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Sample records for mouse fallopian tube

  1. Fallopian Tube Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Thurmond, Amy Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Fallopian tube catheterization is used for treatment of infertility caused by proximal tubal occlusion, and has replaced surgical treatment for this condition. More recently, fallopian tube catheterization has been used for tubal sterilization. Interventional radiologists tested numerous methods for tubal occlusion using the rabbit as an animal model. As a result, a tubal device has recently been Food and Drug Administration approved for permanent sterilization using hysteroscopic guidance; it can also be placed fluoroscopically by fallopian tube catheterization as an “off-label” procedure. This is a 5-year continuation and update on a procedure that has been done by interventional radiologists for 25 years; history of the development of fallopian tube catheterization in women has been published in detail in this journal. Highlighted in this article will be description of the basic components needed for fallopian tube catheterization. PMID:24436565

  2. A genetically engineered ovarian cancer mouse model based on fallopian tube transformation mimics human high-grade serous carcinoma development.

    PubMed

    Sherman-Baust, Cheryl A; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Valle, Blanca L; Shih, Ie-Ming; Kurman, Robert J; Wang, Tian-Li; Amano, Tomokazu; Ko, Minoru S H; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Araki, Yoshihiko; Lehrmann, Elin; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Morin, Patrice J

    2014-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) originates from the epithelium of the fallopian tube. However, most mouse models are based on the previous prevailing view that ovarian cancer develops from the transformation of the ovarian surface epithelium. Here, we report the extensive histological and molecular characterization of the mogp-TAg transgenic mouse, which expresses the SV40 large T-antigen (TAg) under the control of the mouse müllerian-specific Ovgp-1 promoter. Histological analysis of the fallopian tubes of mogp-TAg mice identified a variety of neoplastic lesions analogous to those described as precursors to ovarian HGSC. We identified areas of normal-appearing p53-positive epithelium that are similar to 'p53 signatures' in the human fallopian tube. More advanced proliferative lesions with nuclear atypia and epithelial stratification were also identified that were morphologically and immunohistochemically reminiscent of human serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), a potential precursor of ovarian HGSC. Beside these non-invasive precursor lesions, we also identified invasive adenocarcinoma in the ovaries of 56% of the mice. Microarray analysis revealed several genes differentially expressed between the fallopian tube of mogp-TAg and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6. One of these genes, Top2a, which encodes topoisomerase IIα, was shown by immunohistochemistry to be concurrently expressed with elevated p53 and was specifically elevated in mouse STICs but not in the surrounding tissues. TOP2A protein was also found elevated in human STICs, low-grade and high-grade serous carcinoma. The mouse model reported here displays a progression from normal tubal epithelium to invasive HGSC in the ovary, and therefore closely simulates the current emerging model of human ovarian HGSC pathogenesis. This mouse therefore has the potential to be a very useful new model for elucidating the mechanisms of serous ovarian tumourigenesis, as well as

  3. Capillary Hemangioma of the Fallopian Tube.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Richa; Patne, Shashikant C U; Bharti, Shreekant; Jain, Madhu

    2016-04-01

    Neoplastic lesions of the fallopian tube are rarely seen by surgical pathologists. Haemangioma of the fallopian tube is an extremely rare benign neoplasm. A 30-year-old lady with polymenorrhea and dysmenorrhea underwent hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Her left fallopian tube showed a 2mm sized solid nodule in the wall. Histopathological examination revealed a well-defined vascular lesion in the left fallopian tube, consistent with capillary haemangioma. The vascular endothelium was highlighted by CD34 immunostaining. Our literature review has identified 10 cases of cavernous haemangioma of the fallopian tube. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first ever case of capillary haemangioma of the fallopian tube. This is also the smallest detected haemangioma in the fallopian tube. PMID:27190899

  4. Capillary Hemangioma of the Fallopian Tube

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Richa; Bharti, Shreekant; Jain, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplastic lesions of the fallopian tube are rarely seen by surgical pathologists. Haemangioma of the fallopian tube is an extremely rare benign neoplasm. A 30-year-old lady with polymenorrhea and dysmenorrhea underwent hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Her left fallopian tube showed a 2mm sized solid nodule in the wall. Histopathological examination revealed a well-defined vascular lesion in the left fallopian tube, consistent with capillary haemangioma. The vascular endothelium was highlighted by CD34 immunostaining. Our literature review has identified 10 cases of cavernous haemangioma of the fallopian tube. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first ever case of capillary haemangioma of the fallopian tube. This is also the smallest detected haemangioma in the fallopian tube. PMID:27190899

  5. Obturator hernia of the fallopian tube.

    PubMed

    Karasaki, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Tassei; Tanaka, Nobutaka

    2013-06-01

    Obturator hernia of the fallopian tube is extremely rare. Multidetector computed tomography of a 43-year-old nulliparous woman with sudden onset lower right abdominal pain showed a low-density mass in the right obturator canal suspected of being an obturator hernia of the uterine adnexa. She was diagnosed as having an incarcerated obturator hernia of the fallopian tube at operation and treated with prosthetic mesh. Obturator hernia of the fallopian tube is very rare, and all cases reported in the literature were localized on the right side, perhaps due to the lesser mobility of the left than the right fallopian tube. PMID:22990633

  6. Laparoscopic treatment of intrauterine fallopian tube incarceration.

    PubMed

    Kondo, William; Bruns, Rafael Frederico; Nicola, Marcelo Chemin; Ribeiro, Reitan; Trippia, Carlos Henrique; Zomer, Monica Tessmann

    2013-01-01

    Herniation of the pelvic structures into the uterine cavity (appendix vermiformis, small bowel, omentum, or fallopian tube) may occur after uterine perforation. In this paper, we describe one case of intrauterine fallopian tube incarceration treated by means of laparoscopic surgery. PMID:23738168

  7. Laparoscopic Treatment of Intrauterine Fallopian Tube Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, William; Bruns, Rafael Frederico; Nicola, Marcelo Chemin; Ribeiro, Reitan; Trippia, Carlos Henrique; Zomer, Monica Tessmann

    2013-01-01

    Herniation of the pelvic structures into the uterine cavity (appendix vermiformis, small bowel, omentum, or fallopian tube) may occur after uterine perforation. In this paper, we describe one case of intrauterine fallopian tube incarceration treated by means of laparoscopic surgery. PMID:23738168

  8. Isolated fallopian tube torsion in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, S; Bhaskaran, S; Mehta, S

    2013-01-01

    Background. Fallopian tube torsion is a rare cause of acute abdomen, occurring commonly in females of reproductive age. It lacks pathognomonic symptoms, signs, or imaging features, thus causing delay in surgical intervention. Case. We report two cases of isolated fallopian tube torsion in adolescent girls. In the first case a 19-year-old patient presented with acute pain in the left iliac region associated with episodes of vomiting for one day and mild tenderness on examination. Laparoscopy revealed left sided twisted fallopian tube associated with hemorrhagic cyst of ovary. The tube was untwisted and salvaged. In another case an 18-year-old virgin girl presented with similar complaints since one week, associated with mild tenderness in the lower abdomen and tender cystic mass on per rectal examination. On laparoscopy right twisted fallopian tube associated with a paratubal cyst was found. Salpingectomy was done as the tube was gangrenous. Conclusion. Fallopian tube torsion, though rare, should be considered in women of reproductive age with unilateral pelvic pain. Early diagnostic laparoscopy is important for an accurate diagnosis and could salvage the tube. PMID:24251052

  9. Pembrolizumab, Bevacizumab, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-02

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  10. Confocal microlaparoscope for imaging the fallopian tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tzu-Yu; Rouse, Andrew R.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2014-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that ovarian cancer can originate in the fallopian tube. Unlike many other cancers, poor access to the ovary and fallopian tubes has limited the ability to study the progression of this deadly disease and to diagnosis it during the early stage when it is most amenable to therapy. A rigid confocal microlaparoscope system designed to image the epithelial surface of the ovary in vivo was previously reported. A new confocal microlaparoscope with an articulating distal tip has been developed to enable in vivo access to human fallopian tubes. The new microlaparoscope is compatible with 5-mm trocars and includes a 2.2-mm-diameter articulating distal tip consisting of a bare fiber bundle and an automated dye delivery system for fluorescence confocal imaging. This small articulating device should enable the confocal microlaparoscope to image early stage ovarian cancer arising inside the fallopian tube. Ex vivo images of animal tissue and human fallopian tube using the new articulating device are presented along with in vivo imaging results using the rigid confocal microlaparoscope system.

  11. Confocal microlaparoscope for imaging the fallopian tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tzu-Yu; Schafer, Rachel; Rouse, Andrew R.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that epithelial ovarian cancer may originate in the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube1. Unlike many other cancers, poor access to the ovary and fallopian tubes has limited the ability to study the progression of this deadly disease and to diagnosis it during the early stage when it is most amenable to therapy. We have previously reported on a rigid confocal microlaparoscope system that is currently undergoing a clinical trial to image the epithelial surface of the ovary2. In order to gain in vivo access to the fallopian tubes we have developed a new confocal microlaparoscope with an articulating distal tip. The new instrument builds upon the technology developed for the existing confocal microlaparoscope. It has an ergonomic handle fabricated by a rapid prototyping printer. While maintaining compatibility with a 5 mm trocar, the articulating distal tip of the instrument consists of a 2.2 mm diameter bare fiber bundle catheter with automated dye delivery for fluorescence imaging. This small and flexible catheter design should enable the confocal microlaparoscope to image early stage ovarian cancer arising inside the fallopian tube. Early ex vivo mages of human fallopian tube and in vivo imaging results from recent open surgeries using the rigid confocal microlaparoscope system are presented. Ex vivo images from animal models using the new articulating bare fiber system are also presented. These high quality images collected by the new flexible system are similar in quality to those obtained from the epithelial surface of ovaries with the rigid clinical confocal microlaparoscope.

  12. Drugs Approved for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal ... primary peritoneal cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal ...

  13. 21 CFR 884.3650 - Fallopian tube prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fallopian tube prosthesis. 884.3650 Section 884.3650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.3650 Fallopian tube prosthesis. (a) Identification. A fallopian tube prosthesis is a...

  14. Fallopian tube cancer. The Roswell Park experience.

    PubMed

    Rose, P G; Piver, M S; Tsukada, Y

    1990-12-15

    Sixty-four patients with primary fallopian tube cancer treated at Roswell Park Memorial Institute from 1964 to 1987 underwent retrospective clinicopathologic review. In 40 patients fallopian tube cancer was the only primary, but in 24 patients primary fallopian tube cancer was part of a multifocal upper genital tract malignancy. Of the 40 patients with unifocal fallopian disease, the median survival was 28 months. Only 15% of patients were alive and disease free with follow-up ranging from 22 to 141 months (median, 90.5 months). Survival was not associated with stage of disease, tumor histology, grade, or depth of invasion in this series. Fourteen patients who received cisplatin-based chemotherapy were evaluable for response. Three patients (21%) responded; two complete and one partial. Twelve patients without clinical evidence of disease underwent second-look procedures, ten laparotomy and two laparoscopy. Four of ten second-look laparotomies were negative. Secondary debulking was done in three of four patients with gross disease, one of which had a negative third-look laparotomy. Negative laparotomy, second-look or third-look, was associated with improved survival (P = 0.016). One of the two laparoscopies was negative, but the patient recurred. In the remaining 24 patients cancer of the fallopian tube was part of a multifocal upper genital tract malignancy. In 12 patients tubal disease was invasive, and in 12, it was in situ. Separate primaries occurred in the ovaries (n = 20); uterus (n = 7); and cervix (n = 2). This represents 1.3% of ovarian malignancies treated at Roswell Park Memorial Institute during the study period. Fallopian tube cancer seems as virulent as ovarian cancer with few long-term survivors. It is frequently associated with other sites of upper genital tract malignancy. Second-look laparotomy is an important predictor of survival. Second-look laparoscopy may be useful if positive. PMID:2249208

  15. Olaparib and Cediranib Maleate in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-24

    BRCA1 Gene Mutation; BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  16. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Information about ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer treatment, prevention, genetics, causes, screening, clinical trials, research and statistics from the National Cancer Institute.

  17. Quality of Life and Care Needs of Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Anxiety; Fatigue; Nausea and Vomiting; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  18. [Role of Fallopian tube in fertilization].

    PubMed

    Barrière, Paul; Thibault, Emmanuelle; Jean, Miguel

    2002-10-15

    Fallopian tubes are complex organ where fertilization occurs after inverse migration of spermatozoa and oocyte. However, tube cannot be restricted to be fertilization site. The different tubal segments represent specific microenvironments to favour capacitation and fertilization process and to support early embryonic development. Tubal physiology permits tubal transport of gametes and embryon on adequate time by variations of smooth muscles contractility among tubal segments and during menstrual cycle. Tubes should control the number of competent spermatozoa present on fertilization site. Composition and viscosity of tubal fluid also vary along the tube and during cycle. Specific components of tubal fluid such as HuOGP interfere with gamete maturation, fertilization process and early embryonic development. Alteration of part of these functions could explain some tubal infertilities leading with normal tube morphology. PMID:12564165

  19. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  20. Cediranib Maleate and Olaparib or Standard Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Platinum-Resistant or -Refractory Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-13

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  1. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-15

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  2. General Information About Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition or to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer ... PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  3. [The structural basis for transport through the Fallopian tube].

    PubMed

    Kajanová, M; L, Danihel; S, Polák; Miko, M; Urban, L; Bokor, T; Varga, I

    2012-12-01

    The Fallopian tube has until recently been a neglected structure, bypassed by in vitro fertilization and seen only as a tube that transports the oocyte or early embryo to the uterus. More recently, its role is even more undervalued after the introduction of techniques of assisted reproduction, in which the Fallopian tubes become like unnecessary. The Fallopian tube performs several important functions. It captures the oocyte after ovulation, maintains and controls the migration of spermatozoa to the site of fertilization. It provides the special microenvironment for fertilization; nourishes the early embryo while it is being carried to the uterus and amplifies signals from embryo to the mother. In our article we conducted a systematic review of relevant articles found in PubMed, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge, focused on the new insights into the functional morphology of Fallopian tube. We described the possible function of muscle layer motility, ciliary activity and tubal fluid movement on transport of gamets / embryo, as well as we mentioned the negative factors (such as smoking, chlamydial infection or endometriosis) affecting the transport through the Fallopian tube. PMID:23521200

  4. Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-15

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  5. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without Bevacizumab After Surgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-12

    Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  6. Fallopian Tube Prolapse after Hysterectomy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ouldamer, Lobna; Caille, Agnès; Body, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Background Prolapse of the fallopian tube into the vaginal vault is a rarely reported complication that may occur after hysterectomy. Clinicians can miss the diagnosis of this disregarded complication when dealing with post-hysterectomy vaginal bleeding. Objectives We performed a systematic review in order to describe the clinical presentation, therapeutic management and outcome of fallopian tube prolapse occurring after hysterectomy. Search Strategy A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE references from January 1980 to December 2010 was performed. We included articles that reported cases of fallopian tube prolapse after hysterectomy. Data from eligible studies were independently extracted onto standardized forms by two reviewers. Results Twenty-eight articles including 51 cases of fallopian tube prolapse after hysterectomy were included in this systematic review. Clinical presentations included abdominal pain, dyspareunia, post- coital bleeding, and/or vaginal discharge. Two cases were asymptomatic and diagnosed at routine checkup. The surgical management reported comprised partial or total salpingectomy, with vaginal repair in some cases combined with oophorectomy using different approaches (vaginal approach, combined vaginal-laparoscopic approach, laparoscopic approach, or laparotomy). Six patients were initially treated by silver nitrate application without success. Conclusions This systematic review provided a precise summary of the clinical characteristics and treatment of patients presenting with fallopian tube prolapse following hysterectomy published in the past 30 years. We anticipate that these results will help inform current investigations and treatment. PMID:24116117

  7. Identification of Putative Fallopian Tube Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Snegovskikh, Victoria; Mutlu, Levent; Massasa, Effi

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells are used to repair and regenerate multiple tissues in the adult. We have previously shown that stem cells play a significant role in mediating endometrial repair and tissue regeneration. We hypothesized that the oviduct may possess a similar population of stem cells that contribute to the maintenance of this tissue. Here we identify label-retaining cells (LRCs) in the murine oviduct which indicate the presence of a stem/progenitor cell population in this tissue as well. Two-day-old CD-1 mice were injected intraperitoneally with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) or vehicle control. Female animals (n = 36 for each group) were killed at 6 weeks post injection. Reproductive tracts were removed, specimens were embedded in paraffin, and 5-µ sections were prepared. Oviduct was identified by hematoxylin and eosin staining and morphology. Immunofluorescence studies were performed on serial sections tissues (n = 12 per animal) using antibodies against BrdU. Confocal microscopy was used to identify 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)- and BrdU-stained nuclei. In the group of mice exposed to BrdU, we identified a population of LRCs in all specimens and not in controls. The putative stem cells are located at the base of each villi, suggesting the location of the stem cell niche. The number of DAPI-stained nuclei divided by the number of LRCs; LRCs constituted 0.5% of all nucleated cells. The oviduct contains a population of progenitor cells, likely used in the repair and regeneration of fallopian tube. Defective or insufficient stem cell reserve may underlie common tubal diseases, including hydrosalpinx and ectopic pregnancy. PMID:25305130

  8. [TORSION OF FALLOPIAN TUBE LEIOMYOMA TREATED BY LAPAROSCOPY].

    PubMed

    Blagovest, Bechev; Magunska, Nadya; Kovachev, Emil; Ivanov, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas of the Fallopian tubes are rare and their correct diagnosis is extremely difficult. Usually they are incidental findings seen at autopsy or unrelated surgical procedures: A 34-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed a solid 7 cm extrauterine mass. Both ovaries are normal. Our preoperative diagnosis was torsion of the fallopian tube due intratubal leiomyoma. Laparoscopic surgery was performed and the leiomyoma was found to have originated from the isthmus of the right Fallopian tube. Laparoscopic myomectomy was performed with preservation of the ramus tubarius dextra. The histological examination concluded to a leiomyoma with ischemic changes. We report a case of torsion of a tubal leiomyoma, which was successfully managed laparoscopically. PMID:27509659

  9. Cysticercosis of the fallopian tube: histology and microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.L.; Spore, W.W.; Benirschke, K.

    1982-07-01

    The authors identified a degenerated, focally calcified cestode larva (cysticercus) in the fallopian tube of a 50-year-old woman with endometriosis. The physiologic reaction to the larva was minimal, with some focal granulomatous salpingitis. No other focus of infection was detected. The differential diagnosis included trophoblastic tissue, foreign material, and parasites. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis of the organism revealed concentration of iodine in the subcuticular connective tissue of the larva and confirmed the calcium phosphate composition of the calcareous corpuscles. The presumed source of the iodine was the continued exposure of the larva to an environment rich in iodide secreted by the epithelium of the fallopian tube.

  10. Is Surgical Repair of the Fallopian Tubes Ever Appropriate?

    PubMed Central

    Sotrel, Ginter

    2009-01-01

    The overall median prevalence of infertility, defined as no conception after more than 12 months of unprotected intercourse with the husband or cohabiting partner in women aged 15 to 44 years, is approximately 9%. About 25% to 33% of female infertility is the result of tubal disease and endometriosis. In view of very successful alternative treatment of tubal factor infertility, the surgical repair of the fallopian tubes is all but obsolete and has been replaced with assisted reproductive technology. This article reviews situations in which surgical repair of the fallopian tubes may facilitate conception. PMID:19826575

  11. [Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube: about two cases].

    PubMed

    Bouguern, H; Bouchikhi, C; Chaara, H; Melhouf, M A; Banani, A

    2008-02-01

    Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose, requires a coelioscopy, or a laparotomy in centers which do not have coelioscpie; often carried out too tardily, to allow the conservation of the horn. We report two observations of isolated torsion of the fallopian tube and we recall through the two clinical cases the diagnostic difficulties, the useful complementary examinations, the treatment and the causes of this pathology which must be systematically evoked in front of any acute abdominal syndrome in order to hope for an early surgical treatment and if possible conservative. PMID:18372548

  12. OPT-821 With or Without Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer in Second or Third Complete Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  13. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab, and Veliparib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-03

    Fallopian Tube Carcinosarcoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Tumor; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  14. Intraperitoneal Bortezomib and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-21

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIIC-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer Following Surgery and Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-13

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Tumor; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  16. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride With Atezolizumab and/or Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal High Grade Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  17. The Fallopian Tube: from Back Stage to Center Stage

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.

    2015-01-01

    The recognition that a significant fraction of what historically has been classified as ovarian cancer is, in fact, a malignancy that arises in the fallopian tube mucosa comprises a paradigm shift in our understanding of these neoplasms. New etiologic and management opportunities have been created by this insight, both for women at increased genetic risk of ovarian cancer by virtue of being BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and, perhaps, for women in the general population as well. PMID:25802341

  18. Tubal Ligation Induces Quiescence in the Epithelia of the Fallopian Tube Fimbria.

    PubMed

    Tiourin, Ekaterina; Velasco, Victor S; Rosales, Miguel A; Sullivan, Peggy S; Janzen, Deanna M; Memarzadeh, Sanaz

    2015-10-01

    Tubal ligation keeps the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube intact while interrupting the conduit for sperm and egg between the uterus and ovary. Tubal ligation is associated with an approximately 20% decreased risk of high-grade serous ovarian cancers, which mounting evidence suggests arise from the distal fallopian tube epithelium. We postulated that biological changes at the epithelial cellular level of the distal fallopian tube may account for the surgical procedure's observed risk reduction. We compared the histology, presence of epithelial progenitors (basally located CD44-positive cells), and degree of epithelial proliferation (Ki67-positive cells) of distal fallopian tube from 10 patients with previous tubal ligation and 10 age-matched patients with uncut fallopian tubes. A significantly reduced population of proliferating epithelial progenitors (basally located CD44/Ki67 dual-positive cells) was detected in the tubal ligated specimens (P = .0002). To functionally assess the effect of tubal ligation, a murine model was utilized to compare the growth capacity of distal fallopian tube epithelial cells isolated from either ligated or sham-operated tubal epithelia. Murine fallopian tube epithelial cells isolated after tubal ligation showed a significantly reduced capacity to grow organoids in culture compared to sham-operated controls (P = .002). The findings of this study show that tubal ligation is associated with a reduced presence and decreased proliferation of progenitor cells in the distal fallopian tube epithelium. These compositional and functional changes suggest that tubal ligation induces quiescence of distal fallopian tube epithelial cells. PMID:25736327

  19. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Endometrial or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-08

    Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma

  20. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel or Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine With or Without Bevacizumab as First-Line Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV or Recurrent Stage I Epithelial Ovarian or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-29

    Borderline Ovarian Mucinous Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  1. Ruxolitinib Phosphate, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-21

    Fallopian Tube Carcinosarcoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  2. Macroscopic and microscopic studies of fallopian tube after laparoscopic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Donnez, J; Casanas-Roux, F; Ferin, J

    1979-11-01

    Histological study was carried out on human fallopian tubes one hour and one month after various methods of laparoscopic sterilization. Ciliated cells were counted and histological lesions were observed. Deciliation is proved at a distance from the site of sterilization. Taking into account these two data, it has been possible to display the substance loss provoked by each of the usual sterilization methods (unipolar electro-coagulation, bipolar electrocoagulation, silicone ring and Hulka-Clements clip) which have to be taken into consideration in case of surgical re-anastomosis. PMID:160861

  3. YKL-40 in Serum Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-19

    Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mucinous Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Neoplasm; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Transitional Cell Tumor; Ovarian Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  4. Primary hydatid cyst of the fallopian tube: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, Zeinab; Torabizadeh, Jila

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human hydatid disease is caused by echinococcus granulosus and has a global distribution. It mainly affects the liver, but can involve other organs. In this paper, we present a case of a primary hydatid cyst of the fallopian tube. Case presentation: A 69-year-old (gravida 16, para 16 woman) with abdominal pain and urinary frequency was presented to the Gynecology Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital Sari, Iran, in September 2011. On physical examination, there was a nontender abdominal mass under umbilicus. The sonography of abdomen and pelvic showed a multiloculated mass with thick septation in right adnexa suggesting mucinous ovarian tumor, while the uterus, left adnex, liver, spleen and kidneys were all normal. The patient’s chest x-ray was normal. Serum tumor markers including CEA, CA125, αFP and βHCG were negative. An exploratory laparotomy was performed. There was a 20 cm firm elastic mass in the anterior surface of uterus originated from the right fallopian tube and was removed. Hydatid cyst was confirmed by pathological examination. Conclusion: Although primary hydatid cyst of genital tract is rare, in high prevalence countries it should be considered. PMID:25202448

  5. Surgery and Chemotherapy With or Without Chemotherapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Uterine, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-18

    Recurrent Uterine Corpus Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  6. Morphologic 3D scanning of fallopian tubes to assist ovarian cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madore, Wendy-Julie; De Montigny, Etienne; Deschênes, Andréanne; Benboujja, Fouzi; Leduc, Mikael; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Provencher, Diane M.; Rahimi, Kurosh; Boudoux, Caroline; Godbout, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Pathological evaluation of the fallopian tubes is an important diagnostic result but tumors can be missed using routine approaches. As the majority of high-grade serous ovarian cancers are now believed to originate in the fallopian tubes, pathological examination should include in a thorough examination of the excised ovaries and fallopian tubes. We present an dedicated imaging system for diagnostic exploration of human fallopian tubes. This system is based on optical coherence tomography (OCT), a laser imaging modality giving access to sub- epithelial tissue architecture. This system produces cross-sectional images up to 3 mm in depth, with a lateral resolution of ≍15μm and an axial resolution of ≍12μm. An endoscopic single fiber probe was developed to fit in a human fallopian tube. This 1.2 mm probe produces 3D volume data of the entire inner tube within a few minutes. To demonstrate the clinical potential of OCT for lesion identification, we studied 5 different ovarian lesions and healthy fallopian tubes. We imaged 52 paraffin-embedded human surgical specimens with a benchtop system and compared these images with histology slides. We also imaged and compared healthy oviducts from 3 animal models to find one resembling the human anatomy and to develop a functional ex vivo imaging procedure with the endoscopic probe. We also present an update on an ongoing clinical pilot study on women undergoing prophylactic or diagnostic surgery in which we image ex vivo fallopian tubes with the endoscopic probe.

