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1

Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... the body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ... the anus as a bowel movement. Back Continue Digestive System Problems Nearly everyone has a digestive problem at ...

2

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system is investigated in this learning activity to help participants learn how food is broken down and prepared for absorption, and list the components of the digestive system as well as their functions. Organs investigated include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Bidlack, Jim

3

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a section of an online Biology Textbook - developed by Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College - providing a concise overview of the digestive system. It describes the enzymes, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids involved in digestion and outlines the role that each part of the body plays from the mouth the large intestine.

Gregory, Michael

1969-12-31

4

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system is amazing: it takes the foods we eat and breaks them into smaller components that our bodies can use for energy, cell repair and growth. This lesson introduces students to the main parts of the digestive system and how they interact. In addition, students learn about some of the challenges astronauts face when eating in outer space. Engineers figure out how to deal with such challenges.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

5

The Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the prime structures and functions of the digestive system ? First, take a look at Structures and Functions of Digestive System and answer these questions on the handout given. Name 10 main structures of the digestive system. For each 10 structures, name the functions of each structure. Next,examine the Description of the Digestion pathway process. Answer the questions below on the back of the same handout as the first questions: What is ...

Daniel

2010-03-25

6

Problems of the Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms of colorectal cancer? • Glossary Problems of the Digestive System What are some common digestive problems? Common digestive ... of hormones during pregnancy can slow down the digestive system. How can constipation be treated? If constipation continues, ...

7

Digestive and Circulatory System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are key parts in the Circulatory and Digestive System? First, read the Digestive System Text. After reading the text, write the steps of digestion if you were eating a pizza. Write two interesting facts. Next, read the Text about Circulatory System. Describe what you learned. Write two interesting facts. Next, watch and listen to the Circulatory System Song. Tell me what you liked or did not like about the song. Did it help you ...

Kuenzli, Ms.

2010-03-25

8

Smoking and Your Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... 282 KB) Alternate Language URL Smoking and the Digestive System Page Content DUE TO UNFORESEEN CIRCUMSTANCES, PUBLICATION ORDERS ... caused by cigarette smoking. 2 What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of the ...

9

Nutrition, digestive system and digestion specificity in phytophagous bats  

E-print Network

Nutrition, digestive system and digestion specificity in phytophagous bats NF Zhukova Schmalhausen the entire order specificity affects these processes. To tackle these issues, the digestive system, within the mouth cavity, when only liquid fraction is swollen. The digestive system specialisation

Boyer, Edmond

10

Regions of the Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... Anatomy & Physiology » Digestive System » Regions of the Digestive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

11

Daphnia digestive system  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The parts of the digestive system can be difficult to imagine because they are inside of our bodies. This clip demonstrates the Daphnia digestive system. The brown material is feces. Notice the slinky-like motion of the intestine. This acts to move the feces to the anus, where it will eventually be eliminated. The tiny cells making up the intestine allow nutrients to pass into the body of the Daphnia, to be used as energy.

Katie Hale (CSUF;)

2007-08-18

12

Digestive System general organization throughout  

E-print Network

Digestive System general organization throughout: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa digestive glands salivary pancreas liver (lobes: right, left, caudate, quadrate, diaphragmatic surface, bare

Houde, Peter

13

Ruminating on the Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will review the functions of basic digestive organs, understand how diet affects digestion, understand how digestive tracks may differ, and then step outside to compare the digestive systems of the buffalo and the zebra in a lively demonstration. This lesson plan includes key vocabulary words, teacher background information, and is standards-based.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

14

The digestive system: part 1.  

PubMed

This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the digestive system, explores the structure and function of the digestive system. It is important that nurses understand how the digestive system works and its role in maintaining health. The article describes the gross structure of the gastrointestinal tract along with relevant physiology. It also outlines several disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and their treatment and nursing management. The second article will explain the liver, pancreas and gall bladder and their digestive functions, and provides a brief overview of the disorders of chronic liver disease, pancreatitis and gallstones. PMID:24517694

Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

15

Aquaporins in the digestive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid transfer such as secretion and absorption is one of the major functions of the digestive system. Aquaporins are water channel proteins providing water transfer across the cellular membrane. At least six aquaporin isoforms are expressed in the digestive system. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is widely distributed in endothelial cells of capillaries and small vessels as well as in the central lacteals

Toshiyuki Matsuzaki; Yuki Tajika; Abdushukur Ablimit; Takeo Aoki; Haruo Hagiwara; Kuniaki Takata

2004-01-01

16

The Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Colorado State University has produced this website as a hypertextbook on the subject of pathophysiology of the digestive system. In the "Introduction and Guide" link, they describe it as an education experiment that hopes to bypass the drawbacks of traditional paper and ink textbooks. The layout of this hypertextbook has a clickable table of contents, and at the bottom of each page is a helpful navigation device to show you what topic is next and what topic precedes it. Explanatory drawings or pictures accompany each concept, which makes for an excellent way to learn about the subject. Visitors should not forget to click on the "Hypertextbook" menu to see the other pathophysiology and biomedical sciences topics that are available as hypertextbooks at Colorado State University.

2009-06-10

17

The Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Colorado State University has produced this website as a hypertextbook on the subject of pathophysiology of the digestive system. In the "Introduction and Guide" link, they describe it as an education experiment that hopes to bypass the drawbacks of traditional paper and ink textbooks. The layout of this hypertextbook has a clickable table of contents, and at the bottom of each page is a helpful navigation device to show you what topic is next and what topic precedes it. Explanatory drawings or pictures accompany each concept, which makes for an excellent way to learn about the subject. Visitors should not forget to click on the "Hypertextbook" menu to see the other pathophysiology and biomedical sciences topics that are available as hypertextbooks at Colorado State University.

18

[Digestive manifestations in systemic sclerosis].  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal involvement occurs in most patients with systemic sclerosis. Pathology is characterized by vasculopathy, resulting in tissue ischemia, progressive dysfunction and fibrosis. In its diffuse and visceral pattern, digestive manifestations may involve most of the intestinal tract and are the most frequent before renal, cardiac and pulmonary involvement. Whatever the visceral extension, about 80% of patients have digestive manifestations including gastroesophageal reflux, abnormalities of intestinal motility leading to chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and small bowel bacterial overgrowth and malnutrition. Long-term treatment of reflux with high-dose proton pump inhibitors appears safe and effective for symptom relief and may prevent recurrence of esophagitis and stricture. Prokinetic agents effective in pseudoobstruction include metoclopramide, domperidone, octreotide, and erythromycin. PMID:12218892

Attar, Alain

2002-06-01

19

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The dual digestion system (DDS) was developed to provide stabilized, pathogen free sludge. DDS consists of a 1-day detention time, pure-oxygen, covered aerobic digester (Step I) followed by an 8-day detention time anaerobic reactor. The temperature in the Step I digester is contr...

20

Inquiring Into The Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching science by means of inquiry-based projects has the potential to transform the science lab into a place of debate and discovery, but teachers run the risk of either leaving students to work too independently or forcing them to be too dependent on our guidance. To counter these challenges, the author implemented changes in the way topics are covered and assessment is made in his 6th grade classroom. This article presents an example of the structure that was developed as a result, which is based on an inquiry into the digestive system.

Schroeder, Carlos

2007-11-01

21

MOUSE UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The original MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty System) system was designed to deal with the problem of uncertainties in Environmental engineering calculations, such as a set of engineering cost or risk analysis equations. t was especially intended for use by individuals with li...

22

Digestion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digestion is a complex and miraculous process fundamental to our daily living. The complex nature of our digestive system, however, can also contribute to a variety of disorders. The following websites offer information and resources pertaining to the digestive system and digestive disorders. The first link leads to website for the American Gastroenterological Association which is an online resource for Association members as well as "other medical professionals with an interest in digestive diseases, patients and the general public." The site posts links to related news; and to sections for clinical resources, practice management, educational resources, and publications-to name a few (1). The second link leads to GastroLab, a long-standing online gastrointestinal resource specializing in digestive disorders. The site offers visitors a vast array of endoscopic images and video clips as well as a comprehensive dictionary of gastrointestinal terms (2). The third site presents the Gut Foundation, an organization that "provides professional and public education and promotes research into digestive disorders to improve gastrointestinal health." The Foundation website contains a variety of information about gastrointestinal conditions, diagnoses, medical research, membership, and more (3). The fourth website, from ViaHealth provides a brief overview of the digestive system; and information sections addressing common digestive disorders, rectal and colon cancer, diagnostic procedures, and online resources (4). From the ThinkQuest Library archives, the fifth site-titled La Casa de Comida-was created by a team of high school students for elementary school children. This section of the site offers a brief and basic comparison of digestive systems in birds, horses, insects, snakes, crustaceans, and mollusks (5). The sixth site contains a section of an online Biology Textbook-developed by Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College-providing a concise overview of the digestive system (6). The final link leads to a kid-friendly website from KidsHealth containing a short summary of the digestive system complete with a cartoony diagram illustrating all of the system's major parts (7).

23

Digestive System, a Kinesthetic Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two parallel strips of tape on the floor 3-4 feet apart and width of classroom represent the digestive tract. A large filled bag represents the food particle. Students standing on both lines act out each digestive function of the organs, tissues, and cells in the tract as the food particle comes to them.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Bobbin Cave N:Cave;Bobbin ORG:Village High School REV:2005-04-09 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

24

[LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY IN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM  

PubMed

The principal procedures of digestive surgery to be made by laparoscopy are mentioned. Some of them (Cholecystectomy, Fundoplication, highly selective Vagotomy, some diagnosis procedures, etc.) are perfectly consolidated, and they are the chosen procedures for they have passed the test of time and experience.However, some other procedures are still a controversial topic, and it is expected that in the near future they will be defined, according to results.Some indications are emerging as for example the Laparoscopic Staging of certain digestive cancers. lf its feasibility and efficacy is demonstrated, it will be a new tool with which the doctor in change will count with for his patients' benefit. PMID:12271342

De Vinatea, José

1998-01-01

25

Colorado State University: Pathophysiology of the Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website was developed by faculty at Colorado State University as a Biomedical Hypertextbook on the Pathophysiology of the Digestive System. The website is very comprehensive including well-organized sections on the Fundamental Physiology and Anatomy of the Digestive System, Control of Digestive Function, Pregastric Digestion, The Pancreas, and many more. There are even sections exploring the digestive physiology of birds and herbivores. Additional features include self-evaluation tests reviewing the material, a Glossary and Index, and links to other Hypertextbooks.

26

Colorado State University: Pathophysiology of the Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website was developed by faculty at Colorado State University as a Biomedical Hypertextbook on the Pathophysiology of the Digestive System. The website is very comprehensive including well-organized sections on the Fundamental Physiology and Anatomy of the Digestive System, Control of Digestive Function, Pregastric Digestion, The Pancreas, and many more. There are even sections exploring the digestive physiology of birds and herbivores. Additional features include self-evaluation tests reviewing the material, a Glossary and Index, and links to other Hypertextbooks.

2007-03-04

27

[Acid base balance in the digestive system].  

PubMed

The mechanisms of acid base balance in digestive organs, including stomach, intestine as well as liver, have been described in the present paper. The stomach secrets large amount of acid as well as sodium bicarbonate, so that hydrogen ion would be lost in the severe vomiting state such as pyloric stenosis, resulting in metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia. In the diarrheal condition, sodium bicarbonate would be lost in large amount, causing metabolic acidosis and hypokalemia. Hepatic failure induces the respiratory alkalosis of which mechanisms have not been clarified yet. In any case, urgent correction of acid base imbalnce would be crucial. It is, however, obscure to date how the systemic acid base imbalnce affects the function of the digestive system. This issue would be promising field in the investigation of digestive diseases. PMID:1434024

Terano, A; Ota, S; Shiina, S

1992-09-01

28

Joint Polar Satellite System Science Seminar Annual Digest  

E-print Network

iii Joint Polar Satellite System Science Seminar Annual Digest 2013 #12;#12;Joint Polar Satellite System Science Seminar Annual Digest Page i From the Senior Program Scientist On behalf of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program Science, it is my pleasure to present this digest, which

29

Digestion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this food science activity, learners explore digestion and proteins by observing the action of meat tenderizer on luncheon meat. This lesson guide includes background information about digestion, enzymes, and proteins.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.

2011-01-01

30

Formation of the digestive system in zebrafish. I. liver morphogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the essential functions of the digestive system, much remains to be learned about the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for digestive organ morphogenesis and patterning. We introduce a novel zebrafish transgenic line, the gutGFP line, that expresses GFP throughout the digestive system, and use this tool to analyze the development of the liver. Our studies reveal two phases of

Holly A Field; Elke A Ober; Tobias Roeser; Didier Y. R Stainier

2003-01-01

31

Nutrition 1: Food and the Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the first of a three part series. Most of this lesson will focus on what nutrients are needed to do particular tasks for the body. More specifically, where the nutrients come from, their different forms, and then their importance for particular tasks in the body. Some of the lesson will focus on the overall digestive system in order to address the latter part of the benchmark-that undigested food is eliminated.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

32

PATHOGEN AND INDICATOR ORGANISM DESTRUCTION BY THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The effectiveness of the dual digestion system (DDS) to destroy pathogenic microorganisms was evaluated at a full-scale treatment facility. The DDS incorporates a pure oxygen aerobic digester (1-day detention time) followed by an anaerobic digester (8-day detention time). Heat bi...

33

Nanostructured microfluidic digestion system for rapid high-performance proteolysis.  

PubMed

A novel microfluidic protein digestion system with a nanostructured and bioactive inner surface was constructed by an easy biomimetic self-assembly strategy for rapid and effective proteolysis in 2 minutes, which is faster than the conventional overnight digestion methods. It is expected that this work would contribute to rapid online digestion in future high-throughput proteomics. PMID:25511010

Cheng, Gong; Hao, Si-Jie; Yu, Xu; Zheng, Si-Yang

2015-01-22

34

75 FR 82428 - VASRD Improvement Forum-Updating Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Updating Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive System, Dental Conditions, and Infectious Diseases...Updating Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive System, Dental Conditions, and Infectious...

2010-12-30

35

FIDS: an intelligent financial Web news articles digest system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a system called FIDS (Financial Information Digest System), which can digest online financial news automatically. Compared to previous approaches, FIDS is unique in the way that it can understand news articles in different domains simultaneously. These domains are all concerned with financial news. The system is able to integrate the information from different articles by

Wai Lam; Kei Shiu Ho

2001-01-01

36

Digestive Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

37

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION OF THE DUAL DIGESTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Full-scale performance and costs of an innovative sludge stabilization process were evaluated at the three plants. The DDS incorporates a 1-day-detention-time, pure oxygen aerobic digester followed in series by an 8-day-detention-time anaerobic digester. Heat of biological oxidat...

38

77 FR 27009 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; The Digestive System; Withdrawal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Rating Disabilities; The Digestive System; Withdrawal AGENCY: Department...for Rating Disabilities; The Digestive System. VA has determined, after...and science related to the digestive system. Therefore, the proposed...

2012-05-08

39

Biogasification of rice straw with an anaerobic-phased solids digester system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice straw was converted into biogas using a high-rate anaerobic digestion system, anaerobic-phased solids digester system (APS-digester system). The system was stable and, with proper design, could become a space-efficient, high-rate solids digestion system. Ammonia is used as a supplemental nitrogen source for rice straw digestion. The effects of different pretreatment methods, physical (mechanical), thermal and chemical (ammonia) treatment, on

Ruihong Zhang; Zhiqin Zhang

1999-01-01

40

The circulatory, digestive, and respiratory systems work together.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system breaks down the food we eat into smaller nutrients which are moved throughout our bodies by the circulatory system. The respiratory system captures oxygen from the air and releases toxic carbon dioxide to the air; these chemicals are also moved through the body via the circulatory system.

Katie Hale (CSUF;)

2007-08-18

41

Histological and histochemical development of the digestive system of Solea senegalensis (Kaup, 1858) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digestive system of Solea senegalensis was studied from hatching until 1 month of larval life. Histological and histochemical procedures were used to study the histomorphology, digestive enzymes, lipid, protein and carbohydrate distribution in the digestive larval tract. The major events in digestive system differentiation occurred during the early stages. At first feeding (2DAH—days after hatching) both the mouth and

L Ribeiro; C Sarasquete; M. T Dinis

1999-01-01

42

Kids Health: How the Body Works - Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How the Body Works is an interactive website for children to explore the systems of the body and learn basic anatomy and physiology. In particular this link provides students and teachers to animations, videos and activities related to the digestive system.

2012-11-20

43

An integrated baseball digest system using maximum entropy method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel system that is able to automatically detect and classify highlights from baseball game videos in TV broadcast. The digest system gives complete indexes of a baseball game which cover all of the status changes in a game. We achieve this by seamlessly integrating image, audio and speech clues using a maximum entropy based

Mei Han; Wei Hua; Wei Xu; Yihong Gong

2002-01-01

44

TRP channels in the digestive system  

PubMed Central

Several of the 28 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed throughout the alimentary canal where they play important roles in taste, chemo- and mechanosensation, thermoregulation, pain and hyperalgesia, mucosal function and homeostasis, control of motility by neurons, interstitial cells of Cajal and muscle cells, and vascular function. While the implications of some TRP channels, notably TRPA1, TRPC4, TRPM5, TRPM6, TRPM7, TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPV6, have been investigated in much detail, the understanding of other TRP channels in their relevance to digestive function lags behind. The polymodal chemo- and mechanosensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPV1 and TRPV4 is particularly relevant to the alimentary canal whose digestive and absorptive function depends on the surveillance and integration of many chemical and physical stimuli. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 appear to be essential for the absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively, while TRPM7 appears to contribute to the pacemaker activity of the interstitial cells of Cajal, and TRPC4 transduces smooth muscle contraction evoked by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation. The implication of some TRP channels in pathological processes has raised enormous interest in exploiting them as a therapeutic target. This is particularly true for TRPV1, TRPV4 and TRPA1, which may be targeted for the treatment of several conditions of chronic abdominal pain. Consequently, blockers of these TRP channels have been developed, and their clinical usefulness has yet to be established. PMID:20932260

Holzer, Peter

2011-01-01

45

Psoriasis vulgaris and digestive system disorders: is there a linkage?  

PubMed

Psoriasis is well-known immune-mediated skin disease often associated with co-morbidities, including dyslipidaemia and obesity. Few reports imply that the disease might be also related to pathology of mucosal surfaces, especially that of the digestive system. The authors present a case of psoriasis and concurrent digestive system abnormalities, and review the literature regarding the topic. A 40-year-old man suffered from an exacerbation of exudative psoriasis for about 6 months. Topical antipsoriatics proved ineffective and the disease gradually progressed to a severe disseminated form. Subsequent detailed examinations revealed persistent gastroduodenitis due to H. pylori infection, pancreatic dysfunction and fatty change of the liver, although the patient denied any gastrointestinal symptoms. As a result appropriate treatment of the diagnosed digestive system disorders was added to topical antipsoriatic therapy. Within 2 weeks of treatment clinical symptoms and laboratory signs showed a marked trend to normalisation. The presented medical history seems to suggest that there may be some kind of interplay between psoriasis and digestive system disorders. PMID:20164041

Pietrzak, Aldona; Jastrzebska, Iwona; Chodorowska, Grazyna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Dybiec, Ewa; Juszkiewicz-Borowiec, Maria; Krasowska, Dorota; Schwartz, Robert A

2009-01-01

46

The Ecology and Digestive System of the Struthiolariidae (Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The two neozelanic species Struthiolaria papulosa and Pelicaria vermis have been studied as regards ecology, feeding mechanism, and structure and function of the digestive system. They are dwellers on sand or sand-mud-flat, with a feeding position just below the surface, where they construct paired siphonal tubes with the rostrum. A ciliary mode of feeding has been acquired by the

J. E. MORTON

47

Mouse behavioural analysis in systems biology  

PubMed Central

Molecular techniques allowing in vivo modulation of gene expression have provided unique opportunities and challenges for behavioural studies aimed at understanding the function of particular genes or biological systems under physiological or pathological conditions. Although various animal models are available, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) has unique features and is therefore a preferred animal model. The mouse shares a remarkable genetic resemblance and aspects of behaviour with humans. In this review, first we describe common mouse models for behavioural analyses. As both genetic and environmental factors influence behavioural performance and need to be carefully evaluated in behavioural experiments, considerations for designing and interpretations of these experiments are subsequently discussed. Finally, common behavioural tests used to assess brain function are reviewed, and it is illustrated how behavioural tests are used to increase our understanding of the role of histaminergic neurotransmission in brain function. PMID:16035954

van Meer, Peter; Raber, Jacob

2005-01-01

48

The complexities of hydrolytic enzymes from the termite digestive system.  

PubMed

The main challenge in second generation bioethanol production is the efficient breakdown of cellulose to sugar monomers (hydrolysis). Due to the recalcitrant character of cellulose, feedstock pretreatment and adapted hydrolysis steps are needed to obtain fermentable sugar monomers. The conventional industrial production process of second-generation bioethanol from biomass comprises several steps: thermochemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar fermentation. This process is undergoing continuous optimization in order to increase the bioethanol yield and reduce the economic cost. Therefore, the discovery of new enzymes with high lignocellulytic activity or new strategies is extremely important. In nature, wood-feeding termites have developed a sophisticated and efficient cellulose degrading system in terms of the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis and exploitation. This system, which represents a model for digestive symbiosis has attracted the attention of biofuel researchers. This review describes the termite digestive system, gut symbionts, termite enzyme resources, in vitro studies of isolated enzymes and lignin degradation in termites. PMID:23036053

Saadeddin, Anas

2014-06-01

49

The Digestive System: Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The purpose of this review is to set the context for a discussion of the improvement of nutrient efficiency in poultry production through greater understanding of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Much of the ongoing research in efficiency of nutrient capture is directed toward better understanding of the benefits of nonpharmaceutical antibiotic growth promoters because approvals for the use of

J. J. Dibner; J. D. Richards

2004-01-01

50

Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Muller, J.K.; Prather, D.R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.

2003-01-01

51

System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material  

DOEpatents

An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01

52

Gallstones, cholecystectomy, and risk of digestive system cancers.  

PubMed

Gallstones and cholecystectomy may be related to digestive system cancer through inflammation, altered bile flux, and changes in metabolic hormone levels. Although gallstones are recognized causes of gallbladder cancer, associations with other cancers of the digestive system are poorly established. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database (1992-2005), which includes 17 cancer registries that cover approximately 26% of the US population, to identify first primary cancers (n = 236,850) occurring in persons aged ?66 years and 100,000 cancer-free population-based controls frequency-matched by calendar year, age, and gender. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for the matching factors. Gallstones and cholecystectomy were associated with increased risk of noncardia gastric cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.21 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.32) and OR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.40), respectively), small-intestine carcinoid (OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.60) and OR = 1.78 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.25)), liver cancer (OR = 2.35 (95% CI: 2.18, 2.54) and OR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.41)), and pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.31) and OR = 1.23 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.33)). Colorectal cancer risk associated with gallstones and cholecystectomy decreased with increasing distance from the common bile duct (P-trend < 0.001). Hence, gallstones and cholecystectomy are associated with the risk of cancers occurring throughout the digestive tract. PMID:24470530

Nogueira, Leticia; Freedman, Neal D; Engels, Eric A; Warren, Joan L; Castro, Felipe; Koshiol, Jill

2014-03-15

53

Cholesterol crystal embolization to the digestive system: characterization of a common, yet overlooked presentation of atheroembolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1359 published patients with multiorgan cholesterol crystal embolism (CCE), the digestive system seems to be the third most frequently affected system. Yet, this system received hitherto only little attention in the medical literature. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clinically characterize the subset of patients with CCE involving the digestive system, based on our institutional

Shomron Ben-Horin; Eytan Bardan; Iris Barshack; Nurit Zaks; Avi Livneh

2003-01-01

54

Expression Patterns Suggest that Despite Considerable Functional Redundancy, Galectin-4 and -6 Play Distinct Roles in Normal and Damaged Mouse Digestive Tract  

PubMed Central

The galectin-4 protein is mostly expressed in the digestive tract and is associated with lipid raft stabilization, protein apical trafficking, wound healing, and inflammation. While most mammalian species, including humans, have a single Lgals4 gene, some mice have two paralogues: Lgals4 and Lgals6. So far, their significant similarities have hindered the analysis of their respective expression and function. We took advantage of two antibodies that discriminate between the galectin-4 and galectin-6 proteins to document their patterns of expression in the normal and the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-damaged digestive tract in the mouse. In the normal digestive tract, their pattern of expression from tongue to colon is quite similar, which suggests functional redundancy. However, the presence of galectin-4, but not galectin-6, in the lamina propria of the DSS-damaged colon, its association with luminal colonic bacteria, and differences in subcellular localization of these proteins suggest that they also have distinct roles in the normal and the damaged mouse digestive tract. Our results provide a rare example of ancestral and derived functions evolving after tandem gene duplication. PMID:23360694

Reyes-Gomez, Edouard; Maurer, Marie; Netter, Pierre; Higuet, Dominique

2013-01-01

55

The endocrine cells of the digestive system: amines, peptides, and modes of action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endocrine cells of the digestive system (entero-endocrine cells of gastro-intestinal epithelia and langerhans' islets of the pancreas) and the chemical messengers produced by them constitute a complicated and complex system. The physiological function of this system is the regulation of all processes related to digestion and resorption, and to homeostasis of carbohydrate metabolism. Using morphological and histochemical features of

D. Grube

1986-01-01

56

Is the food-entrainable circadian oscillator in the digestive system?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Food-anticipatory activity (FAA) is the increase in locomotion and core body temperature that precedes a daily scheduled meal. It is driven by a circadian oscillator but is independent of the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Recent results that reveal meal-entrained clock gene expression in rat and mouse peripheral organs raise the intriguing possibility that the digestive system is the site of the feeding-entrained oscillator (FEO) that underlies FAA. We tested this possibility by comparing FAA and Per1 rhythmicity in the digestive system of the Per1-luciferase transgenic rat. First, rats were entrained to daytime restricted feeding (RF, 10 days), then fed ad libitum (AL, 10 days), then food deprived (FD, 2 days). As expected FAA was evident during RF and disappeared during subsequent AL feeding, but returned at the correct phase during deprivation. The phase of Per1 in liver, stomach and colon shifted from a nocturnal to a diurnal peak during RF, but shifted back to nocturnal phase during the subsequent AL and remained nocturnal during food deprivation periods. Second, rats were entrained to two daily meals at zeitgeber time (ZT) 0400 and ZT 1600. FAA to both meals emerged after about 10days of dual RF. However, all tissues studied (all five liver lobes, esophagus, antral stomach, body of stomach, colon) showed entrainment consistent with only the night-time meal. These two results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that FAA arises as an output of rhythms in the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The results also highlight an interesting diversity among peripheral oscillators in their ability to entrain to meals and the direction of the phase shift after RF ends.

Davidson, A. J.; Poole, A. S.; Yamazaki, S.; Menaker, M.

2003-01-01

57

ANAEROBIC SEWAGE TREATMENT IN A ONE-STAGE UASB AND A COMBINED UASB-DIGESTER SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of a novel technology consisting of a UASB complemented with a digester (UASB-Digester) for mutual sewage treatment and sludge stabilisation under low temperature conditions was investigated. The performance of the UASB-Digester system was compared with a one stage UASB. The UASB reactor was operated at a HRT of 6 hours and controlled temperature of 15°C, the average sewage

Nidal Mahmoud; Grietje Zeeman; Huub Gijzen; Gatze Lettinga

2003-01-01

58

Intermediate-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion system operational development  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. Operation of the anaerobic digestion process at high solids reduces the level of process water and thereby the size and capital costs for the digester system. In addition, by virtue of the lack of available water, the microbial catalysts are more productive in feedstock polymer hydrolysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. Information gained from laboratory-scale digester research was used to develop die intermediate-scale digester system. This system represents a 50-fold scale-up of the original digester system and includes continuous feed addition and computer monitoring and control. During the first 1.15 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements -- which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using the NREL high-solids digester design -- are detailed in this report.

Rivard, C.J.

1995-02-01

59

Avoiding digester imbalance through real-time expert system control of dilution rate  

SciTech Connect

Process control of anaerobic digesters is a particularly challenging problem because of the diversity of possible causes that can lead to digester imbalance. Conventional control schemes can fail in consequence of a reversal in the sign of the steady-state gain caused by some type of disturbance. In this work we present an expert system approach that takes into account the particularity of this process. The developed algorithm is demonstrated to compensate successfully for changes in the digester feed medium when simulated against a model for a continuous anaerobic digester.

Pullammanappallil, P.; Harmon, J.; Lyberatos, G.; Svoronos, S.A.; Chynoweth, D.P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1991-12-31

60

Evolutionary steps of ecophysiological adaptation and diversification of ruminants: a comparative view of their digestive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is made of the ruminant digestive system in its morphophysiological variations and adaptations relating to foraging behaviour, digestive physiology, to interactions between plants and ruminants and to geographic and climatic diversity of ruminants' ecological niches. Evidence is provided for evolutionary trends from an extreme selectivity mainly for plant cell contents and dependence upon a fractionated fore- and hindgut

R. R. Hofmann

1989-01-01

61

Ontogeny of the digestive system of the Octopus bimaculatus paralarvae (Verril, 1883).  

PubMed

The high mortalities registered in the larval stage during octopus culturing are mainly due to nutritional deficiencies of the food provided. To understand the cause of this problem, we studied the ontogenetic development of the digestive system of Octopus bimaculatus paralarvae. An egg batch was obtained from a gravid female collected in the Bay of Los Angeles, Baja California, Mexico, and it was incubated in the laboratory during the summer of 2011. We observed that the formation of the digestive system began at 33 days post-laying (DPL). The newly hatched paralarvae had already formed the organs involved in food ingestion and digestion, although it was not possible to know accurately their degree of maturity. The present research constitutes the first description at the histological level of the ontogenic development of the digestive system of the O. bimaculatus paralarvae. This serves as a basis for future studies of the digestive physiology of this species. PMID:24683531

López-Peraza, Diana Judith; Hernández-Rodríguez, Mónica; Barón-Sevilla, Benjamín

2014-01-01

62

Roles of F-box proteins in human digestive system tumors (Review).  

PubMed

F-box proteins (FBPs), the substrate-recognition subunit of E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase, are the important components of Ub proteasome system (UPS). FBPs are involved in multiple cellular processes through ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of their target proteins. Many studies have described the roles of FBPs in human cancers. Digestive system tumors account for a large proportion of all the tumors, and their mortality is very high. This review summarizes for the first time the roles of FBPs in digestive system tumorige-nesis and tumor progression, aiming at finding new routes for the rational design of targeted anticancer therapies in digestive system tumors. PMID:25270675

Gong, Jian; Lv, Liang; Huo, Jirong

2014-12-01

63

Effects of Dietary Components on Cancer of the Digestive System.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Cancer is the second leading cause of death in developed countries and poor diet and physical inactivity are major risk factors in cancer-related deaths. Therefore, interventions to reduce levels of smoking, improve diet, and increase physical activity must become much higher priorities in the general population's health and health care systems. The consumption of fruit and vegetables exerts a preventive effect towards cancer and in recent years natural dietary agents have attracted great attention in the scientific community and among the general public. Foods such as tomatoes, olive oil, broccoli, garlic, onions, berries, soy bean, honey, tea, aloe vera, grapes, rosemary, basil, chili peppers, carrots, pomegranate, and curcuma contain active components that can influence the initiation and the progression of carcinogenesis, acting on pathways implied in cell proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis. The present review illustrates the main foods and their active components, including their antioxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic properties, with a particular focus on the evidence related to cancers of the digestive system. PMID:24841279

Zanini, Sara; Marzotto, Marta; Giovinazzo, Francesco; Bassi, Claudio; Bellavite, Paolo

2014-05-19

64

Design of digestion systems for maximum methane production  

SciTech Connect

A computer analysis of microbial kinetics of methane fermentation using the Contois kinetic model has shown that design of continuous flow anaerobic digesters can be based on two criteria: (a) maximum volumetric methane productivity or (b) maximum total daily methane production. The difference in performance of digesters designed on these two criteria is that over a given time period, the methane production from the digester designed for maximum total daily methane production will exceed the gas production of the digester designed for maximum volumetric methane productivity by 43, 74, 56 and 60 percent for dairy, poultry, swine and beef waste respectively. The influent feed concentration of volatile solids (VS), the detention time and the operating temperature are the major design factors which determine the maximum total daily methane production. Maximum volatile solids reduction based on developed kinetic data was 75, 56, 30 and 62 percent for swine, beef, dairy and poultry waste respectively. (Refs. 11).

Hill, D.T.

1982-01-01

65

Blocking c-myc and stat3 by E. coli expressed and enzyme digested siRNA in mouse melanoma  

SciTech Connect

Tumour cells often show alteration in the signal-transduction pathways, leading to proliferation in response to external signals. Oncogene overexpression and constitutive expression is a common phenomenon in the development and progression of many human cancers. Therefore oncogenes provide potential targets for cancer therapy. RNA interference (RNAi), mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), silences genes with a high degree of specificity and potentially represents a general approach for molecularly targeted anti-cancer therapy. The data presented in this report evaluated the method of systemically administering combined esiRNAs to multiple targets as compared with the method of using a single kind of esiRNA to a single target. Our experimental data revealed that the mixed treatment of esiC-MYC and esiSTAT3 had a better inhibition effect than the single treatment of esiC-MYC or esiSTAT3 on mouse B16 melanoma.

Hong Jie [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhao Yingchun [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Weida [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: whuang@fudan.edu.cn

2006-09-22

66

MOUSE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in New York City, the MOUSE organization works to empower "underserved students to provide technology support and leadership in their schools, supporting their academic and career success." On their homepage, visitors can learn about their programs, learn about supporting the MOUSE organization, and read up on their resources. In the "Resources" area, visitors can learn about their outreach activities in New York City, Chicago, and California. Visitors working in educational outreach will appreciate the information offered here, including materials on how different groups can receive assistance from the MOUSE organization. Also, visitors can look over the "News" updates to learn about their new programs, their educational seminars, and their outreach activities.

67

Topic in Depth - Digestion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digestion is a complex and miraculous process fundamental to our daily living. The complex nature of our digestive system, however, can also contribute to a variety of disorders. The following websites offer information and resources pertaining to the digestive system and digestive disorders.

2010-09-09

68

A novel fed-batch digestion system for biomethanation of plant biomasses.  

PubMed

Plant biomasses, which in the absence of adequate pretreatment pose serious operational problems in biogas production using conventional domestic flow-through digesters, can be successfully digested in a novel fedbatch digestion system that produces a steady rate of biogas. Basically, the system is a batch digestion operated with a regular input of a calculated amount of feed based on first order decay kinetics in order to maintain a regular biogas production rate. For nearly three years the system was tested in a laboratory-scale fed-batch digester (10 l) using dried water hyacinth as feed providing the desired biogas production rate. A field-scale domestic digester of masonry construction with a working volume of 10 m3 was designed and tested for about 9 months by feeding a mixture of dried water hyacinth or banana stem along with sugarcane press mud, yielding an average biogas production of 90-100% of the expected rate calculated on the basis of the feed rate. PMID:16232537

Sharma, A; Unni, B G; Singh, H D

1999-01-01

69

Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD{sub rem} for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

Kheradmand, S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Shiraz, Shiraz 7134851156 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi-Jashni, A., E-mail: akarimi@shirazu.ac.i [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Shiraz, Shiraz 7134851156 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sartaj, M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 841568311 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-06-15

70

Chitinolytic enzymes in the digestive system of marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitinase, exo-N-acetyl-ß-D-glycosaminidase (NAGase) and lysozyme activities were assayed in the digestive tract of 6 species of marine fishes: Myxine glutinosa (cyclostome), Chimaera monstrosa (holocephalan), Squalus acanthias, Etmopterus spinax, Raja radiata (elasmobranchs) and Coryphaenoides rupestris (teleost). Strong chitinase activity was found in the gastric mucosa of the elasmobranchs (S. acanthias, E. spinax and R. radiata) and the teleost (Coryphaenoides rupestris). A

R. Fänge; G. Lundblad; J. Lind; K. Slettengren

1979-01-01

71

Mouse vocal communication system: are ultrasounds learned or innate?  

PubMed Central

Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production. Here we discuss the available data to assess whether male mouse song behavior and the supporting brain circuits resemble those of known vocal non-learning or vocal learning species. Recent neurobiology studies have demonstrated that the mouse USV brain system includes motor cortex and striatal regions, and that the vocal motor cortex sends a direct sparse projection to the brainstem vocal motor nucleus ambiguous, a projection thought be unique to humans among mammals. Recent behavioral studies have reported opposing conclusions on mouse vocal plasticity, including vocal ontogeny changes in USVs over early development that might not be explained by innate maturation processes, evidence for and against a role for auditory feedback in developing and maintaining normal mouse USVs, and evidence for and against limited vocal imitation of song pitch. To reconcile these findings, we suggest that the trait of vocal learning may not be dichotomous but encompass a broad set of behavioral and neural traits we call the continuum hypothesis, and that mice possess some of the traits associated with a capacity for limited vocal learning. PMID:23295209

Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

2013-01-01

72

Energize It! An Ecologically Integrated Approach to the Study of the Digestive System and Energy Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops a research-oriented method of studying the digestive system that integrates species' ecology with the form and function of this system. Uses problem-posing, problem-probing, and peer persuasion. Presents information for mammalian systems. (27 references) (MKR)

Derting, Terry L.

1992-01-01

73

HENOTYPIC FLEXIBILITY IN THE digestive system of migratory birds is critically important in allowing birds to successfully overcome the phys-  

E-print Network

67 6 P HENOTYPIC FLEXIBILITY IN THE digestive system of migratory birds is critically important physiological systems, including that of the digestive system, is match flexibility in the diges- tive system of birds has limits that can influence the pace of migration

Mladenoff, David

74

Multicenter retrospective analysis of systemic chemotherapy for advanced neuroendocrine carcinoma of the digestive system.  

PubMed

This study analyzed outcomes of systemic chemotherapy for advanced neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the digestive system. Clinical data from 258 patients with unresectable or recurrent NEC of the gastrointestinal tract (GI) or hepato-biliary-pancreatic system (HBP), who received chemotherapy, were collected from 23 Japanese institutions and analyzed retrospectively. Patients had primary sites in the esophagus (n = 85), stomach (n = 70), small bowel (n = 6), colorectum (n = 31), hepato-biliary system (n = 31) and pancreas (n = 31). Median overall survival (OS) was 13.4 months the esophagus, 13.3 months for the stomach, 29.7 months for the small bowel, 7.6 months for the colorectum, 7.9 months for the hepato-biliary system and 8.5 months for the pancreas. Irinotecan plus cisplatin (IP) and etoposide plus cisplatin (EP) were most commonly selected for GI-NEC and HBP-NEC. For patients treated with IP/EP (n = 160/46), the response rate was 50/28% and median OS was 13.0/7.3 months. Multivariate analysis among patients treated with IP or EP showed that the primary site (GI vs HBP; hazard ratio [HR] 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.97) and baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase levels (not elevated vs elevated; HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0.94) were independent prognostic factors for OS, while the efficacy of IP was slightly better than for EP (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.48-1.33; P = 0.389). IP and EP are the most common treatment regimens for NEC of the digestive system. HBP primary sites and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels are unfavorable prognostic factors for survival. A randomized controlled trial is required to establish the appropriate chemotherapy regimen for advanced NEC of the digestive system. This study was registered at UMIN as trial number 000005176. PMID:24975505

Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Machida, Nozomu; Morizane, Chigusa; Kasuga, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki; Sudo, Kentaro; Nishina, Tomohiro; Tobimatsu, Kazutoshi; Ishido, Kenji; Furuse, Junji; Boku, Narikazu; Okusaka, Takuji

2014-09-01

75

AN IMPROVEMENT TO THE MOUSE COMPUTERIZED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The original MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty System) system was designed to deal with the problem of uncertainties in Environmental engineering calculations, such as a set of engineering cast or risk analysis equations. It was especially intended for use by individuals with l...

76

Histological study on the digestive system development of Takifugu rubripes larvae and juvenile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The digestive tract of Takifugu rubripes during early life stages was studied with light microscopy. At the beginning of hatching, the digestive tract is represented by a simple and undifferentiated straight tube and does not communicate with the exterior, as the mouth and anus are not open yet. At 2 d after hatching, a constriction between intestine and rectum that will become the intestino-rectal valve is visible. During the endogenous feeding phase, the yolk sac is resorbed and the digestive tract becomes functional and differentiated. The liver and pancreas also become apparent at this time. At onset of exogenous feeding (3 d after hatching), yolk sac resesves are not completely depleted, suggesting a period of mixed nutrition. The digestive tract differentiates fully into buccopharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestine and rectum. At 9 d after hatching, the yolk sac reserves are completely depleted. The most noticeable events occurring from 5 to 17 d after hatching are the transformation of the epithelia type, the differentiation of the pneumatic sac, the epithelial cell, gut convolution, mucosal fold increase, and the growth of liver and pancreas. From 18 to 27 d after hatching, the numbers of intestine folds and mucus cells increase progressively. From then on, morphological changes of digestive features are almost completed. At 27 d after hatching, the morphology and function of digestive system are similar to that of the adult.

Wan, Zhenzhen; Gao, Tianxiang; Zhang, Xiumei; Chen, Chao; Yu, Changhong

2006-01-01

77

Histology of the developing digestive system and the effect of food deprivation in larval green sturgeon ( Acipenser medirostris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histological development of the digestive tract in hatchery-reared green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) larvae and the effects of food deprivation on the digestive system organization were studied from hatching until 31 days post-hatching (dph). At hatching, the larval digestive system consisted of two rudiments: a large endodermal yolk sac and a primordial hind-gut. During the endogenous feeding phase, the wall

Enric Gisbert; Serge I Doroshov

2003-01-01

78

The Digestive System [and] Instructor's Guide. Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional modular unit wlth instructor's guide provides materials on important aspects of one of the major systems of the human body--the digestive system. Its purpose is to introduce the student to the structures and functions of the human digestive system--and the interrelationships of the two--and to familiarize the student with some…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

79

Performance of temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system treating dairy cattle wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system in the stabilization of dairy cattle wastes at high solids concentrations has never been evaluated, though the process has been established as a feasible alternative to conventional mesophilic processes for the treatment of municipal wastewater sludges. In this study, the TPAD system operating at a retention time of 14 days was subjected

Shihwu Sung; Harikishan Santha

2003-01-01

80

Early warning indicators for monitoring the process failure of anaerobic digestion system of food waste.  

PubMed

To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), alkalinity and their combined indicators were evaluated. Results revealed that operation conditions significantly affect the responses of parameters and thus the optimal early warning indicators of each reactor differ from each other. None of the single indicators was universally valid for all the systems. The universally valid indicators should combine several parameters to supply complementary information. A combination of total VFA, the ratio of VFA to total alkalinity (VFA/TA) and the ratio of bicarbonate alkalinity to total alkalinity (BA/TA) can reflect the metabolism of the digesting system and realize rapid and effective early warning. PMID:25218457

Li, Lei; He, Qingming; Wei, Yunmei; He, Qin; Peng, Xuya

2014-11-01

81

Intermediate-Scale High-Solids Anaerobic Digestion System Operational Development  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. During the first 1.5 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements, which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using ,the NREL high-solids digester design are detailed in this report.

Rivard, C. J.

1995-02-01

82

Evaluation of microwave digestion systems for mercury recovery in an oil matrix  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this document is to characterize three microwave systems developed by CEM Corporation. The purpose of this investigative work was to evaluate the performance of each system for dissolution qualities and the recovery of mercury in an oil based matrix. The microwave systems evaluated were the heavy duty vessel system (HDV), the advanced composite system (ACV), and the open vessel system (OVS). All three systems have automated features, but all systems are limited by one factor or another. EPA method 3051 was the procedure used for sample preparation for this project. This particular microwave digestion method can also be used for other metal analytes of interest. Of the three different systems, only the HDV (now UDV) demonstrated complete digestion of the oil based matrix in a one step process and acceptable mercury recoveries.

Whitaker, M.J.; Clymire, J.W.

1997-09-01

83

Morphological changes in the digestive system of 93 human immunodeficiency virus positive patients: an autopsy study.  

PubMed

Involvement of the digestive system in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is frequent and many changes in these patients are diagnosed only at autopsy. There are few studies of autopsy with detailed analysis of this system and only one was conducted in Brazil. We evaluated each segment of the digestive system in 93 consecutive autopsies of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the importance of these lesions to death. Of these, 90 (96.8%) patients had AIDS. We reviewed medical records, autopsy reports and histological sections from tongue to rectum stained with hematoxylin-eosin. When necessary, we analyzed special stains and immunohistochemistry to investigate infections. There was damage to the digestive system in 73 (78.5%) cases. The most common infections were candidiasis (42%), cytomegalovirus (29%), histoplasmosis (11.8%), toxoplasmosis (9.7%) and mycobacterial infection (9.7%). Malignancies were rare, present in four (4.3%) cases (two Kaposi's sarcoma, one adenocarcinoma and one metastatic embryonal carcinoma). All segments showed lesions: tongue (48.6%), esophagus (44.8%), stomach (44.7%), colon (43.2%) and small intestine (28.9%). The lesions found were immediate cause of death in five (5.4%) cases. In another 36 (38.7%) cases the basic disease was systemic and also compromised the digestive system. PMID:22499422

Guimarães, Lucinda Calheiros; Silva, Ana Cristina Araujo Lemos; Micheletti, Adilha Misson Rua; Moura, Everton Nunes Melo; Silva-Vergara, Mario Leon; Adad, Sheila Jorge

2012-01-01

84

Histological development of the digestive system of the Amazonian pimelodid catfish Pseudoplatystoma punctifer.  

PubMed

The organogenesis of the digestive system was described in the Amazonian pimelodid catfish species Pseudoplatystoma punctifer from hatching (3.5 mm total length, TL) to 41 days post-fertilization (dpf) (58.1 mm TL) reared at 28°C. Newly hatched larvae showed a simple digestive tract, which appeared as a straight undifferentiated and unfolded tube lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells (future enterocytes). During the endogenous feeding period, comprised between 20 and 96 h post-fertilization (3.5 to 6.1 mm TL), the larval digestive system experienced a fast transformation with the almost complete development and differentiation of most of digestive organs (buccopahrynx, oesophagus, intestine, liver and exocrine pancreas). Yolk reserves were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (4 dpf, 6.1 mm TL), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 6 to 7 dpf (6.8 to 7.3 mm TL) when yolk was definitively exhausted. The stomach was the organ that latest achieved its complete differentiation, characterized by the development of abundant gastric glands in the fundic stomach between 10 and 15 dpf (10.9 to 15.8 mm TL) and the formation of the pyloric sphincter at the junction of the pyloric stomach and the anterior intestine at 15 dpf (15.8 mm TL). The above-mentioned morphological and histological features observed suggested the achievement of a digestive system characteristic of P. punctifer juveniles and adults. The ontogeny of the digestive system in P. punctifer followed the same general pattern as in most Siluriform species so far, although some species-specific differences in the timing of differentiation of several digestive structures were noted, which might be related to different reproductive guilds, egg and larval size or even different larval rearing practices. According to present findings on the histological development of the digestive system in P. punctifer, some recommendations regarding the rearing practices of this species are also provided in order to improve the actual larval rearing techniques of this fast-growing Neotropical catfish species. PMID:25045855

Gisbert, E; Moreira, C; Castro-Ruiz, D; Oztürk, S; Fernández, C; Gilles, S; Nuñez, J; Duponchelle, F; Tello, S; Renno, J F; García-Dávila, C; Darias, M J

2014-11-01

85

Structural changes in the digestive lysosomal system of sentinel mussels as biomarkers of environmental stress in mussel-watch programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study has been carried out to validate the measure of structural changes in the digestive lysosomal system of sentinel mussels as biomarkers of environmental stress. Previous laboratory studies demonstrated that the digestive lysosomal system of molluscs reponds to a variety of pollutants and to different stress situations by exhibiting significant changes in its structure. Mussels were collected monthly

I. Marigómez; A. Orbea; I. Olabarrieta; M. Etxeberria; M. P. Cajaraville

1996-01-01

86

Modification of digestive system microbiome of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine: effect on ruminal fermentation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, ...

