freely moving animals, but until now depended on the judgment of a human observer who reported the counted tracking movements of the animal during an experiment. In this study we present a novel measurement and stimulation system based on open source building plans and software. This system presents appropriate 360° stimuli while simultaneously video-tracking the animal's head-movements without fixation. The on-line determined head gaze is used to adjust the stimulus to the head position, as well as to automatically calculate visual acuity. Exemplary, we show that automatically measured visual response curves of mice match the results obtained by a human observer very well. The spatial acuity thresholds yielded by the automatic analysis are also consistent with the human observer approach and with published results. Hence, OMR-arena provides an affordable, convenient and objective way to measure mouse visual performance. PMID:24260105

Kretschmer, Friedrich; Kretschmer, Viola; Kunze, Vincent P; Kretzberg, Jutta

2013-01-01

407

Derivation of ES-like cell from neonatal mouse testis cells in autologous sertoli cells co-culture system  

PubMed Central

Background: Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) is a self-renewing population of male adult stem cell. SSCs have a differentiation potential which are similar to embryonic stem cells. These Embryonic stem like (ES-like) cells can be a potential source for pluripotent cells for stem cell-based therapy. Objective: This study presents an economical and simple co-culture system for pluripotent stem cells generation from neonatal mouse testis Materials and Methods: Isolated testicular cells were cultured in DMEM/F12. Characteristics of the isolated cells and obtained ES-like cell were immune-cytochemically confirmed by examining the presence of PLZF, vimentin, Oct4 and