  7. Glutathione in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy Caused by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Patients With Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, and/or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-22

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Pain; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  8. Olaparib or Cediranib Maleate and Olaparib Compared With Standard Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Platinum-Sensitive Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-12

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Tumor; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  9. Epacadostat Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III-IV Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-09

    Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  10. Fallopian tube torsion in the pediatric age group: radiologic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Srikala; Bandarkar, Anjum; Bulas, Dorothy I

    2014-09-01

    Fallopian tube torsion is a rare but important cause of acute pelvic pain in young adolescent girls. It is a surgical emergency treated with either detorsion or salpingectomy. The imaging findings can be nonspecific and challenging. However, an accurate early diagnosis is essential for prompt surgical treatment. Our objective was to review whether imaging findings can be specific enough to suggest the diagnosis of tubal torsion prospectively in the appropriate clinical setting. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review of our imaging database from 2005 to 2012 revealed 10 surgically proven cases of fallopian tube torsion. All cases had sonography performed; 5 cases had additional multidetector computed tomography. All 10 patients (9-17 years) presented with acute pelvic pain. Sonographic findings included dilated tubular structures in 6 of 10 cases: adjacent to a normal ipsilateral ovary in 5 of 6 and adjacent to a benign ovarian teratoma in 1. In 4 cases, no dilated tube was identified; 3 of 4 had a cystic mass separate from the ovaries, and 1 had the imaging appearance of a multicystic ovary. Computed tomographic findings in the 5 cases that underwent multidetector computed tomography included a dilated tubular structure in 3 of 5; 2 of 5 had a cystic adnexal mass identified. Although rare, tubal torsion should be considered in female adolescents with acute pelvic pain. Sonography should be the first imaging choice. When a tubular structure or a midline cystic mass associated with a normal ipsilateral ovary is noted, tubal torsion should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:25154955

  11. Paclitaxel, Polyglutamate Paclitaxel, or Observation in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  12. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-18

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  13. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-21

    Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  14. Diet and Physical Activity Change or Usual Care in Improving Progression-Free Survival in Patients With Previously Treated Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. Displaced granulosa cells in the fallopian tube mistaken for metastatic granulosa cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Daniel L; Rambally, Brooke S; Lininger, Ruth A; DiFurio, Megan J

    2013-01-01

    A 44-yr-old woman underwent a total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingectomy secondary to uterine leiomyomas. Gross examination of the fallopian tubes revealed no masses or lesions; however, 2 small foci of granulosa cells were identified microscopically within one of the fallopian tubes. These foci were suspicious for granulosa cell tumor metastases. The patient subsequently underwent a bilateral oophorectomy, which revealed no primary granulosa cell tumor. Immunohistochemical studies were used to help support the benign nature of the granulosa cells within the fallopian tube. A review of the literature revealed only 1 similar case report of displaced benign granulosa cells within the fallopian tubes. The ovaries in both this case and the previous case report were found to contain multiple cystic follicles, suggesting ovulation as the likely mechanism of displacement. Knowledge of this rare occurrence and the use of immunohistochemical staining are paramount to making a correct diagnosis, thus preventing a misdiagnosis of malignancy and possible unnecessary treatment. PMID:23202782

  16. Polyglutamate Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-07

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  17. Von Hippel-Lindau gene expression on the human fallopian tube epithelium during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Yan; Zhu, Wei-Jie; Xie, Bao-Guo

    2015-06-01

    The Von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) is a tumor suppressor gene, which is widely expressed in kidney, lung, breast, ovary, and cervix. VHL gene mutations can induce VHL disease and tumorigenesis. However, whether this gene is expressed in the human fallopian tube has not been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the VHL gene is expressed in human fallopian tube, and to investigate its expression changes during the menstrual cycle. Twenty‑seven patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy with adnexectomy for benign uterine disease were enrolled in the study. Human fallopian tubes were divided into proliferative stage (n=14) and secretory stage (n=13) according to the stage of the menstrual cycle they were isolated from. The expression of the VHL gene and protein was studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The results revealed positive expression of the VHL protein in the cytoplasm of ciliated cells of the human fallopian tube. The mRNA and protein expression of VHL in the fallopian tubes was higher in the proliferative compared to the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, but this difference was not significant (P>0.05). Overall, this study presents data on the VHL mRNA and protein expression in the human fallopian tube, which may be relevant to the process of differentiation of ciliated and secretory cells. PMID:25625420

  18. Bevacizumab and Intravenous or Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-05

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  19. Metformin Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-01

    Ovarian Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  20. Stray light mitigation in a novel endoscope for fallopian tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, Elizabeth; Tate, Tyler; Keenan, Molly; Black, John F.; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    Stray light in an endoscope largely contributes to whether a signal can be detected or not. This FRED analysis used a novel endoscope designed for the fallopian tubes to show how common endoscope elements cause stray light contamination, and to offer suggestions on how to mitigate it. Standard and advanced optical raytracing was performed. Raytrace reports determined which ray paths caused the highest power and irradiance distributions after reflecting one or more times from an element in the system. The analysis revealed that the cover plate introduced significantly more stray light into the system than other endoscope components. The imaging lenses and variable stop reflectivity had a negligible impact on the signal. To obtain acceptable signal-to- noise ratio, the source numerical aperture (NA) was lowered to 0.35 and 0.25 to keep the stray light within the same order of magnitude and an order of magnitude lower, respectively than the desired signal. There was a single specular reflection off of the cover plate distal surface. This illumination reflected back into the imaging fiber without first scattering off the tissue, which resulted in high stray power at the back of the imaging lenses. The specular light appeared brighter at higher source NAs and saturated the desired signal at the edge of the imaging fiber. An NA between 0.25 and 0.35 provides maximum illumination to image the tissue, with minimal stray light degrading the desired signal.

  1. In vivo laser-based imaging of the human fallopian tube for future cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, Eric J.; Melville, C. David; Johnston, Richard S.; Gong, Yuanzheng; Agnew, Kathy; Chiang, Seine; Swisher, Elizabeth M.

    2015-03-01

    Inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 lead to 20-50% lifetime risk of ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal carcinoma. Clinical recommendations for women with these genetic mutations include the prophylactic removal of ovaries and fallopian tubes by age 40 after child-bearing. Recent findings suggest that many presumed ovarian or peritoneal carcinomas arise in fallopian tube epithelium. Although survival rate is <90% when ovarian cancer is detected early (Stage_I), 70% of women have advanced disease (Stage_III/IV) at presentation when survival is less than 30%. Over the years, effective early detection of ovarian cancer has remained elusive, possibly because screening techniques have mistakenly focused on the ovary as origin of ovarian carcinoma. Unlike ovaries, the fallopian tubes are amenable to direct visual imaging without invasive surgery, using access through the cervix. To develop future screening protocols, we investigated using our 1.2- mm diameter, forward-viewing, scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) to image luminal surfaces of the fallopian tube before laparoscopic surgical removal. Three anesthetized human subjects participated in our protocol development which eventually led to 70-80% of the length of fallopian tubes being imaged in scanning reflectance, using red (632nm), green (532nm), and blue (442nm) laser light. A hysteroscope with saline uterine distention was used to locate the tubal ostia. To facilitate passage of the SFE through the interstitial portion of the fallopian tube, an introducer catheter was inserted 1- cm through each ostia. During insertion, saline was flushed to reduce friction and provide clearer viewing. This is likely the first high-resolution intraluminal visualization of fallopian tubes.

  2. The expression of IL-6Rα and Gp130 in fallopian tubes bearing an ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yousefian, Elham; Fathabadi, Fateme Fadaei; Farahani, Reza Mastery; Kachouei, Emadeddin Yazdani

    2013-01-01

    Women with tubal ectopic pregnancies have high levels of circulating interleukin 6 (IL-6). IL-6 treatment in vitro significantly reduces the ciliary activity of tubal epithelium. The effects of IL-6 on target cells occur via the formation of a high-affinity complex with its receptors IL-6Rα and glycoprotein 130 (Gp130). IL-6Rα is specifically expressed in the cilia of the epithelial cells. In this study, we performed a quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to determine the mRNA expression of IL-6Rα and Gp130 in the fallopian tubes obtained from 12 women with ectopic pregnancies, 12 women with normal pregnancies, and 12 healthy nonpregnant women in the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle. Fallopian tubes were evaluated from specimens taken during tubal ligation in normal pregnancies and nonpregnant fertile women or during tubal surgery in ectopic pregnancies. We observed that IL-6Rα mRNA expression in fallopian tubes was increased in ectopic pregnancy compared with that in the midluteal phase. We also found that the Gp130 mRNA expression was significantly lower in fallopian tubes from ectopic pregnancies than in those from nonpregnant women during the midluteal phase of their menstrual cycle, although its expression was noticeably high in fallopian tubes in the midluteal phase, which suggests that high Gp130 levels may possibly contribute to embryo transport into the uterus. PMID:24179692

  3. Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-25

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  4. Carboplatin and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without ATR Kinase Inhibitor VX-970 in Treating Patients With Recurrent and Metastatic Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-21

    High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  5. Vaccine Therapy and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Breast or Stage II-IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-07

    Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  6. The Notch and Wnt pathways regulate stemness and differentiation in human fallopian tube organoids

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Mirjana; Hoffmann, Karen; Brinkmann, Volker; Thieck, Oliver; Jackisch, Susan; Toelle, Benjamin; Berger, Hilmar; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim; Mangler, Mandy; Sehouli, Jalid; Fotopoulou, Christina; Meyer, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the fallopian tube is of critical importance for human reproduction and has been implicated as a site of origin of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Here we report on the establishment of long-term, stable 3D organoid cultures from human fallopian tubes, indicative of the presence of adult stem cells. We show that single epithelial stem cells in vitro can give rise to differentiated organoids containing ciliated and secretory cells. Continuous growth and differentiation of organoids depend on both Wnt and Notch paracrine signalling. Microarray analysis reveals that inhibition of Notch signalling causes downregulation of stem cell-associated genes in parallel with decreased proliferation and increased numbers of ciliated cells and that organoids also respond to oestradiol and progesterone treatment in a physiological manner. Thus, our organoid model provides a much-needed basis for future investigations of signalling routes involved in health and disease of the fallopian tube. PMID:26643275

  7. Ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal cancer staging: Rationale and explanation of new FIGO staging 2013.

    PubMed

    Prat, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    Ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers have a similar clinical presentation and are treated similarly, and current evidence supports staging all three cancers in a single system. The primary site (i.e., ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum) should be designated where possible. The histologic type should be recorded. Intraoperative rupture ("surgical spill") is IC1; capsule ruptured before surgery or tumor on ovarian or fallopian tube surface is IC2; and positive peritoneal cytology with or without rupture is IC3. The new staging includes a revision of stage III patients; assignment to stage IIIA1 is based on spread to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes without intraperitoneal dissemination. Extension of the tumor from the omentum to the spleen or liver (stage IIIC) should be differentiated from isolated parenchymal metastases (stage IVB). PMID:25890882

  8. Metformin Hydrochloride and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ascites; Malignant Pleural Effusion; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the Fallopian tubes. Histological findings in two patients.

    PubMed Central

    Møller, B R; Weström, L; Ahrons, S; Ripa, K T; Svensson, L; von Mecklenburg, C; Henrikson, H; Mårdh, P A

    1979-01-01

    In two patients with acute salpingitis, C. trachomatis was isolated from the cervix. In one of the patients, the organism was also recovered from the Fallopian tubes, and in the other, chlamydial inclusions were found in Giemsa-stained tubal epithelial cells. A significant change in micro-immunofluorescence antibodies to C. trachomatis occurred in both patients during the course of the disease. The Fallopian tubes of both patients were removed and studied by conventional histological techniques and, in the case of one of them, by transmission electron microscopy. Images PMID:526846

  10. Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    van der Zanden, Moniek; Nap, Annemiek; van Kints, Marjolijn

    2011-10-01

    Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube is a rare medical emergency, especially in premenarchal girls. We present a 9-year-old girl with right-sided lower abdominal pain. Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube was suspected preoperatively because of the clinical presentation combined with the results of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At emergency laparoscopy, the isolated torsion of the fallopian tube could be reduced, and the tube could be salvaged. This case report shows that the use of ultrasonography and MRI or CT is a helpful diagnostic tool to recognize this condition at an early stage. Especially in young girls presenting with abdominal pain, this should be kept in mind, as digital vaginal examination and vaginal ultrasound most often cannot be used in the diagnostic process. In conclusion, because prompt surgical intervention is required to preserve the tube and prevent progression to peritonitis and possible detrimental effects on future fertility, isolated torsion of the fallopian tube should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lower abdominal pain in all female patients regardless of age. PMID:21590267

  11. YAP Induces High-Grade Serous Carcinoma in Fallopian Tube Secretory Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Guohua; Lv, Xiangmin; He, Chunbo; Remmenga, Steven W.; Rodabough, Kerry J.; Dong, Jixin; Yang, Liguo; Lele, Subodh M.; Yang, Peixin; Zhou, Jin; Karst, Alison; Drapkin, Ronny I.; Davis, John S.; Wang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) originates from Fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells (FTSECs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of HGSC derived from FTSECs remains unclear. In the present study, we found that the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of Fallopian tube and ovarian HGSC. Importantly, YAP was overexpressed in inflammatory and cancerous Fallopian tube tissues. Further, overexpression of wild-type YAP, or constitutively active YAP in immortalized FTSECs, induced cell proliferation, migration, colony formation, and tumorigenesis. Moreover, the Hippo/YAP and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways formed an autocrine/paracrine positive feedback loop to drive the progression of the FTSECs-derived HGSC. Evidence in this study strongly suggests that combined therapy with inhibitors of YAP (such as verteporfin) and FGFRs (such as BGJ398) can provide a novel therapeutic strategy to treat Fallopian tube and ovarian HGSC. PMID:26364602

  12. YAP induces high-grade serous carcinoma in fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hua, G; Lv, X; He, C; Remmenga, S W; Rodabough, K J; Dong, J; Yang, L; Lele, S M; Yang, P; Zhou, J; Karst, A; Drapkin, R I; Davis, J S; Wang, C

    2016-04-28

    Accumulating evidence indicates that ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) originates from fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells (FTSECs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of HGSC derived from FTSECs remains unclear. In this study, we found that the Hippo/Yes-associated protein (YAP) signaling pathway has a critical role in the initiation and progression of fallopian tube and ovarian HGSC. Importantly, YAP was overexpressed in inflammatory and cancerous fallopian tube tissues. Further, overexpression of wild-type YAP, or constitutively active YAP in immortalized FTSECs, induced cell proliferation, migration, colony formation and tumorigenesis. Moreover, the Hippo/YAP and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways formed an autocrine/paracrine-positive feedback loop to drive the progression of the FTSEC-derived HGSC. Evidence in this study strongly suggests that combined therapy with inhibitors of YAP (such as verteporfin) and FGF receptors (such as BGJ398) can provide a novel therapeutic strategy to treat fallopian tube and ovarian HGSC. PMID:26364602

  13. Synchronous occurrence of mature cystic teratoma of the fallopian tube and ovary: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jongchul

    2016-01-01

    Primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube represents <1% of all gynecological tumors, and benign tumors of the fallopian tube are encountered even less frequently. Mature teratomas of the fallopian tube and ovary are extremely rare, and to date, only a few cases have been reported. A 31-year-old woman presented with a left adnexal mass that was identified by pelvic ultrasonography during a regular checkup. The patient underwent laparoscopic left salpingectomy and left ovarian cystectomy. Histopathological examination of the removed tissue revealed features compatible with mature cystic teratomas of both the left fallopian tube and ovary. At 26 months post-surgery, the patient underwent a cesarean section at 39+2 weeks of gestation. A right ovarian cystic mass was incidentally identified during the procedure. Right ovarian cystectomy was performed, and histopathological analysis revealed the mass to be a teratoma. The patient continued to receive annual follow-up after surgical intervention and demonstrated no evidence of disease at a routine 2-year follow-up examination. The discussion of the present case is followed by a brief review of the literature. PMID:27446368

  14. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin or Ifosfamide in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Persistent or Recurrent Uterine, Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Carcinosarcoma

  15. Vaccine Therapy and IDO1 Inhibitor INCB024360 in Treating Patients With Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer Who Are in Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-17

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  16. Characterization of the Immune Cell Repertoire in the Normal Fallopian Tube

    PubMed Central

    Ardighieri, Laura; Lonardi, Silvia; Moratto, Daniele; Facchetti, Fabio; Shih, Ie-Ming; Vermi, William; Kurman, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies implicating the fallopian tube as the site of putative precursors of ovarian serous carcinoma and the hypothesis that injury, inflammation and repair of the ovarian surface epithelium at the time of ovulation may be contributing factors to ovarian carcinogenesis, prompted us to undertake a comprehensive analysis of the immune cells in the normal fallopian tube. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to provide a base line for future studies exploring the relationship of inflammation to the early events of ovarian carcinogenesis by characterizing the immune cell repertoire in thirteen normal human fallopian tube, combining digital microscopy of immunostained slides and flow cytometry of fresh single cell suspensions, with a panel of markers that identify the most important adaptive and innate immune cells. We found that CD45+ leucocytes are regularly observed in the fallopian tube and are mainly composed of CD163+ macrophages, CD11c+ dendritic cells and CD8+ T-cells. In addition, there are minor populations of CD56+ NK cells, CD4+ T-cells, CD20+ B-cells, TCRγδ+ T-cells, and, among dendritic cells, CD207(Langerin)+ Langerhans cells. The cellular mapping that we performed indicates that the local immune system in the human fallopian tube is composed of a mixture of innate and adaptive immune cells, many of which are recognized as playing a role in cancer immune surveillance. This local immune system could provide a first line of defense against early precancerous lesions and could potentially be exploited for immune-based therapies. PMID:25272297

  17. Sociodemographic determinants of incidence of primary fallopian tube carcinoma, Finland 1953-97.

    PubMed

    Riska, Annika; Leminen, Arto; Pukkala, Eero

    2003-05-01

    Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is very rare. In Western countries, it accounts for about 1% of all female genital malignant tumors. Its etiology remains poorly known, but high parity is considered to be protective. We studied determinants of incidence of primary fallopian tube carcinoma in Finland. Incidence rates for primary fallopian tube carcinoma, according to the population based Finnish Cancer Registry, from 1953- 97 were assessed by age, year of diagnosis, and type of residential area. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for the years 1971- 95 were calculated by occupation and social class variables taken from the 1970 Population Census. There were 485 cases of primary fallopian tube carcinoma registered during 45 years. The age-adjusted incidence rate increased from 1.2/1000000 in 1953-57 to 5.4/1000000 in 1993-97. This 4.5-fold increase in incidence rate corresponds to a 7-fold increase in the number of new cases. The increase is attributable to the age group beyond 55 years, the peak incidence occurring between 60-64 years. Although the relative increase in incidence rate has been larger in rural areas than in cities, the rate in the latter remains 2-fold. Women in the 2 highest social classes had a 1.8-fold incidence (95% CI = 1.2-2.6) as compared to the lowest social class. Women in agriculture and those not working outside the home had only half the cancer incidence of those in academic or clerical occupations. The incidence of primary fallopian tube carcinoma increases in Finland. Evidently, the incidence has increased simultaneously with the affluence of urban life. Part of the variation in incidence correlates with variation in parity. PMID:12594821

  18. Activated T-cell Therapy, Low-Dose Aldesleukin, and Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That is Stage III-IV, Refractory, or Recurrent

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-15

    Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  19. Efficacy of Salpingography and Transcervical Recanalization in Diagnosis, Categorization, and Treatment of Fallopian Tube Obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Erich K.; Dunaway, Herbert E.

    2000-11-15

    Purpose: The efficacy of selective salpingography (SS) and transcervical recanalization (TCR) in diagnosis, categorization, and determination of optimal treatment modality for fallopian tube obstruction was investigated.Methods: SS and, in some patients, TCR was performed in 430 patients with a diagnosis of obstruction of one or both fallopian tubes, as determined by hysterosalpingograms (HSG). All patients (age 21-46 years) had an infertility problem for at least 18 months.Results: In 196 patients, 325 tubes were patent on SS. TCR recanalized 243 tubes in 176 patients. Disease of the distal tube was demonstrated in 66 patients. There were 39 live babies in a group of 176 patients with successful TCR. Best live birth rate was in 7 of 12 (58%) patients with underlying endometriosis, followed by postsurgical strictures in inflammatory disease, 6 of 31 (19%), and salpingitis isthmica nodosa in 25 of 168 (15%). There were no pregnancies in patients with cobblestone pattern of the distal tubes.Conclusions: SS and TCR were capable of correcting obstruction of the proximal tubes in 243 of 465 tubes in 176 of 234 patients (75%). With patency of the proximal tube restored, the distal tube could be assessed for changes indicative of damage to the ciliated epithelium which was likely to reduce the ability to become pregnant. This allowed for the triage of patients into groups benefiting from the relatively inexpensive and low complication TCR or patients in need of in vitro fertilization or similar assisted reproductive technologies.

  20. A6 in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-27

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  1. Denileukin Diftitox Used in Treating Patients With Advanced Refractory Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma, or Epithelial Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-02

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  2. Everolimus and Letrozole in Treating Patients With Recurrent Hormone Receptor Positive Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-14

    Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  3. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  4. Inguinal Hernia Containing Uterus, Fallopian Tube, and Ovary in a Premature Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Karadeniz Cerit, Kıvılcım; Ergelen, Rabia; Colak, Emel; Dagli, Tolga E.

    2015-01-01

    A female infant weighing 2,200 g was delivered at 34 weeks of gestation by vaginal delivery. She presented with an irreducible mass in the left inguinal region at 32 days of age. An ultrasonography (US) was performed and an incarcerated hernia containing uterus, fallopian tube, and ovary was diagnosed preoperatively. Surgery was performed through an inguinal approach; the uterus, fallopian tube, and ovary were found in the hernia sac. High ligation and an additional repair of the internal inguinal ring were performed. Patent processus vaginalis was found during contralateral exploration and also closed. The postoperative course was uneventful. After one year of follow-up, there have been no signs of recurrence. PMID:26351609

  5. Intrauterine insemination versus fallopian tube sperm perfusion in non-tubal infertility

    PubMed Central

    Shekhawat, G.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) combined with intrauterine insemination (IUI), using a volume of 0.5 ml of inseminate is commonly offered to couples with non-tubal sub fertility. Another method is Fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP) which is based on a pressure injection of 4 ml of sperm suspension while attempting to seal the cervix to prevent semen reflux. This technique ensures the presence of higher sperm density in the fallopian tubes at the time of ovulation than standard IUI. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of standard intrauterine insemination (IUI) and Fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP) in the treatment of non-tubal infertility. Methods 200 consecutive patients with infertility in 404 stimulated cycles were included in the study. Those randomized to standard IUI included 100 patients in 184 cycles [158 clomiphene citrate/human menopausal gonadotrophin cycles and 26 Letrozole/FSH cycles exclusively for polycystic ovarian disease patients] (group A). Patients subjected to FSP included 100 patients in 220 cycles (193 clomiphene citrate/human menopausal gonadotrophin cycles and 27 Letrozole/FSH cycles exclusively for polycystic ovarian disease patients] (group B). Swim up semen preparation technique was used in all cases. Insemination was performed in both groups 34–37 h after hCG administration. Standard IUI was performed using 0.5 ml of inseminate. In FSP 4 ml inseminate was used. Results In group A (184 IUI cycles in 100 patients), 22 clinical pregnancies (presence of gestational sac with fetal cardiac activity) occurred (11.95% per cycle over four cycles). In group B, (220 cycles of FSP in 100 patients), 48 clinical pregnancies occurred (21.81% per cycle over four cycles) and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions For non-tubal sub fertility, the results indicate clear benefit for FSP (Fallopian tube sperm perfusion) over IUI (Intrauterine insemination). PMID:24532873

  6. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, chronic fallopian tube injury, and serous carcinoma development.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, Karin; Klynning, Charlotta; Flöter-Rådestad, Angelique; Carlson, Joseph W

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is the deadliest gynecological malignancy. Previous studies have suggested that the fallopian tube may be the primary site for high-grade serous carcinoma. In prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomies from women with hereditary high risk for ovarian cancer, precursors can be assessed prior to onset and studied as a model for serous cancer precursor lesions. Epidemiologic studies indicate that carcinogenesis may be a result of chronic fallopian tube injury. The aims of this study were to (1) to examine the incidence of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) in relation to other clinical parameters and (2) to evaluate whether chronic fallopian tube injury was related to cancer development. This study enrolled 101 women, comprising the following three groups: hereditary (n = 60), sporadic serous cancer (n = 18; endometrial cancers were excluded), and control (n = 23). The cases were histologically examined and clinical risk factors were collected. The histological changes were compared between different patients and correlated to clinical risk factors. STICs were identified primarily on the fallopian tube fimbria. The incidence of STIC was 3 % in the hereditary patients. In sporadic serous cancer cases, 61 % were associated with STIC and tubal carcinoma (p < 0.001). No differences in tubal injury or inflammation were seen when comparing the sporadic serous cancer group and the control group or within the hereditary group. STIC and invasive cancer were seen more often in the older patients than in the younger patients (p = 0.528). This small study, no correlation with chronic tubal injury or inflammation was identified. PMID:27003156

  7. Criteria for pathology recognition in optical coherence tomography of fallopian tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, Mikhail; Panteleeva, Olga; Yunusova, Ekaterina; Donchenko, Ekaterina; Shakhova, Natalia

    2012-08-01

    An increase of infertility and chronic pelvic pains syndrome, a growing level of latent diseases of this group, as well as a stably high percentage (up to 25% for infertility and up to 60% for the chronic pelvic pains syndrome) of undetermined origin raises the requirement for novel introscopic diagnostic techniques. We demonstrate abilities of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a complementary technique to laparoscopy in diagnostics of fallopian tubes pathologies. We have acquired OCT images of different parts of fallopian tubes in norm and with morphologically proven pathology. Based on comparative analysis of the OCT data and the results of histological studies, we have worked out the subjective OCT criteria for distinguishing between unaltered and pathologic tissues. The developed criteria are verified in blind recognition tests. Diagnostic efficacy of OCT diagnostics in the case ofpelvic inflammatory diseases has been statistically evaluated, and high diagnostic accuracy (88%) is shown. Basing of the subjective criteria, an attempt to develop independent criteria aimed for automated recognition of pathological states in fallopian tubes is undertaken. Enhanced diagnostic accuracy (96%) of the developed independent criteria is demonstrated.