87

PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGENS OF THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies previously reported from this laboratory revealed that the human adenocarcinoraas tested, arising from the entodermally derived digestive system epithelium, contained identical tumor-specific antigens (1, 2). Similar constit- uents were found in embryonic and fetal gut, pancreas, and liver during the first two trimesters of gestation. Because these antigenic components could not be detected in any other normal, diseased, or

JOHN KRUPEY; SAMUEL O. FREEDMAN

88

Development of the digestive organ system in Japanese flounder in relation to metamorphosis and settlement  

Microsoft Academic Search

During metamorphosis and settlement the digestive system of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) exhibits various morphological features that include: differentiation and development of gastric glands and pyloric caeca coupled with partial degradation of the pancreas; involution of the liver; inflation of the gall bladder; and shortening of gut epithelium height. Pepsin?like enzyme activity increases markedly as metamorphosis proceeds, while trypsin?like enzyme

M. Tanaka; S. Kawai; T. Seikai; J. S. Burke

1996-01-01

89

Siting analysis of farm-based centralized anaerobic digester systems for distributed generation using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in installing anaerobic digesters (ADs) on farms to use animal wastes as a biomass resource for both economic value and environmental benefit. This potential expansion prompts the need for land suitability assessment. In this paper, a GIS model is proposed for land-suitability assessment of potential energy systems featuring an AD coupled with an energy generator. A

Jianguo Ma; Norman R. Scott; Stephen D. DeGloria; Arthur J. Lembo

2005-01-01

90

The Effects of Swedish Knife Model on Students' Understanding of the Digestive System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to examine the effect of Swedish Knife Model on students' understanding of digestive system. A simple experimental design (pretest-treatment-posttest) was used in the study and internal comparison of the results of the one group was made. The sample consisted of 40 7th grade Turkish students whose ages range from 13 to 15.…

Cerrah Ozsevgec, Lale; Artun, Huseyin; Unal, Melike

2012-01-01

91

Establishment of systemic Brucella melitensis infection through the digestive tract requires urease, the type IV secretion system, and lipopolysaccharide O antigen.  

PubMed

Human brucellosis is caused mainly by Brucella melitensis, which is often acquired by ingesting contaminated goat or sheep milk and cheese. Bacterial factors required for food-borne infection of humans by B. melitensis are poorly understood. In this study, a mouse model of oral infection was characterized to assess the roles of urease, the VirB type IV secretion system, and lipopolysaccharide for establishing infection through the digestive tract. B. melitensis strain 16M was consistently recovered from the mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and liver beginning at 3 or 7 day postinfection (dpi). In the gut, persistence of the inoculum was observed up to 21 dpi. No inflammatory lesions were observed in the ileum or colon during infection. Mutant strains lacking the ureABC genes of the ure1 operon, virB2, or pmm encoding phosphomannomutase were constructed and compared to the wild-type strain for infectivity through the digestive tract. Mutants lacking the virB2 and pmm genes were attenuated in the spleen (P < 0.05) and MLN (P < 0.001), respectively. The wild-type and mutant strains had similar levels of resistance to low pH and 5 or 10% bile, suggesting that the reduced colonization of mutants was not the result of reduced resistance to acid pH or bile salts. In an in vitro lymphoepithelial cell (M-cell) model, B. melitensis transited rapidly through polarized enterocyte monolayers containing M-like cells; however, transit through monolayers containing only enterocytes was reduced or absent. These results indicate that B. melitensis is able to spread systemically from the digestive tract after infection, most likely through M cells of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. PMID:19651862

Paixão, Tatiane A; Roux, Christelle M; den Hartigh, Andreas B; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Dandekar, Satya; Santos, Renato L; Tsolis, Renée M

2009-10-01

92

Design and operation of a capsule-based microwave digestion system.  

PubMed

A high-pressure microwave digestion system has been designed based on the concept of using large-bore tubes as digestion vessels and capsules as a vehicle for sample introduction. Many of the design aspects are dictated by the use of a relatively large (8.4 mm o.d., 25 mm long) capsule, which in turn dictates the inner tube dimensions. A variety of materials were studied for use as the tubing material. PFA was selected as the best material for a demonstration arrangement. The cycle of operation involves insertion of the capsule by a flexible rod followed by addition of digestion reagent and then a heating/cooling/venting cycle for removal of gases. When the digestion is completed, the system removes the liquid with the same flexible rod and then cleans itself. The system is highly automated with computer-controlled venting, cooling, and reagent addition. Data indicate that performance is similar to that expected of a conventional microwave oven operated at the same temperatures. PMID:21644683

Légère, G; Salin, E D

1998-12-01

93

Modeling a solar-heated anaerobic digester for the developing world using system dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the developing world lacks access to a dependable source of energy. Agricultural societies such as Mozambique and Papua New Guinea could sustain a reliable energy source through the microbacterial decomposition of animal and crop waste. Anaerobic digestion produces methane, which can be used directly for heating, cooking, and lighting. Adding a solar component to the digester provides a catalyst for bacteria activity, accelerating digestion and increasing biogas production. Using methane decreases the amount of energy expended by collecting and preparing firewood, eliminates hazardous health effects linked to inhalation of particles, and provides energy close to where it is needed. The purpose of this work is two fold: initial efforts focus on the development and validation of a computer-based system dynamics model that combines elements of the anaerobic digestion process in order to predict methane output; second, the model is flexed to explore how the addition of a solar component increases robustness of the design, examines predicted biogas generation as a function of varying input conditions, and determines how best to configure such systems for use in varying developing world environments. Therefore, the central components of the system: solar insolation, waste feedstock, bacteria population and consumption rates, and biogas production are related both conceptually and mathematically through a serious of equations, conversions, and a causal loop and feedback diagram. Given contextual constraints and initial assumptions for both locations, it was determined that solar insolation and subsequent digester temperature control, amount of waste, and extreme weather patterns had the most significant impact on the system as a whole. Model behavior was both reproducible and comparable to that demonstrated in existing experimental systems. This tool can thus be flexed to fit specific contexts within the developing world to improve the standard of living of many people, without significantly altering everyday activities.

Bentley, Johanna Lynn

94

The mouse as a model system to study cardiac regeneration  

PubMed Central

Cardiomyocytes exhibit robust proliferative activity during development. After birth, cardiomyocyte proliferation is markedly reduced. Consequently, regenerative growth in the postnatal heart via cardiomyocyte proliferation (including, by inference, via proliferation of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes) is limited and often insufficient to effect repair following injury. Here we review methodologies which employ the mouse as a model system to study cardiac regeneration, and in particular cardiomyocyte replenishment, in health and disease. PMID:21394226

Zaruba, Marc Michael; Field, Loren J.

2011-01-01

95

Systemic vasculitis: an annual critical digest of the most recent literature.  

PubMed

Herewith we provide our annual digest of the recent literature on systemic vasculitis in which we reviewed all the articles published during the last 12 months on large-, medium- and small-vessel vasculitis, and selected the most relevant studies regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of systemic vasculitis. In particular, we focused the attention on giant cell arteritis, ANCA-associated vasculitis and cryoglobulinaemia. PMID:24854379

Della Rossa, Alessandra; Cioffi, Elisa; Elefante, Elena; Ferro, Francesco; Parma, Alice; Vagelli, Roberta; Talarico, Rosaria

2014-01-01

96

The library systems market: a digest of current literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a survey of the literature on integrated library management systems published between 1999 and 2003, with a bias towards the academic market in the UK and North America. It describes how new functionality within ILMSs and products complementary to these integrated systems are being offered by software vendors, causing libraries to replace legacy systems with

Alison Felstead

2004-01-01

97

Microbial Distribution and Abundance in the Digestive System of Five Shipworm Species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae)  

PubMed Central

Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms) are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) of the gills (ctenidia). These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis). These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:23028923

Betcher, Meghan A.; Fung, Jennifer M.; Han, Andrew W.; O’Connor, Roberta; Seronay, Romell; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Distel, Daniel L.; Haygood, Margo G.

2012-01-01

98

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 mediates the toxicity of Paclobutrazol on the digestive system of zebrafish embryos.  

PubMed

Paclobutrazol (PBZ), a trazole-containing fungicide and plant growth retardant, has been widely used for over 30 years to regulate plant growth and promote early fruit setting. Long-term usage of PBZ in agriculture and natural environments has resulted in residual PBZ in the soil and water. Chronic exposure to waterborne PBZ can cause various physiological effects in fish, including hepatic steatosis, antioxidant activity, and disruption of spermatogenesis. We have previously shown that PBZ also affects the rates of zebrafish embryonic survival and hatching, and causes developmental failure of the head skeleton and eyes; here, we further show that PBZ has embryonic toxic effects on digestive organs of zebrafish, and describe the underlying mechanisms. PBZ treatment of embryos resulted in dose-dependent morphological and functional abnormalities of the digestive organs. Real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization were used to show that PBZ strongly induces cyp1a1 expression in the digestive system, and slightly induces ahr2 expression in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of ahr2 with morpholino oligonucleotides prevents PBZ toxicity. Thus, the toxic effect of PBZ on digestive organs is mediated by AhR2, as was previously reported for retene and TCDD. These findings have implications for understanding the potential toxicity of PBZ during embryogenesis, and thus the potential impact of fungicides on public health and the environment. PMID:25500619

Wang, Wen-Der; Chen, Guan-Ting; Hsu, Hwei-Jan; Wu, Chang-Yi

2015-02-01

99

Virtues and limitations of the preimplantation mouse embryo as a model system.  

PubMed

The mouse is the most widely used model of preimplantation embryo development, but is it a good model? Its small size, prolificacy and ease of handling make the mouse a relatively low cost, readily available and attractive alternative when embryos from other species are difficult or expensive to obtain. However, the real power of the mouse as a model lies in mouse genetics. The development of inbred mouse strains facilitated gene discovery as well as our understanding of gene function and regulation while the development of tools to introduce precise genetic modifications uniquely positioned the mouse as a powerful model system for uncovering gene function. However, all models have limitations; the small size of the mouse limits tissue availability and manipulations that can be performed and differences in physiology among species may make it inappropriate to extrapolate from the mouse to other species. Thus, rather than extrapolating directly from the mouse to other species, it may be more useful to use the mouse as a model system for developing and refining hypotheses to be tested directly in species of interest. In this brief review, the value of the preimplantation mouse embryo as a model is considered, both as a model for other species and as a model for the mouse, as understanding the virtues and limitations of the mouse as a model system is essential to its appropriate use. PMID:18023855

Taft, Robert A

2008-01-01

100

Junkyard Digestion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A hands-on exploration of the digestive system organs and their functions for high school students. Grades 10 and up. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2007 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Ms. Diana E Hill (Putnam City High School Science)

2003-05-22

101

System parameters for erythropoiesis control model: Comparison of normal values in human and mouse model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer model for erythropoietic control was adapted to the mouse system by altering system parameters originally given for the human to those which more realistically represent the mouse. Parameter values were obtained from a variety of literature sources. Using the mouse model, the mouse was studied as a potential experimental model for spaceflight. Simulation studies of dehydration and hypoxia were performed. A comparison of system parameters for the mouse and human models is presented. Aside from the obvious differences expected in fluid volumes, blood flows and metabolic rates, larger differences were observed in the following: erythrocyte life span, erythropoietin half-life, and normal arterial pO2.

1979-01-01

102

Fetal Pig Digestive System Dissection 1. Begin by placing the fetal pig on its side in your dissecting tray. Peel the skin back from the  

E-print Network

Fetal Pig Digestive System Dissection Protocol: 1. Begin by placing the fetal pig on its side of the digestive tract. First, locate the esophagus, the collapsible tube lying underneath the trachea. 10. Trace

Loughry, Jim

103

Efficient and Specific Trypsin Digestion of Microgram to Nanogram Quantities of Proteins in Organic-Aqueous Solvent Systems  

SciTech Connect

Mass spectrometry-based identification of the components of multiprotein complexes often involves solution-phase proteolytic digestion of the complex. The affinity purification of individual protein complexes often yields nanogram to low-microgram amounts of protein, which poses several challenges for enzymatic digestion and protein identification. We tested different solvent systems to optimize trypsin digestions of samples containing limited amounts of protein for subsequent analysis by LC-MS-MS. Data collected from digestion of 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2- g portions of a protein standard mixture indicated that an organicaqueous solvent system containing 80% acetonitrile consistently provided the most complete digestion, producing more peptide identifications than the other solvent systems tested. For example, a 1-h digestion in 80% acetonitrile yielded over 52% more peptides than the overnight digestion of 1 g of a protein mixture in purely aqueous buffer. This trend was also observed for peptides from digested ribosomal proteins isolated from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In addition to improved digestion efficiency, the shorter digestion times possible with the organic solvent also improved trypsin specificity, resulting in smaller numbers of semitryptic peptides than an overnight digestion protocol using an aqueous solvent. The technique was also demonstrated for an affinityisolated protein complex, GroEL. To our knowledge, this report is the first using mass spectrometry data to show a linkage between digestion solvent and trypsin specificity. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a widely used method for studying proteins, protein complexes, and whole proteomes because of innovations in soft ionization techniques, bioinformatics, and chromatographic separation techniques.1-7 An example of a high-throughput mass spectrometry strategy commonly used for this purpose is a variation of the "shotgun" approach, involving in-solution digestion of a protein complex followed by onedimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) MS-MS.6-8 One of the applications of this method is for characterizing multiprotein complexes by identifying large numbers of proteins in a single data acquisition.9 Large-scale implementations of this strategy have been reported for yeast and Escherichia coli.10-12 To achieve a goal of characterizing large numbers of protein complexes13 isolated by affinity purification from Rhodopseudomonas palustris,14 an efficient protocol for digesting these complexes is required.

Strader, Michael B [ORNL; Tabb, Dave L [ORNL; Hervey, IV, William Judson [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL

2006-01-01

104

Kynurenic Acid in the Digestive System—New Facts, New Challenges  

PubMed Central

This review provides information on the most recent findings concerning presence, origin, and role of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a tryptophan metabolite, in the digestive system. KYNA is an antagonist of both the ionotropic glutamate receptors and the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, as well as an agonist of G-protein coupled GPR35 receptor. Since the GPR35 receptor is mainly present in the gastrointestinal tract, researchers have concentrated on the digestive system in recent years. They have found that KYNA content increases gradually and significantly along the gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, the concentration of KYNA in the lumen is much higher than in the wall of intestine. It has been documented that KYNA may have a positive influence on the number of pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract, in particular ulcers, colon obstruction, or colitis. Future studies might determine whether it is advisable to supplement KYNA to a human organism. PMID:24049450

Turski, Michal P.; Turska, Monika; Paluszkiewicz, Piotr; Parada-Turska, Jolanta; Oxenkrug, Gregory F.

2013-01-01

105

Molecular analysis of the digestive microbiota in a gnotobiotic mouse model during antibiotic treatment: Influence of Saccharomyces boulardii.  

PubMed

The probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii is a non-pathogenic yeast that has been proven efficient in the prevention of antimicrobial-associated diarrhea and of Clostridium difficile associated colitis. We evaluated the influence of the administration of S. boulardii on the composition of the fecal microbiota in a human microbiota-associated mouse model. This evaluation was run before, during and after a 7-day oral treatment with amoxicillin clavulanic acid. Predominant groups of bacteria were quantified with fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with flow cytometry using group-specific 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes designed for the Eubacteria, Bacteroides-Porphyromonas-Prevotella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium histolyticum, Lactobacillus-Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae groups and Bifidobacterium species. S. boulardii did not quantitatively alter the total anaerobic microbiota nor the dominant bacterial groups. During the antibiotic treatment in the two groups of mice receiving the yeast or not, the level of Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides groups increased when the C. coccoides-E. rectale group decreased dramatically. After the antibiotic treatment was discontinued, the return to the initial level was reached more rapidly in the S. boulardii-treated mice than in the control mice (p<0.05) for the C. coccoides-E. rectale and Bacteroides-Porphyromonas-Prevotella groups. This quicker recovery of normal intestinal microbiota equilibrium after antibiotic therapy could be a mechanism for S. boulardii preventive effect on antibiotic-associated diarrhea in humans. PMID:18511310

Barc, Marie-Claude; Charrin-Sarnel, Céline; Rochet, Violaine; Bourlioux, François; Sandré, Catherine; Boureau, Hélène; Doré, Joël; Collignon, Anne

2008-10-01

106

XPC Polymorphism Increases Risk of Digestive System Cancers: Current Evidence from A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) participates in the initial recognition of DNA damage during nucleotide excision repair process in global genomic repair. Our meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between three polymorphisms (Lys939Gln, PAT+/– and Ala499Val) of XPC gene and risk of digestive system cancers. Methods All the relevant case-control studies published to April 2011 were identified through searching PubMed. Digestive system cancer risk with the three polymorphisms was estimated for each study by odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results We found an increased overall risk for digestive system cancers in all three models of Lys939Gln A>C (AC/CC vs. AA: OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11–1.30; CC vs. AC/AA: OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.11–1.39; CC vs. AA: OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.21–1.53). When strati?ed by ethnicity, results remained significant in Asian population (AC/CC vs. AA: OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02–1.37; CC vs. AC/AA: OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.1–1.51; CC vs. AA: OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.08–1.70), but not for Caucasians. However for Ala499Val C>T, a significant protective effect of T allele was only observed in the dominant model. Otherwise, no significant results were observed for PAT+/–. Conclusion XPC Lys939Gln A>C polymorphism may play an important role in digestive system cancer susceptibility. PMID:23359774

Jiang, Xia; Zhou, Li-tao; Zhang, Shan-chun

2012-01-01

107

Dual cellulose-digesting system of the wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of endo-?-1,4-glucanase (EG) components in the digestive system of the wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was investigated by zymogram analysis using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by N-terminal protein sequencing. EG components similar to glycoside hydrolase family (GHF) 9 members were restricted to the salivary glands, the foregut, and the midgut, whereas components similar to GHF7 members were confined

K Nakashima; H Watanabe; H Saitoh; G Tokuda; J.-I Azuma

2002-01-01

108

Performance of a two-phase anaerobic digestion system when treating dairy wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of a laboratory-scale two-phase anaerobic digestion system treating dairy wastewater was investigated using the pre-determined operating criteria for the anaerobic acidification reactor. The results, obtained from a 9month operation, showed that overall, 90% COD and 95% BOD removal efficiencies at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 5kg COD\\/m3d and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2days were achieved. The

O. Ince

1998-01-01

109

PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN ROUGHAGES AND THEIR FATE IN THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF SHEEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three experiments were conducted to determine the concentrations of phenolic monomers (para-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone, para-hydroxybenzalde- hyde and para-hydroxyacetophenone) and polymers (lignin) in roughages and to assess the fate of these compounds in the ruminant digestive system. In Exp. 1, low quality timothy hay and cottonwood, silver maple and red oak sawdusts were fed to mature wethers.

G. C. Fahey; F. C. Hinds; D. E. Short

2010-01-01

110

Prediction of digestible energy of feed ingredients for growing pigs using a computer-controlled simulated digestion system.  

PubMed

The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate in vitro DE (IVDE) of selected feed ingredients using a computer-controlled simulated digestion system (CCSDS) and predict DE of ingredients for growing pigs. Samples of 6 ingredients with a wide range in energy and nutrient profile were collected. The CP and GE contents ranged from 9.9 to 50.9% and 4,493 to 4,841 kcal/kg (DM basis), respectively. Two control diets were formulated to achieve different CP contents (12.5 and 20.0%). Three experimental diets were formulated by replacing 20% of the high-CP control diet with corn, wheat, or wheat bran, whereas 3 additional diets were formulated by replacing 20% of the low-CP control diet with soybean meal, rapeseed meal, or cottonseed meal. The DE was determined using barrows (n = 24; initial BW = 35.9 ± 1.9 kg) in 2 periods with 6 observations per diet treatment and ranged from 2,769 to 4,368 kcal/kg. The equation for the DE content (kcal/kg of DM) using chemical components as independent variables was DE = 4,186 + 0.06 × CP + 79.33 × ether extract - 14.57 × NDF - 47.99 × ADF, with R(2) = 0.995, residual SD (RSD) = 89.5 kcal/kg, CV = 2.4%, and P = 0.10 (chemical component values; %). The IVDE ranged from 2,289 to 3,724 kcal/kg and was highly related to the determined DE content of the ingredients (R(2) = 0.91, RSD = 193 kcal/kg, and CV = 5.2%). The relationship between IVDE:GE and DE:GE was very high (R(2) = 0.93, RSD = 3.8%, and CV = 4.7%). The average values of CV for IVDE (0.75%) and IVDE:GE (0.73%) were less than that for determined DE (2.58%) and DE:GE (2.54%), respectively. In conclusion, the IVDE content determined, using a CCSDS with relatively high accuracy and acceptable repeatability, might be used to predict DE of feed ingredients for growing pigs. PMID:25057025

Chen, L; Gao, L X; Huang, Q H; Lu, Q P; Sa, R N; Zhang, H F

2014-09-01

111

Zonal rotor purification and characterization of "mannosomes": a tubular membrane system in gastropod mollusc digestive gland.  

PubMed

Mannitol oxidase (manox) is an H2O2-generating oxidase apparently unique to molluscs and especially abundant in alimentary tissues. In the digestive gland it is localized to an organelle ("mannosome") that forms an unusual tubular membrane system. We have developed a novel centrifugation procedure for >100-fold purification of these membranes in 20% yield from approximately 30 g of digestive gland of the slug Arion ater. Mannosomes from several other gastropod species are also substantially purified by the procedure. Four successive density gradient separations are employed which minimize structural damage by exploiting near isosmotic conditions early on and by completely avoiding traumatic pelleting and resuspension. Plasma membrane contamination is reduced by digitonin-induced density perturbation. The purified preparation is characterized by a predominant 68-kDa integral membrane protein and retains the in situ appearance of hexagonally arranged tubules with an enveloping outer membrane. PMID:9799531

Baumforth, K R; Grewal, N; Large, A T; Jones, C J; Perry, C J; Connock, M J

1998-10-15

112

Finger mouse system based on computer vision in complex backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a human-computer interaction system and realizes a real-time virtual mouse. Our system emulates the dragging and selecting functions of a mouse by recognizing bare hands, hence the control style is simple and intuitive. A single camera is used to capture hand images and a DSP chip is embedded as the image processing platform. To deal with complex backgrounds, particularly where skin-like or moving objects appear, we develop novel hand recognition algorithms. Hand segmentation is achieved by skin color cue and background difference. Each input image is corrected according to the luminance and then skin color is extracted by Gaussian model. We employ a Camshift tracking algorithm which receives feedbacks from the recognition module. In fingertip recognition, a method combining template matching and circle drawing is proposed. Our system has advantages of good real-time performance, easy integration and energy conservation. Experiments show that the system is robust to the scaling and rotation of hands.

Xu, Jun; Zhang, Xiong

2013-12-01

113

Anaerobic digestion of food waste through the operation of a mesophilic two-phase pilot scale digester - Assessment of variable loadings on system performance.  

PubMed

Single and two-phase operations were compared at mesophilic operating conditions using a digester system consisting of three 5-m(3) reactors treating food waste generated daily within the university campus kitchens. When normalizing the methane production to the daily feedstock characteristics, significantly greater methane was produced during two-phase mesophilic digestion compared to the single-stage operation (methane yield of 380 vs 446-LCH4kgVS(-1); 359 vs 481-LCH4kgCOD(-1) removed for single vs two stage operation). The fermentation reactor could be maintained reliably even under very low loading rates (0.79±0.16kgCODm(-3)d(-1)) maintaining a steady state pH of 5.2. PMID:25266683

Grimberg, S J; Hilderbrandt, D; Kinnunen, M; Rogers, S

2015-02-01

114

In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems: calcium ions combine with fatty acids liberated from triglyceride rich lipid solutions to form soaps and reduce the solubilization capacity of colloidal digestion products.  

PubMed

In vitro digestion testing is of practical importance to predict the fate of drugs administered in lipid-based delivery systems. Calcium ions are often added to digestion media to increase the extent of digestion of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), but the effects they have on phase behaviour of the products of digestion, and consequent drug solubilization, are not well understood. This study investigates the effect of calcium and bile salt concentrations on the rate and extent of in vitro digestion of soybean oil, as well as the solubilizing capacity of the digestion products for two poorly water-soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces the availability of liberated fatty acids to form mixed micelles and vesicles, thereby reducing drug solubilization. The use of high calcium concentrations does indeed force in vitro digestion of LCTs but may overestimate the extent of drug precipitation that occurs within the intestinal lumen. PMID:23178598

Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B; Mullertz, Anette; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W

2013-01-30

115

Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... changes. Occasionally, medications may be used as well. Gastritis and peptic ulcers. Under normal conditions, the stomach ... lining of the stomach (a condition known as gastritis) or cause peptic ulcers, which are sores or ...

116

National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse  

MedlinePLUS

... External Link Disclaimer Health Topics Anatomy Lists Your Digestive System and How It Works Blood Diseases Lists Diabetes ... cancer called esophageal adencarcinoma.? Bile Ducts See Your Digestive System and How It Works Biliary Atresia Describes biliary ...

117

Manganese Accumulation in the Mouse Ear Following Systemic Exposure  

PubMed Central

There is evidence in human populations that exposure to manganese (Mn), or Mn in combination with excessive noise exposure, results in hearing loss. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed expression of the metal transporters DMT1, ZIP8, and ZIP14 in control mouse ears. ZIP8 is known to have a high affinity (Km = 2.2 ?M) for Mn transport, and ZIP8 protein was localized to the blood vessels of the ear by immunohistochemistry. We treated mice (strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J) with Mn (100 mg/kg MnCl2, by subcutaneous injection, on three alternating days), and Mn was significantly elevated in the ears of the treated mice. Mn concentrations remained elevated over controls for at least 2 weeks after treatment. These studies demonstrate that metal transporters are present in the mouse ear and that Mn can accumulate in the ear following systemic exposure. Future studies should focus on whether Mn exposure is associated with hearing deficits. PMID:18972394

Ma, Ci; Schneider, Scott N.; Miller, Marian; Nebert, Daniel W.; Lind, Caroline; Roda, Sandy M.; Afton, Scott E.; Caruso, Joseph A.; Genter, Mary Beth

2009-01-01

118

The Role of Thyroid Hormone Signaling in the Prevention of Digestive System Cancers  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormones play a critical role in the growth and development of the alimentary tract in vertebrates. Their effects are mediated by nuclear receptors as well as the cell surface receptor integrin ?V?3. Systemic thyroid hormone levels are controlled via activation and deactivation by iodothyronine deiodinases in the liver and other tissues. Given that thyroid hormone signaling has been characterized as a major effector of digestive system growth and homeostasis, numerous investigations have examined its role in the occurrence and progression of cancers in various tissues of this organ system. The present review summarizes current findings regarding the effects of thyroid hormone signaling on cancers of the esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, and colon. Particular attention is given to the roles of different thyroid hormone receptor isoforms, the novel integrin ?V?3 receptor, and thyroid hormone-related nutrients as possible protective agents and therapeutic targets. Future investigations geared towards a better understanding of thyroid hormone signaling in digestive system cancers may provide preventive or therapeutic strategies to diminish risk, improve outcome and avert recurrence in afflicted individuals. PMID:23924944

Brown, Adam R.; Simmen, Rosalia C. M.; Simmen, Frank A.

2013-01-01

119

Continuously-stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into Biogas: System Setup and Basic Operation  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a bioprocess that is commonly used to convert complex organic wastes into a useful biogas with methane as the energy carrier 1-3. Increasingly, AD is being used in industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste(water) treatment applications 4,5. The use of AD technology allows plant operators to reduce waste disposal costs and offset energy utility expenses. In addition to treating organic wastes, energy crops are being converted into the energy carrier methane 6,7. As the application of AD technology broadens for the treatment of new substrates and co-substrate mixtures 8, so does the demand for a reliable testing methodology at the pilot- and laboratory-scale. Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations, including the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow (PF), and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) configurations 9. The CSTR is frequently used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations. However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with solids or settling of solids in tubing. For that scenario with continuous mixing requirements, lab-scale bioreactors are fed periodically and we refer to such configurations as continuously stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs). This article presents a general methodology for constructing, inoculating, operating, and monitoring a CSAD system for the purpose of testing the suitability of a given organic substrate for long-term anaerobic digestion. The construction section of this article will cover building the lab-scale reactor system. The inoculation section will explain how to create an anaerobic environment suitable for seeding with an active methanogenic inoculum. The operating section will cover operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting. The monitoring section will introduce testing protocols using standard analyses. The use of these measures is necessary for reliable experimental assessments of substrate suitability for AD. This protocol should provide greater protection against a common mistake made in AD studies, which is to conclude that reactor failure was caused by the substrate in use, when really it was improper user operation 10. PMID:22824993

Usack, Joseph G.; Spirito, Catherine M.; Angenent, Largus T.

2012-01-01

120

Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as drug targets for diseases of the digestive system  

PubMed Central

Approximately 20 of the 30 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed by specific neurons and cells within the alimentary canal. They subserve important roles in taste, chemesthesis, mechanosensation, pain and hyperalgesia and contribute to the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, absorptive and secretory processes, blood flow, and mucosal homeostasis. In a cellular perspective, TRP channels operate either as primary detectors of chemical and physical stimuli, as secondary transducers of ionotropic or metabotropic receptors, or as ion transport channels. The polymodal sensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPM8, TRPP2, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 enables the digestive system to survey its physical and chemical environment, which is relevant to all processes of digestion. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 contribute to the absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively. TRPM7 participates in intestinal pacemaker activity, and TRPC4 transduces muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation to smooth muscle contraction. Changes in TRP channel expression or function are associated with a variety of diseases/disorders of the digestive system, notably gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pain and hyperalgesia in heartburn, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, cholera, hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, esophageal, gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer, and polycystic liver disease. These implications identify TRP channels as promising drug targets for the management of a number of gastrointestinal pathologies. As a result, major efforts are put into the development of selective TRP channel agonists and antagonists and the assessment of their therapeutic potential. PMID:21420431

Holzer, Peter

2011-01-01

121

Expression of Bis in the mouse gastrointestinal system  

PubMed Central

The Bcl-2 interacting death suppressor (Bis) protein is known to be involved in a variety of pathophysiological conditions. We recently generated bis-deficient mice, which exhibited early lethality with typical nutritional deprivation status. To further investigate the molecular basis for the malnutrition phenotype of bis deficient mice, we explored Bis expression in the digestive system of normal mice. Western blot analysis and quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that Bis expression is highest in the esophagus, followed by the stomach, colon, jejunum and ileum. Immunohistochemical data indicated that Bis expression is restricted to the stratified squamous epitheliums in the esophagus and forestomach, and was not notable in the columnar epitheliums in the stomach, small intestine and colon. In addition, strong Bis immunoreactivity was detected in the striated muscles surrounding the esophagus and smooth muscles at a lesser intensity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Ganglionated plexuses, located in submucous layers, as well as intermuscular layers, were specifically immunoreactive for Bis. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that Bis is co-localized in glial fibrillary acidic protein-expressing enteric glial cells. Immunostaining with neuron specific esterase antibodies indicate that Bis is also present in the cell bodies of ganglions in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Our findings indicate that Bis plays a role in regulating GI functions, such as motility and absorption, through modulating signal transmission between the ENS and smooth muscles or the intestinal epitheliums. PMID:23094204

Lee, Young Dae; Yoon, Jung-Sook; Yoon, Hye Hyeon; Youn, Ho Joong; Kim, Jin

2012-01-01

122

Bioefficacy of tea catechins encapsulated in casein micelles tested on a normal mouse cell line (4D/WT) and its cancerous counterpart (D/v-src) before and after in vitro digestion.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have demonstrated that tea catechins form complexes with milk proteins, especially caseins. Much less work has been conducted to understand the metabolic conversions of tea-milk complexes during gastro-duodenal digestion. The objective of this study was to determine the significance of this association on the digestibility of the milk proteins and on the bioaccessibility of the tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). An in vitro digestion model mimicking the gastric and duodenal phases of the human gastrointestinal tract was employed to follow the fate of the milk proteins during digestion and determine the bioefficacy of EGCG isolated or encapsulated with the caseins. The samples, before and after digestion, were tested using two parallel colonic epithelial cell lines, a normal line (4D/WT) and its cancerous transformed counterpart (D/v-src). EGCG caused a decrease in proliferation of cancer cells, while in normal cells, neither isolated nor encapsulated EGCG affected cell proliferation, at concentrations <0.15 mg ml(-1). At higher concentrations, both isolated and encapsulated produced similar decreases in proliferation. On the other hand, the bioefficacy on the cancer cell line showed some differences at lower concentrations. The results demonstrated that regardless of the extent of digestion of the nanoencapsulated EGCG, the bioefficacy of EGCG was not diminished, confirming that casein micelles are an appropriate delivery system for polyphenols. PMID:24686838

Haratifar, Sanaz; Meckling, Kelly A; Corredig, Milena

2014-06-01

123

Case study of selective catalytic reduction system start-up on digester gas fired combustion turbines  

SciTech Connect

In August 1989, the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) adopted Rule 1134 which imposed strict NO{sub x} emission limits on stationary, non-utility, combustion turbines. The rule was technology-forcing for the owners and operators of digester gas fired combustion turbines since it established a NO{sub x} emission limit of 9 parts per million by volume at 15 percent oxygen. The County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (Districts), operators of three 6.5 MW digester gas fired turbines, elected to retrofit the turbines with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems to achieve compliance with the SCAQMD rule. After four years and costs in excess of four million dollars, the Districts continue to work on achieving system performance goals. This case study provides a brief history of the development of Rule 1134 and the motivation behind the strict NO{sub x} limits. The Districts` rationale in choosing SCR systems as a means of attaining compliance is presented along with a discussion of the physical site constraints which resulted in a less than optimum retrofit installation of the SCR systems. SCR system performance problems are examined including what was suspected to be poisoning of the catalyst by potassium in the turbine exhaust gas. The major actions undertaken by the Districts, its contractor and subcontractors to bring the turbines into compliance are also presented including optimizing exhaust flow distribution through the catalyst reactor, optimizing the ammonia mixing in the exhaust duct, optimizing water injection rates, installing intake combustion air evaporative cooling systems, reactivating the catalyst with resistant coatings, and undertaking structural retrofits to prevent distortion of the reactor house caused by thermal expansion. The case study concludes with a brief summary of the SCR systems` final physical configuration and performance and an update on the pending regulation changes.

Conway, V.O.; Min, S.W.; Adams, G.M. [County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County, Whittier, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

124

Development of red porgy Pagrus pagrus visual system in relation with changes in the digestive tract and larval feeding habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red porgy larvae, like other sparids such as red seabream are visual feeders. The normal development of the visual system is essential for successful prey capture and predator avoidance, leading to increased larval growth and survival. The aim of this work is to characterise the development of visual organs in relation to changes in the digestive system and feeding habits.

F. J Roo; J Socorro; M. S Izquierdo; M. J Caballero; C. M Hernández-Cruz; A Fernández; H Fernández-Palacios

1999-01-01

125

MOUSE (MODULAR ORIENTED UNCERTAINTY SYSTEM): A COMPUTERIZED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM. OPERATIONAL MANUAL.  

EPA Science Inventory

MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty SystEm) deals with the problem of uncertainties in models that consist of one or more algebraic equations. It was especially designed for use by those with little or no knowledge of computer languages or programming. It is compact (and thus can...

126

The journey of a sandwich: computer-based laboratory experiments about the human digestive system in high school biology teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school biology. Using a computer equipped with a commercially available data-acquisition system and a couple of sensors, it was possible to illustrate the basic underlying physical and chemical principles of digestion to the students. Students were able to investigate, through hands-on activities, the chewing force of the jaws, importance of the mechanical breakdown of food, enzymatic activity of pepsin and amylase, antibacterial activity of hydrochloric acid, and importance of the villi for absorption. Students found the experiments interesting and helpful for understanding the digestive process. Furthermore, the results from testing indicated that the students had a deeper understanding of the physiological processes.

Andrej Sorgo (Prva gimnazija Maribor); Zdravka Hajdinjak (Prva gimnazija Maribor); Darko Briski (Prva gimnazija Maribor)

2008-01-14

127

Cache Digests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Cache Digest, a novel protocol and optimization technique for cooperativeWeb caching. Cache Digest allows proxies to make information about their cache contentsavailable to peers in a compact form. A peer uses digests to identify neighbors that are likelyto have a given document. Cache Digest is a promising alternative to traditional per-requestquery\\/reply schemes such as ICP.We discuss the

Alex Rousskov; Duane Wessels

1998-01-01

128

New approach to control the methanogenic reactor of a two-phase anaerobic digestion system.  

PubMed

A new control strategy for the methanogenic reactor of a two-phase anaerobic digestion system has been developed and successfully tested on the laboratory scale. The control strategy serves the purpose to detect inhibitory effects and to achieve good conversion. The concept is based on the idea that volatile fatty acids (VFA) can be measured in the influent of the methanogenic reactor by means of titration. Thus, information on the output (methane production) and input of the methanogenic reactor is available, and a (carbon) mass balance can be obtained. The control algorithm comprises a proportional/integral structure with the ratio of (a) the methane production rate measured online and (b) a maximum methane production rate expected (derived from the stoichiometry) as a control variable. The manipulated variable is the volumetric feed rate. Results are shown for an experiment with VFA (feed) concentration ramps and for experiments with sodium chloride as inhibitor. PMID:12553972

von Sachs, Jürgen; Meyer, Ulrich; Rys, Paul; Feitkenhauer, Heiko

2003-03-01

129

What Happens to the Food We Eat? Children's Conceptions of the Structure and Function of the Digestive System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes children's conceptions of the structure and function of the human digestive system based on an investigation carried out with children aged 4-10 (n=45). Finds that children possess biological knowledge as an independent knowledge domain from the age of four. Discusses acquisition of and barriers to scientific concepts related to human…

Teixeira, Francimar Martins

2000-01-01

130

Control of organic loading rate using the specific methanogenic activity test during start-up of an anaerobic digestion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific methanogenic activity test (SMA) was used to determine a suitable organic loading rate during the start-up phase of a crossflow ultrafiltration membrane anaerobic reactor system (CUMAR). The SMA test was immediately carried out after seeding the reactor with sludge taken from a municipal wastewater treatment plant digester in order to determine the most acceptable initial organic loading rate.

O. Ince; G. K. Anderson; B. Kasapgil

1995-01-01

131

The Journey of a Sandwich: Computer-Based Laboratory Experiments about the Human Digestive System in High School Biology Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school…

Sorgo, Andrej; Hajdinjak, Zdravka; Briski, Darko

2008-01-01

132

Modelling anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water and faecal matter in accumulation system.  

PubMed

A dynamic mathematical model based on anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was developed for accumulation (AC) system treating concentrated black water and faecal matter at different temperatures. The AC system was investigated for the treatment of waste (water) produced from the following systems: vacuum toilet for black water (VBW), vacuum toilet for faeces with urine separation (VF), dry toilet (DT), dry toilets for faeces with urine separation (DF), separated faecal matter from conventional black water by filter bag (FB). For evaluation of the AC system treating the proposed waste (water) sources at 20 and 35 degrees C, two options were studied: (1) The filling period of the AC system was constant for all waste (water) sources (either 1, 3 or 6 months) and for each period, the seed sludge volume was varied; (2) The volume of the AC system was constant for all proposed waste (water) sources. The results showed that the filling period of the AC system was the main parameter affecting the system performance, followed by operational temperature, while the increase of the seed sludge volume slightly enhanced the performance of the system. The model results indicated that the filling period of the AC system should be higher than 150 days for obtaining a stable performance. It was found that the hydrolysis of biodegradable particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD) is the rate limiting step, as volatile fatty acid concentration is very low in all experimental conditions (< 200 mgCOD/L at 20 degrees C and < 100 mgCOD/L at 35 degrees C). Based on the results of the two options, it was found that the concentrated waste (water) sources have better performance than the diluted waste (water) sources, like VBW waste (water). Furthermore, smaller volume will be required for the AC system. PMID:21902047

Elmitwalli, Tarek; Zeeman, Grietje; Otterpohl, Ralf

2011-01-01

133

Characterisation of cellulase activity in the digestive system of the redclaw crayfish ( Cherax quadricarinatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endogenous cellulase activity was identified in the gastric fluid and digestive gland of the redclaw crayfish. Cellulase showed maximal activity from pH 4 to 5 and was stable for up to 2 h at 40°C. Cellulase activity in the digestive gland was unaffected by antibiotic treatment. Taken together these findings suggest a significant endogenous component for redclaw cellulase activity. Partial

Xiao M Xue; Alys J Anderson; Neil A Richardson; Alex J Anderson; Gang P Xue; Peter B Mather

1999-01-01

134

Pathogenesis of H5N1 influenza virus infections in mice and ferret models differ between respiratory and digestive system exposure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data suggests H5N1 influenza viruses are transmitted through and predominantly affect the respiratory system of mammals. Some data suggests digestive system involvement. However, direct evidence of alimentary transmission and infection in mammal...

135

Influence of different substrates on the performance of a two-stage high pressure anaerobic digestion system.  

PubMed

The two-stage autogenerative high-pressure digestion technique is a novel and promising approach for the production of gaseous fuels or upgraded biogas. This new technique is described in the patent DE 10 2011 015415 A1 and integrates biogas production, its upgrading and pressure boosting in one process. Anaerobic digestion under elevated pressure conditions leads to decreasing pH-values in the digestate due to the augmented formation of carboxylic acid. Model calculations carried out to evaluate the two-stage design showed that the pH-value in the pressurized anaerobic filter has a major influence on the methane content of the biogas produced. Within this study, the influence of the nitrogen content as one of the most important buffering substances on the performance of the system has been tested. The results show that higher NH4 contents lead to higher pH-values in the digester and as a consequence to higher methane contents. PMID:25451774

Lemmer, A; Chen, Y; Lindner, J; Wonneberger, A M; Zielonka, S; Oechsner, H; Jungbluth, T

2015-02-01

136

A hydrogen-peroxide digestion system for tissue trace-metal analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue digestion prior to analysis for trace metals is usually carried out with strong acids. Nitric acid, alone or in combination\\u000a with perchloric acid, is most commonly used. In addition to the laborious acid washing of all glassware prior to use, the\\u000a digestion necessitates exposure to potential environmental contamination. Use of perchloric acid mandates a specially constructed\\u000a hood with facilities

Nancy W. Alcock

1987-01-01

137

Biodegradation of polyacrylamide by anaerobic digestion under mesophilic condition and its performance in actual dewatered sludge system.  

PubMed

Polyacrylamide (PAM) used in sludge dewatering widely exists in high-solid anaerobic digestion. Degradation of polyacrylamide accompanied with accumulation of its toxic monomer is important to disposition of biogas residues. The potential of anaerobic digestion activity in microbial utilization of PAM was investigated in this study. The results indicated that the utilization rate of PAM (as nitrogen source) was influenced by accumulation of ammonia, while cumulative removal of amide group was accorded with zeroth order reaction in actual dewatered system. The adjoining amide group can combined into ether group after biodegradation. PAM can be broken down in different position of its carbon chain backbone. In actual sludge system, the hydrolytic PAM was liable to combined tyrosine-rich protein to form colloid complex, and then consumed as carbon source to form monomer when easily degradable organics were exhausted. The accumulation of acrylamide was leveled off ultimately, accompanied with the yield of methane. PMID:24345566

Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Yi, Jing; He, Qunbiao; Dong, Bin

2014-02-01

138

N-Squad Episode 1. Students learn misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, the role of the digestive system in processing alcohol, and liver histology.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In N-Squad Episode 1 students work with forensic scientists to solve an alcohol related crime. Along the way, they will learn about alcohol's interaction with the digestive system, misconceptions about alcohol, medical examination, and liver histology.

Learning, Center F.

2011-09-28

139

The effect of heat treatment on the digestibility of wheat gluten in a model food system containing wheat gluten, corn starch and corn oil  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE DIGESTIBILITY OF WHEAT GLUTEN IN A MODEL FOOD SYSTEM CONTAINING WHEAT GLUTEN. CORN STARCH AND CORN OIL A Thesis by DEBRA MARIE RUZICKA FOX Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1984 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology The Effect of Heat Treatment on the Digestibility of Wheat Gluten in A Model Food System Containing Wheat Gluten, Corn...

Fox, Debra Marie Ruzicka

2012-06-07

140

Navigating wastewater energy recovery strategies: a life cycle comparison of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and conventional treatment systems with anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate emerging anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology in comparison with conventional wastewater energy recovery technologies. Wastewater treatment process modeling and systems analyses were combined to evaluate the conditions under which AnMBR may produce more net energy and have lower life cycle environmental emissions than high rate activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (HRAS+AD), conventional activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (CAS+AD), and an aerobic membrane bioreactor with anaerobic digestion (AeMBR+AD). For medium strength domestic wastewater treatment under baseline assumptions at 15 °C, AnMBR recovered 49% more energy as biogas than HRAS+AD, the most energy positive conventional technology considered, but had significantly higher energy demands and environmental emissions. Global warming impacts associated with AnMBR were largely due to emissions of effluent dissolved methane. For high strength domestic wastewater treatment, AnMBR recovered 15% more net energy than HRAS+AD, and the environmental emissions gap between the two systems was reduced. Future developments of AnMBR technology in low energy fouling control, increased flux, and management of effluent methane emissions would make AnMBR competitive with HRAS+AD. Rapid advancements in AnMBR technology must continue to achieve its full economic and environmental potential as an energy recovery strategy for domestic wastewater. PMID:24742289

Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Cao, Ling; Love, Nancy G; Raskin, Lutgarde; Skerlos, Steven J

2014-05-20

141

Serine/threonine kinase 15 gene polymorphism and risk of digestive system cancers: A meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Previous studies have reported an association between the two coding polymorphisms (91T>A and 169G>A) of the serine/threonine kinase 15 (STK15) gene and the risk of digestive system cancers; however, the results are inconsistent. In the present study, a meta-analysis was carried out to assess the association between the two STK15 polymorphisms and the risk of digestive system cancers. Relevant studies were identified using PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang and VIP databases up to February 18, 2014. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using the fixed or random effects model. A total of 15 case-control studies from 14 publications were included. Of these, 15 studies concerned the 91T>A polymorphism and included 7,619 cases and 7,196 controls and four studies concerned the 161G>A polymorphism and included 826 cases and 713 controls. A significantly increased risk of digestive system cancers was observed for the 91T>A polymorphism (recessive model: OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.31). In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significant association was detected in Asian populations (recessive model: OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08-1.36) but not in Caucasian and mixed populations. Stratification by tumor type indicated that the 91T>A polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of esophageal and colorectal cancers under the recessive model (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.38; and OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04-1.46; respectively); however, no significant association was observed between the 169G>A polymorphism and the risk of digestive system cancers in any of the genetic models. Furthermore, in subgroup analysis by ethnicity, similar results were observed in the Asian and Caucasian populations. The present meta-analysis demonstrated that the STK15 gene 91T>A polymorphism, but not the 169G>A polymorphism, may be a risk factor for digestive system cancers, particularly for esophageal and colorectal cancers. PMID:25452806

Luo, Jianfei; Yan, Ruicheng; Zou, Li

2015-01-01

142

Study on EEG-based mouse system by using brain-computer interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aimed to design an EEG-based mouse system by using brain-computer interface (BCI) to move a cursor on a computer display. This system to provide an alternative communication or control channel for patients with severe motor disabilities. Such patients might become able to select target on a computer monitor by moving a cursor through mental activity. The user could

Dong Ming; Yuhuan Zhu; Hongzhi Qi; Baikun Wan; Yong Hu; K. D. K. Luk

2009-01-01

143

Do individually ventilated cage systems generate a problem for genetic mouse model research?  