  8. Epigenetic reprogramming of fallopian tube fimbriae in BRCA mutation carriers defines early ovarian cancer evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Thomas E.; Chindera, Kantaraja; McDermott, Jacqueline; Breeze, Charles E.; Cooke, William R.; Jones, Allison; Reisel, Daniel; Karegodar, Smita T.; Arora, Rupali; Beck, Stephan; Menon, Usha; Dubeau, Louis; Widschwendter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The exact timing and contribution of epigenetic reprogramming to carcinogenesis are unclear. Women harbouring BRCA1/2 mutations demonstrate a 30–40-fold increased risk of high-grade serous extra-uterine Müllerian cancers (HGSEMC), otherwise referred to as ‘ovarian carcinomas', which frequently develop from fimbrial cells but not from the proximal portion of the fallopian tube. Here we compare the DNA methylome of the fimbrial and proximal ends of the fallopian tube in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. We show that the number of CpGs displaying significant differences in methylation levels between fimbrial and proximal fallopian tube segments are threefold higher in BRCA mutation carriers than in controls, correlating with overexpression of activation-induced deaminase in their fimbrial epithelium. The differentially methylated CpGs accurately discriminate HGSEMCs from non-serous subtypes. Epigenetic reprogramming is an early pre-malignant event integral to BRCA1/2 mutation-driven carcinogenesis. Our findings may provide a basis for cancer-preventative strategies. PMID:27216078

  9. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and Fallopian tube tissue for early stage cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Tyler; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini; Watson, Jennifer; Orsinger, Gabe; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Keenan, Molly; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth; Chambers, Setsuko; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    With early detection, five year survival rates for ovarian cancer are over 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests that perhaps over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease, high grade serous ovarian cancer, originates in the Fallopian tube. Cancer changes molecular concentrations of various endogenous fluorophores. Using specific excitation wavelengths and emissions bands on a Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging (MFI) system, spatial and spectral data over a wide field of view can be collected from endogenous fluorophores. Wavelength specific reflectance images provide additional information to normalize for tissue geometry and blood absorption. Ratiometric combination of the images may create high contrast between neighboring normal and abnormal tissue. Twenty-six women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery consented the use of surgical discard tissue samples for MFI imaging. Forty-nine pieces of ovarian tissue and thirty-two pieces of Fallopian tube tissue were collected and imaged with excitation wavelengths between 280 nm and 550 nm. After imaging, each tissue sample was fixed, sectioned and HE stained for pathological evaluation. Comparison of mean intensity values between normal, benign, and cancerous tissue demonstrate a general trend of increased fluorescence of benign tissue and decreased fluorescence of cancerous tissue when compared to normal tissue. The predictive capabilities of the mean intensity measurements are tested using multinomial logistic regression and quadratic discriminant analysis. Adaption of the system for in vivo Fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible and is briefly described.

  10. Fiber optic laser light scattering measurement of ciliary function of the fallopian tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbert, Sheridan A.; Lim, Kap; Lee, Wylie I.

    1990-07-01

    A fiber-optic laser light-scattering system (FLS) for measuring ciliary function was evaluated by means of three sets of in vitro experiments. First, FLS performance was compared to that of a previously proven benchtop laser system (BLS). Using tissue excised from rabbit fallopian tubes, ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of each sample was measured with FLS and BLS. Paired CBF measurements showed excellent correlation between the two systems (r =0.93). Second, the FLS was used to evaluate the dependency of CBF on temperature (T) by using tissue sampies of rabbit oviductal fimbna. Regression analysis of CBF vs T showed a linear relationship over the range of 18-37°C for both individual samples (r =0.98) and pooled data from all experiments (r = 0.84). Fmally, the relalionship between CBF and ciliary ovum transport rate (TR) was tested by using T to modulate CBF of rabbit fimbria, in vitro. The relationship was linear over the range of CBF from 10 to 30 Hz (r2 = 0.83). At 37°C, CBF = 31+/-1 Hz, and TR = O.12+/-.02 mm/sec. equal to ovum transport rate in situ. The FLS is a valuable tool for characterizing ciliary activity and thus ovum transport function. Owing to the fact that ciliary dyskinesia resulting from disease of the fallopian tube is associated with infeitility, the FLS may be useful to acquire data important to the clinical evaluation of fallopian tube function and female infertility.

  11. Epigenetic reprogramming of fallopian tube fimbriae in BRCA mutation carriers defines early ovarian cancer evolution.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Thomas E; Chindera, Kantaraja; McDermott, Jacqueline; Breeze, Charles E; Cooke, William R; Jones, Allison; Reisel, Daniel; Karegodar, Smita T; Arora, Rupali; Beck, Stephan; Menon, Usha; Dubeau, Louis; Widschwendter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The exact timing and contribution of epigenetic reprogramming to carcinogenesis are unclear. Women harbouring BRCA1/2 mutations demonstrate a 30-40-fold increased risk of high-grade serous extra-uterine Müllerian cancers (HGSEMC), otherwise referred to as 'ovarian carcinomas', which frequently develop from fimbrial cells but not from the proximal portion of the fallopian tube. Here we compare the DNA methylome of the fimbrial and proximal ends of the fallopian tube in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. We show that the number of CpGs displaying significant differences in methylation levels between fimbrial and proximal fallopian tube segments are threefold higher in BRCA mutation carriers than in controls, correlating with overexpression of activation-induced deaminase in their fimbrial epithelium. The differentially methylated CpGs accurately discriminate HGSEMCs from non-serous subtypes. Epigenetic reprogramming is an early pre-malignant event integral to BRCA1/2 mutation-driven carcinogenesis. Our findings may provide a basis for cancer-preventative strategies. PMID:27216078

  12. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue for early-stage cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Tyler H.; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini F. S.; Koevary, Jennifer Watson; Orsinger, Gabriel V.; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer Kehlet

    2016-05-01

    With early detection, 5-year survival rates for ovarian cancer exceed 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease originates in the fallopian tube. Twenty-eight women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery provided informed consent for the use of surgical discard tissue samples for multispectral fluorescence imaging. Using multiple ultraviolet and visible excitation wavelengths and emissions bands, 12 fluorescence and 6 reflectance images of 47 ovarian and 31 fallopian tube tissue samples were recorded. After imaging, each sample was fixed, sectioned, and stained for pathological evaluation. Univariate logistic regression showed cancerous tissue samples had significantly lower intensity than noncancerous tissue for 17 image types. The predictive power of multiple image types was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression (MLR) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA). Two MLR models each using two image types had receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve exceeding 0.9. QDA determined 56 image type combinations with perfect resubstituting using as few as five image types. Adaption of the system for future in vivo fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible, which may enable sensitive detection of ovarian cancer with no exogenous contrast agents.

  13. The Molecular Fingerprint of High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer Reflects Its Fallopian Tube Origin

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Mirjana; Fotopoulou, Christina; Meyer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    High grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC), the most lethal and frequent type of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), has poor long term prognosis due to a combination of factors: late detection, great metastatic potential and the capacity to develop resistance to available therapeutic drugs. Furthermore, there has been considerable controversy concerning the etiology of this malignancy. New studies, both clinical and molecular, strongly suggest that HGSC originates not from the surface of the ovary, but from the epithelial layer of the neighboring fallopian tube fimbriae. In this paper we summarize data supporting the central role of fallopian tube epithelium in the development of HGSC. Specifically, we address cellular pathways and regulatory mechanisms which are modulated in the process of transformation, but also genetic changes which accumulate during disease progression. Similarities between fallopian tube mucosa and the malignant tissue of HGSC warrant a closer analysis of homeostatic mechanisms in healthy epithelium in order to elucidate key steps in disease development. Finally, we highlight the importance of the cancer stem cell (CSC) identification and understanding of its niche regulation for improvement of therapeutic strategies. PMID:23528888

  14. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, Veliparib, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-02

    Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. Implantation-Dependent Expression of Trophinin by Maternal Fallopian Tube Epithelia during Tubal Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Jun; Aoki, Daisuke; Suga, Tomoaki; Akama, Tomoya O.; Ishizone, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Nadano, Daita; Fazleabas, Asgerally T.; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Nozawa, Shiro; Fukuda, Michiko N.

    2003-01-01

    Trophinin, tastin, and bystin have been identified as molecules potentially involved in human embryo implantation. Both trophoblasts and endometrial epithelial cells express trophinin, which mediates apical cell adhesion through homophilic trophinin-trophinin binding. We hypothesized that trophinin’s function in embryo implantation is unique to humans and investigated the expression of trophinin, tastin, and bystin in ectopic pregnancy, a condition unique to humans. In tubal pregnancies, high levels of all three were found in both trophoblasts and fallopian tubal epithelia. Trophinin expression in maternal cells was particularly high in the area adjacent to the trophoblasts, whereas trophinin was barely detectable in intact fallopian tubes from women with in utero pregnancies or without pregnancies. When explants of intact fallopian tube were incubated with the human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), trophinin expression was enhanced in epithelial cells. Since the trophectoderm of the human blastocyst secretes hCG before and after implantation, these results suggest that hCG from the human embryo induces trophinin expression by maternal cells. As both β-subunit of hCG and trophinin genes have diverged in mammals, the present study suggests a unique role of hCG and trophinin in human embryo implantation, including the pathogenesis of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:14633596

  16. Salpingitis Isthmica Nodosa: Technical Success and Outcome of Fluoroscopic Transcervical Fallopian Tube Recanalization

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J. Graeme; Machan, Lindsay S.

    1998-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the technical success and outcome of fallopian tube recanalization (FTR) in salpingitis isthmica nodosa (SIN). Methods: SIN is a well-recognized pathological condition affecting the proximal fallopian tube and is associated with infertility and ectopic pregnancy. We reviewed the presentations, films, and case records of all patients attending for FTR for infertility from 1990 to 1994. Technical success and total, intrauterine, and ectopic pregnancy rates at follow-up were determined. Results: SIN was observed in 22 of 349 (6%) patients. FTR was attempted in 34 tubes in these 22 patients. Technical success was achieved in 23 of 34 (68%) tubes affected by SIN. In 5 of the 11 failed recanalizations, failure was due to distal obstruction. At least one tube was patent on selective postprocedural salpingography in 17 of 22 (77%) patients. There were no recorded perforations or complications. At follow-up (mean 14 months), total, intrauterine, and ectopic pregnancy rates were 23%, 18%, and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusion: FTR in SIN is technically successful and, compared with previously reported results in unselected infertility patients, is associated with only a slightly less favorable intrauterine pregnancy rate and a comparable ectopic pregnancy rate. The findings of SIN at FTR should not discourage attempted fluoroscopic transcervical recanalization.

  17. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor in the Ovarian Follicle Attracts the Stromal Cells of the Fallopian Tube Fimbriae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiu-Hua; Hsu, Che-Fang; Huang, Rui-Len; Ding, Dah-Ching; Chu, Tang-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    During human ovulation, the fallopian tube fimbriae must move to the ovulation site to catch the oocyte. As the tissue-of-origin of the majority of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), the fallopian tube fimbriae carrying a precursor cancer lesion may also approach the ovulatory site for metastasis. We hypothesize that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in mature follicle fluid (FF) attracts the migration of PDGFR-expressing fimbriae toward the ovulating follicle. We observed that more PDGFR-β was expressed in the distal part than in the proximal parts of the fallopian tube, particularly in stromal cells in the lamina propria. The stromal cells, but not the epithelial cells, from normal fimbriae and fallopian tube HGSC were highly chemotactic to mature FF. The chemotactic activities were positively correlated with PDGF-BB and estradiol levels in FF and were abolished by a blocking antibody of PDGFR-β and by tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. When PDGF-BB/AB was depleted from the FF, more than 80% of chemotaxis activities were diminished. This study suggests an ovarian follicle-directed and PDGF-dependent attraction of fallopian tube fimbriae before ovulation. The same mechanism may also be crucial for the ovarian homing of HGSC, which largely originates in the fimbriae. PMID:27379403

  18. In vitro and in vivo correlates of physiological and neoplastic human Fallopian tube stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Howitt, Brooke E; Mehra, Karishma; Wu, Lingyan; Wang, Xia; Hong, Yue; Kern, Florian; Wei, Tay Seok; Zhang, Ting; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Basuli, Debargha; Torti, Suzy; Brewer, Molly; Choolani, Mahesh; McKeon, Frank; Crum, Christopher P; Xian, Wa

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous cancer (HGSC) progresses to advanced stages without symptoms and the 5-year survival rate is a dismal 30%. Recent studies of ovaries and Fallopian tubes in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations have documented a pre-metastatic intramucosal neoplasm that is found almost exclusively in the Fallopian tube, termed ‘serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma’ or STIC. Moreover, other proliferations, termed p53 signatures, secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs), and lower-grade serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasms (STINs) fall short of STIC but share similar alterations in expression, in keeping with an underpinning of genomic disturbances involved in, or occurring in parallel with, serous carcinogenesis. To gain insight into the cellular origins of this unique tubal pathway to high-grade serous cancer, we cloned and both immortalized and transformed Fallopian tube stem cells (FTSCs). We demonstrated that pedigrees of FTSCs were capable of multipotent differentiation and that the tumours derived from transformed FTSCs shared the histological and molecular features of HGSC. We also demonstrated that altered expression of some biomarkers seen in transformed FTSCs and HGSCs (stathmin, EZH2, CXCR4, CXCL12, and FOXM1) could be seen as well in immortalized cells and their in vivo counterparts SCOUTs and STINs. Thus, a whole-genome transcriptome analysis comparing FTSCs, immortalized FTSCs, and transformed FTSCs showed a clear molecular progression sequence that is recapitulated by the spectrum of accumulated perturbations characterizing the range of proliferations seen in vivo. Biomarkers unique to STIC relative to normal tubal epithelium provide a basis for novel detection approaches to early HGSC, but must be viewed critically given their potential expression in lesser proliferations. Perturbations shared by both immortalized and transformed FTSCs may provide unique early targets for prevention strategies. Central to these efforts has been the ability to

  19. In vitro and in vivo correlates of physiological and neoplastic human Fallopian tube stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ning, Gang; Howitt, Brooke E; Mehra, Karishma; Wu, Lingyan; Wang, Xia; Hong, Yue; Kern, Florian; Wei, Tay Seok; Zhang, Ting; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Basuli, Debargha; Torti, Suzy; Brewer, Molly; Choolani, Mahesh; McKeon, Frank; Crum, Christopher P; Xian, Wa

    2016-03-01

    High-grade serous cancer (HGSC) progresses to advanced stages without symptoms and the 5-year survival rate is a dismal 30%. Recent studies of ovaries and Fallopian tubes in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations have documented a pre-metastatic intramucosal neoplasm that is found almost exclusively in the Fallopian tube, termed 'serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma' or STIC. Moreover, other proliferations, termed p53 signatures, secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs), and lower-grade serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasms (STINs) fall short of STIC but share similar alterations in expression, in keeping with an underpinning of genomic disturbances involved in, or occurring in parallel with, serous carcinogenesis. To gain insight into the cellular origins of this unique tubal pathway to high-grade serous cancer, we cloned and both immortalized and transformed Fallopian tube stem cells (FTSCs). We demonstrated that pedigrees of FTSCs were capable of multipotent differentiation and that the tumours derived from transformed FTSCs shared the histological and molecular features of HGSC. We also demonstrated that altered expression of some biomarkers seen in transformed FTSCs and HGSCs (stathmin, EZH2, CXCR4, CXCL12, and FOXM1) could be seen as well in immortalized cells and their in vivo counterparts SCOUTs and STINs. Thus, a whole-genome transcriptome analysis comparing FTSCs, immortalized FTSCs, and transformed FTSCs showed a clear molecular progression sequence that is recapitulated by the spectrum of accumulated perturbations characterizing the range of proliferations seen in vivo. Biomarkers unique to STIC relative to normal tubal epithelium provide a basis for novel detection approaches to early HGSC, but must be viewed critically given their potential expression in lesser proliferations. Perturbations shared by both immortalized and transformed FTSCs may provide unique early targets for prevention strategies. Central to these efforts has been the ability to clone

  20. Fallopian tube secretory cell expansion: a sensitive biomarker for ovarian serous carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiying; Li, Li; Wang, Yue; Tang, Sarah Ngocvi; Zheng, Wenxin

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances suggest that precancerous lesions of pelvic serous carcinoma originate from tubal secretory cells. The purpose of our study was to determine if an increased number of secretory cells vary with age or location in the fallopian tube and to examine its association with serous neoplasia. Three groups (benign control, high-risk, and pelvic serous carcinoma) of age-matched patients were studied. The age data were stratified into 10-year intervals ranging from 20-29 to older than 80. The number of secretory and ciliated cells from both tubal fimbria and ampulla segments was counted by microscopy and immunohistochemical staining methods. The data were analyzed by standard contingency table and Poisson distribution methods after age justification. We found that the absolute number of tubal secretory cells increased significantly with age in all three groups. But a more dramatic increase of secretory cells was observed in high-risk and pelvic serous carcinoma patients. Secretory cell expansion is more prevalent than secretory cell outgrowth in both fimbria and ampulla tubal segments and is significantly associated with serous neoplasia (p < 0.001). Furthermore, age remained a significant risk factor for serous neoplasia after age adjustment. These findings suggest that secretory cell expansion could serve as a potential sensitive biomarker for early serous carcinogenesis within the fallopian tube. The study also supports a relationship between serous neoplasia and increased secretory to ciliated cell ratios, and the relationship between frequency of secretory cell expansion within the fallopian tube and increasing age and-more significantly-presence of high-risk factors or co-existing serous cancers. PMID:27069556

  1. Fallopian tube secretory cell expansion: a sensitive biomarker for ovarian serous carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiying; Li, Li; Wang, Yue; Tang, Sarah Ngocvi; Zheng, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances suggest that precancerous lesions of pelvic serous carcinoma originate from tubal secretory cells. The purpose of our study was to determine if an increased number of secretory cells varies with age or location in the fallopian tube and to examine its association with serous neoplasia. Three groups (benign control, high-risk, and pelvic serous carcinoma) of age-matched patients were studied. The age data were stratified into 10-year intervals ranging from 20-29 to older than 80. The number of secretory and ciliated cells from both tubal fimbria and ampulla segments was counted by microscopy and immunohistochemical staining methods. The data were analyzed by standard contingency table and Poisson distribution methods after age justification. We found that the absolute number of tubal secretory cells increased significantly with age in all three groups. But a more dramatic increase of secretory cells was observed in high-risk and pelvic serous carcinoma patients. Secretory cell expansion is more prevalent than secretory cell outgrowth in both fimbria and ampulla tubal segments and is significantly associated with serous neoplasia (P < 0.001). Furthermore, age remained a significant risk factor for serous neoplasia after age adjustment. These findings suggest that secretory cell expansion could serve as a potential sensitive biomarker for early serous carcinogenesis within the fallopian tube. The study also supports a relationship between serous neoplasia and increased secretory to ciliated cell ratios, and the relationship between frequency of secretory cell expansion within the fallopian tube and increasing age and-more significantly-presence of high-risk factors or co-existing serous cancers. PMID:26692952

  2. Renal cell carcinoma metastatic to the ovary or fallopian tube: a clinicopathological study of 9 cases.

    PubMed

    Liang, Li; Huang, He; Dadhania, Vipulkumar; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-05-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common type of kidney cancer in adult, rarely metastasizes to the ovary or fallopian tube, and most cases published in the literature were case reports. Herein, we describe the clinicopathological features of 9 cases of RCC metastatic to the ovary (n = 8) or the fallopian tube (n = 1). The patients' age at the onset of primary renal tumor was available in 8 patients, ranging from 37 to 73 years (mean, 51 years; median, 50 years). Ovarian metastasis was detected prior to or concurrently with the primary renal tumors in 3 patients, and after the diagnosis of renal tumors in 6 patients. The histotypes of the RCCs were clear cell (n = 7), chromophobe (n = 1), and unclassified (n = 1). Immunohistochemical stainings were performed on the sections containing metastatic tumors in 4 cases. Interestingly, pagetoid intraepithelial spread in the tubal mucosa was observed in the case of RCC metastatic to the fallopian tube. Among the 8 patients with follow-up data, 5 died of disease and 3 were alive with disease, with a follow-up period ranging from 3.7 months to 17 years (mean, 77 months; median, 53 months) after the diagnosis of primary kidney tumors. Diagnostically, metastatic RCC may mimic primary ovarian tumors clinically, morphologically, or immunophenotypically. Pathologists should also keep in mind that both ovarian and kidney tumors express PAX8 and PAX2, the markers commonly used to diagnose metastatic RCC. In addition, chromophobe RCC only rarely metastasizes, but it can be a diagnostic challenge when it metastasizes to the ovary. PMID:27067787

  3. Talazoparib and HSP90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Metastatic Advanced Solid Tumor or Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Primary Peritoneal, or Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-22

    Adult Solid Neoplasm; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; HER2/Neu Negative; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Tumor; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  4. Selective fallopian tube catheterisation in female infertility: clinical results and absorbed radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Ishiguchi, T; Maekoshi, H; Ando, Y; Tsuzaka, M; Tamiya, T; Suganuma, N; Ishigaki, T

    1996-01-01

    Clinical results of fluoroscopic fallopian tube catheterisation and absorbed radiation doses during the procedure were evaluated in 30 infertility patients with unilateral or bilateral tubal obstruction documented on hysterosalpingography. The staged technique consisted of contrast injection through an intrauterine catheter with a vacuum cup device, ostial salpingography with the wedged catheter, and selective salpingography with a coaxial microcatheter. Of 45 fallopian tubes examined, 35 (78%) were demonstrated by the procedure, and at least one tube was newly demonstrated in 26 patients (87%). Six of these patients conceived spontaneously in the follow-up period of 1-11 months. Four pregnancies were intrauterine and 2 were ectopic. This technique provided accurate and detailed information in the diagnosis and treatment of tubal obstruction in infertility patients. The absorbed radiation dose to the ovary in the average standardised procedure was estimated to be 0.9 cGy. Further improvement in the X-ray equipment and technique is required to reduce the radiation dose. PMID:8798025

  5. Isolated fallopian tube torsion with partial hydrosalpinx in a premenarcheal girl: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Isolated fallopian tube torsion as a complication of a preexisting hydrosalpinx is a rare finding in pediatric patients. The obvious rarity of this condition, its subtle diagnostic features and dissonant previous reporting about the appropriate therapeutic approach according to age, future conception capacity and potential complications of possible pregnancies make the decision about which surgical approach to use very difficult. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with such a presentation and review the literature. Very few similar reports of neosalpingostomy in pediatric patients have been published to date. Case presentation In our present report, we describe the case of an 11-year-old Caucasian prepubertal girl who presented to our hospital with complaints of abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant, nausea and vomiting. The diagnostic workup led us to conclude that she had a torsion of the right ovary, which was cystically altered. Exploratory surgery revealed a partial hydrosalpinx and consecutive isolated torsion of the fimbrial part. The proximal isthmic part of the fallopian tube was intact and vital. Restorative surgery was performed to create a neosalpingostomy on the viable isthmic part of the tube and remove the cystic and twisted fimbrial and infundibular parts. Conclusion The surgical procedure described in this report is technically simple and feasible, but leaves doubts about the final outcome. PMID:24939319

  6. Design of an everting balloon to deploy a microendoscope to the fallopian tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Molly; Howard, Caitlin; Tate, Tyler; McGuiness, Ian; Sauer-Budge, Alexis; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2016-02-01

    The 5-year survival rate for ovarian cancer is only 45% largely due to lack of effective screening methods. Current methods include palpation, transvaginal ultrasound, and the CA-125 blood test. Finding disease reliably and at an early stage increase survival to 92%. We have designed and built a 0.7 mm endoscope for the early detection of ovarian cancer. Inserted transvaginally through the working channel of a hysteroscope, the falloposcope creates a minimally invasive procedure for the screening of high risk women. To improve the ease-of-use and safety of falloposcope deployment, we are working to create an everting balloon. Currently, the falloposcope would require a skilled user to operate due to the challenging anatomy of the fallopian tubes - a small opening from the uterus (< 1 mm), tortuous path, and delicate lumenal features. A balloon delivery system would gently open the fallopian tube and guide the falloposcope down the center of lumen. We show balloon design and discuss integration with the falloposcope prototype. We test possible mechanical damage to the tissue due to scraping, puncture, or overstretching. Successful introduction of the everting balloon to simplify falloposcope delivery could expand screening beyond specialized centers to smaller clinical locations.

  7. Levonorgestrel decreases cilia beat frequency of human fallopian tubes and rat oviducts without changing morphological structure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weihong; Zhu, Qian; Yan, Mingxing; Li, Cheng; Yuan, Jiangjing; Qin, Guojuan; Zhang, Jian

    2015-02-01

    Levonorgestrel, a derivative of progesterone, effectively protects women against unwanted pregnancy as an emergency contraceptive. Previous studies have not been successful in determining the mechanism by which levonorgestrel acts. In the present study we analysed cilia beat action and cilia morphology following levonorgestrel exposure in vitro and in vivo using both light and electron microscopy. There was a significant decrease in the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of human fallopian tubes between mucosal explants bathed in 5 μmol/L levonorgestrel and those bathed in medium alone (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for CBF to decrease more in the ampulla than in isthmus, but there were no differences between the proliferative and secretory phases. In rat oviducts, levonorgestrel produced a similar reduction in CBF (~ 10%) compared with the saline control group (P < 0.05). Histological and ultrastructural analysis demonstrated no changes in the percentage of ciliated cells or in the classic '9 + 2' structure of cilia following levonorgestrel treatment in either system. Thus, levonorgestrel reduces CBF without damaging cilia morphology. Decreases in CBF may indicate a pathological role for levonorgestrel in the transportation of the ovum and zygote in the fallopian tube. PMID:25399777

  8. Ovarian Cancer: The Fallopian Tube as the Site of Origin and Opportunities for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    George, Sophia H. L.; Garcia, Ruslan; Slomovitz, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and aggressive histotype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), and it is the predominant histotype associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC). Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for most of the known causes of HBOC, while mutations in mismatch repair genes and several genes of moderate penetrance are responsible for the remaining known hereditary risk. Women with a history of familial ovarian cancer or with known germline mutations in highly penetrant genes are offered the option of risk-reducing surgery that involves the removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes (salpingo-oophorectomy). Growing evidence now supports the fallopian tube epithelia as an etiological site for the development of HGSC and consequently, salpingectomy alone is emerging as a prophylactic option. This review discusses the site of origin of EOC, the rationale for risk-reducing salpingectomy in the high-risk population, and opportunities for salpingectomy in the low-risk population. PMID:27200296

  9. [New FIGO classification of ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer].

    PubMed

    Höhn, A K; Einenkel, J; Wittekind, C; Horn, L-C

    2014-07-01

    During recent years paramount changes have occurred in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer and recent clinical studies identified new prognostic factors. Consequently, the FIGO has established a new staging system collectively covering carcinomas derived from the ovaries, the fallopian tubes and primary peritoneal cancers as well as malignant ovarian germ cell and sex-cord stromal tumors. The new staging system started on 01 January 2014. Major changes occurred in the FIGO IC/T1c stage with surgical spill (FIGO IC1/T1c1) versus capsule ruptured before surgery or tumor on ovarian or fallopian tube surface (FIGO IC2/T1c2) versus malignant cells in the ascites or peritoneal washings (FIGO IC3/T1c3). The regional lymph node metastases were subcategorised using a cut-off value of 10 mm as the largest dimension of the metastatic deposits. Distant metastases (excluding peritoneal metastases) were substaged as FIGO IVA/M1a in cases of cytologically or histologically proven pleural involvement and as FIGO IVB/M1b in cases of parenchymal metastases and metastases in extra-abdominal organs (including lymph nodes outside the peritoneal cavity and the inguinal lymph nodes). PMID:24899496

  10. Removal of Ovaries and Fallopian Tubes Cuts Cancer Risk for BRCA1/2 Carriers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Surgery that removes the ovaries and fallopian tubes, called salpingo-oophorectomy, is one of the most effective ways to decrease a woman's risk of breast and gynecologic cancer if she carries aBRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation. However, the true degree of risk reduction has not been precisely defined. |

  11. Efficacy of Yavakshara Taila Uttarabasti in the management of fallopian tube blockage

    PubMed Central

    Baria, Hetal P.; Donga, Shilpa B.; Dei, Laxmipriya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tubal blockage is one of the most common causative factors for female barrenness. It accounts for about 25-35% of female infertility. It is very difficult to manage, as the treatment choices for it are only tubal re-constructive surgery and in vitro fertilization (IVF). On the other hand, there is not established any reliable Ayurvedic treatment for the tubal blockage. It is the need of the time to establish an efficient and cost-effective therapy for this problem. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Yavakshara Taila Uttarabasti in fallopian tubal blockage. Materials and Methods: Patients of childbearing age with active marital life of 1 year or more, having complaint of failure to conceive with at least one fallopian tube blockage were selected. Total 19 patients were registered with 42.11% unilateral and 57.89% bilateral tubal blockage. Yavakshara Taila (5 ml) Intrauterine Uttarabasti was given for 6 days (with interval of 3 days in between), after completion of menstrual cycle for two consecutive cycles. Results: The tubal patency was found in 68.75% of patients and conception was achieved in 6.25% of patients. Conclusion: Yavakshara Taila Uttarabasti an effective procedure for treating tubal blockage with no apparent evidence of complication. PMID:26730135

  12. Recovery of artificially inseminated spermatozoa from the fallopian tubes of a woman undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Williams, M; Barratt, C L; Hill, C J; Warren, M A; Dunphy, B; Cooke, I D

    1992-04-01

    Investigation of the process of sperm transport within the human female reproductive tract must involve the recovery of spermatozoa from the oviducts of women post-coitum or insemination. This case report describes the insemination of a 40-year-old woman with her partner's semen and the subsequent recovery of spermatozoa from her Fallopian tubes, removed at hysterectomy, 2 days post-ovulation. The number of spermatozoa present within the tubes and their location was ascertained using a flushing technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The total number of spermatozoa present within the flushed tube was calculated to be 142, whilst the total number of spermatozoa calculated to be present within the scanned tube was 673. The proportional distribution of spermatozoa within the tubes was virtually identical by the two techniques used. The largest population of spermatozoa resided within the ampulla (66.1% SEM, 68.3% flush), and the smallest population resided within the intramural region (14.9% SEM, 13.4% flush). PMID:1522194

  13. Fluoroscopically Guided Transcervical Fallopian Tube Recanalization of Post-Sterilization Reversal Mid-Tubal Obstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J. Graeme; Anderson, David; Mills, John; Harrold, Anthony

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the technical success and early outcome of fluoroscopically guided transcervical fallopian tube recanalization (FTR) in mid-tubal occlusion following sterilization reversal surgery.Methods: From July 1995 to January 1998, patients with greater than 12 months secondary infertility underwent hysterosalpingography (HSG). FTR was performed in proximal or mid-tubal occlusion. Cases of FTR in mid-tubal occlusion were included in this study. Technical success (defined as complete tubal patency) using a standard guidewire and hydrophilic glidewire, the number of patients with at least one patent tube, and the intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy rates were determined.Results: Twenty-six infertile patients with previous sterilization reversal underwent HSG. Eight of 26 (31%) patients (mean age 32 years, range 23-37 years), had attempted FTR for mid-tubal occlusion at the site of surgical anastomosis. Fourteen tubes were attempted as there were two previous salpingectomies. Technical success was achieved in eight of 14 (57%) tubes attempted, resulting in five of eight (62%) patients having at least one patent tube. At follow-up (mean 18 months, range 12-28 months) in these five patients there was one intrauterine pregnancy. There were no ectopic pregnancies.Conclusions: FTR in mid-tubal obstruction in infertile patients following sterilization reversal surgery is technically feasible and may result in intrauterine pregnancy. In this small group there was a lower technical success rate and lower pregnancy rate than in unselected proximal tubal occlusion.

  14. Utility of peritoneal washing cytology in staging and prognosis of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms: a 10-year retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Whitney; Madan, Rashna; O'Neil, Maura; Tawfik, Ossama W; Fan, Fang

    2016-06-01

    The prognostic significance of peritoneal washing cytology in gynecologic neoplasms is controversial. The presence of neoplastic cells in peritoneal washings is currently part of the Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging systems in cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms without metastasis beyond the pelvis. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed all cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms in which cytologic studies were performed. The utility of cytology in tumor staging and the relationship between cytology results and patient outcome are studied. All cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms in our institution between July 2002 and July 2012 were reviewed. Primary tumor characteristics including type and pelvic extension were collected, categorized, and correlated with peritoneal washing cytology. Final tumor staging was reviewed and the impact of positive cytology was evaluated. A total of 120 cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms without extrapelvic metastasis were identified within the study period. Peritoneal washing cytology was positive in 24% (29/120) of neoplasms and upstaged the tumor 83% (24/29) of the time when positive. Overall, 20% (24/120) of reviewed cases were upstaged based on positive cytology results. Peritoneal washing cytology remains a useful staging tool for ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms limited to the pelvic cavity. Positive cytology results in upstaging in a significant proportion of the cases regardless of the tumor type. A larger study is needed to analyze follow-up data to determine if upstaging based on positive cytology adversely affects outcome. PMID:27180061

  15. The role of the fallopian tube in the origin of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Britt K.; Conner, Michael G.; Landen, Charles N.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced cases of epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, and primary tubal malignancies have a relatively poor prognosis and collectively remain the most deadly of all gynecologic malignancies. Although traditionally thought of as one disease process, ongoing research suggests that there is not 1 single site or cell type from which these cancers arise. A majority of the serous tumors appear to originate from dysplastic lesions in the distal fallopian tube. Therefore, what we have traditionally considered “ovarian” cancer may in fact be tubal in origin. In this article, we will review epithelial ovarian cancer classification and genetics, theories regarding cells of origin with a focus on tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, and implications for prevention and screening. PMID:23583217

  16. Human fallopian tube proteome shows high coverage of mesenchymal stem cells associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenyuan; Liu, Yang; Chang, Cheng; Wu, Songfeng; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Yingjie; Zhong, Fan; Deng, Gaopi

    2016-01-01

    The object of this research was to report a draft proteome of human fallopian tube (hFT) comprises 5416 identified proteins, which could be considered as a physiological reference to complement Human Proteome Draft. The proteomic raw data and metadata were stored in an integrated proteome resources centre iProX (IPX00034300). This hFT proteome contains many hFT markers newly identified by mass spectrum. This hFT proteome comprises 660 high-, 3605 medium- and 1181 low-abundant proteins. Ribosome, cytoskeleton, vesicle and protein folding associated proteins showed obvious tendency to be higher abundance in hFT. The extraordinary high coverage of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-associated proteins were identified in this hFT proteome, which highly supported that hFT should contain a plenty of MSCs. PMID:26759384

  17. Septate uterus with left fallopian tube hypoplasia and ipsilateral ovarian agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Bo Y.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To report a combined genital tract anomaly of septate uterus, unilateral fallopian tube hypoplasia, and ipsilateral ovarian agenesis. Design Case report. Setting Academic tertiary care center. Patient A 24-year-old female. Intervention(s) History and physical, pelvic sonogram, hysterosalpingogram, intravenous pyelogram, abdominal and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, diagnostic laparoscopy, exploratory laparotomy, cuff neosalpingostomy, and uterine septum resection. Main Outcome Measure(s) Recognition of three independent and rare reproductive tract anomalies in the same patient. Result(s) Restoration of anatomy and subsequent fertility. Conclusion(s) A careful clinical evaluation with consideration of embryologic origin is essential to the identification and treatment of rare reproductive tract malformations. PMID:18953647

  18. Human fallopian tube proteome shows high coverage of mesenchymal stem cells associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenyuan; Liu, Yang; Chang, Cheng; Wu, Songfeng; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Yingjie; Zhong, Fan; Deng, Gaopi

    2016-01-01

    The object of this research was to report a draft proteome of human fallopian tube (hFT) comprises 5416 identified proteins, which could be considered as a physiological reference to complement Human Proteome Draft. The proteomic raw data and metadata were stored in an integrated proteome resources centre iProX (IPX00034300). This hFT proteome contains many hFT markers newly identified by mass spectrum. This hFT proteome comprises 660 high-, 3605 medium- and 1181 low-abundant proteins. Ribosome, cytoskeleton, vesicle and protein folding associated proteins showed obvious tendency to be higher abundance in hFT. The extraordinary high coverage of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-associated proteins were identified in this hFT proteome, which highly supported that hFT should contain a plenty of MSCs. PMID:26759384

  19. Molecular Requirements for Transformation of Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells into Serous Carcinoma12

    PubMed Central

    Jazaeri, Amir A; Bryant, Jennifer L; Park, Hong; Li, Hui; Dahiya, Neetu; Stoler, Mark H; Ferriss, James Stuart; Dutta, Anindya

    2011-01-01

    Although controversial, recent studies suggest that serous ovarian carcinomas may arise from fallopian tube fimbria rather than ovarian surface epithelium. We developed an in vitro model for serous carcinogenesis in which primary human fallopian tube epithelial cells (FTECs) were exposed to potentially oncogenic molecular alterations delivered by retroviral vectors. To more closely mirror in vivo conditions, transformation of FTECs was driven by the positive selection of growth-promoting alterations rather antibiotic selection. Injection of the transformed FTEC lines in SCID mice resulted in xenografts with histologic and immunohistochemical features indistinguishable from poorly differentiated serous carcinomas. Transcriptional profiling revealed high similarity among the transformed and control FTEC lines and patient-derived serous ovarian carcinoma cells and was used to define a malignancy-related transcriptional signature. Oncogene-treated FTEC lines were serially analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analysis to identify oncogenes whose expression was subject to positive selection. The combination of p53 and Rb inactivation (mediated by SV40 T antigen), hTERT expression, and oncogenic C-MYC and HRAS accumulation showed positive selection during transformation. Knockdown of each of these selected components resulted in significant growth inhibition of the transformed cell lines that correlated with p27 accumulation. The combination of SV40 T antigen and hTERT expression resulted in immortalized cells that were nontumorigenic in mice, whereas forced expression of a dominant-negative p53 isoform (p53DD) and hTERT resulted in senescence. Thus, our investigation supports the tubal origin of serous carcinoma and provides a dynamic model for studying early molecular alterations in serous carcinogenesis. PMID:22028616

  20. Human fallopian tube: a new source of multipotent adult mesenchymal stem cells discarded in surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Jazedje, Tatiana; Perin, Paulo M; Czeresnia, Carlos E; Maluf, Mariangela; Halpern, Silvio; Secco, Mariane; Bueno, Daniela F; Vieira, Natassia M; Zucconi, Eder; Zatz, Mayana

    2009-01-01

    Background The possibility of using stem cells for regenerative medicine has opened a new field of investigation. The search for sources to obtain multipotent stem cells from discarded tissues or through non-invasive procedures is of great interest. It has been shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from umbilical cords, dental pulp and adipose tissue, which are all biological discards, are able to differentiate into muscle, fat, bone and cartilage cell lineages. The aim of this study was to isolate, expand, characterize and assess the differentiation potential of MSCs from human fallopian tubes (hFTs). Methods Lineages of hFTs were expanded, had their karyotype analyzed, were characterized by flow cytometry and underwent in vitro adipogenic, chondrogenic, osteogenic, and myogenic differentiation. Results Here we show for the first time that hFTs, which are discarded after some gynecological procedures, are a rich additional source of MSCs, which we designated as human tube MSCs (htMSCs). Conclusion Human tube MSCs can be easily isolated, expanded in vitro, present a mesenchymal profile and are able to differentiate into muscle, fat, cartilage and bone in vitro. PMID:19538712

  1. EGEN-001 and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-11

    Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  2. Veliparib and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-25

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  3. Cediranib Maleate and Olaparib in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer or Recurrent Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-05

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  4. Elesclomol Sodium and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  5. TLR8 Agonist VTX-2337 and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride or Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  6. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Hydrochloride in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Fatigue; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Pain; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  7. Belinostat and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Carboplatin or Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  8. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without WEE1 Inhibitor MK-1775 in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-12

    Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  9. Carboplatin, Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, and Mifepristone in Treating Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer or Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-31

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  10. Microarray analysis of differentially expressed genes in ovarian and fallopian tube epithelium from risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomies.

    PubMed

    Veskimäe, Kristina; Staff, Synnöve; Tabaro, Francesco; Nykter, Matti; Isola, Jorma; Mäenpää, Johanna

    2015-05-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes confer an increased lifetime risk for breast and ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer risk can be decreased by risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). Studies on RRSO material have altered the paradigm of serous ovarian cancer pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate genes possibly involved in the pathogenesis of serous ovarian cancer by carrying out a microarray analysis of differentially expressed genes in BRCA1/2- mutation positive ovarian and fallopian tube epithelium derived from RRSO surgery. Freshly frozen ovarian and fallopian tube samples from nine BRCA1/2 mutation carriers scheduled for RRSO were prospectively collected together with five mutation-negative control patients undergoing salpingo-oophorectomy for benign indications. Microarray analysis of genome-wide gene expression was performed on ovarian and fallopian tube samples from the BRCA1/2 and control patients. The validation of microarray data was performed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in selected cases of RRSO samples and also in high grade serous carcinoma samples collected from patients with a BRCA phenotype. From 22,733 genes, 454 transcripts were identified that were differentially expressed in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers when compared with controls, pooling all ovarian and fallopian tube samples together. Of these, 299 genes were statistically significantly downregulated and 155 genes upregulated. Differentially expressed genes in BRCA1/2 samples reported here might be involved in serous ovarian carcinogenesis and provide interesting targets for further studies. PMID:25706666

  11. Premalignant SOX2 overexpression in the fallopian tubes of ovarian cancer patients: Discovery and validation studies.

    PubMed

    Hellner, Karin; Miranda, Fabrizio; Fotso Chedom, Donatien; Herrero-Gonzalez, Sandra; Hayden, Daniel M; Tearle, Rick; Artibani, Mara; KaramiNejadRanjbar, Mohammad; Williams, Ruth; Gaitskell, Kezia; Elorbany, Samar; Xu, Ruoyan; Laios, Alex; Buiga, Petronela; Ahmed, Karim; Dhar, Sunanda; Zhang, Rebecca Yu; Campo, Leticia; Myers, Kevin A; Lozano, María; Ruiz-Miró, María; Gatius, Sónia; Mota, Alba; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Benítez, Javier; Witty, Lorna; McVean, Gil; Leedham, Simon; Tomlinson, Ian; Drmanac, Radoje; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Klein, Robert; Dunne, Kevin; Bast, Robert C; Kennedy, Stephen H; Hassan, Bassim; Lise, Stefano; Garcia, María José; Peters, Brock A; Yau, Christopher; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Ahmed, Ahmed Ashour

    2016-08-01

    Current screening methods for ovarian cancer can only detect advanced disease. Earlier detection has proved difficult because the molecular precursors involved in the natural history of the disease are unknown. To identify early driver mutations in ovarian cancer cells, we used dense whole genome sequencing of micrometastases and microscopic residual disease collected at three time points over three years from a single patient during treatment for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). The functional and clinical significance of the identified mutations was examined using a combination of population-based whole genome sequencing, targeted deep sequencing, multi-center analysis of protein expression, loss of function experiments in an in-vivo reporter assay and mammalian models, and gain of function experiments in primary cultured fallopian tube epithelial (FTE) cells. We identified frequent mutations involving a 40kb distal repressor region for the key stem cell differentiation gene SOX2. In the apparently normal FTE, the region was also mutated. This was associated with a profound increase in SOX2 expression (p<2(-16)), which was not found in patients without cancer (n=108). Importantly, we show that SOX2 overexpression in FTE is nearly ubiquitous in patients with HGSOCs (n=100), and common in BRCA1-BRCA2 mutation carriers (n=71) who underwent prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. We propose that the finding of SOX2 overexpression in FTE could be exploited to develop biomarkers for detecting disease at a premalignant stage, which would reduce mortality from this devastating disease. PMID:27492892

  12. S100A7 in the Fallopian tube: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Teijeiro, Juan M; Marini, Patricia E

    2015-04-01

    The oviduct is a dynamic organ in which final gamete maturation, fertilization and early embryo development take place. It is considered to be a sterile site; however the mechanism for sterility maintenance is still unknown. S100A7 is an anti-microbial peptide that has been reported in human reproductive tissues such as prostate, testicle, ovary, normal cervical epithelium and sperm. The current work reports the presence of S100A7 in the Fallopian tube and its localization at the apical surface of epithelial cells. For comparison, porcine S100A7 was used for antibody development and search for peptide in reproductive tissues. Although present in boar seminal vesicles and seminal plasma, S100A7 was not detected on female porcine organs. Also, in contrast with the human protein, porcine S100A7 did not show anti-microbial activity under the conditions tested. Phylogenetic analyses showed high divergence of porcine S100A7 from human, primate, bovine, ovine and equine sequences, being the murine sequence at a most distant branch. The differences in sequence homology, Escherichia coli-cidal activity, detectable presence and localization of S100A7 from human and pig, suggest that there are possible different functions in each organism. PMID:24152708

  13. Genotyping diagnosis of nongestational choriocarcinoma involving fallopian tube and broad ligament: a case study.

    PubMed

    Buza, Natalia; Rutherford, Thomas; Hui, Pei

    2014-01-01

    A 22 year-old G1P1 woman presented to the emergency room with clinical impression of "ruptured right adnexal mass" and underwent a right salpingo-oophorectomy to rule out ectopic pregnancy. Instead, gross and microscopic examination revealed a pure choriocarcinoma involving the right fallopian tube and broad ligament. On the basis of the patient's age, recent history of delivery, last menstrual period for 10 weeks, large tumor mass, and possible pelvic lymph node metastasis, the patient promptly started to receive 8 cycles of multiagent chemotherapy regimen with a working diagnosis of high-risk gestational choriocarcinoma. Subsequent DNA genotyping analysis showed that the tumor cells had an identical genetic profile to that of the normal tissue of the patient, therefore establishing a final diagnosis of nongestational choriocarcinoma. Six months after the initial presentation, a second surgery was performed to remove a persistent right para-adnexal mass, which showed only necrotic tissue upon microscopic examination. The patient received 1 additional cycle of multiagent chemotherapy. She was alive without evidence of recurrence 26 months after the initial diagnosis. PMID:24300537

  14. Quinacrine-induced occlusive fibrosis in the human fallopian tube is due to a unique inflammatory response and modification of repair mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Growe, Roger G; Luster, Michael I; Fail, Patricia A; Lippes, Jack

    2013-04-01

    Quinacrine has been widely used in treatment of parasitic diseases such as malaria and giardiasis, and in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Quinacrine has also been used as an effective substitute for surgical contraception by causing occlusion of the fallopian tube. This minimally invasive treatment protocol involves intrauterine insertion of the drug in the form of pellets and has been studied in humans in a number of countries, including the United States. Despite its development in the 1970s, the cellular and molecular events induced by quinacrine in the human fallopian tube have not been described. Here we describe a plausible mechanism for quinacrine action in the fallopian tube. This is manifested as an acute pro-inflammatory response in the uterus and fallopian tube, characterized by loss of epithelial cell adhesion. This response relies on properties of gated channels found on the surface of epithelial cells in the reproductive tract. While the uterus returns to normal, the inflammatory response affects the uterotubal junction and transmural segment of the human fallopian tube, and initiates formation of mature collagen in the lumen of the fallopian tube, resulting in its permanent occlusion. The response within the fallopian tube appears similar to the protective mechanisms that have evolved in women to minimize the likelihood of systemic infection from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and to some extent from Chlamydia trachomatis. This review could assist in development of experimental models used in investigating the mechanisms of fibrotic responses in humans as well as development of techniques for permanent non-surgical female contraception. PMID:23453701

  15. The Effect of Estradiol and Progesterone on Toll Like Receptor Gene Expression in A Human Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Zandieh, Zahra; Amjadi, Fatemehsadat; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Fazeli, Alireza; Aflatoonian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective Toll like receptors (TLRs) are one of the main components of the innate im- mune system. It has been reported that expression of these receptors are altered in the female reproductive tract (FRT) during menstrual cycle. Here we used a fallopian tube epithelial cell line (OE-E6/E7) to evaluate the effect of two sex hormones in modulating TLR expression. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, initially TLR gene expression in OE- E6/E7 cells was evaluated and compared with that of fallopian tube tissue using quanti- tative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunostaining. Thereafter, OE-E6/E7 cells were cultured with different concentrations of estradiol and progesterone, and combination of both. qRT-PCR was performed to reveal any changes in expression of TLR genes as a result of hormonal treatment. Results TLR1-10 genes were expressed in human fallopian tube tissue. TLR1-6 genes and their respective proteins were expressed in the OE-E6/E7 cell line. Although estradiol and progesterone separately had no significant effect on TLR expression, their combined treatment altered the expression of TLRs in this cell line. Also, the pattern of TLR expres- sion in preovulation (P), mensturation (M) and window of implantation (W) were the same for all TLRs with no significant differences between P, M and W groups. Conclusion These data show the significant involvement of the combination of es- tradiol and progesterone in modulation of TLR gene expression in this human fal- lopian tube cell line. Further experiments may reveal the regulatory mechanism and signalling pathway behind the effect of sex hormones in modulating TLRs in the hu- man FRT. PMID:26862527

  16. Cotinine Exposure Increases Fallopian Tube PROKR1 Expression via Nicotinic AChRα-7

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Julie L.V.; Oliver, Elizabeth; Lee, Kai-Fai; Entrican, Gary; Jabbour, Henry N.; Critchley, Hilary O.D.; Horne, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    Tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP) is the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy; however, its etiology is uncertain. In EP, embryo retention within the Fallopian tube (FT) is thought to be due to impaired smooth muscle contractility (SMC) and alterations in the tubal microenvironment. Smoking is a major risk factor for EP. FTs from women with EP exhibit altered prokineticin receptor-1 (PROKR1) expression, the receptor for prokineticins (PROK). PROK1 is angiogenic, regulates SMC, and is involved in intrauterine implantation. We hypothesized that smoking predisposes women to EP by altering tubal PROKR1 expression. Sera/FT were collected at hysterectomy (n = 21). Serum levels of the smoking metabolite, cotinine, were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. FTs were analyzed by q-RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting for expression of PROKR1 and the predicted cotinine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α-7 (AChRα−7). FT explants (n = 4) and oviductal epithelial cells (cell line OE-E6/E7) were treated with cotinine and an nAChRα−7 antagonist. PROKR1 transcription was higher in FTs from smokers (P < 0.01). nAChRα−7 expression was demonstrated in FT epithelium. Cotinine treatment of FT explants and OE-E6/E7 cells increased PROKR1 expression (P < 0.05), which was negated by cotreatment with nAChRα−7 antagonist. Smoking targets human FTs via nAChRα−7 to increase tubal PROKR1, leading to alterations in the tubal microenvironment that could predispose to EP. PMID:20864676

  17. Laparoscopic detorsion of isolated idiopathic fallopian tube torsion: conservative treatment in a 13-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Ardıçlı, Burak; Ekinci, Saniye; Oğuz, Berna; Haliloğlu, Mithat; Tanyel, F Cahit; Karnak, İbrahim

    2013-01-01

    Isolated fallopian tube torsion (IFTT) is a rare entity in adolescent girls. Invasive surgery, salpingectomy, was used during the initial surgery or at the time of recurrent torsion in 87% of previously reported cases. Herein, the authors present an adolescent premenarcheal girl with idiopathic IFTT, which was treated by laparoscopic detorsion, to emphasize that tubal torsion should be included in the list of differential diagnoses of abdominal pain in adolescent girls. Minimally invasive, organ-saving surgery should be done, and the child should be followed up for recurrent torsion. PMID:24292044

  18. Primary alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of fallopian tube masquerading as a unilateral adnexal mass: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Nisreen Abu; Alqaisy, Amin; Zheng, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a high-grade sarcoma that predominantly affects children, and rarely, the adult population. RMS demonstrates three major histologic variants: Embryonal, alveolar, and pleomorphic. A limited number of documented pure RMS cases of the gynecologic organs in adult women are found in the literature. Of these reports, the fallopian tube (FT) is reported as the primary site in only three cases, those included one of embryonal and two of the pleomorphic histologic variants. Herein, we report the first case of alveolar RMS arising in the FT of an adult woman and presenting as a unilateral adnexal mass. PMID:26549082

  19. Rarity in conspicuity—Ultrasound diagnosis of sliding left inguinal hernia through canal of Nuck with uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Muthiyal, Sreekumar; Kini, Vishwanatha; Kounsal, Avin; Ibrahim, Ashraf Abdelhamid