PubMed

Technological developments over recent decades have produced a novel housing system for laboratory mice, so-called 'individually ventilated cage' (IVC) systems. IVCs present a cage environment which is different to conventional filter-top cages (FILTER). Nothing is known about the consequences of IVC housing on genetic mouse models, despite studies reporting IVC-mediated changes to the phenotypes of inbred mouse strains. Thus, in this study, we systematically compared the established behavioural phenotype of a validated mouse model for the schizophrenia risk gene neuregulin 1 (TM Nrg1 HET) kept in FILTER housing with Nrg1 mutant mice raised in IVC systems. We found that particular schizophrenia-relevant endophenotypes of TM Nrg1 HETs which had been established and widely published using FILTER housing were altered when mice were raised in IVC housing. IVCs diminished the schizophrenia-relevant prepulse inhibition deficit of Nrg1 mutant males. Furthermore, IVC housing had a sex-dependent moderate effect on the locomotive phenotype of Nrg1 mice across test paradigms. Behavioural effects of IVC housing were less prominent in female mice. Thus, transferring the breeding colony of mouse mutants from FILTER to IVC systems can shift disease-relevant behaviours and therefore challenge the face validity of these mice. Researchers facing an upgrade of their mouse breeding or holding facilities to IVC systems must be aware of the potential impact this upgrade might have on their genetic mouse models. Future publications should provide more details on the cage system used to allow appropriate data comparison across research sites. PMID:24920375

Logge, W; Kingham, J; Karl, T

2014-09-01

144

A replaceable microreactor for on-line protein digestion in a two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis system with tandem mass spectrometry detection.  

PubMed

We describe a two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis system that incorporates a replaceable enzymatic microreactor for on-line protein digestion. In this system, trypsin is immobilized on magnetic beads. At the start of each experiment, old beads are flushed to waste and replaced with a fresh plug of beads, which is captured by a pair of magnets at the distal tip of the first capillary. For analysis, proteins are separated in the first capillary. A fraction is then parked in the reactor to create peptides. Digested peptides are periodically transferred to the second capillary for separation; a fresh protein fraction is simultaneously moved to the reactor for digestion. An electrospray interface is used to introduce peptides into a mass spectrometer for analysis. This procedure is repeated for several dozen fractions under computer control. The system was demonstrated by the separation and digestion of insulin chain b oxidized and ?-casein as model proteins. PMID:21030030

Li, Yihan; Wojcik, Roza; Dovichi, Norman J

2011-04-15

145

Digestive diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... includes one or more of the following symptoms: Bleeding Bloating Constipation Diarrhea Heartburn Incontinence Nausea and vomiting Pain in the belly Swallowing problems Weight gain or loss A digestive disease is any health problem that occurs in ...

146

Water as a leaching medium for hydrolysis of sorghum in anaerobic digestion systems  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect of using water to leach hydrolysis products from sorghum used as an anaerobic digestion feedstock. The pH of the leachate had no effect on the cumulative COD measured in the leachate. Milling the sorghum with a three roll mill prior to leaching appeared to slightly increase the hydrolysis of structural carbohydrates in the sorghum.

Egg, R.; Coble, C.G.

1986-01-01

147

COMPARISON OF THE DIGESTIBLE ENERGY (DE) AND NET ENERGY (NE) SYSTEMS FOR THE HORSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The horse can be described as a monogastric herbivore or a non-rumi nant herbivore which is suited to the digestion and utilization of high fiber diets due to continual microbial fermentation primarily within the hindgut (cecum and colon). Domestication, and an increasing demand for horses to perform under circumstances that require energy intakes above those able to be provided by

P. A. Harris

148

GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG WATERBORNE ASBESTOS, DIGESTIVE SYSTEM CANCER AND POPULATION DENSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Five statistical procedures were used to partial the correlation between water-borne asbestos and digestive site cancer for the putative effects of population density. These include: analysis based on a data subset with roughly homogeneous population density; standard residual an...

149

Behavior of vitamin E acetate delivery systems under simulated gastrointestinal conditions: lipid digestion and bioaccessibility of low-energy nanoemulsions.  

PubMed

Colloidal delivery systems are needed to incorporate oil-soluble vitamins into aqueous-based foods and beverage products. In this study, we encapsulated vitamin E acetate into oil-in-water nanoemulsions produced using either a low-energy method (Emulsion Phase Inversion, EPI) or a high energy method (microfluidization). Oil-in-water nanoemulsions (d<200 nm) could be produced using both low- and high-energy methods from a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 80) and medium chain triglycerides (MCTs). The influence of surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR) on lipid digestion and vitamin bioaccessibility of EPI nanoemulsions was determined using a gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model that simulated the mouth, stomach, and small intestine. There were increases in the size and negative charge of the oil droplets after passage through the GIT, which was attributed to droplet coalescence and changes in interfacial composition. The rate and extent of lipid digestion decreased with increasing surfactant concentration, but the bioaccessibility of vitamin E acetate was high in all of the samples (>95%). No appreciable influence of the preparation method (low-energy versus high-energy) on lipid digestion and vitamin bioaccessibility was observed. The major advantage of the EPI method for forming nanoemulsions is that no expensive equipment is required, but relatively high surfactant concentrations are needed compared to microfluidization. PMID:23721832

Mayer, Sinja; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David Julian

2013-08-15

150

Mesophylic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN GENERAL<\\/strong>In this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).For this purpose were researched:1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestion process for energy production on dairy farms.2. Digestion of manure at lower temperatures.The goal of the first mentioned research

G. Zeeman

1991-01-01

151

Development of the mouse vestibular system in the absence of gravity perception  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tilted mutant mouse, which lacks otoconia in the inner ear, was used to study development of the mouse vestibular system in the absence of gravity perception. Otoconia are dense particles composed of proteins and calcium carbonate crystals suspended in the gelatinous macular membrane. They enhance, and are largely responsible for, sensitivity to gravity. Morphometric analysis of the vestibular ganglion showed that the mutant developed more slowly than the normal controls, both in rate of development and cell number, particularly during the first week of post-natal development. The mutant ganglia also exhibited a reduction of cells during the first 6 days of post-natal development.

Smith, Michael; Yuan Wang, Xiang; Wolgemuth, Debra J.; Murashov, Alexander K.

2003-01-01

152

Perinatal changes of transport systems for amino acids in slices of mouse brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perinatal changes in the uptake of amino acids were measured in slices of fetal (15- and 19-day) and newborn (4-, 24-, and 48-hr-old) mouse brain. Uptake increased with age; smaller changes occurred with basic and neutral amino acid transport systems, and the largest changes occurred in fetal brain with amino acids of putative neurotransmitter function (taurine, glycine, GABA, and the

Henry Sershen; Abel Lajtha

1976-01-01

153

INDUCED HEPATOCYTES AS A METABOLIC ACTIVATION SYSTEM FOR THE MOUSE-LYMPHOMA ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

We have developed methods for the coculture of hepatocytes and mouse lymphoma cells and have shown the utility of this system for testing promutagens from several chemical classes (Brock et al., 1987). In the present study we investigated the use of hepatocytes isolated from rats...

154

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTACT HEPATOCYTE ACTIVATION SYSTEM FOR ROUTINE USE WITH THE MOUSE LYMPHOMA ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed a method for cocultivating primary rat hepatocytes with L5178Y/TK+/- 3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cells. The system should provide a means to simulate more closely in vivo metabolism compared to metabolism by liver homogenates, while still being useful for rou...

155

Systemic vasculopathy with altered vasoreactivity in a transgenic mouse model of scleroderma  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Vasculopathy, including altered vasoreactivity and abnormal large vessel biomechanics, is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, the pathogenic link with other aspects of the disease is less clear. To assess the potential role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) overactivity in driving these cardiovascular abnormalities, we studied a novel transgenic mouse model characterized by ligand-dependent activation of TGF-?

Emma C Derrett-Smith; Audrey Dooley; Korsa Khan; Xu Shi-wen; David J Abraham; Christopher P Denton

2010-01-01

156

MARS: a mouse atlas registration system based on planar x-ray projector and optical camera  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces a mouse atlas registration system (MARS), composed of a stationary top-view x-ray projector and a side-view optical camera, coupled to a mouse atlas registration algorithm. This system is using the x-ray and optical images to guide a fully automatic co-registration of a mouse atlas with each subject, in order to provide anatomical reference for small animal molecular imaging systems such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). To facilitate the registration, a statistical atlas that accounts for inter-subject anatomical variations was constructed based on 83 organ-labeled mouse micro-CT images. The statistical shape model and conditional Gaussian model techniques were used to register the atlas with the x-ray image and optical photo. The accuracy of the atlas registration was evaluated by comparing the registered atlas with the organ-labeled micro-CT images of the test subjects. The results showed excellent registration accuracy of the whole-body region, and good accuracy for the brain, liver, heart, lungs and kidneys. In its implementation, the MARS system was integrated with a preclinical PET scanner to deliver combined PET/MARS imaging, and to facilitate atlas-assisted analysis of the preclinical PET images. PMID:22968224

Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B; Taschereau, Richard; Gu, Zheng; Vu, Nam T; Prout, David L; Chatziioannou, Arion F

2012-01-01

157

Ontogenetic development of the digestive system in California halibut ( Paralichthys californicus) with notes on feeding practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the digestive tract and accessory glands in California halibut (Paralichthys californicus) is described from hatching to metamorphosis (42 days post-hatch, dph) at 18 °C. Differentiation of the alimentary canal into the buccopharynx, esophagus, pre- and postvalvular intestine, and rectum was complete by 3 dph (2.7±0.1 mm standard length, SL) coinciding with the time of first feeding. Zymogen

Enric Gisbert; Raul H. Piedrahita; Douglas E. Conklin

2004-01-01

158

Biodistribution and stability of CdSe core quantum dots in mouse digestive tract following per os administration: Advantages of double polymer/silica coated nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New QDs coated with combination of polythiol ligands and silica shell were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the QDs stability in digestive tract of mice after per os administration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymer/silica shell prevents QDs degradation and fluorescence quenching in vivo. -- Abstract: CdSe-core, ZnS-capped semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are of great potential for biomedical applications. However, applications in the gastrointestinal tract for in vivo imaging and therapeutic purposes are hampered by their sensitivity to acidic environments and potential toxicity. Here we report the use of coatings with a combination of polythiol ligands and silica shell (QDs PolyT-APS) to stabilize QDs fluorescence under acidic conditions. We demonstrated the stability of water-soluble QDs PolyT-APS both in vitro, in strong acidic solutions, and in vivo. The biodistribution, stability and photoluminescence properties of QDs in the gastrointestinal tract of mice after per os administration were assessed. We demonstrated that QDs coated with current traditional materials - mercapto compounds (QDs MPA) and pendant thiol group (QDs PolyT) - are not capable of protecting QDs from chemically induced degradation and surface modification. Polythiol ligands and silica shell quantum dots (QDs PolyT-APS) are suitable for biological and biomedical applications in the gastrointestinal tract.

Loginova, Y.F. [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation)] [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Dezhurov, S.V. [Trial Center For Science and Technology 'Nanotech-Dubna', Dubna, Moscow Region 141983 (Russian Federation)] [Trial Center For Science and Technology 'Nanotech-Dubna', Dubna, Moscow Region 141983 (Russian Federation); Zherdeva, V.V.; Kazachkina, N.I. [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation)] [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Wakstein, M.S. [Trial Center For Science and Technology 'Nanotech-Dubna', Dubna, Moscow Region 141983 (Russian Federation)] [Trial Center For Science and Technology 'Nanotech-Dubna', Dubna, Moscow Region 141983 (Russian Federation); Savitsky, A.P., E-mail: apsavitsky@inbi.ras.ru [Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation)

2012-03-02

159

Digestion and dewatering characteristics of waste activated sludge treated by an anaerobic biofilm system.  

PubMed

Immobilization of microorganisms for sludge anaerobic digestion was investigated in this study. The effects of filler properties on anaerobic digestion and dewaterability of waste activated sludge were assessed at mesophilic temperature in batch mode. The results showed that the duration of the methanogenic stage of reactors without filler, with only filler, and with pre-incubated filler was 39days, 19days and 13days, respectively, during which time the protein was degraded by 45.0%, 29.4% and 30.0%, and the corresponding methane yield was 193.9, 107.2 and 108.2mL/g volatile suspended solids added, respectively. On day 39, the final protein degradation efficiency of the three reactors was 45.0%, 40.9% and 42.0%, respectively. The results of normalized capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration suggested that the reactor incorporating pre-incubated filler could improve the dewaterability of digested sludge, while the effect of the reactor incorporating only filler on sludge dewaterability was uncertain. PMID:24355503

Wang, Tianfeng; Shao, Liming; Li, Tianshui; Lü, Fan; He, Pinjing

2014-02-01

160

Hoover Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1996, the Hoover Digest is a quarterly publication that features writing on politics, economics, and history from the minds of scholars and researchers affiliated with the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. Visitors to the Digest's homepage will find an illustration of the current issue's cover, flanked on one side by a listing of the featured articles. Further down on the site, users will find a list of the "Most Viewed" articles, along with links to the "Most Printed", "Most Emailed", and "Most Saved" pieces. Along the right-side of the homepage, visitors can elect to browse by topic, date, or author. The topic list is exhaustive, and it includes areas such as "Flat Tax", "Constitution", "Law Enforcement", and "Arms Control". Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive a free print copy of the Digest.

161

Batch and semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid system.  

PubMed

To avoid the inhibition from both of waste oil and high concentrations of cationic elements, anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid (ADSL) system was examined in this present paper. Results from batch test indicated that a higher methane yield could be obtained in the ADSL system. The methane yield of food solid waste (FSW), food liquid waste (FLW) and raw food waste (RFW) were 643, 659 and 581 mL/g-VS, respectively. In semi-continuous anaerobic digestion, the optimum organic loading rates (OLR) for FSW, FLW and RFW were 9, 4 and 7 g-VS/L/d, respectively. The total methane production of RFW and ADSL systems, based on 1 kg-VS(RFW), were 405 and 460 L, respectively, indicating that the methane production increased by 13.6% in the ADSL system. The optimum C/N ratio, redistribution of metal element and lower content of waste oil in FSW explain the higher methane production. PMID:23561948

Zhang, Cunsheng; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei

2013-10-01

162

The effects of histidine on the uptake of cadmium from the digestive system of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus, Rathbun)  

E-print Network

fulfillment of the requirement for the deSree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1980 Major Sub;ect: Oceanography THE EI'1'ECTS 01' HISTIDIJJE OIJ 'I'. !L' UPTAKE OI' CADMIUM I'ROM THE DIGESTIyi. SYSTIJM OF THE BLUE CRAB (CALLINFCTJ, S SAPIDUS, RATHBLR1) A Thesi.... s By JILL MAUREEN PECON Approved as to style and rontent by: Chaizin o f Commi-tf ee Member Member Member ~&I Mme+~. Head of Department May 1980 AB S TRACT The Effect of Histidine on the Uptake of Cadmium from the Digestive System of the Blue Crab...

Pecon, Jill Maureen

1980-01-01

163

Influence of systemic administration of atelocollagen on mouse livers: an ideal biomaterial for systemic drug delivery.  

PubMed

Atelocollagen (AC), a biomaterial with low antigenicity and high bioaffinity, has been widely used in implantable materials in clinical practice. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that AC is a potential drug carrier for local and systemic delivery of cytokines, growth factors, plasmid DNA, small interfering RNA, and microRNA. AC is also believed to have low systemic toxicity on the basis of the safety of implant usage; however, this is not enough determined. Therefore, we performed whole genome expression profiling in mouse liver after systemic administration of AC or the cationic liposome carrier DOTAP/cholesterol (LP) and compared the changes of gene expressions associated with hepatotoxicity. Microarray analysis revealed that systemic LP administration significantly increased expression of toxicity-related genes, i.e., those for lipocalin-2, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, serum amyloid A isoforms, chemokine ligands, and granzyme B. Alternatively, AC administration did not alter the expression of any of these genes. Further gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis highlighted the characteristic annotations extracted from genes upregulated after LP administration, and most of them were related to toxicity annotations such as immune response, inflammatory response, and apoptosis induction. In contrast, GO enrichment analysis of genes induced after AC administration revealed that only three annotations, all of which were unrelated to toxicity. These findings indicate that AC is potentially far less hepatotoxic than LP after systemic administration, suggesting that AC may be an excellent biomaterial for nontoxic drug delivery system carriers. PMID:22129739

Ogawa, Shingo; Onodera, Jun; Honda, Rika; Fujimoto, Ichiro

2011-01-01

164

Modulation of lipid digestibility using structured emulsion-based delivery systems: comparison of in vivo and in vitro measurements.  

PubMed

Emulsion-based delivery systems are finding increasing application to enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, and to control the biological fate of ingested lipids. These systems can be designed to encapsulate lipophilic components, and then release them at specific locations within the gastrointestinal tract. The current study evaluated the performance of four emulsion-based delivery systems with different structures: (A) conventional emulsions; (B) small microcluster emulsions; (C) large microcluster emulsions; (D) filled hydrogel beads. These systems were fabricated from protein-coated lipid droplets, alginate, and/or calcium. The mean diameters (d??) of the particles in these systems were 0.36, 4.7, 200, and 510 ?m, respectively. The fate of the delivery systems within the gastrointestinal tract was ascertained by introducing them into rat stomachs. Confocal microscopy showed that system D remained intact in the stomach, but systems A, B and C exhibited considerable disruption leading to droplet coalescence. No intact delivery systems were observed within the small intestine using optical microscopy. Gas chromatography analysis using a marker lipid (tridecanoic acid) demonstrated that absorption was increasingly inhibited as the size of the droplet-biopolymer complexes increased, i.e., A > B > C > D. These results are in good qualitative agreement with previous in vitro digestion studies using similar delivery systems. This study showed that an in vitro digestion model is a useful predictive tool for in vivo feeding studies, and that encapsulation is an effective strategy to control the fate of lipids within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. PMID:22344205

Li, Yan; Kim, Jonggun; Park, Yeonhwa; McClements, David Julian

2012-05-01

165

The interplay of ?-amylase and amyloglucosidase activities on the digestion of starch in in vitro enzymic systems.  

PubMed

In vitro hydrolysis assays are a key tool in understanding differences in rate and extent of digestion of starchy foods. They offer a greater degree of simplicity and flexibility than dynamic in vitro models or in vivo experiments for quantifiable, mechanistic exploration of starch digestion. In the present work the influence of ?-amylase and amyloglucosidase activities on the digestion of maize and potato starch granules was measured using both glucose and reducing sugar assays. Data were analysed through initial rates of digestion, and by 1st order kinetics, utilising logarithm of slope (LOS) plots. The rate and extent of starch digestion was dependent on the activities of both enzymes and the type of starch used. Potato required more enzyme than maize to achieve logarithmic reaction curves, and complete digestion. The results allow targeted design of starch digestion experiments through a thorough understanding of the contributions of ?-amylase and amyloglucosidase to digestion rates. PMID:25498625

Warren, Frederick J; Zhang, Bin; Waltzer, Gina; Gidley, Michael J; Dhital, Sushil

2015-03-01

166

Anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater: A comparison of single and two-phase reactor systems  

SciTech Connect

The anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater, a complex substrate which includes milk proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, has received little attention. Work using an aerobic contact system showed that at a 7.5-d hydraulic retention time (HRT), with an organic loading rate of 1.7 g COD/Ld and influent TSS (total suspended solids) of 5870 mg/L, the effluent COD was 628 mg/L, BOD was 91 mg/L and TSS was 674. Anaerobic filters have also been used at organic loadings of 6 kg COD/m{sup 3}d applied at a HRT of 0.42 day, with COD removals of 80%. Goodwing showed that this waste was capable of being treated by the UASB process with granulation commencing after 60-70 days, and gas production ranging between 0.73 and 0.93 L CH{sub 4}/g COD removed with loading rates between 0.7 and 3.0 g TOC/Ld. Two-phase anaerobic digestion is an innovative fermentation mode that has recently received increased attention. The kinetically dissimilar fermentation phases, hydrolysis-acidification and acetogenesis-methanation are operated in two separate reactors; the first of which is maintained at a very short HRT. The effluent from the first, acid-forming, phase is used as the substrate for the methane-phase reactor which has a longer HRT or cell immobilization. The aim of this work was to compare the methane production capability and performance of a single-phase upflow fixed bed reactor with a two-phase digestion system. The two-phase digestion system consists of a completely mixed reactor for the acidogenic reaction and an upflow fixed bed reactor for the methanogenic reaction. Because of the high lipid content and COD of ice cream wastewater off site disposal has proved to be both expensive and poses problems to the receiving effluent treatment plant. For this reason the potential for a rapid anaerobic stabilization of the waste, with energy recovery in the form of methane gas, has been investigated in an attempt to minimize plant size and maximize gas production. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

Borja, R. [Institute of Fat and Its Derivatives (C.S.I.C.), Sevilla (Spain); Banks, C.J. [Environmental Technology Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom)

1995-03-01

167

Simulating the digestion of lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS): overview of in vitro lipolysis models.  

PubMed

One of the greatest challenges in the pharmaceutical science is the improvement of oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Lately, one of the most attractive approaches has been formulation of lipid based drug delivery systems. However, the emerging popularity of these systems in the last decade has brought to light the need for efficient methods for their in vitro evaluation that would serve as their in vivo behaviour prediction tool. Because lipids are subject to lipid digestion and multiple absorption pathways in vivo, simple dissolution tests are not predictive enough when testing lipid based delivery systems. To assert these needs, the in vitro lipolysis model has been developed, utilizing pancreatic enzymes, bile and phospholipids in a temperature controlled chamber to simulate in vivo digestion. However, with very variable physiological conditions in gastrointestinal tract, this model has not been yet standardised and experiments vary among different laboratories. This review discusses in vivo events following oral application of lipid based delivery, in vitro lipolysis models to emulate them and their future perspectives. PMID:24664320

Bolko, Katarina; Zvonar, Alenka; Gašperlin, Mirjana

2014-01-01

168

Damage to the nigrostriatal system in the MPTP-treated SAMP8 mouse.  

PubMed

Application of aged animals to studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) will be beneficial to improve the understanding of its pathogenesis. The senescence-accelerated mouse prone8 (SAMP8) mouse has an early onset of senility and a short life span, characterized by learning and memory impairment, and affective disturbance in the aging process. There is no animal currently being used as a PD model that exhibits these characteristics. Application of the SAMP8 mouse to PD research may have several merits. For the first time, we have investigated damage of the nigrostriatal system in the SAMP8 mouse induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Male SAMP8 mice (12 weeks) were treated with four subcutaneous injections of MPTP (20mg/kg at 2h intervals): spontaneous activity decreased significantly after the third injection, and recovered 48h after the first injection. In MPTP-SAMP8 mice, the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neuronal loss at 6h (7.06%), 24h (12.79%), 3 days (22.49%), and 8 days (42.39%), while striatal dopamine (DA) levels decreased at 6h by 79.09%, at 24h by 80.33%, at 3 days by 83.86%, and at 8 days by 80.14%. These results indicated that there were marked decreases in striatal DA levels and a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, with the behavior change following shortly thereafter, in MPTP-SAMP8 mice. On the basis of the current findings, the SAMP8 mouse is also vulnerable to neurotoxic effects of MPTP. These data suggest that the SAMP8 mouse may be utilized in PD research. PMID:18977411

Liu, Jing; Wang, Yan-Yong; Liu, Li; Wang, Quan-Dong; Yuan, Zhen-Yun; Zhang, Zhong-Xia; Gu, Ping; Wang, Ming-Wei

2008-12-26

169

Atmosphere stabilization and element recycle in an experimental mouse-algal system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life support systems based on bioregeneration rely on the control and manipulation of organisms. Experiments conducted with a gas-closed mouse-algal system designed to investigate principles of photosynthetic gas exchange focus primarily on observing gas exchange phenomena under varying algal environmental conditions and secondarily on studying element cycling through compartments of the experimental system. Inherent instabilities exit between the uptake and release of carbon dioxide CO2 and oxygen O2 by the mouse and algae. Variations in light intensity and cell density alter the photosynthetic rate of the algae and enable maintenance of physiologic concentrations of CO2 and O2. Different nitrogen sources (urea and nitrate) result in different algal assimilatory quotients (AQ). Combinations of photosynthetic rate and AQ ratio manipulations have been examined for their potential in stabilizing atmospheric gas concentrations in the gas-closed algal-mouse system. Elemental mass balances through the experimental systems compartments are being studied with the concurrent development of a mathematical simulation model. Element cycling experiments include quantification of elemental flows through system compartments and wet oxidation of system waste materials for use as an algal nutrient source. Oxidized waste products demonstrate inhibitory properties although dilution has been shown to allow normal growth.

Smernoff, David T.

1986-01-01

170

Expression of the Prader-Willi gene Necdin during mouse nervous system development correlates with neuronal differentiation  

E-print Network

Expression of the Prader-Willi gene Necdin during mouse nervous system development correlates The expression pattern of Necdin, a gene involved in the etiology of Prader-Willi syndrome and a member immunostaining; Necdin; p75NTR; Prader-Willi; Mouse; Gene; Protein expression pattern 1. Results and discussion

Cossart, Rosa

171

Economic viability of anaerobic digestion  

SciTech Connect

The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

1996-01-01

172

Digestion Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To reinforce students' understanding of the human digestion process, the functions of several stomach and small intestine fluids are analyzed, and the concept of simulation is introduced through a short, introductory demonstration of how these fluids work. Students learn what simulation means and how it relates to the engineering process, particularly in biomedical engineering. The teacher demo requires vinegar, baking soda, water and aspirin.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

173

Digestible threonine requirement of starter and finisher swine  

E-print Network

amino acids has been made. The endogenous amino acids come from sloughed cells from digestive tract, digestive enzymes, hormones, and others secretions entering the digestive system, True digestibility is similar to apparent digestibility... DIGESTIBLE THREONINE REQUIREMENT OF STARTER AND FINISHER SWINE A Thesis by CARLOS IVAN SALDANA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

Saldana, Carlos Ivan

2012-06-07

174

Chemical Reactor Models of Digestion Modulation  

E-print Network

of the digestive system and its components have provided an important framework to quantitatively studyChemical Reactor Models of Digestion Modulation William Wolesensky & J. David Logan Department give an overview of the application of chemical reactor theory to models of digestion processes

Logan, David

175

The physiology of digestion in fish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The acquisition, digestion, and assimilation of food is critical for the growth and survival of fish larvae; a fish larva either grows or it perishes. Fish larvae are characterized by digestive systems and diets that differ from adults. Larvae undergo a pattern of trophic ontogeny, changing diet with increasing size, and these changes result in differences in digestive requirements.

John J. Govoni; George W. Boehlert; Yoshirou Watanabej

1986-01-01

176

PalladianDigest Transportation  

E-print Network

PalladianDigest CONNECT. EMPOWER. GROW. Tackling Transportation Challenges Nebraska has been a vital link in the nation's transportation system since the days when carts, wagons to University of Nebraska­Lincoln research. That's fine with UNL transportation researchers, said Larry Rilett

Farritor, Shane

177

1274 Full-Open Reading Frames of Transcripts Expressed in the Developing Mouse Nervous System  

PubMed Central

As part of the trans-National Institutes of Health (NIH) Mouse Brain Molecular Anatomy Project (BMAP), and in close coordination with the NIH Mammalian Gene Collection Program (MGC), we initiated a large-scale project to clone, identify, and sequence the complete open reading frame (ORF) of transcripts expressed in the developing mouse nervous system. Here we report the analysis of the ORF sequence of 1274 cDNAs, obtained from 47 full-length-enriched cDNA libraries, constructed by using a novel approach, herein described. cDNA libraries were derived from size-fractionated cytoplasmic mRNA isolated from brain and eye tissues obtained at several embryonic stages and postnatal days. Altogether, including the full-ORF MGC sequences derived from these libraries by the MGC sequencing team, NIH_BMAP full-ORF sequences correspond to ?20% of all transcripts currently represented in mouse MGC. We show that NIH_BMAP clones comprise 68% of mouse MGC cDNAs ?5 kb, and 54% of those ?4 kb, as of March 15, 2004. Importantly, we identified transcripts, among the 1274 full-ORF sequences, that are exclusively or predominantly expressed in brain and eye tissues, many of which encode yet uncharacterized proteins. PMID:15489326

Bonaldo, Maria F.; Bair, Thomas B.; Scheetz, Todd E.; Snir, Einat; Akabogu, Ike; Bair, Jennifer L.; Berger, Brian; Crouch, Keith; Davis, Aja; Eyestone, Mari E.; Keppel, Catherine; Kucaba, Tamara A.; Lebeck, Mark; Lin, Jenny L.; de Melo, Anna I.R.; Rehmann, Joshua; Reiter, Rebecca S.; Schaefer, Kelly; Smith, Christina; Tack, Dylan; Trout, Kurtis; Sheffield, Val C.; Lin, Jim J-C.; Casavant, Thomas L.; Soares, Marcelo B.

2004-01-01

178

Distributed image reconstruction for an in-vivo mouse imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mice have been widely used in various areas of biomedical research such as drug development and genetic engineering. To investigate drug effect or treatment efficacy in the mouse studies, in-vivo mouse imaging modalities have been recently developed. Among various kinds of imaging modalities, micro-CT is expected to be useful in many biological applications since it provides 3-dimensional high-resolution tomographic images. In this study, we have developed a high-resolution micro-CT system using a microfocus x-ray source and a flat panel detector. The flat panel detector contains a CsI scintillator plate, a 2-dimensional photodiode array, and a 12-bit ADC. The photodiode array consists of 2400 x 2400 pixels of 50?m size. In order to improve computing speed in the micro-CT, we have also developed a distributed parallel processing system using multiple computers. The computation-intensive cone-beam reconstruction process has been divided into multiple tasks in a way that each CPU takes care of similar amount of computations. We have linked four desktop computers with dual AMD Athlon processors by Ethernet and optimized the task allocations among them. The developed parallel processing system has shown to have about eight times faster reconstruction speed. It is expected that the distributed image reconstruction technique can be a low cost solution for the in-vivo mouse imaging system.

Lee, Sang Chul; Han, Jae Yong; Chun, In Kon; Lee, Soo Yeol; Cho, Min Hyoung

2003-06-01

179

Identification of transcriptional regulators in the mouse immune system  

E-print Network

The differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into cells of the immune system has been studied extensively in mammals, but the transcriptional circuitry that controls it is still only partially understood. Here, the ...

Regev, Aviv

180

Enhancement of biogas production by co-digestion of potato pulp with cow manure in a CSTR system.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion (AD) process is a well-established method to generate energy from the organic wastes both from the environmental and economical perspectives. The purpose of present study is to evaluate energy production from potato wastes by incorporating cow manure into the process. Firstly, a laboratory pilot of one-stage biogas production was designed and built according to continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system. The setup was able to automatically control the environmental conditions of the process including temperature, duration, and rate of stirring. AD experiment was exclusively performed on co-digestion of potato peel (PP) and cow manure (CM) in three levels of mixing ratio including 20:80, 50:50, 80:20 (PP:CM), and 0:100 as control treatment based on the volatile solid (VS) weight without adding initial inoculums. After hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 days on average 193, 256, 348, and 149 norm liter (LN) (kg VS)(-1), methane was produced for different mixing ratios, respectively. Statistical analysis shows that these gas productions are significantly different. The average energy was determined based on the produced methane which was about 2.8 kWh (kg VS)(-1), implying a significant energy production potential. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of treatments was about 61%, showing that it can be leached significantly with high organic matter by the employed pilot. The energy efficiency of 92% of the process also showed the optimum control of the process by the pilot. PMID:24894660

Sanaei-Moghadam, Akbar; Abbaspour-Fard, Mohammad Hossein; Aghel, Hasan; Aghkhani, Mohammad Hossein; Abedini-Torghabeh, Javad

2014-08-01

181

Innovative ammonia stripping with an electrolyzed water system as pretreatment of thermally hydrolyzed wasted sludge for anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

In this study, the anaerobic digestion of thermally hydrolyzed wasted sludge (THWS) with a high concentration of ammonia was carried out through combining with an ammonia stripping and an electrolyzed water system (EWS). The EWS produced acidic water (pH 2-3) at the anode and alkaline water (pH 11-12) at the cathode with an electro-diaphragm between the electrodes that could be applied to ammonia stripping. The ammonia stripping efficiency was strongly dependent on the pH and aeration rate, and the ammonium ion removal rate followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. From the BMP test, the methane yield of THWS after ammonia stripping using the EWS was 2.8 times higher than that of the control process (raw THWS without ammonia stripping). Furthermore, both methane yield and ammonium removal efficiency were higher in this study than in previous studies. Since ammonia stripping with the EWS does not require any chemicals for pH control, no precipitated sludge is produced and anaerobic microorganisms are not inhibited by cations. Therefore, ammonia stripping using the EWS could be an effective method for digestion of wastewater with a high concentration of ammonium nitrogen. PMID:25462764

Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil

2014-10-27

182

Understanding the lipid-digestion processes in the GI tract before designing lipid-based drug-delivery systems.  

PubMed

Many of the compounds present in lipid-based drug-delivery systems are esters, such as acylglycerols, phospholipids, polyethyleneglycol mono- and di-esters and polysorbate, which can be hydrolyzed by the various lipolytic enzymes present in the GI tract. Lipolysis of these compounds, along with dietary fats, affects the solubility, dispersion and bioavailibity of poorly water-soluble drugs. Pharmaceutical scientists have been taking a new interest in fat digestion in this context, and several studies presenting in vitro gastrointestinal lipolysis models have been published. In most models, it is generally assumed that pancreatic lipase is the main enzyme involved in the gastrointestinal lipolysis of lipid formulations. It was established, however, that gastric lipase, pancreatic carboxyl ester hydrolaze and pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 are the major players involved in the lipolysis of lipid excipients containing acylglycerols and polyethyleneglycol esters. These findings have shown that the lipolysis of lipid excipients may actually start in the stomach and involve several lipolytic enzymes. These findings should therefore be taken into account when testing in vitro the dispersion and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs formulated with lipids. In this review, we present the latest data available about the lipolytic enzymes involved in gastrointestinal lipolysis and suggest tracks for designing physiologically relevant in vitro digestion models. PMID:22833936

Bakala N'Goma, Jean-Claude; Amara, Sawsan; Dridi, Kaouthar; Jannin, Vincent; Carrière, Frédéric

2012-01-01

183

Dog and mouse: toward a balanced view of the mammalian olfactory system.  

PubMed

Although the most intensively studied mammalian olfactory system is that of the mouse, in which olfactory chemical cues of one kind or another are detected in four different nasal areas [the main olfactory epithelium (MOE), the septal organ (SO), Grüneberg's ganglion, and the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ (VNO)], the extraordinarily sensitive olfactory system of the dog is also an important model that is increasingly used, for example in genomic studies of species evolution. Here we describe the topography and extent of the main olfactory and vomeronasal sensory epithelia of the dog, and we report finding no structures equivalent to the Grüneberg ganglion and SO of the mouse. Since we examined adults, newborns, and fetuses we conclude that these latter structures are absent in dogs, possibly as the result of regression or involution. The absence of a vomeronasal component based on VR2 receptors suggests that the VNO may be undergoing a similar involutionary process. PMID:25309347

Barrios, Arthur W; Sánchez-Quinteiro, Pablo; Salazar, Ignacio

2014-01-01

184

Dog and mouse: toward a balanced view of the mammalian olfactory system  

PubMed Central

Although the most intensively studied mammalian olfactory system is that of the mouse, in which olfactory chemical cues of one kind or another are detected in four different nasal areas [the main olfactory epithelium (MOE), the septal organ (SO), Grüneberg's ganglion, and the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ (VNO)], the extraordinarily sensitive olfactory system of the dog is also an important model that is increasingly used, for example in genomic studies of species evolution. Here we describe the topography and extent of the main olfactory and vomeronasal sensory epithelia of the dog, and we report finding no structures equivalent to the Grüneberg ganglion and SO of the mouse. Since we examined adults, newborns, and fetuses we conclude that these latter structures are absent in dogs, possibly as the result of regression or involution. The absence of a vomeronasal component based on VR2 receptors suggests that the VNO may be undergoing a similar involutionary process. PMID:25309347

Barrios, Arthur W.; Sánchez-Quinteiro, Pablo; Salazar, Ignacio

2014-01-01

185

Sludge digester  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ballasted, gas-holding, liquid sludge digester is described comprising: a main liquid sludge tank having a bottom wall and upwardly projecting sidewall; a cover having a top and depending side skirt structure which telescopes with respect to the upwardly projecting sidewall of the main tank; ballast supported near the lower edge of said side skirt; a ballast-engaging, liquid-containing well joined

J. L. Wight; L. W. Cook

1993-01-01

186

Economic feasibility of anaerobic digesters  

SciTech Connect

Farms which have existing adequate manure utilization, such as storage and field application, would normally only consider an anaerobic digestion system based on its energy producing benefits relative to all costs of the system. This paper presents an economic feasibility analysis of a particular on-farm anaerobic digestion system and assesses the impact on feasibility of varying the oil and electricity prices. (Refs. 2).

Criner, G.K.

1987-01-01

187

Vanadium Inhalation in a Mouse Model for the Understanding of Air-Suspended Particle Systemic Repercussion  

PubMed Central

There is an increased concern about the health effects that air-suspended particles have on human health which have been dissected in animal models. Using CD-1 mouse, we explore the effects that vanadium inhalation produce in different tissues and organs. Our findings support the systemic effects of air pollution. In this paper, we describe our findings in different organs in our conditions and contrast our results with the literature. PMID:21716674

Fortoul, T. I.; Rodriguez-Lara, V.; Gonzalez-Villalva, A.; Rojas-Lemus, M.; Cano-Gutierrez, G.; Ustarroz-Cano, M.; Colin-Barenque, L.; Montaño, L. F.; García-Pelez, I.; Bizarro-Nevares, P.; Lopez-Valdez, N.; Falcon-Rodriguez, C. I.; Jimenez-Martínez, R. S.; Ruiz-Guerrero, M. L.; López-Zepeda, L. S.; Morales-Rivero, A.; Muñiz-Rivera-Cambas, A.

2011-01-01

188

An Inducible and Reversible Mouse Genetic Rescue System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inducible and reversible regulation of gene expression is a powerful approach for uncovering gene function. We have established a general method to efficiently produce reversible and inducible gene knockout and rescue in mice. In this system, which we named iKO, the target gene can be turned on and off at will by treating the mice with doxycycline. This method combines

Hongkui Zeng; Kyoji Horie; Linda Madisen; Maria N. Pavlova; Galina Gragerova; Alex D. Rohde; Brian A. Schimpf; Yuqiong Liang; Ethan Ojala; Farah Kramer; Patricia Roth; Olga Slobodskaya; Io Dolka; Eileen A. Southon; Lino Tessarollo; Karin E. Bornfeldt; Alexander Gragerov; George N. Pavlakis; George A. Gaitanaris

2008-01-01

189

BGEM: An In Situ Hybridization Database of Gene Expression in the Embryonic and Adult Mouse Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an open-access gene expression database analyzed for more than 2,000 genes on mouse nervous system tissue in the coronal, sagittal, and transverse orientation representing multiple developmental ages.

Susan Magdaleno; Patricia Jensen; Craig L Brumwell; Anna Seal; Karen Lehman; Andrew Asbury; Tony Cheung; Tommie Cornelius; Diana M Batten; Christopher Eden; Shannon M Norland; Dennis S Rice; Nilesh Dosooye; Sundeep Shakya; Perdeep Mehta; Tom Curran

2006-01-01

190

Atmosphere behavior in gas-closed mouse-algal systems - An experimental and modelling study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA-sponsored research program initiated using mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas-exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere is studied. The development of control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels is considered. A mathematical model simulating the behavior of a gas-closed mouse-algal system under varying environmental conditions is described. To verify and validate the model simulations, an analytical system with which algal growth and gas exchange characteristics can be manipulated and measured is designed, fabricated, and tested. The preliminary results are presented.

Averner, M. M.; Moore, B., III; Bartholomew, I.; Wharton, R.

1984-01-01

191

Closeout final report on a demonstration test and evaluation of the Cannon Low-NOx Digester System  

SciTech Connect

Cannon Boiler Works Inc. has been investigating a system for removing NOx from the exhaust gases of furnaces, gas turbines, chemical reactors, incinerators, and boilers. Computer simulations, bench-scale and pilot plant tests have proved that the system is capable of removing substantially all of the NOx from natural gas fired equipment exhaust streams. Originally designated as the Cannon NOx Digester, it has recently been renamed the Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO) System for NOx and SOx Reduction. The principal elements in the system are a fan, heat exchanger, oxidation chamber, spray chamber acting as a gas/liquid absorber, demister, an ozone generator, liquid oxygen storage or dry air supply system for the ozonator, chemical storage and metering system for the caustic neutralizer, and a data acquisition and control system. Most of the ozone is consumed in converting NOx to N{sub 2}O{sub 5} which hydrates to nitric acid which is then scrubbed out of the gas as it passes through the absorber. CO also reacts with ozone to form CO{sub 2} which is subsequently scrubbed out with NaOH. A demonstration, planned for the Alta Dena Dairy located near Los Angeles and in violation of California`s air quality regulations for natural gas fired boilers, was started, delayed due to boiler modifications, and will be continued shortly with new funding. This paper describes the LTO process and presents results from the initial demonstration.

NONE

1995-04-01

192

An Efficient SNP System for Mouse Genome Scanning and Elucidating Strain Relationships  

PubMed Central

A set of 1638 informative SNP markers easily assayed by the Amplifluor genotyping system were tested in 102 mouse strains, including the majority of the common and wild-derived inbred strains available from The Jackson Laboratory. Selected from publicly available databases, the markers are on average ?1.5 Mb apart and, whenever possible, represent the rare allele in at least two strains. Amplifluor assays were developed for each marker and performed on two independent DNA samples from each strain. The mean number of polymorphisms between strains was 608±136 SD. Several tests indicate that the markers provide an effective system for performing genome scans and quantitative trait loci analyses in all but the most closely related strains. Additionally, the markers revealed several subtle differences between closely related mouse strains, including the groups of several 129, BALB, C3H, C57, and DBA strains, and a group of wild-derived inbred strains representing several Mus musculus subspecies. Applying a neighbor-joining method to the data, we constructed a mouse strain family tree, which in most cases confirmed existing genealogies. PMID:15342563

Petkov, Petko M.; Ding, Yueming; Cassell, Megan A.; Zhang, Weidong; Wagner, Gunjan; Sargent, Evelyn E.; Asquith, Steven; Crew, Victor; Johnson, Kevin A.; Robinson, Phil; Scott, Valerie E.; Wiles, Michael V.

2004-01-01

193

DATA DIGEST WEST LAFAYETTE  

E-print Network

DATA DIGEST 2009-2010 WEST LAFAYETTE PreparingTomorrow'sLeaders for a Changing World #12-mail: datadigest@purdue.edu URL: www.purdue.edu/DataDigest DATA DIGEST2009-2010 WEST LAFAYETTE #12;DATA DIGEST2009-2010 This tenth edition of the Purdue University Data Digest provides information on a variety of topics

Petriu, Emil M.

194

Linking susceptibility genes and pathogenesis mechanisms using mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) represents a challenging autoimmune disease from a clinical perspective because of its varied forms of presentation. Although broad-spectrum steroids remain the standard treatment for SLE, they have many side effects and only provide temporary relief from the symptoms of the disease. Thus, gaining a deeper understanding of the genetic traits and biological pathways that confer susceptibility to SLE will help in the design of more targeted and effective therapeutics. Both human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and investigations using a variety of mouse models of SLE have been valuable for the identification of the genes and pathways involved in pathogenesis. In this Review, we link human susceptibility genes for SLE with biological pathways characterized in mouse models of lupus, and discuss how the mechanistic insights gained could advance drug discovery for the disease. PMID:25147296

Crampton, Steve P.; Morawski, Peter A.; Bolland, Silvia

2014-01-01

195

Human Anatomy III: Respiratory, Urinary & Digestive  

E-print Network

1 Human Anatomy III: Respiratory, Urinary & Digestive Systems The Respiratory System Major, along with the lower part of the digestive system #12;6 Basic Anatomy of the Urinary System Kidneys lie in an aquatic insect larva Basic Anatomy of the Respiratory System I Air enters through the nose Inside nose

Brown, Christopher A.

196

Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste composed of food waste, wastepaper, and plastic in a single-stage system: performance and microbial community structure characterization.  

PubMed

The performance of municipal organic solid waste anaerobic digestion was investigated using a single-stage bioreactor, and the microbial community structures were characterized during the digestion. The results showed that the biogas and methane production rates were 592.4 and 370.1L/kg with volatile solid added at the ratio of 2:1:1 for food waste, wastepaper, and plastic based on dry weight. The methane volume concentration fluctuated between 44.3% and 75.4% at steady stage. Acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid were the major volatile fatty acids produced during the digestion process. The anaerobic process was not inhibited by the accumulation of ammonia and free ammonia. The bacterial community was found to consist of at least 21 bands of bacteria and 12 bands of archaea at the steady state. All of the results indicated that the mixture of food waste, wastepaper, and plastic could be efficiently co-digested using the anaerobic digestion system. PMID:23974214

Wan, Shungang; Sun, Lei; Douieb, Yaniv; Sun, Jian; Luo, Wensui

2013-10-01

197

Anxiety and depression, cognitive coping strategies, and health locus of control in patients with digestive system cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Contemporary psycho-oncology focuses on the study of the psychological determinants of the functioning of cancer patients. Among the psychological factors that significantly affect the functioning of the patients are anxiety and depressive disorders. Aim To assess the psychological functioning of patients with digestive system cancer in the cancer-treating process and to develop guidelines for psychological care dedicated to this group of patients based on the results of the study. Material and methods A total of 69 patients aged 23 to 91 (average 56) years with digestive system cancer treated in the Gastroenterology Cancer Clinic in the Institute of Oncology in Warsaw were examined using HADS, Mini-MAC, and MHLC. The results were analysed using statistical tests and correlation analysis. Another 532 patients from other wards formed the reference group. Results Measured HLC, anxiety, and depression did not differ significantly from the overall patient population. The investigation of the relationships between anxiety and depression and mental adjustment to cancer showed a positive correlation between anxiety and depression and anxious preoccupation and hopelessness-helplessness, and negative correlation between anxiety and depression and fighting spirit. Conclusions The obtained research results on the correlation of anxiety and depression with health locus of control show that the lower the severity of anxiety and depression, the higher the severity of internal health locus of control. The results confirm the necessity of psychological support forcancer patients showing evidence of destructive attitudes and external health locus of control, so that the severity of anxiety-depressive disorders can indirectly be reduced. PMID:25653727

Kulpa, Marta; Kosowicz, Mariola; Kazalska, Dorota

2014-01-01

198

Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331  

SciTech Connect

Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

199

A Mouse Model of Conduction System Patterning Abnormalities in Heterotaxy Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Duplication or absence of parts of the specialized cardiac conduction system in patients with heterotaxy syndrome causes significant clinical disease, but the mechanistic basis by which embryonic disruption of left-right patterning alters conduction system patterning in these patients is not well understood. We sought to determine whether a mouse model of X-linked human heterotaxy recapitulates conduction system abnormalities identified in heterotaxy patients. Cardiac structure and conduction system patterning were evaluated in Zic3 null embryos from e9.5 – 16.5 using genetic and molecular methods. Severe structural abnormalities involving atrial, ventricular and conotruncal development were associated with a spectrum of disorganized and ambiguous arrangements throughout the conduction system, including the appearance of duplicated structures. The severity and location of conduction system abnormalities correlated with the severity and location of associated structural heart disease and were identifiable at the earliest stages examined. The Zic3 mouse model provides a novel tool to dissect the mechanistic underpinnings of conduction system patterning and dysfunction and its relationship to cardiovascular malformations, making it a promising model to improve understanding and risk assessment in the clinical arena. PMID:20581739

Czosek, Richard J.; Haaning, Allison; Ware, Stephanie M.

2010-01-01

200

A Support System for Mouse Operations Using Eye-Gaze Input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an eye-gaze input system for people with severe physical disabilities, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. This system utilizes a personal computer and a home video camera to detect eye-gaze under natural light. The system detects both vertical and horizontal eye-gaze by simple image analysis, and does not require special image processing units or sensors. Our conventional eye-gaze input system can detect horizontal eye-gaze with a high degree of accuracy. However, it can only classify vertical eye-gaze into 3 directions (up, middle and down). In this paper, we propose a new method for vertical eye-gaze detection. This method utilizes the limbus tracking method for vertical eye-gaze detection. Therefore our new eye-gaze input system can detect the two-dimension coordinates of user's gazing point. By using this method, we develop a new support system for mouse operation. This system can move the mouse cursor to user's gazing point.