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a one month old female infant who presented with left inguinal swelling. She was prematurely born at 32 weeks of gestational age. Preoperative ultrasound showed features of sliding indirect inguinal hernia with both ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus; which were also evident per operatively. Patient underwent successful hernia repair and uneventful post-operative period. Patient is on follow up currently. In conclusion, we attempt to highlight the exiguous prevalence of inguinal hernia with uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries; which has been sparsely reported in the literature and also the importance of preoperative of sonography. PMID:27069977

  20. Belinostat in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer or Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-04-11

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-stromal Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-stromal Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-stromal Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  1. Cisplatin and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage IIC, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Gastrointestinal Complication; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  2. Sphenoid and cavernous sinuses involvement as first site of metastasis from a fallopian tube carcinoma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Merimsky, O; Inbar, M; Groswasser-Reider, I; Neudorfer, M; Chaitchik, S

    1993-12-31

    The occurrence of central nervous system metastases in ovarian cancer patients ranges from 0.88 to 4.5%. Centra nervous system involvement in a fallopian tube carcinoma is extremely rare. A 77-year-old woman with an invasive tubal carcinoma was admitted because of ophthalmoplegia, sparing the lateral rectus muscle of the left eye, a decreased left corneal reflex and hypoesthesia along the distribution of the ophthalmic and maxillary branches of the left trigeminal nerve. CT scan showed a space occupying lesion in the left sphenoid sinus invading the left cavernous sinus and the submucosa of the left lateral wall of the nasopharynx, proven histologically to be a metastasis from her primary cancer. Attention should be paid to the possibility of distant and unusual metastases associated with tubal cancer in order to treat the patients promptly. PMID:8171748

  3. Expression of Cell Competition Markers at the Interface between p53 Signature and Normal Epithelium in the Human Fallopian Tube

    PubMed Central

    Kito, Masahiko; Maeda, Daichi; Kudo-Asabe, Yukitsugu; Sato, Naoki; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Terada, Yukihiro; Goto, Akiteru

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence regarding cell competition between normal and mutant mammalian cells, which suggest that it may play a defensive role in the early phase of carcinogenesis. In vitro study in the past has shown that overexpression of vimentin in normal epithelial cells at the contact surface with transformed cells is essential for the cell competition involved in epithelial defense against cancer. In this study, we attempted to examine cell competition in human tissue in vivo by investigating surgically resected human fallopian tubes that contain p53 signatures and serous tubal intraepithelial lesions (STILs), a linear expansion of p53-immunopositive/TP53 mutant tubal epithelial cells that are considered as precursors of pelvic high grade serous carcinoma. Immunofluorescence double staining for p53 and the cell competition marker vimentin was performed in 21 sections of human fallopian tube tissue containing 17 p53 signatures and 4 STILs. The intensities of vimentin expression at the interface between p53-positive cells at the end of the p53 signature/STIL and adjacent p53-negative normal tubal epithelial cells were compared with the background tubal epithelium. As a result, the average vimentin intensity at the interfaces relative to the background intensity was 1.076 (95% CI, 0.9412 – 1.211 for p53 signature and 0.9790 (95% CI, 0.7206 – 1.237) for STIL. Thus, it can be concluded that overexpression of the cell competition marker vimentin are not observed in human tissue with TP53 alterations. PMID:27258067

  4. A novel technique for laparoscopic removal of the fallopian tube after ectopic pregnancy via transabdominal or transumbilical port using homemade bag: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Akdemir, Ali; Ergenoğlu, Ahmet Mete; Akman, Levent; Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Şendağ, Fatih; Öztekin, Mehmet Kemal

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and surgical outcome of a novel technique for laparoscopic removal of the fallopian tube using a homemade retrieval bag through a 10-mm transumbilical or 5-mm transabdominal port. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 women with ruptured ectopic tubal pregnancy were randomized into a 10-mm transumbilical group (n = 20) or a 5-mm transabdominal group (n = 20) according to the port used for specimen removal. Fallopian tube removal was performed using a new method based on the use of a homemade surgical glove as a retrieval bag. Results: There were no differences in the demographic characteristics between the two groups. The specimen retrieval time was significantly shorter in the transumbilical group than in the transabdominal group. Post-operative pain scores, assessed using a visual analog scale, were similar between the groups. No cases of rupture of the homemade retrieval bag were observed. Conclusion: The laparoscopic removal of the fallopian tube through the 10-mm umbilical port using a homemade retrieval bag is associated with shorter operative time than retrieval through a 5-mm abdominal port. The present results showed the feasibility and safety of our homemade retrieval bag and novel technique. PMID:24381621

  5. Multi-drug resistance gene (MDR-1) and risk of brain metastasis in epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Koji; Eno, Michele L.; Ahn, Edward H.; Shahzad, Mian M.K.; Im, Dwight D.; Rosenshein, Neil B.; Sood, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate risk factors that predict brain metastasis in epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer. Methods All patients with FIGO stage I to IV who underwent initial cytoreductive surgery between January 1995 and January 2009 were evaluated. The tumor samples were evaluated for 7 markers including multi-drug resistance gene (MDR-1), DNA aneuploidity and S-phase fraction, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53 mutation, epidermal growth factor receptor, and CD31. Biomarker expression was evaluated as a predictor of hematogenous metastasis to the following locations: (i) liver and spleen, (ii) lung, and (iii) brain. Results There were 309 cases identified during the period. Of those, five (1.6%, 95%CI 0.2-3.0%) women developed brain metastasis. Time to onset of brain metastasis was significantly longer than for other recurrent sites (median time to recurrence after initial cytoreduction, brain vs lung vs liver, 21.4 vs 12.6 vs 11.0 months, p<0.05). Significantly increased expression of MDR-1 was seen in tumors from women who developed brain metastasis (brain vs non-brain sites, 80% vs 4.2-24.3%, p=0.004). In multivariate analysis, MDR-1 was the only significant variable associated with the risk of brain metastasis. MDR-1 expression predicted brain metastasis (Receiver-operator-characteristic curve analysis, AUC 0.808, p=0.018), and with a 10% positive expression of MDR-1 as the cutoff value, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy of prediction of brain metastasis were 80%, 86.1%, 15.4%, 99.3%, and 85.9%, respectively (odds ratio 24.7, 95%CI 2.64-232, p=0.002). Conclusions Increased expression of MDR-1 in the tumor tissue obtained at initial cytoreduction is associated with increased risk of developing brain metastases in women with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer. PMID:20921883

  6. Expressions of candidate molecules in the human fallopian tube and chorionic villi of tubal pregnancy exposed to levonorgestrel emergency contraception

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cases of ectopic pregnancy (EP) following levonorgestrel (LNG) emergency contraception (EC) failure were reported, however, the effects of LNG on tubal microenvironment or chorionic villi in EP have not yet been documented. Methods Fifty-five women with tubal pregnancy were divided into two groups according to whether LNG-EC was administrated during the cycle of conception. The serum concentrations of beta-hCG, E2 and P were measured. The mRNA and protein expressions of estrogen and progesterone receptors, leukemia inhibitory factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and endocannabinoid receptor - CB1 in the ectopic implantation site and chorionic villi were examined. Results Compared to those unexposed to LNG-EC, women with tubal pregnancy exposed to LNG-EC during the cycle of conception had no statistically significances in the serum concentrations of beta-hCG, E2 P, nor in the pathological types of tubal pregnancy or the expressions of ER-alpha, PR, LIF, VEGF, iNOS and CB1. Conclusions The expressions of candidate molecules in the fallopian tube and chorionic villi were not altered by exposure to LNG-EC. A routine therapy with no additional intervention might thus be applied to tubal pregnancy exposed to LNG-EC. PMID:23687977

  7. Human fallopian tube epithelium constitutively expresses integrin endometrial receptivity markers: no evidence for a tubal implantation window.

    PubMed

    Brown, J K; Shaw, J L V; Critchley, H O D; Horne, A W

    2012-03-01

    Understanding of ectopic implantation within the Fallopian tube (FT) is limited. In the human uterus, the putative 'window of implantation' in the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is accompanied by increased endometrial epithelial expression of the integrins α(1)β(1), α(4)β(1) and α(v)β(3) and its ligand osteopontin. Similar cyclical changes in FT integrin expression have been proposed to contribute to ectopic implantation, but supporting data are limited. In the current study, we present quantitative data on human FT transcription and translation of the integrin subunits α(1), α(4), α(V), β(1) and β(3) during the follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, together with a supporting immuocytochemical analysis of their spatial distribution within the FT, and that of osteopontin. In contrast to previous studies, our data indicate that all five integrin receptivity markers are constitutively transcribed and translated in the FT, with no evidence for changes in their expression or distribution during the window of implantation in the mid-luteal phase of the cycle. Furthermore, we could find no evidence for cyclic redistribution of the integrin α(v)β(3) ligand osteopontin within the FT. Although we do not rule out the involvement of integrin endometrial receptivity markers in the establishment of ectopic pregnancy, our findings do not support their differential expression during a tubal implantation window. PMID:22002573

  8. [Initial experiences with hysterosalpingoscintigraphy in normal and pathologic fallopian tube passage].

    PubMed

    Steck, T; Becker, W; Albert, P; Börner, W; Würfel, W

    1989-10-01

    A prospective study in 38 patients was designed to evaluate the efficacy and reliability of radionuclide hysterosalpingoscintigraphy (HSS) using 99mTc labelled human albumin macroaggregates (HAMA). Following application in the posterior vaginal fornix at the time of ovulation, HAMA normally migrate spontaneously through the uterus and tubes and may be identified after 20 min (range 5-90 min) in the uterine cavity and after 2 hrs (range 40 min - 3 hrs) in the free pelvis, using a gamma camera. When correlated with the findings of conventional contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG), the radionuclide procedure yielded comparable results in females with patent or clearly obstructed tubes. Using 8-10 MBq 99mTc, radiation exposure was estimated to be 0.75 cGy per ovary, which is considerably less than the mean dose absorbed with HSG. As the HSS procedure imitates the migration of spermatozoa by the means of an inert tracer, it allows a direct insight in the mechanisms of passive transport taking place in the uterus and tubes at the period of ovulation. Thus, it reflects the physiological state of the female reproductive tract. On the basis of the scintigraphic findings, equivocal results on HSG have to be re-evaluated, as tubes, which are anatomically patent under high pressure, may be functionally deficient. PMID:2583431

  9. Infection of human fallopian tube epithelial cells with Neisseria gonorrhoeae protects cells from tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Morales, Priscilla; Reyes, Paz; Vargas, Macarena; Rios, Miguel; Imarai, Mónica; Cardenas, Hugo; Croxatto, Horacio; Orihuela, Pedro; Vargas, Renato; Fuhrer, Juan; Heckels, John E; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis

    2006-06-01

    Following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bacteria may ascend into the Fallopian tubes (FT) and induce salpingitis, a major cause of infertility. In the FT, interactions between mucosal epithelial cells and gonococci are pivotal events in the pathogen's infection cycle and the inflammatory response. In the current study, primary FT epithelial cells were infected in vitro with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of Pil+ Opa+ gonococci. Bacteria showed a dose-dependent association with cells and induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). A significant finding was that gonococcal infection (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in approximately 30% of cells, whereas increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100) did not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was observed in only 11% of cells with associated bacteria, whereas >84% of cells with no adherent bacteria were apoptotic. TNF-alpha was a key contributor to apoptosis, since (i) culture supernatants from cells infected with gonococci (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in naïve cultures, suggesting that a soluble factor was responsible; (ii) gonococcal infection-induced apoptosis was inhibited with anti-TNF-alpha antibodies; and (iii) the addition of exogenous TNF-alpha induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by the presence of increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100). These data suggest that TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis of FT epithelial cells is likely a primary host defense mechanism to prevent pathogen colonization. However, epithelial cell-associated gonococci have evolved a mechanism to protect the cells from undergoing TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis, and this modulation of the host innate response may contribute to establishment of infection. Understanding the antiapoptotic mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae will inform the pathogenesis of salpingitis and could suggest new intervention strategies for prevention and treatment of the disease. PMID:16714596

  10. Pharmacokinetic analyses of carboplatin in a patient with cancer of the fallopian tubes undergoing hemodialysis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Takuma; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kawanishi, Masaru; Tasaka, Reiko; Imai, Kenji; Yamauchi, Makoto; Kasai, Mari; Hashiguchi, Yasunori; Ichimura, Tomoyuki; Yasui, Tomoyo; Sumi, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Opportunities for patients undergoing hemodialysis to receive chemotherapy are increasing. A combination of paclitaxel and carboplatin (TC) is first-line chemotherapy in patients with Müllerian cancer. However, the optimal dose and time interval between the end of carboplatin administration and initiation of hemodialysis remains to be elucidated. TC was administered to a patient with fallopian tube cancer undergoing hemodialysis. The paclitaxel regimen was determined to be 135 mg/m2 (total of 210 mg) over 3 h. After paclitaxel administration, 125 mg of carboplatin was administered over 1 h to achieve a target area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 5.0 mg•min/ml using the Calvert formula. The time interval between the end of carboplatin administration and hemodialysis initiation was 1 h at the first cycle, 16 h at the second cycle and 20 h at the third cycle, and the AUC obtained was 2.86, 4.16 and 6.0 mg•min/ml, respectively. The desired AUC of free platinum was demonstrated and only mild side effects were observed at the third cycle. Therefore, hemodialysis was initiated 20 h after completion of carboplatin infusion at cycles 4–6. The total chemotherapy planned was completed without severe adverse events. Measurement of the concentration of free platinum subsequent to administration is useful for determination of the optimal dose of carboplatin and time interval following administration to obtain an adequate AUC. The present study suggests that carboplatin can be administered to a patient undergoing hemodialysis, and that an adequate interval between the end of carboplatin administration and hemodialysis initiation may be ~20 h.

  11. Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines 2015 for the treatment of ovarian cancer including primary peritoneal cancer and fallopian tube cancer.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Shinichi; Katabuchi, Hidetaka; Mikami, Mikio; Nagase, Satoru; Okamoto, Aikou; Ito, Kiyoshi; Morishige, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Nao; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Udagawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The fourth edition of the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines for the treatment of ovarian cancer including primary peritoneal cancer and fallopian tube cancer was published in 2015. The guidelines contain seven chapters and six flow charts. The major changes in this new edition are as follows-(1) the format has been changed from reviews to clinical questions (CQ), and the guidelines for optimal clinical practice in Japan are now shown as 41 CQs and answers; (2) the 'flow charts' have been improved and placed near the beginning of the guidelines; (3) the 'basic points', including tumor staging, histological classification, surgical procedures, chemotherapy, and palliative care, are described before the chapter; (4) the FIGO surgical staging of ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer was revised in 2014 and the guideline has been revised accordingly to take the updated version of this classification into account; (5) the procedures for examination and management of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer are described; (6) information on molecular targeting therapy has been added; (7) guidelines for the treatment of recurrent cancer based on tumor markers alone are described, as well as guidelines for providing hormone replacement therapy after treatment. PMID:27142770

  12. Detection of serous precursor lesions in resected fallopian tubes from patients with benign diseases and a relatively low risk for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Naoyo; Murakami, Fumihiro; Higaki, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    The frequency of ovarian cancers in Japan has increased; however, doubts have been raised concerning the mechanism by which high-grade serous adenocarcinomas (HGSCs) arise. Conventionally, HGSC is thought to originate from the ovarian surface epithelium or epithelial inclusion cyst. However, recent data indicate that HGSCs may in fact develop from precursor lesions in the fallopian tube, including epithelia with a p53 signature, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs), secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs), and tubal intraepithelial lesions in transition (TILT). Here, we determined the frequency of these fallopian tube precursors in surgically excised samples from 123 patients with benign pelvic diseases. We identified 12 cases with a p53 signature (9.7%), 26 with observable SCOUTs (21.1%), and 4 with TILT (3.2%), but no STIC cases. Although the lifetime risk for developing ovarian cancer is only around 1.4% for women without germ-line mutations, it is important to evaluate the presence of precursor lesions to understand HGSC pathogenesis better. Taken together, salpingectomy appears to be an option for women who are past their childbearing age and plan to undergo elective pelvic surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the presence of these specific precursors post-salpingectomy in low-risk patients. PMID:27250113

  13. Ulipristal Acetate Antagonizes the Inhibitory Effect of Progesterone on Ciliary Beat Frequency and Upregulates Steroid Receptor Expression Levels in Human Fallopian Tubes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiangjing; Zhao, Weihong; Yan, Mingxing; Zhu, Qian; Qin, Guojuan; Qiu, Jun; Zhang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a new selective progesterone receptor (PR) modulator used for emergency contraception. However, our understanding of its mechanisms of action on oviductal cilia is limited. The present study focused on the in vitro effects of UPA (0.1, 1, and 10 μmol/L) on the cilia and steroid receptors of human fallopian tubes. The ciliary beat frequency (CBF), the ultrastructure of cilia, and the levels of steroid receptors were measured. The effects of UPA on the progesterone-induced CBF reduction were also studied. Our results show that UPA dose dependently antagonizes the progesterone-induced CBF decrease, but it does not affect the CBF or the ultrastructure of the cilia. The UPA also upregulates the expression levels of the estrogen receptor α and the PR in the fallopian tubes. The results enable us to better understand the mechanisms by which UPA works as an emergency contraceptive and provides a scientific basis for its clinical application. PMID:26045548

  14. MV-NIS or Investigator's Choice Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-24

    Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab Compared to Docetaxel, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Carcinoma (Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  16. Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab And Adjuvant Intraperitoneal Carboplatin in Treating Patients Who Had Initial Debulking Surgery for Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  17. Sargramostim and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Previous Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-15

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  18. The onset of human ectopic pregnancy demonstrates a differential expression of miRNAs and their cognate targets in the Fallopian tube

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yi; Zou, Shien; Weijdegård, Birgitta; Chen, Jie; Cong, Qing; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Julia; Wang, Lei; Billig, Håkan; Shao, Ruijin

    2014-01-01

    Human ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a leading cause of pregnancy-related death, but the molecular basis underlying the onset of tubal EP is largely unknown. Female Dicer1 conditional knockout mice are infertile with dysfunctional Fallopian tube and have a different miRNA expression profile compared to wild-type mice, and we speculated that Dicer-mediated regulation of miRNA expression and specific miRNA-controlled targets might contribute to the onset of tubal EP. In the present study, we used microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR to examine the expression of miRNAs and core miRNA regulatory components in Fallopian tube tissues from women with EP. We found that the levels of DICER1, four miRNAs (let-7i, miR-149, miR-182, and miR-424), and estrogen receptor α distinguished the tubal implantation site from the non-implantation site. Computational algorithms and screening for interactions with the estrogen and progesterone receptor signaling pathways showed that the four miRNAs were predicted to target ten genes, including NEDD4, TAF15, and SPEN. Subsequent experiments showed differences in NEDD4 mRNA and protein levels between the implantation and non-implantation sites. Finally, we revealed that increases in smooth muscle cell NEDD4 and stromal cell TAF15, in parallel with a decrease in epithelial cell SPEN, were associated with tubal implantation. Our study suggests that changes in miRNA levels by the DICER-mediated miRNA-processing machinery result in aberrant expression of cell type-specific proteins that are potentially involved in the onset of tubal EP. PMID:24427327

  19. Phase I feasibility study of intraperitoneal cisplatin and intravenous paclitaxel followed by intraperitoneal paclitaxel in untreated ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Dizon, Don S.; Sill, Michael W.; Gould, Natalie; Rubin, Stephen C.; Yamada, S. Diane; DeBernardo, Robert L.; Mannel, Robert S.; Eisenhauer, Eric L.; Duska, Linda R.; Fracasso, Paula M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Intraperitoneal chemotherapy has shown a survival advantage over intravenous chemotherapy for women with newly diagnosed optimally debulked epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. However, significant toxicity has limited its acceptance. In an effort to reduce toxicity, the Gynecologic Oncology Group conducted a Phase I study to evaluate the feasibility of day 1 intravenous (IV) paclitaxel and intraperitoneal (IP) cisplatin followed by day 8 IP paclitaxel on an every 21-day cycle. Methods Patients with Stage IIB-IV epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, primary peritoneal carcinomas or carcinosarcoma received paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 IV over 3 hours followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m2 IP on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP on day 8 of a 21 day cycle with 6 cycles planned. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as febrile neutropenia or dose-delay of greater than 2 weeks due to failure to recover counts, or Grade 3-5 non-hematologic toxicity occurring within the first 4 cycles of treatment. Results Twenty of 23 patients enrolled were evaluable and nineteen (95%) completed all six cycles of therapy. Three patients experienced a DLT consisting of infection with normal absolute neutrophil count, grade 3 hyperglycemia, and grade 4 abdominal pain. Conclusions This modified IP regimen which administers both IV paclitaxel and IP cisplatin on day one, followed by IP paclitaxel on day eight, of a twenty-one day cycle appears feasible and is an attractive alternative to the intraperitoneal treatment regimen administered in GOG-0172. PMID:21820161

  20. Randomized trial of oral cyclophosphamide and veliparib in high-grade serous ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancers, or BRCA-mutant ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kummar, Shivaani; Oza, Amit M.; Fleming, Gini F.; Sullivan, Daniel M.; Gandara, David R.; Naughton, Michael J.; Villalona-Calero, Miguel A.; Morgan, Robert J.; Szabo, Peter M.; Youn, Ahrim; Chen, Alice P.; Ji, Jiuping; Allen, Deborah E.; Lih, Chih-Jian; Mehaffey, Michele G.; Walsh, William D.; McGregor, Paul M.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Williams, Paul M.; Kinders, Robert J.; Conley, Barbara A.; Simon, Richard M.; Doroshow, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Veliparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, demonstrated clinical activity in combination with oral cyclophosphamide in patients with BRCA-mutant solid tumors in a phase 1 trial. To define the relative contribution of PARP inhibition to the observed clinical activity, we conducted a randomized phase 2 trial to determine the response rate of veliparib in combination with cyclophosphamide compared to cyclophosphamide alone in patients with pretreated BRCA-mutant ovarian cancer or in patients with pretreated primary peritoneal, fallopian tube, or high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC). Methods Adult patients were randomized to receive cyclophosphamide alone (50 mg orally once daily) or with veliparib (60 mg orally once daily) in 21-day cycles. Crossover to the combination was allowed at disease progression. Results Seventy-five patients were enrolled and 72 were evaluable for response; 38 received cyclophosphamide alone and 37 the combination as their initial treatment regimen. Treatment was well tolerated. One complete response was observed in each arm, with three partial responses (PR) in the combination arm and six PRs in the cyclophosphamide alone arm. Genetic sequence and expression analyses were performed for 211 genes involved in DNA repair; none of the detected genetic alterations were significantly associated with treatment benefit. Conclusion This is the first trial that evaluated single agent, low dose cyclophosphamide in HGSOC, peritoneal, fallopian tube, and BRCA-mutant ovarian cancers. It was well tolerated and clinical activity was observed; the addition of veliparib at 60 mg daily did not improve either the response rate or the median progression free survival. PMID:25589624

  1. Mouse models for neural tube closure defects.

    PubMed

    Juriloff, D M; Harris, M J

    2000-04-12

    Neural tube closure defects (NTDs), in particular anencephaly and spina bifida, are common human birth defects (1 in 1000), their genetics is complex and their risk is reduced by periconceptional maternal folic acid supplementation. There are > 60 mouse mutants and strains with NTDs, many reported within the past 2 years. Not only are NTD mutations at loci widely heterogeneous in function, but also most of the mutants demonstrate variable low penetrance and some show complex inheritance patterns (e.g. SELH/Bc, Abl / Arg, Mena / Profilin1 ). In most of these mouse models, the NTDs are exencephaly (equivalent to anencephaly) or spina bifida or both, reflecting failure of neural fold elevation in well defined, mechanistically distinct elevation zones. NTD risk is reduced in various models by different maternal nutrient supplements, including folic acid ( Pax3, Cart1, Cd mutants), inositol ( ct ) and methionine ( Axd ). Lack of de novo methylation in embryos ( Dnmt3b -null) leads to NTD risk, and we suggest a potential link between methylation and the observed female excess among cranial NTDs in several models. Some surprising NTD mutants ( Gadd45a, Terc, Trp53 ) suggest that genes with a basic mitotic function also have a function specific to neural fold elevation. The genes mutated in several mouse NTD models involve actin regulation ( Abl/Arg, Macs, Mena/Profilin1, Mlp, Shrm, Vcl ), support the postulated key role of actin in neural fold elevation, and may be a good candidate pathway to search for human NTD genes. PMID:10767323

  2. A Phase II Evaluation of Motesanib (AMG 706) in the Treatment of Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube and Primary Peritoneal Carcinomas: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Schilder, RJ; Sill, MW; Lankes, HA; Gold, MA; Mannel, RS; Modesitt, SC; Hanjani, P; Bonebrake, AJ; Sood, AK; Godwin, AK; Hu, W; Alpaugh, RK

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and their receptors have a critical role in stimulating the growth of ovarian cancer cells. Motesanib is a small molecule inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases including VEGF receptors 1-3, as well as c-KIT and platelet-derived growth factor which are related to the VEGF family. Patients and Methods Twenty-two eligible patients with recurrent ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma were treated with an oral daily dose of 125 mg of motesanib. Peripheral blood was analyzed for circulating tumor cells (CTC) and circulating endothelial cells/circulating endothelial progenitors (CEC/CEP), VEGF levels and cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA). Results The study was abruptly halted after four patients developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. One patient had a partial response and seven patients had stable disease at the time they were removed from study treatment. Twelve of the 22 patients (50%) had indeterminate responses at trial closure. Early closure without clinical efficacy data precludes meaningful correlative studies. Conclusions The serious central nervous system toxicity observed in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer precluded full examination of this agent in this population. There were no clear cut explanations for the high incidence of this known class effect in the study population compared with patients with other cancers. PMID:23321064

  3. Role of miR-182 in response to oxidative stress in the cell fate of human fallopian tube epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yugang; Qiang, Wenan; Xu, Xiaofei; Dong, Ruifen; Karst, Alison M; Liu, Zhaojian; Kong, Beihua; Drapkin, Ronny I; Wei, Jian-Jun