Abe, Kiyohiko; Nakayama, Yasuhiro; Ohi, Shoichi; Ohyama, Minoru

201

Development and Function of the Mouse Vestibular System in the Absence of Gravity Perception  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypothesis that was tested in this research was that the absence of gravity perception, such as would occur in space, would affect the development and function of the vestibular and central nervous systems. Further, we postulated that these effects would be more significant at specific stages of post-natal development of the animal. We also proposed the use of molecular genetic approaches that would provide important information as to the hierarchy of gene function during the development and subsequent function of the vestibular system. The tilted (tlt) mutant mouse has been characterized as lacking the ability to provide sensory input to the gravity receptors. The tlt/tlt mutant mice were a particularly attractive model for the study of vestibular function since the primary defect was limited to the receptor part of the vestibular system, and there were no detectable abnormal phenotypes in other organ systems. The goal of the proposed studies was to assess immediate and delayed effects of the lack of gravity perception on the vestibular system. Particular attention was paid to characterizing primarily affected periods of vestibular morphogenesis, and to identifying downstream genetic pathways that are altered in the CNS of the tlt/tlt mutant mouse. The specific aims were: (1) to characterize the postnatal morphogenesis of the CNS in the tlt mutant mouse, using detailed morphometric analysis of isolated vestibular ganglia and brain tissue at different stages of postnatal development and assessment of apoptotic cell death; (2) to examine the expression of selected genes implicated by mutational analysis to be important in vestibular development or function by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry in the mutant mice; and (3) to identify other genes involved in vestibular development and function, using differential cloning strategies to isolate genes whose expression is changed in the mutant versus normal vestibular system.

Wolgemuth, Debra J.

2005-01-01

202

Pointright: a system to redirect mouse and keyboard control among multiple machines  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a software system, PointRight, that allows for smooth and effortless control of pointing and input devices among multiple displays. With PointRight, a single free-floating mouse and keyboard can be used to control multiple screens. When the cursor reaches the edge of a screen it seamlessly moves to the adjacent screen and keyboard control is simultaneously redirected to the appropriate machine. Laptops may also redirect their keyboard and pointing device, and multiple pointers are supported simultaneously. The system automatically reconfigures itself as displays go on, go off, or change the machine they display.

Johanson, Bradley E. (Palo Alto, CA); Winograd, Terry A. (Stanford, CA); Hutchins, Gregory M. (Mountain View, CA)

2008-09-30

203

Two-phase anaerobic digestion within a solid waste/wastewater integrated management system.  

PubMed

A two-phase, wet anaerobic digestion process was tested at laboratory scale using mechanically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) as the substrate. The proposed process scheme differs from others due to the integration of the MSW and wastewater treatment cycles, which makes it possible to avoid the recirculation of process effluent. The results obtained show that the supplying of facultative biomass, drawn from the wastewater aeration tank, to the solid waste acidogenic reactor allows an improvement of the performance of the first phase of the process which is positively reflected on the second one. The proposed process performed successfully, adopting mesophilic conditions and a relatively short hydraulic retention time in the methanogenic reactor, as well as high values of organic loading rate. Significant VS removal efficiency and biogas production were achieved. Moreover, the methanogenic reactor quickly reached optimal conditions for a stable methanogenic phase. Studies conducted elsewhere also confirm the feasibility of integrating the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW with that of wastewater. PMID:18191559

De Gioannis, G; Diaz, L F; Muntoni, A; Pisanu, A

2008-01-01

204

Two-phase anaerobic digestion within a solid waste/wastewater integrated management system  

SciTech Connect

A two-phase, wet anaerobic digestion process was tested at laboratory scale using mechanically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) as the substrate. The proposed process scheme differs from others due to the integration of the MSW and wastewater treatment cycles, which makes it possible to avoid the recirculation of process effluent. The results obtained show that the supplying of facultative biomass, drawn from the wastewater aeration tank, to the solid waste acidogenic reactor allows an improvement of the performance of the first phase of the process which is positively reflected on the second one. The proposed process performed successfully, adopting mesophilic conditions and a relatively short hydraulic retention time in the methanogenic reactor, as well as high values of organic loading rate. Significant VS removal efficiency and biogas production were achieved. Moreover, the methanogenic reactor quickly reached optimal conditions for a stable methanogenic phase. Studies conducted elsewhere also confirm the feasibility of integrating the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW with that of wastewater.

De Gioannis, G. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Diaz, L.F. [CalRecovery, Inc., 2454 Stanwell Drive, Concord, California 94520 (United States); Muntoni, A. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy)], E-mail: amuntoni@unica.it; Pisanu, A. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy)

2008-07-01

205

Arnold Schwarzenegger ANAEROBIC DIGESTER  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor ANAEROBIC DIGESTER IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Phase II - A Survey who took concrete steps to install an anaerobic digestion (AD) facility and documentation motivated by being able to reduce odor and use the digested solids as animal bedding. Neither

206

Elastase Digests  

PubMed Central

Despite many advances in membrane proteomics during the last decade the fundamental problem of accessing the transmembrane regions itself has only been addressed to some extent. The present study establishes a method for the nano-LC-based analysis of complex membrane proteomes on the basis of a methanolic porcine pancreatic elastase digest to increase transmembrane coverage. Halobacterium salinarium purple and Corynebacterium glutamicum membranes were successfully analyzed by using the new protocol. We demonstrated that elastase digests yield a large proportion of transmembrane peptides, facilitating membrane protein identification. The potential for characterization of a membrane protein through full sequence coverage using elastase is there but is restricted to the higher abundance protein components. Compatibility of the work flow with the two most common mass spectrometric ionization techniques, ESI and MALDI, was shown. Currently better results are obtained using ESI mainly because of the low response of MALDI for strictly neutral peptides. New findings concerning elastase specificity in complex protein mixtures reveal a new prospect beyond the application in shotgun experiments. Furthermore peptide mass fingerprinting with less specific enzymes might be done in the near future but requires an adaptation of current search algorithms to the new proteases. PMID:19116210

Rietschel, Benjamin; Arrey, Tabiwang N.; Meyer, Bjoern; Bornemann, Sandra; Schuerken, Malte; Karas, Michael; Poetsch, Ansgar

2009-01-01

207

Methane production and microbial community structure in single-stage batch and sequential batch systems anaerobically co-digesting food waste and biosolids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and biosolids was carried out in sequential batch and single-stage batch systems in four\\u000a treatments. Methane yield, which was used as a functional process parameter, differed between treatments, with the single-stage\\u000a batch system generating lower volumes than the sequential batch systems. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and pH in\\u000a the leachate also differed between treatments.

B. Dearman; P. Marschner; R. H. Bentham

2006-01-01

208

A demonstration test and evaluation of the Cannon Low-NO{sub x} Digester System. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Since 1985, Cannon Boiler Works, Inc. has been carrying out research and development efforts to perfect a system for removing nitrogen oxides, NO{sub x}, from the exhaust gases of furnaces, gas turbines, chemical reactors, incinerators and boilers.Computer simulations, bench-scale tests and pilot plant testing have proved that the system is capable of removing substantially all of the NO{sub x} from natural gas-fired equipment exhaust streams. Furthermore when retrofit to industrial boilers, both capital costs and operating costs are lower than for competing processes, while performance is much better. The Cannon system for removing NO{sub x}, originally designated as the Cannon NO{sub x} Digester, has recently been renamed the Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO) System for NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} Reduction. It will be engineered and marketed by Cannon Technology, Inc, a wholly owned subsidiary of Cannon Boiler Works, Inc. Cannon has US patents for the process and for the associated equipment and has patent applications pending in Europe. Cannon`s Low Temperature Oxidation, LTO, process has proved effective for reducing the levels of NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and particulates from boiler flue gases.

NONE

1995-08-01

209

Role of Somatic Testicular Cells during Mouse Spermatogenesis in Three-Dimensional Collagen Gel Culture System  

PubMed Central

Objective Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the only cell type that can restore fertility to an infertile recipient following transplantation. Much effort has been made to develop a protocol for differentiating isolated SSCs in vitro. Recently, three-dimensional (3D) culture system has been introduced as an appropriate microenvironment for clonal expansion and differentiation of SSCs. This system provides structural support and multiple options for several manipulation such as addition of different cells. Somatic cells have a critical role in stimulating spermatogenesis. They provide complex cell to cell interaction, transport proteins and produce enzymes and regulatory factors. This study aimed to optimize the culture condition by adding somatic testicular cells to the collagen gel culture system in order to induce spermatogenesis progression. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, the disassociation of SSCs was performed by using a two-step enzymatic digestion of type I collagenase, hyaluronidase and DNase. Somatic testicular cells including Sertoli cells and peritubular cells were obtained after the second digestion. SSCs were isolated by Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting (MACS) using GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (Gfr?-1) antibody. Two experimental designs were investigated. 1. Gfr?-1 positive SSCs were cultured in a collagen solution. 2. Somatic testicular cells were added to the Gfr?-1 positive SSCs in a collagen solution. Spermatogenesis progression was determined after three weeks by staining of synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3)-positive cells. Semi-quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR was undertaken for SCP3 as a meiotic marker and, Crem and Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF1) as post meiotic markers. For statistical analysis student t test was performed. Results Testicular supporter cells increased the expression of meiotic and post meiotic markers and had a positive effect on extensive colony formation. Conclusion Collagen gel culture system supported by somatic testicular cells provides a microenvironment that mimics seminiferous epithelium and induces spermatogenesis in vitro. PMID:24518977

Khajavi, Noushafarin; Akbari, Mohammad; Abolhassani, Farid; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Koruji, Morteza; Habibi Roudkenar, Mehryar

2014-01-01

210

Architectural Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Architectural Digest is one of the world's premier periodicals dedicated to architecture and interior design. Their website is a trove of materials for those dabbling in such matters. On this site, visitors can look through one of six sections: Interiors + Inspiration, Celebrity Style, Architecture + Design, Shopping + Sources, News, Culture + Travel, and In the Magazine. These areas are rich in content and commentary from diverse caravansaries. First-timers might enjoy a jaunt on over to the Daily AD to get their daily dose of what's happening in the field. A random visit to the site might bring up a photo gallery of 25 inspiring staircases from around the world, a renovation of a chateau in the Loire Valley, or a look into the homes of some of Southern California's movers and shakers. Additionally, users can sign up to receive updates about their special editions and website only features.

211

The dynamics of polycomb group proteins in early embryonic nervous system in mouse and human.  

PubMed

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcription regulatory proteins that control the expression of a variety of genes and the antero-posterior neural patterning from early embryogenesis. Although expression of PcG genes in the nervous system has been noticed, but the expression pattern of PcG proteins in early embryonic nervous system is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the expression pattern of PRC1 complex members (BMI-1 and RING1B) and PRC2 complex members (EED, SUZ12 and EZH2) in early embryonic nervous system in mouse and human by Western blot and Immunohistochemistry. The results of Western blot showed that EED protein was significantly up-regulated with the increase of the day of pregnancy during the early embryogenesis in mouse. BMI-1 protein level was significantly increased from the day 10 of pregnancy, when compared with the day 9 of pregnancy. But the SUZ12, EZH2 and RING1B protein level did not change significantly. From the results of Immunohistochemistry, we found that the four PcG proteins were all expressed in the fetal brain and fetal spinal cord in mouse. In human, the expression of EED, SUZ12, and EZH2 was not significantly different in cerebral cortex and sacral spinal cord, but BMI-1 and RING1B expression was enhanced with the development of embryos in early pregnancy. Collectively, our findings showed that PRC1 and PRC2 were spatiotemporally expressed in brain and spinal cord of early embryos. PMID:23727134

Qi, Lu; Cao, Jing-Li; Hu, Yi; Yang, Ji-Gao; Ji, Yuan; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Da-Guang; Xia, Hong-Fei; Ma, Xu

2013-11-01

212

A pilot plant two-phase anaerobic digestion system for bioenergy recovery from swine wastes and garbage.  

PubMed

A pilot plant bioenergy recovery system from swine waste and garbage was constructed. A series of experiments was performed using swine feces (SF); a mixture of swine feces and urine (MSFU); a mixture of swine feces, urine and garbage (MSFUG); garbage and a mixture of urine and garbage (AUG). The system performed well for treating the source materials at a high organic loading rate (OLR) and short hydraulic retention time (HRT). In particular, the biogas production for the MSFUG was the highest, accounting for approximately 865-930 L kg(-1)-VS added at the OLR of 5.0-5.3 kg-VS m(-3) day(-1) and the HRT of 9 days. The removal of VS was 67-75%, and that of COD was 73-74%. Therefore, co-digestion is a promising method for the recovery of bioenergy from swine waste and garbage. Furthermore, the results obtained from this study provide fundamental information for scaling up a high-performance anaerobic system in the future. PMID:17904349

Feng, Chuanping; Shimada, Sadoru; Zhang, Zhenya; Maekawa, Takaaki

2008-01-01

213

Apparatus for the anaerobic digestion of natural organic waste  

SciTech Connect

The title system consists of a feed tank, from which sewage is provided to a digester tank at an adjustable continuous weight, in which the sewage is anaerobically digested. The gas produced in the anaerobic digester is collected at the top and pumped to a diffuser at the bottom of the digester. The supernatent from the treated sewage is transferred to an outlet tank, and sludge is removed from the bottom of the digester tank.

Hawkes, D.L.; Horton, R.; Stafford, D.A.

1980-11-11

214

Pressurized Pepsin Digestion in Proteomics  

PubMed Central

Integrated top-down bottom-up proteomics combined with on-line digestion has great potential to improve the characterization of protein isoforms in biological systems and is amendable to high throughput proteomics experiments. Bottom-up proteomics ultimately provides the peptide sequences derived from the tandem MS analyses of peptides after the proteome has been digested. Top-down proteomics conversely entails the MS analyses of intact proteins for more effective characterization of genetic variations and/or post-translational modifications. Herein, we describe recent efforts toward efficient integration of bottom-up and top-down LC-MS-based proteomics strategies. Since most proteomics separations utilize acidic conditions, we exploited the compatibility of pepsin (where the optimal digestion conditions are at low pH) for integration into bottom-up and top-down proteomics work flows. Pressure-enhanced pepsin digestions were successfully performed and characterized with several standard proteins in either an off-line mode using a Barocycler or an on-line mode using a modified high pressure LC system referred to as a fast on-line digestion system (FOLDS). FOLDS was tested using pepsin and a whole microbial proteome, and the results were compared against traditional trypsin digestions on the same platform. Additionally, FOLDS was integrated with a RePlay configuration to demonstrate an ultrarapid integrated bottom-up top-down proteomics strategy using a standard mixture of proteins and a monkey pox virus proteome. PMID:20627868

López-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Robinson, Errol W.; Hixson, Kim K.; Tian, Zhixin; Lee, Jung Hwa; Lee, Sang-Won; Toli?, Nikola; Weitz, Karl K.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.; Paša-Toli?, Ljiljana

2011-01-01

215

Effect of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Mouse Resistance to Systemic Candida albicans Infection  

PubMed Central

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana, is known to suppress the immune responses to bacterial, viral and protozoan infections, but its effects on fungal infections have not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic ?9-THC treatment on mouse resistance to systemic Candida albicans (C. albicans) infection. To determine the outcome of chronic ?9-THC treatment on primary, acute systemic candidiasis, c57BL/6 mice were given vehicle or ?9-THC (16 mg/kg) in vehicle on days 1–4, 8–11 and 15–18. On day 19, mice were infected with 5×105 C. albicans. We also determined the effect of chronic ?9-THC (4–64 mg/kg) treatment on mice infected with a non-lethal dose of 7.5×104 C. albicans on day 2, followed by a higher challenge with 5×105 C. albicans on day 19. Mouse resistance to the infection was assessed by survival and tissue fungal load. Serum cytokine levels were determine to evaluate the immune responses. In the acute infection, chronic ?9-THC treatment had no effect on mouse survival or tissue fungal load when compared to vehicle treated mice. However, ?9-THC significantly suppressed IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 as well as marginally suppressed IL-17 versus vehicle treated mice. In comparison, when mice were given a secondary yeast infection, ?9-THC significantly decreased survival, increased tissue fungal burden and suppressed serum IFN-? and IL-12p40 levels compared to vehicle treated mice. The data showed that chronic ?9-THC treatment decreased the efficacy of the memory immune response to candida infection, which correlated with a decrease in IFN-? that was only observed after the secondary candida challenge. PMID:25057822

Blumstein, Gideon W.; Parsa, Arya; Park, Anthony K.; McDowell, Beverly L. P.; Arroyo-Mendoza, Melissa; Girguis, Marie; Adler-Moore, Jill P.; Olson, Jon; Buckley, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

216

Fermentative hydrogen production in a system using anaerobic digester sludge without heat treatment as a biomass source.  

PubMed

Hydrogen produced from anaerobic fermentation of organic matter is a sustainable energy source. Anaerobic hydrogen-producing systems have been typically seeded with heat-treated inocula to eliminate hydrogen-consuming methanogens. This can be both energy- and economically-intensive. In this work, operational parameters were modified to determine if operating a reactor at low pH (5.5) and low SRT (10 hours) would result in a hydrogen-producing system free of methanogens using anaerobic digester sludge with no heat treatment as an inoculum. Initially, the reactor exhibited a hydrogen productivity of approximately 7.9% when fed glucose. After purging was begun with 10% CO2/90% N2, the hydrogen productivity increased to > 20% for the first day. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens then established themselves in the reactor, reducing the hydrogen productivity in the second non-purged phase by 80%. The operational controls examined were not sufficient to eliminate hydrogen-consuming methanogens for longer than approximately one week, and thus further methods must be developed. PMID:16180420

Shizas, I; Bagley, D M

2005-01-01

217

Comparison of mouse embryo development in open and microdrop co-culture systems.  

PubMed

Co-culture with numerous cell lines has been shown to improve in-vitro embryo development. It is usually performed in open culture without an oil overlay, or in relatively large volumes of medium (e.g. 0.5 ml) under oil. We compared the efficacy of open and microdrop co-culture systems using human endometrial and tubal cell lines and mouse zygotes. Although the mean pH values of the media from the tubal cell cultures (both open and oil-covered) decreased significantly over 5 days of culture, this did not appear to impair embryo development. Both co-culture and microdrop culture significantly improved blastocyst and hatching blastocyst formation rates. The combination of the two techniques (microdrop and co-culture) demonstrated the highest blastocyst formation and hatching blastocyst formation rates, as well as the highest mean cell numbers in hatching blastocysts. Co-culture in a microdrop is a superior system for mouse embryo culture. PMID:8943534

Sherbahn, R; Frasor, J; Radwanska, E; Binor, Z; Wood-Molo, M; Hibner, M; Mack, S; Rawlins, R G

1996-10-01

218

Effects of temperature on post-methanation of digested dairy cow manure in a farm-scale biogas production system.  

PubMed

A post-methanation process that could be adopted at farm-scale, operating at temperatures prevailing in farm manure digester post-storage tanks, was evaluated. Digested manure samples from a farm digester (35 degrees C) and post-storage tank (5-10 degrees C) were incubated in parallel batches at 5-20 degrees C and as reference at 35 and 55 degrees C. Specific methane yields (kg(-1) volatile solids (VS)(added waste)) were 0.20-0.26 m3 at 35-55 degrees C and 0.085-0.09 m3 at 10-20 degrees C for digester material (345 days of incubation) and 0.16-0.21 m3 at 35-55 degrees C, 0.053-0.087 kg(-1) VS(added waste) m3 at 15-20 degrees C and 0.026 m3 at 10 degrees C for post-storage tank material (250 days). Both materials produced less than 0.005 m3 at 5 degrees C. However, an increase in temperature to 35 degrees C (40 days) improved methane production in assays pre-incubated at 5-20 degrees C (9 months). These results suggest that the untapped methane potential of the digested manure cannot effectively be recovered at temperatures prevailing in farm digested manure storage tanks during the winter in Northern latitudes. Nevertheless, as ambient temperatures increase during the late spring, an increase in methanogenesis can be expected. PMID:14669812

Kaparaju, P L N; Rintala, J A

2003-10-01

219

Noninvasive Topical Loading for Manganese-Enhanced MRI of the Mouse Visual System  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate topical loading as an alternative to intravitreal injection for Mn2+-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) of the visual system. Methods. Topical administration of 0.5 to 1.5 M MnCl2 and intravitreal injections with 0.5 ?L 100 mM and 2 ?L 1 M MnCl2 for mouse MEMRI were conducted, followed by immunohistochemistry. In another mouse group, two topical administrations of 1 M Mn2+ were applied to the same animals 7 days apart, to evaluate the use of MEMRI in a time course study. Dynamic imaging was also conducted to reveal how Mn2+ travels to the retina. MEMRI with topically loaded MnCl2 was also conducted in eyes with retinal ischemia, to evaluate whether the enhancements required healthy neurons. Results. After 1 day, topical administration of 1 M and 1.5 M MnCl2 rendered significant signal enhancement (up to 20%) in the superior colliculus (P < 0.05) that was equivalent to that of the 2-?L 1 M injection. Repeated exposure to Mn2+ showed reproduced enhancement. Dynamic imaging showed significant enhancement in the iris, retina, and lens boundary, but not in the vitreous space. In retinal ischemic eyes, no enhancement of MEMRI was detected in the optic nerves. The immunohistochemistry of the optic nerve (1.5 mm anterior to the chiasm) and retina showed no injury 1 week after Mn2+ topical administrations to each mouse. Conclusions. The results demonstrated the feasibility of using topical administration of Mn2+ for MEMRI. Topically loaded Mn2+ did not diffuse into the vitreous space, but was it may have been absorbed into the iris to diffuse or travel via the capillary circulation to reach the retina. PMID:21421878

Campbell, Bruce; Lunderville, Chantal; Won, Eric; Liang, Hsiao-Fang

2011-01-01

220

Design and Economic Analysis of a Heating/Absorption Cooling System Operating with Municipal Solid Waste Digester: A Case Study of Gazi University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recovering energy from municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the most important issues of energy management in developed countries. This raises even more interest as world fossil fuel reserves diminish and fuel prices rise. Being one of main processes of waste disposal, anaerobic digestion can be used as a means to reduce fossil fuel and electricity consumption as well as reducing emissions. With growing demand for cooling in Turkey, especially during warm seasons and considering the energy costs, utilizing heat-driven absorption cooling systems coupled with an anaerobic digester for local cooling purposes is a potentially interesting alternative for electricity driven compression cooling. The aim of this article is to study the viability of utilizing biogas obtained from MSW anaerobic digestion as the main fuel for heating facilities of Gazi University, Turkey and also the energy source for an absorption cooling system designed for the central library of the aforementioned campus. The results prove that the suggested system is sustainably and financially appealing and has the potential to replace the conventional electricity driven cooling systems with a reasonable net present worth; moreover, it can notably reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

Co?ar, Gökhan; Pooyanfar, Mirparham; Amirabedin, Ehsan; Topal, Hüseyin

2013-12-01

221

Defining Functional Gene-Circuit Interfaces in the Mouse Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Complexity in the nervous system is established by developmental genetic programs, maintained by differential genetic profiles, and sculpted by experiential and environmental influence over gene expression. Determining how specific genes define neuronal phenotypes, shape circuit connectivity, and regulate circuit function is essential for understanding how the brain processes information, directs behavior, and adapts to changing environments. Mouse genetics has contributed greatly to current percepts of gene-circuit interfaces in behavior, but considerable work remains. Large-scale initiatives to map gene expression and connectivity in the brain, together with advanced techniques in molecular genetics, now allow detailed exploration of the genetic basis of nervous system function at the level of specific circuit connections. In this review, we highlight several key advances for defining the function of specific genes within a neural network. PMID:24007626

Soden, Marta E.; Gore, Bryan B.; Zweifel, Larry S.

2013-01-01

222

77 FR 9671 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice...Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special...Tissue and Cell Distribution System. Date: March 15, 2012...Metabolic Research; 93.848, Digestive Diseases and Nutrition...

2012-02-17

223

3-Dimensional Resin Casting and Imaging of Mouse Portal Vein or Intrahepatic Bile Duct System  

PubMed Central

In organs, the correct architecture of vascular and ductal structures is indispensable for proper physiological function, and the formation and maintenance of these structures is a highly regulated process. The analysis of these complex, 3-dimensional structures has greatly depended on either 2-dimensional examination in section or on dye injection studies. These techniques, however, are not able to provide a complete and quantifiable representation of the ductal or vascular structures they are intended to elucidate. Alternatively, the nature of 3-dimensional plastic resin casts generates a permanent snapshot of the system and is a novel and widely useful technique for visualizing and quantifying 3-dimensional structures and networks. A crucial advantage of the resin casting system is the ability to determine the intact and connected, or communicating, structure of a blood vessel or duct. The structure of vascular and ductal networks are crucial for organ function, and this technique has the potential to aid study of vascular and ductal networks in several ways. Resin casting may be used to analyze normal morphology and functional architecture of a luminal structure, identify developmental morphogenetic changes, and uncover morphological differences in tissue architecture between normal and disease states. Previous work has utilized resin casting to study, for example, architectural and functional defects within the mouse intrahepatic bile duct system that were not reflected in 2-dimensional analysis of the structure1,2, alterations in brain vasculature of a Alzheimer's disease mouse model3, portal vein abnormalities in portal hypertensive and cirrhotic mice4, developmental steps in rat lymphatic maturation between immature and adult lungs5, immediate microvascular changes in the rat liver, pancreas, and kidney in response in to chemical injury6. Here we present a method of generating a 3-dimensional resin cast of a mouse vascular or ductal network, focusing specifically on the portal vein and intrahepatic bile duct. These casts can be visualized by clearing or macerating the tissue and can then be analyzed. This technique can be applied to virtually any vascular or ductal system and would be directly applicable to any study inquiring into the development, function, maintenance, or injury of a 3-dimensional ductal or vascular structure. PMID:23128398

Walter, Teagan J.; Sparks, Erin E.; Huppert, Stacey S.

2012-01-01

224

Peripheral nervous system defects in a mouse model for peroxisomal biogenesis disorders.  

PubMed

Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are autosomal recessive disorders in humans characterized by skeletal, eye and brain abnormalities. Despite the fact that neurological deficits, including peripheral nervous system (PNS) defects, can be observed at birth in some PBD patients including those with PEX10 mutations, the embryological basis of the PNS defects is unclear. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified a mouse model for Pex10 deficiency that exhibits neurological abnormalities during fetal development. Homozygous Pex10 mutant mouse embryos display biochemical abnormalities related to a PBD deficiency. During late embryogenesis, Pex10 homozygous mutant mice experience progressive loss of movement and at birth they become cyanotic and die shortly thereafter. Homozygous Pex10 mutant fetuses display decreased integrity of axons and synapses, over-extension of axons in the diaphragm and decreased Schwann cell numbers. Our neuropathological, molecular and electrophysiological studies provide new insights into the embryological basis of the PNS deficits in a PBD model. Our findings identify PEX10 function, and likely other PEX proteins, as an essential component of the spinal locomotor circuit. PMID:25176044

Hanson, M Gartz; Fregoso, Veronica L; Vrana, Justin D; Tucker, Chandra L; Niswander, Lee A

2014-11-01

225

Functional Polymorphisms in the CYP2C19 Gene Contribute to Digestive System Cancer Risk: Evidence from 11,042 Subjects  

PubMed Central

Background CYP2C19 belongs to the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes involved in activating and detoxifying many carcinogens and endogenous compounds, which has attracted considerable attention as a candidate gene for digestive system cancer. CYP2C19 has two main point mutation sites (CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3) leading to poor metabolizer (PM) phenotype. In the past decade, the relationship between CYP2C19 polymorphism and digestive system cancer has been reported in various ethnic groups; however, these studies have yielded contradictory results. Methods To clarify this inconsistency, we performed this meta-analysis. Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. Results In total, 18 studies with 4,414 cases and 6,628 controls were included. Overall, significantly elevated digestive system cancer risk was associated CYP2C19 PM with OR of 1.66 (95%CI: 1.31–2.10, P<10?5) when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. There was strong evidence of heterogeneity (P?=?0.006), which largely disappeared after stratification by cancer type. In the stratified analyses according to cancer type, ethnicity, control source and sample size, significantly increased risks were found. Conclusions In summary, our meta-analysis suggested that the PM phenotype caused by the variation on CYP2C19 gene is associated with increased risk of digestive system cancer, especially in East Asians. PMID:23874401

Qian, Mingping; Li, Liang; Gong, Jian; Zou, Shaowu

2013-01-01

226

Ontogeny and distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatases in the digestive system of California halibut larvae (Paralichthys californicus).  

PubMed

Studies aimed to assess the digestive physiology of marine fish larvae under culture conditions are important to further understand the functional characteristics and digestive capacities of the developing larvae. Most studies to date concentrate on intestinal lumen digestion and little attention to the absorption process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to histochemically detect and quantify some of the enzymes responsible for absorption and intracellular digestion of nutrients in the anterior and posterior intestine of California halibut larvae. Alkaline and acid phosphatases were detected from the first days post-hatch (dph). Alkaline phosphatase maintained a high level of activity during the first 20 dph in both intestinal regions. Thereafter, a clear intestinal regionalization of the activity was observed with the highest levels occurring in the anterior intestine. Acid phosphatase activity gradually increased in both intestinal regions during development, and a regionalization of the activity was not observed until late in development, once the ocular migration began. Highest levels were observed in the anterior intestine at the end of metamorphosis concomitant with the stomach development. The results from this study show some morphological and physiological changes are occurring during larval development and a clear regionalization of the absorption process as the larvae develops. These ontological changes must be considered in the elaboration of diets according to the digestive capacity of the larvae. PMID:23508366

Zacarias-Soto, Magali; Barón-Sevilla, Benjamín; Lazo, Juan P

2013-10-01

227

Exploring Mouse Trap History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since intelligent design (ID) advocates claimed the ubiquitous mouse trap as an example of systems that cannot have evolved,\\u000a mouse trap history is doubly relevant to studying material culture. On the one hand, debunking ID claims about mouse traps\\u000a and, by implication, also about other irreducibly complex systems has a high educational value. On the other hand, a case study

Joachim L. Dagg

228

Use of a hierarchical oligonucleotide primer extension approach for multiplexed relative abundance analysis of methanogens in anaerobic digestion systems.  

PubMed

In this study, we established a rapid multiplex method to detect the relative abundances of amplified 16S rRNA genes from known cultivatable methanogens at hierarchical specificities in anaerobic digestion systems treating industrial wastewater and sewage sludge. The method was based on the hierarchical oligonucleotide primer extension (HOPE) technique and combined with a set of 27 primers designed to target the total archaeal populations and methanogens from 22 genera within 4 taxonomic orders. After optimization for their specificities and detection sensitivity under the conditions of multiple single-nucleotide primer extension reactions, the HOPE approach was applied to analyze the methanogens in 19 consortium samples from 7 anaerobic treatment systems (i.e., 513 reactions). Among the samples, the methanogen populations detected with order-level primers accounted for >77.2% of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes detected using an Archaea-specific primer. The archaeal communities typically consisted of 2 to 7 known methanogen genera within the Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales and displayed population dynamic and spatial distributions in anaerobic reactor operations. Principal component analysis of the HOPE data further showed that the methanogen communities could be clustered into 3 distinctive groups, in accordance with the distribution of the Methanosaeta, Methanolinea, and Methanomethylovorans, respectively. This finding suggested that in addition to acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, the methylotrophic methanogens might play a key role in the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrated that the HOPE approach is a specific, rapid, and multiplexing platform to determine the relative abundances of targeted methanogens in PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene products. PMID:24077716

Wu, Jer-Horng; Chuang, Hui-Ping; Hsu, Mao-Hsuan; Chen, Wei-Yu

2013-12-01

229

Use of a Hierarchical Oligonucleotide Primer Extension Approach for Multiplexed Relative Abundance Analysis of Methanogens in Anaerobic Digestion Systems  

PubMed Central

In this study, we established a rapid multiplex method to detect the relative abundances of amplified 16S rRNA genes from known cultivatable methanogens at hierarchical specificities in anaerobic digestion systems treating industrial wastewater and sewage sludge. The method was based on the hierarchical oligonucleotide primer extension (HOPE) technique and combined with a set of 27 primers designed to target the total archaeal populations and methanogens from 22 genera within 4 taxonomic orders. After optimization for their specificities and detection sensitivity under the conditions of multiple single-nucleotide primer extension reactions, the HOPE approach was applied to analyze the methanogens in 19 consortium samples from 7 anaerobic treatment systems (i.e., 513 reactions). Among the samples, the methanogen populations detected with order-level primers accounted for >77.2% of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes detected using an Archaea-specific primer. The archaeal communities typically consisted of 2 to 7 known methanogen genera within the Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales and displayed population dynamic and spatial distributions in anaerobic reactor operations. Principal component analysis of the HOPE data further showed that the methanogen communities could be clustered into 3 distinctive groups, in accordance with the distribution of the Methanosaeta, Methanolinea, and Methanomethylovorans, respectively. This finding suggested that in addition to acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, the methylotrophic methanogens might play a key role in the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrated that the HOPE approach is a specific, rapid, and multiplexing platform to determine the relative abundances of targeted methanogens in PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene products. PMID:24077716

Chuang, Hui-Ping; Hsu, Mao-Hsuan; Chen, Wei-Yu

2013-01-01

230

Immobilization of trypsin onto multifunctional meso-/macroporous core-shell microspheres: a new platform for rapid enzymatic digestion.  

PubMed

A simple, fast, efficient, and reusable microwave-assisted tryptic digestion system which was constructed by immobilization of trypsin onto porous core-shell Fe3O4@fTiO2 microspheres has been developed. The nanostructure with magnetic core and titania shell has multiple pore sizes (2.4 and 15.0 nm), high pore volume (0.25 cm(3) g(-1)), and large surface area (50.45 m(2) g(-1)). For the proteins, the system can realize fast and efficient microwave-assisted tryptic digestion. Various standard proteins (e.g., cytochrome c (cyt-c), myoglobin (MYO), ?-lactoglobulin (?-LG), and bovine serum albumin (BSA)) used can be digested in 45 s under microwave radiation, and they can be confidently identified by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis; even the concentration of substrate is as low as 5 ng ?L(-1). Furthermore, the system for the 45 s microwave-assisted tryptic digestion is still effective after the trypsin-immobilized microspheres have been reused for 5 times. Importantly, 1715 unique proteins from 10 ?g mouse brain proteins can be identified with high confidence after treatment of 45 s microwave-assisted tryptic digestion. PMID:24491766

Cheng, Gong; Chen, Ping; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Sui, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Ni, Jia-Zuan

2014-02-17

231

Automatic Classification of Digestive Organs in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Videos  

E-print Network

.00. A human digestive system consists of a series of several different organs including the esophagus, stomach such as gastroscopy, push enteroscopy colonoscopy have been used for the visualization of digestive system. HoweverAutomatic Classification of Digestive Organs in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Videos Jeongkyu Lee1

Lee, Jeongkyu

232

Incentives for Accountability. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policymakers and educators are taking a new look at incentives as they work to improve accountability systems. This ERIC Digest examines the role of rewards and sanctions in school reform and identifies key issues in implementing incentive systems. The new accountability is based on five components: carefully designed standards, assessments…

Lashway, Larry

233

Digesting the emerging role for the gut microbiome in central nervous system demyelination.  

PubMed

The fields of microbiology, immunology, neurology and nutrition are rapidly converging, as advanced sequencing and genomics-based methodologies have enabled the mapping out of the microbial diversity of humans for the first time. Bugs, guts, brains and behavior were once believed to be separate domains of clinical practice and research; however, recent observations in our understanding of the microbiome indicate that the boundaries between domains are becoming permeable. This permeability is multidirectional: Biological systems are operating simultaneously in a vastly complex and interconnected web. Understanding the microbiome-gut-brain axis will entail fleshing out the mechanisms by which transduction across each domain occurs, allowing us ultimately to appreciate the role of commensal organisms in shaping and modulating host immunity. This article will highlight animal and human research to date, as well as highlight directions for future research. We speculate that the gut microbiome is potentially the premier environmental risk factor mediating inflammatory central nervous system demyelination, in particular multiple sclerosis. PMID:25070675

Joscelyn, Jennifer; Kasper, Lloyd H

2014-10-01

234

Distribution of Gb3 Immunoreactivity in the Mouse Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

We have shown previously that neurons in the mouse spinal cord express Gb3. We show in this article that distribution of anti-Gb3-Ab reactivity occurs in many different types of neurons of different areas of the central nervous system (CNS). The immunoreactive neurons are in olfactory bulbs, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. In several different circumventricular organs where vessels do not have the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) structure, anti-Gb3-Ab is not positive for vessel structures, while neurons at these regions are positive. Also, within the ventricular area, ependymal cells in the third ventricle express Gb3, as revealed by anti-Gb3-Ab staining and intensity analysis. PMID:20725533

Obata, Fumiko; Obrig, Tom

2010-01-01

235

A novel method for somatic transgenesis of the mouse prostate using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In vivo ectopic gene expression is a common approach for prostate research through the use of transgenes in germline transgenic mice. For some other organs, somatic transgenesis with the Sleeping Beauty transposon system has allowed in vivo ectopic gene expression with higher throughput and lower cost than germline transgenic approaches. METHODS Mouse e16 urogenital sinuses (UGSs) were co-injected with plasmids expressing the Sleeping Beauty transposase and plasmids with control or activated BRAF expressing transposons. Following electroporation, the transduced UGSs were grown as allografts in mouse hosts for 8 weeks, and the resulting allografts were evaluated for several endpoints. RESULTS Transposon-transduced UGS allografts developed into prostatic tissue with normal tissue structure and cellular differentiation. Integration of transposon vectors into the genomes of transduced allografts was confirmed using linker-mediated PCR, sequencing, and in situ PCR. Transduction of UGS allografts with transposons expressing activated BRAF resulted in ectopic BRAF expression that was detectable at both the mRNA and protein levels. Prostatic ducts over-expressing activated BRAF also had ectopic activation of the ERK1/2 mitogen activated kinases and increased epithelial cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS The Sleeping Beauty transposon system can be used to achieve somatic transgenesis of prostatic allografts. This new method for achieving ectopic gene expression in the prostate will complement other existing approaches such as ectopic gene expression in cell lines and in germline transgenic mice. Advantages of this new approach include preservation of stromal-epithelial interactions not possible with cell lines, and higher throughput and lower cost than traditional germline transgenic approaches. PMID:24647932

Hammer, Kimberly D.P.; Alsop, Jim; Buresh-Stiemke, Rita A.; Frantskevich, Katsiaryna; Malinowski, Rita; Roethe, Laura; Powers, Ginny L; Marker, Paul C.

2014-01-01

236

MONICA: A Compact, Portable Dual Gamma Camera System for Mouse Whole-Body Imaging  

PubMed Central

Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named “MONICA” for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed “looking up” through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV ± 10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1-cm), 2.2-mm; sensitivity, 149 cps/MBq (5.5 cps/?Ci); energy resolution (FWHM), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2 = 0.99 for 0–185 MBq (0–5 mCi) in the field-of-view (FOV); spatial uniformity, < 3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-minute images acquired throughout the 168-hour study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g. limited imaging space, portability, and, potentially, cost are important. PMID:20346864

Xi, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Karkareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.; Choyke, Peter L.

2009-01-01

237

A mouse model for pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammation is a major driver of pathological tissue damage and a unifying characteristic of many chronic diseases in humans including neoplastic, autoimmune, and chronic inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence implicates pathogen-induced chronic inflammation in the development and progression of chronic diseases with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of chronic disease, designing experiments for proof of causality and the establishment of mechanistic links is nearly impossible in humans. An advantage of using animal models is that both genetic and environmental factors that may influence the course of a particular disease can be controlled. Thus, designing relevant animal models of infection represents a key step in identifying host and pathogen specific mechanisms that contribute to chronic inflammation. Here we describe a mouse model of pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites following infection with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium closely associated with human periodontal disease. Oral infection of specific-pathogen free mice induces a local inflammatory response resulting in destruction of tooth supporting alveolar bone, a hallmark of periodontal disease. In an established mouse model of atherosclerosis, infection with P. gingivalis accelerates inflammatory plaque deposition within the aortic sinus and innominate artery, accompanied by activation of the vascular endothelium, an increased immune cell infiltrate, and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators within lesions. We detail methodologies for the assessment of inflammation at local and systemic sites. The use of transgenic mice and defined bacterial mutants makes this model particularly suitable for identifying both host and microbial factors involved in the initiation, progression, and outcome of disease. Additionally, the model can be used to screen for novel therapeutic strategies, including vaccination and pharmacological intervention. PMID:25146644

Papadopoulos, George; Kramer, Carolyn D; Slocum, Connie S; Weinberg, Ellen O; Hua, Ning; Gudino, Cynthia V; Hamilton, James A; Genco, Caroline A

2014-01-01

238

Lewy Body Digest  

MedlinePLUS

Lewy Body Digest eNewsletter Click here to subscribe today to receive regular communications from LBDA on the latest developments in treatment and research in Lewy body dementia. Archival issues of the Lewy Body Digest ...

239

Video Games: Research, Ratings, Recommendations. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The Digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders played at least one…

Cesarone, Bernard

240

Histology and histochemistry of the development of the digestive system of larval gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resorption of the yolksac and development of the digestive tract and associated organs, including the swim bladder, were studied in Sparus aurata larvae from hatching until day 30 using histological and histochemical procedures. At the onset of exogenous feeding three regions could be easily distinguished in the gut: the foregut including the oesophagus and a primordial stomach, the midgut and

M. C. Sarasquete; A. Polo; M. Yúfera

1995-01-01

241

Arnold Schwarzenegger ANAEROBIC DIGESTER  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor ANAEROBIC DIGESTER IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Phase I - A Survey of U concrete steps to install an anaerobic digestion (AD) facility and documentation of the factors to reduce odor and use the digested solids as animal bedding. Neither of these factors was a motivator

242

MARS: a mouse atlas registration system based on a planar x-ray projector and an optical camera.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a mouse atlas registration system (MARS), composed of a stationary top-view x-ray projector and a side-view optical camera, coupled to a mouse atlas registration algorithm. This system uses the x-ray and optical images to guide a fully automatic co-registration of a mouse atlas with each subject, in order to provide anatomical reference for small animal molecular imaging systems such as positron emission tomography (PET). To facilitate the registration, a statistical atlas that accounts for inter-subject anatomical variations was constructed based on 83 organ-labeled mouse micro-computed tomography (CT) images. The statistical shape model and conditional Gaussian model techniques were used to register the atlas with the x-ray image and optical photo. The accuracy of the atlas registration was evaluated by comparing the registered atlas with the organ-labeled micro-CT images of the test subjects. The results showed excellent registration accuracy of the whole-body region, and good accuracy for the brain, liver, heart, lungs and kidneys. In its implementation, the MARS was integrated with a preclinical PET scanner to deliver combined PET/MARS imaging, and to facilitate atlas-assisted analysis of the preclinical PET images. PMID:22968224

Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B; Taschereau, Richard; Gu, Zheng; Vu, Nam T; Prout, David L; Chatziioannou, Arion F

2012-10-01

243

Mapping of the Mouse Olfactory System with Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging  

PubMed Central

As the power of studying mouse genetics and behavior advances, research tools to examine systems level connectivity in the mouse are critically needed. In this study, we compared statistical mapping of the olfactory system in adult mice using manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with probabilistic tractography. The primary goal was to determine whether these complementary techniques can determine mouse olfactory bulb connectivity consistent with known anatomical connections. For MEMRI, 3D T1 weighted images were acquired before and after bilateral nasal administration of MnCl2 solution. Concomitantly, high resolution diffusion-tensor images were obtained ex vivo from a second group of mice and processed with a probabilistic tractography algorithm originating in the olfactory bulb. Incidence maps were created by co-registering and overlaying data from the two scan modalities. The resulting maps clearly show pathways between the olfactory bulb and amygdala, piriform cortex, caudate putamen, and olfactory cortex in both the DTI and MEMRI techniques that are consistent with the known anatomical connections. These data demonstrate that MEMRI and DTI are complementary, high-resolution neuroimaging tools that can be applied to mouse genetic models of olfactory and limbic system connectivity. PMID:22527121

Gutman, David A.; Magnuson, Matthew; Majeed, Waqas; Keifer, Orion P.; Davis, Michael; Ressler, Kerry J.; Keilholz, Shella

2012-01-01

244

MARS: a mouse atlas registration system based on a planar x-ray projector and an optical camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a mouse atlas registration system (MARS), composed of a stationary top-view x-ray projector and a side-view optical camera, coupled to a mouse atlas registration algorithm. This system uses the x-ray and optical images to guide a fully automatic co-registration of a mouse atlas with each subject, in order to provide anatomical reference for small animal molecular imaging systems such as positron emission tomography (PET). To facilitate the registration, a statistical atlas that accounts for inter-subject anatomical variations was constructed based on 83 organ-labeled mouse micro-computed tomography (CT) images. The statistical shape model and conditional Gaussian model techniques were used to register the atlas with the x-ray image and optical photo. The accuracy of the atlas registration was evaluated by comparing the registered atlas with the organ-labeled micro-CT images of the test subjects. The results showed excellent registration accuracy of the whole-body region, and good accuracy for the brain, liver, heart, lungs and kidneys. In its implementation, the MARS was integrated with a preclinical PET scanner to deliver combined PET/MARS imaging, and to facilitate atlas-assisted analysis of the preclinical PET images.

Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B.; Taschereau, Richard; Gu, Zheng; Vu, Nam T.; Prout, David L.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

2012-10-01

245

Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse in an accumulation system within the DESAR (decentralized sanitation and reuse) concept.  

PubMed

Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse within the DESAR concept was the objective of this pilot research. The digestion took place in two, non-mixed accumulation reactors (AC1 and AC2) inoculated with digested primary sludge from a WWTP at a temperature of 20 degrees C for a period of around 150 days. Reactor AC1 was fed with a mixture of faeces, urine and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that one individual generates per day. The AC2 was fed with a mixture of faeces and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that two individuals produce per day. Some contribution of urine to AC2 was not to be avoided. Detailed characterisation of waste(water) was performed. The performance of the stratified reactor was followed by monitoring the reactor content for several reactors' heights as well as being based on the biogas production. In general the system exposed good process stability. The methanisation of 34 and 61% was obtained for AC1 and AC2 respectively. The biogas yield was 26.5 and 50.8 L/p/d for the respective reactors. Proper choice of inoculum as well as good buffering capacity did not lead to accumulation of VFA and an inhibitive effect due to relatively high ammonium concentration. The chosen process is a promising technology showing good process stability especially for high strength influent. PMID:14531430

Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Elmitwalli, T; Gaillard, A; van Leeuwen, M; Zeeman, G

2003-01-01

246

Single-neuron diversity generated by Protocadherin-? cluster in mouse central and peripheral nervous systems  

PubMed Central

The generation of complex neural circuits depends on the correct wiring of neurons with diverse individual characteristics. To understand the complexity of the nervous system, the molecular mechanisms for specifying the identity and diversity of individual neurons must be elucidated. The clustered protocadherins (Pcdh) in mammals consist of approximately 50 Pcdh genes (Pcdh-?, Pcdh-?, and Pcdh-?) that encode cadherin-family cell surface adhesion proteins. Individual neurons express a random combination of Pcdh-? and Pcdh-?, whereas the expression patterns for the Pcdh-? genes, 22 one-exon genes in mouse, are not fully understood. Here we show that the Pcdh-? genes are expressed in a 3?-polyadenylated form in mouse brain. In situ hybridization using a pan-Pcdh-? probe against a conserved Pcdh-? sequence showed widespread labeling in the brain, with prominent signals in the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and cerebellum. In situ hybridization with specific probes for individual Pcdh-? genes showed their expression to be scattered in Purkinje cells from P10 to P150. The scattered expression patterns were confirmed by performing a newly developed single-cell 3?-RACE analysis of Purkinje cells, which clearly demonstrated that the Pcdh-? genes are expressed monoallelically and combinatorially in individual Purkinje cells. Scattered expression patterns of individual Pcdh-? genes were also observed in pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, neurons in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglion, GABAergic interneurons, and cholinergic neurons. Our results extend previous observations of diversity at the single-neuron level generated by Pcdh expression and suggest that the Pcdh-? cluster genes contribute to specifying the identity and diversity of individual neurons. PMID:22969705

Hirano, Keizo; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Izawa, Takeshi; Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Yagi, Takeshi

2012-01-01

247

A metabolomic and systems biology perspective on the brain of the fragile X syndrome mouse model.  

PubMed

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the first cause of inherited intellectual disability, due to the silencing of the X-linked Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 gene encoding the RNA-binding protein FMRP. While extensive studies have focused on the cellular and molecular basis of FXS, neither human Fragile X patients nor the mouse model of FXS--the Fmr1-null mouse--have been profiled systematically at the metabolic and neurochemical level to provide a complementary perspective on the current, yet scattered, knowledge of FXS. Using proton high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H HR-MAS NMR)-based metabolic profiling, we have identified a metabolic signature and biomarkers associated with FXS in various brain regions of Fmr1-deficient mice. Our study highlights for the first time that Fmr1 gene inactivation has profound, albeit coordinated consequences in brain metabolism leading to alterations in: (1) neurotransmitter levels, (2) osmoregulation, (3) energy metabolism, and (4) oxidative stress response. To functionally connect Fmr1-deficiency to its metabolic biomarkers, we derived a functional interaction network based on the existing knowledge (literature and databases) and show that the FXS metabolic response is initiated by distinct mRNA targets and proteins interacting with FMRP, and then relayed by numerous regulatory proteins. This novel "integrated metabolome and interactome mapping" (iMIM) approach advantageously unifies novel metabolic findings with previously unrelated knowledge and highlights the contribution of novel cellular pathways to the pathophysiology of FXS. These metabolomic and integrative systems biology strategies will contribute to the development of potential drug targets and novel therapeutic interventions, which will eventually benefit FXS patients. PMID:21900387

Davidovic, Laetitia; Navratil, Vincent; Bonaccorso, Carmela M; Catania, Maria Vincenza; Bardoni, Barbara; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel

2011-12-01

248

Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of the sea hare, Aplysia kurodai: Unique properties of two ?-amylases and two ?-glucosidases.  

PubMed

Sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa) is a nuisance species of green algae that is found all over the world. East-Asian species of the marine gastropod, the sea hare Aplysia kurodai, shows a clear feeding preference for sea lettuce. Compared with cellulose, sea lettuce contains a higher amount of starch as a storage polysaccharide. However, the entire amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai has not been studied in detail. We purified ?-amylases and ?-glucosidases from the digestive fluid of A. kurodai and investigated the synergistic action of these enzymes on sea lettuce. A. kurodai contain two ?-amylases (59 and 80 kDa) and two ?-glucosidases (74 and 86 kDa). The 59-kDa ?-amylase, but not the 80-kDa ?-amylase, was markedly activated by Ca(2+) or Cl(-). Both ?-amylases degraded starch and maltoheptaose, producing maltotriose, maltose, and glucose. Glucose production from starch was higher with 80-kDa ?-amylase than with 59-kDa ?-amylase. Kinetic analysis indicated that 74-kDa ?-glucosidase prefers short ?-1,4-linked oligosaccharide, whereas 86-kDa ?-glucosidase prefers large ?-1,6 and ?-1,4-linked polysaccharides such as glycogen. When sea lettuce was used as a substrate, a 2-fold greater amount of glucose was released by treatment with 59-kDa ?-amylase and 74-kDa ?-glucosidase than by treatment with 45-kDa cellulase and 210-kDa ?-glucosidase of A. kurodai. Unlike mammals, sea hares efficiently digest sea lettuce to glucose by a combination of two ?-amylases and two ?-glucosidases in the digestive fluids without membrane-bound maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase complexes. PMID:25161866

Tsuji, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Ohshima, Miki; Maniwa, Saori; Kuwamura, Shuji; Shiraishi, Masataka; Yuasa, Keizo

2014-01-01

249

Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of the sea hare, Aplysia kurodai: Unique properties of two ?-amylases and two ?-glucosidases  

PubMed Central

Sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa) is a nuisance species of green algae that is found all over the world. East-Asian species of the marine gastropod, the sea hare Aplysia kurodai, shows a clear feeding preference for sea lettuce. Compared with cellulose, sea lettuce contains a higher amount of starch as a storage polysaccharide. However, the entire amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai has not been studied in detail. We purified ?-amylases and ?-glucosidases from the digestive fluid of A. kurodai and investigated the synergistic action of these enzymes on sea lettuce. A. kurodai contain two ?-amylases (59 and 80 kDa) and two ?-glucosidases (74 and 86 kDa). The 59-kDa ?-amylase, but not the 80-kDa ?-amylase, was markedly activated by Ca2+ or Cl?. Both ?-amylases degraded starch and maltoheptaose, producing maltotriose, maltose, and glucose. Glucose production from starch was higher with 80-kDa ?-amylase than with 59-kDa ?-amylase. Kinetic analysis indicated that 74-kDa ?-glucosidase prefers short ?-1,4-linked oligosaccharide, whereas 86-kDa ?-glucosidase prefers large ?-1,6 and ?-1,4-linked polysaccharides such as glycogen. When sea lettuce was used as a substrate, a 2-fold greater amount of glucose was released by treatment with 59-kDa ?-amylase and 74-kDa ?-glucosidase than by treatment with 45-kDa cellulase and 210-kDa ?-glucosidase of A. kurodai. Unlike mammals, sea hares efficiently digest sea lettuce to glucose by a combination of two ?-amylases and two ?-glucosidases in the digestive fluids without membrane-bound maltase–glucoamylase and sucrase–isomaltase complexes. PMID:25161866

Tsuji, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Ohshima, Miki; Maniwa, Saori; Kuwamura, Shuji; Shiraishi, Masataka; Yuasa, Keizo

2014-01-01

250

Type II fuzzy systems for amyloid plaque segmentation in transgenic mouse brains for Alzheimer's disease quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid plaques (AP). Using animal models, AP loads have been manually measured from histological specimens to understand disease etiology, as well as response to treatment. Due to the manual nature of these approaches, obtaining the AP load is labourious, subjective and error prone. Automated algorithms can be designed to alleviate these challenges by objectively segmenting AP. In this paper, we focus on the development of a novel algorithm for AP segmentation based on robust preprocessing and a Type II fuzzy system. Type II fuzzy systems are much more advantageous over the traditional Type I fuzzy systems, since ambiguity in the membership function may be modeled and exploited to generate excellent segmentation results. The ambiguity in the membership function is defined as an adaptively changing parameter that is tuned based on the local contrast characteristics of the image. Using transgenic mouse brains with AP ground truth, validation studies were carried out showing a high degree of overlap and low degree of oversegmentation (0.8233 and 0.0917, respectively). The results highlight that such a framework is able to handle plaques of various types (diffuse, punctate), plaques with varying A? concentrations as well as intensity variation caused by treatment effects or staining variability.

Khademi, April; Hosseinzadeh, Danoush

2014-03-01

251

Differences in Pathogenesis for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the Mouse Versus the Swine Model Identify Bacterial Gene Products Required for Systemic but not Gastrointestinal Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the last several decades, the mouse model of Typhoid fever has been an extremely productive model to investigate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium pathogenesis. The mouse is the paradigm for investigating systemic disease due to infection by Salmonella; however, the swine model of gastro...

252

Digestive System Movie  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... to School When It's Just You After School Ebola How the Body Works Main Page The Pink ... purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

253

A Throughput-Optimized Array System for Multiple-Mouse MRI  

PubMed Central

MRI is a versatile tool for systematically assessing anatomical and functional changes in small animal models of human disease. Its noninvasive nature makes MRI an ideal candidate for longitudinal evaluations of disease progression, but relatively long scan times limit the number of observations that can be made in a given interval of time, imposing restrictions on experiment design and potentially compromising statistical power. Methods that reduce the overall time that is required to scan multiple cohorts of animals in distinct experimental groups are therefore highly desirable. Multiple-mouse MRI, in which several animals are simultaneously scanned in a common MRI system, has been successfully used to improve study throughput. However, to best utilize the next generation of small-animal MRI systems that will be equipped with an increased number of receive channels, a paradigm shift from simultaneously scanning as many animals as possible to scanning a more manageable number, at a faster rate, must be considered. This work explores the tradeoffs between the number of animals to scan at once and the number of array elements dedicated to each animal, to maximize throughput in systems with 16 receive channels. An array system consisting of 15 receive and five transmit coils allows acceleration by a combination of multi-animal and parallel imaging techniques. The array system was designed and fabricated for use on a 7.0-T/30-cm Bruker Biospec MRI system, and tested for high-throughput imaging performance in phantoms and live mice. Results indicate that up to a ninefold throughput improvement of a single sequence is possible compared to an unaccelerated single-animal acquisition. True data throughput of a contrast-enhanced anatomical study is estimated to be improved by just over six-fold. PMID:22887122

Ramirez, Marc S.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Bankson, James A.

2012-01-01

254

Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor are increased and correlate with malnutrition, immunosuppression involving MDSCs and systemic inflammation in patients with cancer of the digestive system  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) reportedly has an important role in the progression of malignant neoplasms and has been reported to induce myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that appear in cancer and inflammation. In the present study, serum concentrations of VEGF were measured in patients with digestive system cancer and the correlations with nutritional damage, immune suppression and systemic inflammation were analyzed. A significant increase in VEGF serum levels was observed in patients with esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers compared with healthy volunteers. Levels of VEGF were inversely correlated with the serum concentrations of albumin, prealbumin and retinol-binding protein. The serum concentrations of VEGF were inversely correlated with the production of interleukin (IL)-12 and correlated with MDSC counts. VEGF levels were also correlated with neutrophil and neutrophil/lymphocyte counts and inversely correlated with lymphocyte count. Serum VEGF levels were divided at a cutoff of 500 pg/ml, with levels of prealbumin and retinol-binding protein significantly decreased in patients with higher VEGF levels. The stimulation index and IL-12 production were significantly decreased in the group with higher VEGF levels and MDSC counts tended to be higher in this group. These results demonstrated that increased production of VEGF was correlated with systemic inflammation, nutritional impairment and the inhibition of cell-mediated immunity involving MDSCs. PMID:23761834

NAKAMURA, IZUMI; SHIBATA, MASAHIKO; GONDA, KENJI; YAZAWA, TAKASHI; SHIMURA, TATSUO; ANAZAWA, TAKAYUKI; SUZUKI, SATOSHI; SAKURAI, KENICHI; KOYAMA, YOSHIHISA; OHTO, HITOSHI; TOMITA, RYOUICHI; GOTOH, MITSUKAZU; TAKENOSHITA, SEIICHI

2013-01-01

255

Peripheral nervous system manifestations in a Sandhoff disease mouse model: nerve conduction, myelin structure, lipid analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Sandhoff disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by a mutation in the gene for the ?-subunit (Hexb gene) of ?-hexosaminidase A (??) and B (??). The ?-subunit together with the GM2 activator protein catabolize ganglioside GM2. This enzyme deficiency results in GM2 accumulation primarily in the central nervous system. To investigate how abnormal GM2 catabolism affects the peripheral nervous system in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease (Hexb-/-), we examined the electrophysiology of dissected sciatic nerves, structure of central and peripheral myelin, and lipid composition of the peripheral nervous system. Results We detected no significant difference in signal impulse conduction velocity or any consistent change in the frequency-dependent conduction slowing and failure between freshly dissected sciatic nerves from the Hexb+/- and Hexb-/- mice. The low-angle x-ray diffraction patterns from freshly dissected sciatic and optic nerves of Hexb+/- and Hexb-/- mice showed normal myelin periods; however, Hexb-/- mice displayed a ~10% decrease in the relative amount of compact optic nerve myelin, which is consistent with the previously established reduction in myelin-enriched lipids (cerebrosides and sulfatides) in brains of Hexb-/- mice. Finally, analysis of lipid composition revealed that GM2 content was present in the sciatic nerve of the Hexb-/- mice (undetectable in Hexb+/-). Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the absence of significant functional, structural, or compositional abnormalities in the peripheral nervous system of the murine model for Sandhoff disease, but do show the potential value of integrating multiple techniques to evaluate myelin structure and function in nervous system disorders. PMID:17623103

McNally, Melanie A; Baek, Rena C; Avila, Robin L; Seyfried, Thomas N; Strichartz, Gary R; Kirschner, Daniel A

2007-01-01

256

Generation of transgene-free mouse induced pluripotent stem cells using an excisable lentiviral system.  

PubMed

One goal of research using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) is to generate patient-specific cells which can be used to obtain multiple types of differentiated cells as disease models. Minimally or non-integrating methods to deliver the reprogramming genes are considered to be the best but they may be inefficient. Lentiviral delivery is currently among the most efficient methods but it integrates transgenes into the genome, which may affect the behavior of the iPSC if integration occurs into an important locus. Here we designed a polycistronic lentiviral construct containing four pluripotency genes with an EGFP selection marker. The cassette was excisable with the Cre-loxP system making possible the removal of the integrated transgenes from the genome. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts were reprogrammed using this viral system, rapidly resulting in large number of iPSC colonies. Based on the lowest EGFP expression level, one parental line was chosen for excision. Introduction of the Cre recombinase resulted in transgene-free iPSC subclones. The effect of the transgenes was assessed by comparing the parental iPSC with two of its transgene-free subclones. Both excised and non-excised iPSCs expressed standard pluripotency markers. The subclones obtained after Cre recombination were capable of differentiation in vitro, in contrast to the parental, non-excised cells and formed germ-line competent chimeras in vivo. PMID:24560743

Varga, E; Nemes, C; Davis, R P; Ujhelly, O; Klincumhom, N; Polgar, Z; Muenthaisong, S; Pirity, M K; Dinnyes, A

2014-04-01

257

Differential growth of the cell production systems in the lateral wall of the developing mouse telencephalon.  

PubMed Central

Three major cell production systems were identified in the lateral wall of the mouse telencephalon. These were morphologically evident as the medial and lateral elevations and the pallial crescent. Each was originally derived from a small, circumscribed, subset of ventricular cells. These formed the parent populations of large and proliferatively complex precursor pools which gave rise to the large numbers and considerable variety of neuron populations of the telencephalon. An attempt was made to identify the major neuron groups derived from each system by using the ventricular cell processes as a guide to the site of neuron origin. The proliferative changes occurring in the two elevations, the variety of their neuronal output, the early loss of a radial structure and the diversity of the final adult configurations were considered to represent a more complex series of changes than the corresponding events in the cortical tissue, which was generated from the pallial crescent where neurons accumulate within an adaptation of the original radial structure. It was considered that the number and complexity of the changes in the genome required to produce and organise such subcortical diversity was of a greater order of magnitude than those evident in the cortical areas. It was suggested that the genesis of the mammalian basal telencephalon should be considered as one of the major evolutionary achievements in the conglomerate of changes which occurred during the transition from the reptilian to the mammalian grade of organisation in the forebrain. Images Figs. 5-6 Fig. 8 PMID:4077718

Smart, I H

1985-01-01

258

Growth Arrest Specific 1 (GAS1) Is Abundantly Expressed in the Adult Mouse Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Growth arrest specific 1 (GAS1) is a pleiotropic protein that induces apoptosis and cell arrest in different tumors, but it is also involved in the development of the nervous system and other tissues and organs. This dual ability is likely caused by its capacity to interact both by inhibiting the intracellular signaling cascade induced by glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor and by facilitating the activity of the sonic hedgehog pathway. The presence of GAS1 mRNA has been described in adult mouse brain, and here we corroborated this observation. We then proceeded to determine the distribution of the protein in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We detected, by western blot analysis, expression of GAS1 in olfactory bulb, caudate-putamen, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, mesencephalon, medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and cervical spinal cord. To more carefully map the expression of GAS1, we performed double-label immunohistochemistry and noticed expression of GAS1 in neurons in all brain areas examined. We also observed expression of GAS1 in astroglial cells, albeit the pattern of expression was more restricted than that seen in neurons. Briefly, in the present article, we report the widespread distribution and cellular localization of the GAS1 native protein in adult mammalian CNS. PMID:23813868

Zarco, Natanael; Bautista, Elizabeth; Cuéllar, Manola; Vergara, Paula; Flores-Rodriguez, Paola; Aguilar-Roblero, Raúl

2013-01-01

259

Axonal regeneration of cultured mouse hippocampal neurons studied by an optical nano-surgery system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During development, the axons of neurons in the mammalian central nervous system lose their ability to regenerate after injury. In order to study the regeneration process, we developed a system integrating an optical tweezers and a laser dissector to manipulate the sample. A sub-nanosecond pulsed UVA laser was used to inflict a partial damage to the axon of mouse hippocampal neurons at early days in vitro. Partial axonal transections were performed in a highly controlled and reproducible way without affecting the regeneration process. Force spectroscopy measurements, during and after the ablation of the axon, were performed by optical tweezers with a bead attached to the neuronal membrane. Thus, the release of tension in the neurite could be analyzed in order to quantify the inflicted damage. After dissection, we monitored the viscoelastic properties of the axonal membrane, the cytoskeleton reorganization, and the dynamics of the newly formed growth cones during regeneration. In order to follow cytoskeleton dynamics in a long time window by tracking a bead attached to the neuron, we developed a real-time control of the microscope stage position with sub-millisecond and nanometer resolution. Axonal regeneration was documented by long-term (24-48 hours) bright-field live imaging using an optical microscope equipped with a custom-built cell culture incubator.

Difato, F.; Tsushima, H.; Pesce, M.; Guiggiani, A.; Benfenati, F.; Blau, A.; Basso, M.; Vassalli, M.; Chieregatti, E.

2012-02-01

260

Isolation of Plasma Membrane Vesicles from Mouse Placenta at Term and Measurement of System A and System ? Amino Acid Transporter Activity  

PubMed Central

Placental amino acid transport is essential for optimal fetal growth and development, with a reduced fetal provision of amino acids being implicated as a potential cause of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Understanding placental insufficiency related FGR has been aided by the development of mouse models that have features of the human disease. However, to take maximal advantage of these, methods are required to study placental function in the mouse. Here, we report a method to isolate plasma membrane vesicles from mouse placenta near-term and have used these to investigate two amino acid transporters, systems A and ?, the activities of which are reduced in human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles from FGR pregnancies. Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated at embryonic day 18 by a protocol involving homogenisation, MgCl2 precipitation and centrifugation. Vesicles were enriched 11.3 ± 0.5-fold in alkaline phosphatase activity as compared to initial homogenate, with minimal intracellular organelle contamination as judged by marker analyses. Cytochemistry revealed alkaline phosphatase was localised between trophoblast layers I and II, with intense reaction product deposited on the maternal-facing plasma membrane of layer II, suggesting that vesicles were derived from this trophoblast membrane. System A and system ? activity in mouse placental vesicles, measured as Na+-dependent uptake of 14C-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) and 3H-taurine respectively confirmed localisation of these transporters to the maternal-facing plasma membrane of layer II. Comparison to human placental MVM showed that system A activity was comparable at initial rate between species whilst system ? activity was significantly lower in mouse. This mirrored the lower expression of TAUT observed in mouse placental vesicles. We conclude that syncytiotrophoblast layer II-derived plasma membrane vesicles can be isolated and used to examine transporter function. PMID:19954844

Kusinski, L.C.; Jones, C.J.P.; Baker, P.N.; Sibley, C.P.; Glazier, J.D.

2010-01-01

261

The natural organosulfur compound dipropyltetrasulfide prevents HOCl-induced systemic sclerosis in the mouse  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study was to test the naturally occurring organosulfur compound dipropyltetrasulfide (DPTTS), found in plants, which has antibiotic and anticancer properties, as a treatment for HOCl-induced systemic sclerosis in the mouse. Methods The prooxidative, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic effects of DPTTS were evaluated ex vivo on fibroblasts from normal and HOCl mice. In vivo, the antifibrotic and immunomodulating properties of DPTTS were evaluated in the skin and lungs of HOCl mice. Results H2O2 production was higher in fibroblasts derived from HOCl mice than in normal fibroblasts (P?mouse through the selective killing of diseased fibroblasts and its immunomodulating properties. DPTTS may be a potential treatment for systemic sclerosis. PMID:24286210

2013-01-01

262

Production Response and Digestive Enzymatic Activity of the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) Intensively Pregrown in Microbial Heterotrophic and Autotrophic-Based Systems  

PubMed Central

Shrimp postlarvae were reared into different microcosm systems without water exchange; a traditional system based on simple fertilization to improve microalgae concentration (control), an autotrophic system (AS) based on the promotion of biofloc and biofilm by the addition of fertilizer and artificial substrates and a heterotrophic system (HS) based on the promotion of heterotrophic bacteria by the addition of nitrogenous and carbonaceous sources and artificial substrates. Better growth performance and survival were registered in shrimp from the AS and HS compared to the control. Feed conversion ratios were below 0.7 for all treatments, but AS and HS were significantly lower than the control. Regarding digestive performance, no significant differences were observed for trypsin, amylase and lipase activities among AS and control shrimp; however, shrimp from HS showed a higher trypsin and amylase activities, suggesting a higher digestive activity caused by the presence of microbial bioflocs. The presence of biofilm and bioflocs composed by either autotrophic or heterotrophic organisms in combination with formulated feed improved the growth performance and survival of shrimp. Apparently, such combination fits the nutritional requirements of shrimp. PMID:22649317

Becerra-Dórame, Manuel J.; Martínez-Porchas, Marcel; Martínez-Córdova, Luis R.; Rivas-Vega, Martha E.; Lopez-Elias, José A.; Porchas-Cornejo, Marco A.

2012-01-01

263

[Digestive involvement of scleroderma].  

PubMed

Digestive involvement in systemic sclerosis is frequent and serious, because it provides morbidity and fatality. From the pathophysiologic point of view, the first step could be Raynaud-associated neural dysfunction, followed by smooth muscle atrophy then irreversible muscle fibrosis. Oesophageal disorder is common with its main consequence: the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease which could run into peptic erosive oesophagitis. Oesophageal manometry is the main diagnostic tool, gastrointestinal endoscopy helps to assess oesophageal mucosal inflammation and its possible sequels. Gastric involvement is rarely recognized but it is frequent in case of systematic investigation as well as small intestinal involvement which may provide a lot of complications: malabsorption, pseudoobstruction, bacterial overgrowth. At colonic level, anorectal involvement is frequent and leads to fecal incontinence and rectal prolapse. Reynold's syndrome is a special case which associates systemic sclerosis with primary biliary cirrhosis. The symptomatic treatments must be systematic and improve the disease's overall prognosis. PMID:12532866

Ponge, Thierry; Bruley des Varannes, Stanislas

2002-11-01

264

A Compartmentalized Mathematical Model of the ?1-Adrenergic Signaling System in Mouse Ventricular Myocytes  

PubMed Central

The ?1-adrenergic signaling system plays an important role in the functioning of cardiac cells. Experimental data shows that the activation of this system produces inotropy, lusitropy, and chronotropy in the heart, such as increased magnitude and relaxation rates of [Ca2+]i transients and contraction force, and increased heart rhythm. However, excessive stimulation of ?1-adrenergic receptors leads to heart dysfunction and heart failure. In this paper, a comprehensive, experimentally based mathematical model of the ?1-adrenergic signaling system for mouse ventricular myocytes is developed, which includes major subcellular functional compartments (caveolae, extracaveolae, and cytosol). The model describes biochemical reactions that occur during stimulation of ?1-adrenoceptors, changes in ionic currents, and modifications of Ca2+ handling system. Simulations describe the dynamics of major signaling molecules, such as cyclic AMP and protein kinase A, in different subcellular compartments; the effects of inhibition of phosphodiesterases on cAMP production; kinetics and magnitudes of phosphorylation of ion channels, transporters, and Ca2+ handling proteins; modifications of action potential shape and duration; magnitudes and relaxation rates of [Ca2+]i transients; changes in intracellular and transmembrane Ca2+ fluxes; and [Na+]i fluxes and dynamics. The model elucidates complex interactions of ionic currents upon activation of ?1-adrenoceptors at different stimulation frequencies, which ultimately lead to a relatively modest increase in action potential duration and significant increase in [Ca2+]i transients. In particular, the model includes two subpopulations of the L-type Ca2+ channels, in caveolae and extracaveolae compartments, and their effects on the action potential and [Ca2+]i transients are investigated. The presented model can be used by researchers for the interpretation of experimental data and for the developments of mathematical models for other species or for pathological conditions. PMID:24586529

Bondarenko, Vladimir E.

2014-01-01

265

Effects of steam-treated rice straw feeding on growth, digestibility, and plasma volatile fatty acids of goats under different housing systems.  

PubMed

In order to use rice straw as forage in livestock feeding, the effects of steam-treated rice straw (at 15.5 kgf/cm(2) for 120 s) feeding on growth performance, plasma volatile fatty acid profile, and nutrient digestibility of goats were determined. Twenty male goats (18.69?±?0.34 kg) were used in an 84-day trial. The goats were divided into four groups of five goats each to receive steam-treated (STRS) or untreated (UTRS) rice straw diet under closed house (CH) and open house (OH) systems. The results revealed that the goats fed with STRS had significantly higher dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility; similarly, the average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were higher for STRS groups under both CH and OH systems than those for UTRS. The plasma protein and insulin in STRS and cholesterol in UTRS groups was higher (P??0.05) at 30 days. The plasma amylase, lipase, T3, T4 and glucagon at 30 and 60 days were not different (P?>?0.05) among the groups. The plasma acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total volatile fatty acid were higher (P??0.05) on these parameters. It could be concluded that steam treatment of rice straw at 15.5 kgf/cm(2) for 120 s increased apparent nutrient digestibility, hence increased the growth and feed efficiency of growing goats. PMID:25277493

Muhammad, Naeem; Nasir, Rajput; Li, Dong; Lili, Zhang; Tian, Wang

2014-12-01

266

Hypoxia induces dysregulation of local renin-angiotensin system in mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) influences cancer biology and is frequently dysregulated in malignancy. However, regulation of tumor local RAS remains poorly understood. Hypoxia is a hallmark of solid tumors and affects nearly every major aspect of cancer biology. Previous studies have shown that hypoxia can regulate RAS expression in somatic tissues and cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of hypoxia on local RAS expression in mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. For hypoxia treatment, LLC cells were cultured in a hypoxia incubator or treated with hypoxia-mimetic cobalt chloride. Hypoxia up-regulated angiotensin II, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), and down-regulated ACE2 and angiotensin II type 2 receptor in LLC cells. Captopril, an ACE inhibitor, and losartan, an AT1R blocker, decreased expression of ACE and AT1R, but increased expression of ACE2 and angiotensin II type 2 receptor in LLC cells under hypoxia. Captopril and losartan also suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in LLC cells under hypoxia. These findings suggest that hypoxia induces dysregulation of local RAS in LLC cells. The pathophysiological importance of hypoxia-induced RAS dysregulation and potentially therapeutic effects of RAS inhibitors on hypoxic tumor cells should be further examined. PMID:25511041

Fan, L; Feng, Y; Wan, H Y; Ni, L; Qian, Y R; Guo, Y; Xiang, Y; Li, Q Y

2014-01-01

267

Expression of the mouse PR domain protein Prdm8 in the developing central nervous system.  

PubMed

It was first shown in the PR (PRDI-BF1 and RIZ homology) domain family proteins that the PR domain has homology to the SET (Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste and Trithorax) domain, a catalytic domain of the histone lysine methyltransferases. Recently, there are many reports that the PR domain proteins have important roles in development and/or cell differentiation. In this report, we show the expression patterns of one of the mouse PR domain proteins, Prdm8, in the developing central nervous system. In the developing retina, Prdm8 expression was detected in postmitotic neurons in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer, and its expression became restricted predominantly to the rod bipolar cells when retinogenesis was completed. In the developing spinal cord, Prdm8 was expressed first in the progenitor populations of ventral interneurons and motor neurons, and later in a subpopulation of interneurons. In the developing brain, Prdm8 expression was observed in postmitotic neurons in the intermediate zone and the cortical plate. In the postnatal brain, Prdm8 was expressed mainly in layer 4 neurons of the cerebral cortex. These results show that Prdm8 expression is tightly regulated in a spatio-temporal manner during neural development and mainly restricted to postmitotic neurons, except in the spinal cord. PMID:19616129

Komai, Tae; Iwanari, Hiroko; Mochizuki, Yasuhiro; Hamakubo, Takao; Shinkai, Yoichi

2009-10-01

268

Central CRF system perturbation in an Alzheimer's disease knockin mouse model.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is often accompanied by changes in mood as well as increases in circulating cortisol levels, suggesting that regulation of the stress responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is disturbed. Here, we show that amyloid precursor protein (APP) is endogenously expressed in important limbic, hypothalamic, and midbrain nuclei that regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Furthermore, in a knockin mouse model of AD that expresses familial AD (FAD) mutations of both APP with humanized amyloid beta (hA?), and presenilin 1 (PS1), in their endogenous patterns (APP/hA?/PS1 animals), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) levels are increased in key stress-related nuclei, resting corticosteroid levels are elevated, and animals display increased anxiety-related behavior. Endocrine and behavioral phenotypes can be normalized by loss of 1 copy of CRF receptor type-1 (Crfr1), consistent with a perturbation of central CRF signaling in APP/hA?/PS1 animals. However, reductions in anxiety and corticosteroid levels conferred by heterozygosity of CRF receptor type-1 do not improve a deficit in working memory observed in APP/hA?/PS1 mice, suggesting that perturbations of the CRF system are not the primary cause of decreased cognitive performance. PMID:22336193

Guo, Qinxi; Zheng, Hui; Justice, Nicholas John

2012-11-01

269

Deletion of Pten in the mouse enteric nervous system induces ganglioneuromatosis and mimics intestinal pseudoobstruction.  

PubMed

Intestinal ganglioneuromatosis is a benign proliferation of nerve ganglion cells, nerve fibers, and supporting cells of the enteric nervous system (ENS) that can result in abnormally large enteric neuronal cells (ENCs) in the myenteric plexus and chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO). As phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a phosphatase that is critical for controlling cell growth, proliferation, and death, we investigated the role of PTEN in the ENS by generating mice with an embryonic, ENC-selective deletion within the Pten locus. Mutant mice died 2 to 3 weeks after birth, with clinical signs of CIPO and hyperplasia and hypertrophy of ENCs resulting from increased activity of the PI3K/PTEN-AKT-S6K signaling pathway. Further analysis revealed that PTEN was only expressed in developing mouse embryonic ENCs from E15.5 and that the rate of ENC proliferation decreased once PTEN was expressed. Specific deletion of the Pten gene in ENCs therefore induced hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the later stages of embryogenesis. This phenotype was reversed by administration of a pharmacological inhibitor of AKT. In some human ganglioneuromatosis forms of CIPO, PTEN expression was found to be abnormally low and S6 phosphorylation increased. Our study thus reveals that loss of PTEN disrupts development of the ENS and identifies the PI3K/PTEN-AKT-S6K signaling pathway as a potential therapeutic target for ganglioneuromatosis forms of CIPO. PMID:19884655

Puig, Isabel; Champeval, Delphine; De Santa Barbara, Pascal; Jaubert, Francis; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Larue, Lionel

2009-12-01

270

Renin–angiotensin system regulates neurodegeneration in a mouse model of normal tension glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Glaucoma, one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness, is characterized by progressive degeneration of optic nerves and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In the mammalian retina, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is expressed in neural cells, including RGCs, and the loss of EAAC1 leads to RGC degeneration without elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). In the present study, we found that expressions of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are increased in RGCs and retinal Müller glia in EAAC1-deficient (KO) mice. The orally active AT1-R antagonist candesartan suppressed TLR4 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions in the EAAC1 KO mouse retina. Sequential in vivo retinal imaging and electrophysiological analysis revealed that treatment with candesartan was effective for RGC protection in EAAC1 KO mice without affecting IOP. In cultured Müller glia, candesartan suppressed LPS-induced iNOS production by inhibiting the TLR4-apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 pathway. These results suggest that the renin–angiotensin system is involved in the innate immune responses in both neural and glial cells, which accelerate neural cell death. Our findings raise intriguing possibilities for the management of glaucoma by utilizing widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of high blood pressure, in combination with conventional treatments to lower IOP. PMID:25032856

Semba, K; Namekata, K; Guo, X; Harada, C; Harada, T; Mitamura, Y

2014-01-01

271

A Self-regulatory System of Interlinked Signaling Feedback Loops Controls Mouse Limb Patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developmental pathways need to be robust against environmental and genetic variation to enable reliable morphogenesis. Here, we take a systems biology approach to explain how robustness is achieved in the developing mouse limb, a classical model of organogenesis. By combining quantitative genetics with computational modeling we established a computational model of multiple interlocked feedback modules, involving sonic hedgehog (SHH) morphogen, fibroblast growth factor (FGFs) signaling, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and its antagonist GREM1. Earlier modeling work had emphasized the versatile kinetic characteristics of interlocked feedback loops operating at different time scales. Here we develop and then validate a similar computational model to show how BMP4 first initiates and SHH then propagates feedback in the network through differential transcriptional regulation of Grem1 to control digit specification. This switch occurs by linking a fast BMP4/GREM1 module to a slower SHH/GREM1/FGF feedback loop. Simulated gene expression profiles modeled normal limb development as well those of single-gene knockouts. Sensitivity analysis showed how the model was robust and insensitive to variability in parameters. A surprising prediction of the model was that an early Bmp4 signal is essential to kick-start Grem1 expression and the digit specification system. We experimentally validated the prediction using inducible alleles and showed that early, but not late, removal of Bmp4 dramatically disrupted limb development. Sensitivity analysis showed how robustness emerges from this circuitry. This study shows how modeling and computation can help us understand how self-regulatory signaling networks achieve robust regulation of limb development, by exploiting interconnectivity among the three signaling pathways. We expect that similar computational analyses will shed light on the origins of robustness in other developmental systems, and I will discuss some recent examples from our ongoing research on developmental patterning.

Benazet, Jean-Denis; Bischofberger, Mirko; Tiecke, Eva; Gonalves, Alexandre; Martin, James F.; Zuniga, Aime; Naef, Felix; Zeller, Rolf

272

(Methane digester). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the grant was to construct and operate a methane digester for dairy manure involving the latest state-of-the-art technics. The first step taken was to empty out the existing digester to evaluate its performance and to gain ideas of how to build the next digester so it would operate more efficiently. Next, the design criteria was set up in order to eliminate some problems involved with the first digester and also new ideas as to how to build the next one without a protective building and testing simplified construction technics. After this the digester construction was started with the completion date in late January. The digester was then filled and operated at different temperatures attempting to achieve the optimum operating range.

Waybright, R.C.

1981-01-01

273

Pyridoxine Enhances Cell Proliferation and Neuroblast Differentiation by Upregulating the GABAergic System in the Mouse Dentate Gyrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) on cell death, cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and the GABAergic system in the mouse dentate gyrus. We administered\\u000a pyridoxine (350 mg\\/kg intraperitoneally) to 8 week old mice twice a day for 14 days and sacrificed them at 10 weeks of age.\\u000a Pyridoxine treatment did not induce neuronal death or activate microglia in the dentate gyrus, while

Dae Young Yoo; Woosuk Kim; Dae Won Kim; Ki-Yeon Yoo; Jin Young Chung; Hwa Young Youn; Yeo Sung Yoon; Soo Young Choi; Moo-Ho Won; In Koo Hwang

2011-01-01

274

The Sry-related HMG box-containing gene Sox6 is expressed in the adult testis and developing nervous system of the mouse.  

PubMed Central

We have cloned and sequenced a full-length cDNA for the HMG box-containing, SRY-related gene Sox6 from mouse. The deduced protein sequence of Sox6 has considerable homology with that of the previously determined Sox5 sequence. It seems likely that these genes have diverged more recently than other members of the SOX gene family, although the two genes map to different chromosomes in the mouse. In common with Sox5, Sox6 is highly expressed in the adult mouse testis and the HMG domains of both proteins bind to the sequence 5'-AACAAT-3'. This suggests that the two genes may have overlapping functions in the regulation of gene expression during spermatogenesis in the adult mouse. However, Sox6 may have an additional role in the mouse embryo, where it is specifically expressed in the developing nervous system. Images PMID:7567444

Connor, F; Wright, E; Denny, P; Koopman, P; Ashworth, A

1995-01-01

275

Immunohistochemical Localization of the Aquaporins AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, and AQP5 in the Mouse Respiratory System  

PubMed Central

Aquaporins are membrane water channel proteins that function mainly in water transfer across cellular membranes. In our present study, we investigated the immunohistochemical distribution of aquaporin 1 (AQP1), AQP3, AQP4, and AQP5 in the mouse respiratory system by immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase, and immunoelectron microscopy. AQP3, AQP4, and AQP5 are expressed in epithelial cells, whereas AQP1 is expressed in subepithelial connective tissues and capillaries. In the airway surface epithelia from the nasal cavity to the intrapulmonary bronchioles, AQP5 was found to be mainly localized to the luminal side and both AQP3 and AQP4 to the abluminal side. In the alveolar epithelium, AQP5 is localized to the apical membranes of both type I and type II alveolar cells. Compared with the previous studies on the rat respiratory system, in which AQP5 is restricted to the alveolar type I cells and absent from the airway surface epithelia, we found that AQP5 in the mouse is much more widely distributed throughout the surface epithelia. These results suggest that AQP5 has a critical role in water-handling, such as the maintenance of airway surface liquid and clearance of alveolar fluid in the mouse respiratory system. PMID:20126569

Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Hata, Hidekazu; Ozawa, Hitoshi; Takata, Kuniaki

2009-01-01

276

Digestive and feeding characteristics of the chondrosteans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  Structure and function of the digestive system and feeding characteristics of the chondrosteans are reviewed. Although the\\u000a group exhibits a wide diversity of feeding habits including piscivory, benthophagy, and planktivory, they are principally\\u000a carnivores throughout their life history. Examination of digestive system structure reveals the basic structure to be similar\\u000a among the species with some modification to accomodate the different

Randal K. Buddington; Jay P. Christofferson

1985-01-01

277

Integration of Ecogpt and SV40 early region sequences into human chromosome 17: a dominant selection system in whole cell and microcell human-mouse hybrids.  

PubMed Central

The dominant selectable gene, Ecogpt, has been introduced, by the calcium phosphate precipitation technique, into normal human fibroblasts, along with the SV40 early region genes. In one transfectant clone, integration of these sequences into human chromosome 17 was demonstrated by the construction of human-mouse somatic cell hybrids, selected for by growth in medium containing mycophenolic acid and xanthine. A whole cell hybrid, made between the human transfectant and a mouse L cell, was used as donor of the Ecogpt-carrying human chromosome 17 to 'tribrids' growing in suspension, made by whole cell fusion between a mouse thymoma cell line, and to microcell hybrids made with a mouse teratocarcinoma cell line. Two tribrids contained karyotypically normal human chromosomes 17 and a small number of other human chromosomes, while a third tribrid had a portion of the long arm of chromosome 17 translocated to mouse as its only human genetic material. Two independent microcell hybrids contained a normal chromosome 17 and no other human chromosome on a mouse teratocarcinoma background. These experiments demonstrate the ability to construct human-mouse somatic cell hybrids using a dominant selection system. By applying this approach it should be possible to select for a wide range of different human chromosomes in whole cell and microcell hybrids. In particular, transfer of single human chromosomes to mouse teratocarcinoma cells will allow examination of developmentally regulated human gene sequences after differentiation of such hybrids. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:11892815

Tunnacliffe, A; Parkar, M; Povey, S; Bengtsson, B O; Stanley, K; Solomon, E; Goodfellow, P

1983-01-01

278

Trophicit des muqueuses digestives D. BALAS Franoise SENEGAS-BALAS Marie-Jos BASTIE  

E-print Network

action on the digestive system. This paper only discusses long-term trophic regulation in three organsTrophicité des muqueuses digestives D. BALAS Françoise SENEGAS-BALAS Marie-José BASTIE Laboratoire. Summary. Trophicity ofthe digestive mucosae. The morphological and functional integrity of the digestive

Boyer, Edmond

279

Nanobiocatalysis for protein digestion in proteomic analysis  

SciTech Connect

The process of protein digestion is a critical step for successful protein identification in the bottom-up proteomic analysis. To substitute the present practice of in-solution protein digestion, which is long, tedious, and difficult to automate, a lot of efforts have been dedicated for the development of a rapid, recyclable and automated digestion system. Recent advances of nanobiocatalytic approaches have improved the performance of protein digestion by using various nanomaterials such as nanoporous materials, magnetic nanoparticles, and polymer nanofibers. Especially, the unprecedented success of trypsin stabilization in the form of trypsin-coated nanofibers, showing no activity decrease under repeated uses for one year and retaining good resistance to proteolysis, has demonstrated its great potential to be employed in the development of automated, high-throughput, and on-line digestion systems. This review discusses recent developments of nanobiocatalytic approaches for the improved performance of protein digestion in speed, detection sensitivity, recyclability, and trypsin stability. In addition, we also introduce the protein digestions under unconventional energy inputs for protein denaturation and the development of microfluidic enzyme reactors that can benefit from recent successes of these nanobiocatalytic approaches.

Kim, Jungbae; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Smith, Richard D.

2010-02-01

280

Nanobiocatalysis for protein digestion in proteomic analysis  

PubMed Central

The process of protein digestion is a critical step for successful protein identification in the bottom-up proteomic analysis. To substitute the present practice of in-solution protein digestion, which is long, tedious, and difficult to automate, a lot of efforts have been dedicated for the development of a rapid, recyclable and automated digestion system. Recent advances of nanobiocatalytic approaches have improved the performance of protein digestion by using various nanomaterials such as nanoporous materials, magnetic nanoparticles, and polymer nanofibers. Especially, the unprecedented success of trypsin stabilization in the form of trypsin-coated nanofibers, showing no activity decrease under repeated uses for one year and retaining good resistance to proteolysis, has demonstrated its great potential to be employed in the development of automated, high-throughput, and on-line digestion systems. This review discusses recent developments of nanobiocatalytic approaches for the improved performance of protein digestion in speed, detection sensitivity, recyclability, and trypsin stability. In addition, we also introduce the protein digestions under unconventional energy inputs for protein denaturation and the development of microfluidic enzyme reactors that can benefit from recent successes of these nanobiocatalytic approaches. PMID:19953546

Kim, Jungbae; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Smith, Richard D.

2010-01-01

281

An interspecies conserved motif of the mouse immune system-released activating agent (ISRAA) induces proliferative effects on human cells  

PubMed Central

We have recently described an immune system-released activating agent (ISRAA) as a nervous system-induced factor that stimulates immune responses in the mouse spleen. However, the human ISRAA has not yet been identified. In this study, we examined the effects of the mouse ISRAA protein on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), to observe if the biological activity of this molecule is consistent between the two different species. Mouse ISRAA demonstrated dose-dependent dualistic effects on human cells, as 5 ?g exhibited positive apoptosis and 50 pg exhibited significant proliferation (P<0.05). Furthermore, immunosuppressed cells from patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy demonstrated significant proliferation to 50 pg ISRAA (P<0.05). Studies to compare sequences in different species revealed a preserved motif, exhibiting 72% similarity with the interspecies conserved signal peptide motif of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1). A mutant ISRAA lacking this motif was produced and tested for its biological effects. The mutant ISRAA demonstrated neither apoptotic nor proliferative effects compared with wild type. Therefore, an interspecies conserved domain of ISRAA constitutes the active site of the molecule, and its effects on immunocompromised cells should be investigated for future therapies in the treatment of immunosuppressive disorders. PMID:24821660

TAHA, SAFA; FATHALLAH, MOHAMED DAHMANI; BAKHIET, MOIZ

2014-01-01

282

An interspecies conserved motif of the mouse immune system-released activating agent (ISRAA) induces proliferative effects on human cells.  

PubMed

We have recently described an immune system-released activating agent (ISRAA) as a nervous system-induced factor that stimulates immune responses in the mouse spleen. However, the human ISRAA has not yet been identified. In this study, we examined the effects of the mouse ISRAA protein on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), to observe if the biological activity of this molecule is consistent between the two different species. Mouse ISRAA demonstrated dose-dependent dualistic effects on human cells, as 5 µg exhibited positive apoptosis and 50 pg exhibited significant proliferation (P<0.05). Furthermore, immunosuppressed cells from patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy demonstrated significant proliferation to 50 pg ISRAA (P<0.05). Studies to compare sequences in different species revealed a preserved motif, exhibiting 72% similarity with the interspecies conserved signal peptide motif of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1). A mutant ISRAA lacking this motif was produced and tested for its biological effects. The mutant ISRAA demonstrated neither apoptotic nor proliferative effects compared with wild type. Therefore, an interspecies conserved domain of ISRAA constitutes the active site of the molecule, and its effects on immunocompromised cells should be investigated for future therapies in the treatment of immunosuppressive disorders. PMID:24821660

Taha, Safa; Fathallah, Mohamed Dahmani; Bakhiet, Moiz

2014-07-01

283

Neuroanatomical Assessment of the Integrin ?3 Mouse Model Related to Autism and the Serotonin System Using High Resolution MRI  

PubMed Central

The integrin?3 (ITG?3) gene has been associated with both autism and the serotonin system. The purpose of this study was to examine the volumetric differences in the brain of an ITG?3 homozygous knockout mouse model compared with a corresponding wild-type mouse using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and detailed statistical analyses. The most striking difference found was an 11% reduction in total brain volume. Moreover, 32 different regions were found to have significantly different relative volumes (percentage total brain volume) in the ITG?3 mouse. A number of interesting differences relevant to autism were discovered including a smaller corpus callosum volume and bilateral decreases in the hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum. Relative volume increases were also found in the frontal and parieto-temporal lobes as well as in the amygdala. Particularly intriguing were the changes in the lateral wings of the dorsal raphe nuclei since that nucleus is so integral to the development of many different brain regions and the serotonin system in general. PMID:22557981

Ellegood, Jacob; Henkelman, R. Mark; Lerch, Jason P.

2012-01-01

284

Expression and function of NIK- and IKK2-binding protein (NIBP) in mouse enteric nervous system  

PubMed Central

Background NIBP/TRAPPC9 is expressed in brain neurons, and human NIBP mutations are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. The cellular distribution and function of NIBP in the enteric nervous system (ENS) remain unknown. Methods Western blot and RT-PCR analysis were used respectively to identify the protein and mRNA expression of NIBP and other neuronal markers. Multilabeled immunofluorescent microscopy and confocal image analysis were used to examine the cellular distribution of NIBP-like immunoreactivity (IR) in whole mount intestine. Enteric neuronal cell line (ENC) was infected with lentivirus carrying NIBP or its shRNA expression vectors and treated with vehicle or TNF?. Key Results NIBP is expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in different regions and layers of the mouse intestine. NIBP-like-IR was co-localized with various neuronal markers, but not with glial, smooth muscular, or ICC markers. A small population of NIBP-expressing cells and fibers in extra-ganglionic and intra-ganglionic area were negative for pan-neuronal markers HuD or Peripherin. Relatively high NIBP-like-IR was found in 35-44% of myenteric neurons and 9-10% of submucosal neurons. Approximately 98%, 87% and 43% of these relatively high NIBP-expressing neurons were positive for ChAT, nNOS and Calretinin, respectively. NIBP shRNA knockdown in ENC inhibited TNF?-induced NFkB activation and neuronal differentiation, whereas NIBP overexpression promoted it. Conclusions & Inferences NIBP is extensively expressed in the ENS with relatively high level in a subpopulation of enteric neurons. Various NIBP expression levels in different neurons may represent dynamic trafficking or posttranslational modification of NIBP in some functionally-active neurons and ultimately regulate ENS plasticity. PMID:24011459

Zhang, Yonggang; Bitner, Daniel; Pontes Filho, Adalto Alfredo; Li, Fang; Liu, Shu; Wang, Hong; Yang, Fan; Adhikari, Sam; Gordon, Jennifer; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Hu, Wenhui

2014-01-01

285

TRAIL Mediates Liver Injury by the Innate Immune System in the Bile Duct–Ligated Mouse  

PubMed Central

The contribution of tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a death ligand expressed by cells of the innate immune system, to cholestatic liver injury has not been explored. Our aim was to ascertain if TRAIL contributes to liver injury in the bile duct–ligated (BDL) mouse. C57/BL6 wild-type (wt), TRAIL heterozygote (TRAIL+/?), and TRAIL knockout (TRAIL?/?) mice were used for these studies. Liver injury and fibrosis were examined 7 and 14 days after BDL, respectively. Hepatic TRAIL messenger RNA(mRNA) was 6-fold greater in BDL animals versus sham-operated wt animals (P < 0.01). The increased hepatic TRAIL expression was accompanied by an increase in liver accumulation of natural killer 1.1 (NK 1.1)–positive NK and natural killer T (NKT) cells, the predominant cell types expressing TRAIL. Depletion of NK 1.1–positive cells reduced hepatic TRAIL mRNA expression and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values. Consistent with a role for NK/NKT cells in this model of liver injury, stress ligands necessary for their recognition of target cells were also up-regulated in hepatocytes following BDL. Compared to sham-operated wt mice, BDL mice displayed a 13-fold increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and an 11-fold increase in caspase 3/7–positive hepatocytes (P < 0.01). The number of TUNEL and caspase 3/7–positive cells was reduced by >80% in BDL TRAIL knockout animals (P < 0.05). Likewise, liver histology, number of bile infarcts, serum ALT values, hepatic fibrosis, and animal survival were also improved in BDL TRAIL?/? animals as compared to wt animals. Conclusion These observations support a pivotal role for TRAIL in cholestatic liver injury mediated by NK 1.1–positive NK/NKT cells. PMID:18220275

Kahraman, Alisan; Barreyro, Fernando J.; Bronk, Steven F.; Werneburg, Nathan W.; Mott, Justin L.; Akazawa, Yuko; Masuoka, Howard C.; Howe, Charles L.; Gores, Gregory J.