    2015-11-17

    High grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) is a DNA instable tumor and its precursor is commonly found originating from the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube secretory epithelial (FTSE) cells. The local stresses via ovulation and related inflammation are risks for HGSC. In this study, we examined the cellular and molecular responses of FTSE cells to stress. We found that excess intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in normal FTSE cells upregulated a subset of microRNA expression (defined as ROSmiRs). Most ROSmiRs' expression and function were influenced and regulated by p53, and together they drove the cells into stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). However, ROS-induced miR-182 is regulated by β-catenin, not by p53. In normal FTSE cells, miR-182 overexpression triggers cellular senescence by p53-mediated upregulation of p21. Conversely, in cells with p53 mutations, miR-182 overexpression no longer enhances p21 but functions as an "Onco-miR". p53 dysfunction is a prerequisite for miR-182-mediated tumorigenesis. In addition, we found that human follicular fluid could significantly induce intracellular ROS in normal FTSE cells. These findings suggest that ROS and p53 mutations may trigger a series of events, beginning with overexpressing miR-182 by ROS and β-catenin, impairing the DNA damage response, promoting DNA instability, bypassing senescence and eventually leading to DNA instable tumors in FTSE cells. PMID:26472020

  4. Postmenopausal hormone therapy-also use of estradiol plus levonorgestrel-intrauterine system is associated with an increased risk of primary fallopian tube carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koskela-Niska, Virpi; Pukkala, Eero; Lyytinen, Heli; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Dyba, Tadeusz

    2015-10-15

    Data on the possible impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on the incidence of rare primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) are scarce. Therefore, we conducted a nationwide case-control study analyzing the association between the use of different HTs and PFTC. All women aged 50 years or older with an incident PFTC (n = 360) during 1995-2007 were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. For each case of PFTC, ten age- and place of residence-matched controls were selected from the Finnish National Population Register, which also provided information on parity. Data on HT purchases were received from the Prescription Register, and data on hysterectomies and sterilizations from the National Care Register. Controls with a salpingectomy before the PFTC diagnosis of the respective case were excluded. The PFTC risk in relation to different HTs was estimated with a conditional logistic regression model, adjusted for parity, age at last delivery, hysterectomy and sterilization. The use for five years or more of estradiol combined with levonorgestrel-releasing-intrauterine system (odds ratio 2.84, 95% confidence interval 1.10-7.38) and sequential estradiol-progestin therapy (EPT; 3.37; 2.23-5.08) were both linked with increases in the risk of PFTC, while the risk with use of estradiol-only therapy or continuous EPT was not statistically significantly increased. The OR for the use of tibolone for one year or more was 1.56 (0.55-4.41). The use of HT is related to an increased risk of PFTC, particularly when a progestin component is intrauterine or systemic progestin is given in sequential manner. PMID:25846583

  5. Incidental Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinoma and Non-Neoplastic Conditions of the Fallopian Tubes in Grossly Normal Adnexa: A Clinicopathologic Study of 388 Completely Embedded Cases.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Jeffrey D; Krishnan, Jayashree; Yemelyanova, Anna; Vang, Russell

    2016-09-01

    Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), the putative precursor of the majority of extrauterine high-grade serous carcinomas, has been reported in both high-risk women (those with a germline BRCA mutation, a personal history of breast carcinoma, and/or family history of breast or ovarian carcinoma) and average risk women from the general population. We reviewed grossly normal adnexal specimens from 388 consecutive, unselected women undergoing surgery, including those with germline BRCA mutation (37 patients), personal history of breast cancer or family history of breast/ovarian cancer (74 patients), endometrial cancer (175 patients), and a variety of other conditions (102 patients). Among 111 high-risk cases and 277 non-high-risk cases, 3 STICs were identified (0.8%), all in non-high-risk women (high risk vs. non-high risk: P=not significant). STIC was found in 2 women with nonserous endometrial carcinoma and 1 with complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Salpingoliths (mucosal calcifications), found in 9% of high-risk cases, and fimbrial adenofibromas in 9.9% of high-risk cases, were significantly more common in high-risk as compared with non-high-risk women (1.8% and 2.5%, respectively; P<0.007). Mucinous metaplasia was found in 3.1%, salpingitis isthmica nodosa in 3.4%, hemosiderin or pseudoxanthoma cells in 4.9%, and fibrous luminal nodules in 4.1%. None of these latter features differed significantly in the high-risk versus non-high-risk groups. These findings suggest a possible association between STIC and endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, and clarify the frequency of non-neoplastic tubal findings in grossly normal fallopian tubes. PMID:26630221

  6. Data set for reporting of ovary, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal carcinoma: recommendations from the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR).

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W Glenn; Judge, Meagan J; Clarke, Blaise A; Davidson, Ben; Gilks, C Blake; Hollema, Harry; Ledermann, Jonathan A; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Mikami, Yoshiki; Stewart, Colin J R; Vang, Russell; Hirschowitz, Lynn

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive pathological report is essential for optimal patient management, cancer staging and prognostication. In many countries, proforma reports are used but these vary in their content. The International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR) is an alliance formed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia, the Royal College of Pathologists of the United Kingdom, the College of American Pathologists, the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer and the European Society of Pathology, with the aim of developing an evidence-based reporting data set for each cancer site. This will reduce the global burden of cancer data set development and reduplication of effort by different international institutions that commission, publish and maintain standardised cancer reporting data sets. The resultant standardisation of cancer reporting will benefit not only those countries directly involved in the collaboration but also others not in a position to develop their own data sets. We describe the development of a cancer data set by the ICCR expert panel for the reporting of primary ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal carcinoma and present the 'required' and 'recommended' elements to be included in the report with an explanatory commentary. This data set encompasses the recent International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists staging system for these neoplasms and the updated World Health Organisation Classification of Tumours of the Female Reproductive Organs. The data set also addresses issues about site assignment of the primary tumour in high-grade serous carcinomas and proposes a scoring system for the assessment of tumour response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The widespread implementation of this data set will facilitate consistent and accurate data collection, comparison of epidemiological and pathological parameters between different populations, facilitate research and hopefully will result in improved patient management. PMID:26089092

  7. Prevalence of cytomegalovirus, and its effect on the expression of inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthases in Fallopian tubes collected from women with and without ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Batwa, S A; Ashshi, A M; Kamfar, F F; Ahmad, J; Idris, S; Khojah, A; Al-Qadi, N M; Refaat, B

    2016-01-01

    To measure the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in ectopic pregnancy (EP) and its effect on the expression of inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthases (iNOS, eNOS) by Fallopian tubes (FT) bearing an EP. This was a prospective case-control study. Blood and tubal samples were collected from 84 Eps and 51 controls (20 total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) during the luteal phase and another 31 tubal ligations). CMV IgM and IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA, and an IVD CE PCR kit was used to detect CMV in the FTs. iNOS and eNOS were measured by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR in FTs obtained from CMV-positive EP (n = 12), and the results were compared with those obtained from CMV-negative EP (n = 11) and TAH (n = 8). The frequencies of CMV IgM (51.2 % vs 17.6 %), IgG (77.4 % vs 52.9 %) or both antibodies (41.6 % vs 11.7 %) were significantly higher in EP compared with control. CMV was more common by PCR in FTs from EP (21.4 %) than controls (5.9 %). Twelve women from the PCR positive EP cases (66.6 %) were also simultaneously positive for both CMV IgM & IgG antibodies and had higher expression of eNOS and iNOS at the protein and gene levels compared with negative EP and TAH. Tubal infection with CMV may lead to EP by increasing the production of endothelial and inducible NOS by the FT epithelial cells. Further studies are required to illustrate the role of CMV in the pathogenesis of EP. PMID:26563896

  8. A phase II study of GM-CSF and rIFN-γ1b plus carboplatin for the treatment of recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Vadhan-Raj, Saroj; Ramirez, Pedro T.; Apte, Sachin M.; Cohen, Lorenzo; Bassett, Roland L.; Iyer, Revathy B.; Wolf, Judith K.; Levenback, Charles L.; Gershenson, David M.; Freedman, Ralph S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of carboplatin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and recombinant interferon gamma 1b (rIFN-γ1b) in women with recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer. Methods In this phase II study, patients with recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer were treated with subcutaneous GM-CSF and rIFN-γ1b before and after intravenous carboplatin until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. All patients had measurable disease and a chemotherapy-free interval ≥6 months. Response was determined using RECIST criteria and CA 125 levels. Results Between 2003 and 2007, 59 patients received a median of 6 cycles of therapy (range, 1 to 13 cycles). Median age at enrollment was 61 years (range, 35 to 79 years). Median time to progression prior to enrollment was 11 months (range, 6 to 58 months). Of 54 patients evaluable for response, 9 (17%) had a complete response, 21 (39%) had a partial response, and 24 (44%) had progressive disease. The overall response rate was 56% (95% CI: 41% to 69%). With a median follow-up of 6.4 months, median time to progression was 6 months. Myeloid derived cells and platelets increased on day 9 of each chemotherapy cycle. The most common adverse effects were bone marrow suppression, carboplatin hypersensitivity, and fatigue. Responders reported improved quality of life. Conclusion This pre and post-carboplatin cytokine regimen resulted in a reasonable response and a hematologic profile that could invite further evaluation of its components in the treatment of patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:19264351

  9. Early detection of high-grade tubal serous carcinoma in women at low risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome by systematic examination of fallopian tubes incidentally removed during benign surgery.

    PubMed

    Rabban, Joseph T; Garg, Karuna; Crawford, Beth; Chen, Lee-may; Zaloudek, Charles J

    2014-06-01

    Early detection of sporadic pelvic serous carcinoma remains an elusive goal. In women at high risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome who undergo prophylactic salpingectomy, systematic pathologic examination of the fallopian tubes will detect occult tubal cancer, mostly in the fimbriae, of a minority of women. Such tubal cancers are the putative precursor to advanced-stage pelvic cancer. We hypothesized that early tubal cancer detection can also be accomplished in women at low risk using a similar approach. In this study, we performed complete and systematic examination of the fallopian tubes removed during surgery performed for benign indications. Among 522 women, 4 cases of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) were identified. Three of these cases would have gone undetected using the current standard of care of sampling only a single random section of the tube. The fourth case was accompanied by occult ovarian carcinoma. The fimbriae contained STIC in 3 of the 4 cases and atypical mucosa in 1 case in which the STIC was in the nonfimbriated portion of the tube. The morphologic and immunohistochemical features (aberrant p53 and MIB-1) of these STICs were similar to those expected in high-risk women. All 4 patients with STIC underwent BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing; no germline mutations were identified in any patient. An additional 11 specimens contained atypical mucosal proliferations that fell short of morphologic and immunohistochemical criteria for STIC. Two of these 11 fulfilled criteria for a serous tubal intraepithelial lesion, and the remaining atypical proliferations exhibited normal p53 and MIB-1. For most specimens, the fimbriae could be completely submitted in 1 or 2 cassettes per tube. These results demonstrate that systematic examination of the tubal fimbriae can serve as a form of early detection of sporadic tubal cancer without incurring significant labor or cost. We propose that the tubal fimbriae should be completely examined

  10. Mouse models of neural tube defects: investigating preventive mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Copp, Andrew J

    2005-05-15

    Neural tube defects (NTD), including anencephaly and spina bifida, are a group of severe congenital abnormalities in which the future brain and/or spinal cord fail to close. In mice, NTD may result from genetic mutations or knockouts, or from exposure to teratogenic agents, several of which are known risk factors in humans. Among the many mouse NTD models that have been identified to date, a number have been tested for possible primary prevention of NTD by exogenous agents, such as folic acid. In genetic NTD models such as Cart1, splotch, Cited2, and crooked tail, and NTD induced by teratogens including valproic acid and fumonisins, the incidence of defects is reduced by maternal folic acid supplementation. These folate-responsive models provide an opportunity to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying prevention of NTD by folic acid in humans. In another group of mouse models, that includes curly tail, axial defects, and the Ephrin-A5 knockout, NTD are not preventable by folic acid, reflecting the situation in humans in which a subset of NTD appear resistant to folic acid therapy. In this group of mutants alternative preventive agents, including inositol and methionine, have been shown to be effective. Overall, the data from mouse models suggests that a broad-based in utero therapy may offer scope for prevention of a greater proportion of NTD than is currently possible. PMID:15800852

  11. Isolation of Microvascular Endothelial Tubes from Mouse Resistance Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Socha, Matthew J.; Segal, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    The control of blood flow by the resistance vasculature regulates the supply of oxygen and nutrients concomitant with the removal of metabolic by-products, as exemplified by exercising skeletal muscle. Endothelial cells (ECs) line the intima of all resistance vessels and serve a key role in controlling diameter (e.g. endothelium-dependent vasodilation) and, thereby, the magnitude and distribution of tissue blood flow. The regulation of vascular resistance by ECs is effected by intracellular Ca2+ signaling, which leads to production of diffusible autacoids (e.g. nitric oxide and arachidonic acid metabolites)1-3 and hyperpolarization4,5 that elicit smooth muscle cell relaxation. Thus understanding the dynamics of endothelial Ca2+ signaling is a key step towards understanding mechanisms governing blood flow control. Isolating endothelial tubes eliminates confounding variables associated with blood in the vessel lumen and with surrounding smooth muscle cells and perivascular nerves, which otherwise influence EC structure and function. Here we present the isolation of endothelial tubes from the superior epigastric artery (SEA) using a protocol optimized for this vessel. To isolate endothelial tubes from an anesthetized mouse, the SEA is ligated in situ to maintain blood within the vessel lumen (to facilitate visualizing it during dissection), and the entire sheet of abdominal muscle is excised. The SEA is dissected free from surrounding skeletal muscle fibers and connective tissue, blood is flushed from the lumen, and mild enzymatic digestion is performed to enable removal of adventitia, nerves and smooth muscle cells using gentle trituration. These freshly-isolated preparations of intact endothelium retain their native morphology, with individual ECs remaining functionally coupled to one another, able to transfer chemical and electrical signals intercellularly through gap junctions6,7. In addition to providing new insight into calcium signaling and membrane

  12. A phase I study with an expanded cohort to assess the feasibility of intravenous paclitaxel, intraperitoneal carboplatin and intraperitoneal paclitaxel in patients with untreated ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group study☆,☆☆,★

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Natalie; Sill, Michael W.; Mannel, Robert S.; Thaker, P.H.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Waggoner, Steve; Yamada, S. Diane; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Wenzel, Lari; Huang, Helen; Fracasso, Paula M.; Walker, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and assess the feasibility of intravenous (IV) paclitaxel, intraperitoneal (IP) carboplatin, and IP paclitaxel in women with newly diagnosed Stages II–IV ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. Methods Patients received escalating doses of paclitaxel IV and carboplatin IP on day 1 and paclitaxel IP 60 mg/m2 on day 8. A standard 3+3 design was used in the escalation phase. A two-stage group sequential design with 20 patients at the MTD was used in the feasibility phase. Patient-reported neurotoxicity was assessed pre and post treatment. Results Patients were treated with paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 IV and carboplatin IP from AUC 5–7 on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP on day 8. The MTD was estimated at carboplatin AUC 6 IP and 25 patients enrolled at this dose level. Within the first 4 cycles, seven (35%) of twenty evaluable patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) including grade 4 thrombocytopenia (1), grade 3 neutropenic fever (3), >2 week delay due to ANC recovery (1), grade 3 LFT (1), and grade 3 infection (1). De-escalation to paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 IV was given to improve the safety. After six evaluable patients completed 4 cycles without a DLT, bevacizumab was added and six evaluable patients completed 4 cycles with one DLT (grade 3 hyponatremia). Conclusions Paclitaxel at 175 mg/m2 IV, carboplatin AUC 6 IP day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP day 8 yield 18–56% patients with DLTs. The tolerability of the regimen in combination with bevacizumab was indicated in a small cohort. PMID:22155262

  13. A phase I study with an expanded cohort to assess feasibility of intravenous docetaxel, intraperitoneal carboplatin and intraperitoneal paclitaxel in patients with previously untreated ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Natalie; Sill, Michael W.; Mannel, Robert S.; Thaker, Premal H.; DiSilvestro, Paul A.; Waggoner, Steven E.; Yamada, S. Diane; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Fracasso, Paula M.; Walker, Joan L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and assess the feasibility of intravenous (IV) docetaxel, intraperitoneal (IP) carboplatin and IP paclitaxel in women with Stage II-IV untreated ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma. Methods Patients received docetaxel (55-75 mg/m2) IV and carboplatin (AUC 5-7) IP on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP on day 8. A standard 3+3 design was used in the dose escalation phase. A 2-stage group sequential design with 20 patients at the MTD was used in the feasibility phase. Results The MTD determined during the dose escalation phase was day 1 docetaxel 75 mg/m2 IV, carboplatin AUC 6 IP and day 8 IP paclitaxel 60 mg/m2. Forty-six patients were enrolled in the feasibility portion at this dose level. Six were unevaluable. Fifteen evaluable patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) within the first four cycles. These DLTs were prolonged neutropenia (2), neutropenic fever (7), grade 4 thrombocytopenia (1), grade 4 dehydration (1), grade 3 infection (2), grade 3 oral mucositis (1) and pulmonary embolism (1). Conclusions Docetaxel 75 mg/m2 IV, carboplatin AUC 6 IP administered on day 1, and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP administered on day 8, is the MTD when considering one cycle of treatment but was not feasible over four cycles due to bone marrow toxicity. We recommend reduction of carboplatin to AUC 5 should this regimen be considered for treatment in women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer. PMID:22943879

  14. Lack of Motor Neuron Differentiation is an Intrinsic Property of the Mouse Secondary Neural Tube

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Alisa S.W.; Tang, Louisa S.C.; Copp, Andrew J.; Roelink, Henk

    2016-01-01

    The cranial part of the amniote neural tube is formed by folding and fusion of the ectoderm-derived neural plate (primary neurulation). After posterior neuropore closure, however, the caudal neural tube is formed by cavitation of tail bud mesenchyme (secondary neurulation). In mouse embryos, the secondary neural tube expresses several genes important in early patterning and induction, in restricted domains similar to the primary neural tube, yet it does not undergo neuronal differentiation, but subsequently degenerates. Although the secondary neural tube, isolated from surrounding tissues, is responsive to exogenous Sonic Hedgehog proteins in vitro, motor neuron differentiation is never observed. This cannot be attributed to the properties of the secondary notochord, since it is able to induce motor neuron differentiation in naïve chick neural plate explants. Taken together, these results support that the lack of motor neuron differentiation is an intrinsic property of the mouse secondary neural tube. PMID:20960561

  15. Mouse as a model for multifactorial inheritance of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Zohn, Irene E

    2012-06-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida and anencephaly are some of the most common structural birth defects found in humans. These defects occur due to failures of neurulation, a process where the flat neural plate rolls into a tube. In spite of their prevalence, the causes of NTDs are poorly understood. The multifactorial threshold model best describes the pattern of inheritance of NTDs where multiple undefined gene variants interact with environmental factors to cause an NTD. To date, mouse models have implicated a multitude of genes as required for neurulation, providing a mechanistic understanding of the cellular and molecular pathways that control neurulation. However, the majority of these mouse models exhibit NTDs with a Mendelian pattern of inheritance. Still, many examples of multifactorial inheritance have been demonstrated in mouse models of NTDs. These include null and hypomorphic alleles of neurulation genes that interact in a complex fashion with other genetic mutations or environmental factors to cause NTDs. These models have implicated several genes and pathways for testing as candidates for the genetic basis of NTDs in humans, resulting in identification of putative pathogenic mutations in some patients. Mouse models also provide an experimental paradigm to gain a mechanistic understanding of the environmental factors that influence NTD occurrence, such as folic acid and maternal diabetes, and have led to the discovery of additional preventative nutritional supplements such as inositol. This review provides examples of how multifactorial inheritance of NTDs can be modeled in the mouse. PMID:22692891

  16. Novel Mode of Defective Neural Tube Closure in the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse Strain

    PubMed Central

    Salbaum, J. Michael; Kruger, Claudia; MacGowan, Jacalyn; Herion, Nils J.; Burk, David; Kappen, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Failure to close the neural tube results in birth defects, with severity ranging from spina bifida to lethal anencephaly. Few genetic risk factors for neural tube defects are known in humans, highlighting the critical role of environmental risk factors, such as maternal diabetes. Yet, it is not well understood how altered maternal metabolism interferes with embryonic development, and with neurulation in particular. We present evidence from two independent mouse models of diabetic pregnancy that identifies impaired migration of nascent mesodermal cells in the primitive streak as the morphogenetic basis underlying the pathogenesis of neural tube defects. We conclude that perturbed gastrulation not only explains the neurulation defects, but also provides a unifying etiology for the broad spectrum of congenital malformations in diabetic pregnancies. PMID:26593875

  17. Novel Mode of Defective Neural Tube Closure in the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse Strain.

    PubMed

    Salbaum, J Michael; Kruger, Claudia; MacGowan, Jacalyn; Herion, Nils J; Burk, David; Kappen, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Failure to close the neural tube results in birth defects, with severity ranging from spina bifida to lethal anencephaly. Few genetic risk factors for neural tube defects are known in humans, highlighting the critical role of environmental risk factors, such as maternal diabetes. Yet, it is not well understood how altered maternal metabolism interferes with embryonic development, and with neurulation in particular. We present evidence from two independent mouse models of diabetic pregnancy that identifies impaired migration of nascent mesodermal cells in the primitive streak as the morphogenetic basis underlying the pathogenesis of neural tube defects. We conclude that perturbed gastrulation not only explains the neurulation defects, but also provides a unifying etiology for the broad spectrum of congenital malformations in diabetic pregnancies. PMID:26593875

  18. Self-assembly of "Mickey Mouse" shaped colloids into tube-like structures: experiments and simulations.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Joost R; Avvisati, Guido; Hagemans, Fabian; Vissers, Teun; Kraft, Daniela J; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Kegel, Willem K

    2015-02-14

    The self-assembly of anisotropic patchy particles with a triangular shape was studied by experiments and computer simulations. The colloidal particles were synthesized in a two-step seeded emulsion polymerization process, and consist of a central smooth lobe connected to two rough lobes at an angle of ∼90°, resembling the shape of a "Mickey Mouse" head. Due to the difference in overlap volume, adding an appropriate depletant induces an attractive interaction between the smooth lobes of the colloids only, while the two rough lobes act as steric constraints. The essentially planar geometry of the Mickey Mouse particles is a first geometric deviation of dumbbell shaped patchy particles. This new geometry enables the formation of one-dimensional tube-like structures rather than spherical, essentially zero-dimensional micelles. At sufficiently strong attractions, we indeed find tube-like structures with the sticky lobes at the core and the non-sticky lobes pointing out as steric constraints that limit the growth to one direction, providing the tubes with a well-defined diameter but variable length both in experiments and simulations. In the simulations, we found that the internal structure of the tubular fragments could either be straight or twisted into so-called Bernal spirals. PMID:25523360

  19. METHYLMERCURY INDUCED TOXICOGENOMIC RESPONSE IN C57 AND SWV MOUSE EMBRYOS UNDERGOING NEURAL TUBE CLOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Joshua F.; Griffith, William C.; Yu, Xiaozhong; Hong, Sungwoo; Kim, Euvin; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2010-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a developmental neurotoxicant and teratogen and is hypothesized to perturb a wide range of biological processes, like other metals including arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd). Common inbred mouse strains including C57 (sensitive) and SWV (resistant) display differences in sensitivity to metals such as As and Cd when exposed during neurulation. In this study, we investigated the impact of MeHg on neurulation, assessing for potential differences in sensitivity and associated toxicogenomic response in C57 and SWV mouse embryos. Parallel with morphological assessments of neural tube closure, we evaluated quantitative differences in MeHg-induced alterations in expression between strains at the gene level and within gene-enriched biological processes. Specifically, we observed differing sensitivities to MeHg-induced impacts on neural tube closure between C57 and SWV embryos in a time-dependent manner. These observations correlated with greater impact on the expression of genes associated with development and environmental stress-related pathways in the C57 compared to the SWV. Additional developmental parameters (e.g. mortality, growth effects) evaluated showed mixed significant effects across the two strains and did not support observations of differential sensitivity to MeHg. This study provides potential insights into MeHg-induced mechanisms of developmental toxicity, alterations associated with increased MeHg sensitivity and common biological processes affected by metals in embryos undergoing neurulation. PMID:20493249

  20. Fgf8-Related Secondary Organizers Exert Different Polarizing Planar Instructions along the Mouse Anterior Neural Tube

    PubMed Central

    Crespo-Enriquez, Ivan; Partanen, Juha; Martinez, Salvador; Echevarria, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Early brain patterning depends on proper arrangement of positional information. This information is given by gradients of secreted signaling molecules (morphogens) detected by individual cells within the responding tissue, leading to specific fate decisions. Here we report that the morphogen FGF8 exerts initially a differential signal activity along the E9.5 mouse neural tube. We demonstrate that this polarizing activity codes by RAS-regulated ERK1/2 signaling and depends on the topographical location of the secondary organizers: the isthmic organizer (IsO) and the anterior neural ridge (anr) but not on zona limitans intrathalamica (zli). Our results suggest that Sprouty2, a negative modulator of RAS/ERK pathway, is important for regulating Fgf8 morphogenetic signal activity by controlling Fgf8-induced signaling pathways and positional information during early brain development. PMID:22792203

  1. Live imaging of apoptosis in a novel transgenic mouse highlights its role in neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshifumi; Shinotsuka, Naomi; Nonomura, Keiko; Takemoto, Kiwamu; Kuida, Keisuke; Yosida, Hiroki; Miura, Masayuki

    2011-12-12

    Many cells die during development, tissue homeostasis, and disease. Dysregulation of apoptosis leads to cranial neural tube closure (NTC) defects like exencephaly, although the mechanism is unclear. Observing cells undergoing apoptosis in a living context could help elucidate their origin, behavior, and influence on surrounding tissues, but few tools are available for this purpose, especially in mammals. In this paper, we used insulator sequences to generate a transgenic mouse that stably expressed a genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based fluorescent reporter for caspase activation and performed simultaneous time-lapse imaging of apoptosis and morphogenesis in living embryos. Live FRET imaging with a fast-scanning confocal microscope revealed that cells containing activated caspases showed typical and nontypical apoptotic behavior in a region-specific manner during NTC. Inhibiting caspase activation perturbed and delayed the smooth progression of cranial NTC, which might increase the risk of exencephaly. Our results suggest that caspase-mediated cell removal facilitates NTC completion within a limited developmental window. PMID:22162136

  2. Cellular basis of neuroepithelial bending during mouse spinal neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    McShane, Suzanne G.; Molè, Matteo A.; Savery, Dawn; Greene, Nicholas D. E; Tam, Patrick P.L.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bending of the neural plate at paired dorsolateral hinge points (DLHPs) is required for neural tube closure in the spinal region of the mouse embryo. As a step towards understanding the morphogenetic mechanism of DLHP development, we examined variations in neural plate cellular architecture and proliferation during closure. Neuroepithelial cells within the median hinge point (MHP) contain nuclei that are mainly basally located and undergo relatively slow proliferation, with a 7 h cell cycle length. In contrast, cells in the dorsolateral neuroepithelium, including the DLHP, exhibit nuclei distributed throughout the apico-basal axis and undergo rapid proliferation, with a 4 h cell cycle length. As the neural folds elevate, cell numbers increase to a greater extent in the dorsolateral neural plate that contacts the surface ectoderm, compared with the more ventromedial neural plate where cells contact paraxial mesoderm and notochord. This marked increase in dorsolateral cell number cannot be accounted for solely on the basis of enhanced cell proliferation in this region. We hypothesised that neuroepithelial cells may translocate in a ventral-to-dorsal direction as DLHP formation occurs, and this was confirmed by vital cell labelling in cultured embryos. The translocation of cells into the neural fold, together with its more rapid cell proliferation, leads to an increase in cell density dorsolaterally compared with the more ventromedial neural plate. These findings suggest a model in which DLHP formation may proceed through ‘buckling’ of the neuroepithelium at a dorso-ventral boundary marked by a change in cell-packing density. PMID:26079577

  3. An update to the list of mouse mutants with neural tube closure defects and advances toward a complete genetic perspective of neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Harris, Muriel J; Juriloff, Diana M

    2010-08-01

    The number of mouse mutants and strains with neural tube defects (NTDs) now exceeds 240, including 205 representing specific genes, 30 for unidentified genes, and 9 multifactorial strains. These mutants identify genes needed for embryonic neural tube closure. Reports of 50 new NTD mutants since our 2007 review (Harris and Juriloff, 2007) were considered in relation to the previously reviewed mutants to obtain new insights into mechanisms of NTD etiology. In addition to null mutations, some are hypomorphs or conditional mutants. Some mutations do not cause NTDs on their own, but do so in digenic, trigenic, and oligogenic combinations, an etiology that likely parallels the nature of genetic etiology of human NTDs. Mutants that have only exencephaly are fourfold more frequent than those that have spina bifida aperta with or without exencephaly. Many diverse cellular functions and biochemical pathways are involved; the NTD mutants draw new attention to chromatin modification (epigenetics), the protease-activated receptor cascade, and the ciliopathies. Few mutants directly involve folate metabolism. Prevention of NTDs by maternal folate supplementation has been tested in 13 mutants and reduces NTD frequency in six diverse mutants. Inositol reduces spina bifida aperta frequency in the curly tail mutant, and three new mutants involve inositol metabolism. The many NTD mutants are the foundation for a future complete genetic understanding of the processes of neural fold elevation and fusion along mechanistically distinct cranial-caudal segments of the neural tube, and they point to several candidate processes for study in human NTD etiology. PMID:20740593

  4. Successful pregnancy outcome following gamete intra-Fallopian transfer in a patient with Müllerian dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Colin S S; Lie, Aldrin T M

    2012-05-01

    A 29-year-old lady with Müllerian dysgenesis was keen to have a baby. Clinically, she was medium built with well-developed secondary female sexual characteristics. There was a short and blind vagina. She had undergone surgery for an imperforated hymen. Her FSH and LH concentrations were normal. Laparoscopy revealed a patent right Fallopian tube, a rudimentary right uterus and extensive pelvic endometriosis. She subsequently underwent gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT). Oocyte retrieval was carried out laparoscopically and a total of nine oocytes were retrieved. Four of the oocytes were transferred together with motile spermatozoa into the right Fallopian tube and the remaining five oocytes were inseminated with spermatozoa for IVF. Three embryos resulted and were frozen. She subsequently developed moderate ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration 14 days after GIFT was 1612 IU/l. Her antenatal care was relatively uneventful until 31 weeks of gestation when she was diagnosed to have intrauterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios. She then underwent an emergency Caesarean section at 32 weeks of pregnancy delivering a normal baby. This case study describes a successful pregnancy outcome following gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) in a woman with malformation of the vagina (Müllerian dysgenesis). A 29-year-old lady with Müllerian dysgenesis diagnosed at 16 years of age was keen to become pregnant. Upon examination, a decision was made for a William's vulvovaginoplasty but as the patient was indecisive the surgery was deferred. Clinically, she is a medium-built lady with well-developed secondary female sexual characteristics. There was a short and blind vagina. Her serum FSH and LH concentrations were normal. Laparoscopy revealed a patent right Fallopian tube, a rudimentary right uterus and extensive pelvic endometriosis. She subsequently underwent GIFT. Nine oocytes were retrieved through laparoscopy. Four

  5. Lipid droplets of neuroepithelial cells are a major calcium storage site during neural tube formation in chick and mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Bush, K T; Lee, H; Nagele, R G

    1992-05-15

    In situ precipitation of calcium (Ca2+) with fluoride and antimonate shows that Ca(2+)-specific precipitate is localized almost exclusively within lipid droplets of neuroepithelial cells during neural tube formation in chick and mouse embryos. The density of Ca2+ precipitate within lipid droplets is generally greater in the apical ends of cells situated in regions of the neuroepithelium that are actively engaged in bending. These findings suggest that lipid droplets, in addition to providing a source of metabolic fuel for developing neuroepithelial cells, also serve as Ca(2+)-storage and -releasing sites during neurulation. PMID:1601118

  6. [Treatment of primary cancer of the fallopian tube].

    PubMed

    Pakisch, B; Poschauko, J; Stücklschweiger, G; Poier, E; Lahousen, M; Pickel, H; Kohek, P; Klug, P; Hackl, A

    1990-08-01

    33 patients treated since 1970 at the Medical School of the University of Graz, were classified using the FIGO system for ovarian carcinoma, fourteen were in stage I, 8 stage II, 8 stage III and 3 stage IV. In 17 patients, surgery consisted of total abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; 12 patients underwent additional pelvic +/- paraaortic lymph node extirpation and in 4 the tumour excision was incomplete. Treatment in 6 patients was surgery alone (2/stage I, 4 with advanced disease) (Group A). Adjuvant radiotherapy was performed in 14 patients (Group B); the remaining patients were treated with single (2/13) or multiple agent chemotherapy (11/13) (Group C). The 3-year survival rate was 55% for stage I, 42% for stage II; 10/11 of the stage III/IV patients died within 26 months. The 4-year actuarial survival rate for group B was 68%, for group C 11%. There was no difference between the short-time results of stage II tumours when comparing radiotherapy against chemotherapy. The tumour progression rate was 60%, indicating the need for radical surgery as well as for more aggressive adjuvant treatment. Surgery alone is recommended for stage I disease confined to the mucosa. More advanced disease (extension to the serosa, stage Ic, stage II) requires whole abdominal irradiation with a boost to the pelvic lymph nodes. For stage III/IV tumours a multi-modality treatment is recommended. Chemotherapy (cis-platinum, cyclophosphamide) for recurrent disease resulted in remission in some cases. PMID:2210307

  7. Risks of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are located in the pelvis , one on ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  8. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are located in the pelvis , one on ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  9. Stages of Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are in the pelvis , one on each ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  10. Drugs Approved for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ovarian cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... lifestyle or eating habits. Avoiding things known to cause cancer. Taking medicines to treat a precancerous condition or ... called the endometrium. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer of the female reproductive system. In recent years, ...

  12. Rho-kinase-dependent actin turnover and actomyosin disassembly are necessary for mouse spinal neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    Escuin, Sarah; Vernay, Bertrand; Savery, Dawn; Gurniak, Christine B.; Witke, Walter; Greene, Nicholas D. E.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cytoskeleton is widely considered essential for neurulation, yet the mouse spinal neural tube can close despite genetic and non-genetic disruption of the cytoskeleton. To investigate this apparent contradiction, we applied cytoskeletal inhibitors to mouse embryos in culture. Preventing actomyosin cross-linking, F-actin assembly or myosin II contractile activity did not disrupt spinal closure. In contrast, inhibiting Rho kinase (ROCK, for which there are two isoforms ROCK1 and ROCK2) or blocking F-actin disassembly prevented closure, with apical F-actin accumulation and adherens junction disturbance in the neuroepithelium. Cofilin-1-null embryos yielded a similar phenotype, supporting the hypothesis that there is a key role for actin turnover. Co-exposure to Blebbistatin rescued the neurulation defects caused by RhoA inhibition, whereas an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase, ML-7, had no such effect. We conclude that regulation of RhoA, Rho kinase, LIM kinase and cofilin signalling is necessary for spinal neural tube closure through precise control of neuroepithelial actin turnover and actomyosin disassembly. In contrast, actomyosin assembly and myosin ATPase activity are not limiting for closure. PMID:26040287

  13. The effect of the space flight environment on mucin production in the mouse uterine tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalina, Gorica; Forsman, Allan D.

    2013-06-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that the microgravity environment of space has harmful effects on several tissues throughout the body. Although this phenomenon is well documented, research in this area is still in its relative infancy. This study investigates the effects of space flight on mucin production of the uterine tubes of mice. This study examined the epithelium of the uterine tubes from female mice that were flown on the space shuttle Endeavour for 13 days in August, 2007 and their concomitant controls. The tissue was qualitatively analyzed for the type of mucin produced, i.e., acidic, neutral, acidic/neutral mixture. Further, the tissue was quantitatively analyzed for the amounts of mucins produced by measuring the thickness of the mucin layer for each region of the uterine tube: isthmus, ampulla, and infundibulum. One way ANOVA tests were used to compare mucin thickness between all three sets of animals. Results indicate similar but not identical results between the three regions of the uterine tube. The Baseline tissue had the thickest mucin layer regardless of treatment group. In the ampulla the mucin layer was the thinnest in the Flight tissue, followed by the Ground Control, with the Baseline being the thickest. Analysis of the mucin layer of the infundibulum of the three treatment groups indicated no difference in its thickness between the three regions of the uterine tube. These results indicate a trend toward thinning of the mucin layer of the uterine tube in space flight, but also indicate an influence by the housing environment.

  14. Insights into prevention of human neural tube defects by folic acid arising from consideration of mouse mutants.

    PubMed

    Harris, Muriel J

    2009-04-01

    Almost 30 years after the initial study by Richard W. Smithells and coworkers, it is still unknown how maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation prevents human neural tube defects (NTDs). In this article, questions about human NTD prevention are considered in relation to three groups of mouse models: NTD mutants that respond to folate, NTD mutants and strains that do not respond to folate, and mutants involving folate-pathway genes. Of the 200 mouse NTD mutants, only a few have been tested with folate; half respond and half do not. Among responsive mutants, folic acid supplementation reduces exencephaly and/or spina bifida aperta frequency in the Sp(2H), Sp, Cd, Cited2, Cart1, and Gcn5 mutants. Prevention ranges from 35 to 85%. The responsive Sp(2H) (Pax3) mutant has abnormal folate metabolism, but the responsive Cited2 mutant does not. Neither folic nor folinic acid reduces NTD frequency in Axd, Grhl3, Fkbp8, Map3k4, or Nog mutants or in the curly tail or SELH/Bc strains. Spina bifida frequency is reduced in Axd by methionine and in curly tail by inositol. Exencephaly frequency is reduced in SELH/Bc by an alternative commercial ration. Mutations in folate-pathway genes do not cause NTDs, except for 30% exencephaly in folate-treated Folr1. Among folate-pathway mutants, neural tube closure is normal in Cbs, Folr2, Mthfd1, Mthfd2, Mthfr, and Shmt1 mutants. Embryos die by midgestation in Folr1, Mtr, Mtrr, and RFC1 mutants. The mouse models point to genetic heterogeneity in the ability to respond to folic acid and also to heterogeneity in genetic cause of NTDs that can be prevented by folic acid. PMID:19117321

  15. Inositol deficiency increases the susceptibility to neural tube defects of genetically predisposed (curly tail) mouse embryos in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cockroft, D L; Brook, F A; Copp, A J

    1992-02-01

    Curly tail (ct/ct) mouse embryos, which have a genetic predisposition for neural tube defects (NTD), were grown in culture from the 2-5 somite stage, before the initiation of neurulation, up to the 22-24 somite stage, when closure of the anterior neural tube is normally complete. The embryos were cultured in whole rat serum or in extensively dialysed serum supplemented with glucose, amino acids, and vitamins, with inositol omitted or added at concentrations of 2, 10, 20, and 50 mg/l. Two strains were used as controls; CBA mice, which are related to curly tails, and an unrelated PO stock. It was found that ct/ct embryos were particularly sensitive to inositol deficiency; both they and the CBA embryos showed a similar high incidence of cranial NTD after culture in inositol deficient medium (12/17 and 11/18, respectively). Furthermore, the lowest dose of inositol had no effect on the frequency of head defects in ct/ct mice, though it halved the incidence in CBA embryos. With higher inositol concentrations, the majority of ct/ct embryos completed head closure normally, and their development was generally similar to that obtained in whole serum. PO embryos showed a lower proportion (5/19) of cranial NTD in the inositol deficient medium than the other two strains, and this was further reduced by even the lowest inositol dose. PMID:1615432

  16. Inositol prevents folate-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Greene, N D; Copp, A J

    1997-01-01

    Clinical trials demonstrate that up to 70% of neural tube defects (NTDs) can be prevented by folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy, whereas the remaining NTDs are resistant to folate. Here, we show that a second vitamin, myo-inositol, is capable of significantly reducing the incidence of spinal NTDs in curly tail mice, a genetic model of folate-resistant NTDs. Inositol increases flux through the inositol/lipid cycle, stimulating protein kinase C activity and upregulating expression of retinoic acid receptor beta, specifically in the caudal portion of the embryonic hindgut. This reduces the delay in closure of the posterior neuropore, the embryonic defect that is known to lead directly to spina bifida in curly tail embryos. Our findings reveal a molecular pathway of NTD prevention and suggest the possible efficacy of combined treatment with folate and inositol in overcoming the majority of human NTDs. PMID:8986742

  17. Arsenate-induced maternal glucose intolerance and neural tube defects in a mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Denise S.; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Finnell, Richard H.

    2009-08-15

    Background: Epidemiological studies have linked environmental arsenic (As) exposure to increased type 2 diabetes risk. Periconceptional hyperglycemia is a significant risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs), the second most common structural birth defect. A suspected teratogen, arsenic (As) induces NTDs in laboratory animals. Objectives: We investigated whether maternal glucose homeostasis disruption was responsible for arsenate-induced NTDs in a well-established dosing regimen used in studies of arsenic's teratogenicity in early neurodevelopment. Methods: We evaluated maternal intraperitoneal (IP) exposure to As 9.6 mg/kg (as sodium arsenate) in LM/Bc/Fnn mice for teratogenicity and disruption of maternal plasma glucose and insulin levels. Selected compounds (insulin pellet, sodium selenate (SS), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), L-methionine (L-Met), N-tert-Butyl-{alpha}-phenylnitrone (PBN)) were investigated for their potential to mitigate arsenate's effects. Results: Arsenate caused significant glucose elevation during an IP glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Insulin levels were not different between arsenate and control dams before (arsenate, 0.55 ng/dl; control, 0.48 ng/dl) or after glucose challenge (arsenate, 1.09 ng/dl; control, 0.81 ng/dl). HOMA-IR index was higher for arsenate (3.9) vs control (2.5) dams (p = 0.0260). Arsenate caused NTDs (100%, p < 0.0001). Insulin pellet and NAC were the most successful rescue agents, reducing NTD rates to 45% and 35%. Conclusions: IPGTT, insulin assay, and HOMA-IR results suggest a modest failure of glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin resistance characteristic of glucose intolerance. Insulin's success in preventing arsenate-induced NTDs provides evidence that these arsenate-induced NTDs are secondary to elevated maternal glucose. The NAC rescue, which did not restore maternal glucose or insulin levels, suggests oxidative disruption plays a role.

  18. Mouse Fkbp8 activity is required to inhibit cell death and establish dorso-ventral patterning in the posterior neural tube.

    PubMed

    Wong, Rebecca Lee Yean; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J; Min, Kyung Soo; Scott, Melissa L; Kartiko, Susan; Yu, Wei; Merriweather, Michelle Y; Vogel, Peter; Zambrowicz, Brian P; Finnell, Richard H

    2008-02-15

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are birth defects that can be disabling or lethal and are second in their prevalence after cardiac defects among major human congenital malformations. Spina bifida is a NTD where the spinal cord is dysplastic, and the overlying spinal column is absent. At present, the molecular mechanisms underlying the spinal bifida development are largely unknown. In this study, we present a Fkbp8 mouse mutant that has an isolated and completely penetrant spina bifida, which is folate- and inositol-resistant. Fkbp8 mutants are not embryo lethal, but they display striking features of human spina bifida, including a dysplastic spinal cord, open neural canal and disability. The loss of Fkbp8 leads to increased apoptosis in the posterior neural tube, demonstrating that in vivo FKBP8 inhibits cell death. Gene expression analysis of Fkbp8 mutants revealed a perturbation of expression of neural tube patterning genes, suggesting that endogenous FKBP8 activity establishes dorso-ventral patterning of the neural tube. These studies demonstrate that Fkbp8 is not important for embryo survival, but is essential for spinal neural tube patterning, and to block apoptosis, in the developing neural tube. The mutant Fkbp8 allele is a new experimental model which will be useful in dissecting the pathogenesis of spinal NTDs, and enhance our understanding of the etiology of human NTDs. PMID:18003640

  19. Testing for genetic associations in a spina bifida population: analysis of the HOX gene family and human candidate gene regions implicated by mouse models of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Volcik, K A; Blanton, S H; Kruzel, M C; Townsend, I T; Tyerman, G H; Mier, R J; Northrup, H

    2002-07-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common severely disabling birth defects in the United States, affecting approximately 1-2 of every 1,000 live births. The etiology of NTDs is multifactorial, involving the combined action of both genetic and environmental factors. HOX genes play a central role in establishing the initial body plan by providing positional information along the anterior-posterior body and limb axis and have been implicated in neural tube closure. There are many mouse models that exhibit both naturally occurring NTDs in various mouse strains as well as NTDs that have been created by "knocking out" various genes. A nonparametric linkage method, the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), was utilized to test the HOX gene family and human equivalents of genes (when known) or the syntenic region in humans to those in mouse models which could play a role in the formation of NTDs. DNA from 459 spina bifida (SB) affected individuals and their parents was tested for linkage and association utilizing polymorphic markers from within or very close to the HOXA, HOXB, HOXC, and HOXD genes as well as from within the genes/gene regions of eight mouse models that exhibit NTDs. No significant findings were obtained for the tested markers. PMID:12116226

  20. A mutation in the tuft mouse disrupts TET1 activity and alters the expression of genes that are crucial for neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Fong, Keith S K; Hufnagel, Robert B; Khadka, Vedbar S; Corley, Michael J; Maunakea, Alika K; Fogelgren, Ben; Ahmed, Zubair M; Lozanoff, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Genetic variations affecting neural tube closure along the head result in malformations of the face and brain. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common birth defects in humans. We previously reported a mouse mutant called tuft that arose spontaneously in our wild-type 3H1 colony. Adult tuft mice present midline craniofacial malformations with or without an anterior cephalocele. In addition, affected embryos presented neural tube closure defects resulting in insufficient closure of the anterior neuropore or exencephaly. Here, through whole-genome sequencing, we identified a nonsense mutation in the Tet1 gene, which encodes a methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET1), co-segregating with the tuft phenotype. This mutation resulted in premature termination that disrupts the catalytic domain that is involved in the demethylation of cytosine. We detected a significant loss of TET enzyme activity in the heads of tuft embryos that were homozygous for the mutation and had NTDs. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis indicated that multiple gene pathways associated with neural tube closure were dysregulated in tuft embryo heads. Among them, the expressions of Cecr2, Epha7 and Grhl2 were significantly reduced in some embryos presenting neural tube closure defects, whereas one or more components of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway mediating planar cell polarity and convergent extension were affected in others. We further show that the recombinant mutant TET1 protein was capable of entering the nucleus and affected the expression of endogenous Grhl2 in IMCD-3 (inner medullary collecting duct) cells. These results indicate that TET1 is an epigenetic determinant for regulating genes that are crucial to closure of the anterior neural tube and its mutation has implications to craniofacial development, as presented by the tuft mouse. PMID:26989192

  1. A mutation in the tuft mouse disrupts TET1 activity and alters the expression of genes that are crucial for neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    Khadka, Vedbar S.; Corley, Michael J.; Maunakea, Alika K.; Fogelgren, Ben; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Lozanoff, Scott

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic variations affecting neural tube closure along the head result in malformations of the face and brain. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common birth defects in humans. We previously reported a mouse mutant called tuft that arose spontaneously in our wild-type 3H1 colony. Adult tuft mice present midline craniofacial malformations with or without an anterior cephalocele. In addition, affected embryos presented neural tube closure defects resulting in insufficient closure of the anterior neuropore or exencephaly. Here, through whole-genome sequencing, we identified a nonsense mutation in the Tet1 gene, which encodes a methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET1), co-segregating with the tuft phenotype. This mutation resulted in premature termination that disrupts the catalytic domain that is involved in the demethylation of cytosine. We detected a significant loss of TET enzyme activity in the heads of tuft embryos that were homozygous for the mutation and had NTDs. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis indicated that multiple gene pathways associated with neural tube closure were dysregulated in tuft embryo heads. Among them, the expressions of Cecr2, Epha7 and Grhl2 were significantly reduced in some embryos presenting neural tube closure defects, whereas one or more components of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway mediating planar cell polarity and convergent extension were affected in others. We further show that the recombinant mutant TET1 protein was capable of entering the nucleus and affected the expression of endogenous Grhl2 in IMCD-3 (inner medullary collecting duct) cells. These results indicate that TET1 is an epigenetic determinant for regulating genes that are crucial to closure of the anterior neural tube and its mutation has implications to craniofacial development, as presented by the tuft mouse. PMID:26989192

  2. Mutation of Celsr1 disrupts planar polarity of inner ear hair cells and causes severe neural tube defects in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Curtin, John A; Quint, Elizabeth; Tsipouri, Vicky; Arkell, Ruth M; Cattanach, Bruce; Copp, Andrew J; Henderson, Deborah J; Spurr, Nigel; Stanier, Philip; Fisher, Elizabeth M; Nolan, Patrick M; Steel, Karen P; Brown, Steve D M; Gray, Ian C; Murdoch, Jennifer N

    2003-07-01

    We identified two novel mouse mutants with abnormal head-shaking behavior and neural tube defects during the course of independent ENU mutagenesis experiments. The heterozygous and homozygous mutants exhibit defects in the orientation of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti, indicating a defect in planar cell polarity. The homozygous mutants exhibit severe neural tube defects as a result of failure to initiate neural tube closure. We show that these mutants, spin cycle and crash, carry independent missense mutations within the coding region of Celsr1, encoding a large protocadherin molecule [1]. Celsr1 is one of three mammalian homologs of Drosophila flamingo/starry night, which is essential for the planar cell polarity pathway in Drosophila together with frizzled, dishevelled, prickle, strabismus/van gogh, and rhoA. The identification of mouse mutants of Celsr1 provides the first evidence for the function of the Celsr family in planar cell polarity in mammals and further supports the involvement of a planar cell polarity pathway in vertebrate neurulation. PMID:12842012

  3. Bradykinin- and sodium nitroprusside-induced increases in capillary tube haematocrit in mouse cremaster muscle are associated with impaired glycocalyx barrier properties

    PubMed Central

    VanTeeffelen, Jurgen W G E; Constantinescu, Alina A; Brands, Judith; Spaan, Jos A E; Vink, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that agonists may increase functionally perfused capillary volume by modulation of blood-excluding glycocalyx volume, but direct evidence for this association is lacking at the moment. Using intravital microscopic visualization of mouse cremaster muscle, we determined the effects of bradykinin (10−5 m) and sodium nitroprusside (10−6 m) on capillary tube haematocrit and glycocalyx barrier properties. In control C57Bl/6 mice (n = 10), tube haematocrit in capillaries (n = 71) increased (P < 0.05) from 8.7 ± 0.3% during baseline to 21.2 ± 1.2 and 22.2 ± 0.9% during superfusion with bradykinin and nitroprusside, respectively. In parallel, the exclusion zone of FITC-labelled 70 kDa dextrans decreased (P < 0.05) from 0.37 ± 0.01 μm during baseline to 0.17 ± 0.01 μm with bradykinin and 0.15 ± 0.01 μm with nitroprusside. Bradykinin and nitroprusside had no effect on dextran exclusion and tube haematocrit in capillaries (n = 55) of hyperlipidemic ApoE3-Leiden mice, which showed impaired exclusion of 70 kDa dextrans (0.05 ± 0.02 μm; P < 0.05 versus C57Bl/6) and increased capillary tube haematocrit (23 ± 0.8%; P < 0.05 versus C57Bl/6) under baseline conditions, indicating glycocalyx degradation. Our data show that vasodilator substances increase functionally perfused capillary volume and that this effect is associated with a reduction in glycocalyx exclusion of 70 kDa dextrans. Modulation of glycocalyx volume might represent a novel mechanism of perfusion control at the capillary level. PMID:18450777

  4. In vitro study of cell differentiation by two type mouse embryo stem cells on mono- and multilayer nanocarbon tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Koichi; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Watari, Fumio; Tanoue, Akito; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Suese, Kazuhiko; Takashima, Hiromasa; Nishikawa, Tetsunari; Tanaka, Akio; Takeda, Shoji

    2012-09-01

    The effects of nanomaterials on human reproduction and development remain unknown. The risks of nanomaterials for future generations should be elucidated. Thus, it is important to establish an experimental method to accurately examine embryotoxicity. We previously investigated the myocardial cell differentiation of ES-D3 cells using monolayer (SWCNTs) and multilayer (MWCNTs) nanocarbon tubes. As a result, in spite of having the same carbon composition, the effects on the cell differentiation levels differed between the tubes. We investigated their cell differentiation and cytotoxic effects on EL M3 and ES-R1-EGFP B2/EGFP cells, which require feeder cells. As a result, myocardial pulse rates differed between the presence of SWCNTs and MWCNTs even when feeder cells existed between the samples and cells. The different surface structures of SWCNTs and MWCNTs may have influenced ES cell differentiation.