2008-01-01

286

Nonlinear optical techniques for imaging and manipulating the mouse central nervous system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spinal cord of vertebrates serves as the conduit for somatosensory information and motor control, as well as being the locus of neural circuits that govern fast reflexes and patterned behaviors, such as walking in mammals or swimming in fish. Consequently, pathologies of the spinal cord -such as spinal cord injury (SCI)- lead to loss of motor control and sensory perception, with accompanying decline in life expectancy and quality of life. Despite the devastating effects of these diseases, few therapies exist to substantially ameliorate patient outcome. In part, studies of spinal cord pathology have been limited by the inability to perform in vivo imaging at the level of cellular processes. The focus of this thesis is to present the underlying theory for and demonstration of novel multi-photon microscopy (MPM) and optical manipulation techniques as they apply to studies the mouse central nervous system (CNS), with an emphasis on the spinal cord. The scientific findings which have resulted from the implementation of these techniques are also presented. In particular, we have demonstrated that third harmonic generation is a dye-free method of imaging CNS myelin, a fundamental constituent of the spinal cord that is difficult to label using exogenous dyes and/or transgenic constructs. Since gaining optical access to the spinal cord is a prerequisite for spinal cord imaging, we review our development of a novel spinal cord imaging chamber and surgical procedure which allowed us to image for multiple weeks following implantation without the need for repeated surgeries. We also have used MPM to characterize spinal venous blood flow before and after point occlusions. We review a novel nonlinear microscopy technique that may serve to show optical interfaces in three dimensions inside scattering tissue. Finally, we discuss a model and show results of optoporation, a means of transfecting cells with genetic constructs. Brief reviews of MPM and SCI are also presented.

Farrar, Matthew John

287

Neuropathic Pain Activates the Endogenous ? Opioid System in Mouse Spinal Cord and Induces Opioid Receptor Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Release of endogenous dynorphin opioids within the spinal cord after partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL) is known to contribute to the neuropathic pain processes. Using a phosphoselective antibody [? opioid receptor (KOR-P)] able to detect the serine 369 phosphorylated form of the KOR, we determined possible sites of dynorphin action within the spinal cord after pSNL. KOR-P immunoreactivity (IR) was markedly increased in the L4 –L5 spinal dorsal horn of wild-type C57BL/6 mice (7–21 d) after lesion, but not in mice pretreated with the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (norBNI). In addition, knock-out mice lacking prodynorphin, KOR, or G-protein receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) did not show significant increases in KOR-P IR after pSNL. KOR-P IR was colocalized in both GABAergic neurons and GFAP-positive astrocytes in both ipsilateral and contralateral spinal dorsal horn. Consistent with sustained opioid release, KOR knock-out mice developed significantly increased tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in both the early (first week) and late (third week) interval after lesion. Similarly, mice pretreated with norBNI showed enhanced hyperalgesia and allodynia during the 3 weeks after pSNL. Because sustained activation of opioid receptors might induce tolerance, we measured the antinociceptive effect of the ? agonist U50,488 using radiant heat applied to the ipsilateral hindpaw, and we found that agonist potency was significantly decreased 7 d after pSNL. In contrast, neither prodynorphin nor GRK3 knock-out mice showed U50,488 tolerance after pSNL. These findings suggest that pSNL induced a sustained release of endogenous prodynorphin-derived opioid peptides that activated an anti-nociceptive KOR system in mouse spinal cord. Thus, endogenous dynorphin had both pronociceptive and antinociceptive actions after nerve injury and induced GRK3-mediated opioid tolerance. PMID:15140929

Xu, Mei; Petraschka, Michael; McLaughlin, Jay P.; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Caron, Marc G.; Lefkowitz, Robert J.; Czyzyk, Traci A.; Pintar, John E.; Terman, Gregory W.; Chavkin, Charles

2008-01-01

288

Central nervous system dysfunction in a mouse model of FA2H deficiency  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) is responsible for the synthesis of myelin galactolipids containing hydroxy fatty acid (hFA) as the N-acyl chain. Mutations in the FA2H gene cause leukodystrophy, spastic paraplegia, and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Using the Cre-lox system, we developed two types of mouse mutants, Fa2h?/? mice (Fa2h deleted in all cells by germline deletion) and Fa2hflox/flox Cnp1-Cre mice (Fa2h deleted only in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells). We found significant demyelination, profound axonal loss, and abnormally enlarged axons in the CNS of Fa2h?/? mice at 12 months of age, while structure and function of peripheral nerves were largely unaffected. Fa2h?/? mice also exhibited histological and functional disruption in the cerebellum at 12 months of age. In a time course study, significant deterioration of cerebellar function was first detected at 7 months of age. Further behavioral assessments in water T-maze and Morris water maze tasks revealed significant deficits in spatial learning and memory at 4 months of age. These data suggest that various regions of the CNS are functionally compromised in young adult Fa2h?/? mice. The cerebellar deficits in 12-month-old Fa2hflox/flox Cnp1-Cre mice were indistinguishable from Fa2h?/?mice, indicating that these phenotypes likely stem from the lack of myelin hFA-galactolipids. In contrast, Fa2hflox/flox Cnp1-Cre mice did not show reduced performance in water maze tasks, indicating that oligodendrocytes are not involved in the learning and memory deficits found in Fa2h?/? mice. These findings provide the first evidence that FA2H has an important function outside of oligodendrocytes in the CNS. PMID:21491498

Potter, Kathleen A.; Kern, Michael J.; Fullbright, George; Bielawski, Jacek; Scherer, Steven S.; Yum, Sabrina W.; Li, Jian J.; Cheng, Hua; Han, Xianlin; Venkata, Jagadish Kummetha; Khan, P. Akbar Ali; Rohrer, Bärbel; Hama, Hiroko

2011-01-01

289

Maternal protein deprivation: changes in systemic renin-angiotensin system of the mouse fetus.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that maternal protein deprivation during gestation results in changes in expression of the systemic renin-angiotensin system in fetal mice. Fetal weight was decreased significantly as a consequence of 50% maternal protein deprivation during second half of gestation. In fetal liver, angiotensinogen protein expression was reduced significantly despite a significant increase in messenger RNA (mRNA). In fetal kidneys, both mRNA and protein levels of renin were increased significantly. In the lungs, we observed a decrease in both angiotensin-converting enzyme I and II mRNA expression, whereas protein expression of both isoforms was increased significantly. The fetal heart showed significant increases in expression of angiotensin II type 1 (AT-1) and type 2 (AT-2) receptors mRNA. Protein expression of AT-1 receptors increased, while that of AT-2 receptors decreased. We conclude that maternal low-protein diet during gestation leads to significant changes in expression of the systemic renin-angiotensin system in fetal mice and may be important in the genesis of hypertension in the adult. PMID:19516079

Goyal, Ravi; Galffy, Andrew; Field, Stephanie A; Gheorghe, Ciprian P; Mittal, Ashwani; Longo, Lawrence D

2009-09-01

290

Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although nearly any SDS-PAGE system can be utilized upstream of an LC-MS analysis, the DPCF  

E-print Network

Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although nearly any SDS-PAGE system can be utilized upstream of an LC-MS analysis, the DPCF recommends Invitrogen's NuPAGE Bis-Tris mini-gel system. A good general purpose gel covering a large MW range (6-200 k

Richardson, David

291

Light microscopic autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse central nervous system  

SciTech Connect

Much work has been done on opioid systems in the rat CNS. Although the mouse is widely used in pharmacological studies of opioid action, little has been done to characterize opioid systems in this species. In the present study the distribution of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse CNS was examined using a quantitative in vitro autoradiography procedure. Tritiated dihydromorphine was used to visualize mu sites and (3H-d-Ala2-d-Leu5)enkephalin with a low concentration of morphine was used to visualize delta sites. Mu and delta site localizations in the mouse are very similar to those previously described in the rat (Goodman, R.R., S.H. Snyder, M.J. Kuhar, and W.S. Young, 3d (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:6239-6243), with certain exceptions and additions. Mu and delta sites were observed in sensory processing areas, limbic system, extrapyramidal motor system, and cranial parasympathetic system. Differential distributions of mu and delta sites were noted in many areas. Mu sites were prominent in laminae I, IV, and VI of the neocortex, in patches in the striatum, and in the ventral pallidum, nucleus accumbens, medial and midline thalamic nuclei, medial habenular nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, and laminae I and II of the spinal cord. In contrast, delta sites were prominent in all laminae of the neocortex, olfactory tubercle, diffusely throughout the striatum, and in the basal, lateral, and cortical nuclei of the amygdala. The determination of the differential distributions of opioid binding sites should prove useful in suggesting anatomical substrates for the actions of opiates and opioids.

Moskowitz, A.S.; Goodman, R.R.

1984-05-01

292

Distinct human and mouse membrane trafficking systems for sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3.  

PubMed

The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system. PMID:25029362

Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

2014-01-01

293

Distinct Human and Mouse Membrane Trafficking Systems for Sweet Taste Receptors T1r2 and T1r3  

PubMed Central

The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system. PMID:25029362

Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

2014-01-01

294

CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE L5178Y/TK+/- YIELDS TK-/- MOUSE LYMPHOMA MUTAGENESIS ASSAY SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The L5178Y/TK t/- TK-/- mouse lymphoma mutagen assay, which allows selection of forward mutations at the autosomal thymidine kinase (TK) locus, uses a TK t/- heterozygous cell line, TK t/- 3.7.2C Quantitation of colonies of mutant TK-/- cells in the assay forms the basis for calc...

295

Systems genetics analysis of cancer susceptibility: from mouse models to humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic studies of cancer susceptibility have shown that most heritable risk cannot be explained by the main effects of common alleles. This may be due to unknown gene–gene or gene–environment interactions and the complex roles of many genes at different stages of cancer. Studies using mouse models of cancer suggest that methods that integrate genetic analysis and genomic networks with

David Quigley; Allan Balmain

2009-01-01

296

A Novel System To Accelerate The Progression of Nerve Degeneration In Transgenic Mouse Models of Neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Axon degeneration is a common hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. There is now an abundance of spontaneous and genetically engineered mice available to study the mechanisms of axonal degeneration and to screen for axonal protective agents. However, many of these mouse models exhibit slow progressive axonal loss which can span over many months. Consequently, there is a pressing need to accelerate the pace of axonal loss over a short interval for high-throughput screening of pharmacological and genetic therapies. Here, we present a novel technique using acrylamide, an axonal neurotoxin, to provoke rapid axonal degeneration in murine models of neuropathies. The progressive axonal loss which typically occurs over 8 months was reproduced within 7 to 10 days of the acrylamide intoxication. This approach was successfully applied to Myelin Associated Glycoprotein knockout (MAG?/?) mouse and Trembler-J mouse, a popular murine model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT-1). Acrylamide intoxication in transgenic mouse models offers a novel experimental approach to accelerate the rate of axonal loss over short intervals for timely in vivo studies of nerve degeneration. This report also provides for the first time an animal model for medication or toxin induced exacerbation of pre-existing neuropathies, a phenomenon widely reported in patients with neuropathies. PMID:22688009

Ewaleifoh, Osefame; Trinh, Minh; Griffin, John W.; Nguyen, Thien

2012-01-01

297

The IRP/IRE system in vivo: insights from mouse models  

PubMed Central

Iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2) post-transcriptionally control the expression of several mRNAs encoding proteins of iron, oxygen and energy metabolism. The mechanism involves their binding to iron responsive elements (IREs) in the untranslated regions of target mRNAs, thereby controlling mRNA translation or stability. Whereas IRP2 functions solely as an RNA-binding protein, IRP1 operates as either an RNA-binding protein or a cytosolic aconitase. Early experiments in cultured cells established a crucial role of IRPs in regulation of cellular iron metabolism. More recently, studies in mouse models with global or localized Irp1 and/or Irp2 deficiencies uncovered new physiological functions of IRPs in the context of systemic iron homeostasis. Thus, IRP1 emerged as a key regulator of erythropoiesis and iron absorption by controlling hypoxia inducible factor 2? (HIF2?) mRNA translation, while IRP2 appears to dominate the control of iron uptake and heme biosynthesis in erythroid progenitor cells by regulating the expression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2) mRNAs, respectively. Targeted disruption of either Irp1 or Irp2 in mice is associated with distinct phenotypic abnormalities. Thus, Irp1?/? mice develop polycythemia and pulmonary hypertension, while Irp2?/? mice present with microcytic anemia, iron overload in the intestine and the liver, and neurologic defects. Combined disruption of both Irp1 and Irp2 is incombatible with life and leads to early embryonic lethality. Mice with intestinal- or liver-specific disruption of both Irps are viable at birth but die later on due to malabsorption or liver failure, respectively. Adult mice lacking both Irps in the intestine exhibit a profound defect in dietary iron absorption due to a “mucosal block” that is caused by the de-repression of ferritin mRNA translation. Herein, we discuss the physiological function of the IRE/IRP regulatory system. PMID:25120486

Wilkinson, Nicole; Pantopoulos, Kostas

2014-01-01

298

Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of guinea pig manure in low-cost tubular digesters at high altitude.  

PubMed

Guinea pig is one of the most common livestock in rural communities of the Andes. The aim of this research was to study the anaerobic digestion of guinea pig manure in low-cost unheated tubular digesters at high altitude. To this end, the performance of two pilot digesters was monitored during 7 months; and two greenhouse designs were compared. In the dome roof digester the temperature and biogas production were significantly higher than in the shed roof digester. However, the biogas production rate was low (0.04 m(biogas)(3)m(digester)(-3) d(-1)), which is attributed to the low organic loading rate (0.6 kg(VS)m(digester)(-3)d(-1)) and temperature (23°C) of the system, among other factors. In a preliminary fertilization study, the potato yield per hectare was increased by 100% using the effluent as biofertilizer. Improving manure management techniques, increasing the organic loading rate and co digesting other substrates may be considered to enhance the process. PMID:21450457

Garfí, Marianna; Ferrer-Martí, Laia; Villegas, Vidal; Ferrer, Ivet

2011-05-01

299

Teaching and Learning about the Earth. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC Digest investigates the earth and space science guidelines of the National Science Education Standards. These guidelines are frequently referred to as the earth system and include components such as plate tectonics, the water cycle, and the carbon cycle. This Digest describes the development of earth systems science and earth systems

Lee, Hyonyong

300

A comparison study on the high-rate co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste using a temperature-phased anaerobic sequencing batch reactor system.  

PubMed

Assessing contemporary anaerobic biotechnologies requires proofs on reliable performance in terms of renewable bioenergy recovery such as methane (CH(4)) production rate, CH(4) yield while removing volatile solid (VS) effectively. This study, therefore, aims to evaluate temperature-phased anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (TPASBR) system that is a promising approach for the sustainable treatment of organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW). TPASBR system is compared with a conventional system, mesophilic two-stage anaerobic sequencing batch reactor system, which differs in operating temperature of 1st-stage. Results demonstrate that TPASBR system can obtain 44% VS removal from co-substrate of sewage sludge and food waste while producing 1.2m(3)CH(4)/m(3)(system)/d (0.2m(3)CH(4)/kgVS(added)) at organic loading rate of 6.1gVS/L/d through the synergy of sequencing-batch operation, co-digestion, and temperature-phasing. Consequently, the rapid and balanced anaerobic metabolism at thermophilic stage makes TPASBR system to afford high organic loading rate showing superior performance on OFMSW stabilization. PMID:21600764

Kim, Hyun-Woo; Nam, Joo-Youn; Shin, Hang-Sik

2011-08-01

301

Galled by the Gallbladder?: Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ  

MedlinePLUS

... among the most common and costly of all digestive system diseases. By some estimates, up to 20 million ... gallbladder may not be the star of the digestive system, it still plays an important role. Treat it ...

302

Digest Your Food!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a multi-week experiment, student teams gather biogas data from the mini-anaerobic digesters that they build to break down different types of food waste with microbes. Using plastic soda bottles for the mini-anaerobic digesters and gas measurement devices, they compare methane gas production from decomposing hot dogs, diced vs. whole. They monitor and measure the gas production, then graph and analyze the collected data. Students learn how anaerobic digestion can be used to biorecycle waste (food, poop or yard waste) into valuable resources (nutrients, biogas, energy).

Membrane Biotechnology Laboratory,

303

World Court Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law provides this resource, an electronic version of the first two volumes of the printed work. It presents digested views of the International Court of Justice on various issues in international law, as expressed in their judgements, advisory opinions, and orders. The Digest covers 1986-1995 at present. The digest can be browsed or searched, and a case decision and opinion summary can be found at the end of the table of contents.

1997-01-01

304

Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

Tuross, N.

2013-12-01

305

Anaerobic digestion in rural China  

SciTech Connect

The People`s Republic of China has been promoting underground, individual, anaerobic digesters to process rural organic materials. This strategy has resulted in approximately five million household anaerobic digesters installed in China today. Simple reactors provide energy and fertilizer for Chinese farms and villages. Another benefit includes improved household sanitation. Reactor design has evolved over time. In the standard modern design, effluent is removed from the reactor at the top of the water column, meaning that supernatant is collected rather than sludge. Additionally, no mixing of the system occurs when effluent is removed. In some systems, a vertical cylindrical pull-rod port is added to the base of the effluent port. Effluent is removed by moving the pull-rod - simply a wooden shaft with a metal disk on the bottom - up and down in the port. A bucket can be placed directly under the pull-rod port, simplifying effluent removal, while the movement of the wooden shaft provides some mixing in the reactor. The gas primarily is used for cooking and lighting. A digester can provide approximately 60 percent of a family`s energy needs. Effluent from the reactors is an odorless, dark colored slurry, primarily used as an agricultural fertilizer. 3 figs.

Henderson, J.P. [City of Vancouver (Canada)

1997-01-01

306

Steam Digest 2001  

SciTech Connect

Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

Not Available

2002-01-01

307

Systemic multicompartmental effects of the gut microbiome on mouse metabolic phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the impact of gut microbiota on host metabolism, we investigated the multicompartmental metabolic profiles of a conventional mouse strain (C3H\\/HeJ) (n=5) and its germ-free (GF) equivalent (n=5). We confirm that the microbiome strongly impacts on the metabolism of bile acids through the enterohepatic cycle and gut metabolism (higher levels of phosphocholine and glycine in GF liver and marked

Sandrine P Claus; Tsz M Tsang; Yulan Wang; Olivier Cloarec; Eleni Skordi; François-Pierre Martin; Serge Rezzi; Alastair Ross; Sunil Kochhar; Elaine Holmes; Jeremy K Nicholson

2008-01-01

308

A 20-Channel Receive-Only Mouse Array Coil for a 3T Clinical MRI System  

PubMed Central

A 20-channel phased-array coil for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of mice has been designed, constructed and validated with bench measurements and high resolution accelerated imaging. The technical challenges of designing a small, high density array have been overcome using individual small-diameter coil elements arranged on a cylinder in a hexagonal overlapping design with adjacent low impedance preamplifiers to further decouple the array elements. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise amplification in accelerated imaging were simulated and quantitatively evaluated in phantoms and in vivo mouse images. Comparison between the 20-channel mouse array and a length-matched quadrature driven small animal birdcage coil showed an SNR increase at the periphery and in the center of the phantom of 3-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively. Comparison to a shorter but SNR-optimized birdcage coil (aspect ratio 1:1 and only half mouse coverage) showed an SNR gain of 2-fold at the edge of the phantom and similar SNR in the center. G-factor measurements indicate that the coil is well suited to acquire highly accelerated images. PMID:21433066

Keil, Boris; Wiggins, Graham C.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wald, Lawrence L.; Meise, Florian M.; Schreiber, Laura M.; Klose, Klaus J.; Heverhagen, Johannes T.

2010-01-01

309

Using mushroom farm and anaerobic digestion wastewaters as supplemental fertilizer sources for growing container nursery stock in a closed system.  

PubMed

Wastewaters from farm and composting operations are often rich in select nutrients that potentially can be reutilized in crop production. Liners of silverleaf dogwood (Cornus alba L. 'Argenteo-marginata'), common ninebark [Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.], and Anthony Waterer spirea (Spiraeaxbumalda Burvénich 'Anthony Waterer') were grown in 6L containers filled with a bark-based commercial mix. Plants were fertigated daily via a computer-controlled multi-fertilizer injector with three recirculated fertilizer treatments: (1) a stock (control) solution with complete macro- and micro-nutrients, electrical conductivity (EC) 2.2 dS m(-1); (2) wastewater from a mushroom farm; and (3) process wastewater from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. The wastewaters used in both treatments 2 and 3 were diluted with tap water, and the computer was programmed to amend, dispense and recirculate nutrients based on the same target EC as in treatment 1. For comparison, there was a traditional controlled-release fertilizer treatment [Nutryon 17-5-12 (17N-2P-10K) plus micro-nutrients topdressed at a rate of 39 g/plant, nutrients not recirculated]. All three species responded similarly to the three recirculated fertilizer treatments. Growth with the recirculated treatments was similar and significantly higher than that obtained with controlled-release fertilizer. Throughout the study, the EC measured in wastewater-derived nutrient solutions, and also in the container substrate, were similar or close to those of the control treatment, although there were small to large differences among individual major nutrients. There was no sign of nutrient deficiency or toxicity symptoms to the plants. Small to moderate excesses in concentrations of SO(4), Na, and/or Cl were physiologically tolerable to the species. PMID:17481890

Chong, C; Purvis, P; Lumis, G; Holbein, B E; Voroney, R P; Zhou, H; Liu, H-W; Alam, M Z

2008-04-01

310

Antidepressants reduce neuroinflammatory responses and astroglial alpha-synuclein accumulation in a transgenic mouse model of Multiple System Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the pathological accumulation of alpha-synuclein (?-syn) within oligodendroglial cells. This accumulation is accompanied by neuroinflammation with astrogliosis and microgliosis, that leads to neuronal death and subsequent parkinsonism and dysautonomia. Antidepressants have been explored as neuroprotective agents as they normalize neurotrophic factor levels, increase neurogenesis and reduce neurodegeneration, but their anti-inflammatory properties have not been fully characterized. We analyzed the anti-inflammatory profiles of three different antidepressants (fluoxetine, olanzapine and amitriptyline) in the MBP1-h?-syn transgenic (tg) mouse model of MSA. We observed that antidepressant treatment decreased the number of ?-syn-positive cells in the basal ganglia of 11-month old tg animals. This reduction was accompanied with a similar decrease in the colocalization of ?-syn with astrocyte markers in this brain structure. Consistent with these results, antidepressants reduced astrogliosis in the hippocampus and basal ganglia of the MBP1-h?-syn tg mice, and modulated the expression levels of key cytokines that were dysregulated in the tg mouse model, such as IL-1?. In vitro experiments in the astroglial cell line C6 confirmed that antidepressants inhibited NF-?B translocation to the nucleus and reduced IL-1? protein levels. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory properties of antidepressants in the MBP1-h?-syn tg mouse model of MSA might be related to their ability to inhibit ?-syn propagation from oligodendrocytes to astroglia and to regulate transcription factors involved in cytokine expression. Our results suggest that antidepressants might be of interest as anti-inflammatory and ?-syn-reducing agents for MSA and other ?-synucleinopathies. PMID:24310907

Valera, Elvira; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer

2014-01-01

311

Functional promiscuity in a mammalian chemosensory system: extensive expression of vomeronasal receptors in the main olfactory epithelium of mouse lemurs.  

PubMed

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is functional in most terrestrial mammals, though progressively reduced in the primate lineage, and is used for intraspecific communication and predator recognition. Vomeronasal receptor (VR) genes comprise two families of chemosensory genes (V1R and V2R) that have been considered to be specific for the VNO. However, recently a large number of VRs were reported to be expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of mice, but there is little knowledge of the expression of these genes outside of rodents. To explore the function of VR genes in mammalian evolution, we analyzed and compared the expression of 64 V1R and 2 V2R genes in the VNO and the MOE of the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), the primate with the largest known VR repertoire. We furthermore compared expression patterns in adults of both sexes and seasons, and in an infant. A large proportion (83-97%) of the VR loci was expressed in the VNO of all individuals. The repertoire in the infant was as rich as in adults, indicating reliance on olfactory communication from early postnatal development onwards. In concordance with mice, we also detected extensive expression of VRs in the MOE, with proportions of expressed loci in individuals ranging from 29 to 45%. TRPC2, which encodes a channel protein crucial for signal transduction via VRs, was co-expressed in the MOE in all individuals indicating likely functionality of expressed VR genes in the MOE. In summary, the large VR repertoire in mouse lemurs seems to be highly functional. Given the differences in the neural pathways of MOE and VNO signals, which project to higher cortical brain centers or the limbic system, respectively, this raises the intriguing possibility that the evolution of MOE-expression of VRs enabled mouse lemurs to adaptively diversify the processing of VR-encoded olfactory information. PMID:25309343

Hohenbrink, Philipp; Dempewolf, Silke; Zimmermann, Elke; Mundy, Nicholas I; Radespiel, Ute

2014-01-01

312

A transgenic mouse line for collecting ribosome-bound mRNA using the tetracycline transactivator system.  

PubMed

Acquiring the gene expression profiles of specific neuronal cell-types is important for understanding their molecular identities. Genome-wide gene expression profiles of genetically defined cell-types can be acquired by collecting and sequencing mRNA that is bound to epitope-tagged ribosomes (TRAP; translating ribosome affinity purification). Here, we introduce a transgenic mouse model that combines the TRAP technique with the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) system by expressing EGFP-tagged ribosomal protein L10a (EGFP-L10a) under control of the tetracycline response element (tetO-TRAP). This allows both spatial control of EGFP-L10a expression through cell-type specific tTA expression, as well as temporal regulation by inhibiting transgene expression through the administration of doxycycline. We show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic mice expressing tTA under the Camk2a promoter (Camk2a-tTA) results in offspring with cell-type specific expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed that EGFP-L10a integrates into a functional ribosomal complex. In addition, collection of ribosome-bound mRNA from the hippocampus yielded the expected enrichment of genes expressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons, as well as a depletion of genes expressed in other hippocampal cell-types. Finally, we show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic Fos-tTA mice enables the expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons that are activated during a fear conditioning trial. The tetO-TRAP mouse can be combined with other tTA mouse lines to enable gene expression profiling of a variety of different cell-types. PMID:25400545

Drane, Laurel; Ainsley, Joshua A; Mayford, Mark R; Reijmers, Leon G

2014-01-01

313

A transgenic mouse line for collecting ribosome-bound mRNA using the tetracycline transactivator system  

PubMed Central

Acquiring the gene expression profiles of specific neuronal cell-types is important for understanding their molecular identities. Genome-wide gene expression profiles of genetically defined cell-types can be acquired by collecting and sequencing mRNA that is bound to epitope-tagged ribosomes (TRAP; translating ribosome affinity purification). Here, we introduce a transgenic mouse model that combines the TRAP technique with the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) system by expressing EGFP-tagged ribosomal protein L10a (EGFP-L10a) under control of the tetracycline response element (tetO-TRAP). This allows both spatial control of EGFP-L10a expression through cell-type specific tTA expression, as well as temporal regulation by inhibiting transgene expression through the administration of doxycycline. We show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic mice expressing tTA under the Camk2a promoter (Camk2a-tTA) results in offspring with cell-type specific expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed that EGFP-L10a integrates into a functional ribosomal complex. In addition, collection of ribosome-bound mRNA from the hippocampus yielded the expected enrichment of genes expressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons, as well as a depletion of genes expressed in other hippocampal cell-types. Finally, we show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic Fos-tTA mice enables the expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons that are activated during a fear conditioning trial. The tetO-TRAP mouse can be combined with other tTA mouse lines to enable gene expression profiling of a variety of different cell-types. PMID:25400545

Drane, Laurel; Ainsley, Joshua A.; Mayford, Mark R.; Reijmers, Leon G.

2014-01-01

314

Functional promiscuity in a mammalian chemosensory system: extensive expression of vomeronasal receptors in the main olfactory epithelium of mouse lemurs  

PubMed Central

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is functional in most terrestrial mammals, though progressively reduced in the primate lineage, and is used for intraspecific communication and predator recognition. Vomeronasal receptor (VR) genes comprise two families of chemosensory genes (V1R and V2R) that have been considered to be specific for the VNO. However, recently a large number of VRs were reported to be expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of mice, but there is little knowledge of the expression of these genes outside of rodents. To explore the function of VR genes in mammalian evolution, we analyzed and compared the expression of 64 V1R and 2 V2R genes in the VNO and the MOE of the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), the primate with the largest known VR repertoire. We furthermore compared expression patterns in adults of both sexes and seasons, and in an infant. A large proportion (83–97%) of the VR loci was expressed in the VNO of all individuals. The repertoire in the infant was as rich as in adults, indicating reliance on olfactory communication from early postnatal development onwards. In concordance with mice, we also detected extensive expression of VRs in the MOE, with proportions of expressed loci in individuals ranging from 29 to 45%. TRPC2, which encodes a channel protein crucial for signal transduction via VRs, was co-expressed in the MOE in all individuals indicating likely functionality of expressed VR genes in the MOE. In summary, the large VR repertoire in mouse lemurs seems to be highly functional. Given the differences in the neural pathways of MOE and VNO signals, which project to higher cortical brain centers or the limbic system, respectively, this raises the intriguing possibility that the evolution of MOE-expression of VRs enabled mouse lemurs to adaptively diversify the processing of VR-encoded olfactory information. PMID:25309343

Hohenbrink, Philipp; Dempewolf, Silke; Zimmermann, Elke; Mundy, Nicholas I.; Radespiel, Ute

2014-01-01

315

A GATA6 gene heart-region-specific enhancer provides a novel means to mark and probe a discrete component of the mouse cardiac conduction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcriptional programs that specify the distinct components of the cardiac conduction system are poorly understood, in part due to a paucity of definitive molecular markers. In the present study we show that a cGATA-6 gene enhancer can be used to selectively express transgenes in the atrioventricular (AV) conduction system as it becomes manifest in the developing multichambered mouse heart.

Dorene L. Davis; Angela V. Edwards; Amy L. Juraszek; Aimee Phelps; Andy Wessels; John B. E. Burch

2001-01-01

316

Mouse mammary tumor virus: a virus that exploits the immune system.  

PubMed

Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) causes mammary carcinomas and T-cell tumors in mice. MMTV variants that induce T-cell tumors have a large deletion within the U3 region of the long terminal repeat (LTR) compared to MMTV strains that induce mammary tumors. We provide evidence here that T-cell tropic MMTV strains lack a redundant binding site for a cellular protein called NBP (negative regulatory element binding protein). The lack of NBP-binding sites in T-cell tropic MMTV strains presumably leads to higher levels of transcription in T-cells during the MMTV life cycle and an increased incidence of mutagenic integration events. PMID:9209337

Bramblett, D; Liu, J; Lozano, M; Xu, L; Wrona, T; Rajan, L; Ross, S R; Dudley, J

1997-04-01

317

Utilizing past and present mouse systems to engineer more relevant pancreatic cancer models  

PubMed Central

The study of pancreatic cancer has prompted the development of numerous mouse models that aim to recapitulate the phenotypic and mechanistic features of this deadly malignancy. This review accomplishes two tasks. First, it provides an overview of the models that have been used as representations of both the neoplastic and carcinoma phenotypes. Second, it presents new modeling schemes that ultimately will serve to more faithfully capture the temporal and spatial progression of the human disease, providing platforms for improved understanding of the role of non-epithelial compartments in disease etiology as well as evaluating therapeutic approaches. PMID:25538623

DeCant, Brian T.; Principe, Daniel R.; Guerra, Carmen; Pasca di Magliano, Marina; Grippo, Paul J.

2014-01-01

318

Molecular and Functional Diversity of GABA-A Receptors in the Enteric Nervous System of the Mouse Colon  

PubMed Central

The enteric nervous system (ENS) provides the intrinsic neural control of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and regulates virtually all GI functions. Altered neuronal activity within the ENS underlies various GI disorders with stress being a key contributing factor. Thus, elucidating the expression and function of the neurotransmitter systems, which determine neuronal excitability within the ENS, such as the GABA-GABAA receptor (GABAAR) system, could reveal novel therapeutic targets for such GI disorders. Molecular and functionally diverse GABAARs modulate rapid GABAergic-mediated regulation of neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. However, the cellular and subcellular GABAAR subunit expression patterns within neurochemically defined cellular circuits of the mouse ENS, together with the functional contribution of GABAAR subtypes to GI contractility remains to be determined. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that immunoreactivity for the GABAAR gamma (?) 2 and alphas (?) 1, 2, 3 subunits was located on somatodendritic surfaces of neurochemically distinct myenteric plexus neurons, while being on axonal compartments of submucosal plexus neurons. In contrast, immunoreactivity for the ?4–5 subunits was only detected in myenteric plexus neurons. Furthermore, ?-?2 subunit immunoreactivity was located on non-neuronal interstitial cells of Cajal. In organ bath studies, GABAAR subtype-specific ligands had contrasting effects on the force and frequency of spontaneous colonic longitudinal smooth muscle contractions. Finally, enhancement of ?2-GABAAR function with alprazolam reversed the stress-induced increase in the force of spontaneous colonic contractions. The study demonstrates the molecular and functional diversity of the GABAAR system within the mouse colon providing a framework for developing GABAAR-based therapeutics in GI disorders. PMID:25080596

Seifi, Mohsen; Brown, James F.; Mills, Jeremy; Bhandari, Pradeep; Belelli, Delia; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Rudolph, Uwe

2014-01-01

319

Recent advances in transport of water-soluble vitamins in organs of the digestive system: a focus on the colon and the pancreas  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) transport in the large intestine and pancreas, two important organs of the digestive system that have only recently received their fair share of attention. WSV, a group of structurally unrelated compounds, are essential for normal cell function and development and, thus, for overall health and survival of the organism. Humans cannot synthesize WSV endogenously; rather, WSV are obtained from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption. The intestine is exposed to two sources of WSV: a dietary source and a bacterial source (i.e., WSV generated by the large intestinal microbiota). Contribution of the latter source to human nutrition/health has been a subject of debate and doubt, mostly based on the absence of specialized systems for efficient uptake of WSV in the large intestine. However, recent studies utilizing a variety of human and animal colon preparations clearly demonstrate that such systems do exist in the large intestine. This has provided strong support for the idea that the microbiota-generated WSV are of nutritional value to the host, and especially to the nutritional needs of the local colonocytes and their health. In the pancreas, WSV are essential for normal metabolic activities of all its cell types and for its exocrine and endocrine functions. Significant progress has also been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in the uptake of WSV and the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on the uptake processes. PMID:23989008

2013-01-01

320

A Novel System for the Efficient Generation of Antibodies Following Immunization of Unique Knockout Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

Background We wished to develop alternate production strategies to generate antibodies against traditionally problematic antigens. As a model we chose butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), involved in termination of cholinergic signaling, and widely considered as a poor immunogen. Methodology/Principal Findings Jettisoning traditional laborious in silico searching methods to define putative epitopes, we simply immunized available BChE knock-out mice with full-length recombinant BChE protein (having been produced for crystallographic analysis). Immunization with BChE, in practically any form (recombinant human or mouse BChE, BChE purified from human serum, native or denatured), resulted in strong immune responses. Native BChE produced antibodies that favored ELISA and immunostaining detection. Denatured and reduced BChE were more selective for antibodies specific in Western blots. Two especially sensitive monoclonal antibodies were found capable of detecting 0.25 ng of BChE within one min by ELISA. One is specific for human BChE; the other cross-reacts with mouse and rat BChE. Immunization of wild-type mice served as negative controls. Conclusions/Significance We examined a simple, fast, and highly efficient strategy to produce antibodies by mining two expanding databases: namely those of knock-out mice and 3D crystallographic protein-structure analysis. We conclude that the immunization of knock-out mice should be a strategy of choice for antibody production. PMID:20886120

Hrabovska, Anna; Bernard, Véronique; Krejci, Eric

2010-01-01

321

Comparative genetic analysis: the utility of mouse genetic systems for studying human monogenic disease  

PubMed Central

One of the long-term goals of mutagenesis programs in the mouse has been to generate mutant lines to facilitate the functional study of every mammalian gene. With a combination of complementary genetic approaches and advances in technology, this aim is slowly becoming a reality. One of the most important features of this strategy is the ability to identify and compare a number of mutations in the same gene, an allelic series. With the advent of gene-driven screening of mutant archives, the search for a specific series of interest is now a practical option. This review focuses on the analysis of multiple mutations from chemical mutagenesis projects in a wide variety of genes and the valuable functional information that has been obtained from these studies. Although gene knockouts and transgenics will continue to be an important resource to ascertain gene function, with a significant proportion of human diseases caused by point mutations, identifying an allelic series is becoming an equally efficient route to generating clinically relevant and functionally important mouse models. PMID:17514509

Oliver, Peter L.; Bitoun, Emmanuelle

2007-01-01

322

Fellowship Training Program in Digestive Diseases Yale University School of Medicine  

E-print Network

Fellowship Training Program in Digestive Diseases Yale University School of Medicine Curriculum Knowledge in Digestive Diseases ................................. 5 General Goals and Objectives ..................... 52 VA Connecticut Health Care System General Information ...................... 59 VA GI Consult

Johnson, Marcia K.

323

The human OPA1delTTAG mutation induces premature age-related systemic neurodegeneration in mouse.  

PubMed

Dominant optic atrophy is a rare inherited optic nerve degeneration caused by mutations in the mitochondrial fusion gene OPA1. Recently, the clinical spectrum of dominant optic atrophy has been extended to frequent syndromic forms, exhibiting various degrees of neurological and muscle impairments frequently found in mitochondrial diseases. Although characterized by a specific loss of retinal ganglion cells, the pathophysiology of dominant optic atrophy is still poorly understood. We generated an Opa1 mouse model carrying the recurrent Opa1(delTTAG) mutation, which is found in 30% of all patients with dominant optic atrophy. We show that this mouse displays a multi-systemic poly-degenerative phenotype, with a presentation associating signs of visual failure, deafness, encephalomyopathy, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia and cardiomyopathy. Moreover, we found premature age-related axonal and myelin degenerations, increased autophagy and mitophagy and mitochondrial supercomplex instability preceding degeneration and cell death. Thus, these results support the concept that Opa1 protects against neuronal degeneration and opens new perspectives for the exploration and the treatment of mitochondrial diseases. PMID:23250881

Sarzi, Emmanuelle; Angebault, Claire; Seveno, Marie; Gueguen, Naïg; Chaix, Benjamin; Bielicki, Guy; Boddaert, Nathalie; Mausset-Bonnefont, Anne-Laure; Cazevieille, Chantal; Rigau, Valérie; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Jing; Delettre, Cécile; Brabet, Philippe; Puel, Jean-Luc; Hamel, Christian P; Reynier, Pascal; Lenaers, Guy

2012-12-01

324

Effects of instant coffee consumption on oxidative DNA damage, DNA repair, and redox system in mouse liver.  

PubMed

To examine the effects of instant coffee consumption on cancer risk, we analyzed the oxidative DNA damage levels and the DNA repair and redox systems in the livers of coffee-fed mice. Three-week-old male ICR mice were fed with/without 0.1% (w/v) instant coffee solution. At 2, 4, and 8 mo, the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), a major form of oxidative DNA damage, and the expression of mouse 8-OH-dG repair-associated genes and redox system-associated genes, the SOD activity, and the LPO level were analyzed. Simultaneously, half of the mice were fed a low vitamin (LV) diet (autoclaved diet) to disturb the defense system against oxidative stresses. As a result, the 8-OH-dG level was increased in the livers of LV diet (+ water)-fed mice for 8 mo, in comparison to those of the 0 M control mice and normal diet (+ water)-fed mice. However, no significant differences between water drinking and coffee drinking were observed, in terms of the 8-OH-dG level. In addition, the 8-OH-dG repair-associated gene expression, the SOD activity, and the LPO level also showed no significant differences between water drinking and coffee drinking in all mouse groups. On the other hand, among the redox system-associated genes, only the expression of GPx1 was changed. These results suggest that instant coffee consumption has little, if any, effect on the risk of liver cancer due to oxidative stresses. PMID:19723199

Morii, H; Kuboyama, A; Nakashima, T; Kawai, K; Kasai, H; Tamae, K; Hirano, T

2009-08-01

325

Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent  

E-print Network

at an existing wastewater treatment plant. Based on scale-up evaluation, the test system should yield an energy.6 acre, which is on the same scale currently used at the host wastewater treatment facility to treat Activated Sludge Treatment This report presents results for an anaerobic digestion system operated

326

Predictive dose-based estimation of systemic exposure multiples in mouse and monkey relative to human for antisense oligonucleotides with 2'-o-(2-methoxyethyl) modifications.  

PubMed

Evaluation of species differences and systemic exposure multiples (or ratios) in toxicological animal species versus human is an ongoing exercise during the course of drug development. The systemic exposure ratios are best estimated by directly comparing area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUCs), and sometimes by comparing the dose administered, with the dose being adjusted either by body surface area (BSA) or body weight (BW). In this study, the association between AUC ratio and the administered dose ratio from animals to human were studied using a retrospective data-driven approach. The dataset included nine antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) with 2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl) modifications, evaluated in two animal species (mouse and monkey) following single and repeated parenteral administrations. We found that plasma AUCs were similar between ASOs within the same species, and are predictable to human exposure using a single animal species, either mouse or monkey. Between monkey and human, the plasma exposure ratio can be predicted directly based on BW-adjusted dose ratios, whereas between mouse and human, the exposure ratio would be nearly fivefold lower in mouse compared to human based on BW-adjusted dose values. Thus, multiplying a factor of 5 for the mouse BW-adjusted dose would likely provide a reasonable AUC exposure estimate in human at steady-state. PMID:25602582

Yu, Rosie Z; Grundy, John S; Henry, Scott P; Kim, Tae-Won; Norris, Daniel A; Burkey, Jennifer; Wang, Yanfeng; Vick, Andrew; Geary, Richard S

2015-01-01

327

Biofilms promote survival and virulence of Salmonella enterica sv. Tennessee during prolonged dry storage and after passage through an in vitro digestion system.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica serotypes have been linked to outbreaks associated with low water activity foods. While the biofilm-forming abilities of Salmonella improve its survival during thermal processing and sanitation it is unclear whether biofilms enhance survival to desiccation and gastric stresses. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of physiological state (planktonic versus biofilm) and prior exposure to desiccation and storage in dry milk powder on Salmonella survival and gene expression after passage through an in vitro digestion model. Planktonic cells of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee were deposited onto membranes while biofilms were formed on glass beads. The cells were subsequently dried at room temperature and stored in dried milk powder (a(w)=0.3) for up to 30 days. Salmonella survival was quantified by serial dilution onto Brilliant Green Agar before desiccation, after desiccation, after 1-day storage and after 30-day storage. At each sampling period both physiological states were tested for survival through a simulated gastrointestinal system. RNA was extracted at the identical time points and Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to determine relative expression for genes associated with stress response (rpoS, otsB), virulence (hilA, invA, sipC) and a housekeeping gene 16S rRNA. The physiological state and length of storage affected the survival and gene expression of Salmonella within the desiccated milk powder environment and after passage through an in vitro digestion system (p<0.05). Larger numbers of S. Tennessee were recovered by plate counts for biofilms compared to planktonic, however, the numbers of Salmonella genomes detected by qPCR were not significantly different suggesting entry of the planktonic cells of S. Tennessee into a viable but non-culturable state. The increased expression of stress response genes rpoS and otsB correlated with survival, indicating cross-protection to low water activity and acid stress. Increased expression of virulence-associated genes was seen in cells exposed to dry storage for short periods, however the largest amount of expression occurred in biofilm cells stored for 30 days at aw 0.3, suggesting increased virulence potential. PMID:23454816

Aviles, Bryan; Klotz, Courtney; Eifert, Joseph; Williams, Robert; Ponder, Monica

2013-04-01

328

Mouse Party  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity from The University of Utah, examine the molecular mechanisms that affect the brains of mice on drugs. Learn how different drugs create different responses in the brain and alter the natural state of a mouse.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

329

Mouse model systems to study sex chromosome genes and behavior: relevance to humans.  

PubMed

Sex chromosome genes directly influence sex differences in behavior. The discovery of the Sry gene on the Y chromosome (Gubbay et al., 1990; Koopman et al., 1990) substantiated the sex chromosome mechanistic link to sex differences. Moreover, the pronounced connection between X chromosome gene mutations and mental illness produces a strong sex bias in these diseases. Yet, the dominant explanation for sex differences continues to be the gonadal hormones. Here we review progress made on behavioral differences in mouse models that uncouple sex chromosome complement from gonadal sex. We conclude that many social and cognitive behaviors are modified by sex chromosome complement, and discuss the implications for human research. Future directions need to include identification of the genes involved and interactions with these genes and gonadal hormones. PMID:24388960

Cox, Kimberly H; Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F

2014-10-01

330

A self-regulatory system of interlinked signaling feedback loops controls mouse limb patterning.  

PubMed

Embryogenesis depends on self-regulatory interactions between spatially separated signaling centers, but few of these are well understood. Limb development is regulated by epithelial-mesenchymal (e-m) feedback loops between sonic hedgehog (SHH) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling involving the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist Gremlin1 (GREM1). By combining mouse molecular genetics with mathematical modeling, we showed that BMP4 first initiates and SHH then propagates e-m feedback signaling through differential transcriptional regulation of Grem1 to control digit specification. This switch occurs by linking a fast BMP4/GREM1 module to the slower SHH/GREM1/FGF e-m feedback loop. This self-regulatory signaling network results in robust regulation of distal limb development that is able to compensate for variations by interconnectivity among the three signaling pathways. PMID:19229034

Bénazet, Jean-Denis; Bischofberger, Mirko; Tiecke, Eva; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Martin, James F; Zuniga, Aimée; Naef, Felix; Zeller, Rolf

2009-02-20

331

Highly efficient targeted mutagenesis in one-cell mouse embryos mediated by the TALEN and CRISPR/Cas systems  

PubMed Central

Since the establishment of embryonic stem (ES) cell lines, the combined use of gene targeting with homologous recombination has aided in elucidating the functions of various genes. However, the ES cell technique is inefficient and time-consuming. Recently, two new gene-targeting technologies have been developed: the transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) system, and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system. In addition to aiding researchers in solving conventional problems, these technologies can be used to induce site-specific mutations in various species for which ES cells have not been established. Here, by targeting the Fgf10 gene through RNA microinjection in one-cell mouse embryos with the TALEN and CRISPR/Cas systems, we produced the known limb-defect phenotypes of Fgf10-deficient embryos at the F0 generation. Compared to the TALEN system, the CRISPR/Cas system induced the limb-defect phenotypes with a strikingly higher efficiency. Our results demonstrate that although both gene-targeting technologies are useful, the CRISPR/Cas system more effectively elicits single-step biallelic mutations in mice. PMID:25027812

Yasue, Akihiro; Mitsui, Silvia Naomi; Watanabe, Takahito; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro; Tanaka, Eiji

2014-01-01

332

Acid phase digestion phenomena. Final report, February 1983-February 1984  

SciTech Connect

A review of the microbiology and biochemistry of anaerobic digestion of biomass to methane gas is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on the degradation of mono- and polysaccharides that are found in marine macrophytes. Specific research on the control and mechanisms of algin and mannitol degradation in some important microbial strains isolated from a Macrocystis-fed digester system is described.