  5. Formate supplementation enhances folate-dependent nucleotide biosynthesis and prevents spina bifida in a mouse model of folic acid-resistant neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Sudiwala, Sonia; De Castro, Sandra C P; Leung, Kit-Yi; Brosnan, John T; Brosnan, Margaret E; Mills, Kevin; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2016-07-01

    The curly tail mouse provides a model for neural tube defects (spina bifida and exencephaly) that are resistant to prevention by folic acid. The major ct gene, responsible for spina bifida, corresponds to a hypomorphic allele of grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) but the frequency of NTDs is strongly influenced by modifiers in the genetic background. Moreover, exencephaly in the curly tail strain is not prevented by reinstatement of Grhl3 expression. In the current study we found that expression of Mthfd1L, encoding a key component of mitochondrial folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM), is significantly reduced in ct/ct embryos compared to a partially congenic wild-type strain. This expression change is not attributable to regulation by Grhl3 or the genetic background at the Mthfd1L locus. Mitochondrial FOCM provides one-carbon units as formate for FOCM reactions in the cytosol. We found that maternal supplementation with formate prevented NTDs in curly tail embryos and also resulted in increased litter size. Analysis of the folate profile of neurulation-stage embryos showed that formate supplementation resulted in an increased proportion of formyl-THF and THF but a reduction in proportion of 5-methyl THF. In contrast, THF decreased and 5-methyl THF was relatively more abundant in the liver of supplemented dams than in controls. In embryos cultured through the period of spinal neurulation, incorporation of labelled thymidine and adenine into genomic DNA was suppressed by supplemental formate, suggesting that de novo folate-dependent biosynthesis of nucleotides (thymidylate and purines) was enhanced. We hypothesise that reduced Mthfd1L expression may contribute to susceptibility to NTDs in the curly tail strain and that formate acts as a one-carbon donor to prevent NTDs. PMID:26924399

  6. Infertility in Women: Hysterosalpingographic Assessment of the Fallopian Tubes in Lagos, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Fabamwo, A. O.

    2009-01-01

    Tubal disease constitutes a major factor in infertility especially in developing countries. This study was undertaken to assess the hysterosalpingographic patterns seen in infertile patients in an urban centre in Lagos. Two hundred and twenty patients who reported from the gynaecology clinic to the radiology department of Lagos State University…

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are in the pelvis , one on each ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  8. Treatment Options by Stage (Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are in the pelvis , one on each ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  9. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging of uterus and fallopian tubes in female infertility.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Patricia; Capuñay, Carlos; Vallejos, Javier; Carpio, Jimena; Baronio, Mariano; Papier, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    Noninvasive imaging techniques play an important role in the female infertility diagnostic algorithm. In this review article, a description of the diagnostic performance and potential clinical value of both computerized tomographic virtual hysterosalpingography (CT-VHGS) and magnetic-resonance virtual hysterosalpingography (MR-VHSG) is made, describing for both techniques, to guarantee the best possible diagnostic outcome, patient preparation and normal and principal pathologic findings. Both noninvasive diagnostic imaging modalities improve the diagnostic confidence in identification of the specific cause of female infertility. These procedures are well tolerated and can be performed without tenaculum and sedation. The combined analysis of all the imaging data offers the gynecologist a wide information spectrum, enabling a better therapeutic decision. CT-VHSG and MR-VHSG are consistent diagnostic imaging modalities for the evaluation of the female reproductive system, with an excellent diagnostic performance compared with traditional diagnostic exams and allowing a comprehensive assessment of the female reproductive system. PMID:27140290

  10. Precursors of ovarian cancer in the fallopian tube: Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma – an update

    PubMed Central

    Zeppernick, Felix; Meinhold-Heerlein, Ivo; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian tumors comprise a wide variety of entities. The largest group, epithelial ovarian carcinoma, can be classified into two main groups, type I and type II tumors. Recent advances in the understanding of ovarian cancer development have resulted in the finding of ‘serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma’, which is believed to represent the precursor lesion in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. In this review, lines of evidence for this are discussed and possible future implications for clinical and research settings are outlined. PMID:25330822

  11. Novel type of interstitial cell (Cajal-like) in human fallopian tube.

    PubMed

    Popescu, L M; Ciontea, Sanda M; Cretoiu, D; Hinescu, M E; Radu, E; Ionescu, N; Ceausu, M; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Braga, R I; Vasilescu, Florina; Zagrean, L; Ardeleanu, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    We describe here--presumably for the first time--a Cajal-like type of tubal interstitial cells (t-ICC), resembling the archetypal enteric ICC. t-ICC were demonstrated in situ and in vitro on fresh preparations (tissue cryosections and primary cell cultures) using methylene-blue, crystal-violet, Janus-Green B or MitoTracker-Green FM Probe vital stainings. Also, t-ICC were identified in fixed specimens by light microscopy (methylene-blue, Giemsa, trichrome stainings, Gomori silver-impregnation) or transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The positive diagnosis of t-ICC was strengthened by immunohistochemistry (IHC; CD117/c-kit+ and other 14 antigens) and immunofluorescence (IF; CD117/c-kit+ and other 7 antigens). The spatial density of t-ICC (ampullar-segment cryosections) was 100-150 cells/mm2. Non-conventional light microscopy (NCLM) of Epon semithin-sections revealed a network-like distribution of t-ICC in lamina propria and smooth muscle meshwork. t-ICC appeared located beneath of epithelium, in a 10-15 microm thick 'belt', where 18+/-2% of cells were t-ICC. In the whole lamina propria, t-ICC were about 9%, and in muscularis approximately 7%. In toto, t-ICC represent ~8% of subepithelial cells, as counted by NCLM. In vitro, t-ICC were 9.9+/-0.9% of total cell population. TEM showed that the diagnostic 'gold standard' (Huizinga et al., 1997) is fulfilled by 'our' t-ICC. However, we suggest a 'platinum standard', adding a new defining criterion- characteristic cytoplasmic processes (number: 1-5; length: tens of microm; thickness: < or =0.5 microm; aspect: moniliform; branching: dichotomous; organization: network, labyrinthic-system). Quantitatively, the ultrastructural architecture of t-ICC is: nucleus, 23.6+/-3.2% of cell volume, with heterochromatin 49.1+/-3.8%; mitochondria, 4.8+/-1.7%; rough and smooth endoplasmic-reticulum (1.1+/-0.6%, 1.0+/-0.2%, respectively); caveolae, 3.4+/-0.5%. We found more caveolae on the surface of cell processes versus cell body, as confirmed by IF for caveolins. Occasionally, the so-called 'Ca2+-release units' (subplasmalemmal close associations of caveolae+endoplasmic reticulum+mitochondria) were detected in the dilations of cell processes. Electrophysiological single unit recordings of t-ICC in primary cultures indicated sustained spontaneous electrical activity (amplitude of membrane potentials: 57.26+/-6.56 mV). Besides the CD117/c-kit marker, t-ICC expressed variously CD34, caveolins 1&2, alpha-SMA, S-100, vimentin, nestin, desmin, NK-1. t-ICC were negative for: CD68, CD1a, CD62P, NSE, GFAP, chromogranin-A, PGP9.5, but IHC showed the possible existence of (neuro)endocrine cells in tubal interstitium. We call them 'JF cells'. In conclusion, the identification of t-ICC might open the door for understanding some tubal functions, e.g. pace-making/peristaltism, secretion (auto-, juxta- and/or paracrine), regulation of neurotransmission (nitrergic/purinergic) and intercellular signaling, via the very long processes. Furthermore, t-ICC might even be uncommitted bipotential progenitor cells. PMID:15963270

  12. Tube support

    DOEpatents

    Mullinax, Jerry L.

    1988-01-01

    A tube support for supporting horizontal tubes from an inclined vertical support tube passing between the horizontal tubes. A support button is welded to the vertical support tube. Two clamping bars or plates, the lower edges of one bearing on the support button, are removably bolted to the inclined vertical tube. The clamping bars provide upper and lower surface support for the horizontal tubes.

  13. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... administer the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via ... down through the esophagus into the stomach. The NG tube can be used to empty the stomach ...

  14. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

  15. TUBE TESTER

    DOEpatents

    Gittings, H.T. Jr.; Kalbach, J.F.

    1958-01-14

    This patent relates to tube testing, and in particular describes a tube tester for automatic testing of a number of vacuum tubes while in service and as frequently as may be desired. In it broadest aspects the tube tester compares a particular tube with a standard tube tarough a difference amplifier. An unbalanced condition in the circuit of the latter produced by excessive deviation of the tube in its characteristics from standard actuates a switch mechanism stopping the testing cycle and indicating the defective tube.

  16. Elevated Nuclear and Cytoplasmic FTY720-Phosphate in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts Suggests the Potential for Multiple Mechanisms in FTY720-Induced Neural Tube Defects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FTY720 (fingolimod) is an FDA-approved drug to treat relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. FTY720 treatment in pregnant inbred LM/Bc mice results in approximately 60% of embryos having a neural tube defect (NTD). Sphingosine kinases (Sphk1, Sphk2) phosphorylate FTY720 in vivo to form the bioactive...

  17. Hydatidiform mole with coexisting twin pregnancy after gamete intra-fallopian transfer.

    PubMed

    van de Geijn, E J; Yedema, C A; Hemrika, D J; Schutte, M F; ten Velden, J J

    1992-04-01

    The pregnancy of a 31-year-old infertility patient is described. After gamete intra-Fallopian transfer, her pregnancy evolved uneventfully until the 18th week of gestation, when vaginal bleeding occurred. Ultrasonographic findings suggested a molar pregnancy with two live fetuses. At 24 weeks gestation, two male infants were spontaneously delivered. Fetal (46 XY) and molar (46 XX) karyotypes and post-mortem findings were consistent with a bizygotic twin pregnancy associated with a complete hydatidiform mole. The pathogenesis and obstetrical management are discussed. PMID:1522205

  18. Image tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Csorba, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    This text provides a wealth of valuable, hard-to-find data on electron optics, imaging, and image intensification systems. The author explains details of image tube theory, design, construction, and components. He includes material on the design and operation of camera tubes, power components, and secondary electron emitters, as well as data on photomultiplier tubes and electron guns.

  19. Mutations in PTF1A are not a common cause for human VATER/VACTERL association or neural tube defects mirroring Danforth's short tail mouse.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Nirmala; Grosse, Greta; Draaken, Markus; Hilger, Alina C; Nauman, Nuzhat; Müller, Andreas; Gembruch, Ulrich; Merz, Waltraut M; Reutter, Heiko; Ludwig, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Danforth's short tail (Sd) mutant mice exhibit defects of the neural tube and other abnormalities, which are similar to the human vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheosophageal fistula and/or esophageal atresia, renal and radial abnormalities, and limb defects (VATER/VACTERL) association, including defects of the hindgut. Sd has been shown to underlie ectopic gene expression of murine Ptf1a, which encodes pancreas-specific transcription factor 1A, due to the insertion of a retrotansposon in its 5' regulatory domain. In order to investigate the possible involvement of this gene in human VATER/VACTERL association and human neural tube defects (NTDs), a sequence analysis was performed. DNA samples from 103 patients with VATER/VACTERL and VATER/VACTERL‑like association, all presenting with anorectal malformations, and 72 fetuses with NTDs, where termination of pregnancy had been performed, were included in the current study. The complete PTF1A coding region, splice sites and 1.5 kb of the 5' flanking promotor region was sequenced. However, no pathogenic alterations were detected. The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that high penetrant mutations in these regions of PTF1A are involved in the development of human VATER/VACTERL association or NTDs, although rare mutations may be detectable in larger patient samples. PMID:25775927

  20. Generation and characterization of a novel neural crest marker allele, Inka1-LacZ, reveals a role for Inka1 in mouse neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Bethany S.; Sargent, Thomas D.; Williams, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies identified Inka1 as a gene regulated by AP-2α in the neural crest required for craniofacial morphogenesis in fish and frog. Here, we extend the analysis of Inka1 function and regulation to the mouse by generating a LacZ knock-in allele. Inka1-LacZ allele expression occurs in the cephalic mesenchyme, heart, and paraxial mesoderm prior to E8.5. Subsequently, expression is observed in the migratory neural crest cells and their derivatives. Consistent with expression of Inka1 in tissues of the developing head during neurulation, a low percentage of Inka1−/− mice show exencephaly while the remainder are viable and fertile. Further studies indicate that AP-2α is not required for Inka1 expression in the mouse, and suggest that there is no significant genetic interaction between these two factors during embryogenesis. Together, these data demonstrate that while the expression domain of Inka1 is conserved among vertebrates, its function and regulation are not. PMID:20175189

  1. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube insertion; G-tube insertion; PEG tube insertion; Stomach tube insertion; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion ... and down the esophagus, which leads to the stomach. After the endoscopy tube is inserted, the skin ...

  2. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a special tube that carries food and medicine to the stomach through the nose. It can be ...

  3. Immunization with chlamydial type III secretion antigens reduces vaginal shedding and prevents fallopian tube pathology following live C. muridarum challenge.

    PubMed

    Bulir, David C; Liang, Steven; Lee, Amanda; Chong, Sylvia; Simms, Elizabeth; Stone, Christopher; Kaushic, Charu; Ashkar, Ali; Mahony, James B

    2016-07-25

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women are often asymptomatic and if left untreated can lead to significant late sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal factor infertility. Vaccine development efforts over the past three decades have been unproductive and there is no vaccine approved for use in humans. The existence of serologically distinct strains or serovars of C. trachomatis mandates a vaccine that will provide protection against multiple serovars. Chlamydia spp. use a highly conserved type III secretion system (T3SS) composed of both structural and effector proteins which is an essential virulence factor for infection and intracellular replication. In this study we evaluated a novel fusion protein antigen (BD584) which consists of three T3SS proteins from C. trachomatis (CopB, CopD, and CT584) as a potential chlamydial vaccine candidate. Intranasal immunization with BD584 elicited serum neutralizing antibodies that inhibited C. trachomatis infection in vitro. Following intravaginal challenge with C. muridarum, immunized mice had a 95% reduction in chlamydial shedding from the vagina at the peak of infection and cleared the infection sooner than control mice. Immunization with BD584 also reduced the rate of hydrosalpinx by 87.5% compared to control mice. Together, these results suggest that highly conserved proteins of the chlamydial T3SS may represent good candidates for a Chlamydia vaccine. PMID:27325352

  4. Timing of Referral for Genetic Counseling and Genetic Testing in Patients with Ovarian, Fallopian Tube or Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Novetsky, Akiva P.; Smith, Kylie; Babb, Sheri A.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Hagemann, Andrea R.; Thaker, Premal H.; Powell, Matthew A.; Mutch, David G.; Massad, L. Stewart; Zighelboim, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess patients' preferences of the timing of referral for genetic counseling and testing in relation to the diagnosis, treatment and recurrence of ovarian, tubal, or primary peritoneal cancers. Methods/Materials Ninety-two patients who underwent counseling and testing by one certified genetic counselor were identified. Introductory letter, consent form and questionnaire were mailed to gather information regarding factors influencing the decision to undergo genetic counseling and testing and opinions regarding optimal timing. Medical records were reviewed for demographic and clinical data. Results Of 47 consenting women, 45 underwent testing. Eight (18%) were found to have a genetic mutation. Women lacked consensus about the optimal time for referral for and to undergo genetic testing, though women with stage I disease preferred testing after completion of chemotherapy. Most women were comfortable receiving the results by phone, but 1/3 preferred an office visit. Conclusions Patients' views regarding the best time to be referred for and undergo counseling and testing varied greatly. Due to the high mortality of this disease, clinicians should discuss referral early and personalize the timing to each patient. The subset of patients who prefer results disclosure during an office visit should be identified at the time of their initial counseling. PMID:23748176

  5. A phase Ib trial of docetaxel, carboplatin and erlotinib in ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Vasey, P A; Gore, M; Wilson, R; Rustin, G; Gabra, H; Guastalla, J-P; Lauraine, E P; Paul, J; Carty, K; Kaye, S

    2008-01-01

    The safety and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of erlotinib with docetaxel/carboplatin were assessed in patients with ovarian cancer. Chemonaive patients received intravenous docetaxel (75 mg m−2) and carboplatin (area under the curve 5) on day 1 of a 3-week cycle, and oral erlotinib at 50 (cohort 1), 100 (cohort 2a) or 75 mg day−1 (cohort 2b) for up to six cycles. Dose-limiting toxicities were determined in cycle 1. Forty-five patients (median age 59 years) received treatment. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in 1/5/5 patients (cohorts 1/2a/2b). The MTD of erlotinib in this regimen was determined to be 75 mg day−1 (cohort 2b; the erlotinib dose was escalated to 100 mg day−1 in 11 out of 19 patients from cycle 2 onwards). Neutropaenia was the predominant grade 3/4 haematological toxicity (85/100/95% respectively). Common non-haematological toxicities were diarrhoea, fatigue, nausea and rash. There were five complete and seven partial responses in 23 evaluable patients (52% response rate). Docetaxel/carboplatin had no measurable effect on erlotinib pharmacokinetics. In subsequent single-agent maintenance, erlotinib was given at 100–150 mg day−1, with manageable toxicity, until tumour progression. Further investigation of erlotinib in epithelial ovarian carcinoma may be warranted, particularly as maintenance therapy. PMID:18506181

  6. A phase Ib trial of docetaxel, carboplatin and erlotinib in ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers.

    PubMed

    Vasey, P A; Gore, M; Wilson, R; Rustin, G; Gabra, H; Guastalla, J-P; Lauraine, E P; Paul, J; Carty, K; Kaye, S

    2008-06-01

    The safety and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of erlotinib with docetaxel/carboplatin were assessed in patients with ovarian cancer. Chemonaive patients received intravenous docetaxel (75 mg m(-2)) and carboplatin (area under the curve 5) on day 1 of a 3-week cycle, and oral erlotinib at 50 (cohort 1), 100 (cohort 2a) or 75 mg day(-1) (cohort 2b) for up to six cycles. Dose-limiting toxicities were determined in cycle 1. Forty-five patients (median age 59 years) received treatment. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in 1/5/5 patients (cohorts 1/2a/2b). The MTD of erlotinib in this regimen was determined to be 75 mg day(-1) (cohort 2b; the erlotinib dose was escalated to 100 mg day(-1) in 11 out of 19 patients from cycle 2 onwards). Neutropaenia was the predominant grade 3/4 haematological toxicity (85/100/95% respectively). Common non-haematological toxicities were diarrhoea, fatigue, nausea and rash. There were five complete and seven partial responses in 23 evaluable patients (52% response rate). Docetaxel/carboplatin had no measurable effect on erlotinib pharmacokinetics. In subsequent single-agent maintenance, erlotinib was given at 100-150 mg day(-1), with manageable toxicity, until tumour progression. Further investigation of erlotinib in epithelial ovarian carcinoma may be warranted, particularly as maintenance therapy. PMID:18506181

  7. Vitrification by Cryotop and the Maturation, Fertilization, and Developmental Rates of Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Abedpour, Neda; Rajaei, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oocyte cryopreservation is an important part of modern fertility treatment. The effect of vitrification on the fertilization and developmental rates of embryo is still a matter of debate. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of vitrification on the success of mouse oocyte maturation, fertilization, and preimplantation development in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 200 germinal vesicle (GV) and 200 metaphase II (MII) oocytes were obtained from ovaries and fallopian tubes of NMRI mice, respectively and divided into two control and experimental (vitrified) groups. Oocytes in the experimental group were vitrified by Cryotop using vitrification medium (Origio, Denmark) and kept in liquid nitrogen for one month. Then, they were cultured in maturation medium for 24 hours. In vitro maturated metaphase 2 (IVM-MII) and ovulated metaphase 2 (OV-MII) oocytes were inseminated and the fertilized embryos assessed until the hatching blastocyst stage. Outcomes were assessed for statistical significance by Chi-square test using SPSS software. Results: Vitrification caused a significant reduction in the maturation rate of oocytes. Of those that matured, the fertilization rate of vitrified IVM-MII (44.1%) and OV-MII oocytes (50%) was not significantly different from each other but both were significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in developmental rates of both vitrified groups and the control group. Conclusions: The present study showed that vitrification using Cryotop and freezing medium can damage oocytes by reducing the maturation and fertilization rates in both developmental stages. PMID:26568845

  8. Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes

    DOEpatents

    Essebaggers, Jan

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

  9. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Myringotomy; Tympanostomy; Ear tube surgery; Pressure equalization tubes; Ventilating tubes; Ear infection - tubes; Otitis - tubes ... trapped fluid can flow out of the middle ear. This prevents hearing loss and reduces the risk ...

  10. Multiple tube premixing device

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Naidu, Balachandar; Ziminksy, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David

    2013-08-13

    The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.

  11. Multiple tube premixing device

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David

    2012-12-11

    The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.

  12. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  13. Angular glass tubing drawn from round tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Round glass tubing softened in a furnace is drawn over a shaped plug or mandel to form shapes with other than a circular cross section. Irregularly shaped tubing is formed without limitations on tube length or wall thickness.

  14. Electron tube

    DOEpatents

    Suyama, Motohiro; Fukasawa, Atsuhito; Arisaka, Katsushi; Wang, Hanguo

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  15. Neutron tubes

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Reijonen, Jani

    2008-03-11

    A neutron tube or generator is based on a RF driven plasma ion source having a quartz or other chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. A deuterium or mixed deuterium/tritium (or even just a tritium) plasma is generated in the chamber and D or D/T (or T) ions are extracted from the plasma. A neutron generating target is positioned so that the ion beam is incident thereon and loads the target. Incident ions cause D-D or D-T (or T-T) reactions which generate neutrons. Various embodiments differ primarily in size of the chamber and position and shape of the neutron generating target. Some neutron generators are small enough for implantation in the body. The target may be at the end of a catheter-like drift tube. The target may have a tapered or conical surface to increase target surface area.

  16. QUANTIZING TUBE

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, A.S.; Gray, G.W.

    1958-07-01

    Beam deflection tubes are described for use in switching or pulse amplitude analysis. The salient features of the invention reside in the target arrangement whereby outputs are obtained from a plurality of collector electrodes each correspondlng with a non-overlapping range of amplitudes of the input sigmal. The tube is provded with mcans for deflecting the electron beam a1ong a line in accordance with the amplitude of an input signal. The target structure consists of a first dymode positioned in the path of the beam wlth slots spaced a1ong thc deflection line, and a second dymode posltioned behind the first dainode. When the beam strikes the solid portions along the length of the first dymode the excited electrons are multiplied and collected in separate collector electrodes spaced along the beam line. Similarly, the electrons excited when the beam strikes the second dynode are multiplied and collected in separate electrodes spaced along the length of the second dyode.

  17. Chest tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... When your chest tube is inserted, you will lie on your side or sit partly upright, with one arm over your ...

  18. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... profile tube also has a stem length). Note: NG and NJ tubes (that go through a person’s ... Immediate Action: • Discontinue feeding. • If you have an NG or NJ tube, and the tube is curled ...

  19. Tube furnace

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  20. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-12-31

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  1. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  2. Comparison of Pregnancy Outcome between Ultrasound- Guided Tubal Recanalization and Office-Based Microhysteroscopic Ostial Dilatation in Patients with Proximal Blocked Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Seyam, Emaduldin Mostafa; Hassan, Momen Mohamed; Tawfeek Mohamed Sayed Gad, Mohamed; Mahmoud, Hazem Salah; Ibrahim, Mostafa Gamal

    2016-01-01

    Background The current research to the best of my knowledge is the first to compare the pregnancy outcome between ultrasound-guided tubal recanalization (UGTR) using a special fallopian tubal catheter, and office-based micrhysteroscopic ostial dilatation (MHOD) using the same tubal catherter in infertile women with previously diagnosed bilateral proximal tubal obstruction (PTO). Materials and Methods This prospective study reported the pregnancy outcomes for 200 women in private infertility care center in Arafa hospital in Fayoum and in El Minya University Hospital in the period between January 2010 and October 2013 treated as outpatients for their bilateral PTO after the routine hysterosalpingography (HSG). A Cook’s catheter, special fallopian tubal catheter, were used to recanalize the blocked tubes in 100 women (group A) under UGTR, and the same Cook’s tubal catheter was used through 2mm microhysteroscope to cannulate both ostia using MHOD in another 100 women (group B). Pregnancy outcome was determined after the procedures for a 12-month period follow-up. Results The number of the recanalization of PTO was not significantly different between two groups. As of the 200 blocked fallopian tubes in group A, 140 tubes (70%) were successfully recanalized by passing the ultrasound-guided special cannula, while 150 tubes (75%) were successfully recanalized in group B, using the same tubal catheter through a 2mm microhysteroscope. The cumulative pregnancy rate after the two procedures was not statistically different between two groups. It was 25.9% in group A, while it was 26.3% in group B, after a 12-month period follow-up. Conclusion UGTR is highly recommended as the first step to manage infertile women due to PTO, as it is easier procedure; however, there is possible to obtain nearly similar results after MHOD. PMID:26985337

  3. Collapse Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02154 Collapse Tubes

    The discontinuous channels in this image are collapsed lava tubes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -19.7N, Longitude 317.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Olson, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

  5. A tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; Depoy, D.

    1996-12-31

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  6. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ashcroft, John; Campbell, Brian; DePoy, David

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  7. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    DOEpatents

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; DePoy, D.

    1998-06-30

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell. 8 figs.

  8. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000464.htm Tracheostomy tube - eating To use the sharing features on ... when you swallow foods or liquids. Eating and Tracheostomy Tubes When you get your tracheostomy tube, or ...

  9. Heat exchanger tube mounts

    DOEpatents

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.; Dawson, B.E.

    1974-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which tubes are secured to a tube sheet by internal bore welding is described. The tubes may be moved into place in preparation for welding with comparatively little trouble. A number of segmented tube support plates are provided which allow a considerable portion of each of the tubes to be moved laterally after the end thereof has been positioned in preparation for internal bore welding to the tube sheet. (auth)

  10. Tube-shape verifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. N.; Christ, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Inexpensive apparatus checks accuracy of bent tubes. Assortment of slotted angles and clamps is bolted down to flat aluminum plate outlining shape of standard tube bent to desired configuration. Newly bent tubes are then checked against this outline. Because parts are bolted down, tubes can be checked very rapidly without disturbing outline. One verifier per tube-bending machine can really speed up production in tube-bending shop.