Forro, J.R.

1984-02-01

333

TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...

334

Canada's top-ranked digestive health research institute opens  

E-print Network

network Canada's top-ranked digestive health research institute opens McMaster innovates the grand opening of the Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute. The creation of this unique to their vision, McMaster researchers will continue their world-leading study of the gut as an integrated system

Thompson, Michael

335

Bi-compartmental elderly or adult dynamic digestion models applied to interrogate protein digestibility.  

PubMed

The world's population is inevitably ageing thanks to modern progress; however, the development of food and oral formulations tailored to the needs of the elderly is still in its infancy. In vitro digestion models offer high throughput, robust and practically ethics free evaluation of the digestive fate of ingested products. To date, no data have been made publicly available to facilitate the development or application of an in vitro model mirroring the physicochemical conditions of the elderly gastrointestinal system. This study reports the development of a novel and highly bio-relevant in vitro model based on two serially connected bioreactors recreating the dynamic conditions of the adult or elderly alimentary canal. This report and its supplementary material describe in detail the set-up of the system, the applied physicochemical parameters and the development of the controlling software. These are intended to openly depict a versatile platform, which could assist future efforts to develop age-tailored oral formulations. SDS-PAGE analyses of samples collected from the in vitro digestion of ?-lactoglobulin, ?-lactalbumin and lactoferrin suggest the bioaccessibility of "slow digesting" and "fast digesting" proteins identified in adult models do not necessarily maintain this trait under elderly gastro-intestinal conditions. Overall, this study brings forward a new generic yet advanced model that could facilitate age-tailoring the digestive fate of liquid formulations. PMID:25131440

Levi, Carmit Shani; Lesmes, Uri

2014-10-01

336

Carbohydrate digestion and absorption  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A variety of simple and complex carbohydrates are present in human diets. Food carbohydrates include the sugars, starches, and fibers found mainly in fruits, vegetables, grains, and milk products. Small amounts of digestible carbohydrates come from non-plant sources (e.g., trehalose in insects and...

337

The anaerobic digestion process  

SciTech Connect

The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

1996-01-01

338

Preventing Bullying. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students who are the target of bullying episodes commonly suffer serious, long-term academic, physical, and emotional consequences. Unfortunately, school personnel often minimize, underestimate, tolerate, or ignore the extent of bullying and the harm it can cause. This digest examines the problem of bullying and some of its effects, and discusses…

Lumsden, Linda

339

College-Bound Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The college admissions process and the college selection process are complex and much debated procedures which confront more than 50% of high school seniors in the United States. The purpose of this digest is to help students explore options available in choosing a suitable postsecondary education. For example the advantages of large or small…

Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

340

Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of coffee grounds with and without waste activated sludge as co-substrate using a submerged AnMBR: system amendments and membrane performance.  

PubMed

Coffee grounds are deemed to be difficult for degradation by thermophilic anaerobic process. In this research, a 7 L AnMBR accepting coffee grounds was operated for 82 days and failed with pH dropping to 6.6. The deficiency of micronutrients in the reactor was identified. The system was recovered by supplying micronutrient, pH adjustment and influent ceasing for 22 days. In the subsequent 160 days of co-digestion experiment, waste activated sludge (15% in the mixture) was mixed into coffee grounds. The COD conversion efficiency of 67.4% was achieved under OLR of 11.1 kg-COD/m(3) d and HRT of 20 days. Tannins was identified affecting protein degradation by a batch experiment. Quantitative supplements of NH4HCO3 (0.12 g-N/g-TSin) were effective to maintain alkalinity and pH. The solid concentration in the AnMBR reached 75 g/L, but it did not significantly affect membrane filtration under a flux of 5.1 L/m(2) h. Soluble carbohydrate, lipid and protein were partially retained by the membrane. PMID:24177158

Qiao, Wei; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Shofie, Mohammad; Niu, Qigui; Yu, Han Qing; Li, Yu-You

2013-12-01

341

Voluntary intake, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of fresh forages fed to guinea pigs in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo).  

PubMed

The daily voluntary intake (DVI) of Guinea pigs (GP) fed 15 fresh forages used in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo) was investigated. In order to determine the best forages combination for GP diet, DVI was compared to their nutritional value measured in vitro using (1) a pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, (2) an gas fermentation test on the hydrolysed residues with an inoculum prepared from GP faeces, and (3) the chemical composition of the offered feeds and the hydrolysis residues. The forages ranking based on the DVI was correlated to the NDF content, but not to their nutritional values determined in vitro. According to their high DVI (from 4.23 to 7.75 g/kg liveweigth), and their valuable in vitro nutritional values (crude protein ranging from 261 to 279 g crude protein kg(-1) DM, pepsin-pancreatin digestibilities of the dry matter from 0.55 to 0.59 and final gas production from 170 to 196 1 kg(-1) DM), Desmodium intortum, Euphorbia heterophylla or Amaranthus hybridus, can be suggested to the farmers to complement the usual diet distributed to the GP based on Panicum maximum. PMID:17966272

Bindelle, J; Ilunga, Y; Delacollette, M; Kayij, M Muland; di M'Balu, J Umba; Kindele, E; Buldgen, A

2007-08-01

342

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION ENGINEERING, VOL. 10, NO. 1, MARCH 2002 1 The Camera Mouse: Visual Tracking of Body  

E-print Network

. The system tracks the computer user's movements with a video camera and translates them into the movements disabilities tested the Camera Mouse and quickly learned how to use it to spell out messages or play games-building programs. This allows users to exhibit their thoughts, emotions, and intellectual potential. Along

Sclaroff, Stan

343

Conditional Transgenic System for Mouse Aurora A Kinase: Degradation by the Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Controls the Level of the Transgenic Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aurora A is a mitotic kinase that localizes to centrosomes. Expression of this protein is normally limited to the mitotic stage (G2-M) of the cell cycle, whereas human cancer cells frequently exhibit overexpression of Aurora A protein regardless of the cell cycle stage. In the present study, Aurora A transgenic mouse lines were generated with a new conditional expression system

Tomokazu Fukuda; Yuji Mishina; Michael P. Walker; Richard P. DiAugustine

2005-01-01

344

Isolation and physiological analysis of mouse cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

Cardiomyocytes, the workhorse cell of the heart, contain exquisitely organized cytoskeletal and contractile elements that generate the contractile force used to pump blood. Individual cardiomyocytes were first isolated over 40 years ago in order to better study the physiology and structure of heart muscle. Techniques have rapidly improved to include enzymatic digestion via coronary perfusion. More recently, analyzing the contractility and calcium flux of isolated myocytes has provided a vital tool in the cellular and sub-cellular analysis of heart failure. Echocardiography and EKGs provide information about the heart at an organ level only. Cardiomyocyte cell culture systems exist, but cells lack physiologically essential structures such as organized sarcomeres and t-tubules required for myocyte function within the heart. In the protocol presented here, cardiomyocytes are isolated via Langendorff perfusion. The heart is removed from the mouse, mounted via the aorta to a cannula, perfused with digestion enzymes, and cells are introduced to increasing calcium concentrations. Edge and sarcomere detection software is used to analyze contractility, and a calcium binding fluorescent dye is used to visualize calcium transients of electrically paced cardiomyocytes; increasing understanding of the role cellular changes play in heart dysfunction. Traditionally used to test drug effects on cardiomyocytes, we employ this system to compare myocytes from WT mice and mice with a mutation that causes dilated cardiomyopathy. This protocol is unique in its comparison of live cells from mice with known heart function and known genetics. Many experimental conditions are reliably compared, including genetic or environmental manipulation, infection, drug treatment, and more. Beyond physiologic data, isolated cardiomyocytes are easily fixed and stained for cytoskeletal elements. Isolating cardiomyocytes via perfusion is an extremely versatile method, useful in studying cellular changes that accompany or lead to heart failure in a variety of experimental conditions. PMID:25225886

Roth, Gretchen M; Bader, David M; Pfaltzgraff, Elise R

2014-01-01

345

Recovery of two independent sweet taste systems during regeneration of the mouse chorda tympani nerve after nerve crush.  

PubMed

In rodents, section of the taste nerve results in degeneration of the taste buds. Following regeneration of the cut taste nerve, however, the taste buds reappear. This phenomenon can be used to study the functional reformation of the peripheral neural system responsible for sweet taste. In this study we examined the recovery of sweet responses by the chorda tympani (CT) nerve after nerve crush as well as inhibition of these responses by gurmarin (Gur), a sweet response inhibitor. After about 2 weeks of CT nerve regeneration, no significant response to any taste stimuli could be observed. At 3 weeks, responses to sweet stimuli reappeared but were not significantly inhibited by Gur. At 4 weeks, Gur inhibition of sweet responses reached statistically significant levels. Thus, the Gur-sensitive (GS) component of the sweet response reappeared about 1 week later than the Gur-insensitive (GI) component. Moreover, single CT fibers responsive to sucrose could be classified into distinct GS and GI groups at 4 weeks. After 5 weeks or more, responses to sweet compounds before and after treatment with Gur became indistinguishable from responses in the intact group. During regeneration, the GS and GI components of the sucrose response could be distinguished based on their concentration-dependent responses to sucrose. These results suggest that mice have two different sweet-reception systems, distinguishable by their sensitivity to Gur (the GS and GI systems). These two sweet-reception systems may be reconstituted independently during regeneration of the mouse CT nerve. PMID:17714496

Yasumatsu, Keiko; Kusuhara, Yoko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

2007-09-01

346

Systemic administration of dynorphin A(1-13) markedly inhibits different behavioural responses induced by cocaine in the mouse.  

PubMed

The effects of systemic administration (i.p.) of dynorphin A(1-13) on the cocaine-induced behavioural alterations in the mouse were determined by using multi-dimensional behavioural analyses, based upon a capacitance system. A 1.0 mg/kg dose of cocaine did not influence behaviour, while increasing doses to 3-30 mg/kg produced a significant increment in the frequency of behaviour, such as linear locomotion, circling, rearing and grooming. Although a 1.0 mg/kg dose of dynorphin A(1-13) alone produced a significant decrease in grooming behaviour, larger doses (3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) of the peptide failed to affect different behaviour. The cocaine (3.0 mg/kg)-induced increases in linear locomotion, circling and rearing behaviour were significantly inhibited by dynorphin A(1-13) (10.0 mg/kg). The inhibitory effects of dynorphin A(1-13) (10.0 mg/kg) were antagonized by the opioid antagonist Mr 2266 (5.6 mg/kg). It is thus possible that the systemic administration of dynorphin A(1-13) inhibits different behavioural responses induced by cocaine through the blood-brain barrier, although the instability of amino acid bonds or the relatively large molecular weight of dynorphin A(1-13), may result in the failure to demonstrate opioid activity by the peptide after systemic administration. PMID:1359442

Ukai, M; Kamiya, T; Toyoshi, T; Kameyama, T

1992-09-01

347

Continuous systemic secretion of a lysosomal enzyme by genetically modified mouse skin fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Lysosomal enzymes secreted or externally supplied into the extracellular medium can be internalized by cells and targeted to lysosomes after binding to specific membrane receptors. This process allows for the replacement of the missing enzyme activity in deficient cells. Using a retroviral vector, we have introduced the human beta-glucuronidase cDNA into primary mouse skin fibroblasts. The genetically modified cells were then engrafted into neo-organs that had been previously implanted into the peritoneal cavity of syngeneic recipient mice. The hypervascularized structures, made of collagen and basic fibroblast growth factor-coated synthetic fibers embedded into extracellular matrix gel, allowed in vivo survival of engrafted fibroblasts that expressed the human beta-glucuronidase cDNA for at least 3 months. The human enzyme was detected in the liver, lung, and spleen of experimental animals, but became undetectable after removal of the neo-organ. This observation indicated that the human enzyme was secreted into the serum and then captured by distant organs. The use of genetically modified fibroblasts implanted into neo-organs may, therefore, represent a convenient approach to enzyme replacement therapy in lysosomal storage diseases. PMID:8356601

Moullier, P; Maréchal, V; Danos, O; Heard, J M

1993-08-01

348

A Novel Polysaccharide in Insects Activates the Innate Immune System in Mouse Macrophage RAW264 Cells  

PubMed Central

A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named “dipterose”, with a molecular weight of 1.01×106 and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose was synthesized in the melon fly itself at the pupal stage. The NO-producing activity of dipterose was approximately equal to that of lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulator. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) led to the suppression of NO production by dipterose. Furthermore, dipterose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon ? (IFN?) and promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in macrophages, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in RAW264 cells via the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that dipterose activates the innate immune response against various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. This is the first identification of an innate immune-activating polysaccharide from an animal. PMID:25490773

Ohta, Takashi; Ido, Atsushi; Kusano, Kie; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

2014-01-01

349

A Novel Polysaccharide in Insects Activates the Innate Immune System in Mouse Macrophage RAW264 Cells.  

PubMed

A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named "dipterose", with a molecular weight of 1.01×106 and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose was synthesized in the melon fly itself at the pupal stage. The NO-producing activity of dipterose was approximately equal to that of lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulator. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) led to the suppression of NO production by dipterose. Furthermore, dipterose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon ? (IFN?) and promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in macrophages, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in RAW264 cells via the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that dipterose activates the innate immune response against various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. This is the first identification of an innate immune-activating polysaccharide from an animal. PMID:25490773

Ohta, Takashi; Ido, Atsushi; Kusano, Kie; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

2014-01-01

350

Rapid Screening of Gene Function by Systemic Delivery of Morpholino Oligonucleotides to Live Mouse Embryos  

PubMed Central

Traditional gene targeting methods in mice are complex and time consuming, especially when conditional deletion methods are required. Here, we describe a novel technique for assessing gene function by injection of modified antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) into the heart of mid-gestation mouse embryos. After allowing MOs to circulate through the embryonic vasculature, target tissues were explanted, cultured and analysed for expression of key markers. We established proof-of-principle by partially phenocopying known gene knockout phenotypes in the fetal gonads (Stra8, Sox9) and pancreas (Sox9). We also generated a novel double knockdown of Gli1 and Gli2, revealing defects in Leydig cell differentiation in the fetal testis. Finally, we gained insight into the roles of Adamts19 and Ctrb1, genes of unknown function in sex determination and gonadal development. These studies reveal the utility of this method as a means of first-pass analysis of gene function during organogenesis before committing to detailed genetic analysis. PMID:25629157

McClelland, Kathryn S.; Wainwright, Elanor N.; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

2015-01-01

351

Ultrastructural Pathology of Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection in Cultured Mouse Nervous System Tissue  

PubMed Central

Mouse spinal cord-ganglia cultures were innoculated with murine cytomegalo-virus 14 days after explantation. Intranuclear virus was first observed 4 days after infection. The viruses, which occurred in four forms, were observed in increasing numbers during the ensuing 4 days. Differences were noted in the relative prevalence of certain of these forms in older as compared to younger cultures. This suggests that variations in virus form are related to virus maturation. Cytoplasmic viruses were occasionally observed, but their site of origin is not certain. A variety of cytoplasmic inclusions were seen, particularly in the older cultures. It seems likely that they represent specific cell responses to the presence of the virus. They were not observed in the control cultures, even though some of the latter did show severe degenerative changes. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Figs 3-4p[477]-dFig 8Fig 9Fig 10Figs 11-12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Figs 17-18Fig 19 PMID:4360827

Willson, Nicholas J.; Schneider, Joseph F.; Rosen, Moshe; Belisle, Elizabeth H.

1974-01-01

352

A highly efficient short hairpin RNA potently down-regulates CCR5 expression in systemic lymphoid organs in the hu-BLT mouse model.  

PubMed

Inhibiting the expression of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 holds great promise for controlling HIV-1 infection in patients. Here we report stable knockdown of human CCR5 by a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in a humanized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) mouse model. We delivered a potent shRNA against CCR5 into human fetal liver-derived CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells (HPSCs) by lentiviral vector transduction. We transplanted vector-transduced HPSCs solidified with Matrigel and a thymus segment under the mouse kidney capsule. Vector-transduced autologous CD34(+) cells were subsequently injected in the irradiated mouse, intended to create systemic reconstitution. CCR5 expression was down-regulated in human T cells and monocytes/macrophages in systemic lymphoid tissues, including gut-associated lymphoid tissue, the major site of HIV-1 replication. The shRNA-mediated CCR5 knockdown had no apparent adverse effects on T-cell development as assessed by polyclonal T-cell receptor Vbeta family development and naive/memory T-cell differentiation. CCR5 knockdown in the secondary transplanted mice suggested the potential of long-term hematopoietic reconstitution by the shRNA-transduced HPSCs. CCR5 tropic HIV-1 infection was effectively inhibited in mouse-derived human splenocytes ex vivo. These results demonstrate that lentiviral vector delivery of shRNA into human HPSCs could stably down-regulate CCR5 in systemic lymphoid organs in vivo. PMID:20018916

Shimizu, Saki; Hong, Patrick; Arumugam, Balamurugan; Pokomo, Lauren; Boyer, Joshua; Koizumi, Naoya; Kittipongdaja, Panyamol; Chen, Angela; Bristol, Greg; Galic, Zoran; Zack, Jerome A; Yang, Otto; Chen, Irvin S Y; Lee, Benhur; An, Dong Sung

2010-02-25

353

Production and sale of energy and nutrients from a multi-farm digester  

SciTech Connect

An investor-owned anaerobic digestion system was designed to process the wastes from several dairy farms totalling 900 cows. The resulting biogas will fuel a 97 KW engine-generator producing both electricity for sale to the utility, and waste heat for digester heating and supplemental greenhouse heating. The digested solids and liquids will be marketed as nursery soil and fertilizer, respectively.

Williams, D.W.; Howard, K.; Orrett, E.

1986-01-01

354

Rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein from lucerne and pasture sward  

E-print Network

Rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein from lucerne and intestinal digestion and, therefore, nutrition value. The INRA-88 system of ruminant nutrition has been, and intestinal digestibility of the lucerne and pasture sward protein undegraded in the rumen. Lucerne

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

355

Billiards Digest April, 2011 David Alciatore, PhD ("Dr. Dave") ILLUSTRATED PRINCIPLES  

E-print Network

Billiards Digest April, 2011 David Alciatore, PhD ("Dr. Dave") ILLUSTRATED PRINCIPLES "VEPS GEMS shots, Coriolis' system is a good place to start. #12;Billiards Digest April, 2011 a) side view b) top shot speed effects #12;Billiards Digest April, 2011 Diagram 3 (similar t

Alciatore, David G.

356

Neurohumoral control of gastrointestinal motility Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie des Cellules digestives,  

E-print Network

peptides are present in both the digestive tract and the central nervous system. In spite of the work des Cellules digestives, (FRA 49 INSERM), Faculté de Médecine X Bichat, 16, rue H.-Huchard, 75018 produced a whole new collection of peptide molecules extracted from the digestive tract. Two facts

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

357

Effect of duodenal cannulation in sheep on the pattern of gastroduodenal electrical activity and digestive flow  

E-print Network

and digestive flow C. PONCET M. IVAN Laboratoire de la Digestion des Ruminants, I.N.R.A., Theix, 63122 Ceyrat cannula digestion et al., 1968 ; MacRae et al., 1973). Two of these cannulas are necessary in a reentrant system which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

358

Revealing system-level correlations between aging and calorie restriction using a mouse transcriptome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although systems biology is a perfect framework for investigating system-level declines during aging, only a few reports have\\u000a focused on a comprehensive understanding of system-level changes in the context of aging systems. The present study aimed\\u000a to understand the most sensitive biological systems affected during aging and to reveal the systems underlying the crosstalk\\u000a between aging and the ability of

Seong-Eui Hong; Hyoung-Sam Heo; Dae Hyun Kim; Min-Sun Kim; Chul Hong Kim; Jaewon Lee; Mi-Ae Yoo; Byung Pal Yu; Christiaan Leeuwenburgh; Hae Young Chung

2010-01-01

359

The Functional Morphology of the British Ellobiidae (Gastropoda Pulmonata) with Special Reference to the Digestive and Reproductive Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four British members of the primitive pulmonate family Ellobiidae are Leucophytia bidentata, living in crevices between tide-marks, Ovatella myosotis, inhabiting salt-marshes (with an intertidal subspecies, denticulata), and the fully terrestrial Carychium tridentatum and C. minimum. The present paper gives an account of the functional morphology of the pallial cavity, alimentary canal and reproductive system, with a description of the

J. E. Morton

1955-01-01

360

Knowledge Management in Instructional Design. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest reviews what instructional designers do, describes knowledge management, and indicates how knowledge management is influencing instructional design. The first section defines instructional design (ID) and briefly describes the ID process. The second section covers knowledge management (KM), including definitions of KM and systems,…

Spector, J. Michael; Edmonds, Gerald S.

361

An ENU mutagenesis-derived mouse model with a dominant Jak1 mutation resembling phenotypes of systemic autoimmune disease.  

PubMed

Within the Munich, Germany, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mouse mutagenesis program, we isolated a dominant Jak1 mouse model resembling phenotypic characteristics related to autoimmune disease. Chromosomal sequencing revealed a new Jak1 (p.Ser645Pro) point mutation at the conserved serine of the pseudokinase domain, corresponding to a somatic human mutation (p.Ser646Phe) inducing a constitutive activation of the Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT pathway. Morphologically, all Jak1(S645P+/-) mice showed a progressive structural deterioration of ears starting at the age of 4 months, with mononuclear cell infiltration into the dermis. Female mutant mice, in particular, developed severe skin lesions in the neck from 7 months of age. The IHC analysis of these lesions showed an activation of Stat3 downstream to Jak1(S645P) and elevated tissue levels of IL-6. Histopathological analysis of liver revealed a nodular regenerative hyperplasia. In the spleen, the number of Russell bodies was doubled, correlating with significant increased levels of all immunoglobulin isotypes and anti-DNA antibodies in serum. Older mutant mice developed thrombocytopenia and altered microcytic red blood cell counts. Jak1(S645P+/-) mice showed phenotypes related to impaired bone metabolism as increased carboxy-terminal collagen cross-link-1 levels and alkaline phosphatase activities in plasma, hypophosphatemia, and strongly decreased bone morphometric values. Taken together, Jak1(S645P+/-) mice showed an increased activation of the IL-6-JAK-STAT pathway leading to a systemic lupus erythematosus-like phenotype and offering a new valuable tool to study the role of the JAK/STAT pathway in disease development. PMID:23791841

Sabrautzki, Sibylle; Janas, Eva; Lorenz-Depiereux, Bettina; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan A; Rathkolb, Birgit; Adler, Thure; Cohrs, Christian; Hans, Wolfgang; Diener, Susanne; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Busch, Dirk H; Höfler, Heinz; Ollert, Markus; Strom, Tim M; Wolf, Eckhard; Neff, Frauke; Hrab? de Angelis, Martin

2013-08-01

362

Quantification of Gordona amarae Strains in Foaming Activated Sludge and Anaerobic Digester Systems with Oligonucleotide Hybridization Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown the predominance of mycolic acid-containing filamentous actinomycetes (my- colata) in foam layers in activated sludge systems. Gordona (formerly Nocardia) amarae often is considered the major representative of this group in activated sludge foam. In this study, small-subunit rRNA genes of four G. amarae strains were sequenced, and the resulting sequences were compared to the sequence of

M. FIORELLA DE LOS REYES; MARK HERNANDEZ; LUTGARDE RASKIN

1998-01-01

363

Colitis Promotes Adaptation of an Intestinal Nematode: A Heligmosomoides Polygyrus Mouse Model System  

PubMed Central

The precise mechanism of the very effective therapeutic effect of gastrointestinal nematodes on some autoimmune diseases is not clearly understood and is currently being intensively investigated. Treatment with living helminths has been initiated to reverse intestinal immune-mediated diseases in humans. However, little attention has been paid to the phenotype of nematodes in the IBD-affected gut and the consequences of nematode adaptation. In the present study, exposure of Heligmosomoides polygyrus larvae to the changed cytokine milieu of the intestine during colitis reduced inflammation in an experimental model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)- induced colitis, but increased nematode establishment in the moderate-responder BALB/c mouse strain. We used mass spectrometry in combination with two-dimensional Western blotting to determine changes in protein expression and changes in nematode antigens recognized by IgG1 in mice with colitis. We show that nematode larvae immunogenicity is changed by colitis as soon as 6 days post-infection; IgG1 did not recognize highly conserved proteins Lev-11 (isoform 1 of tropomyosin ?1 chain), actin-4 isoform or FTT-2 isoform a (14-3-3 family) protein. These results indicate that changes in the small intestine provoked by colitis directly influence the nematode proteome. The unrecognized proteins seem to be key antigenic epitopes able to induce protective immune responses. The proteome changes were associated with weak immune recognition and increased larval adaptation and worm growth, altered localization in the intestine and increased survival of males but reduced worm fecundity. In this report, the mechanisms influencing nematode survival and the consequences of changed immunogenicity that reflect the immune response at the site colonized by the parasite in mice with colitis are described. The results are relevant to the use of live parasites to ameliorate IBD. PMID:24167594

Donskow-?ysoniewska, Katarzyna; Bien, Justyna; Brodaczewska, Klaudia; Krawczak, Katarzyna; Doligalska, Maria

2013-01-01

364

Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) in the mouse central nervous system: A neuroprotective role?  

SciTech Connect

The aims of this study were to characterize the expression of paraoxonase 2 (PON2) in mouse brain and to assess its antioxidant properties. PON2 levels were highest in the lung, intestine, heart and liver, and lower in the brain; in all tissues, PON2 expression was higher in female than in male mice. PON2 knockout [PON2{sup -/-}] mice did not express any PON2, as expected. In the brain, the highest levels of PON2 were found in the substantia nigra, the nucleus accumbens and the striatum, with lower levels in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and brainstem. A similar regional distribution of PON2 activity (measured by dihydrocoumarin hydrolysis) was also found. PON3 was not detected in any brain area, while PON1 was expressed at very low levels, and did not show any regional difference. PON2 levels were higher in astrocytes than in neurons isolated from all brain regions, and were highest in cells from the striatum. PON2 activity and mRNA levels followed a similar pattern. Brain PON2 levels were highest around birth, and gradually declined. Subcellular distribution experiments indicated that PON2 is primarily expressed in microsomes and in mitochondria. The toxicity in neurons and astrocytes of agents known to cause oxidative stress (DMNQ and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was higher in cells from PON2{sup -/-} mice than in the same cells from wild-type mice, despite similar glutathione levels. These results indicate that PON2 is expressed in the brain, and that higher levels are found in dopaminergic regions such as the striatum, suggesting that this enzyme may provide protection against oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity.

Giordano, Gennaro [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cole, Toby B. [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States) [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Dept. of Medicine (Div. of Medical Genetics), University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Dept. of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Furlong, Clement E. [Dept. of Medicine (Div. of Medical Genetics), University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States) [Dept. of Medicine (Div. of Medical Genetics), University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Dept. of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Costa, Lucio G., E-mail: lgcosta@u.washington.edu [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Dept. of Human Anatomy, Pharmacology and Forensic Science, University of Parma Medical School, Parma (Italy)

2011-11-15

365

China News Digest (CND)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

China News Digest (CND) is a non-profit organization aiming at providing news and other information services to readers who are concerned primarily about China-related affairs. All CND services are free of charge, and rely on CND volunteers to make this possible. CND is independent of any other organizations and strives to be impartial at the issues and news it reports. The history of CND began on March 6, 1989. Topics include: News digest about China and Chinese; Comprehensive Weekly Chinese Magazine in the Chinese Language; Collection of Chinese Classics (Lao Tsu, Chuang Tsu, Confucius, some novels); Software (public domain and shareware) to read/write Chinese code; Scenery pictures of China; map of China; Chinese calendar (check for the next Chinese New Year); Links to web sites in Mainland China and Taiwan; China Internet Info.

366

Cultural Entomology Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cultural Entomology Digest was published in four issues from 1993 to 1997. All issues are available online. More than 30 short articles on the use of insects in human culture are presented, covering a wide variety of fascinating topics from butterflies in mythology to insects in psychiatry to the use of beetles as religious symbols. The articles are both informative and entertaining, and are written by recognized authorities.

0002-11-30

367

DrugDigest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DrugDigest is a "noncommercial, evidence-based, consumer health and drug information site dedicated to empowering consumers to make informed choices about drugs and treatment options." This exhaustive Web site offers a variety of resources to help readers manage their health, including easy-to-read reference materials, a potentially life-saving drug interactions database, informative news and features, and eBulletins -- an email service that delivers news and information on selected health conditions, free of charge.

368

Web Digest for Marketers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Larry Chase, Web Digest for Marketers (WDM) was started in 1995, nearly a lifetime in Internet years. The site offers an archived weekly publication of "15 mercifully short reviews of marketing-oriented Web sites." Broken into catagories including Research, HTML, JavaScript, and FAQs, the sites are reviewed in a helpful, conversational style. Interested users are encouraged to subscribe to the email version of WDM.

369

Digest of Education Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in early 1996 made full text of the 1995 "Digest of Education Statistics" available via the Internet. This is the 31st in a series of publications begun in 1962. "Its primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of American education from kindergarten through graduate school." The Digest contains seven chapters: All Levels of Education, Elementary and Secondary Education, Postsecondary Education, Federal Programs for Education and Related Activities, Outcomes of Education, International Comparisons of Education, and Learning Resources and Technology. It contains 32 figures and 415 tables. Tables and figures are clearly labeled under their hypertext links, and tables are rendered as ASCII text. Tables are current through 1992-93. This is one of the most important primary sources of education statistics available. The gopher version of the Digest provides the tables and figures in compressed .zip files, and provides pointers to viewing and decompression software.

1996-01-01

370

Spatio-temporal characterization of the pleiotrophinergic system in mouse cerebellum: evidence for its key role during ontogenesis.  

PubMed

The development of the central nervous system requires an appropriate micro-environment that is conditioned by a combination of various extracellular components. Most of the known signaling factors, such as neurotransmitters or neuropeptides, are soluble and diffuse into the extracellular matrix. However, other secreted molecules like proteoglycans or glycosaminoglycans anchor in the extracellular matrix to influence cerebral ontogenesis. As such, pleiotrophin (PTN), which binds the proteoglycans syndecan-3 (SDC3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta (PTP?), has been described as a pro-migratory and a pro-differentiating secreted cytokine on cortical neurons. In rat cerebellum, PTN is highly expressed during the first postnatal week, suggesting that this cytokine could participate to the development of the cerebellar cortex. According to this hypothesis, our spatio-temporal cartography of PTN, PTP? and SDC3 indicated that, in mouse, the PTNergic system was present in the cerebellum at least from the first postnatal day (P0). Until P12, PTN was mainly expressed by granule cell precursors and located in the extracellular matrix, while SDC3 was expressed by Purkinje cells, Golgi cells and granule cell precursors, and PTP? was present on Purkinje cells and Bergmann fibers. In vitro studies confirmed the presence of SDC3 on immature granule cells and demonstrated that PTN could stimulate directly their velocity in culture. In contrast, subarachnoidal injection of PTN in the cerebellum significantly reduced the rate of migration of granule cells, exacerbated their apoptosis and induced an atrophy of the Purkinje cell dendritic tree. Since differentiated granule cells did not express SDC3 or PTP?, the PTN effect observed on migration and apoptosis may be indirectly mediated by Purkinje and/or Bergmann cells. From P21 to adulthood, the distribution of PTN, SDC3 and PTP? changed and their expression dramatically decreased even if they were still detectable. PTN and SDC3 immunolabeling was restricted around Purkinje cell bodies and Golgi cells, whereas PTP? was located around interneurons. These data suggested that, in the cerebellum of adult mice, PTN participates to the perineuronal nets that control neuronal plasticity. To conclude, the present work represents the first spatio-temporal characterization of the PTNergic system in the mouse cerebellum and indicates that PTN may contribute to cerebellum ontogenesis during the postnatal development as well as to neuronal plasticity at adulthood. PMID:23454176

Basille-Dugay, Magali; Hamza, Magda M; Tassery, Céline; Parent, Bénédicte; Raoult, Emilie; Bénard, Magalie; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Vaudry, David; Burel, Delphine C

2013-09-01

371

Atmosphere Behavior in Gas-Closed Mouse-Algal Systems: An Experimental and Modelling Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dual approach of mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere was initiated. The development of control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels is examined. A mathematical model simulating the atmospheric behavior in these systems was developed and an experimental gas closed system was constructed. These systems are described and preliminary results are presented.

Averner, M. M.; Moore, B., III; Bartholomew, I.; Wharton, R.

1985-01-01

372

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 29  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the twenty-ninth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It is a double issue covering two issues of the Soviet Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine Journal. Issue 29 contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A review of a book on environmental hygiene and a list of papers presented at a Soviet conference on space biology and medicine are also included. The materials in this issue were identified as relevant to 28 areas of space biology and medicine. The areas are: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, digestive system, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, space biology and medicine, and the economics of space flight.

Stone, Lydia Razran (editor); Teeter, Ronald (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)

1991-01-01

373

Potential digestibilities and digestion kinetics of forage cell wall components  

E-print Network

and Digestibility of NDF in Forages and Residues . . . . . . ~ EMS Associated with Various Models' Ability to Describe Digestion Kinetics. Rate Constants and Time Delay for Time Dependent- Time Delay Model 33 Correlation Coefficients for Relationship Between... fermentation for digestion. The incubated samples were transferred to 600 ml. Berzelius beakers with 100 ml. of neutral detergent solution and 0. 5 gm. sodium sulfite. This solution was refluxed for 60 minutes, 'timed from the onset of boiling. After...

Tauskey, William Henry

1973-01-01

374

Design optimization of multi-pinhole micro-SPECT configurations by signal detection tasks and system performance evaluations for mouse cardiac imaging.  

PubMed

An optimized configuration of multi-pinhole aperture can improve the spatial resolution and the sensitivity of pinhole SPECT simultaneously. In this study, an optimization strategy of the multi-pinhole configuration with a small detector is proposed for mouse cardiac imaging. A 14?mm-diameter spherical field-of-view (FOV) is used to accommodate the mouse heart. To accelerate the optimization process, the analytic models are applied to rapidly obtain the projection areas of the FOV, the sensitivities and the spatial resolutions of numerous system designs. The candidates of optimal multi-pinhole configuration are then decided by the preliminary evaluations with the analytic models. Subsequently, the pinhole SPECT systems equipped with the designed multi-pinhole apertures are modeled in GATE to generate the imaging system matrices (H matrices) for the system performance assessments. The area under the ROC curves (AUC) of the designed systems is evaluated by signal-known-exactly/background-known-statistically detection tasks with their corresponding H matrices. In addition, the spatial resolutions are estimated by the Fourier crosstalk approach, and the sensitivities are calculated with the H matrices of designed systems, respectively. Furthermore, a series of OSEM reconstruction images of synthetic phantoms, including the hot-rod phantom, mouse heart phantom and Defrise phantom, are reconstructed with the H matrices of designed systems. To quantify the sensitivity and resolution competition in the optimization process, the AUC from the detection tasks and the resolution estimated by the Fourier crosstalk are used as the figure of merits. A trade-off function of AUC and resolution is introduced to find the optimal multi-pinhole configuration. According to the examining results, a 22.5° rotated detector plus a 4-pinhole aperture with 22.5° rotation, 20% multiplexing and 1.52X magnification is the optimized multi-pinhole configuration for the micro pinhole-SPECT applied to mouse cardiac imaging with a camera of 49? × ?49?mm(2) active area. PMID:25548860

Lee, M-W; Lin, W-T; Chen, Y-C

2015-01-21

375

Design optimization of multi-pinhole micro-SPECT configurations by signal detection tasks and system performance evaluations for mouse cardiac imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimized configuration of multi-pinhole aperture can improve the spatial resolution and the sensitivity of pinhole SPECT simultaneously. In this study, an optimization strategy of the multi-pinhole configuration with a small detector is proposed for mouse cardiac imaging. A 14?mm-diameter spherical field-of-view (FOV) is used to accommodate the mouse heart. To accelerate the optimization process, the analytic models are applied to rapidly obtain the projection areas of the FOV, the sensitivities and the spatial resolutions of numerous system designs. The candidates of optimal multi-pinhole configuration are then decided by the preliminary evaluations with the analytic models. Subsequently, the pinhole SPECT systems equipped with the designed multi-pinhole apertures are modeled in GATE to generate the imaging system matrices (H matrices) for the system performance assessments. The area under the ROC curves (AUC) of the designed systems is evaluated by signal-known-exactly/background-known-statistically detection tasks with their corresponding H matrices. In addition, the spatial resolutions are estimated by the Fourier crosstalk approach, and the sensitivities are calculated with the H matrices of designed systems, respectively. Furthermore, a series of OSEM reconstruction images of synthetic phantoms, including the hot-rod phantom, mouse heart phantom and Defrise phantom, are reconstructed with the H matrices of designed systems. To quantify the sensitivity and resolution competition in the optimization process, the AUC from the detection tasks and the resolution estimated by the Fourier crosstalk are used as the figure of merits. A trade-off function of AUC and resolution is introduced to find the optimal multi-pinhole configuration. According to the examining results, a 22.5° rotated detector plus a 4-pinhole aperture with 22.5° rotation, 20% multiplexing and 1.52X magnification is the optimized multi-pinhole configuration for the micro pinhole-SPECT applied to mouse cardiac imaging with a camera of 49? × ?49?mm2 active area.

Lee, M.-W.; Lin, W.-T.; Chen, Y.-C.

2015-01-01

376

Whole Mouse Cryo-Imaging  

PubMed Central

The Case cryo-imaging system is a section and image system which allows one to acquire micron-scale, information rich, whole mouse color bright field and molecular fluorescence images of an entire mouse. Cryo-imaging is used in a variety of applications, including mouse and embryo anatomical phenotyping, drug delivery, imaging agents, metastastic cancer, stem cells, and very high resolution vascular imaging, among many. Cryo-imaging fills the gap between whole animal in vivo imaging and histology, allowing one to image a mouse along the continuum from the mouse ? organ ? tissue structure ? cell ? sub-cellular domains. In this overview, we describe the technology and a variety of exciting applications. Enhancements to the system now enable tiled acquisition of high resolution images to cover an entire mouse. High resolution fluorescence imaging, aided by a novel subtraction processing algorithm to remove sub-surface fluorescence, makes it possible to detect fluorescently-labeled single cells. Multi-modality experiments in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cryo-imaging of a whole mouse demonstrate superior resolution of cryo-images and efficiency of registration techniques. The 3D results demonstrate the novel true-color volume visualization tools we have developed and the inherent advantage of cryo-imaging in providing unlimited depth of field and spatial resolution. The recent results continue to demonstrate the value cryo-imaging provides in the field of small animal imaging research. PMID:19756215

Wilson, David; Roy, Debashish; Steyer, Grant; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Stone, Meredith; McKinley, Eliot

2009-01-01

377

Minimizing Carry-Over in an Online Pepsin Digestion System used for the H/D Exchange Mass Spectrometric Analysis of an IgG1 Monoclonal Antibody  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromatographic carry-over can severely distort measurements of amide H/D exchange in proteins analyzed by LC/MS. In this work, we explored the origin of carry-over in the online digestion of an IgG1 monoclonal antibody using an immobilized pepsin column under quenched H/D exchange conditions (pH 2.5, 0 °C). From a consensus list of 169 different peptides consistently detected during digestion of this large, ~150 kDa protein, approximately 30 % of the peptic peptides exhibited carry-over. The majority of carry-over originates from the online digestion. Carry-over can be substantially decreased by washing the online digestion flow-path and pepsin column with two wash cocktails: [acetonitrile (5 %)/ isopropanol (5 %)/ acetic acid (20 %) in water] and [2 M guanidine hydrochloride in 100 mM phosphate buffer pH 2.5]. Extended use of this two-step washing procedure does not adversely affect the specificity or activity of the immobilized pepsin column. The results suggest that although the mechanism of carry-over appears to be chemical in nature, and not hydrodynamic, carry-over cannot be attributed to a single factor such as mass, abundance, pI, or hydrophobicity of the peptides.

Majumdar, Ranajoy; Manikwar, Prakash; Hickey, John M.; Arora, Jayant; Middaugh, C. Russell; Volkin, David B.; Weis, David D.

2012-12-01

378

Effect of simulated processing on the antioxidant capacity and in vitro protein digestion of fruit juice-milk beverage model systems.  

PubMed

The effects of simulated processing (pH adjustment and thermal treatment) on the antioxidant capacity and in vitro protein digestion of fruit juice-milk beverage (FJMB) models consisting of whey protein (WP), and chlorogenic acid (CHA) or catechin (CAT) were investigated. Results indicated that CAT was more susceptible to processing than CHA, and showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in ABTS and FRAP after sterilization (121°C/10min) and pH adjustment to 6.8. WP addition had different effects (none, masking, synergetic effect) on the antioxidant activity of FJMB. Pasteurization (63°C/30min) and pH adjustment (pH 3.7 or pH 6.8) had either non-significant or slight effects on FJMB's antioxidant capacity, while sterilization significantly (p<0.05) increased or decreased its ABTS and FRAP depending on the different models. In vitro digestion of WP in FJMB was obviously (p<0.05) inhibited by phenolics to varying degrees, and little influenced (p>0.05) by pasteurization, whereas sterilization initially accelerated WP digestion but did not change its overall digestibility. PMID:25577106

He, Zhiyong; Yuan, Bo; Zeng, Maomao; Tao, Guanjun; Chen, Jie

2015-05-15

379

Exercise intolerance and systemic manifestations of pulmonary emphysema in a mouse model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) significantly contribute to severity and mortality of the disease. We aimed to develop a COPD\\/emphysema model exhibiting systemic manifestations of the disease. METHODS: Female NMRI mice were treated 5 times intratracheally with porcine pancreatic elastase (emphysema) or phosphate-buffered saline (control). Emphysema severity was quantified histologically by mean linear intercept, exercise tolerance

Lars Lüthje; Tobias Raupach; Hellmuth Michels; Bernhard Unsöld; Gerd Hasenfuss; Harald Kögler; Stefan Andreas

2009-01-01

380

Conservation and divergence in the transcriptional programs of the human and mouse immune systems  

E-print Network

Much of the knowledge about cell differentiation and function in the immune system has come from studies in mice, but the relevance to human immunology, diseases, and therapy has been challenged, perhaps more from anecdotal ...

Shay, Tal

381

COMPARISON OF SYSTEMIC AND MUCOSAL ROUTES OF SENSITIZATION TO OVALBUMIN ANTIGEN IN THREE MOUSE STRAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several studies have shown strain differences in allergic lung responses following ovalbumin (OVA) antigen sensitization and challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these differences were maintained between systemic and mucosal sensitization routes, and to ...

382

System for remote multichannel real-time monitoring of mouse ECG via the Internet  

E-print Network

A hardware/software system was developed to allow real-time monitoring of multiple physiological signals simultaneously via the Internet. The hardware is specifically designed for measuring ECG signals from mice, while the ...

Oefinger, Matthew Blake, 1976-

2003-01-01

383

A new X-ray computed tomography system for laboratory mouse imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two versions of a new high-resolution X-ray computed tomography system are being developed to screen mutagenized mice in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Mammalian Genetics Research Facility. The first prototype employs a single-pixel CdZnTe detector with a pinhole collimator operating in pulse counting mode. The second version employs a phosphor screen\\/CCD detector operating in current mode. The major system hardware

M. J. Paulus; H. Sari-Sarraf; S. S. Gleason; M. Bobrek; J. S. Hicks; D. K. Johnson; J. K. Behel; L. H. Thompson; W. C. Allen

1999-01-01

384

Mouse Housing System Using Pressurized Cages Intraventilated by Direct-Current Microfans  

PubMed Central

We performed the initial assessment of an alternative pressurized intraventilated (PIV) caging system for laboratory mice that uses direct-current microfans to achieve cage pressurization and ventilation. Twenty-nine pairs of female SPF BALB/c mice were used, with 19 experimental pairs kept in PIV cages and 10 control pairs kept in regular filter-top (FT) cages. Both groups were housed in a standard housing room with a conventional atmospheric control system. For both systems, intracage temperatures were in equilibrium with ambient room temperature. PIV cages showed a significant difference in pressure between days 1 and 8. Air speed (and consequently airflow rate) and the number of air changes hourly in the PIV cages showed decreasing trends. In both systems, ammonia concentrations increased with time, with significant differences between groups starting on day 1. Overall, the data revealed that intracage pressurization and ventilation by using microfans is a simple, reliable system, with low cost, maintenance requirements, and incidence of failures. Further experiments are needed to determine the potential influence of this system on the reproductive performance and pulmonary integrity in mice. PMID:22776117

Martinewski, Alexandre; Correia, Caio SC; de Souza, Nívea L; Merusse, José LB

2012-01-01

385

Systemic administration of tripeptidyl peptidase I in a mouse model of late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis: effect of glycan modification.  

PubMed

Late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL) is a recessive genetic disease of childhood caused by deficiencies in the lysosomal protease tripeptidyl peptidase I (TPP1). Disease is characterized by progressive and extensive neuronal death. One hurdle towards development of enzyme replacement therapy is delivery of TPP1 to the brain. In this study, we evaluated the effect of modifying N-linked glycans on recombinant human TPP1 on its pharmacokinetic properties after administration via tail vein injection to a mouse model of LINCL. Unmodified TPP1 exhibited a dose-dependent serum half-life of 12 min (0.12 mg) to 45 min (2 mg). Deglycosylation or modification using sodium metaperiodate oxidation and reduction with sodium borohydride increased the circulatory half-life but did not improve targeting to the brain compared to unmodified TPP1. Analysis of liver, brain, spleen, kidney and lung demonstrated that for all preparations, >95% of the recovered activity was in the liver. Interestingly, administration of a single 2 mg dose (80 mg/kg) of unmodified TPP1 resulted in ?10% of wild-type activity in brain. This suggests that systemic administration of unmodified recombinant enzyme merits further exploration as a potential therapy for LINCL. PMID:22792360

Meng, Yu; Sohar, Istvan; Wang, Lingling; Sleat, David E; Lobel, Peter

2012-01-01

386

Promoting Myelination in an In Vitro Mouse Model of the Peripheral Nerve System: The Effect of Wine Ingredients  

PubMed Central

Protective properties of moderate wine consumption against cancers, cardiovascular, metabolic and degenerative diseases have been reported in various clinical studies. Here, we analysed the effect of red wine (RW) and white wine (WW) on myelination using an in vitro embryonic co-culture mouse model. The total amount of myelin was found to be significantly increased after RW and WW treatment, while only RW significantly increased the number of internodes. Both types of wine increased rat Schwann cell- (rSC) expression of the NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-two-homolog 2 (Sirt2), a protein known to be involved in myelination. Detailed chemical analysis of RW revealed a broad spectrum of anthocyanins, piceids, and phenolics, including resveratrol (RSV). In our assay system RSV in low concentrations induced myelination. Furthermore RSV raised intracellular glutathione concentrations in rSCs and in co-cultures and therefore augmented antioxidant capacity. We conclude that wine promotes myelination in a rodent in vitro model by controlling intracellular metabolism and SC plasticity. During this process, RSV exhibits protective properties; however, the fostering effect on myelinaton during exposure to wine appears to be a complex interaction of various compounds. PMID:23762469

Stettner, Mark; Wolffram, Kathleen; Mausberg, Anne K.; Albrecht, Philipp; Derksen, Angelika; Methner, Axel; Dehmel, Thomas; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Dietrich, Helmut; Kieseier, Bernd C.

2013-01-01

387

Fiber optic light-scattering measurement system for evaluation of embryo viability: light-scattering characteristics from live mouse embryo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured angular distribution of the light scattering from live mouse embryo with 632.8nm in wavelength to evaluate the embryo viability. We aim to measure the mitochondrial density in human embryo which have relation to the embryo viability. We have constructed the light scattering measurement system to detect the mitochondrial density non-invasively. We have employed two optical fibers for the illumination and sensing to change the angle between these fibers. There were two dips on the scattering angular distribution from the embryo. These dips existed on 30 and 85 deg. We calculated the scattering angular pattern by Mie theory to fit the measured scattering estimated scattering size and density. The best fitting was obtained when the particle size and density were 0.9 micrometers and 1010 particles per ml, respectively. These values coincided with the approximated values of mitochondrial in the embryo. The measured light scattering may mainly originated from mitochondria in spite of the existence of the various scattering particles in the embryo. Since our simple scattering measurement may offer the mitochondrial density in the embryo, it might become the practical method of human embryo on in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

Itoh, Harumi; Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto

1997-06-01

388

The Wavelet Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology-Lausanne offers a wealth of resources "intended to foster the exchange of knowledge and viewpoints related to theory and applications of wavelets." The institute's free publication, the Wavelet Digest, offers links to preprints of various publications on wavelets and their applications. An archive of issues going back to 1992 is also available to browse and download via an anonymous ftp. In addition, Wavelet.org also hosts a discussion forum for questions regarding wavelets and posts a listing of books, software, demos, tutorials considered "the most essential resources." A calendar of events provides updates on conferences and workshops.

389

Problems of the Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... I have acid reflux more than twice a week? • What are hemorrhoids? • What causes hemorrhoids? • Can hemorrhoids ... I have acid reflux more than twice a week? If acid reflux occurs more than twice a ...

390

Inquiring into the Digestive System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching science by means of inquiry-based projects has the potential to transform the science lab into a place of debate and discovery, but teachers run the risk of either leaving students to work too independently or forcing them to be too dependent on our guidance. To counter these challenges, the author implemented changes in the way topics…

Schroeder, Carlos

2007-01-01

391

Alteration of N-glycosylation in the kidney in a mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus: relative quantification of N-glycans using an isotope-tagging method  

PubMed Central

Changes in the glycan structures of some glycoproteins have been observed in autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis. A deficiency of ?-mannosidase II, which is associated with branching in N-glycans, has been found to induce SLE-like glomerular nephritis in a mouse model. These findings suggest that the alteration of the glycosylation has some link with the development of SLE. An analysis of glycan alteration in the disordered tissues in SLE may lead to the development of improved diagnostic methods and may help to clarify the carbohydrate-related pathogenic mechanism of inflammation in SLE. In this study, a comprehensive and differential analysis of N-glycans in kidneys from SLE-model mice and control mice was performed by using the quantitative glycan profiling method that we have developed previously. In this method, a mixture of deuterium-labelled N-glycans from the kidneys of SLE-model mice and non-labelled N-glycans from kidneys of control mice was analysed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. It was revealed that the low-molecular-mass glycans with simple structures, including agalactobiantennary and paucimannose-type oligosaccharides, markedly increased in the SLE-model mouse. On the other hand, fucosylated and galactosylated complex type glycans with high branching were decreased in the SLE-model mouse. These results suggest that the changes occurring in the N-glycan synthesis pathway may cause the aberrant glycosylations on not only specific glycoproteins but also on most of the glycoproteins in the SLE-model mouse. The changes in glycosylation might be involved in autoimmune pathogenesis in the model mouse kidney. PMID:18710403

Hashii, Noritaka; Kawasaki, Nana; Itoh, Satsuki; Nakajima, Yukari; Kawanishi, Toru; Yamaguchi, Teruhide

2009-01-01

392

Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

393

Effect of Farnesol on a Mouse Model of Systemic Candidiasis, Determined by Use of a DPP3 Knockout Mutant of Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work extends our previous observation that the fungus Candida albicans secretes micromolar levels of farnesol and that accumulation of farnesol in vitro prevents the yeast-to-mycelium conversion in a quorumsensing manner. What does farnesol do in vivo? The purpose of this study was to determine the role of farnesol during infection with a well-established mouse model of systemic candidiasis with

Dhammika H. M. L. P. Navarathna; Jacob M. Hornby; Navasona Krishnan; Anne M. Parkhurst; Gerald E. Duhamel; Kenneth Nickerson

2007-01-01

394

A Brain Site for the Antigonadal Action of Melatonin in the White-Footed Mouse (Peromyscus (leucopus): Involvement of the Immunoreactive GnRH Neuronal System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative assessment of immunocytochemical staining for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was undertaken to determine the effects of an intracranial implant of melatonin on the GnRH neuronal system in the male white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). Melatonin-containing pellets stereotaxically placed in the anterior hypothalamic area (AH) caused a 60% reduction in testes weight relative to control mice with melatonin-free pellets in the AH

David Glass; Lori K. Knotts

1987-01-01

395

Antidepressant-type effect of the NK3 tachykinin receptor agonist aminosenktide in mouse lines differing in endogenous opioid system activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the tachykinin NK3 receptor agonist, aminosenktide on the immobility in the forced swimming test was studied in mouse lines selectively bred for divergent magnitudes of stress-induced analgesia. The high analgesia (HA) line is known to display enhanced, and the low analgesia (LA) line displays reduced activity of the opioid system. Aminosenktide at doses of 125 ?g\\/kg or

I Panocka; M Massi; I Lapo; T Swiderski; M Kowalczyk; B Sadowski

2001-01-01

396

Restoring systemic GDF11 levels reverses age-related dysfunction in mouse skeletal muscle#  

PubMed Central

Parabiosis experiments indicate that impaired regeneration in aged mice is reversible by exposure to a young circulation, suggesting that young blood contains humoral “rejuvenating” factors that can restore regenerative function. Here, we demonstrate that the circulating protein Growth Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF11) is a rejuvenating factor for skeletal muscle. Supplementation of systemic GDF11 levels, which normally decline with age, by heterochronic parabiosis or systemic delivery of recombinant protein, reversed functional impairments and restored genomic integrity in aged muscle stem cells (satellite cells). Increased GDF11 levels in aged mice also improved muscle structural and functional features and increased strength and endurance exercise capacity. These data indicate that GDF11 systemically regulates muscle aging and may be therapeutically useful for reversing age-related skeletal muscle and stem cell dysfunction. PMID:24797481

Sinha, Manisha; Jang, Young C.; Oh, Juhyun; Khong, Danika; Wu, Elizabeth Y.; Manohar, Rohan; Miller, Christine; Regalado, Samuel G.; Loffredo, Francesco S.; Pancoast, James R.; Hirshman, Michael F.; Lebowitz, Jessica; Shadrach, Jennifer L.; Cerletti, Massimiliano; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Serwold, Thomas; Goodyear, Laurie J.; Rosner, Bernard; Lee, Richard T.; Wagers, Amy J.

2014-01-01

397

Restoring systemic GDF11 levels reverses age-related dysfunction in mouse skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Parabiosis experiments indicate that impaired regeneration in aged mice is reversible by exposure to a young circulation, suggesting that young blood contains humoral "rejuvenating" factors that can restore regenerative function. Here, we demonstrate that the circulating protein growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a rejuvenating factor for skeletal muscle. Supplementation of systemic GDF11 levels, which normally decline with age, by heterochronic parabiosis or systemic delivery of recombinant protein, reversed functional impairments and restored genomic integrity in aged muscle stem cells (satellite cells). Increased GDF11 levels in aged mice also improved muscle structural and functional features and increased strength and endurance exercise capacity. These data indicate that GDF11 systemically regulates muscle aging and may be therapeutically useful for reversing age-related skeletal muscle and stem cell dysfunction. PMID:24797481

Sinha, Manisha; Jang, Young C; Oh, Juhyun; Khong, Danika; Wu, Elizabeth Y; Manohar, Rohan; Miller, Christine; Regalado, Samuel G; Loffredo, Francesco S; Pancoast, James R; Hirshman, Michael F; Lebowitz, Jessica; Shadrach, Jennifer L; Cerletti, Massimiliano; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Serwold, Thomas; Goodyear, Laurie J; Rosner, Bernard; Lee, Richard T; Wagers, Amy J

2014-05-01

398

Lasers in digestive endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lasers were introduced in digestive endoscopy to stop active gastroduodenal hemorrhages. Their use spread progressively to the treatment of chronic hemorrhages from vascular malformations and sessile tumors. Laser face competition from other endoscopic techniques such as electrocoagulation, injection techniques, dilation, stents, and brachytherapy. Many series have reported the efficacy of lasers in digestive endoscopy used for their thermal or photochemical effects. However, they were gradually abandoned for the treatment of hemorrhages because of competition from nonlaser techniques. Lasers are still used for ablation of sessile tumors, but their true impact is difficult to evaluate. Modern methods of technology assessment did not allow gastroenterologists to clearly define the place of lasers among surgery, radio-chemotherapy, and other endoscopic techniques, and data on the daily use of lasers are not available. Therefore, the conclusion can only be subjective. The best current application of thermal lasers appears to be in the treatment of rectosigmoid villous adenomas in elderly patients. Small superficial rectal cancers may also become a good subject due to the impact of endoscopic ultrasonography. Early lesions with multifocal or diffuse disease such as early esophageal cancers could be the most promising subject of application for photodynamic therapy in the future.

Brunetaud, Jean Marc; Maunoury, Vincent; Cochelard, Dominique

1997-01-01

399

Efficient Web Change Monitoring with Page Digest  

SciTech Connect

The Internet and the World Wide Web have enabled a publishing explosion of useful online information, which has produced the unfortunate side effect of information overload: it is increasingly difficult for individuals to keep abreast of fresh information. In this paper we describe an approach for building a system for efficiently monitoring changes to Web documents. This paper has three main contributions. First, we present a coherent framework that captures different characteristics of Web documents. The system uses the Page Digest encoding to provide a comprehensive monitoring system for content, structure, and other interesting properties of Web documents. Second, the Page Digest encoding enables improved performance for individual page monitors through mechanisms such as short-circuit evaluation, linear time algorithms for document and structure similarity, and data size reduction. Finally, we develop a collection of sentinel grouping techniques based on the Page Digest encoding to reduce redundant processing in large-scale monitoring systems by grouping similar monitoring requests together. We examine how effective these techniques are over a wide range of parameters and have seen an order of magnitude speed up over existing Web-based information monitoring systems.

Buttler, D J; Rocco, D; Liu, L

2004-02-20

400

Late-gestational systemic hypoxia leads to a similar early gene response in mouse placenta and developing brain.  

PubMed

Late-gestational intrauterine hypoxia represents a well-known risk factor of acquired perinatal brain injury. Cell type and age-specific sensitivity of hypoxia-responsive genes to low-oxygen partial pressure is to be considered in the screening for early indicators of fetoplacental tissue hypoxia. To identify early hypoxia-induced alterations in gene expression during late-gestational hypoxia (6% O(2), 6 h; gestational day 20) we compared primary mouse placenta and brain transcriptomes using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. Upregulation of candidate marker genes for hypoxia was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Both developing brain and placenta were highly responsive to systemic hypoxia at the level of gene expression involving hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-dependent genes and immediate early genes (IEG) (Fos, Jun, Egr1, Bhlhb2), apoptosis-promoting factors (Bnip3, Dusp1, Ier3) that were all upregulated, and genes modulating RNA binding and translation (Rbm3, Thap2, Lig4, Rbm12b) that mainly were downregulated. Functional activity of the HIF system was obvious from elevated expression of various known HIF target genes (Adm, Vegf, Hk2, Pdk1, Bnip3, Ier3, Dusp-1), indicating immediate availability among early response to acute hypoxia. In addition, genes not yet described as being hypoxia related were identified that are involved in angiogenesis/cell differentiation (Gna13, Gab2), mRNA processing, and embryonic development. RT-PCR of placenta and brain tissues confirmed upregulation of selected HIF target genes and IEG. These data indicate that the early hypoxia-induced genomic response of the placenta mirrors that of developing brain in a temporally parallel manner. Our observations implicate future diagnostic options to identify fetal and cerebral tissue hypoxia. PMID:20926767

Trollmann, Regina; Rehrauer, Hubert; Schneider, Christina; Krischke, Gudrun; Huemmler, Nicolas; Keller, Stephan; Rascher, Wolfgang; Gassmann, Max

2010-12-01

401

[Phagocytic activity of leaves of Epimedium species on mouse reticuloendotherial system].  

PubMed

Effects of a 70% methanolic extract (E-S) from the dried leaves of Epimedium sagittatum on a phagocytic activity of reticuloendothelial system were studied by the carbon clearance method in mice. The clearance-rate of carbon significantly increased 1 h after the oral administration of E-S (200 or 500 mg/kg, one time/d for 5d). E-S activated the phagocytosis of carbon by Kupffer cells in the liver. Icariin and epimedin C isolated from E-S also activated the phagocytosis. These results suggest that E-S promotes the phagocytic activity of the reticuloendothelial system in mice and has a stimulatory effect on macrophage. PMID:2374090

Iinuma, M; Tanaka, T; Sakakibara, N; Mizuno, M; Matsuda, H; Shiomoto, H; Kubo, M

1990-03-01

402

Psychogenic, Neurogenic, and Systemic Stressor Effects on Plasma Corticosterone and Behavior: Mouse Strain-Dependent Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of several stressors were assessed in inbred strains of mice, BALB\\/cByJ and C57BL\\/6ByJ, thought to be differentially reactive to stressors. Behavioral reactivity was greater in BALB\\/cByJ mice with respect to open-field emergence, step-down responding, response to a predator (rat) or to fox urine odor. Neurogenic insults (e.g., footshock, forced swim, restraint) and a systemic stressor (intraperitoneal interleukin-1? treatment)

Hymie Anisman; Shawn Hayley; Owen Kelly; Thomas Borowski; Zul Merali

2001-01-01

403

Systemic inflammation is associated with a reduction in Synaptopodin expression in the mouse hippocampus.  

PubMed

Systemic inflammation is known to affect memory function through the activation of immune cells and the release of inflammatory cytokines. However, the neuronal targets by which inflammatory signaling pathways affect synaptic plasticity remain not well understood. Here, we addressed the question of whether systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation influences the expression of Synaptopodin (SP). SP is an actin-binding protein, which is considered to control the ability of neurons to express synaptic plasticity by regulating the actin-cytoskeleton and/or intracellular Ca(2+) stores. This makes SP an interesting target molecule in the context of inflammation-induced alterations in synaptic plasticity. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR)-analysis and immunohistochemistry we here demonstrate that intraperitoneal LPS-injection in two-month old male Balb/c mice leads to a reduction in hippocampal SP-levels (area CA1; 24h after injection). These changes are accompanied by a defect in the ability to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) of Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, similar to what is observed in SP-deficient mice. We therefore propose that systemic inflammation could exert its effects on neural plasticity, at least in part, through the down-regulation of SP in vivo. PMID:24837317

Strehl, Andreas; Lenz, Maximilian; Itsekson-Hayosh, Zeev; Becker, Denise; Chapman, Joab; Deller, Thomas; Maggio, Nicola; Vlachos, Andreas

2014-11-01

404

Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the semi-arid tropics worldwide, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated by farmers on a subsistence level and consumed as food by humans. A nutritional limitation to its use is the poor digestibility of sorghum protein when wet cooked. The factors affecting wet cooked sorghum protein digestibility may be categorised into two main groups: exogenous factors (grain organisational structure,

K. G Duodu; J. R. N Taylor; P. S Belton; B. R Hamaker

2003-01-01

405

Digest of Education Statistics, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 1998 edition of the "Digest of Education Statistics" is the 34th in a series of publications initiated in 1962. Its primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of American education from kindergarten through graduate school. The digest includes data from many government and private sources,…

Snyder, Thomas D.; Hoffman, Charlene M.; Geddes, Claire M.

406

Digest of Education Statistics, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 1996 edition of the "Digest of Education Statistics" is the 32nd in a series of publications initiated in 1962. Its primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of American education from kindergarten through graduate school. The digest includes data from many government and private sources,…

Snyder, Thomas D.; And Others

407

Digest of Education Statistics, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 1997 edition of the "Digest of Education Statistics" is the 32nd in a series of publications initiated in 1962. Its primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of American education from kindergarten through graduate school. The digest includes data from many government and private sources,…

Snyder, Thomas D.; Hoffman, Charlene M.; Geddes, Claire M.

408

Children and Grief. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the death of a loved one brings grief to children as well as adults, this Digest draws on research to examine how children respond to death and the role of parents and teachers in helping children cope with loss. The Digest delineates children's "tasks" during mourning that are essential to their adjustment to loss, such as accepting…

McEntire, Nancy

409

Gene expression in the digestive tissues of ruminants and their relationships with feeding and digestive processes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract has multiple functions including digestion, nutrient absorption, secretion of hormones, and excretion of wastes. In the ruminant animal, development of this organ system is more complex than that of the monogastric animal due to the necessity to establish a fully func...

410

Molecular and cellular neuroinflammatory status of mouse brain after systemic lipopolysaccharide challenge: importance of CCR2/CCL2 signaling  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic and environmental factors are critical elements influencing the etiology of major depression. It is now accepted that neuroinflammatory processes play a major role in neuropsychological disorders. Neuroinflammation results from the dysregulation of the synthesis and/or release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines with central or peripheral origin after various insults. Systemic bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge is commonly used to study inflammation-induced depressive-like behaviors in rodents. In the present study, we investigated immune-to-brain communication in mice by examining the effects of peripheral LPS injection on neuroinflammation encompassing cytokine and chemokine production, microglia and central nervous system (CNS)-associated phagocyte activation, immune cell infiltration and serotonergic neuronal function. Methods LPS was administered to C57BL/6 J mice by intraperitoneal injection; brains were collected and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA and proteins were measured. To examine the relative contribution of the different populations of brain immune cells to the occurrence of neuroinflammation after acute systemic inflammation, we precisely characterized them by flow cytometry, studied changes in their proportions and level of activation, and measured the amount of cytokines they released by Cytometric Bead Array™ after cell sorting and ex vivo culture. Because of the central role that the chemokine CCL2 seems to play in our paradigm, we studied the effect of CCL2 on the activity of serotonergic neurons of the raphe nucleus using electrophysiological recordings. Results We report that systemic LPS administration in mice caused a marked increase in pro-inflammatory IL-1?, IL-6, TNF? and CCL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) mRNA and protein levels in the brain. Moreover, we found that LPS caused microglia and CNS-associated phagocyte activation characterized by upregulation of CCR2, TLR4/CD14, CD80 and IL-4R?, associated with overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, especially CCL2. LPS also induced a marked and selective increase of CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes within the brain. Finally, we showed that CCL2 hyperpolarized serotonergic raphe neurons in mouse midbrain slices, thus probably reducing the serotonin tone in projection areas. Conclusion Together, we provide a detailed characterization of the molecular and cellular players involved in the establishment of neuroinflammation after systemic injection of LPS. This highlights the importance of the CCL2/CCR2 signaling and suggests a possible link with depressive disorders. PMID:25065370

2014-01-01

411

Genome-Wide Screen for Salmonella Genes Required for Long-Term Systemic Infection of the Mouse  

PubMed Central

A microarray-based negative selection screen was performed to identify Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (serovar Typhimurium) genes that contribute to long-term systemic infection in 129X1/SvJ (Nramp1r) mice. A high-complexity transposon-mutagenized library was used to infect mice intraperitoneally, and the selective disappearance of mutants was monitored after 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postinfection. One hundred and eighteen genes were identified to contribute to serovar Typhimurium infection of the spleens of mice by 28 d postinfection. The negatively selected mutants represent many known aspects of Salmonella physiology and pathogenesis, although the majority of the identified genes are of putative or unknown function. Approximately 30% of the negatively selected genes correspond to horizontally acquired regions such as those within Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI 1–5), prophages (Gifsy-1 and ?2 and remnant), and the pSLT virulence plasmid. In addition, mutations in genes responsible for outer membrane structure and remodeling, such as LPS- and PhoP-regulated and fimbrial genes, were also selected against. Competitive index experiments demonstrated that the secreted SPI2 effectors SseK2 and SseJ as well as the SPI4 locus are attenuated relative to wild-type bacteria during systemic infection. Interestingly, several SPI1-encoded type III secretion system effectors/translocases are required by serovar Typhimurium to establish and, unexpectedly, to persist systemically, challenging the present description of Salmonella pathogenesis. Moreover, we observed a progressive selection against serovar Typhimurium mutants based upon the duration of the infection, suggesting that different classes of genes may be required at distinct stages of infection. Overall, these data indicate that Salmonella long-term systemic infection in the mouse requires a diverse repertoire of virulence factors. This diversity of genes presumably reflects the fact that bacteria sequentially encounter a variety of host environments and that Salmonella has evolved to respond to these selective forces in a way that permits both the bacteria and the host to survive. PMID:16518469

Thompson, Lucinda J; Kim, Charles C; Govoni, Gregory R; Monack, Denise M

2006-01-01

412

Weighing up whey fortification of foods: Implications for kinetics of starch digestion and estimated glycemic index of model high-protein-low-carbohydrate food systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixtures of whey protein isolate (20 and 50%) and wheat starch, as a model high-protein-low-carbohydrate (HPLC) food, were extruded in a twin-screw extruder by changing moisture, temperature and screw speed. Longitudinal expansion increased with whey, and screw speed enhanced transverse expansion. In vitro starch digestion revealed monophasic digestograms for extrudates and non-extrudates. A modified first-order kinetic model suitably predicted the

L.-Z. Yong; C. H. Chan; C. Garcia; P. A. Sopade

2011-01-01

413

THE mPER2 CLOCK GENE MODULATES COCAINE ACTIONS IN THE MOUSE CIRCADIAN SYSTEM  

PubMed Central

Cocaine is a potent disruptor of photic and non-photic pathways for circadian entrainment of the master circadian clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). These actions of cocaine likely involve its modulation of molecular (clock gene) components for SCN clock timekeeping. At present, however, the physiological basis of such an interaction is unclear. To address this question, we compared photic and non-photic phase-resetting responses between wild-type (WT) and Per2 mutant mice expressing nonfunctional PER2 protein to systemic and intra-SCN cocaine administrations. In the systemic trials, cocaine was administered i.p. (20 mg/kg) either at midday or prior to a light pulse in the early night to assess its non-photic and photic behavioral phase-resetting actions, respectively. In the intra-SCN trial, cocaine was administered by reverse microdialysis at midday to determine if the SCN is a direct target for its non-photic phase-resetting action. Non-photic phase-advancing responses to i.p. cocaine at midday were significantly (~3.5-fold) greater in Per2 mutants than WTs. However, the phase-advancing action of intra-SCN cocaine perfusion at midday did not differ between genotypes. In the light pulse trial, Per2 mutants exhibited larger photic phase-delays than did WTs, and the attenuating action of cocaine on this response was proportionately larger than in WTs. These data indicate that the Per2 clock gene is a potent modulator of cocaine’s actions in the circadian system. With regard to non-photic phase-resetting, the SCN is confirmed as a direct target of cocaine action; however, Per2 modulation of this effect likely occurs outside of the SCN. PMID:23333842

Brager, Allison J.; Stowie, Adam C.; Prosser, Rebecca A.; Glass, J. David

2014-01-01

414

Alterations in the cholinergic system of brain stem neurons in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.  

PubMed

Rett syndrome is an autism-spectrum disorder resulting from mutations to the X-linked gene, methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), which causes abnormalities in many systems. It is possible that the body may develop certain compensatory mechanisms to alleviate the abnormalities. The norepinephrine system originating mainly in the locus coeruleus (LC) is defective in Rett syndrome and Mecp2-null mice. LC neurons are subject to modulation by GABA, glutamate, and acetylcholine (ACh), providing an ideal system to test the compensatory hypothesis. Here we show evidence for potential compensatory modulation of LC neurons by post- and presynaptic ACh inputs. We found that the postsynaptic currents of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChR) were smaller in amplitude and longer in decay time in the Mecp2-null mice than in the wild type. Single-cell PCR analysis showed a decrease in the expression of ?3-, ?4-, ?7-, and ?3-subunits and an increase in the ?5- and ?6-subunits in the mutant mice. The ?5-subunit was present in many of the LC neurons with slow-decay nAChR currents. The nicotinic modulation of spontaneous GABAA-ergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents in LC neurons was enhanced in Mecp2-null mice. In contrast, the nAChR manipulation of glutamatergic input to LC neurons was unaffected in both groups of mice. Our current-clamp studies showed that the modulation of LC neurons by ACh input was reduced moderately in Mecp2-null mice, despite the major decrease in nAChR currents, suggesting possible compensatory processes may take place, thus reducing the defects to a lesser extent in LC neurons. PMID:25009110

Oginsky, Max F; Cui, Ningren; Zhong, Weiwei; Johnson, Christopher M; Jiang, Chun

2014-09-15

415

Pheromone-induced expression of immediate early genes in the mouse vomeronasal sensory system.  

PubMed

Immediate early genes (IEGs) are powerful tools for visualizing activated neurons and extended circuits that are stimulated by sensory input. Several kinds of IEGs (e.g., c-fos, egr-1) have been utilized for detecting activated receptor neurons in the pheromone sensory organ called the vomeronasal organ (VNO), as well as for mapping the neurons within the central nervous system (CNS) excited by pheromones.In this chapter, we describe the procedure for the detection of pheromone-induced neural activation in the VNO and CNS using the c-Fos immunostaining technique. PMID:24014367

Haga-Yamanaka, Sachiko; Touhara, Kazushige

2013-01-01

416

Mycobacteria, an environmental enhancer of lupus nephritis in a mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of antibodies directed against self antigens. Immune complex glomerulonephritis (GN) is one of the most serious complications of this disorder and can lead to potentially fatal renal failure. The aetiology of SLE is complex and multifactorial, characterized by interacting environmental and genetic factors. Here we examine the nature of the renal pathology in mycobacteria-treated non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, in order to assess its suitability as a model for studying the aetiopathogenesis of, and possible treatment options for, lupus nephritis (LN) in humans. Both global and segmental proliferative lesions, characterized by increased mesangial matrix and cellularity, were demonstrated on light microscopy, and lesions varied in severity from very mild mesangiopathic GN through to obliteration of capillary lumina and glomerular sclerosis. Mixed isotype immune complexes (IC) consisting of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgA and complement C3c were detected using direct immunofluorescence. They were deposited in multiple sites within the glomeruli, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The GN seen in mycobacteria-treated NOD mice therefore strongly resembles the pathology seen in human LN, including mesangiopathic, mesangiocapillary and membranous subclasses of LN. The development of spontaneous mixed isotype IC in the glomeruli of some senescent NOD mice suggests that mycobacterial exposure is accelerating, rather than inducing, the development of GN in this model. PMID:12519305

Hawke, Christine G; Painter, Dorothy M; Kirwan, Paul D; Van Driel, Rosemary R; Baxter, Alan G

2003-01-01

417

A juvenile mouse pheromone inhibits sexual behaviour through the vomeronasal system.  

PubMed

Animals display a repertoire of different social behaviours. Appropriate behavioural responses depend on sensory input received during social interactions. In mice, social behaviour is driven by pheromones, chemical signals that encode information related to age, sex and physiological state. However, although mice show different social behaviours towards adults, juveniles and neonates, sensory cues that enable specific recognition of juvenile mice are unknown. Here we describe a juvenile pheromone produced by young mice before puberty, termed exocrine-gland secreting peptide 22 (ESP22). ESP22 is secreted from the lacrimal gland and released into tears of 2- to 3-week-old mice. Upon detection, ESP22 activates high-affinity sensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ, and downstream limbic neurons in the medial amygdala. Recombinant ESP22, painted on mice, exerts a powerful inhibitory effect on adult male mating behaviour, which is abolished in knockout mice lacking TRPC2, a key signalling component of the vomeronasal organ. Furthermore, knockout of TRPC2 or loss of ESP22 production results in increased sexual behaviour of adult males towards juveniles, and sexual responses towards ESP22-deficient juveniles are suppressed by ESP22 painting. Thus, we describe a pheromone of sexually immature mice that controls an innate social behaviour, a response pathway through the accessory olfactory system and a new role for vomeronasal organ signalling in inhibiting sexual behaviour towards young. These findings provide a molecular framework for understanding how a sensory system can regulate behaviour. PMID:24089208

Ferrero, David M; Moeller, Lisa M; Osakada, Takuya; Horio, Nao; Li, Qian; Roy, Dheeraj S; Cichy, Annika; Spehr, Marc; Touhara, Kazushige; Liberles, Stephen D

2013-10-17

418

Anaerobic digestion of livestock manures: A current opportunities casebook  

SciTech Connect

Growth and concentration of the livestock industry creates new opportunities for proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products, including a renewable fuel. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, based on estimates of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return are developed from the evaluations. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes}, are provided as a reality check.

Lusk, P.D.

1995-08-01

419

DNA damage during aging of mouse myocardium: alkylated nucleotides  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine if DNA damage increases as a function of age in post-mitotic cells. A (/sup 32/P)-post-labeling technique was used to measure the relative level of alkylated bases in mouse myocardial DNA. DNA was purified from heart tissue of male, C57BL/6nia mice at different ages. Samples were digested to deoxynucleoside-3'-monophosphates with micrococcal nuclease and spleen phosphodiesterase and labeled with (..gamma..-/sup 32/P) ATP and T4 polynucleotide kinase. The resultant nucleotide diphosphates were converted to deoxynucleoside-5'-monophosphates with nuclease P1. Normal nucleotides were then separated from alkylated nucleotides by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Adducts were detected by autoradiography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. A modified nucleotide was found to increase more than 50-fold between 2 months and 39 months. The greatest increase occurred in senescent mice, older than 17 months. This modified nucleotide comigrated with 7-methylguanosine-5'-monophosphate in the two-dimensional chromatography system. Furthermore, this nucleotide was induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea alkylation of poly(dG-dC) x poly(dG-dC) but not poly(dA-dT) x poly(dA-dT). The results are consistent with an age-related increase in the steady-state level of DNA in mouse heart DNA.

Gaubatz, J.W.

1986-05-01

420

Nucleotide `maps' of digests of deoxyribonucleic acid  

PubMed Central

Various digests of 32P-labelled DNA were examined by two-dimensional ionophoresis on cellulose acetate and DEAE-cellulose paper. The products from digestion with pancreatic deoxyribonuclease and Neurospora crassa endonuclease were qualitatively closely similar, but very complex, and were used to investigate the mapping behaviour of nucleotides in various ionophoretic systems. Ionophoresis on DEAE-cellulose paper in triethylamine carbonate, pH 9.7, followed by ionophoresis in the second dimension at pH1.9 gave high resolution of nucleotides in very complex mixtures and permitted the fractionation of larger quantities than is possible on cellulose acetate. High resolution of nucleotides in compact spots was obtained with two-dimensional ionophoresis on cellulose acetate and AE-cellulose paper, a system that is a useful supplement to those based on DEAE-cellulose paper. ImagesPLATE 7PLATE 1PLATE 2PLATE 3PLATE 4PLATE 5PLATE 6 PMID:5476726

Murray, K.

1970-01-01

421

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

A Cre-inducible luciferase transgene was targeted into the Rosa26 locus and is driven by a CMV-based promoter. This allele when used in combination with Cre-regulated oncogenes or tumor suppressors can allow for noninvasive detection of tumors in mice. This allele permits serial imaging of mice, thus increasing the utility of mouse tumor models as a system to test therapeutics.

422

Serotonergic systems are implicated in antinociceptive effect of m-trifluoromethyl diphenyl diselenide in the mouse glutamate test.  

PubMed

The organoselenium compound m-trifluoromethyl diphenyl diselenide (m-CF3-PhSe)2 has antinociceptive actions in several animal models, which are mediated by interaction with endogenous opioid systems. It also shows antidepressant-like action mediated by both opioid and serotonergic systems. Considering that serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in the descending control of pain, this study further investigated the role of serotonergic systems in the antinociceptive action of (m-CF3-PhSe)2 in the glutamate-induced licking behavior model in mice. (m-CF3-PhSe)2 (1-50 mg/kg, p.o.), morphine (2.5 mg/kg, s.c.) or paroxetine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced glutamate-induced nociception. Selective 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, WAY100635 (0.7 mg/kg, i.p.) and ketanserin (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), but not the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), prevented the antinociceptive effect of (m-CF3-PhSe)2 (10 mg/kg) in the glutamate test. In biochemical studies, (m-CF3-PhSe)2 (10 and 50 mg/kg) decreased [(3)H]5-HT uptake in crude synaptosomes of mouse brains and slightly inhibited in vitro [(3)H]5-HT binding. In kinetic studies, the selenium (Se) distribution was determined at different time points after the administration of (m-CF3-PhSe)2 (500 mg/kg, p.o.) to mice. After 30 min, a high amount of Se was found in liver and kidneys, followed by the lung, red blood cells, serum and brain. A significant amount of Se accumulated in fat over the course of 8h. Urine was an important route of Se excretion originating from (m-CF3-PhSe)2. Collectively, results of this study indicate an involvement of the serotonergic systems in the antinociceptive effect of (m-CF3-PhSe)2 and a wide distribution of Se derived from this compound. PMID:25135115

Brüning, César Augusto; Gai, Bibiana Mozzaquatro; Soares, Suelen Mendonça; Martini, Franciele; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

2014-10-01

423

Vascular and neurogenic rejuvenation of the aging mouse brain by young systemic factors.  

PubMed

In the adult central nervous system, the vasculature of the neurogenic niche regulates neural stem cell behavior by providing circulating and secreted factors. Age-related decline of neurogenesis and cognitive function is associated with reduced blood flow and decreased numbers of neural stem cells. Therefore, restoring the functionality of the niche should counteract some of the negative effects of aging. We show that factors found in young blood induce vascular remodeling, culminating in increased neurogenesis and improved olfactory discrimination in aging mice. Further, we show that GDF11 alone can improve the cerebral vasculature and enhance neurogenesis. The identification of factors that slow the age-dependent deterioration of the neurogenic niche in mice may constitute the basis for new methods of treating age-related neurodegenerative and neurovascular diseases. PMID:24797482

Katsimpardi, Lida; Litterman, Nadia K; Schein, Pamela A; Miller, Christine M; Loffredo, Francesco S; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Chen, John W; Lee, Richard T; Wagers, Amy J; Rubin, Lee L

2014-05-01

424

Histological development of digestive tract in discus, Symphysodon spp. larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study provides information on the histomorphological development of digestive system of discus, Symphyosodon spp., larvae during the first month of life. Discus larvae are altricial at hatching, with an undifferentiated digestive\\u000a tract and a large yolksac, which is completely consumed within 7 days. The mouth opens 3 days after hatching (DAH) and the\\u000a larvae starts feeding on AF Artemia at

Umur Önal; ?hsan Çelik; ?ükran Cirik

2010-01-01

425

[PET and digestive cancers].  

PubMed

In digestive oncology, the most frequent indication for FDG PET, in our experience and as reported in the literature, is the localisation of recurrent colorectal cancer. This molecular imaging method has also been shown to be clinically useful in various other settings, especially for preoperative staging, for colorectal, esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, hepatic and biliary cancers. We also report on current PET practice in two particular cancers: hepatocellular carcinoma, for which other tracers, including fluoromethylcholine-(18F), are being currently evaluated, and gastrointestinal endocrine tumours, which are included in the recent French marketing authorisation of fluoroDOPA-(18F) and which are also potential targets for radiolabelled somatostatin analogues for PET imaging. PMID:17951024

Talbot, Jean-Noël; Montravers, Françoise; Gutman, Fabrice; Kerrou, Khaldoun; Huchet, Virginie; Grahek, Dany; Andre, Thierry; Houry, Sydney; Touboul, Emmanuel; Rosmorduc, Olivier; Poupon, Raoul; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Rougier, Philippe; Grange, Jean-Didier

2008-02-01

426

Connexin29 and Connexin32 at Oligodendrocyte and Astrocyte Gap Junctions and in Myelin of the Mouse Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

The cellular localization, relation to other glial connexins (Cx30, Cx32, and Cx43), and developmental expression of Cx29 were investigated in the mouse central nervous system (CNS) with an anti-Cx29 antibody. Cx29 was enriched in subcellular fractions of myelin, and immunofluorescence for Cx29 was localized to oligodendrocytes and myelinated fibers throughout the brain and spinal cord. Oligodendrocyte somata displayed minute Cx29-immunopositive puncta around their periphery and intracellularly. In developing brain, Cx29 levels increased during the first few postnatal weeks and were highest in the adult brain. Immunofluorescence labeling for Cx29 in oligodendrocyte somata was intense at young ages and was dramatically shifted in localization primarily to myelinated fibers in mature CNS. Labeling for Cx32 also was localized to oligodendrocyte somata and myelin and absent in Cx32 knockout mice. Cx29 and Cx32 were minimally colocalized on oligodendrocytes somata and partly colocalized along myelinated fibers. At gap junctions on oligodendrocyte somata, Cx43/Cx32 and Cx30/Cx32 were strongly associated, but there was minimal association of Cx29 and Cx43. Cx32 was very sparsely associated with astrocytic connexins along myelinated fibers. With Cx26, Cx30, and Cx43 expressed in astrocytes and Cx29, Cx32, and Cx47 expressed in oligodendrocytes, the number of connexins localized to gap junctions of glial cells is increased to six. The results suggested that Cx29 in mature CNS contributes minimally to gap junctional intercellular communication in oligodendrocyte cell bodies but rather is targeted to myelin, where it, with Cx32, may contribute to connexin-mediated communication between adjacent layers of uncompacted myelin. PMID:12900929

Nagy, James I.; Ionescu, Andrei V.; Lynn, Bruce D.; Rash, John E.

2007-01-01

427

Temporal- and Location-Specific Alterations of the GABA Recycling System in Mecp2 KO Mouse Brains  

PubMed Central

Rett syndrome (RTT), associated with mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2), is linked to diverse neurological symptoms such as seizures, motor disabilities, and cognitive impairments. An altered GABAergic system has been proposed as one of many underlying pathologies of progressive neurodegeneration in several RTT studies. This study for the first time investigated the temporal- and location-specific alterations in the expression of ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) transporter 1 (GAT-1), vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT), and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67kD (GAD67) in wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice in the Mecp2tm1.1Bird/y mouse model of RTT. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) co-labeling of GAT-1 with vGAT identified GABAergic synapses that were quantitated for mid-sagittal sections in the frontal cortex (FC), hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), and striatum (Str). An age-dependent increase in the expression of synaptic GABA transporters, GAT-1, and vGAT, was observed in the FC and DG in WT brains. Mecp2 KO mice showed a significant alteration in this temporal profile that was location-specific, only in the FC. GAD67-positive cell densities also showed an age-dependent increase in the FC, but a decrease in the DG in WT mice. However, these densities were not significantly altered in the KO mice in the regions examined in this study. Therefore, the significant location-specific downregulation of synaptic GABA transporters in Mecp2 KO brains with unaltered densities of GAD67-positive interneurons may highlight the location-specific synaptic pathophysiology in this model of RTT. PMID:24737935

Kang, Seok K; Kim, Shin Tae; Johnston, Michael V; Kadam, Shilpa D

2014-01-01

428

Absence of systemic toxicity in mouse model towards BaTiO3 nanoparticulate based eluate treatment.  

PubMed

One of the existing issues in implant failure of orthopedic biomaterials is the toxicity induced by the fine particles released during long term use in vivo, leading to acute inflammatory response. In developing a new class of piezobiocomposite to mimic the integrated electrical and mechanical properties of bone, bone-mimicking physical properties as well as in vitro cytocompatibility properties have been achieved with spark plasma sintered hydroxyapatite (HA)-barium titanate (BaTiO3) composites. However, the presence of BaTiO3 remains a concern towards the potential toxicity effect. To address this issue, present work reports the first result to conclusively confirm the non-toxic effect of HA-BaTiO3 piezobiocomposite nanoparticulates, in vivo. Twenty BALB/c mice were intra-articularly injected at their right knee joints with different concentrations of HA-BaTiO3 composite of up to 25 mg/ml. The histopathological examination confirmed the absence of any trace of injected particles or any sign of inflammatory reaction in the vital organs, such as heart, spleen, kidney and liver at 7 days post-exposure period. Rather, the injected nanoparticulates were found to be agglomerated in the vicinity of the knee joint, surrounded by macrophages. Importantly, the absence of any systemic toxicity response in any of the vital organs in the treated mouse model, other than a mild local response at the site of delivery, was recorded. The serum biochemical analyses using proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-1?) also complimented to the non-immunogenic response to injected particulates. Altogether, the absence of any inflammatory/adverse reaction will open up myriad of opportunities for BaTiO3 based piezoelectric implantable devices in biomedical applications. PMID:25655497

Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar; Thrivikraman, Greeshma; Basu, Bikramjit

2015-02-01

429

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 28  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the twenty-eighth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 3 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 20 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, aviation medicine, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, and space medicine.

Stone, Lydia Razran (editor); Teeter, Ronald (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)

1990-01-01

430

USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 30  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the thirtieth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 47 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 20 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, biospheric research, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal system, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

Stone, Lydia Razran (editor); Teeter, Ronald (editor); Rowe, Joseph (editor)

1991-01-01

431

Histopathological analysis of Salmonella chronic carriage in the mouse hepatopancreatobiliary system.  

PubMed

Salmonella Typhi asymptomatic chronic carriage represents a challenge for the diagnosis and prevention of typhoid fever in endemic areas. Such carriers are thought to be reservoirs for further spread of the disease. Gallbladder carriage has been demonstrated to be mediated by biofilm formation on gallstones and by intracellular persistence in the gallbladder epithelium of mice. In addition, both gallstones and chronic carriage have been associated with chronic inflammation and the development of gallbladder carcinoma. However, the pathogenic relationship between typhoid carriage and the development of pre-malignant and/or malignant lesions in the hepatopancreatobiliary system as well as the host-pathogen interactions occurring during chronic carriage remains unclear. In this study, we monitored the histopathological features of chronic carriage up to 1 year post-infection. Chronic cholecystitis and hepatitis ranging from mild to severe were present in infected mice regardless of the presence of gallstones. Biliary epithelial hyperplasia was observed more commonly in the gallbladder of mice with gallstones (uninfected or infected). However, pre-malignant lesions, atypical hyperplasia and metaplasia of the gallbladder and exocrine pancreas, respectively, were only associated with chronic Salmonella carriage. This study has implications regarding the role of Salmonella chronic infection and inflammation in the development of pre-malignant lesions in the epithelium of the gallbladder and pancreas that could lead to oncogenesis. PMID:24349565

Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; La Perle, Krista M D; Gunn, John S

2013-01-01

432

Spread of Oropouche Virus into the Central Nervous System in Mouse  

PubMed Central

Oropouche virus (OROV) is an important cause of arboviral illness in Brazil and other Latin American countries, with most cases clinically manifested as acute febrile illness referred to as Oropouche fever, including myalgia, headache, arthralgia and malaise. However, OROV can also affect the central nervous system (CNS) with clinical neurological implications. Little is known regarding OROV pathogenesis, especially how OROV gains access to the CNS. In the present study, neonatal BALB/c mice were inoculated with OROV by the subcutaneous route and the progression of OROV spread into the CNS was evaluated. Immunohistochemistry revealed that OROV infection advances from posterior parts of the brain, including the periaqueductal gray, toward the forebrain. In the early phases of the infection OROV gains access to neural routes, reaching the spinal cord and ascending to the brain through brainstem regions, with little inflammation. Later, as infection progresses, OROV crosses the blood-brain barrier, resulting in more intense spread into the brain parenchyma, with more severe manifestations of encephalitis. PMID:25310583

Santos, Rodrigo I.; Bueno-Júnior, Lézio S.; Ruggiero, Rafael N.; Almeida, Mariana F.; Silva, Maria L.; Paula, Flávia E.; Correa, Vani M. A.; Arruda, Eurico

2014-01-01

433

Uncoupling stimulus specificity and glomerular position in the mouse olfactory system  

PubMed Central

Sensory information is often mapped systematically in the brain with neighboring neurons responding to similar stimulus features. The olfactory system represents chemical information as spatial and temporal activity patterns across glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. However, the degree to which chemical features are mapped systematically in the glomerular array has remained controversial. Here, we test the hypothesis that the dual roles of odorant receptors, in axon guidance and odor detection, can serve as a mechanism to map olfactory inputs with respect to their function. We compared the relationship between response specificity and glomerular formation in genetically-defined olfactory sensory neurons expressing variant odorant receptors. We find that sensory neurons with the same odor response profile can be mapped to different regions of the bulb, and that neurons with different response profiles can be mapped to the same glomeruli. Our data demonstrate that the two functions of odorant receptors can be uncoupled, indicating that the mechanisms that map olfactory sensory inputs to glomeruli do so without regard to stimulus specificity. PMID:22926192

Zhang, Jingji; Huang, Guangzhe; Dewan, Adam; Feinstein, Paul; Bozza, Thomas

2012-01-01

434

Histopathological Analysis of Salmonella Chronic Carriage in the Mouse Hepatopancreatobiliary System  

PubMed Central

Salmonella Typhi asymptomatic chronic carriage represents a challenge for the diagnosis and prevention of typhoid fever in endemic areas. Such carriers are thought to be reservoirs for further spread of the disease. Gallbladder carriage has been demonstrated to be mediated by biofilm formation on gallstones and by intracellular persistence in the gallbladder epithelium of mice. In addition, both gallstones and chronic carriage have been associated with chronic inflammation and the development of gallbladder carcinoma. However, the pathogenic relationship between typhoid carriage and the development of pre-malignant and/or malignant lesions in the hepatopancreatobiliary system as well as the host-pathogen interactions occurring during chronic carriage remains unclear. In this study, we monitored the histopathological features of chronic carriage up to 1 year post-infection. Chronic cholecystitis and hepatitis ranging from mild to severe were present in infected mice regardless of the presence of gallstones. Biliary epithelial hyperplasia was observed more commonly in the gallbladder of mice with gallstones (uninfected or infected). However, pre-malignant lesions, atypical hyperplasia and metaplasia of the gallbladder and exocrine pancreas, respectively, were only associated with chronic Salmonella carriage. This study has implications regarding the role of Salmonella chronic infection and inflammation in the development of pre-malignant lesions in the epithelium of the gallbladder and pancreas that could lead to oncogenesis. PMID:24349565

Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; La Perle, Krista M. D.; Gunn, John S.

2013-01-01

435

Dieldrin exposure induces oxidative damage in the mouse nigrostriatal dopamine system  

PubMed Central

Numerous epidemiological studies have shown an association between pesticide exposure and an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, we provide evidence that the insecticide dieldrin causes specific oxidative damage in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. We report that exposure of mice to low levels of dieldrin for 30 days resulted in alterations in dopamine-handling as evidenced by a decrease in dopamine metabolites, DOPAC (31.7% decrease) and HVA (29.2% decrease) and significantly increased cysteinyl-catechol levels in the striatum. Furthermore, dieldrin resulted in a 53% decrease in total glutathione, an increase in the redox potential of glutathione, and a 90% increase in protein carbonyls. ?-Synuclein protein expression was also significantly increased in the striatum (25% increase). Finally, dieldrin caused a significant decrease in striatal expression of the dopamine transporter as measured by 3H-WIN 35,428 binding and 3H-dopamine uptake. These alterations occurred in the absence of dopamine neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta. These effects represent the ability of low doses of dieldrin to increase the vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons by inducing oxidative stress and suggest that pesticide exposure may act as a promoter of PD. PMID:17291500

Hatcher, Jaime M.; Richardson, Jason R.; Guillot, Thomas S.; McCormack, Alison L.; Di Monte, Donato A.; Jones, Dean P.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Miller, Gary W.

2007-01-01

436

Revealing biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion in sludge digesters: detection of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria within full-scale digesters.  

PubMed

Biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion (BSA) is a costly problem affecting both sewerage infrastructure and sludge handling facilities such as digesters. The aim of this study was to verify BSA in full-scale digesters by identifying the microorganisms involved in the concrete corrosion process, that is, sulfate-reducing (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). To investigate the SRB and SOB communities, digester sludge and biofilm samples were collected. SRB diversity within digester sludge was studied by applying polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) targeting the dsrB-gene (dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit). To reveal SOB diversity, cultivation dependent and independent techniques were applied. The SRB diversity studies revealed different uncultured SRB, confirming SRB activity and H2S production. Comparable DGGE profiles were obtained from the different sludges, demonstrating the presence of similar SRB species. By cultivation, three pure SOB strains from the digester headspace were obtained including Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Thiomonas intermedia and Thiomonas perometabolis. These organisms were also detected with PCR-DGGE in addition to two new SOB: Thiobacillus thioparus and Paracoccus solventivorans. The SRB and SOB responsible for BSA were identified within five different digesters, demonstrating that BSA is a problem occurring not only in sewer systems but also in sludge digesters. In addition, the presence of different SOB species was successfully associated with the progression of microbial corrosion. PMID:25353947

Huber, B; Drewes, J E; Lin, K C; König, R; Müller, E

2014-01-01

437